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Sample records for restore gibberellin responsiveness

  1. Two rice GRAS family genes responsive to N -acetylchitooligosaccharide elicitor are induced by phytoactive gibberellins: evidence for cross-talk between elicitor and gibberellin signaling in rice cells.

    Day, R Bradley; Tanabe, Shigeru; Koshioka, Masaji; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Itoh, Hironori; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto; Kaku, Hanae; Shibuya, Naoto; Minami, Eiichi

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we present data showing that two members of the GRAS family of genes from rice, CIGR1 and CIGR2 (chitin-inducible gibberellin-responsive), inducible by the potent elicitor N -acetylchitooligosaccharide (GN), are rapidly induced by exogenous gibberellins. The pattern of mRNA accumulation was dependent on the dose and biological activity of the gibberellins, suggesting that the induction of the genes by gibberellin is mediated by a biological receptor capable of specific recognition and signal transduction upon perception of the phytoactive compounds. Further pharmacological analysis revealed that the CIGR1 and CIGR2 mRNA accumulation by treatment with gibberellin is dependent upon protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events. In rice calli derived from slender rice 1, a constitutive gibberellin-responsive mutant, or d1, a mutant deficient in the alpha -subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein, CIGR1 and CIGR2 were induced by a GN elicitor, yet not by gibberellin. Neither gibberellin nor GN showed related activities in defense or development, respectively. These results strongly suggested that the signal transduction cascade from gibberellin is independent of that from GN, and further implied that CIGR1 and CIGR2 have dual, distinct roles in defense and development.

  2. Plant growth enhancement and associated physiological responses are coregulated by ethylene and gibberellin in response to harpin protein Hpa1.

    Li, Xiaojie; Han, Bing; Xu, Manyu; Han, Liping; Zhao, Yanying; Liu, Zhilan; Dong, Hansong; Zhang, Chunling

    2014-04-01

    The harpin protein Hpa1 produced by the bacterial blight pathogen of rice induces several growth-promoting responses in plants, activating the ethylene signaling pathway, increasing photosynthesis rates and EXPANSIN (EXP) gene expression levels, and thereby enhancing the vegetative growth. This study was attempted to analyze any mechanistic connections among the above and the role of gibberellin in these responses. Hpa1-induced growth enhancement was evaluated in Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice. And growth-promoting responses were determined mainly as an increase of chlorophyll a/b ratio, which indicates a potential elevation of photosynthesis rates, and enhancements of photosynthesis and EXP expression in the three plant species. In Arabidopsis, Hpa1-induced growth-promoting responses were partially compromised by a defect in ethylene perception or gibberellin biosynthesis. In tomato and rice, compromises of Hpa1-induced growth-promoting responses were caused by a pharmacological treatment with an ethylene perception inhibitor or a gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor. In the three plant species, moreover, Hpa1-induced growth-promoting responses were significantly impaired, but not totally eliminated, by abolishing ethylene perception or gibberellin synthesis. However, simultaneous nullifications in both ethylene perception and gibberellin biosynthesis almost canceled the full effects of Hpa1 on plant growth, photosynthesis, and EXP2 expression. Theses results suggest that ethylene and gibberellin coregulate Hpa1-induced plant growth enhancement and associated physiological and molecular responses.

  3. Gibberellin homeostasis and plant height control by EUI and a role for gibberellin in root gravity responses in rice.

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhu, Yongyou; Peng, Yu; Yan, Dawei; Li, Qun; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Linyou; He, Zuhua

    2008-03-01

    The rice Eui (ELONGATED UPPERMOST INTERNODE) gene encodes a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that deactivates bioactive gibberellins (GAs). In this study, we investigated controlled expression of the Eui gene and its role in plant development. We found that Eui was differentially induced by exogenous GAs and that the Eui promoter had the highest activity in the vascular bundles. The eui mutant was defective in starch granule development in root caps and Eui overexpression enhanced starch granule generation and gravity responses, revealing a role for GA in root starch granule development and gravity responses. Experiments using embryoless half-seeds revealed that RAmy1A and GAmyb were highly upregulated in eui aleurone cells in the absence of exogenous GA. In addition, the GA biosynthesis genes GA3ox1 and GA20ox2 were downregulated and GA2ox1 was upregulated in eui seedlings. These results indicate that EUI is involved in GA homeostasis, not only in the internodes at the heading stage, but also in the seedling stage, roots and seeds. Disturbing GA homeostasis affected the expression of the GA signaling genes GID1 (GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF 1), GID2 and SLR1. Transgenic RNA interference of the Eui gene effectively increased plant height and improved heading performance. By contrast, the ectopic expression of Eui under the promoters of the rice GA biosynthesis genes GA3ox2 and GA20ox2 significantly reduced plant height. These results demonstrate that a slight increase in Eui expression could dramatically change rice morphology, indicating the practical application of the Eui gene in rice molecular breeding for a high yield potential.

  4. Analysis of Transcriptional Responses of the Inflorescence Meristems in Jatropha curcas Following Gibberellin Treatment

    Wen-Kai Hui

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L. seeds an oilseed plant with great potential for biodiesel production. However, low seed yield, which was limited by its lower female flowers, was a major drawback for its utilization. Our previous study found that the flower number and female-to-male ratio were increased by gibberellin treatment. Here, we compared the transcriptomic profiles of inflorescence meristem at different time points after gibberellic acid A3 (GA3 treatment. The present study showed that 951 differentially expressed genes were obtained in response to gibberellin treatment, compared with control samples. The 6-h time point was an important phase in the response to exogenous gibberellin. Furthermore, the plant endogenous gibberellin, auxin, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinolide-signaling transduction pathways were repressed, whereas the genes associated with cytokinin and jasmonic acid signaling were upregulated for 24-h time point following GA3 treatment. In addition, the floral meristem determinacy genes (JcLFY, JcSOC1 and floral organ identity genes (JcAP3, JcPI, JcSEP1-3 were significantly upregulated, but their negative regulator (JcSVP was downregulated after GA3 treatment. Moreover, the effects of phytohormone, which was induced by exogenous plant growth regulator, mainly acted on the female floral differentiation process. To the best of our knowledge, this data is the first comprehensive analysis of the underlying transcriptional response mechanism of floral differentiation following GA3 treatment in J. curcas, which helps in engineering high-yielding varieties of Jatropha.

  5. EUI1, encoding a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, regulates internode elongation by modulating gibberellin responses in rice.

    Luo, Anding; Qian, Qian; Yin, Hengfu; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Yin, Changxi; Lan, Ying; Tang, Jiuyou; Tang, Zuoshun; Cao, Shouyun; Wang, Xiujie; Xia, Kai; Fu, Xiangdong; Luo, Da; Chu, Chengcai

    2006-02-01

    Elongation of rice internodes is one of the most important agronomic traits, which determines the plant height and underlies the grain yield. It has been shown that the elongation of internodes is under genetic control, and various factors are implicated in the process. Here, we report a detailed characterization of an elongated uppermost internode1 (eui1) mutant, which has been used in hybrid rice breeding. In the eui1-2 mutant, the cell lengths in the uppermost internodes are significantly longer than that of wild type and thus give rise to the elongated uppermost internode. It was found that the level of active gibberellin was elevated in the mutant, whereas its growth in response to gibberellin is similar to that of the wild type, suggesting that the higher level accumulation of gibberellin in the eui1 mutant causes the abnormal elongation of the uppermost internode. Consistently, the expression levels of several genes which encode gibberellin biosynthesis enzymes were altered. We cloned the EUI1 gene, which encodes a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, by map-based cloning and found that EUI1 was weakly expressed in most tissues, but preferentially in young panicles. To confirm its function, transgenic experiments with different constructs of EUI1 were conducted. Overexpression of EUI1 gave rise to the gibberellin-deficient-like phenotypes, which could be partially reversed by supplementation with gibberellin. Furthermore, apart from the alteration of expression levels of the gibberellin biosynthesis genes, accumulation of SLR1 protein was found in the overexpressing transgenic plants, indicating that the expression level of EUI1 is implicated in both gibberellin-mediated SLR1 destruction and a feedback regulation in gibberellin biosynthesis. Therefore, we proposed that EUI1 plays a negative role in gibberellin-mediated regulation of cell elongation in the uppermost internode of rice.

  6. QTL analysis of internode elongation in response to gibberellin in deepwater rice

    Nagai, Keisuke; Kondo, Yuma; Kitaoka, Takuya; Noda, Tomonori; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B.; Yasui, Hideshi; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) is a plant hormone that has important roles in numerous plant developmental phases. Rice plants known as deepwater rice respond to flooding by elongating their internodes to avoid anoxia. Previous studies reported that GA is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses identified QTLs regulating internode elongation in response to deepwater conditions. However, the interaction between internode elongation and regulators of GA s...

  7. Plant growth enhancement and associated physiological responses are coregulated by ethylene and gibberellin in response to harpin protein Hpa1

    Li, Xiaojie; Han, Bing; Xu, Manyu; Han, Liping; Zhao, Yanying; Liu, Zhilan; Dong, Hansong; Zhang, Chunling

    2014-01-01

    The harpin protein Hpa1 produced by the bacterial blight pathogen of rice induces several growth-promoting responses in plants, activating the ethylene signaling pathway, increasing photosynthesis rates and EXPANSIN (EXP) gene expression levels, and thereby enhancing the vegetative growth. This study was attempted to analyze any mechanistic connections among the above and the role of gibberellin in these responses. Hpa1-induced growth enhancement was evaluated in Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice...

  8. Abscisic Acid and Gibberellins Antagonistically Mediate Plant Development and Abiotic Stress Responses

    Kai Shu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytohormones regulate numerous important biological processes in plant development and biotic/abiotic stress response cascades. More than 50 and 100 years have passed since the initial discoveries of the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA and gibberellins (GA, respectively. Over the past several decades, numerous elegant studies have demonstrated that ABA and GA antagonistically regulate many plant developmental processes, including seed maturation, seed dormancy and germination, root initiation, hypocotyl and stem elongation, and floral transition. Furthermore, as a well-established stress hormone, ABA plays a key role in plant responses to abiotic stresses, such as drought, flooding, salinity and low temperature. Interestingly, recent evidence revealed that GA are also involved in plant response to adverse environmental conditions. Consequently, the complex crosstalk networks between ABA and GA, mediated by diverse key regulators, have been extensively investigated and documented. In this updated mini-review, we summarize the most recent advances in our understanding of the antagonistically regulatory roles of ABA and GA in different stages of plant development and in various plant–environment interactions, focusing on the crosstalk between ABA and GA at the levels of phytohormone metabolism and signal transduction.

  9. The mitochondrial phosphate transporters modulate plant responses to salt stress via affecting ATP and gibberellin metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Wei Zhu

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial phosphate transporter (MPT plays crucial roles in ATP production in plant cells. Three MPT genes have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we report that the mRNA accumulations of AtMPTs were up-regulated by high salinity stress in A. thaliana seedlings. And the transgenic lines overexpressing AtMPTs displayed increased sensitivity to salt stress compared with the wild-type plants during seed germination and seedling establishment stages. ATP content and energy charge was higher in overexpressing plants than those in wild-type A. thaliana under salt stress. Accordingly, the salt-sensitive phenotype of overexpressing plants was recovered after the exogenous application of atractyloside due to the change of ATP content. Interestingly, Genevestigator survey and qRT-PCR analysis indicated a large number of genes, including those related to gibberellin synthesis could be regulated by the energy availability change under stress conditions in A. thaliana. Moreover, the exogenous application of uniconazole to overexpressing lines showed that gibberellin homeostasis was disturbed in the overexpressors. Our studies reveal a possible link between the ATP content mediated by AtMPTs and gibberellin metabolism in responses to high salinity stress in A. thaliana.

  10. Rice homeobox transcription factor HOX1a positively regulates gibberellin responses by directly suppressing EL1.

    Wen, Bi-Qing; Xing, Mei-Qing; Zhang, Hua; Dai, Cheng; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2011-11-01

    Homeobox transcription factors are involved in various aspects of plant development, including maintenance of the biosynthesis and signaling pathways of different hormones. However, few direct targets of homeobox proteins have been identified. We here show that overexpression of rice homeobox gene HOX1a resulted in enhanced gibberellin (GA) response, indicating a positive effect of HOX1a in GA signaling. HOX1a is induced by GA and encodes a homeobox transcription factor with transcription repression activity. In addition, HOX1a suppresses the transcription of early flowering1 (EL1), a negative regulator of GA signaling, and further electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that HOX1a directly bound to the promoter region of EL1 to suppress its expression and stimulate GA signaling. These results demonstrate that HOX1a functions as a positive regulator of GA signaling by suppressing EL1, providing informative hints on the study of GA signaling. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. Association genetics and transcriptome analysis reveal a gibberellin-responsive pathway involved in regulating photosynthesis.

    Xie, Jianbo; Tian, Jiaxing; Du, Qingzhang; Chen, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Yang, Xiaohui; Li, Bailian; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-05-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate a wide range of important processes in plant growth and development, including photosynthesis. However, the mechanism by which GAs regulate photosynthesis remains to be understood. Here, we used multi-gene association to investigate the effect of genes in the GA-responsive pathway, as constructed by RNA sequencing, on photosynthesis, growth, and wood property traits, in a population of 435 Populus tomentosa By analyzing changes in the transcriptome following GA treatment, we identified many key photosynthetic genes, in agreement with the observed increase in measurements of photosynthesis. Regulatory motif enrichment analysis revealed that 37 differentially expressed genes related to photosynthesis shared two essential GA-related cis-regulatory elements, the GA response element and the pyrimidine box. Thus, we constructed a GA-responsive pathway consisting of 47 genes involved in regulating photosynthesis, including GID1, RGA, GID2, MYBGa, and 37 photosynthetic differentially expressed genes. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based association analysis showed that 142 SNPs, representing 40 candidate genes in this pathway, were significantly associated with photosynthesis, growth, and wood property traits. Epistasis analysis uncovered interactions between 310 SNP-SNP pairs from 37 genes in this pathway, revealing possible genetic interactions. Moreover, a structural gene-gene matrix based on a time-course of transcript abundances provided a better understanding of the multi-gene pathway affecting photosynthesis. The results imply a functional role for these genes in mediating photosynthesis, growth, and wood properties, demonstrating the potential of combining transcriptome-based regulatory pathway construction and genetic association approaches to detect the complex genetic networks underlying quantitative traits. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights

  12. Rice Ethylene-Response AP2/ERF Factor OsEATB Restricts Internode Elongation by Down-Regulating a Gibberellin Biosynthetic Gene1[W][OA

    Qi, Weiwei; Sun, Fan; Wang, Qianjie; Chen, Mingluan; Huang, Yunqing; Feng, Yu-Qi; Luo, Xiaojin; Yang, Jinshui

    2011-01-01

    Plant height is a decisive factor in plant architecture. Rice (Oryza sativa) plants have the potential for rapid internodal elongation, which determines plant height. A large body of physiological research has shown that ethylene and gibberellin are involved in this process. The APETALA2 (AP2)/Ethylene-Responsive Element Binding Factor (ERF) family of transcriptional factors is only present in the plant kingdom. This family has various developmental and physiological functions. A rice AP2/ERF gene, OsEATB (for ERF protein associated with tillering and panicle branching) was cloned from indica rice variety 9311. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that this ERF has a potential new function. Ectopic expression of OsEATB showed that the cross talk between ethylene and gibberellin, which is mediated by OsEATB, might underlie differences in rice internode elongation. Analyses of gene expression demonstrated that OsEATB restricts ethylene-induced enhancement of gibberellin responsiveness during the internode elongation process by down-regulating the gibberellin biosynthetic gene, ent-kaurene synthase A. Plant height is negatively correlated with tiller number, and higher yields are typically obtained from dwarf crops. OsEATB reduces rice plant height and panicle length at maturity, promoting the branching potential of both tillers and spikelets. These are useful traits for breeding high-yielding crops. PMID:21753115

  13. Rice ethylene-response AP2/ERF factor OsEATB restricts internode elongation by down-regulating a gibberellin biosynthetic gene.

    Qi, Weiwei; Sun, Fan; Wang, Qianjie; Chen, Mingluan; Huang, Yunqing; Feng, Yu-Qi; Luo, Xiaojin; Yang, Jinshui

    2011-09-01

    Plant height is a decisive factor in plant architecture. Rice (Oryza sativa) plants have the potential for rapid internodal elongation, which determines plant height. A large body of physiological research has shown that ethylene and gibberellin are involved in this process. The APETALA2 (AP2)/Ethylene-Responsive Element Binding Factor (ERF) family of transcriptional factors is only present in the plant kingdom. This family has various developmental and physiological functions. A rice AP2/ERF gene, OsEATB (for ERF protein associated with tillering and panicle branching) was cloned from indica rice variety 9311. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that this ERF has a potential new function. Ectopic expression of OsEATB showed that the cross talk between ethylene and gibberellin, which is mediated by OsEATB, might underlie differences in rice internode elongation. Analyses of gene expression demonstrated that OsEATB restricts ethylene-induced enhancement of gibberellin responsiveness during the internode elongation process by down-regulating the gibberellin biosynthetic gene, ent-kaurene synthase A. Plant height is negatively correlated with tiller number, and higher yields are typically obtained from dwarf crops. OsEATB reduces rice plant height and panicle length at maturity, promoting the branching potential of both tillers and spikelets. These are useful traits for breeding high-yielding crops.

  14. Identification of gibberellin acid-responsive proteins in rice leaf sheath using proteomics.

    Gu, Jia-Yu; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Shi-Hua; Gao, Yin; An, Cheng-Cai

    2010-06-01

    The phytohormone gibberellin acid (GA) controls many aspects of plant development. In this study, we identified proteins that are differentially expressed between the rice (Oryza sativa L.) GA-deficient cultivar, Aijiaonante, and its parental line, Nante. Proteins were extracted from rice leaf sheath and examined by 2DGE. Among more than 1200 protein spots reproducibly detected on each gel, 29 were found to be highly up-regulated by GAs in Nante, and 6 were down-regulated by GAs in Aijiaonante. These 35 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and were classified into three groups based on their putative function in metabolism, stress/defense processes and signal transduction. These data suggest that metabolic pathways are the main target of regulation by GAs during rice development. Our results provide new information about the involvement of GAs in rice development.

  15. Gibberellins regulate iron deficiency-response by influencing iron transport and translocation in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa).

    Wang, Baolan; Wei, Haifang; Xue, Zhen; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2017-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of plant hormones with diverse functions. However, there has been little information on the role of GAs in response to plant nutrient deficiency. To evaluate the roles of GAs in regulation of Fe homeostasis, the effects of GA on Fe accumulation and Fe translocation in rice seedlings were investigated using wild-type, a rice mutant ( eui1 ) displaying enhnaced endogenous GA concentrations due to a defect in GA deactivation, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsEUI . Exposure to Fe-deficient medium significantly reduced biomass of rice plants. Both exogenous application of GA and an endogenous increase of bioactive GA enhanced Fe-deficiency response by exaggerating foliar chlorosis and reducing growth. Iron deficiency significantly suppressed production of GA 1 and GA 4 , the biologically active GAs in rice. Exogenous application of GA significantly decreased leaf Fe concentration regardless of Fe supply. Iron concentration in shoot of eui1 mutants was lower than that of WT plants under both Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient conditions. Paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, alleviated Fe-deficiency responses, and overexpression of EUI significantly increased Fe concentration in shoots and roots. Furthermore, both exogenous application of GA and endogenous increase in GA resulting from EUI mutation inhibited Fe translocation within shoots by suppressing OsYSL2 expression, which is involved in Fe transport and translocation. The novel findings provide compelling evidence to support the involvement of GA in mediation of Fe homeostasis in strategy II rice plants by negatively regulating Fe transport and translocation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Comparison of the role of gibberellins and ethylene in response to submergence of two lowland rice cultivars, Senia and Bomba.

    Dubois, Vincent; Moritz, Thomas; García-Martínez, José L

    2011-02-15

    We examined the gibberellin (GA) and ethylene regulation of submergence-induced elongation in seedlings of the submergence-tolerant lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) cvs Senia and Bomba. Elongation was enhanced after germination to facilitate water escape and reach air. We found that submergence-induced elongation depends on GA because it was counteracted by paclobutrazol (an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis), an effect that was negated by GA(3). Moreover, in the cv Senia, submergence increased the content of active GA(1) and its immediate precursors (GA(53), GA(19) and GA(20)) by enhancing expression of several GA biosynthesis genes (OsGA20ox1 and -2, and OsGA3ox2), but not by decreasing expression of several OsGA2ox (GA inactivating genes). Senia seedlings, in contrast to Bomba seedlings, did not elongate in response to ethylene or 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC; an ethylene precursor) application, and submergence-induced elongation was not reduced in the presence of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; an ethylene perception inhibitor). Ethylene emanation was similar in Senia seedlings grown in air and in submerged-grown seedlings following de-submergence, while it increased in Bomba. The expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes (OsACS1, -2 and -3, and OsACO1) was not affected in Senia, but expression of OsACS5 was rapidly enhanced in Bomba upon submergence. Our results support the conclusion that submergence elongation enhancement of lowland rice is due to alteration of GA metabolism leading to an increase in active GA (GA(1)) content. Interestingly, in the cv Senia, in contrast to cv Bomba, this was triggered through an ethylene-independent mechanism. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Control of gibberellin A(l) levels by 2, beta-hydroxylation during growth of dwarf Oryza sativa L. var. Tan-ginbozu

    Railton, I.D.

    1978-01-01

    Seedlings of dwarf rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Tan-ginbozu) exhibit a marked growth response to applied gibberellin A(1) and convert this compound into gibberellin A(8). In this study attempts were made to correlate the metabolism of 1,2[ 3 H] gibberellin A(1) and in particular the production of gibberellin A(8) with rice leaf sheath growth

  18. The genomic view of genes responsive to the antagonistic phytohormones, abscisic acid, and gibberellin.

    Yazaki, Junshi; Kikuchi, Shoshi

    2005-01-01

    We now have the various genomics tools for monocot (Oryza sativa) and a dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana) plant. Plant is not only a very important agricultural resource but also a model organism for biological research. It is important that the interaction between ABA and GA is investigated for controlling the transition from embryogenesis to germination in seeds using genomics tools. These studies have investigated the relationship between dormancy and germination using genomics tools. Genomics tools identified genes that had never before been annotated as ABA- or GA-responsive genes in plant, detected new interactions between genes responsive to the two hormones, comprehensively characterized cis-elements of hormone-responsive genes, and characterized cis-elements of rice and Arabidopsis. In these research, ABA- and GA-regulated genes have been classified as functional proteins (proteins that probably function in stress or PR tolerance) and regulatory proteins (protein factors involved in further regulation of signal transduction). Comparison between ABA and/or GA-responsive genes in rice and those in Arabidopsis has shown that the cis-element has specificity in each species. cis-Elements for the dehydration-stress response have been specified in Arabidopsis but not in rice. cis-Elements for protein storage are remarkably richer in the upstream regions of the rice gene than in those of Arabidopsis.

  19. Functional analysis of rice HOMEOBOX4 (Oshox4) gene reveals a negative function in gibberellin responses.

    Dai, Mingqiu; Hu, Yongfeng; Ma, Qian; Zhao, Yu; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2008-02-01

    The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) putative transcription factor genes are divided into 4 families. In this work, we studied the function of a rice HD-Zip I gene, H OME O BO X4 (Oshox4). Oshox4 transcripts were detected in leaf and floral organ primordia but excluded from the shoot apical meristem and the protein was nuclear localized. Over-expression of Oshox4 in rice induced a semi-dwarf phenotype that could not be complemented by applied GA3. The over-expression plants accumulated elevated levels of bioactive GA, while the GA catabolic gene GA2ox3 was upregulated in the transgenic plants. In addition, over-expression of Oshox4 blocked GA-dependent alpha-amylase production. However, down-regulation of Oshox4 in RNAi transgenic plants induced no phenotypic alteration. Interestingly, the expression of YAB1 that is involved in the negative feedback regulation of the GA biosynthesis was upregulated in the Oshox4 over-expressing plants. One-hybrid assays showed that Oshox4 could interact with YAB1 promoter in yeast. In addition, Oshox4 expression was upregulated by GA. These data together suggest that Oshox4 may be involved in the negative regulation of GA signalling and may play a role to fine tune GA responses in rice.

  20. Participation of gibberellin in the control of apical dominance in soybean and redwood

    Ruddat, M.; Pharis, R.P.

    1966-01-01

    Loss of apical dominance in soybeans and redwood was increased when the plants were treated with the growth retardant AMO-1618. Simultaneous application of gibberellin reduced the number of elongating buds and promoted growth of the first or second uppermost auxillary bud, thus restoring apical dominance. It is concluded that gibberellin participates in the expression of apical dominance. 30 references, 2 tables.

  1. Examination of two lowland rice cultivars reveals that gibberellin-dependent early response to submergence is not necessarily mediated by ethylene.

    Dubois, Vincent; Moritz, Thomas; García-Martínez, José L

    2011-01-01

    Using two lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars we found that in both cases submerged-induced elongation early after germination depends on gibberellins (GAs). Submergence increases the content of the active GA 1 by enhancing the expression of GA biosynthesis genes, thus facilitating the seedlings to escape from the water and preventing asphyxiation. However, the two cultivars differ in their response to ethylene. The cultivar Senia (short), by contrast to cultivar Bomba (tall), does not elongate after ethylene application, and submerged-induced elongation is not negated by an inhibitor of ethylene perception. Also, while ethylene emanation in Senia is not altered by submergence, Bomba seedlings emanate more ethylene upon de-submergence, associated with enhanced expression of the ethylene biosynthesis gene OsACS5. The cultivar Senia thus allows the possibility of clarifying the role of ethylene and other factors as triggers of GA biosynthesis enhancement in rice seedlings under submergence.

  2. Biochar and Ecosystem Restoration: Plant Ecophysiological Responses

    Gale, N.; Halim, M. A.; Thomas, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Charcoal is thought to facilitate rapid plant regeneration following fires by increasing the retention and availability of nutrients and water, increasing soil pH, and by sorbing toxic and inhibitory soil compounds - responses that have recently encouraged research on "biochar," or charcoal used as a soil amendment. Interest in biochar for use in the restoration of disturbed systems is growing; however, investigations of the effects of biochar on wild plants and trees are lacking. We present results from two experiments testing the influence of biochar on the growth and physiology of pioneers. In the first study, in a glasshouse, we examined the effects of maple biochar (10 and 20 t/ha) applied to a temperate managed forest soil on the ecophysiology of 13 herbaceous old-field species. In the second study, in field trials in Bangladesh (15 x 15 m plots), we examined the effects of acacia biochar (7.5 t/ha) on the growth of regenerating dipterocarp secondary forests. In both experiments, we measured changes in nutrient availability to help explain ecophysiological responses. Biochars enhanced the performance of early successional old-field pioneers: increasing aboveground biomass (37%), photosynthesis (17%), reproductive biomass (100%), and water use efficiency (44%), but with high species-specific variation that included negative responses. In tropical forests, biochars marginally improved the growth and recruitment of canopy dipterocarps and increased the photosynthetic performance and abundance of some, but not all, of the dominant understory species. In both experiments, growth enhancement was due to pulses of PO4-and K+ supplied by biochar in the short term; while null and negative responses were the result of nitrogen immobilization for species with high photosynthetic capacities. These results suggest that by providing a pulse of P and base cations, biochar can improve the restoration of disturbed landscapes by enhancing the physiological performance of

  3. Isolation and characterization of a Ds-tagged rice (Oryza sativa L.) GA-responsive dwarf mutant defective in an early step of the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway.

    Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Upadhyaya, Narayana M

    2005-03-01

    We have isolated a severe dwarf transposon (Ds) insertion mutant in rice (Oryza sativa L.), which could be differentiated early in the seedling stage by reduced shoot growth and dark green leaves, and later by severe dwarfism and failure to initiate flowering. These mutants, however, showed normal seed germination and root growth. One of the sequences flanking Ds, rescued from the mutant, was of a chromosome 4-located putative ent-kaurene synthase (KS) gene, encoding the enzyme catalyzing the second step of the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway. Dwarf mutants were always homozygous for this Ds insertion and no normal plants homozygous for this mutation were recovered in the segregating progeny, indicating that the Ds insertion mutation is recessive. As mutations in three recently reported rice GA-responsive dwarf mutant alleles and the dwarf mutation identified in this study mapped to the same locus, we designate the corresponding gene OsKS1. The osks1 mutant seedlings were responsive to exogenous gibberellin (GA3). OsKS1 transcripts of about 2.3 kb were detected in leaves and stem of wild-type plants, but not in germinating seeds or roots, suggesting that OsKS1 is not involved in germination or root growth. There are at least five OsKS1-like genes in the rice genome, four of which are also represented in rice expressed sequence tag (EST) databases. All OsKS1-like genes are transcribed with different expression patterns. ESTs corresponding to all six OsKS genes are represented in other cereal databases including barley, wheat and maize, suggesting that they are biologically active.

  4. Roles of gibberellin catabolism and signaling in growth and physiological response to drought and short-day photoperiods in Populus trees.

    Christine Zawaski

    Full Text Available Survival and productivity of perennial plants in temperate zones are dependent on robust responses to prolonged and seasonal cycles of unfavorable conditions. Here we report whole-genome microarray, expression, physiological, and transgenic evidence in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba showing that gibberellin (GA catabolism and repressive signaling mediates shoot growth inhibition and physiological adaptation in response to drought and short-day (SD induced bud dormancy. Both water deprivation and SDs elicited activation of a suite of poplar GA2ox and DELLA encoding genes. Poplar transgenics with up-regulated GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox and DELLA domain proteins showed hypersensitive growth inhibition in response to both drought and SDs. In addition, the transgenic plants displayed greater drought resistance as evidenced by increased pigment concentrations (chlorophyll and carotenoid and reductions in electrolyte leakage (EL. Comparative transcriptome analysis using whole-genome microarray showed that the GA-deficiency and GA-insensitivity, SD-induced dormancy, and drought response in poplar share a common regulon of 684 differentially-expressed genes, which suggest GA metabolism and signaling plays a role in plant physiological adaptations in response to alterations in environmental factors. Our results demonstrate that GA catabolism and repressive signaling represents a major route for control of growth and physiological adaptation in response to immediate or imminent adverse conditions.

  5. Restorative Justice: A Changing Community Response

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Ruddy, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We…

  6. A comparative study of ethylene growth response kinetics in eudicots and monocots reveals a role for gibberellin in growth inhibition and recovery.

    Kim, Joonyup; Wilson, Rebecca L; Case, J Brett; Binder, Brad M

    2012-11-01

    Time-lapse imaging of dark-grown Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyls has revealed new aspects about ethylene signaling. This study expands upon these results by examining ethylene growth response kinetics of seedlings of several plant species. Although the response kinetics varied between the eudicots studied, all had prolonged growth inhibition for as long as ethylene was present. In contrast, with continued application of ethylene, white millet (Panicum miliaceum) seedlings had a rapid and transient growth inhibition response, rice (Oryza sativa 'Nipponbare') seedlings had a slow onset of growth stimulation, and barley (Hordeum vulgare) had a transient growth inhibition response followed, after a delay, by a prolonged inhibition response. Growth stimulation in rice correlated with a decrease in the levels of rice ETHYLENE INSENSTIVE3-LIKE2 (OsEIL2) and an increase in rice F-BOX DOMAIN AND LRR CONTAINING PROTEIN7 transcripts. The gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol caused millet seedlings to have a prolonged growth inhibition response when ethylene was applied. A transient ethylene growth inhibition response has previously been reported for Arabidopsis ethylene insensitive3-1 (ein3-1) eil1-1 double mutants. Paclobutrazol caused these mutants to have a prolonged response to ethylene, whereas constitutive GA signaling in this background eliminated ethylene responses. Sensitivity to paclobutrazol inversely correlated with the levels of EIN3 in Arabidopsis. Wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings treated with paclobutrazol and mutants deficient in GA levels or signaling had a delayed growth recovery after ethylene removal. It is interesting to note that ethylene caused alterations in gene expression that are predicted to increase GA levels in the ein3-1 eil1-1 seedlings. These results indicate that ethylene affects GA levels leading to modulation of ethylene growth inhibition kinetics.

  7. A Comparative Study of Ethylene Growth Response Kinetics in Eudicots and Monocots Reveals a Role for Gibberellin in Growth Inhibition and Recovery1[W][OA

    Kim, Joonyup; Wilson, Rebecca L.; Case, J. Brett; Binder, Brad M.

    2012-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging of dark-grown Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyls has revealed new aspects about ethylene signaling. This study expands upon these results by examining ethylene growth response kinetics of seedlings of several plant species. Although the response kinetics varied between the eudicots studied, all had prolonged growth inhibition for as long as ethylene was present. In contrast, with continued application of ethylene, white millet (Panicum miliaceum) seedlings had a rapid and transient growth inhibition response, rice (Oryza sativa ‘Nipponbare’) seedlings had a slow onset of growth stimulation, and barley (Hordeum vulgare) had a transient growth inhibition response followed, after a delay, by a prolonged inhibition response. Growth stimulation in rice correlated with a decrease in the levels of rice ETHYLENE INSENSTIVE3-LIKE2 (OsEIL2) and an increase in rice F-BOX DOMAIN AND LRR CONTAINING PROTEIN7 transcripts. The gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol caused millet seedlings to have a prolonged growth inhibition response when ethylene was applied. A transient ethylene growth inhibition response has previously been reported for Arabidopsis ethylene insensitive3-1 (ein3-1) eil1-1 double mutants. Paclobutrazol caused these mutants to have a prolonged response to ethylene, whereas constitutive GA signaling in this background eliminated ethylene responses. Sensitivity to paclobutrazol inversely correlated with the levels of EIN3 in Arabidopsis. Wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings treated with paclobutrazol and mutants deficient in GA levels or signaling had a delayed growth recovery after ethylene removal. It is interesting to note that ethylene caused alterations in gene expression that are predicted to increase GA levels in the ein3-1 eil1-1 seedlings. These results indicate that ethylene affects GA levels leading to modulation of ethylene growth inhibition kinetics. PMID:22977279

  8. Restorative justice: a changing community response

    Thomas G Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We draw attention to this emerging trend via current research and resources that enable us to put forward a definition, theoretical background and list the characteristic traits of this alternative mode of life consequence. Finally, we argue that the use of restorative justice in schools is a focus that is really a paradigm shift within the landscape of the educational enterprise.

  9. Learning Social Responsibility in Schools: A Restorative Practice

    Macready, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Vygotsky regarded the site of learning to be within a matrix of relational action. From this perspective, learning social responsibility will involve a focus on the learning environments that are made available in schools. Adapting the concept of restorative justice to a school context, restorative practice offers a range of relevant learning…

  10. Introducing Restorative Justice: Re-Visioning Responses to Wrongdoing

    Calhoun, Avery

    2013-01-01

    Learning about restorative justice involves examining conventional thinking about crime (or wrongdoing generally), values in relation to how people associated with wrongdoing are treated, and best responses when a wrongdoing occurs. In this introductory article, the author highlights key developments in the restorative movement and main…

  11. Opposing effects of external gibberellin and Daminozide on Stevia growth and metabolites.

    Karimi, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Javad; Ahmadi, Ali; Abbasi, Alireza; Pompeiano, Antonio; Tavarini, Silvia; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo; Angelini, Luciana G

    2015-01-01

    Steviol glycosides (SVglys) and gibberellins are originated from the shared biosynthesis pathway in Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni). In this research, two experiments were conducted to study the opposing effects of external gibberellin (GA3) and Daminozide (a gibberellin inhibitor) on Stevia growth and metabolites. Results showed that GA3 significantly increased the stem length and stem dry weight in Stevia. Total soluble sugar content increased while the SVglys biosynthesis was decreased by external GA3 applying in Stevia leaves. In another experiment, the stem length was reduced by Daminozide spraying on Stevia shoots. The Daminozide did not affect the total SVglys content, while in 30 ppm concentration, significantly increased the soluble sugar production in Stevia leaves. Although the gibberellins biosynthesis pathway has previously invigorated in Stevia leaf, the Stevia response to external gibberellins implying on high precision regulation of gibberellins biosynthesis in Stevia and announces that Stevia is able to kept endogenous gibberellins in a low quantity away from SVglys production. Moreover, the assumption that the internal gibberellins were destroyed by Daminozide, lack of Daminozide effects on SVglys production suggests that gibberellins biosynthesis could not act as a competitive factor for SVglys production in Stevia leaves.

  12. Wildlife Response to Riparian Restoration on the Sacramento River

    Gregory H Golet

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies that assess the success of riparian restoration projects seldom focus on wildlife. More generally, vegetation characteristics are studied, with the assumption that animal populations will recover once adequate habitats are established. On the Sacramento River, millions of dollars have been spent on habitat restoration, yet few studies of wildlife response have been published. Here we present the major findings of a suite of studies that assessed responses of four taxonomic groups (insects, birds, bats, and rodents. Study designs fell primarily into two broad categories: comparisons of restoration sites of different ages, and comparisons of restoration sites with agricultural and remnant riparian sites. Older restoration sites showed increased abundances of many species of landbirds and bats relative to younger sites, and the same trend was observed for the Valley elderberry longhorn beetle (Desmocerus californicus dimorphus, a federally threatened species. Species richness of landbirds and ground-dwelling beetles appeared to increase as restoration sites matured. Young restoration sites provided benefits to species that utilize early successional riparian habitats, and after about 10 years, the sites appeared to provide many of the complex structural habitat elements that are characteristic of remnant forest patches. Eleven-year old sites were occupied by both cavity-nesting birds and special-status crevice-roosting bats. Restored sites also supported a wide diversity of bee species, and had richness similar to remnant sites. Remnant sites had species compositions of beetles and rodents more similar to older sites than to younger sites. Because study durations were short for all but landbirds, results should be viewed as preliminary. Nonetheless, in aggregate, they provide convincing evidence that restoration along the Sacramento River has been successful in restoring riparian habitats for a broad suite of faunal species. Not only did

  13. Restorative approaches to workplace bullying: educating nurses towards shared responsibility.

    Hutchinson, Marie

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarises what is known about bullying in the nursing workplace and approaches currently employed to address the problem. Synthesising the available evidence it is identified that restorative approaches which seek to foster shared responsibility and positively influence group norms are underdeveloped. Based upon the principles of restorative justice this approach seeks to foster active responsibility for addressing bullying by building pro-social workplace relationships. Given the importance of socialisation processes in mediating and sustaining bullying among nurses, restorative approaches are proposed as a strategy that can be employed in nursing education to address bullying.

  14. Overexpression of a Protein Phosphatase 2C from Beech Seeds in Arabidopsis Shows Phenotypes Related to Abscisic Acid Responses and Gibberellin Biosynthesis1

    Reyes, David; Rodríguez, Dolores; González-García, Mary Paz; Lorenzo, Oscar; Nicolás, Gregorio; García-Martínez, José Luis; Nicolás, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    A functional abscisic acid (ABA)-induced protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C) was previously isolated from beech (Fagus sylvatica) seeds (FsPP2C2). Because transgenic work is not possible in beech, in this study we overexpressed this gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to provide genetic evidence on FsPP2C2 function in seed dormancy and other plant responses. In contrast with other PP2Cs described so far, constitutive expression of FsPP2C2 in Arabidopsis, under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, produced enhanced sensitivity to ABA and abiotic stress in seeds and vegetative tissues, dwarf phenotype, and delayed flowering, and all these effects were reversed by gibberellic acid application. The levels of active gibberellins (GAs) were reduced in 35S:FsPP2C2 plants, although transcript levels of AtGA20ox1 and AtGA3ox1 increased, probably as a result of negative feedback regulation, whereas the expression of GASA1 was induced by GAs. Additionally, FsPP2C2-overexpressing plants showed a strong induction of the Responsive to ABA 18 (RAB18) gene. Interestingly, FsPP2C2 contains two nuclear targeting sequences, and transient expression assays revealed that ABA directed this protein to the nucleus. Whereas other plant PP2Cs have been shown to act as negative regulators, our results support the hypothesis that FsPP2C2 is a positive regulator of ABA. Moreover, our results indicate the existence of potential cross-talk between ABA signaling and GA biosynthesis. PMID:16815952

  15. AtGA3ox2, a key gene responsible for bioactive gibberellin biosynthesis, is regulated during embryogenesis by LEAFY COTYLEDON2 and FUSCA3 in Arabidopsis

    Curaba, J.; Moritz, T.; Blervaque, R.; Parcy, F.; Raz, V.; Herzog, M.; Vachon, G.

    2004-01-01

    Embryonic regulators LEC2 (LEAFY COTYLEDON2) and FUS3 (FUSCA3) are involved in multiple aspects of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed development, including repression of leaf traits and premature germination and activation of seed storage protein genes. In this study, we show that gibberellin

  16. Genetic variation for lettuce seed thermoinhibition is associated with temperature-sensitive expression of abscisic Acid, gibberellin, and ethylene biosynthesis, metabolism, and response genes.

    Argyris, Jason; Dahal, Peetambar; Hayashi, Eiji; Still, David W; Bradford, Kent J

    2008-10-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa 'Salinas') seeds fail to germinate when imbibed at temperatures above 25 degrees C to 30 degrees C (termed thermoinhibition). However, seeds of an accession of Lactuca serriola (UC96US23) do not exhibit thermoinhibition up to 37 degrees C in the light. Comparative genetics, physiology, and gene expression were analyzed in these genotypes to determine the mechanisms governing the regulation of seed germination by temperature. Germination of the two genotypes was differentially sensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) at elevated temperatures. Quantitative trait loci associated with these phenotypes colocated with a major quantitative trait locus (Htg6.1) from UC96US23 conferring germination thermotolerance. ABA contents were elevated in Salinas seeds that exhibited thermoinhibition, consistent with the ability of fluridone (an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) to improve germination at high temperatures. Expression of many genes involved in ABA, GA, and ethylene biosynthesis, metabolism, and response was differentially affected by high temperature and light in the two genotypes. In general, ABA-related genes were more highly expressed when germination was inhibited, and GA- and ethylene-related genes were more highly expressed when germination was permitted. In particular, LsNCED4, a gene encoding an enzyme in the ABA biosynthetic pathway, was up-regulated by high temperature only in Salinas seeds and also colocated with Htg6.1. The temperature sensitivity of expression of LsNCED4 may determine the upper temperature limit for lettuce seed germination and may indirectly influence other regulatory pathways via interconnected effects of increased ABA biosynthesis.

  17. OsGA2ox5, a Gibberellin Metabolism Enzyme, Is Involved in Plant Growth, the Root Gravity Response and Salt Stress

    Cai, Weiming; Shan, Chi

    Gibberellin (GA) 2-oxidases play an important role in the GA catabolic pathway through 2b-hydroxylation. There are two classes of GA2oxs, i.e., a larger class of C19-GA2oxs and a smaller class of C20-GA2oxs. In this study, the gene encoding a GA 2-oxidase of rice, Oryza sativa GA 2-oxidase 5 (OsGA2ox5), was cloned and characterized. BLASTP analysis showed that OsGA2ox5 belongs to the C20-GA2oxs subfamily, a subfamily of GA2oxs acting on C20-GAs (GA12, GA53). Subcellular localization of OsGA2ox5-YFP in transiently transformed onion epidermal cells revealed the presence of this protein in both of the nucleus and cytoplasm. Real-time PCR analysis, along with GUS staining, revealed that OsGA2ox5 is expressed in the roots, culms, leaves, sheaths and panicles of rice. Rice plants overexpressing OsGA2ox5 exhibited dominant dwarf and GAdeficient phenotypes, with shorter stems and later development of reproductive organs than the wild type. The dwarfism phenotype was partially rescued by the application of exogenous GA3 at a concentration of 10 mM. Ectopic expression of OsGA2ox5 cDNA in Arabidopsis resulted in a similar phenotype. Real-time PCR assays revealed that both GA synthesis-related genes and GA signaling genes were expressed at higher levels in transgenic rice plants than in wild-type rice; OsGA3ox1, which encodes a key enzyme in the last step of the bioactive GAs synthesis pathway, was highly expressed in transgenic rice. The roots of OsGA2ox5-ox plants exhibited increased starch granule accumulation and gravity responses, revealing a role for GA in root starch granule development and gravity responses. Furthermore, rice and Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsGA2ox5 were more resistant to high-salinity stress than wild-type plants. These results suggest that OsGA2ox5 plays important roles in GAs homeostasis, development, gravity responses and stress tolerance in rice.

  18. OsGA2ox5, a gibberellin metabolism enzyme, is involved in plant growth, the root gravity response and salt stress.

    Chi Shan

    Full Text Available Gibberellin (GA 2-oxidases play an important role in the GA catabolic pathway through 2β-hydroxylation. There are two classes of GA2oxs, i.e., a larger class of C₁₉-GA2oxs and a smaller class of C₂₀-GA2oxs. In this study, the gene encoding a GA 2-oxidase of rice, Oryza sativa GA 2-oxidase 5 (OsGA2ox5, was cloned and characterized. BLASTP analysis showed that OsGA2ox5 belongs to the C₂₀-GA2oxs subfamily, a subfamily of GA2oxs acting on C₂₀-GAs (GA₁₂, GA₅₃. Subcellular localization of OsGA2ox5-YFP in transiently transformed onion epidermal cells revealed the presence of this protein in both of the nucleus and cytoplasm. Real-time PCR analysis, along with GUS staining, revealed that OsGA2ox5 is expressed in the roots, culms, leaves, sheaths and panicles of rice. Rice plants overexpressing OsGA2ox5 exhibited dominant dwarf and GA-deficient phenotypes, with shorter stems and later development of reproductive organs than the wild type. The dwarfism phenotype was partially rescued by the application of exogenous GA3 at a concentration of 10 µM. Ectopic expression of OsGA2ox5 cDNA in Arabidopsis resulted in a similar phenotype. Real-time PCR assays revealed that both GA synthesis-related genes and GA signaling genes were expressed at higher levels in transgenic rice plants than in wild-type rice; OsGA3ox1, which encodes a key enzyme in the last step of the bioactive GAs synthesis pathway, was highly expressed in transgenic rice. The roots of OsGA2ox5-ox plants exhibited increased starch granule accumulation and gravity responses, revealing a role for GA in root starch granule development and gravity responses. Furthermore, rice and Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsGA2ox5 were more resistant to high-salinity stress than wild-type plants. These results suggest that OsGA2ox5 plays important roles in GAs homeostasis, development, gravity responses and stress tolerance in rice.

  19. Earthquake response of heavily damaged historical masonry mosques after restoration

    Altunışık, Ahmet Can; Fuat Genç, Ali

    2017-10-01

    Restoration works have been accelerated substantially in Turkey in the last decade. Many historical buildings, mosques, minaret, bridges, towers and structures have been restored. With these restorations an important issue arises, namely how restoration work affects the structure. For this reason, we aimed to investigate the restoration effect on the earthquake response of a historical masonry mosque considering the openings on the masonry dome. For this purpose, we used the Hüsrev Pasha Mosque, which is located in the Ortakapı district in the old city of Van, Turkey. The region of Van is in an active seismic zone; therefore, earthquake analyses were performed in this study. Firstly a finite element model of the mosque was constructed considering the restoration drawings and 16 window openings on the dome. Then model was constructed with eight window openings. Structural analyses were performed under dead load and earthquake load, and the mode superposition method was used in analyses. Maximum displacements, maximum-minimum principal stresses and shear stresses are given with contours diagrams. The results are analyzed according to Turkish Earthquake Code (TEC, 2007) and compared between 8 and 16 window openings cases. The results show that reduction of the window openings affected the structural behavior of the mosque positively.

  20. Cryptochrome and phytochrome cooperatively but independently reduce active gibberellin content in rice seedlings under light irradiation.

    Hirose, Fumiaki; Inagaki, Noritoshi; Hanada, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Takano, Makoto

    2012-09-01

    In contrast to a wealth of knowledge about the photoregulation of gibberellin metabolism in dicots, that in monocots remains largely unclear. In this study, we found that a blue light signal triggers reduction of active gibberellin content in rice seedlings with simultaneous repression of two gibberellin 20-oxidase genes (OsGA20ox2 and OsGA20ox4) and acute induction of four gibberellin 2-oxidase genes (OsGA2ox4-OsGA2ox7). For further examination of the regulation of these genes, we established a series of cryptochrome-deficient lines through reverse genetic screening from a Tos17 mutant population and construction of knockdown lines based on an RNA interference technique. By using these lines and phytochrome mutants, we elucidated that cryptochrome 1 (cry1), consisting of two species in rice plants (cry1a and cry1b), is indispensable for robust induction of the GA2ox genes. On the other hand, repression of the GA20ox genes is mediated by phytochromes. In addition, we found that the phytochromes also mediate the repression of a gibberellin 3-oxidase gene (OsGA3ox2) in the light. These results imply that, in rice seedlings, phytochromes mediate the repression of gibberellin biosynthesis capacity, while cry1 mediates the induction of gibberellin inactivation capacity. The cry1 action was demonstrated to be dominant in the reduction of active gibberellin content, but, in rice seedlings, the cumulative effects of these independent actions reduced active gibberellin content in the light. This pathway design in which different types of photoreceptors independently but cooperatively regulate active gibberellin content is unique from the viewpoint of dicot research. This redundancy should provide robustness to the response in rice plants.

  1. Butterfly responses to prairie restoration through fire and grazing

    Vogel, Jennifer A.; Debinski, Diane M.; Koford, Rolf R.; Miller, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    The development of land for modern agriculture has resulted in losses of native prairie habitat. The small, isolated patches of prairie habitat that remain are threatened by fire suppression, overgrazing, and invasion by non-native species. We evaluated the effects of three restoration practices (grazing only, burning only, and burning and grazing) on the vegetation characteristics and butterfly communities of remnant prairies. Total butterfly abundance was highest on prairies that were managed with burning and grazing and lowest on those that were only burned. Butterfly species richness did not differ among any of the restoration practices. Butterfly species diversity was highest on sites that were only burned. Responses of individual butterfly species to restoration practices were highly variable. In the best predictive regression model, total butterfly abundance was negatively associated with the percent cover of bare ground and positively associated with the percent cover of forbs. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that sites with burned only and grazed only practices could be separated based on their butterfly community composition. Butterfly communities in each of the three restoration practices are equally species rich but different practices yield compositionally different butterfly communities. Because of this variation in butterfly species responses to different restoration practices, there is no single practice that will benefit all species or even all species within habitat-specialist or habitat-generalist habitat guilds. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SALT-RESPONSIVE ERF1 is a negative regulator of grain filling and gibberellin-mediated seedling establishment in rice.

    Schmidt, Romy; Schippers, Jos H M; Mieulet, Delphine; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Hoefgen, Rainer; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2014-02-01

    Grain quality is an important agricultural trait that is mainly determined by grain size and composition. Here, we characterize the role of the rice transcription factor (TF) SALT-RESPONSIVE ERF1 (SERF1) during grain development. Through genome-wide expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we found that SERF1 directly regulates RICE PROLAMIN-BOX BINDING FACTOR (RPBF), a TF that functions as a positive regulator of grain filling. Loss of SERF1 enhances RPBF expression resulting in larger grains with increased starch content, while SERF1 overexpression represses RPBF resulting in smaller grains. Consistently, during grain filling, starch biosynthesis genes such as GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASEI (GBSSI), STARCH SYNTHASEI (SSI), SSIIIa, and ADP-GLUCOSE PYROPHOSPHORYLASE LARGE SUBUNIT2 (AGPL2) are up-regulated in SERF1 knockout grains. Moreover, SERF1 is a direct upstream regulator of GBSSI. In addition, SERF1 negatively regulates germination by controlling RPBF expression, which mediates the gibberellic acid (GA)-induced expression of RICE AMYLASE1A (RAmy1A). Loss of SERF1 results in more rapid seedling establishment, while SERF1 overexpression has the opposite effect. Our study reveals that SERF1 represents a negative regulator of grain filling and seedling establishment by timing the expression of RPBF.

  3. Evolutionary conservation of plant gibberellin signalling pathway components

    Reski Ralf

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Gibberellins (GA are plant hormones that can regulate germination, elongation growth, and sex determination. They ubiquitously occur in seed plants. The discovery of gibberellin receptors, together with advances in understanding the function of key components of GA signalling in Arabidopsis and rice, reveal a fairly short GA signal transduction route. The pathway essentially consists of GID1 gibberellin receptors that interact with F-box proteins, which in turn regulate degradation of downstream DELLA proteins, suppressors of GA-controlled responses. Results: Arabidopsis sequences of the gibberellin signalling compounds were used to screen databases from a variety of plants, including protists, for homologues, providing indications for the degree of conservation of the pathway. The pathway as such appears completely absent in protists, the moss Physcomitrella patens shares only a limited homology with the Arabidopsis proteins, thus lacking essential characteristics of the classical GA signalling pathway, while the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii contains a possible ortholog for each component. The occurrence of classical GA responses can as yet not be linked with the presence of homologues of the signalling pathway. Alignments and display in neighbour joining trees of the GA signalling components confirm the close relationship of gymnosperms, monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, as suggested from previous studies. Conclusion: Homologues of the GA-signalling pathway were mainly found in vascular plants. The GA signalling system may have its evolutionary molecular onset in Physcomitrella patens, where GAs at higher concentrations affect gravitropism and elongation growth.

  4. Immune response capacity after human splenic autotransplantation - Restoration of response to individual pneumococcal vaccine subtypes

    Leemans, R; Manson, W; Snijder, JAM; Smit, JW; Klasen, HJ; The, TH; Timens, W

    Objective To evaluate features of general immune function, in particular the restoration of the humoral immune response to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides, in humans undergoing a spleen autotransplantation after splenectomy because of trauma. Summary Background Data After splenectomy, patients

  5. Jasmonic Acid, Abscisic Acid, and Salicylic Acid Are Involved in the Phytoalexin Responses of Rice to Fusarium fujikuroi, a High Gibberellin Producer Pathogen.

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Amaral Carneiro, Greice; Spadaro, Davide; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2015-09-23

    Fusarium fujikuroi, the causal agent of bakanae disease, is the main seedborne pathogen on rice. To understand the basis of rice resistance, a quantitative method to simultaneously detect phytohormones and phytoalexins was developed by using HPLC-MS/MS. With this method dynamic profiles and possible interactions of defense-related phytohormones and phytoalexins were investigated on two rice cultivars, inoculated or not with F. fujikuroi. In the resistant cultivar Selenio, the presence of pathogen induced high production of phytoalexins, mainly sakuranetin, and symptoms of bakanae were not observed. On the contrary, in the susceptible genotype Dorella, the pathogen induced the production of gibberellin and abscisic acid and inhibited jasmonic acid production, phytoalexins were very low, and bakanae symptoms were observed. The results suggested that a wide range of secondary metabolites are involved in plant defense against pathogens and phytoalexin synthesis could be an important factor for rice resistance against bakanae disease.

  6. Rapid genetic restoration of a keystone species exhibiting delayed demographic response

    Genetic founder effects are often expected when animals colonize restored habitat in fragmented landscapes, but empirical data on genetic responses to restoration are limited. We examined the genetic response of banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) to landscape-scale grassland restor...

  7. Bacterial Gibberellins Induce Systemic Resistance of Plants

    I. N. FEKLISTOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally agreed today that some rhizosphere bacteria can ensure induced systemic resistance to pathogens. In this paper we tested the ability of gibberellins produced by rhizosphere non-pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aurantiaca to induce systemic resistance to alternariosis agent – Alternaria brassicicola – in oilseed rape plants.Oilseed rape (Brássica nápus is one of the most promising oil-bearing croppers. It allows improving the supply of population with vegetable oil, animal and poultry industries with high quality vegetable protein. It is used for biofuel production as well.Gibberellin preparation was isolated from liquid culture of strain Pseudomonas aurantiaca grown in 250 mL of M9 medium (48 h, 28 °C under darkroom conditions. Gibberellins were extracted according procedure described by Tien et al. (1979. Gibberellins concentration in the medium was determined by fluorometric method.Elicitor activity of bacterial metabolites – gibberellins – was analyzed in model system of artificial inoculation of oilseed rape germs with phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria brassicicola. The elicitor action efficiency was evaluated on the 15th day of oilseed rape cultivation based on the percentage of leaf surface covered by necrotic lesions.Gibberellins were shown to induce systemic resistance resulted in decreasing of oil seed plants   vulnerability by 52.7%.It is known that under the unfavorable conditions plants synthesis the reactive oxygen intermediates   which activate destructive processes. One of the first organism reactions to stress action is the change of the lipid peroxidation level. It was shown that treatment of the soil with gibberellins resulted in decreasing of the lipid peroxidation level twofold.Gibberellins were shown to have a similar effect on permeability of cell membranes for free nucleotides. The permeability of cell membranes in leaves decreased 2.8-fold at room temperature. We suggest that gibberellins

  8. Atomoxetine restores the response inhibition network in Parkinson's disease.

    Rae, Charlotte L; Nombela, Cristina; Rodríguez, Patricia Vázquez; Ye, Zheng; Hughes, Laura E; Jones, P Simon; Ham, Timothy; Rittman, Timothy; Coyle-Gilchrist, Ian; Regenthal, Ralf; Sahakian, Barbara J; Barker, Roger A; Robbins, Trevor W; Rowe, James B

    2016-08-01

    Parkinson's disease impairs the inhibition of responses, and whilst impulsivity is mild for some patients, severe impulse control disorders affect ∼10% of cases. Based on preclinical models we proposed that noradrenergic denervation contributes to the impairment of response inhibition, via changes in the prefrontal cortex and its subcortical connections. Previous work in Parkinson's disease found that the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine could improve response inhibition, gambling decisions and reflection impulsivity. Here we tested the hypotheses that atomoxetine can restore functional brain networks for response inhibition in Parkinson's disease, and that both structural and functional connectivity determine the behavioural effect. In a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, 19 patients with mild-to-moderate idiopathic Parkinson's disease underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a stop-signal task, while on their usual dopaminergic therapy. Patients received 40 mg atomoxetine or placebo, orally. This regimen anticipates that noradrenergic therapies for behavioural symptoms would be adjunctive to, not a replacement for, dopaminergic therapy. Twenty matched control participants provided normative data. Arterial spin labelling identified no significant changes in regional perfusion. We assessed functional interactions between key frontal and subcortical brain areas for response inhibition, by comparing 20 dynamic causal models of the response inhibition network, inverted to the functional magnetic resonance imaging data and compared using random effects model selection. We found that the normal interaction between pre-supplementary motor cortex and the inferior frontal gyrus was absent in Parkinson's disease patients on placebo (despite dopaminergic therapy), but this connection was restored by atomoxetine. The behavioural change in response inhibition (improvement indicated by reduced stop-signal reaction

  9. Posttranscriptional regulation of alpha-amylase II-4 expression by gibberellin in germinating rice seeds.

    Nanjo, Yohei; Asatsuma, Satoru; Itoh, Kimiko; Hori, Hidetaka; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Fujisawa, Yukiko

    2004-06-01

    Hormonal regulation of expression of alpha-amylase II-4 that lacks the gibberellin-response cis-element (GARE) in the promoter region of the gene was studied in germinating rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds. Temporal and spatial expression of alpha-amylase II-4 in the aleurone layer were essentially identical to those of alpha-amylase I-1 whose gene contains GARE, although these were distinguishable in the embryo tissues at the early stage of germination. The gibberellin-responsible expression of alpha-amylase II-4 was also similar to that of alpha-amylase I-1. However, the level of alpha-amylase II-4 mRNA was not increased by gibberellin, indicating that the transcriptional enhancement of alpha-amylase II-4 expression did not occur in the aleurone. Gibberellin stimulated the accumulation of 45Ca2+ into the intracellular secretory membrane system. In addition, several inhibitors for Ca2+ signaling, such as EGTA, neomycin, ruthenium red (RuR), and W-7 prevented the gibberellin-induced expression of alpha-amylase II-4 effectively. While the gibberellin-induced expression of alpha-amylase II-4 occurred normally in the aleurone layer of a rice dwarf mutant d1 which is defective in the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein. Based on these results, it was concluded that the posttranscriptional regulation of alpha-amylase II-4 expression by gibberellin operates in the aleurone layer of germinating rice seed, which is mediated by Ca2+ but not the G protein.

  10. ACC synthase genes are polymorphic in watermelon (Citrullus spp.) and differentially expressed in flowers and in response to auxin and gibberellin.

    Salman-Minkov, Ayelet; Levi, Amnon; Wolf, Shmuel; Trebitsh, Tova

    2008-05-01

    The flowering pattern of watermelon species (Citrullus spp.) is either monoecious or andromonoecious. Ethylene is known to play a critical role in floral sex determination of cucurbit species. In contrast to its feminizing effect in cucumber and melon, in watermelon ethylene promotes male flower development. In cucumber, the rate-limiting enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS), regulates unisexual flower development. To investigate the role of ethylene in flower development, we isolated four genomic sequences of ACS from watermelon (CitACS1-4). Both CitACS1 and CitACS3 are expressed in floral tissue. CitACS1 is also expressed in vegetative tissue and it may be involved in cell growth processes. Expression of CitACS1 is up-regulated by exogenous treatment with auxin, gibberellin or ACC, the immediate precursor of ethylene. No discernible differential floral sex-dependent expression pattern was observed for this gene. The CitACS3 gene is expressed in open flowers and in young staminate floral buds (male or hermaphrodite), but not in female flowers. CitACS3 is also up-regulated by ACC, and is likely to be involved in ethylene-regulated anther development. The expression of CitACS2 was not detected in vegetative or reproductive organs but was up-regulated by auxin. CitACS4 transcript was not detected under our experimental conditions. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence tagged site (STS) marker analyses of the CitACS genes showed polymorphism among and within the different Citrullus groups, including watermelon cultivars, Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus, the central subspecies Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, and the desert species Citrullus colocynthis (L).

  11. Salicylic-Acid-Induced Chilling- and Oxidative-Stress Tolerance in Relation to Gibberellin Homeostasis, C-Repeat/Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding Factor Pathway, and Antioxidant Enzyme Systems in Cold-Stored Tomato Fruit.

    Ding, Yang; Zhao, Jinhong; Nie, Ying; Fan, Bei; Wu, Shujuan; Zhang, Yu; Sheng, Jiping; Shen, Lin; Zhao, Ruirui; Tang, Xuanming

    2016-11-02

    Effects of salicylic acid (SA) on gibberellin (GA) homeostasis, C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor (CBF) pathway, and antioxidant enzyme systems linked to chilling- and oxidative-stress tolerance in tomato fruit were investigated. Mature green tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Moneymaker) were treated with 0, 0.5, and 1 mM SA solution for 15 min before storage at 4 °C for 28 days. In comparison to 0 or 0.5 mM SA, 1 mM SA significantly decreased the chilling injury (CI) index in tomato fruit. In the SA-treated fruit, the upregulation of GA biosynthetic gene (GA3ox1) expression was followed by gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) surge and DELLA protein degradation. CBF1 participated in the SA-modulated tolerance and stimulated the expression of GA catabolic gene (GA2ox1). Furthermore, 1 mM SA enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes and, thus, reduced reactive oxygen species accumulation. Our findings suggest that SA might protect tomato fruit from CI and oxidative damage through regulating GA metabolism, CBF1 gene expression, and antioxidant enzyme activities.

  12. Butterfly response and successional change following ecosystem restoration

    Amy E. M. Waltz; W. Wallace Covington

    2001-01-01

    The Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) can be useful indicators of ecosystem change as a result of a disturbance event. We monitored changes in butterfly abundance in two restoration treatment units paired with adjacent untreated forest at the Mt. Trumbull Resource Conservation Area in northern Arizona. Restoration treatments included thinning trees to density levels...

  13. Hormonal regulation of seed development and germination in tomato : studies on abscisic acid- and gibberellin-deficient mutants

    Groot, S.P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The role of endogenous gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) in seed development and germination of tomato, was studied with the use of GA- and/or ABA-deficient mutants.

    GAs are indispensable for the development of fertile flowers. Fertility of GA-deficient flowers is restored

  14. Helminthosporic acid functions as an agonist for gibberellin receptor.

    Miyazaki, Sho; Jiang, Kai; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Asami, Tadao; Nakajima, Masatoshi

    2017-11-01

    Helminthosporol was isolated from a fungus, Helminthosporium sativum, as a natural plant growth regulator in 1963. It showed gibberellin-like bioactivity that stimulated the growth of the second leaf sheath of rice. After studying the structure-activity relationship between the compound and some synthesized analogs, it was found that helminthosporic acid (H-acid) has higher gibberellin-like activity and chemical stability than helminthosporol. In this study, we showed that (1) H-acid displays gibberellin-like activities not only in rice but also in Arabidopsis, (2) it regulates the expression of gibberellin-related genes, (3) it induces DELLA degradation through binding with a gibberellin receptor (GID1), and (4) it forms the GID1-(H-acid)-DELLA complex to transduce the gibberellin signal in the same manner as gibberellin. This work shows that the H-acid mode of action acts as an agonist for gibberellin receptor.

  15. Response of Wolves to Corridor Restoration and Human Use Management

    Brenda Shepherd

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Corridor restoration is increasingly being used to connect habitat in mountainous areas where rugged topography and increasing human activity fragment habitat. Wolves (Canis lupus are a conservation priority because they avoid areas with high levels of human use and are ecologically important predators. We examined how corridor restoration through a golf course changes the distribution of wolves and their prey in Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada. We followed and recorded wolf paths in the snow both within the corridor and in the surrounding landscape before and after a corridor was re-established. Track transects were used to estimate prey abundance and snow depths, and trail counters measured human activity. We compared resources on wolf paths to available movement routes using conditional logistic regression and also compared resources used by wolves before and after restoration. We addressed potential confounding effects of prey abundance, snow depths, and levels of human use by testing for changes in these variables. Prior to restoration, wolves traveled around the golf course and used the mountainside to connect valley-bottom habitat. Conversely, elk (Cervus elaphus densities were highest in the golf course. After restoration, wolves shifted most of their movement to the golf course corridor, whereas elk dispersed along the corridor and mountainside. When traveling through the study area, wolves selected for areas with high prey abundance, low elevations, and low levels of human activity. Corridor restoration increased the area of high quality habitat available to wolves and increased their access to elk and deer at low elevations. Our results corroborate other studies suggesting that wolves and elk quickly adapt to landscape changes and that corridor restoration can improve habitat quality and reduce habitat fragmentation.

  16. Leaf litter arthropod responses to tropical forest restoration.

    Cole, Rebecca J; Holl, Karen D; Zahawi, Rakan A; Wickey, Philipp; Townsend, Alan R

    2016-08-01

    Soil and litter arthropods represent a large proportion of tropical biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, but little is known about the efficacy of different tropical forest restoration strategies in facilitating their recovery in degraded habitats. We sampled arthropods in four 7- to 8-year-old restoration treatments and in nearby reference forests. Sampling was conducted during the wet and dry seasons using extractions from litter and pitfall samples. Restoration treatments were replicated in 50 × 50-m plots in four former pasture sites in southern Costa Rica: plantation - trees planted throughout the plot; applied nucleation/islands - trees planted in patches of different sizes; and natural regeneration - no tree planting. Arthropod abundance, measures of richness and diversity, and a number of functional groups were greater in the island treatment than in natural regeneration or plantation treatments and, in many cases, were similar to reference forest. Litter and pitfall morphospecies and functional group composition in all three restoration treatments were significantly different than reference sites, but island and plantation treatments showed more recovery than natural regeneration. Abundance and functional group diversity showed a much greater degree of recovery than community composition. Synthesis and applications: The less resource-intensive restoration strategy of planting tree islands was more effective than tree plantations in restoring arthropod abundance, richness, and functional diversity. None of the restoration strategies, however, resulted in similar community composition as reference forest after 8 years of recovery, highlighting the slow rate of recovery of arthropod communities after disturbance, and underscoring the importance of conservation of remnant forests in fragmented landscapes.

  17. Characterizing fish responses to a river restoration over 21 years based on species' traits.

    Höckendorff, Stefanie; Tonkin, Jonathan D; Haase, Peter; Bunzel-Drüke, Margret; Zimball, Olaf; Scharf, Matthias; Stoll, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Understanding restoration effectiveness is often impaired by a lack of high-quality, long-term monitoring data and, to date, few researchers have used species' trait information to gain insight into the processes that drive the reaction of fish communities to restoration. We examined fish-community responses with a highly resolved data set from 21 consecutive years of electrofishing (4 years prerestoration and 17 years postrestoration) at multiple restored and unrestored reaches from a river restoration project on the Lippe River, Germany. Fish abundance peaked in the third year after the restoration; abundance was 6 times higher than before the restoration. After 5-7 years, species richness and abundance stabilized at 2 and 3.5 times higher levels relative to the prerestoration level, respectively. However, interannual variability of species richness and abundance remained considerable, illustrating the challenge of reliably assessing restoration outcomes based on data from individual samplings, especially in the first years following restoration. Life-history and reproduction-related traits best explained differences in species' responses to restoration. Opportunistic short-lived species with early female maturity and multiple spawning runs per year exhibited the strongest increase in abundance, which reflected their ability to rapidly colonize new habitats. These often small-bodied and fusiform fishes typically live in dynamic and ephemeral instream and floodplain areas that river-habitat restorations often aim to create, and in this case their increases in abundance indicated successful restoration. Our results suggest that a greater consideration of species' traits may enhance the causal understanding of community processes and the coupling of restoration to functional ecology. Trait-based assessments of restoration outcomes would furthermore allow for easier transfer of knowledge across biogeographic borders than studies based on taxonomy. © 2017 Society for

  18. Reptile and amphibian responses to restoration of fire-maintained pine woodlands

    Roger W Perry; D. Craig Rudolph; Ronald E. Thill

    2009-01-01

    Fire-maintained woodlands and savannas are important ecosystems for vertebrates in many regions of the world. These ecosystems are being restored by forest managers, but little information exists on herpetofaunal responses to this restoration in areas dominated by shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata). We compared habitat characteristics and...

  19. Candidacy of a chitin-inducible gibberellin-responsive gene for a major locus affecting plant height in rice that is closely linked to Green Revolution gene sd1.

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Zhang, Yushan; Yu, Sibin; Yang, Gaiyu; Yan, Wenhao; Xing, Yongzhong

    2011-09-01

    Appropriate plant height is crucial for lodging resistance to improve the rice crop yield. The application of semi-dwarf 1 led to the green revolution in the 1960s, by predominantly increasing the rice yield. However, the frequent use of single sd1 gene sources may cause genetic vulnerability to pests and diseases. Identifying useful novel semi-dwarf genes is important for the genetic manipulation of plant architecture in practical rice breeding. In this study, introgression lines derived from two parents contrasting in plant height, Zhenshan 97 and Pokkali were employed to locate a gene with a large effect on plant height by the bulk segregant analysis method. A major gene, ph1, was mapped to a region closely linked to sd1 on chromosome 1; the additive effects of ph1 were more than 50 cm on the plant height and 2 days on the heading date in a BC(4)F(2) population and its progeny. ph1 was then fine mapped to BAC AP003227. Gene annotation indicated that LOC_OS01g65990 encoding a chitin-inducible gibberellin-responsive protein (CIGR), which belongs to the GRAS family, might be the right candidate gene of ph1. Co-segregation analysis of the candidate gene-derived marker finally confirmed its identity as the candidate gene. A higher expression level of the CIGR was detected in all the tested tissues in tall plants compared to those of short plants, especially in the young leaf sheath containing elongating tissues, which indicated its importance role in regulating plant height. ph1 showed a tremendous genetic effect on plant height, which is distinct from sd1 and could be a new resource for breeding semi-dwarf varieties.

  20. Genetic Variation for Lettuce Seed Thermoinhibition Is Associated with Temperature-Sensitive Expression of Abscisic Acid, Gibberellin, and Ethylene Biosynthesis, Metabolism, and Response Genes1[C][W][OA

    Argyris, Jason; Dahal, Peetambar; Hayashi, Eiji; Still, David W.; Bradford, Kent J.

    2008-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa ‘Salinas’) seeds fail to germinate when imbibed at temperatures above 25°C to 30°C (termed thermoinhibition). However, seeds of an accession of Lactuca serriola (UC96US23) do not exhibit thermoinhibition up to 37°C in the light. Comparative genetics, physiology, and gene expression were analyzed in these genotypes to determine the mechanisms governing the regulation of seed germination by temperature. Germination of the two genotypes was differentially sensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) at elevated temperatures. Quantitative trait loci associated with these phenotypes colocated with a major quantitative trait locus (Htg6.1) from UC96US23 conferring germination thermotolerance. ABA contents were elevated in Salinas seeds that exhibited thermoinhibition, consistent with the ability of fluridone (an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) to improve germination at high temperatures. Expression of many genes involved in ABA, GA, and ethylene biosynthesis, metabolism, and response was differentially affected by high temperature and light in the two genotypes. In general, ABA-related genes were more highly expressed when germination was inhibited, and GA- and ethylene-related genes were more highly expressed when germination was permitted. In particular, LsNCED4, a gene encoding an enzyme in the ABA biosynthetic pathway, was up-regulated by high temperature only in Salinas seeds and also colocated with Htg6.1. The temperature sensitivity of expression of LsNCED4 may determine the upper temperature limit for lettuce seed germination and may indirectly influence other regulatory pathways via interconnected effects of increased ABA biosynthesis. PMID:18753282

  1. Early ecosystem responses to watershed restoration along a headwater stream

    Kallenbach, Emilie M.F.; Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Morsing, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Along many streams, natural riparian vegetation has been replaced by agricultural fields or plantations resulting in ecosystem alterations due to changes of the interactions across the land-water ecotone. We studied the effect of restoration interventions by removing a dense spruce plantation in ...

  2. Wetland Restoration Response Analysis using MODIS and Groundwater Data

    Michael McClain

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation cover and groundwater level changes over the period of restorationare the two most important indicators of the level of success in wetland ecohydrologicalrestoration. As a result of the regular presence of water and dense vegetation, the highestevapotranspiration (latent heat rates usually occur within wetlands. Vegetation cover andevapotranspiration of large areas of restoration like that of Kissimmee River basin, SouthFlorida will be best estimated using remote sensing technique than point measurements.Kissimmee River basin has been the area of ecological restoration for some years. Thecurrent ecohydrological restoration activities were evaluated through fractional vegetationcover (FVC changes and latent heat flux using Moderate Resolution ImagingSpectroradiometer (MODIS data. Groundwater level data were also analyzed for selectedeight groundwater monitoring wells in the basin. Results have shown that the averagefractional vegetation cover and latent heat along 10 km buffer of Kissimmee River betweenLake Kissimmee and Lake Okeechobee was higher in 2004 than in 2000. It is evident thatover the 5-year period of time, vegetated and areas covered with wetlands have increasedsignificantly especially along the restoration corridor. Analysis of groundwater level data(2000-2004 from eight monitoring wells showed that, the average monthly level ofgroundwater was increased by 20 cm and 34 cm between 2000 and 2004, and 2000 and2003, respectively. This change was more evident for wells along the river.

  3. Avian response to pine restoration at Peck Ranch Conservation Area

    Richard Clawson; Carrie Steen; Kim Houf; Terry Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Midco Pine Flats is a 2,223-acre region of Peck Ranch Conservation Area (CA) that is classified as a pine-oak plains land type association. Extensive logging in the early 1900s removed most overstory shortleaf pine allowing oak to become the primary overstory component. In 2000, Missouri Department of Conservation staff initiated a pineoak woodland restoration project...

  4. Gibberellin hormone signal perception: down-regulating DELLA repressors of plant growth and development

    The gibberellin (GA) hormone signal is perceived by a receptor with homology to hormone sensitive lipases, GID1 (GA-INSENSITIVE DWARF1). This leads to GA-stimulated responses including stem elongation, seed germination, and the transition to flowering. GA-binding enables GID1 to interact with and ...

  5. Scale-dependent geomorphic responses to active restoration and implications for cutthroat trout

    Salant, N.; Miller, S. W.

    2009-12-01

    The predominant goal of instream habitat restoration is to increase the diversity, density and/or biomass of aquatic organisms through enhanced physical heterogeneity and increased food availability. In physically homogenized systems, habitat restoration is most commonly achieved at the reach-scale through the addition of structures or channel reconfiguration. Despite the completion of over 6,000 restoration projects in the United States, studies of fish responses to habitat restoration have largely produced equivocal results. Paradoxically, restoration monitoring overwhelmingly focuses on fish response without understanding how these responses link to the physical variables being altered and the scale at which geomorphic changes occur. Our study investigates whether instream habitat restoration affects geomorphic conditions at spatial scales relevant to the organism of interest (i.e. the spatial scale of the variables limiting to that organism). We measure the effects of active restoration on geomorphic metrics at three spatial scales (local, unit, and reach) using a before-after-control-impact design in a historically disturbed and heavily managed cutthroat trout stream. Observed trout habitat preferences (for spawning and juvenile/adult residence) are used to identify the limiting physical variables and are compared to the scale of spatially explicit geomorphic responses. Four reaches representing three different stages of restoration (before, one month and one year after) are surveyed for local-scale physical conditions, unit- and reach-scale morphology, resident fish use, and redd locations. Local-scale physical metrics include depth, nearbed and average velocity, overhead cover, particle size, and water quality metrics. Point measurements stratified by morphological unit are used to determine physical variability among unit types. Habitat complexity and availability are assessed at the reach-scale from topographic surveys and unit maps. Our multi

  6. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration : evidence from three case studies

    Bodegom, P.M. van; Grootjans, A.P.; Sorrell, B.K.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W.A.; Middleton, B.

    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative

  7. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration: evidence from three case studies

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Grootjans, A.P.; Sorrell, B.K.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative

  8. Food Web Response to Habitat Restoration in Various Coastal Wetland Ecosystems

    James, W. R.; Nelson, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal wetland habitats provide important ecosystem services, including supporting coastal food webs. These habitats are being lost rapidly. To combat the effects of these losses, millions of dollars have been invested to restore these habitats. However, the relationship between restoring habitat and restoring ecosystem functioning is poorly understood. Analyzing energy flow through food web comparisons between restored and natural habitats can give insights into ecosystem functioning. Using published stable isotope values from organisms in restored and natural habitats, we assessed the food web response of habitat restoration in salt marsh, mangrove, sea grass, and algal bed ecosystems. We ran Bayesian mixing models to quantify resource use by consumers and generated habitat specific niche hypervolumes for each ecosystem to assess food web differences between restored and natural habitats. Salt marsh, mangrove, and sea grass ecosystems displayed functional differences between restored and natural habitats. Salt marsh and mangrove food webs varied in the amount of each resource used, while the sea grass food web displayed more variation between individual organisms. The algal bed food web showed little variation between restored and natural habitats.

  9. GLP-1/glucagon coagonism restores leptin responsiveness in obese mice chronically maintained on an obesogenic diet

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Chabenne, Joseph; Finan, Brian

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported restoration of leptin responsiveness in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice using a pharmacologically optimized, polyethylene-glycolated (PEG)-leptin analog in combination with exendin-4 or FGF21. However, the return of leptin action required discontinuation of high-fat diet (HFD...... cotreatment. In summary, we report that GLP-1/glucagon coagonism restores leptin responsiveness in mice maintained on a HFD, thus emphasizing the translational value of this polypharmacotherapy for the treatment of obesity and diabetes....

  10. Strigolactones Stimulate Internode Elongation Independently of Gibberellins1[C][W

    de Saint Germain, Alexandre; Ligerot, Yasmine; Dun, Elizabeth A.; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Ross, John J.; Beveridge, Christine A.; Rameau, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactone (SL) mutants in diverse species show reduced stature in addition to their extensive branching. Here, we show that this dwarfism in pea (Pisum sativum) is not attributable to the strong branching of the mutants. The continuous supply of the synthetic SL GR24 via the root system using hydroponics can restore internode length of the SL-deficient rms1 mutant but not of the SL-response rms4 mutant, indicating that SLs stimulate internode elongation via RMS4. Cytological analysis of internode epidermal cells indicates that SLs control cell number but not cell length, suggesting that SL may affect stem elongation by stimulating cell division. Consequently, SLs can repress (in axillary buds) or promote (in the stem) cell division in a tissue-dependent manner. Because gibberellins (GAs) increase internode length by affecting both cell division and cell length, we tested if SLs stimulate internode elongation by affecting GA metabolism or signaling. Genetic analyses using SL-deficient and GA-deficient or DELLA-deficient double mutants, together with molecular and physiological approaches, suggest that SLs act independently from GAs to stimulate internode elongation. PMID:23943865

  11. Detector response restoration in image reconstruction of high resolution positron emission tomography

    Liang, Z.

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical method was studied to model the detector response of high spatial-resolution positron emission tomography systems consisting of close-packed small crystals, and to restore the resolution deteriorated due to crystal penetration and/or nonuniform sampling across the field-of-view (FOV). The simulated detector system had 600 bismuth germanate crystals of 3.14 mm width and 30 mm length packed on a single ring of 60 cm diameter. The space between crystal was filled up with lead. Each crystal was in coincidence with 200 opposite crystals so that the FOV had a radius of 30 cm. The detector response was modeled based on the attenuating properties of the crystals and the septa, as well as the geometry of the detector system. The modeled detector-response function was used to restore the projections from the sinogram of the ring-detector system. The restored projections had a uniform sampling of 1.57 mm across the FOV. The crystal penetration and/or the nonuniform sampling were compensated in the projections. A penalized maximum-likelihood algorithm was employed to accomplish the restoration. The restored projections were then filtered and backprojected to reconstruct the image. A chest phantom with a few small circular ''cold'' objects located at the center and near the periphery of FOV was computer generated and used to test the restoration. The reconstructed images from the restored projections demonstrated resolution improvement off the FOV center, while preserving the resolution near the center

  12. Rare sugar D-allose suppresses gibberellin signaling through hexokinase-dependent pathway in Oryza sativa L.

    Fukumoto, Takeshi; Kano, Akihito; Ohtani, Kouhei; Yamasaki-Kokudo, Yumiko; Kim, Bong-Gyu; Hosotani, Kouji; Saito, Miu; Shirakawa, Chikage; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Izumori, Ken; Ohara, Toshiaki; Shigematsu, Yoshio; Tanaka, Keiji; Ishida, Yutaka; Nishizawa, Yoko; Tada, Yasuomi; Ichimura, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2011-12-01

    One of the rare sugars, D-allose, which is the epimer of D-glucose at C3, has an inhibitory effect on rice growth, but the molecular mechanisms of the growth inhibition by D-allose were unknown. The growth inhibition caused by D-allose was prevented by treatment with hexokinase inhibitors, D-mannoheptulose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Furthermore, the Arabidopsis glucose-insensitive2 (gin2) mutant, which is a loss-of-function mutant of the glucose sensor AtHXK1, showed a D-allose-insensitive phenotype. D-Allose strongly inhibited the gibberellin-dependent responses such as elongation of the second leaf sheath and induction of α-amylase in embryo-less half rice seeds. The growth of the slender rice1 (slr1) mutant, which exhibits a constitutive gibberellin-responsive phenotype, was also inhibited by D-allose, and the growth inhibition of the slr1 mutant by D-allose was also prevented by D-mannoheptulose treatment. The expressions of gibberellin-responsive genes were down-regulated by D-allose treatment, and the down-regulations of gibberellin-responsive genes were also prevented by D-mannoheptulose treatment. These findings reveal that D-allose inhibits the gibberellin-signaling through a hexokinase-dependent pathway.

  13. Carbohydrates and gibberellins relationship in potato tuberization

    Ševčíková, H.; Mašková, P.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mašek, T.; Lipavská, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 214, JUL (2017), s. 53-63 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Carbohydrate distribution * Gibberellin * Photoautotrophic cultivation * Potato * Tuberization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  14. Auxin-induced nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins were involved in the gravitropism

    Cai, Weiming; Hu, Liwei; Hu, Xiangyang; Cui, Dayong; Cai, Weiming

    Gravitropism is the asymmetric growth or curvature of plant organs in response to gravistimulation. There is a complex signal transduction cascade which involved in the differential growth of plants in response to changes in the gravity vector. The role of auxin in gravitropism has been demonstrated by many experiments, but little is known regarding the molecular details of such effects. In our studies before, mediation of the gravitropic bending of soybean roots and rice leaf sheath bases by nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins, are induced by auxin. The asymmetrical distribution of nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins resulted from the asymmetrical synthesis of them in bending sites. In soybean roots, inhibitions of NO and cGMP synthesis reduced differential NO and cGMP accumulation respectively, which both of these effects can lead to the reduction of gravitropic bending. Gibberellin-induced OsXET, OsEXPA4 and OsRWC3 were also found involved in the gravitropic bending. These data indicated that auxin-induced nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins were involved in the gravitropism. More experiments need to prove the more detailed mechanism of them.

  15. Detection of endogenous gibberellins and their relationship to hypocotyl elongation in soybean seedlings

    Bensen, R.J.; Beall, F.D.; Mullet, J.E.; Morgan, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    Four gibberellins, GA 53 , GA 19 , GA 20 , and GA 1 , were detected by bioassay, chromatography in two HPLC systems, and combined gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy-selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM) in etiolated soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) hypocotyls. GC-MS-SIM employed [ 2 H 2 ]-labeled standards for each endogenous gibberellin detected, and quantities estimated from bioassays and GC-MS-SIM were similar. This result plus the tentative detection of GA 44 and GA 8 (standards not available) indicates that the early-C-13-hydroxylation pathway for gibberellin biosynthesis predominates in soybean hypocotyls. Other gibberellins were not detected. Growth rates decreased after transfer to low water potential (ψ w ) vermiculite and were completely arrested 24 hours after transfer. The GA 1 content in the elongating region of hypocotyls had declined to 38% of the 0 time value at 24 hours after transfer to low ψ w vermiculite, a level which was only 13% of the GA 1 content in control seedlings at the same time (24 hours posttransfer). Seedlings were growth responsive to exogenous GA 3 , and this GA 3 -promoted growth was inhibited by exogenous ABA. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in GA 1 and ABA levels play a role in adjusting hypocotyl elongation rates. However, the changes observed are not of sufficient magnitude nor do they occur rapidly enough to suggest they are the primary regulators of elongation rate responses to rapidly changing plant water status

  16. Size-dependent responses of zooplankton to submerged macrophyte restoration in a subtropical shallow lake

    Zeng, Lei; He, Feng; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Biyun; Dai, Zhigang; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2018-03-01

    To explore the size-dependent responses of zooplankton to submerged macrophyte restoration, we collected macrophyte, zooplankton and water quality samples seasonally from a subtropical shallow lake from 2010 to 2012. Special attention was given to changes in rotifers and crustaceans (cladocerans and copepods). The rotifers were grouped into three size classes (400 μm) to explore their size-related responses to macrophyte restoration. The results showed that during the restoration, the annual mean biomass and macrophyte coverage increased significantly from 0 to 637 g/m2 and 0 to 27%, respectively. In response, the density and biomass of crustaceans and the crustacean-to-rotifer ratio increased significantly, while the rotifer density decreased significantly. Moreover, rotifers showed significant sizedependent responses to macrophyte restoration. Specially, rotifers sized zooplankton tended to boom, while that of small rotifers was inhibited during macrophyte restoration. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed positive correlations between macrophytes and crustaceans, rotifers and COD or Chl- a, but negative correlations between macrophytes and COD or Chl- a, and between crustaceans and Chl- a. Moreover, the results indicate that increased predation on phytoplankton by large-sized zooplankton might be an important mechanism for macrophyte restoration during development of aquatic ecosystems, and that this mechanism played a very important role in promoting the formation of a clear-water state in subtropical shallow lakes.

  17. Incorporating feminist theory and insights into a restorative justice response to sex offenses.

    Hopkins, C Quince; Koss, Mary P

    2005-05-01

    Sex offenses, particularly nonpenetration sex offenses and acquaintance sexual assault, are all too common. Because these crimes reinforce women's fear of crime and restrict spatial and social freedom, it is paramount for the justice system to act affirmatively; however, it does not. This article identifies several failures in the current response to these sex offenses. We describe the research demonstration project, RESTORE, operating in Pima County, Arizona, which uses a restorative justice response as a way of remedying some of those failures. Identifying central feminist insights that guided the development of that project, the article addresses concerns raised by feminists about the use of restorative justice for gendered violence. We conclude that most if not all of these concerns apply to cases of on going domestic violence--cases specifically excluded from the RESTORE program--rather than to cases of acquaintance sexual assault or nonpenetration sex offenses.

  18. Central leptin action on euglycemia restoration in type 1 diabetes: Restraining responses normally induced by fasting?

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Tong, Qingchun

    2017-07-01

    Leptin monotherapy is sufficient to restore euglycemia in insulinopenic type 1 diabetes (T1D), yet the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that the brain mediates the leptin action on euglycemia restoration. Here, we first review evidence supporting that symptoms in T1D resemble an uncontrolled response to fasting. Then, we discuss recent research progress on brain neurons and their neurotransmitters that potentially mediate the leptin action. Finally, peripheral effective pathways, which are normally involved in fasting responses and associated with leptin action on euglycemia restoration in T1D, will also be discussed. This summary complements several previous excellent reviews on this topic (Meek and Morton, 2016; Perry et al., 2016; Fujikawa and Coppari, 2015). A deep understanding of neurocircuitry and the peripheral effective pathways that mediate the leptin action on euglycemia restoration will likely lead to novel targets for an insulin-independent therapeutics against T1D. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Salt Marsh Ecosystem Responses to Restored Tidal Connectivity across a 14y Chronosequence

    Capooci, M.; Spivak, A. C.; Gosselin, K.

    2016-02-01

    Salt marshes support valuable ecosystem services. Yet, human activities negatively impact salt marsh function and contribute to their loss at a global scale. On Cape Cod, MA, culverts and impoundments under roads and railways restricted tidal exchange and resulted in salt marsh conversion to freshwater wetlands. Over the past 14 y, these structures have been removed or replaced, restoring tidal connectivity between marshes and a saltwater bay. We evaluated differences in plant community composition, sediment properties, and pore water chemistry in marshes where tidal connectivity was restored using a space-for-time, or chronosequence approach. Each restored marsh was paired with a nearby, natural salt marsh to control for variability between marshes. In each restored and natural salt marsh we evaluated the plant community by measuring species-specific percent cover and biomass and collected sediment cores for bulk density and pore water analyses. Plant communities responded rapidly: salt-tolerant species, such as Spartina alterniflora, became established while freshwater species, including Phragmites australis, were less abundant within 3 y of restoration. The number of plant species was generally greater in marshes restored within 10 y, compared to older and natural marshes. Sediment bulk density varied with depth and across sites. This likely reflects differences in site history and local conditions. Deeper horizons (24-30cm) generally had higher values in restored sites while surface values (0-3cm) were similar in restored and natural marshes. Porewater pH and sulfide were similar in restored and natural marshes, suggesting rapid microbial responses to seawater reintroduction. Overall, marsh properties and processes reflecting biological communities responded rapidly to tidal restoration. However, variability between study locations underscores the potential importance of site history, local hydrology, and geomorphology in shaping marsh biogeochemistry.

  20. Avian response to shade‐layer restoration in coffee plantations in Puerto Rico

    Irizarry, Amarilys D.; Collazo, Jaime A.; Pacifici, Krishna; Reich, Brian J.; Battle, Kathryn E.

    2018-01-01

    Documenting the evolving processes associated with habitat restoration and how long it takes to detect avian demographic responses is crucial to evaluate the success of restoration initiatives and to identify ways to improve their effectiveness. The importance of this endeavor prompted the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service to evaluate their sun‐to‐shade coffee restoration program in Puerto Rico initiated in 2003. We quantified the responses of 12 resident avian species using estimates of local occupancy and extinction probabilities based on surveys conducted in 2015–2017 at 65 restored farms grouped according to time‐since‐initial‐restoration (TSIR): new (2011–2014), intermediate (2007–2010), and old (2003–2006). We also surveyed 40 forest sites, which served as reference sites. Vegetation complexity increased with TSIR, ranging between 35 and 40% forest cover in farms 6–9 years TSIR. Forest specialists (e.g. Loxigilla portoricencis) exhibited highest average occupancy in farms initially classified as intermediate (6–9 years) and old (>10 years), paralleling occupancy in secondary forests. Occupancy of open‐habitat specialists (e.g. Tiaris olivaceus) was more variable, but higher in recently restored farms. Restoring the shade layer has the potential to heighten ecological services derived from forest specialists (e.g. frugivores) without losing the services of many open‐habitat specialists (e.g. insectivores). Annual local extinction probability for forest specialists decreased with increasing habitat complexity, strengthening the potential value of shade restoration as a tool to enhance habitat for avifauna that evolved in forested landscapes.

  1. Tree seedling response to LED spectra: Implications for forest restoration

    Antonio Montagnoli; R. Kasten Dumroese; Mattia Terzaghi; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Nicoletta Fulgaro; Gabriella Stefania Scippa; Donato Chiatante

    2018-01-01

    We found that different spectra, provided by light-emitting diodes or a fluorescent lamp, caused different photomorphological responses depending on tree seedling type (coniferous or broad-leaved), species, seedling development stage, and seedling fraction (shoot or root). For two conifers (Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris) soon after germination (≤40 days), more...

  2. Macroinvertebrate community responses to a dewatering disturbance gradient in a restored stream

    J. D. Muehlbauer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dewatering disturbances are common in aquatic systems and represent a relatively untapped field of disturbance ecology, yet studying dewatering events along gradients in non-dichotomous (i.e. wet/dry terms is often difficult. Because many stream restorations can essentially be perceived as planned hydrologic manipulations, such systems can make ideal test-cases for understanding processes of hydrological disturbance. In this study we used an experimental drawdown in a 440 ha stream/wetland restoration site to assess aquatic macroinvertebrate community responses to dewatering and subsequent rewetting. The geomorphic nature of the site and the design of the restoration allowed dewatering to occur predictably along a gradient and decoupled the hydrologic response from any geomorphic (i.e. habitat heterogeneity effects. In the absence of such heterogeneous habitat refugia, reach-scale wetted perimeter and depth conditions exerted a strong control on community structure. The community exhibited an incremental response to dewatering severity over the course of this disturbance, which was made manifest not as a change in community means but as an increase in community variability, or dispersion, at each site. The dewatering also affected inter-species abundance and distributional patterns, as dewatering and rewetting promoted alternate species groups with divergent habitat tolerances. Finally, our results indicate that rapid rewetting – analogous to a hurricane breaking a summer drought – may represent a recovery process rather than an additional disturbance and that such processes, even in newly restored systems, may be rapid.

  3. Local viscoelastic response of direct and indirect dental restorative composites measured by AFM.

    Grattarola, Laura; Derchi, Giacomo; Diaspro, Alberto; Gambaro, Carla; Salerno, Marco

    2018-06-08

    We investigated the viscoelastic response of direct and indirect dental restorative composites by the novel technique of AM-FM atomic force microscopy. We selected four composites for direct restorations (Adonis, Optifil, EPH, CME) and three composites for indirect restorations (Gradia, Estenia, Signum). Scanning electron microscopy with micro-analysis was also used to support the results. The mean storage modulus of all composites was in the range of 10.2-15.2 GPa. EPH was the stiffest (pcomposites but Adonis and Estenia), while no significant difference was observed between direct and indirect group (p≥0.05). For the loss tangent, Gradia had the highest value (~0.3), different (pcomposites showed higher loss tangent (pcomposites. All composites exhibited minor contrast at the edge of fillers, showing that these are pre-polymerized, as confirmed by EDS.

  4. The initial phase of a Longleaf Pine-Wiregrass Savanna restoration: species establishment and community responses.

    Aschenbach, Todd, A; Foster, Bryan, L.; Imm, Donald, W.

    2010-09-01

    AbstractAbstract The significant loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem in the southeastern United States has serious implications for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. In response to this loss, we have initiated a long-term and landscape-scale restoration experiment at the 80,125 ha (310 mi2) Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. Aristida beyrichiana (wiregrass), an important and dominant grass (i.e., a “matrix” species) of the longleaf pine savanna understory, and 31 other herbaceous “non-matrix” species were planted at six locations throughout SRS in 2002 and 2003. Of the 36,056 transplanted seedlings, 75% were still alive in June 2004, while mean 1–2 year survival across all planted species was 48%. Lespedeza hirta (hairy lespedeza) exhibited the greatest overall survival per 3 ×3 m cell at 95%, whereas Schizachyrium spp. (little bluestem) exhibited the greatest mean cover among individual species at 5.9%. Wiregrass survival and cover were significantly reduced when planted with non-matrix species. Aggregate cover of all planted species in restored cells averaged 25.9% in 2006. High rates of survival and growth of the planted species resulted in greater species richness (SR), diversity, and vegetative cover in restored cells. Results suggest that the loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem may be ameliorated through restoration efforts and illustrate the positive impact of restoration plantings on biodiversity and vegetative cover.

  5. Transformation of a Dwarf "Arabidopsis" Mutant Illustrates Gibberellin Hormone Physiology and the Function of a Green Revolution Gene

    Molina, Isabel; Weber, Katrin; Alves Cursino dos Santos, Deborah Y.; Ohlrogge, John

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of dwarfing traits into crops was a major factor in increased grain yields during the "Green Revolution." In most cases those traits were the consequence of altered synthesis or response to the gibberellin (GA) plant hormones. Our current understanding of GA synthesis and physiology has been facilitated by the characterization of…

  6. Exogenous gibberellins inhibit coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination and cause cell death in the embryo

    Silva, Da E.A.A.; Toorop, P.E.; Nijsse, J.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of inhibition of coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination by exogenous gibberellins (GAs) and the requirement of germination for endogenous GA were studied. Exogenous GA4+7 inhibited coffee seed germination. The response to GA4+7 showed two sensitivity thresholds: a lower one

  7. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    The restoration of wetland salmon habitat in the tidal portion of the Columbia River is occurring at an accelerating pace and is anticipated to improve habitat quality and effect hydrological reconnection between existing and restored habitats. Currently multiple groups are applying a variety of restoration strategies in an attempt to emulate historic estuarine processes. However, the region lacks both a standardized means of evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects as well as methods for determining the cumulative effects of all restoration projects on a regional scale. This project is working to establish a framework to evaluate individual and cumulative ecosystem responses to restoration activities in order to validate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities designed to benefit salmon through improvements to habitat quality and habitat opportunity (i.e. access) in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the ocean. The review and synthesis of approaches to measure the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects focused on defining methods and metrics of relevance to the CRE, and, in particular, juvenile salmon use of this system. An extensive literature review found no previous study assessing the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects on the fundamental processes and functions of a large estuarine system, although studies are underway in other large land-margin ecosystems including the Florida Everglades and the Louisiana coastal wetlands. Literature from a variety of scientific disciplines was consulted to identify the ways that effects can accumulate (e.g., delayed effects, cross-boundary effects, compounding effects, indirect effects, triggers and thresholds) as well as standard and innovative tools and methods utilized in cumulative effects analyses: conceptual models, matrices, checklists, modeling, trends analysis, geographic information systems, carrying capacity analysis, and ecosystem analysis. Potential

  8. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    Ledvina, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  9. Gibberellin mediates daylength-controlled differentiation of vegetative meristems in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch

    Moritz Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiation of long and short shoots is an important developmental trait in several species of the Rosaceae family. However, the physiological mechanisms controlling this differentiation are largely unknown. We have studied the role of gibberellin (GA in regulation of shoot differentiation in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cv. Korona. In strawberry, differentiation of axillary buds to runners (long shoot or to crown branches (short shoot is promoted by long-day and short-day conditions, respectively. Formation of crown branches is a prerequisite for satisfactory flowering because inflorescences are formed from the apical meristems of the crown. Results We found that both prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod inhibited runner initiation and consequently led to induction of crown branching. In both cases, this correlated with a similar decline in GA1 level. Exogenous GA3 completely reversed the effect of prohexadione-calcium in a long photoperiod, but was only marginally effective in short-day grown plants. However, transfer of GA3-treated plants from short days to long days restored the normal runner formation. This did not occur in plants that were not treated with GA3. We also studied GA signalling homeostasis and found that the expression levels of several GA biosynthetic, signalling and target genes were similarly affected by prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod in runner tips and axillary buds, respectively. Conclusion GA is needed for runner initiation in strawberry, and the inhibition of GA biosynthesis leads to the formation of crown branches. Our findings of similar changes in GA levels and in GA signalling homeostasis after prohexadione-calcium and short-day treatments, and photoperiod-dependent responsiveness of the axillary buds to GA indicate that GA plays a role also in the photoperiod-regulated differentiation of axillary buds. We propose that tightly regulated GA activity may control

  10. Expanding a community's justice response to sex crimes through advocacy, prosecutorial, and public health collaboration: introducing the RESTORE program.

    Koss, Mary P; Bachar, Karen J; Hopkins, C Quince; Carlson, Carolyn

    2004-12-01

    Problems in criminal justice system response to date-acquaintance rape and nonpenetration sexual offenses include (a) they are markers of a sexual offending career, yet are viewed as minor; (b) perpetrators are not held accountable in ways that reduce reoffense; and (c) criminal justice response disappoints and traumatizes victims. To address these problems, a collaboration of victim services, prosecutors, legal scholars, and public health professionals are implementing and evaluating RESTORE, a victim-driven, community-based restorative justice program for selected sex crimes. RESTORE prepares survivors, responsible persons (offenders), and both parties' families and friends for face-to-face dialogue to identify the harm and develop a redress plan. The program then monitors the offender's compliance for 12 months. The article summarizes empirical data on problems in criminal justice response, defines restorative justice models, and examines outcome. Then the RESTORE program processes and goals are described. The article highlights community collaboration in building and sustaining this program.

  11. Oak woodland restoration in the Missouri Ozarks: two case studies examining responses of ground flora vegetation to prescribed fire

    Aaron P. Stevenson

    2016-01-01

    Prescribed fire and thinning are two primary tools for restoring overgrown oak and oak-pine woodlands in Missouri. We wanted to examine woodland restoration efforts and determine if we were meeting our goals of promoting herbaceous ground flora cover and richness. We examined herbaceous responses to fire at two restoration sites in the Missouri Ozarks. At the first...

  12. Invertebrate succession on open coast coal post mining sites in response to the type of restoration

    Hromádková, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    This review deals with development of invertebrates on sites after brown coal mining in response to the type of restoration. When the soil properties are improved, it is then necessary to mitigate negative threats such as landslides and erosion or low pH. The following is an overlap of fertile soil. Soil characteristics can be locally modified by diversifying of plantations of fast and slow growing wood species. After a succession of plants and the subsequent increase in litter layer, the dev...

  13. Reptile assemblage response to restoration of fire-suppressed longleaf pine sandhills.

    Steen, David A; Smith, Lora L; Conner, L M; Litt, Andrea R; Provencher, Louis; Hiers, J Kevin; Pokswinski, Scott; Guyer, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Measuring the effects of ecological restoration on wildlife assemblages requires study on broad temporal and spatial scales. Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) forests are imperiled due to fire suppression and subsequent invasion by hardwood trees. We employed a landscape-scale, randomized-block design to identify how reptile assemblages initially responded to restoration treatments including removal of hardwood trees via mechanical methods (felling and girdling), application of herbicides, or prescribed burning alone. Then, we examined reptile assemblages after all sites experienced more than a decade of prescribed burning at two- to thee-year return intervals. Data were collected concurrently at reference sites chosen to represent target conditions for restoration. Reptile assemblages changed most rapidly in response to prescribed burning, but reptile assemblages at all sites, including reference sites, were generally indistinguishable by the end of the study. Thus, we suggest that prescribed burning in longleaf pine forests over long time periods is an effective strategy for restoring reptile assemblages to the reference condition. Application of herbicides or mechanical removal of hardwood trees provided no apparent benefit to reptiles beyond what was achieved by prescribed fire alone.

  14. Inside the "Black Box" of River Restoration: Using Catchment History to Identify Disturbance and Response Mechanisms to Set Targets for Process-Based Restoration

    Sarah Mika

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many river restoration projects fail. Inadequate project planning underpins many of the reasons given for failure (such as setting overly ambitious goals; selecting inappropriate sites and techniques; losing stakeholder motivation; and neglecting to monitor, assess, and document projects. Another major problem is the lack of an agreed guiding image to direct the activities aimed at restoring the necessary biophysical and ecological processes within the logistic constraints of on-ground works. Despite a rich literature defining the components of restoration project planning, restoration ecology currently lacks an explicit and logical means of moving from the initial project vision through to on-ground strategies. Yet this process is fundamental because it directly links the ecological goals of the project to the on-ground strategies used to achieve them. We present a planning process that explicitly uses an interdisciplinary mechanistic model of disturbance drivers and system responses to build from the initial project vision to the implementation of on-ground works. A worked example on the Upper Hunter River in southeastern Australia shows how understanding catchment history can reveal disturbance and response mechanisms, thus facilitating process-based restoration.

  15. Gibberellins and gravitropism in maize shoots: endogenous gibberellin-like substances and movement and metabolism of [3H]Gibberellin A20

    Rood, S. B.; Kaufman, P. B.; Abe, H.; Pharis, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    [3H]Gibberellin A20 (GA20) of high specific radioactivity (49.9 gigabecquerel per millimole) was applied equilaterally in a ring of microdrops to the internodal pulvinus of shoots of 3-week-old gravistimulated and vertical normal maize (Zea mays L.), and to a pleiogravitropic (prostrate) maize mutant, lazy (la). All plants converted the [3H]GA20 to [3H]GA1- and [3H]GA29-like metabolites as well as to several metabolites with the partitioning and chromatographic behavior of glucosyl conjugates of [3H]GA1, [3H]GA29, and [3H]GA8. The tentative identification of these putative [3H]GA glucosyl conjugates was further supported by the release of the free [3H]GA moiety after cleavage with cellulase. Within 12 hours of the [3H]GA20 feed, there was a significantly higher proportion of total radioactivity in lower than in upper halves of internode and leaf sheath pulvini in gravistimulated normal maize. Further, there was a significantly higher proportion of putative free GA metabolites of [3H]GA20, especially [3H]GA1, in the lower halves of normal maize relative to upper halves. The differential localization of the metabolites between upper and lower halves was not apparent in the pleiogravitropic mutant, la. Endogenous GA-like substances were also examined in gravistimulated maize shoots. Forty-eight hours after gravistimulation of 3-week-old maize seedlings, endogenous free GA-like substances in upper and lower leaf sheath and internode pulvini halves were extracted, chromatographed, and bioassayed using the "Tanginbozu" dwarf rice microdrop assay. Lower halves contained consistently higher total levels of GA-like activity. The qualitative elution profile of GA-like substances differed consistently, upper halves containing principally a GA20-like substance and lower halves containing principally a GA20-like substance and lower halves containing mainly GA1-like and GA19-like substances. Gibberellins A1 (10 nanograms per gram) and A20 (5 nanograms per gram) were identified

  16. Helminthosporic acid functions as an agonist for gibberellin receptor

    Miyazaki, Sho; Jiang, Kai; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Asami, Tadao; Nakajima, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    Helminthosporol was isolated from a fungus, Helminthosporium sativum, as a natural plant growth regulator in 1963. It showed gibberellin-like bioactivity that stimulated the growth of the second leaf sheath of rice. After studying the structure–activity relationship between the compound and some synthesized analogs, it was found that helminthosporic acid (H-acid) has higher gibberellin-like activity and chemical stability than helminthosporol. In this study, we showed that (1) H-acid displays...

  17. Community occupancy responses of small mammals to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests, northern Arizona, USA.

    Kalies, E L; Dickson, B G; Chambers, C L; Covington, W W

    2012-01-01

    In western North American conifer forests, wildfires are increasing in frequency and severity due to heavy fuel loads that have accumulated after a century of fire suppression. Forest restoration treatments (e.g., thinning and/or burning) are being designed and implemented at large spatial and temporal scales in an effort to reduce fire risk and restore forest structure and function. In ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, predominantly open forest structure and a frequent, low-severity fire regime constituted the evolutionary environment for wildlife that persisted for thousands of years. Small mammals are important in forest ecosystems as prey and in affecting primary production and decomposition. During 2006-2009, we trapped eight species of small mammals at 294 sites in northern Arizona and used occupancy modeling to determine community responses to thinning and habitat features. The most important covariates in predicting small mammal occupancy were understory vegetation cover, large snags, and treatment. Our analysis identified two generalist species found at relatively high occupancy rates across all sites, four open-forest species that responded positively to treatment, and two dense-forest species that responded negatively to treatment unless specific habitat features were retained. Our results indicate that all eight small mammal species can benefit from restoration treatments, particularly if aspects of their evolutionary environment (e.g., large trees, snags, woody debris) are restored. The occupancy modeling approach we used resulted in precise species-level estimates of occupancy in response to habitat attributes for a greater number of small mammal species than in other comparable studies. We recommend our approach for other studies faced with high variability and broad spatial and temporal scales in assessing impacts of treatments or habitat alteration on wildlife species. Moreover, since forest planning efforts are increasingly focusing on

  18. Time-Lag in Responses of Birds to Atlantic Forest Fragmentation: Restoration Opportunity and Urgency.

    Uezu, Alexandre; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    There are few opportunities to evaluate the relative importance of landscape structure and dynamics upon biodiversity, especially in highly fragmented tropical landscapes. Conservation strategies and species risk evaluations often rely exclusively on current aspects of landscape structure, although such limited assumptions are known to be misleading when time-lag responses occur. By relating bird functional-group richness to forest patch size and isolation in ten-year intervals (1956, 1965, 1978, 1984, 1993 and 2003), we revealed that birds with different sensitivity to fragmentation display contrasting responses to landscape dynamics in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. For non-sensitive groups, there was no time-lag in response: the recent degree of isolation best explains their variation in richness, which likely relates to these species' flexibility to adapt to changes in landscape structure. However, for sensitive bird groups, the 1978 patch area was the best explanatory variable, providing evidence for a 25-year time-lag in response to habitat reduction. Time-lag was more likely in landscapes that encompass large patches, which can support temporarily the presence of some sensitive species, even when habitat cover is relatively low. These landscapes potentially support the most threatened populations and should be priorities for restoration efforts to avoid further species loss. Although time-lags provide an opportunity to counteract the negative consequences of fragmentation, it also reinforces the urgency of restoration actions. Fragmented landscapes will be depleted of biodiversity if landscape structure is only maintained, and not improved. The urgency of restoration action may be even higher in landscapes where habitat loss and fragmentation history is older and where no large fragment remained to act temporarily as a refuge.

  19. Waterbird egg mercury concentrations in response to wetland restoration in south San Francisco Bay, California

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Watts, Trevor C.; Barr, Jarred R.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of 50–90 percent of 15,100 acres of former salt evaporation ponds to tidal marsh habitat in the south San Francisco Bay, California, is planned as part of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project. This large-scale habitat restoration may change the bioavailability of methylmercury. The South Bay already is known to have high methylmercury concentrations, with methylmercury concentrations in several waterbirds species more than known toxicity thresholds where avian reproduction is impaired. In this 2013 study, we continued monitoring bird egg mercury concentrations in response to the restoration of the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex to a potential tidal marsh in the future. The restoration of the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex began in autumn 2010, and the Pond A8 Notch was opened 5 feet (one of eight gates) to muted tidal action on June 1, 2011, and then closed in the winter. In autumn 2010, internal levees between Ponds A8, A7, and A5 were breached and water depths were substantially increased by flooding the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex in February 2011. In June 2012, 15 feet (three of eight gates) of the Pond A8 Notch was opened, and then closed in December 2012. In June 2013, 15 feet of the Pond A8 Notch again was opened, and the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex was a relatively deep and large pond with muted tidal action in the summer. This report synthesizes waterbird data from the 2013 breeding season, and combines it with our prior study’s data from 2010 and 2011.

  20. Modifying action of gibberellin on the cytogenetic effect of radiation in Crepis capillaris L

    Avakyan, V.A.; Vardanyan, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    Radioprotactive properties of gibberellin were studied during treating the Crepic capillaris seeds before irradiation. The radioprotective effect observed did not depend on the interphase stage. Gibberellin was shown to unduce no chromosome mutations

  1. Science driven restoration: A candle in a demon haunted world—response to cabin

    Christian P. Giardina; Creighton M. Litton; Jarrod M. Thaxton; Susan Cordell; Lisa J. Hadway; Darren R. Sandquist

    2007-01-01

    Cabin (2007) asks whether formal science is an effective framework and methodology for designing and implementing ecological restoration programs. He argues that beyond certain ancillary benefits, restoration science has little of practical value to offer the practice of restoration. He goes on to suggest that restoration science most often represents an impediment to...

  2. Effects of gibberellin mutations on in vitro shoot bud regeneration of ...

    hormone in regulating plant growth and development. It is interesting to know the effects of gibberellin and its signalling pathway on plant regeneration. In this report Arabidopsis thaliana landsberg (wild type), ga1-3 (gibberellin biosynthesis deficiency mutant), gai (gibberellin insensitive mutant), penta mutant (lacking GA1, ...

  3. OsDOG, a gibberellin-induced A20/AN1 zinc-finger protein, negatively regulates gibberellin-mediated cell elongation in rice.

    Liu, Yaju; Xu, Yunyuan; Xiao, Jun; Ma, Qibin; Li, Dan; Xue, Zhen; Chong, Kang

    2011-07-01

    The A20/AN1 zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) play pivotal roles in animal immune responses and plant stress responses. From previous gibberellin (GA) microarray data and A20/AN1 ZFP family member association, we chose Oryza sativa dwarf rice with overexpression of gibberellin-induced gene (OsDOG) to examine its function in the GA pathway. OsDOG was induced by gibberellic acid (GA(3)) and repressed by the GA-synthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. Different transgenic lines with constitutive expression of OsDOG showed dwarf phenotypes due to deficiency of cell elongation. Additional GA(1) and real-time PCR quantitative assay analyses confirmed that the decrease of GA(1) in the overexpression lines resulted from reduced expression of GA3ox2 and enhanced expression of GA2ox1 and GA2ox3. Adding exogenous GA rescued the constitutive expression phenotypes of the transgenic lines. OsDOG has a novel function in regulating GA homeostasis and in negative maintenance of plant cell elongation in rice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of novel rice gibberellin 2-oxidase gene is under homeostatic regulation by biologically active gibberellins.

    Sakai, Miho; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Saito, Tamio; Matsuoka, Makoto; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo

    2003-04-01

    We have cloned two genes for gibberellin (GA) 2-oxidase from rice ( Oryza sativa L.). Expression of OsGA2ox2 was not observed. The other gene, OsGA2ox3, was expressed in every tissue examined and was enhanced by the application of biologically active GA. Recombinant OsGA2ox3 protein catalyzed the metabolism of GA(1) to GA(8) and GA(20) to GA(29)-catabolite. These results indicate that OsGA2ox3 is involved in the homeostatic regulation of the endogenous level of biologically active GA in rice.

  5. Atomoxetine restores the response inhibition network in Parkinson’s disease

    Rae, Charlotte L.; Nombela, Cristina; Rodríguez, Patricia Vázquez; Ye, Zheng; Hughes, Laura E.; Jones, P. Simon; Ham, Timothy; Rittman, Timothy; Coyle-Gilchrist, Ian; Regenthal, Ralf; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Barker, Roger A.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Parkinson’s disease impairs the inhibition of responses, and whilst impulsivity is mild for some patients, severe impulse control disorders affect ∼10% of cases. Based on preclinical models we proposed that noradrenergic denervation contributes to the impairment of response inhibition, via changes in the prefrontal cortex and its subcortical connections. Previous work in Parkinson’s disease found that the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine could improve response inhibition, gambling decisions and reflection impulsivity. Here we tested the hypotheses that atomoxetine can restore functional brain networks for response inhibition in Parkinson’s disease, and that both structural and functional connectivity determine the behavioural effect. In a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, 19 patients with mild-to-moderate idiopathic Parkinson’s disease underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a stop-signal task, while on their usual dopaminergic therapy. Patients received 40 mg atomoxetine or placebo, orally. This regimen anticipates that noradrenergic therapies for behavioural symptoms would be adjunctive to, not a replacement for, dopaminergic therapy. Twenty matched control participants provided normative data. Arterial spin labelling identified no significant changes in regional perfusion. We assessed functional interactions between key frontal and subcortical brain areas for response inhibition, by comparing 20 dynamic causal models of the response inhibition network, inverted to the functional magnetic resonance imaging data and compared using random effects model selection. We found that the normal interaction between pre-supplementary motor cortex and the inferior frontal gyrus was absent in Parkinson’s disease patients on placebo (despite dopaminergic therapy), but this connection was restored by atomoxetine. The behavioural change in response inhibition (improvement indicated by reduced

  6. Brassinosteroid regulates cell elongation by modulating gibberellin metabolism in rice.

    Tong, Hongning; Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Dapu; Gao, Shaopei; Liu, Linchuan; Yin, Yanhai; Jin, Yun; Qian, Qian; Chu, Chengcai

    2014-11-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) are two predominant hormones regulating plant cell elongation. A defect in either of these leads to reduced plant growth and dwarfism. However, their relationship remains unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Here, we demonstrated that BR regulates cell elongation by modulating GA metabolism in rice. Under physiological conditions, BR promotes GA accumulation by regulating the expression of GA metabolic genes to stimulate cell elongation. BR greatly induces the expression of D18/GA3ox-2, one of the GA biosynthetic genes, leading to increased GA1 levels, the bioactive GA in rice seedlings. Consequently, both d18 and loss-of-function GA-signaling mutants have decreased BR sensitivity. When excessive active BR is applied, the hormone mostly induces GA inactivation through upregulation of the GA inactivation gene GA2ox-3 and also represses BR biosynthesis, resulting in decreased hormone levels and growth inhibition. As a feedback mechanism, GA extensively inhibits BR biosynthesis and the BR response. GA treatment decreases the enlarged leaf angles in plants with enhanced BR biosynthesis or signaling. Our results revealed a previously unknown mechanism underlying BR and GA crosstalk depending on tissues and hormone levels, which greatly advances our understanding of hormone actions in crop plants and appears much different from that in Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  7. High-Intensity Exercise as a Dishabituating Stimulus Restores Counterregulatory Responses in Recurrently Hypoglycemic Rodents.

    McNeilly, Alison D; Gallagher, Jennifer R; Huang, Jeffrey T-J; Ashford, Michael L J; McCrimmon, Rory J

    2017-06-01

    Hypoglycemia is a major adverse effect of insulin therapy for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Profound defects in the normal counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia explain the frequency of hypoglycemia occurrence in T1D. Defective counterregulation results to a large extent from prior exposure to hypoglycemia per se, leading to a condition called impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH), the cause of which is unknown. In the current study, we investigate the hypothesis that IAH develops through a special type of adaptive memory referred to as habituation. To test this hypothesis, we used a novel intense stimulus (high-intensity exercise) to demonstrate two classic features of a habituated response, namely dishabituation and response recovery. We demonstrate that after recurrent hypoglycemia the introduction of a novel dishabituating stimulus (a single burst of high-intensity exercise) in male Sprague-Dawley rats restores the defective hypoglycemia counterregulatory response. In addition, the rats showed an enhanced response to the novel stimulus (response recovery). We make the further observation using proteomic analysis of hypothalamic extracts that high-intensity exercise in recurrently hypoglycemic rats increases levels of a number of proteins linked with brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling. These findings may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for individuals with T1D and IAH. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  8. Simulating stream response to floodplain connectivity, reforestation and wetland restoration from reach to catchment scales

    Singh, N.; Bomblies, A.; Wemple, B. C.; Ricketts, T.

    2017-12-01

    Natural infrastructure (e.g., floodplains, forests) can offer multiple ecosystem services (ES), including flood resilience and water quality improvement. In order to maintain these ES, state, federal and non-profit organizations may consider various interventions, such as increased floodplain connectivity, reforestation, and wetland restoration to minimize flood peaks and erosion during events. However, the effect of these interventions on hydro-geomorphic responses of streams from reach to catchment scales (>100 km2) are rarely quantified. We used stream geomorphic assessment datasets with a hydraulic model to investigate the influence of above mentioned interventions on stream power (SP), water depth (WD) and channel velocity (VEL) during floods of 2yr and 100yr return periods for three catchments in the Lake Champlain basin, Vermont. To simulate the effect of forests and wetlands, we changed the Manning's coefficient in the model, and to simulate the increased connectivity of the floodplain, we edited the LIDAR data to lower bank elevations. We find that the wetland scenario resulted in the greatest decline in WD and SP, whereas forested scenario exhibited maximum reduction in VEL. The connectivity scenario showed a decline in almost all stream responses, but the magnitude of change was relatively smaller. On average, 35% (2yr) and 50% (100yr) of altered reaches demonstrated improvement over baseline, and 39% (2yr) and 31% (100yr) of altered reaches showed degradation over baseline, across all interventions. We also noted changes in stream response along unaltered reaches (>30%), where we did not make interventions. Overall, these results point to the complexity related to stream interventions and suggest careful evaluation of spatially explicit tradeoffs of these interventions on river-floodplain ecosystem. The proposed approach of simulating and understanding stream's response to interventions, prior to the implementation of restoration activities, may lead to

  9. Variable responses of fish assemblages, habitat, and stability to natural-channel-design restoration in Catskill Mountain streams

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Ernst, Anne G.; Warren, Dana R.; Miller, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    Natural-channel-design (NCD) restorations were recently implemented within large segments of five first- and second-order streams in the Catskill Mountains of New York in an attempt to increase channel stability, reduce bed and bank erosion, and sustain water quality. In conjunction with these efforts, 54 fish and habitat surveys were done from 1999 to 2007 at six restored reaches and five stable control reaches to evaluate the effects of NCD restoration on fish assemblages, habitat, and bank stability. A before–after–control–impact study design and two-factor analysis of variance were used to quantify the net changes in habitat and fish population and community indices at treatment reaches relative to those at unaltered control reaches. The density and biomass of fish communities were often dominated by one or two small prey species and no or few predator species before restoration and by one or more trout (Salmonidae) species after restoration. Significant increases in community richness (30%), diversity (40%), species or biomass equitability (32%), and total biomass (up to 52%) in at least four of the six restored reaches demonstrate that NCD restorations can improve the health and sustainability of fish communities in geomorphically unstable Catskill Mountain streams over the short to marginally long term. Bank stability, stream habitat, and trout habitat suitability indices (HSIs) generally improved significantly at the restored reaches, but key habitat features and trout HSIs did not change or decreased at two of them. Fish communities and trout populations at these two reaches were not positively affected by NCD restorations. Though NCD restorations often had a positive effect on habitat and fish communities, our results show that the initial habitat conditions limit the relative improvements than can be achieved, habitat quality and stability do not necessarily respond in unison, and biotic and abiotic responses cannot always be generalized.

  10. Quantifying restoration success and recovery in a metal-polluted stream: A 17-year assessment of physicochemical and biological responses

    Clements, W.H.; Vieira, N.K.M.; Church, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating the effectiveness of stream restoration is often challenging because of the lack of pre-treatment data, narrow focus on physicochemical measures and insufficient post-restoration monitoring. Even when these fundamental elements are present, quantifying restoration success is difficult because of the challenges associated with distinguishing treatment effects from seasonal variation, episodic events and long-term climatic changes.2. We report results of one of the most comprehensive and continuous records of physical, chemical and biological data available to assess restoration success for a stream ecosystem in North America. Over a 17 year period we measured seasonal and annual changes in metal concentrations, physicochemical characteristics, macroinvertebrate communities, and brown trout Salmo trutta populations in the Arkansas River, a metal-contaminated stream in Colorado, USA.3. Although we observed significant improvements in water quality after treatment, the effectiveness of restoration varied temporally, spatially and among biological response variables. The fastest recovery was observed at stations where restoration eliminated point sources of metal contamination. Recovery of macroinvertebrates was significantly delayed at some stations because of residual sediment contamination and because extreme seasonal and episodic variation in metal concentrations prevented recolonization by sensitive species. Synthesis and applications. Because recovery trajectories after the removal of a stressor are often complex or nonlinear, long-term studies are necessary to assess restoration success within the context of episodic events and changes in regional climate. The observed variation in recovery among chemical and biological endpoints highlights the importance of developing objective criteria to assess restoration success. Although the rapid response of macroinvertebrates to reduced metal concentrations is encouraging, we have previously demonstrated that

  11. Globular adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance via AMPK-mediated restoration of microvascular insulin responses

    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and microvasculature plays a critical role in the regulation of insulin action in muscle. Here we tested whether adiponectin replenishment could improve metabolic insulin sensitivity in male rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) via the modulation of microvascular insulin responses. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed either a HFD or low-fat diet (LFD) for 4 weeks. Small resistance artery myograph changes in tension, muscle microvascular recruitment and metabolic response to insulin were determined. Compared with rats fed a LFD, HFD feeding abolished the vasodilatory actions of globular adiponectin (gAd) and insulin on pre-constricted distal saphenous arteries. Pretreatment with gAd improved insulin responses in arterioles isolated from HFD rats, which was blocked by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition. Similarly, HFD abolished microvascular responses to either gAd or insulin and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by ∼60%. However, supplementing gAd fully rescued insulin’s microvascular action and significantly improved the metabolic responses to insulin in HFD male rats and these actions were abolished by inhibition of either AMPK or nitric oxide production. We conclude that HFD induces vascular adiponectin and insulin resistance but gAd administration can restore vascular insulin responses and improve insulin’s metabolic action via an AMPK- and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism in male rats. Key points Adiponectin is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties. Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes. Insulin resistance is present in muscle microvasculature and this may contribute to decreased insulin delivery to, and action in, muscle. In this study we examined whether adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance by affecting muscle

  12. Regulation of Strigolactone Biosynthesis by Gibberellin Signaling.

    Ito, Shinsaku; Yamagami, Daichi; Umehara, Mikihisa; Hanada, Atsushi; Yoshida, Satoko; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Yajima, Shunsuke; Kyozuka, Junko; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto; Shirasu, Ken; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Asami, Tadao

    2017-06-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of plant hormones that regulate diverse physiological processes, including shoot branching and root development. They also act as rhizosphere signaling molecules to stimulate the germination of root parasitic weeds and the branching of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Although various types of cross talk between SLs and other hormones have been reported in physiological analyses, the cross talk between gibberellin (GA) and SLs is poorly understood. We screened for chemicals that regulate the level of SLs in rice ( Oryza sativa ) and identified GA as, to our knowledge, a novel SL-regulating molecule. The regulation of SL biosynthesis by GA is dependent on the GA receptor GID1 and F-box protein GID2. GA treatment also reduced the infection of rice plants by the parasitic plant witchers weed ( Striga hermonthica ). These data not only demonstrate, to our knowledge, the novel plant hormone cross talk between SL and GA, but also suggest that GA can be used to control parasitic weed infections. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. The responsibility of business enterprises to restore access to essential public service at resettlement sites

    van der Ploeg, Lidewij; Vanclay, Francis; Lourenço, Ivo; Hesselman, Marlies; Hallo de Wolf, Antenor; Toebes, Brigit

    2017-01-01

    This chapter examines the provision of essential public services in resettlement sites associated with project induced displacement. Restoring and improving access to essential public services in resettlement sites is an important aspect of livelihood restoration of affected peoples. Project

  14. Remote sensing analysis of riparian vegetation response to desert marsh restoration in the Mexican Highlands

    Norman, Laura M.; Villarreal, Miguel; Pulliam, H. Ronald; Minckley, Robert L.; Gass, Leila; Tolle, Cindy; Coe, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Desert marshes, or cienegas, are extremely biodiverse habitats imperiled by anthropogenic demands for water and changing climates. Given their widespread loss and increased recognition, remarkably little is known about restoration techniques. In this study, we examine the effects of gabions (wire baskets filled with rocks used as dams) on vegetation in the Cienega San Bernardino, in the Arizona, Sonora portion of the US-Mexico border, using a remote-sensing analysis coupled with field data. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), used here as a proxy for plant biomass, is compared at gabion and control sites over a 27-year period during the driest months (May/June). Over this period, green-up occurred at most sites where there were gabions and at a few of the control sites where gabions had not been constructed. When we statistically controlled for differences among sites in source area, stream order, elevation, and interannual winter rainfall, as well as comparisons of before and after the initiation of gabion construction, vegetation increased around gabions yet did not change (or decreased) where there were no gabions. We found that NDVI does not vary with precipitation inputs prior to construction of gabions but demonstrates a strong response to precipitation after the gabions are built. Field data describing plant cover, species richness, and species composition document increases from 2000 to 2012 and corroborate reestablished biomass at gabions. Our findings validate that gabions can be used to restore riparian vegetation and potentially ameliorate drought conditions in a desert cienega.

  15. Responses of predatory invertebrates to seeding density and plant species richness in experimental tallgrass prairie restorations

    Nemec, Kristine T.; Allen, Craig R.; Danielson, Stephen D.; Helzer, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, agricultural producers and non-governmental organizations have restored thousands of hectares of former cropland in the central United States with native grasses and forbs. However, the ability of these grassland restorations to attract predatory invertebrates has not been well documented, even though predators provide an important ecosystem service to agricultural producers by naturally regulating herbivores. This study assessed the effects of plant richness and seeding density on the richness and abundance of surface-dwelling (ants, ground beetles, and spiders) and aboveground (ladybird beetles) predatory invertebrates. In the spring of 2006, twenty-four 55 m × 55 m-plots were planted to six replicates in each of four treatments: high richness (97 species typically planted by The Nature Conservancy), at low and high seeding densities, and low richness (15 species representing a typical Natural Resources Conservation Service Conservation Reserve Program mix, CP25), at low and high seeding densities. Ants, ground beetles, and spiders were sampled using pitfall traps and ladybird beetles were sampled using sweep netting in 2007–2009. The abundance of ants, ground beetles, and spiders showed no response to seed mix richness or seeding density but there was a significant positive effect of richness on ladybird beetle abundance. Seeding density had a significant positive effect on ground beetle and spider species richness and Shannon–Weaver diversity. These results may be related to differences in the plant species composition and relative amount of grass basal cover among the treatments rather than richness.

  16. Response of fish assemblages to hydromorphological restoration in central and northern European rivers

    Schmutz, S.; Jurajda, Pavel; Kaufmann, S.; Lorenz, A. W.; Muhar, S.; Paillex, A.; Poppe, M.; Wolter, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 769, č. 1 (2016), s. 67-78 ISSN 0018-8158 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Restoration success * Effect size * Rheophilic fish * Restoration monitoring * Hydromorphological quality * Restored section length Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  17. Gibberellin A3 Is Biosynthesized from Gibberellin A20 via Gibberellin A5 in Shoots of Zea mays L. 1

    Fujioka, Shozo; Yamane, Hisakazu; Spray, Clive R.; Phinney, Bernard O.; Gaskin, Paul; MacMillan, Jake; Takahashi, Nobutaka

    1990-01-01

    [17-13C,3H]-Labeled gibberellin A20 (GA20), GA5, and GA1 were fed to homozygous normal (+/+), heterozygous dominant dwarf (D8/+), and homozygous dominant dwarf (D8/D8) seedlings of Zea mays L. (maize). 13C-Labeled GA29, GA8, GA5, GA1, and 3-epi-GA1, as well as unmetabolized [13C]GA20, were identified by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring (GC-SIM) from feeds of [17-13C, 3H]GA20 to all three genotypes. 13C-Labeled GA8 and 3-epi-G1, as well as unmetabolized [13C]GA1, were identified by GC-SIM from feeds of [17-13C, 3H]GA1 to all three genotypes. From feeds of [17-13C, 3H]GA5, 13C-labeled GA3 and the GA3-isolactone, as well as unmetabolized [13C]GA5, were identified by GC-SIM from +/+ and D8/D8, and by full scan GC-MS from D8/+. No evidence was found for the metabolism of [17-13C, 3H]GA5 to [13C]GA1, either by full scan GC-mass spectrometry or by GC-SIM. The results demonstrate the presence in maize seedlings of three separate branches from GA20, as follows: (a) GA20 → GA1 → GA8; (b) GA20 → GA5 → GA3; and (c) GA20 → GA29. The in vivo biogenesis of GA3 from GA5, as well as the origin of GA5 from GA20, are conclusively established for the first time in a higher plant (maize shoots). PMID:16667678

  18. Gibberellins and gravitropism in maize shoots: endogenous gibberellin-like substances and movement and metabolism of [3]gibberellin A

    Rood, S.B.; Kaufman, P.B.; Abe, H.; Pharis, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    [ 3 H]Gibberellin A 20 (GA 20 ) of high specific radioactivity was applied equilaterally in a ring of microdrops to the internodal pulvinus of shoots of 3-week-old vertical normal maize (Zea mays L.), and to a pleiogravitropic (prostrate) maize mutant, lazy (la). All plants converted the [ 3 H]GA 1 - and [ 3 H]GA 29 -like metabolites as well as to several metabolites with the partitioning and chromatographic behavior of glucosyl conjugates of [ 3 H]GA 1 [ 3 H]GA 29 , and [ 3 H]GA 8 . The tentative identification of these putative [ 3 H]GA glucosyl conjugates was further supported by the release of the free [ 3 H]GA moiety after cleavage with cellulase. Within 12 hours of the [ 3 H]GA 20 feed, there was a significantly higher proportion of total radioactivity in lower than in upper halves of internode and leaf sheaf pulvini in gravistimulated normal maize. Further, there was a significantly higher proportion of putative free GA metabolites of [ 3 H]GA 20 , especially [ 3 H] GA 1 , in the lower halves of normal maize relative to upper halves. The differential localization of the metabolites between upper and lower halves was not apparent in the pleiogravitropic mutant, la. Endogenous GA-like substances were also examined in gravistimulated maize shoots. Forty-eight hours after gravistimulation of 3-week-old maize seedlings, endogenous free GA-like substances in upper and lower leaf sheath and internode pulvini halves were extracted, chromatographed, and bioassayed using the Tanginbozu dwarf rice microdroassay. Lower halves contained higher total levels of GA-like activity

  19. Response statistics of rotating shaft with non-linear elastic restoring forces by path integration

    Gaidai, Oleg; Naess, Arvid; Dimentberg, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Extreme statistics of random vibrations is studied for a Jeffcott rotor under uniaxial white noise excitation. Restoring force is modelled as elastic non-linear; comparison is done with linearized restoring force to see the force non-linearity effect on the response statistics. While for the linear model analytical solutions and stability conditions are available, it is not generally the case for non-linear system except for some special cases. The statistics of non-linear case is studied by applying path integration (PI) method, which is based on the Markov property of the coupled dynamic system. The Jeffcott rotor response statistics can be obtained by solving the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation of the 4D dynamic system. An efficient implementation of PI algorithm is applied, namely fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used to simulate dynamic system additive noise. The latter allows significantly reduce computational time, compared to the classical PI. Excitation is modelled as Gaussian white noise, however any kind distributed white noise can be implemented with the same PI technique. Also multidirectional Markov noise can be modelled with PI in the same way as unidirectional. PI is accelerated by using Monte Carlo (MC) estimated joint probability density function (PDF) as initial input. Symmetry of dynamic system was utilized to afford higher mesh resolution. Both internal (rotating) and external damping are included in mechanical model of the rotor. The main advantage of using PI rather than MC is that PI offers high accuracy in the probability distribution tail. The latter is of critical importance for e.g. extreme value statistics, system reliability, and first passage probability.

  20. Influence of gibberellin and daminozide on the expression of terpene synthases and on monoterpenes in common sage (Salvia officinalis).

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Grassi, Paolo; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

    2010-07-01

    Common sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants, with antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, composed mainly of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone and camphor, is responsible for some of these effects. Gibberellins regulate diverse physiological processes in plants, such as seed germination, shoot elongation and cell division. In this study, we analyzed the effect of exogenously applied plant growth regulators, namely gibberellic acid (GA(3)) and daminozide, on leaf morphology and essential oil formation of two leaf stages during the period of leaf expansion. Essential oil content increased with increasing levels of gibberellins and decreased when gibberellin biosynthesis was blocked with daminozide. With increasing levels of gibberellins, 1,8-cineole and camphor contents increased. Daminozide blocked the accumulation of alpha- and beta-thujone. GA(3) at the highest level applied also led to a significant decrease of alpha- and beta-thujone. Monoterpene synthases are a class of enzymes responsible for the first step in monoterpene biosynthesis, competing for the same substrate geranylpyrophosphate. The levels of gene expression of the three most important monoterpene synthases in sage were investigated, 1,8-cineole synthase leading directly to 1,8-cineole, (+)-sabinene synthase responsible for the first step in the formation of alpha- and beta-thujone, and (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, the first step in camphor biosynthesis. The foliar application of GA(3) increased, while daminozide significantly decreased gene expression of the monoterpene synthases. The amounts of two of the end products, 1,8-cineole and camphor, were directly correlated with the levels of gene expression of the respective monoterpene synthases, indicating transcriptional control, while the formation of alpha- and beta

  1. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; ; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  2. The occurrence of gibberellin-binding protein(s) in pea

    Liu, Z.H.

    1988-01-01

    In vitro gibberellin (GA) binding properties of a cytosol fraction from epicotyls of dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Progress No. 9) and tall pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) were investigated using ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} in a DEAE filter paper assay at 0-3 C. The binding obtained is saturable, reversible, and temperature labile in dwarf pea, and has a half-life of dissociation of 5-6 min. By varying the concentration of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} in the incubation medium the Kd was estimated to be 120-140 nM in dwarf pea and 70 nM in tall pea. The number of binding sites (n) was estimated to be 0.66 and 0.43 pmole mg{sup {minus}1} soluble protein in dwarf pea and in tall pea, respectively. In competition binding assays, biologically active GAs, such as GA{sub 3} and GA{sub 4} could reduce the level of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} binding much more than the biologically inactive GA{sub 4} methyl ester and epi-GA{sub 4}. Changes in gibberellin-binding protein(s) were studied during seed germination. While the Kd of the binding protein(s) for ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} remained the same, there was a marked increase in the number of binding sites from 24 h soaked seed to 8-day old seedlings. Also, the Kd and the number of binding sites in the GA-responsive apical part and in the nonresponsive basal part in the epicotyl were similar. The effect of light on gibberellin-binding protein in dwarf pea was also studied. The GA-binding protein in dwarf pea was partially purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography.

  3. Avian response to early tidal salt marsh restoration at former commercial salt evaporation ponds in San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    Athearn, Nicole D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Shinn, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Restoration of former commercial salt evaporation ponds in the San Francisco Bay estuary is intended to reverse a severe decline (>79%) in tidal salt marshes. San Francisco Bay is a critical migratory stopover site and wintering area for shorebirds and waterfowl, and salt ponds are important high tide roosting and foraging areas. Conservation of past bird abundance is a stated goal of area restoration projects, and early adaptive management will be critical for achieving this objective. However, initial avian response at sites restored to tidal flow may not be indicative of long-term results. For example, winter shorebirds at a 529 ha pond breached in 2002 showed a marked increase in shorebird abundance following breaching. Shorebirds comprised 1% of area totals during 1999-2002 and increased to 46% during 2003-2008. These changes accompanied increased tidal range and sedimentation, but minimal vegetation establishment. Conversely, a fully vegetated, restored 216 ha pond in the same system consistently supported less than 2% of all waterbirds in the region. Early restoration may temporarily increase habitat, but managed ponds will be needed for long-term waterbird abundance within a restored pond-marsh system.

  4. Aquatic ecosystem response to timber harvesting for the purpose of restoring aspen.

    Bobette E Jones

    Full Text Available The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010 involved two projects located in Lassen National Forest. The Pine-Bogard Project consisted of three treatments adjacent to Pine and Bogard Creeks: (i Phase 1 in January 2004, (ii Phase 2 in August 2005, and (iii Phase 3 in January 2008. The Bailey Project consisted of one treatment adjacent to Bailey Creek in September 2006. Treatments involved whole tree removal using track-laying harvesters and rubber tire skidders. More than 80% of all samples analyzed for NO₃-N, NH₄-N, and PO₄-P at Pine, Bogard, and Bailey Creeks were below the detection limit, with the exception of naturally elevated PO₄-P in Bogard Creek. All nutrient concentrations (NO₃-N, NH₄-N, PO₄-P, K, and SO₄-S showed little variation within streams and across years. Turbidity and TSS exhibited annual variation, but there was no significant increase in the difference between upstream and downstream turbidity and TSS levels. There was a significant decrease in stream canopy cover and increase in the potential fraction of solar radiation reaching the streams in response to the Pine-Bogard Phase 3 and Bailey treatments; however, there was no corresponding increase in stream temperatures. Macroinvertebrate metrics indicated healthy aquatic ecosystem conditions throughout the course of the study. Lastly, the removal of vegetation significantly increased soil moisture in treated stands relative to untreated stands. These results indicate that, with careful planning and implementation of site-specific best management

  5. Interplay between cytochrome c and gibberellins during Arabidopsis vegetative development

    Racca, S.; Welchen, E.; Gras, D. E.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Turečková, Veronika; Maurino, V. G.; Gonzalez, D. H.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 1 (2018), s. 105-121 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * cytochrome c * DELLA protein * gibberellin * mitochondrion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2016

  6. Regulation effects of exogenous gibberellin acid (GA 3 ) on the ...

    To fully understand the regulation effects of gibberellin on tomato (Solanum Lycoperscium) ovary locule formation and the fasciated transcription, two varieties: multi-locule 'MLK1' and few- locule 'FL1' which were highly different in locule number and fasciated transcriptional levels, were used in this study. By spraying GA3 ...

  7. Gibberellins – terpenoid plant hormones: Biological importance and chemical analysis

    Urbanová, Terezie; Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav; Hedden, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 12 (2011), s. 1669-1686 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA MŠk ED0007/01/01 Keywords : Gibberellins * Biosynthesis * Signaling * Profiling * Extraction * Purification * Mass spectrometry * Liquid chromatography Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2011

  8. Light Regulation of Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Mode of Action.

    García-Martinez, José Luis; Gil, Joan

    2001-12-01

    Some phenotypic effects produced in plants by light are very similar to those induced by hormones. In this review, the light-gibberellin (GA) interaction in germination, de-etiolation, stem growth, and tuber formation (process regulated by GAs) are discussed. Germination of lettuce and Arabidopsis seeds depends on red irradiation (R), which enhances the expression of GA 3-oxidase genes (GA3ox) and leads to an increase in active GA content. De-etiolation of pea seedling alters the expression of GA20ox and GA3ox genes and induces a rapid decrease of GA1 content. Stem growth of green plants is also affected by diverse light irradiation characteristics. Low light intensity increases stem elongation and active GA content in pea and Brassica. Photoperiod controls active GA levels in long-day rosette (spinach and Silene) and in woody plants (Salix and hybrid aspen) by regulating different steps of GA biosynthesis, mainly through transcript levels of GA20ox and GA3ox genes. Light modulation of stem elongation in light-grown plants is controlled by phytochrome, which modifies GA biosynthesis and catabolism (tobacco, potato, cowpea, Arabidopsis) and GA-response (pea, cucumber, Arabidopsis). In Arabidopsis and tobacco, ATH1 (a gene encoding an homeotic transcription factor) is a positive mediator of a phyB-specific signal transduction cascade controlling GA levels by regulating the expression of GA20ox and GA3ox. Tuber formation in potato is controlled by photoperiod (through phyB) and GAs. Inductive short-day conditions alter the diurnal rhythm of GA20ox transcript abundance, and increases the expression of a new protein (PHOR1) that plays a role in the photoperiod-GA interaction.

  9. Bat Response To Carolina Bays and Wetland Restoration in the Southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain

    Jennifer M. Menzel; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards

    2005-01-01

    Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist...

  10. CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 encode gibberellin 13-oxidases that reduce gibberellin activity in rice.

    Magome, Hiroshi; Nomura, Takahito; Hanada, Atsushi; Takeda-Kamiya, Noriko; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Shinma, Yuko; Katsumata, Takumi; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro

    2013-01-29

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) control many aspects of growth and development in plants. GA(1) has been the most frequently found bioactive GA in various tissues of flowering plants, but the enzymes responsible for GA(1) biosynthesis have not been fully elucidated due to the enzymes catalyzing the 13-hydroxylation step not being identified. Because of the lack of mutants defective in this enzyme, biological significance of GA 13-hydroxylation has been unknown. Here, we report that two cytochrome P450 genes, CYP714B1 and CYP714B2, encode GA 13-oxidase in rice. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpress CYP714B1 or CYP714B2 show semidwarfism. There was a trend that the levels of 13-OH GAs including GA(1) were increased in these transgenic plants. Functional analysis using yeast or insect cells shows that recombinant CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 proteins can convert GA(12) into GA(53) (13-OH GA(12)) in vitro. Moreover, the levels of 13-OH GAs including GA(1) were decreased, whereas those of 13-H GAs including GA(4) (which is more active than GA(1)) were increased, in the rice cyp714b1 cyp714b2 double mutant. These results indicate that CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 play a predominant role in GA 13-hydroxylation in rice. The double mutant plants appear phenotypically normal until heading, but show elongated uppermost internode at the heading stage. Moreover, CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 expression was up-regulated by exogenous application of bioactive GAs. Our results suggest that GA 13-oxidases play a role in fine-tuning plant growth by decreasing GA bioactivity in rice and that they also participate in GA homeostasis.

  11. Role of gibberellins and cytokinins in regulation of germination during development and ripening of Triticale caryopses

    Stanisław Weidner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The germination of caryopses of M-T3 Triticale generation, which were freshly harvested in different growth and developmental phases has been studied. A significant influence of the abscisic acid (ABA accumulation on the increment of number of germinating caryopses has been found. Already in the first phase af the embryogenesis considerable stimulating effects of kinetin and gibberellin-A3 (GA3 on the germination of embryos which were isolated from freshly collected grains have been shown. When both stimulators were used together marked synergetic reaction occurred. It has been also determined that in the initial period of embryogensis premature germination occurs, to a higher extent, under the action of cytokinins than! Whether in the further phases of the caryopse development, when embryo develop mainly through the cell elongation, mostly gibberellins seem to be responsible for the activation of germination processes. The more mature were seeds the quicker germinated whole caryopses and embryos isolated from them at different ripeness, after 3-month storage. The highest stimulation of germination by phytohormones has been found for the most mature caryopses. The action of gibberellic acid has been particulary strong.

  12. Interactive Effects of Jasmonic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Gibberellin on Induction of Trichomes in Arabidopsis1

    Traw, M. Brian; Bergelson, Joy

    2003-01-01

    Leaf trichomes protect plants from attack by insect herbivores and are often induced following damage. Hormonal regulation of this plant induction response has not been previously studied. In a series of experiments, we addressed the effects of artificial damage, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and gibberellin on induction of trichomes in Arabidopsis. Artificial damage and jasmonic acid caused significant increases in trichome production of leaves. The jar1-1 mutant exhibited normal trichome induction following treatment with jasmonic acid, suggesting that adenylation of jasmonic acid is not necessary. Salicylic acid had a negative effect on trichome production and consistently reduced the effect of jasmonic acid, suggesting negative cross-talk between the jasmonate and salicylate-dependent defense pathways. Interestingly, the effect of salicylic acid persisted in the nim1-1 mutant, suggesting that the Npr1/Nim1 gene is not downstream of salicylic acid in the negative regulation of trichome production. Last, we found that gibberellin and jasmonic acid had a synergistic effect on the induction of trichomes, suggesting important interactions between these two compounds. PMID:14551332

  13. Hydrologic response of streams restored with check dams in the Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona

    Norman, Laura M.; Brinkerhoff, Fletcher C.; Gwilliam, Evan; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James B.; Goodrich, David C.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Gray, Floyd

    2016-01-01

    In this study, hydrological processes are evaluated to determine impacts of stream restoration in the West Turkey Creek, Chiricahua Mountains, southeast Arizona, during a summer-monsoon season (June–October of 2013). A paired-watershed approach was used to analyze the effectiveness of check dams to mitigate high flows and impact long-term maintenance of hydrologic function. One watershed had been extensively altered by the installation of numerous small check dams over the past 30 years, and the other was untreated (control). We modified and installed a new stream-gauging mechanism developed for remote areas, to compare the water balance and calculate rainfall–runoff ratios. Results show that even 30 years after installation, most of the check dams were still functional. The watershed treated with check dams has a lower runoff response to precipitation compared with the untreated, most notably in measurements of peak flow. Concerns that downstream flows would be reduced in the treated watershed, due to storage of water behind upstream check dams, were not realized; instead, flow volumes were actually higher overall in the treated stream, even though peak flows were dampened. We surmise that check dams are a useful management tool for reducing flow velocities associated with erosion and degradation and posit they can increase baseflow in aridlands.

  14. Restored agricultural wetlands in Central Iowa: habitat quality and amphibian response

    Reeves, Rebecca A.; Pierce, Clay; Smalling, Kelly L.; Klaver, Robert W.; Vandever, Mark W.; Battaglin, William A.; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are declining throughout the United States and worldwide due, partly, to habitat loss. Conservation practices on the landscape restore wetlands to denitrify tile drainage effluent and restore ecosystem services. Understanding how water quality, hydroperiod, predation, and disease affect amphibians in restored wetlands is central to maintaining healthy amphibian populations in the region. We examined the quality of amphibian habitat in restored wetlands relative to reference wetlands by comparing species richness, developmental stress, and adult leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) survival probabilities to a suite of environmental metrics. Although measured habitat variables differed between restored and reference wetlands, differences appeared to have sub-lethal rather than lethal effects on resident amphibian populations. There were few differences in amphibian species richness and no difference in estimated survival probabilities between wetland types. Restored wetlands had more nitrate and alkaline pH, longer hydroperiods, and were deeper, whereas reference wetlands had more amphibian chytrid fungus zoospores in water samples and resident amphibians exhibited increased developmental stress. Restored and reference wetlands are both important components of the landscape in central Iowa and maintaining a complex of fish-free wetlands with a variety of hydroperiods will likely contribute to the persistence of amphibians in this landscape.

  15. Gibberellin influence on the morphogenesis of the moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. in in vitro conditions

    Sabovljević Aneta; Sabovljević Marko; Grubišić D.

    2010-01-01

    The moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. was treated with gibberellins as well as some inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis in order to investigate their influence on B. argenteum morphogenesis. Generally, gibberellins have not been chemically identified in bryophytes, while other groups of classical phytohormones (auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene) have been chemically identified in these plants. The in vitro culture of the moss Bryum argenteum was established from sterilized spores. Th...

  16. Cryptochrome and Phytochrome Cooperatively but Independently Reduce Active Gibberellin Content in Rice Seedlings under Light Irradiation

    Hirose, Fumiaki; Inagaki, Noritoshi; Hanada, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Takano, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to a wealth of knowledge about the photoregulation of gibberellin metabolism in dicots, that in monocots remains largely unclear. In this study, we found that a blue light signal triggers reduction of active gibberellin content in rice seedlings with simultaneous repression of two gibberellin 20-oxidase genes (OsGA20ox2 and OsGA20ox4) and acute induction of four gibberellin 2-oxidase genes (OsGA2ox4–OsGA2ox7). For further examination of the regulation of these genes, we establishe...

  17. Passive restoration is often quite effective: response to Zahawi et al. (2014)

    Prach, Karel; del Moral, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2015), s. 344-346 ISSN 1061-2971 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : restoration * succession * disturbance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2015

  18. Responses of soil fungal community to the sandy grassland restoration in Horqin Sandy Land, northern China.

    Wang, Shao-Kun; Zuo, Xiao-An; Zhao, Xue-Yong; Li, Yu-Qiang; Zhou, Xin; Lv, Peng; Luo, Yong-Qing; Yun, Jian-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Sandy grassland restoration is a vital process including re-structure of soils, restoration of vegetation, and soil functioning in arid and semi-arid regions. Soil fungal community is a complex and critical component of soil functioning and ecological balance due to its roles in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling following sandy grassland restoration. In this study, soil fungal community and its relationship with environmental factors were examined along a habitat gradient of sandy grassland restoration: mobile dunes (MD), semi-fixed dunes (SFD), fixed dunes (FD), and grassland (G). It was found that species abundance, richness, and diversity of fungal community increased along with the sandy grassland restoration. The sequences analysis suggested that most of the fungal species (68.4 %) belonged to the phylum of Ascomycota. The three predominant fungal species were Pleospora herbarum, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Deconica Montana, accounting for more than one fourth of all the 38 species. Geranomyces variabilis was the subdominant species in MD, Pseudogymnoascus destructans and Mortierella alpine were the subdominant species in SFD, and P. destructans and Fungi incertae sedis were the dominant species in FD and G. The result from redundancy analysis (RDA) and stepwise regression analysis indicated that the vegetation characteristics and soil properties explain a significant proportion of the variation in the fungal community, and aboveground biomass and C:N ratio are the key factors to determine soil fungal community composition during sandy grassland restoration. It was suggested that the restoration of sandy grassland combined with vegetation and soil properties improved the soil fungal diversity. Also, the dominant species was found to be alternative following the restoration of sandy grassland ecosystems.

  19. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  20. Exposure to red light, temperature and exogenous gibberellins ...

    Red light, temperature and gibberellins are well known for their capacity to induce higher germination in dormant seeds of several plant species. In the current study, we investigated the effect of various temperature (10, 13, 16, 19, 22 and 25°C) and gibberellic acid (GA3) and GA4+7 concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 uM) ...

  1. The Effect of Gibberellin on Plant Growth and Development

    1960-11-04

    8217P? 1O cerh bi; ncv tnd the ntanber of berries In e-.c ch bunch. The &ver-r.j? c -vjeirht of-’a berry ::wes then derived for each bt/mchyaoD...gibberellin web strongly in evidence. In the " :* : control bunches/of the Mrran|P’variety the^er/age/weight : ,of .8. berry was 1.08 g,: fend

  2. Effect of cotyledons and epicotyl upon the activity of endogenous gibberellins in roots of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seedlings

    Krystyna M. Janas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 11-day-old flax seedlings, the level of endogenous gibberellins in roots decreased within 12 hours after the excision of cotyledons and the epicotyl; however, 24 to 48 hours after excision the gibberellin level increased again. The decrease in the gibberellin level within the first 12 hours after excision suggests a participation of the cotyledons and the epicotyl in the biosynthesis of endogenous gibberellins.

  3. Evaluation of Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2010

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Skalski, John R.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Coleman, Andre M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Cameron, April; Corbett, C.; Donley, Erin E.; Jay, D. A.; Ke, Yinghai; Leffler, K.; McNeil, C.; Studebaker, Cindy; Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2012-05-01

    This is the seventh and final annual report of a project (2004–2010) addressing evaluation of the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the 235-km-long lower Columbia River and estuary. The project, called the Cumulative Effects (CE) study, was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District by a collaboration of research agencies led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We achieved the primary goal of the CE study to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat actions in the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program. We delivered 1) standard monitoring protocols and methods to prioritize monitoring activities; 2) the theoretical and empirical basis for a CE methodology using levels-of-evidence; 3) evaluations of cumulative effects using ecological relationships, geo-referenced data, hydrodynamic modeling, and meta-analyses; and 4) an adaptive management process to coordinate and coalesce restoration efforts in the LCRE. A solid foundation has been laid for future comprehensive evaluations of progress made by the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program to understand, conserve, and restore ecosystems in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  4. Reduction of gibberellin by low temperature disrupts pollen development in rice.

    Sakata, Tadashi; Oda, Susumu; Tsunaga, Yuta; Shomura, Hikaru; Kawagishi-Kobayashi, Makiko; Aya, Koichiro; Saeki, Kenichi; Endo, Takashi; Nagano, Kuniaki; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Masao; Matsuoka, Makoto; Higashitani, Atsushi

    2014-04-01

    Microsporogenesis in rice (Oryza sativa) plants is susceptible to moderate low temperature (LT; approximately 19°C) that disrupts pollen development and causes severe reductions in grain yields. Although considerable research has been invested in the study of cool-temperature injury, a full understanding of the molecular mechanism has not been achieved. Here, we show that endogenous levels of the bioactive gibberellins (GAs) GA4 and GA7, and expression levels of the GA biosynthesis genes GA20ox3 and GA3ox1, decrease in the developing anthers by exposure to LT. By contrast, the levels of precursor GA12 were higher in response to LT. In addition, the expression of the dehydration-responsive element-binding protein DREB2B and SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1)/DELLA was up-regulated in response to LT. Mutants involved in GA biosynthetic and response pathways were hypersensitive to LT stress, including the semidwarf mutants sd1 and d35, the gain-of-function mutant slr1-d, and gibberellin insensitive dwarf1. The reduction in the number of sporogenous cells and the abnormal enlargement of tapetal cells occurred most severely in the GA-insensitive mutant. Application of exogenous GA significantly reversed the male sterility caused by LT, and simultaneous application of exogenous GA with sucrose substantially improved the extent of normal pollen development. Modern rice varieties carrying the sd1 mutation are widely cultivated, and the sd1 mutation is considered one of the greatest achievements of the Green Revolution. The protective strategy achieved by our work may help sustain steady yields of rice under global climate change.

  5. Reduction of Gibberellin by Low Temperature Disrupts Pollen Development in Rice1[W][OPEN

    Sakata, Tadashi; Oda, Susumu; Tsunaga, Yuta; Shomura, Hikaru; Kawagishi-Kobayashi, Makiko; Aya, Koichiro; Saeki, Kenichi; Endo, Takashi; Nagano, Kuniaki; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Masao; Matsuoka, Makoto; Higashitani, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Microsporogenesis in rice (Oryza sativa) plants is susceptible to moderate low temperature (LT; approximately 19°C) that disrupts pollen development and causes severe reductions in grain yields. Although considerable research has been invested in the study of cool-temperature injury, a full understanding of the molecular mechanism has not been achieved. Here, we show that endogenous levels of the bioactive gibberellins (GAs) GA4 and GA7, and expression levels of the GA biosynthesis genes GA20ox3 and GA3ox1, decrease in the developing anthers by exposure to LT. By contrast, the levels of precursor GA12 were higher in response to LT. In addition, the expression of the dehydration-responsive element-binding protein DREB2B and SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1)/DELLA was up-regulated in response to LT. Mutants involved in GA biosynthetic and response pathways were hypersensitive to LT stress, including the semidwarf mutants sd1 and d35, the gain-of-function mutant slr1-d, and gibberellin insensitive dwarf1. The reduction in the number of sporogenous cells and the abnormal enlargement of tapetal cells occurred most severely in the GA-insensitive mutant. Application of exogenous GA significantly reversed the male sterility caused by LT, and simultaneous application of exogenous GA with sucrose substantially improved the extent of normal pollen development. Modern rice varieties carrying the sd1 mutation are widely cultivated, and the sd1 mutation is considered one of the greatest achievements of the Green Revolution. The protective strategy achieved by our work may help sustain steady yields of rice under global climate change. PMID:24569847

  6. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2007

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Russell, Micah; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this multi-year study (2004-2010) is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. Field research in 2005, 2006, and 2007 involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp vs. marsh), trajectory (restoration vs. reference site), and restoration action (tide gate vs. culvert vs. dike breach). The field work established two kinds of monitoring indicators for eventual cumulative effects analysis: core and higher-order indicators. Management implications of limitations and applications of site-specific effectiveness monitoring and cumulative effects analysis were identified.

  7. Pengaruh Gibberellin (GA4 terhadap Waktu Perkecambahan dan Pertumbuhan Tinggi Semai Cendana (Santalum Album Linn.

    Asri Insiana Putri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Gibberellins (GA4 on Germination Time and Height of Cendana (Santalum album Linn.  The hemiparasite Santalum album Linn. (cendana grows very slow, in nature the rare and difficult seeds need stimulation to germinate. Gibberellins (including GA4 are growth regulators, usually used to increase growth as well as to break seed dormancy. The objectives of this research were to investigate the influence of gibberellins on germination percentage and height of cendana growth. Experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design with 3 replicates of 300 seeds for germination percentage and 3 replicates of 10 seeds for seedling growth. Gibberellin was applied as treatment with 100, 300, and 500 ppm. The seed germination was recorded until 9 weeks, and height of plants measured until 8 months at the greenhouse. The results showed that the addition of gibberellins at all treatment increased the percentage of germination and caused the seeds germinated four weeks earlier than the control. In the first 4 months, 500 ppm gibberellins gave the highest acceleration of germination, afterward all treatments have relatively the same influences. Gibberellins gave positive effect on height of cendana growth. After 7 months, the growth decreased although all gibberellin treatments gave higher growth than the control.

  8. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2009

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Cameron, April; Coleman, Andre M.; Corbett, C.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Kauffman, Ronald; Roegner, G. Curtis; Russell, Micah T.; Silva, April; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Woodruff, Dana L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2010-10-26

    This is the sixth annual report of a seven-year project (2004 through 2010) to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The project, called the Cumulative Effects Study, is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (USACE) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), and the University of Washington. The goal of the Cumulative Effects Study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the 235-km-long LCRE. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. From 2005 through 2009, annual field research involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp versus marsh), trajectory (restoration versus reference site), and restoration action (tidegate replacement vs. culvert replacement vs. dike breach).

  9. Experimental restoration of coppice-with-standards: Response of understorey vegetation from the conservation perspective

    Vild, Ondřej; Roleček, Jan; Hédl, Radim; Kopecký, Martin; Utinek, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 310, Dec 2013 (2013), s. 234-241 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0267 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : restoration experiment * endangered species * traditional woodland management Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.667, year: 2013

  10. Response of Submerged Macrophyte Communities to External and Internal Restoration Measures in North Temperate Shallow Lakes

    Hilt, Sabine; Alirangues Nuñez, Marta M.; Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Blindow, Irmgard; Davidson, Thomas A.; Gillefalk, Mikael; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Janse, Jan H.; Janssen, Annette B. G.; Jeppesen, Erik; Kabus, Timm; Kelly, Andrea; Köhler, Jan; Lauridsen, Torben L.; Mooij, Wolf M.; Noordhuis, Ruurd; Phillips, Geoff; Rücker, Jacqueline; Schuster, Hans-Heinrich; Søndergaard, Martin; Teurlincx, Sven; van de Weyer, Klaus; van Donk, Ellen; Waterstraat, Arno; Willby, Nigel; Sayer, Carl D.

    2018-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes play a key role in north temperate shallow lakes by stabilizing clear-water conditions. Eutrophication has resulted in macrophyte loss and shifts to turbid conditions in many lakes. Considerable efforts have been devoted to shallow lake restoration in many countries, but long-term success depends on a stable recovery of submerged macrophytes. However, recovery patterns vary widely and remain to be fully understood. We hypothesize that reduced external nutrient loading leads to an intermediate recovery state with clear spring and turbid summer conditions similar to the pattern described for eutrophication. In contrast, lake internal restoration measures can result in transient clear-water conditions both in spring and summer and reversals to turbid conditions. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these contrasting restoration measures result in different macrophyte species composition, with added implications for seasonal dynamics due to differences in plant traits. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed data on water quality and submerged macrophytes from 49 north temperate shallow lakes that were in a turbid state and subjected to restoration measures. To study the dynamics of macrophytes during nutrient load reduction, we adapted the ecosystem model PCLake. Our survey and model simulations revealed the existence of an intermediate recovery state upon reduced external nutrient loading, characterized by spring clear-water phases and turbid summers, whereas internal lake restoration measures often resulted in clear-water conditions in spring and summer with returns to turbid conditions after some years. External and internal lake restoration measures resulted in different macrophyte communities. The intermediate recovery state following reduced nutrient loading is characterized by a few macrophyte species (mainly pondweeds) that can resist wave action allowing survival in shallow areas, germinate early in spring, have energy-rich vegetative

  11. Response of Submerged Macrophyte Communities to External and Internal Restoration Measures in North Temperate Shallow Lakes.

    Hilt, Sabine; Alirangues Nuñez, Marta M; Bakker, Elisabeth S; Blindow, Irmgard; Davidson, Thomas A; Gillefalk, Mikael; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Janse, Jan H; Janssen, Annette B G; Jeppesen, Erik; Kabus, Timm; Kelly, Andrea; Köhler, Jan; Lauridsen, Torben L; Mooij, Wolf M; Noordhuis, Ruurd; Phillips, Geoff; Rücker, Jacqueline; Schuster, Hans-Heinrich; Søndergaard, Martin; Teurlincx, Sven; van de Weyer, Klaus; van Donk, Ellen; Waterstraat, Arno; Willby, Nigel; Sayer, Carl D

    2018-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes play a key role in north temperate shallow lakes by stabilizing clear-water conditions. Eutrophication has resulted in macrophyte loss and shifts to turbid conditions in many lakes. Considerable efforts have been devoted to shallow lake restoration in many countries, but long-term success depends on a stable recovery of submerged macrophytes. However, recovery patterns vary widely and remain to be fully understood. We hypothesize that reduced external nutrient loading leads to an intermediate recovery state with clear spring and turbid summer conditions similar to the pattern described for eutrophication. In contrast, lake internal restoration measures can result in transient clear-water conditions both in spring and summer and reversals to turbid conditions. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these contrasting restoration measures result in different macrophyte species composition, with added implications for seasonal dynamics due to differences in plant traits. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed data on water quality and submerged macrophytes from 49 north temperate shallow lakes that were in a turbid state and subjected to restoration measures. To study the dynamics of macrophytes during nutrient load reduction, we adapted the ecosystem model PCLake. Our survey and model simulations revealed the existence of an intermediate recovery state upon reduced external nutrient loading, characterized by spring clear-water phases and turbid summers, whereas internal lake restoration measures often resulted in clear-water conditions in spring and summer with returns to turbid conditions after some years. External and internal lake restoration measures resulted in different macrophyte communities. The intermediate recovery state following reduced nutrient loading is characterized by a few macrophyte species (mainly pondweeds) that can resist wave action allowing survival in shallow areas, germinate early in spring, have energy-rich vegetative

  12. Predicting wading bird and aquatic faunal responses to ecosystem restoration scenarios

    Beerens, James M.; Trexler, Joel C.; Catano, Christopher P.

    2017-01-01

    In large-scale conservation decisions, scenario planning identifies key uncertainties of ecosystem function linked to ecological drivers affected by management, incorporates ecological feedbacks, and scales up to answer questions robust to alternative futures. Wetland restoration planning requires an understanding of how proposed changes in surface hydrology, water storage, and landscape connectivity affect aquatic animal composition, productivity, and food-web function. In the Florida Everglades, reintroduction of historical hydrologic patterns is expected to increase productivity of all trophic levels. Highly mobile indicator species such as wading birds integrate secondary productivity from aquatic prey (small fishes and crayfish) over the landscape. To evaluate how fish, crayfish, and wading birds may respond to alternative hydrologic restoration plans, we compared predicted small fish density, crayfish density and biomass, and wading bird occurrence for existing conditions to four restoration scenarios that varied water storage and removal of levees and canals (i.e. decompartmentalization). Densities of small fish and occurrence of wading birds are predicted to increase throughout most of the Everglades under all restoration options because of increased flows and connectivity. Full decompartmentalization goes furthest toward recreating hypothesized historical patterns of fish density by draining excess water ponded by levees and hydrating areas that are currently drier than in the past. In contrast, crayfish density declined and species composition shifted under all restoration options because of lengthened hydroperiods (i.e. time of inundation). Under full decompartmentalization, the distribution of increased prey available for wading birds shifted south, closer to historical locations of nesting activity in Everglades National Park.

  13. Very low-calorie ketogenic diet may allow restoring response to systemic therapy in relapsing plaque psoriasis.

    Castaldo, Giuseppe; Galdo, Giovanna; Rotondi Aufiero, Felice; Cereda, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic disease associated with overweight/obesity and related cardiometabolic complications. The link between these diseases is likely the inflammatory background associated with adipose tissue, particularly the visceral one. Accordingly, previous studies have demonstrated that in the long-term weight loss may improve the response to systemic therapies. We report a case report of a woman in her 40s suffering from relapsing moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis and obesity-related metabolic syndrome, in whom adequate response to ongoing treatment with biological therapy (adalimumab) was restored after only 4 weeks of very low-calorie, carbohydrate-free (ketogenic), protein-based diet. Accordingly, through rapid and consistent weight loss, very low calorie ketogenic diet may allow restoring a quick response to systemic therapy in a patient suffering from relapsing psoriasis. This intervention should be considered in overweight/obese patients before the rearrangement of systemic therapy. Nonetheless, studies are required to evaluate whether very low calorie ketogenic diets should be preferred to common low-calorie diets to improve the response to systemic therapy at least in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Targeted Apoptosis of Senescent Cells Restores Tissue Homeostasis in Response to Chemotoxicity and Aging.

    Baar, Marjolein P; Brandt, Renata M C; Putavet, Diana A; Klein, Julian D D; Derks, Kasper W J; Bourgeois, Benjamin R M; Stryeck, Sarah; Rijksen, Yvonne; van Willigenburg, Hester; Feijtel, Danny A; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Essers, Jeroen; van Cappellen, Wiggert A; van IJcken, Wilfred F; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B; Pothof, Joris; de Bruin, Ron W F; Madl, Tobias; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Campisi, Judith; de Keizer, Peter L J

    2017-03-23

    The accumulation of irreparable cellular damage restricts healthspan after acute stress or natural aging. Senescent cells are thought to impair tissue function, and their genetic clearance can delay features of aging. Identifying how senescent cells avoid apoptosis allows for the prospective design of anti-senescence compounds to address whether homeostasis can also be restored. Here, we identify FOXO4 as a pivot in senescent cell viability. We designed a FOXO4 peptide that perturbs the FOXO4 interaction with p53. In senescent cells, this selectively causes p53 nuclear exclusion and cell-intrinsic apoptosis. Under conditions where it was well tolerated in vivo, this FOXO4 peptide neutralized doxorubicin-induced chemotoxicity. Moreover, it restored fitness, fur density, and renal function in both fast aging Xpd TTD/TTD and naturally aged mice. Thus, therapeutic targeting of senescent cells is feasible under conditions where loss of health has already occurred, and in doing so tissue homeostasis can effectively be restored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental restoration of coppice-with-standards: Response of understorey vegetation from the conservation perspective.

    Vild, Ondřej; Roleček, Jan; Hédl, Radim; Kopecký, Martin; Utinek, Dušan

    2013-12-15

    A substantial part of European lowland woodlands was managed as coppices or wood pastures for millennia. However, traditional management forms were almost completely abandoned in Central Europe by the middle of the 20th century. Combined with the effects of nitrogen deposition and herbivore pressure, shifts in management resulted in biodiversity loss affecting particularly light-demanding oligotrophic plant species. Experimental thinning was applied in a former oak coppice-with-standards in an attempt to restore vanishing understorey plant communities. Two levels of thinning intensity and zero management as control were used on 90 plots. Ten years after the treatment, significant changes in species composition and diversity were observed in heavily thinned plots, while moderate thinning had mostly insignificant effects. Light-demanding oligotrophic species significantly increased, indicating positive consequences of restoration. However, heavy thinning also brought about the expansion of native ruderal species. Alien species remained unchanged. We conclude that the restoration of coppice-with-standards can be an efficient tool to support vanishing light-demanding woodland species. Combined with biodiversity benefits, the increasing demand for biofuel may contribute to the renaissance of traditional management forms in forestry.

  16. Response of the soil physical properties to restoration techniques in limestone quarries

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Vignozzi, Nadia; Solé-Benet, Albert

    2016-04-01

    The devastating effects of soil erosion in mining areas from arid/semiarid environments have prompted efforts geared toward an improvement of the soil physical conditions for a fast establishment of vegetal cover. Restoration practices that increase soil moisture content are essential in drylands where rainfall is irregular or insufficient in order to accelerate ecological restoration. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of organic amendments and mulches on the soil porosity as well as their impact on infiltration, five years after the beginning of an experimental restoration from limestone quarries in Sierra de Gádor (Almería, SE Spain). Nine plots 15 x 5 m were prepared at the site in a completely randomized 2 x 3 factorial design. The first factor, organic amendment, had three levels: sewage sludge (SA), compost from domestic organic residues (CA) and no amendment (NA). The second factor, mulches, also had three levels: gravel (GM), woodchip (WM) and no mulch (NM). In each experimental plot 75 native plants (Macrochloa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. Infiltration was determined from rainfall simulations and soil porosity was assessed by image analysis of soil thin sections. Total porosity and pores distribution were measured according to pore shape (regular, irregular and elongated) and size (transmission pores [50-500 μm] and fissures [>500 μm]). Natural undisturbed soils around the mine area were used as a reference soil (RS). Restoration treatments showed higher total porosity, fissures and elongated pores than RS and we observed the highest values in treatments with WM. This fact is due to the disruption caused by the application of treatments rather that a good soil structure. Each combination exhibited different values of transmission pores, being greater in the combinations of NA-GM, SA-NM and CA-WM. Infiltration increased with the increase of the total porosity, fissures and elongated pores

  17. Evaluating the Response of Biological Assemblages as Potential Indicators for Restoration Measures in an Intermittent Mediterranean River

    Hughes, Samantha Jane; Santos, Jose; Ferreira, Teresa; Mendes, Ana

    2010-08-01

    Bioindicators are essential for detecting environmental degradation and for assessing the success of river restoration initiatives. River restoration projects require the identification of environmental and pressure gradients that affect the river system under study and the selection of suitable indicators to assess habitat quality before, during and after restoration. We assessed the response of benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, bird and macrophyte assemblages to environmental and pressure gradients from sites situated upstream and downstream of a cofferdam on the River Odelouca, an intermittent Mediterranean river in southwest Portugal. The Odelouca will be permanently dammed in 2010. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) of environmental and pressure variables revealed that most variance was explained by environmental factors that clearly separated sites upstream and downstream of the partially built cofferdam. The pressure gradient describing physical impacts to the banks and channel as a result of land use change was less distinct. Redundancy Analysis revealed significant levels of explained variance to species distribution patterns in relation to environmental and pressure variables for all 4 biological assemblages. Partial Redundancy analyses revealed high levels of redundancy for pH between groups and that the avifauna was best associated with pressures acting upon the system. Patterns in invertebrates and fish were associated with descriptors of habitat quality, although fish distribution patterns were affected by reduced connectivity. Procrustean and RELATE (Mantel test) analyses gave broadly similar results and supported these findings. We give suggestions on the suitability of key indicator groups such as benthic macroinvertebrates and endemic fish species to assess in stream habitat quality and appropriate restoration measures, such as the release of peak flow patterns that mimic intermittent Mediterranean systems to combat habitat fragmentation and

  18. Deranged endocannabinoid responses to hedonic eating in underweight and recently weight-restored patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Aveta, Teresa; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Monteleone, Palmiero; Maj, Mario

    2015-02-01

    A dysregulation of reward mechanisms was suggested in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN), but the role of the endogenous mediators of reward has been poorly investigated. Endocannabinoids, including anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and the endocannabinoid-related compounds oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide modulate food-related and unrelated reward. Hedonic eating, which is the consumption of food just for pleasure and not homeostatic need, is a suitable paradigm to explore food-related reward. We investigated responses of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related compounds to hedonic eating in AN. Peripheral concentrations of anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, oleoylethanolamide, and palmitoylethanolamide were measured in 7 underweight and 7 weight-restored AN patients after eating favorite and nonfavorite foods in the condition of no homeostatic needs, and these measurements were compared with those of previously studied healthy control subjects. 1) In healthy controls, plasma 2-arachidonoylglycerol concentrations decreased after both types of meals but were significantly higher in hedonic eating; in underweight AN patients, 2-arachidonoylglycerol concentrations did not show specific time patterns after eating either favorite or nonfavorite foods, whereas in weight-restored patients, 2-arachidonoylglycerol concentrations showed similar increases with both types of meals. 2) Anandamide plasma concentrations exhibited no differences in their response patterns to hedonic eating in the groups. 3) Compared with 2-arachidonoylglycerol, palmitoylethanolamide concentrations exhibited an opposite response pattern to hedonic eating in healthy controls; this pattern was partially preserved in underweight AN patients but not in weight-restored ones. 4) Like palmitoylethanolamide, oleoylethanolamide plasma concentrations tended to be higher in nonhedonic eating than in hedonic eating in healthy controls; moreover, no difference between healthy

  19. Comprehensive gene expression analysis of rice aleurone cells: probing the existence of an alternative gibberellin receptor.

    Yano, Kenji; Aya, Koichiro; Hirano, Ko; Ordonio, Reynante Lacsamana; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2015-02-01

    Current gibberellin (GA) research indicates that GA must be perceived in plant nuclei by its cognate receptor, GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1). Recognition of GA by GID1 relieves the repression mediated by the DELLA protein, a model known as the GID1-DELLA GA perception system. There have been reports of potential GA-binding proteins in the plasma membrane that perceive GA and induce α-amylase expression in cereal aleurone cells, which is mechanistically different from the GID1-DELLA system. Therefore, we examined the expression of the rice (Oryza sativa) α-amylase genes in rice mutants impaired in the GA receptor (gid1) and the DELLA repressor (slender rice1; slr1) and confirmed their lack of response to GA in gid1 mutants and constitutive expression in slr1 mutants. We also examined the expression of GA-regulated genes by genome-wide microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses and confirmed that all GA-regulated genes are modulated by the GID1-DELLA system. Furthermore, we studied the regulatory network involved in GA signaling by using a set of mutants defective in genes involved in GA perception and gene expression, namely gid1, slr1, gid2 (a GA-related F-box protein mutant), and gamyb (a GA-related trans-acting factor mutant). Almost all GA up-regulated genes were regulated by the four named GA-signaling components. On the other hand, GA down-regulated genes showed different expression patterns with respect to GID2 and GAMYB (e.g. a considerable number of genes are not controlled by GAMYB or GID2 and GAMYB). Based on these observations, we present a comprehensive discussion of the intricate network of GA-regulated genes in rice aleurone cells. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Characterization of the molecular mechanism underlying gibberellin perception complex formation in rice.

    Hirano, Ko; Asano, Kenji; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Mayuko; Mori, Hitoshi; Kitano, Hidemi; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2010-08-01

    The DELLA protein SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1) is a repressor of gibberellin (GA) signaling in rice (Oryza sativa), and most of the GA-associated responses are induced upon SLR1 degradation. It is assumed that interaction between GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) and the N-terminal DELLA/TVHYNP motif of SLR1 triggers F-box protein GID2-mediated SLR1 degradation. We identified a semidominant dwarf mutant, Slr1-d4, which contains a mutation in the region encoding the C-terminal GRAS domain of SLR1 (SLR1(G576V)). The GA-dependent degradation of SLR1(G576V) was reduced in Slr1-d4, and compared with SLR1, SLR1(G576V) showed reduced interaction with GID1 and almost none with GID2 when tested in yeast cells. Surface plasmon resonance of GID1-SLR1 and GID1-SLR1(G576V) interactions revealed that the GRAS domain of SLR1 functions to stabilize the GID1-SLR1 interaction by reducing its dissociation rate and that the G576V substitution in SLR1 diminishes this stability. These results suggest that the stable interaction of GID1-SLR1 through the GRAS domain is essential for the recognition of SLR1 by GID2. We propose that when the DELLA/TVHYNP motif of SLR1 binds with GID1, it enables the GRAS domain of SLR1 to interact with GID1 and that the stable GID1-SLR1 complex is efficiently recognized by GID2.

  1. The rice YABBY4 gene regulates plant growth and development through modulating the gibberellin pathway.

    Yang, Chao; Ma, Yamei; Li, Jianxiong

    2016-10-01

    YABBY genes encode seed plant-specific transcription factors that play pivotal roles in diverse aspects of leaf, shoot, and flower development. Members of the YABBY gene family are primarily expressed in lateral organs in a polar manner and function to specify abaxial cell fate in dicotyledons, but this polar expression is not conserved in monocotyledons. The function of YABBY genes is therefore not well understood in monocotyledons. Here we show that overexpression of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) YABBY4 gene (OsYABBY4) leads to a semi-dwarf phenotype, abnormal development in the uppermost internode, an increased number of floral organs, and insensitivity to gibberellin (GA) treatment. We report on an important role for OsYABBY4 in negative control of the expression of a GA biosynthetic gene by binding to the promoter region of the gibberellin 20-oxidase 2 gene (GA20ox2), which is a direct target of SLR1 (the sole DELLA protein negatively controlling GA responses in rice). OsYABBY4 also suppresses the expression level of SLR1 and interacts with SLR1 protein. The interaction inhibits GA-dependent degradation of SLR1 and therefore leads to GA insensitivity. These data together suggest that OsYABBY4 serves as a DNA-binding intermediate protein for SLR1 and is associated with the GA signaling pathway regulating gene expression during plant growth and development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Characterization of the Molecular Mechanism Underlying Gibberellin Perception Complex Formation in Rice[C][W

    Hirano, Ko; Asano, Kenji; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Mayuko; Mori, Hitoshi; Kitano, Hidemi; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The DELLA protein SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1) is a repressor of gibberellin (GA) signaling in rice (Oryza sativa), and most of the GA-associated responses are induced upon SLR1 degradation. It is assumed that interaction between GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) and the N-terminal DELLA/TVHYNP motif of SLR1 triggers F-box protein GID2-mediated SLR1 degradation. We identified a semidominant dwarf mutant, Slr1-d4, which contains a mutation in the region encoding the C-terminal GRAS domain of SLR1 (SLR1G576V). The GA-dependent degradation of SLR1G576V was reduced in Slr1-d4, and compared with SLR1, SLR1G576V showed reduced interaction with GID1 and almost none with GID2 when tested in yeast cells. Surface plasmon resonance of GID1-SLR1 and GID1-SLR1G576V interactions revealed that the GRAS domain of SLR1 functions to stabilize the GID1-SLR1 interaction by reducing its dissociation rate and that the G576V substitution in SLR1 diminishes this stability. These results suggest that the stable interaction of GID1-SLR1 through the GRAS domain is essential for the recognition of SLR1 by GID2. We propose that when the DELLA/TVHYNP motif of SLR1 binds with GID1, it enables the GRAS domain of SLR1 to interact with GID1 and that the stable GID1-SLR1 complex is efficiently recognized by GID2. PMID:20716699

  3. Marginal ridge fracture resistance, microleakage and pulpal response to glass ionomer/glass cermet partial tunnel restorations.

    Prabhu, N T; Munshi, A K; Shetty, T R

    1997-01-01

    Sixty sound premolars which were to be extracted for orthodontic treatment purposes were restored either with glass ionomer cement or glass cermet cements after partial tunnel preparation, and prior to the extraction after a time interval of 30 and 60 days respectively. The teeth were then subjected to marginal ridge fracture resistance, microleakage study using dye penetration and histological evaluation of the pulpal response to these materials. Both the materials exhibited increase in marginal ridge fracture resistance at 60 days, with minimal degree of microleakage and were biologically compatible with the dental pulp.

  4. Using MODIS-NDVI for the Modeling of Post-Wildfire Vegetation Response as a Function of Environmental Conditions and Pre-Fire Restoration Treatments

    Grant M. Casady

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-fire vegetation response is influenced by the interaction of natural and anthropogenic factors such as topography, climate, vegetation type and restoration practices. Previous research has analyzed the relationship of some of these factors to vegetation response, but few have taken into account the effects of pre-fire restoration practices. We selected three wildfires that occurred in Bandelier National Monument (New Mexico, USA between 1999 and 2007 and three adjacent unburned control areas. We used interannual trends in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series data derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS to assess vegetation response, which we define as the average potential photosynthetic activity through the summer monsoon. Topography, fire severity and restoration treatment were obtained and used to explain post-fire vegetation response. We applied parametric (Multiple Linear Regressions-MLR and non-parametric tests (Classification and Regression Trees-CART to analyze effects of fire severity, terrain and pre-fire restoration treatments (variable used in CART on post-fire vegetation response. MLR results showed strong relationships between vegetation response and environmental factors (p < 0.1, however the explanatory factors changed among treatments. CART results showed that beside fire severity and topography, pre-fire treatments strongly impact post-fire vegetation response. Results for these three fires show that pre-fire restoration conditions along with local environmental factors constitute key processes that modify post-fire vegetation response.

  5. Gibberellin Promotes Shoot Branching in the Perennial Woody Plant Jatropha curcas.

    Ni, Jun; Gao, Congcong; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Pan, Bang-Zhen; Ye, Kaiqin; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2015-08-01

    Strigolactone (SL), auxin and cytokinin (CK) interact to regulate shoot branching. CK has long been considered to be the only key phytohormone to promote lateral bud outgrowth. Here we report that gibberellin also acts as a positive regulator in the control of shoot branching in the woody plant Jatropha curcas. We show that gibberellin and CK synergistically promote lateral bud outgrowth, and that both hormones influence the expression of putative branching regulators, J. curcas BRANCHED1 and BRANCHED2, which are key transcription factors maintaining bud dormancy. Moreover, treatment with paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of de novo gibberellin biosynthesis, significantly reduced the promotion of bud outgrowth by CK, suggesting that gibberellin is required for CK-mediated axillary bud outgrowth. In addition, SL, a plant hormone involved in the repression of shoot branching, acted antagonistically to both gibberellin and CK in the control of lateral bud outgrowth. Consistent with this, the expression of JcMAX2, a J. curcas homolog of Arabidopsis MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 2 encoding an F-box protein in the SL signaling pathway, was repressed by gibberellin and CK treatment. We also provide physiological evidence that gibberellin also induces shoot branching in many other trees, such as papaya, indicating that a more complicated regulatory network occurs in the control of shoot branching in some perennial woody plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  6. Gibberellin biosynthesis in cell-free extracts from developing Cucurbita maxima embryos and the identification of new endogenous gibberellins.

    Lange, T; Hedden, P; Graebe, J E

    1993-03-01

    Gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic pathways from GA12-aldehyde, GA12 and GA53 were investigated in cell-free systems from developing embryos of Cucurbita maxima L. Gibberellin A12-aldehyde and GA12 were converted to GA25, putative 12α-hydroxyGA25, GA13 and GA39 as main products. Minor products were GA4, GA34 and, when GA12 was the substrate, putative 12α-hydroxyGA12. The intermediates GA15 and GA24 accumulated at low protein concentrations. The influence of various factors on GA12 metabolism was examined. At low 2-oxoglutarate and ascorbate concentrations, or at acid pH, 3β-hydroxylated products predominated, whereas with increasing 2-oxoglutarate and ascorbate concentrations, or at neutral pH, the yield of 12α-hydroxylated GAs increased. Gibberellin A53 was metabolised mainly to the C20-GAs GA44, GA19, GA17, GA23 and GA28, with the C19-GAs GA20, GA1 and GA8 as minor products. Only C19-GAs were 2β-hydroxylated, which is a main characteristic of the embryo systems. In addition to GA13, GA25, GA39, GA43, GA49, GA58, GA74, 12α-hydroxyGA25 and GA39 3-isovalerate, which were known previously from embryos of C. maxima, GA1, GA4, GA17, GA28, GA37, GA38, GA48, GA85, 12α-hydroxyGA37 and putative 12α-hydroxyGA43 were identified as endogenous components by full-scan capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Kovats retention indices. Evidence for putative 2β-hydroxyGA28 and GA23 was also obtained but it was less conclusive because of contamination.

  7. Early Response of Soil Properties and Function to Riparian Rainforest Restoration

    Gageler, Rose; Bonner, Mark; Kirchhof, Gunnar; Amos, Mark; Robinson, Nicole; Schmidt, Susanne; Shoo, Luke P.

    2014-01-01

    Reforestation of riparian zones is increasingly practiced in many regions for purposes of biodiversity conservation, bank stabilisation, and improvement in water quality. This is in spite of the actual benefits of reforestation for recovering underlying soil properties and function remaining poorly understood. Here we compare remnant riparian rainforest, pasture and reforestation plantings aged 2–20 years in an Australian subtropical catchment on ferrosols to determine the extent to which reforestation restores key soil properties. Of the nine soil attributes measured (total nitrogen, nitrate and ammonium concentrations, net nitrification and ammonification rates, organic carbon, bulk density, fine root biomass and water infiltration rates), only infiltration rates were significantly lower in pasture than remnant riparian rainforest. Within reforestation plantings, bulk density decreased up to 1.4-fold and infiltration rates increased up to 60-fold with time post-reforestation. Our results suggest that the main outcome of belowground processes of early reforestation is the recovery of the soils' physical structure, with potential beneficial ecosystem services including reduced runoff, erosion and associated sediment and nutrient loads in waterways. We also demonstrate differential impacts of two commonly planted tree species on a subset of soil properties suggesting that preferential planting of select species could accelerate progress on specific restoration objectives. PMID:25117589

  8. Early response of soil properties and function to riparian rainforest restoration.

    Rose Gageler

    Full Text Available Reforestation of riparian zones is increasingly practiced in many regions for purposes of biodiversity conservation, bank stabilisation, and improvement in water quality. This is in spite of the actual benefits of reforestation for recovering underlying soil properties and function remaining poorly understood. Here we compare remnant riparian rainforest, pasture and reforestation plantings aged 2-20 years in an Australian subtropical catchment on ferrosols to determine the extent to which reforestation restores key soil properties. Of the nine soil attributes measured (total nitrogen, nitrate and ammonium concentrations, net nitrification and ammonification rates, organic carbon, bulk density, fine root biomass and water infiltration rates, only infiltration rates were significantly lower in pasture than remnant riparian rainforest. Within reforestation plantings, bulk density decreased up to 1.4-fold and infiltration rates increased up to 60-fold with time post-reforestation. Our results suggest that the main outcome of belowground processes of early reforestation is the recovery of the soils' physical structure, with potential beneficial ecosystem services including reduced runoff, erosion and associated sediment and nutrient loads in waterways. We also demonstrate differential impacts of two commonly planted tree species on a subset of soil properties suggesting that preferential planting of select species could accelerate progress on specific restoration objectives.

  9. Dietary nitrate restores compensatory vasodilation and exercise capacity in response to a compromise in oxygen delivery in the noncompensator phenotype.

    Bentley, Robert F; Walsh, Jeremy J; Drouin, Patrick J; Velickovic, Aleksandra; Kitner, Sarah J; Fenuta, Alyssa M; Tschakovsky, Michael E

    2017-09-01

    Recently, dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to improve exercise capacity in healthy individuals through a potential nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. Nitric oxide has been shown to play an important role in compensatory vasodilation during exercise under hypoperfusion. Previously, we established that certain individuals lack a vasodilation response when perfusion pressure reductions compromise exercising muscle blood flow. Whether this lack of compensatory vasodilation in healthy, young individuals can be restored with dietary nitrate supplementation is unknown. Six healthy (21 ± 2 yr), recreationally active men completed a rhythmic forearm exercise. During steady-state exercise, the exercising arm was rapidly transitioned from an uncompromised (below heart) to a compromised (above heart) position, resulting in a reduction in local pressure of -31 ± 1 mmHg. Exercise was completed following 5 days of nitrate-rich (70 ml, 0.4 g nitrate) and nitrate-depleted (70 ml, ~0 g nitrate) beetroot juice consumption. Forearm blood flow (in milliliters per minute; brachial artery Doppler and echo ultrasound), mean arterial blood pressure (in millimeters of mercury; finger photoplethysmography), exercising forearm venous effluent (ante-cubital vein catheter), and plasma nitrite concentrations (chemiluminescence) revealed two distinct vasodilatory responses: nitrate supplementation increased (plasma nitrite) compared with placebo (245 ± 60 vs. 39 ± 9 nmol/l; P nitrate supplementation (568 ± 117 vs. 714 ± 139 ml ⋅ min -1 ⋅ 100 mmHg -1 ; P = 0.005) but not in placebo (687 ± 166 vs. 697 ± 171 min -1 ⋅ 100 mmHg -1 ; P = 0.42). As such, peak exercise capacity was reduced to a lesser degree (-4 ± 39 vs. -39 ± 27 N; P = 0.01). In conclusion, dietary nitrate supplementation during a perfusion pressure challenge is an effective means of restoring exercise capacity and enabling compensatory vasodilation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Previously, we

  10. Developmental landmarks during floral ontogeny of jalapeño chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and the effect of gibberellin on ovary growth.

    Sandoval-Oliveros, R; Guevara-Olvera, L; Beltrán, J P; Gómez-Mena, C; Acosta-García, G

    2017-09-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important horticultural crop in many regions of the world. The final shape and size of the fruit are known to be determined at a very early step of flower development. During flower development hormonal treatments using gibberellins seem to promote growth resulting in higher yield and fruit quality. However, the morphological changes that occur in the pepper flowers after these treatments are largely unknown. In the present study, we provide a description of floral development landmarks of jalapeño chili pepper (cultivar Huichol), divided in nine representative stages from its initiation until the opening of the bud. We established a correlation among external flower development and the time and pattern of reproductive organogenesis. Male and female gametogenesis progression was used to define specific landmarks during flower maturation. The pattern of expression of key genes involved in gibberellin metabolism and response was also evaluated in the nine flower stages. The proposed development framework was used to analyze the effect of gibberellin treatments in the development of the flower. We observed both an effect of the treatment in the histology of the ovary tissue and an increase in the level of expression of CaGA2ox1 and CaGID1b genes. The developmental stages we defined for this species are very useful to analyze the molecular and morphological changes after hormonal treatments.

  11. Gibberellin influence on the morphogenesis of the moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. in in vitro conditions

    Sabovljević Aneta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. was treated with gibberellins as well as some inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis in order to investigate their influence on B. argenteum morphogenesis. Generally, gibberellins have not been chemically identified in bryophytes, while other groups of classical phytohormones (auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene have been chemically identified in these plants. The in vitro culture of the moss Bryum argenteum was established from sterilized spores. The apical shoots of untreated gametophytes grown in vitro were used to investigate the influence of different substances on secondary protonema and on the growth and multiplication of the gametophytes. B. argenteum reacts differently to the growth regulators applied. Both gibberellins applied in vitro (GA3 and GA7 have a positive effect on B. argenteum morphogenesis. Shoot multiplication was negatively affected by three tested growth retardants (ancymidol, BX-112 and chlorocholine chloride, while these substances did not have such strong effects on the moss protonema development.

  12. Addition of Alanyl-Glutamine to Dialysis Fluid Restores Peritoneal Cellular Stress Responses - A First-In-Man Trial.

    Klaus Kratochwill

    Full Text Available Peritonitis and ultrafiltration failure remain serious complications of chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD. Dysfunctional cellular stress responses aggravate peritoneal injury associated with PD fluid exposure, potentially due to peritoneal glutamine depletion. In this randomized cross-over phase I/II trial we investigated cytoprotective effects of alanyl-glutamine (AlaGln addition to glucose-based PDF.In a prospective randomized cross-over design, 20 stable PD outpatients underwent paired peritoneal equilibration tests 4 weeks apart, using conventional acidic, single chamber 3.86% glucose PD fluid, with and without 8 mM supplemental AlaGln. Heat-shock protein 72 expression was assessed in peritoneal effluent cells as surrogate parameter of cellular stress responses, complemented by metabolomics and functional immunocompetence assays.AlaGln restored peritoneal glutamine levels and increased the primary outcome heat-shock protein expression (effect 1.51-fold, CI 1.07-2.14; p = 0.022, without changes in peritoneal ultrafiltration, small solute transport, or biomarkers reflecting cell mass and inflammation. Further effects were glutamine-like metabolomic changes and increased ex-vivo LPS-stimulated cytokine release from healthy donor peripheral blood monocytes. In patients with a history of peritonitis (5 of 20, AlaGln supplementation decreased dialysate interleukin-8 levels. Supplemented PD fluid also attenuated inflammation and enhanced stimulated cytokine release in a mouse model of PD-associated peritonitis.We conclude that AlaGln-supplemented, glucose-based PD fluid can restore peritoneal cellular stress responses with attenuation of sterile inflammation, and may improve peritoneal host-defense in the setting of PD.

  13. Mechanism of internal browning of pineapple: The role of gibberellins catabolism gene (AcGA2ox) and GAs

    Zhang, Qin; Rao, Xiuwen; Zhang, Lubin; He, Congcong; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Shijiang

    2016-01-01

    Internal browning (IB), a physiological disorder (PD) that causes severe losses in harvested pineapple, can be induced by exogenous gibberellins (GAs). Over the years, studies have focused on roles of Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2oxs), the major GAs catabolic enzyme in plants, in the regulation of changes in morphology or biomass. However, whether GA2oxs could regulate PD has not been reported. Here, a full-length AcGA2ox cDNA was isolated from pineapple, with the putative protein sharing 23.59% to 72.92% identity with GA2oxs from five other plants. Pineapples stored at 5 °C stayed intact, while those stored at 20 °C showed severe IB. Storage at 5 °C enhanced AcGA2ox expression and decreased levels of a GAs (GA4) ‘compared with storage at 20 °C. However, at 20 °C, exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA) significantly suppressed IB. ABA simultaneously upregulated AcGA2ox and reduced GA4. Ectopic expression of AcGA2ox in Arabidopsis resulted in reduced GA4, lower seed germination, and shorter hypocotyls and roots, all of which were restored by exogenous GA4/7. Moreover, in pineapple, GA4/7 upregulated polyphenol oxidase, while storage at 5 °C and ABA downregulated it. These results strongly suggest the involvement of AcGA2ox in regulation of GAs levels and a role of AcGA2ox in regulating IB. PMID:27982026

  14. Plant-specific Histone Deacetylases HDT½ Regulate GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE 2 Expression to Control Arabidopsis Root Meristem Cell Number

    Li, Huchen

    2017-08-31

    Root growth is modulated by environmental factors and depends on cell production in the root meristem (RM). New cells in the meristem are generated by stem cells and transit-amplifying cells, which together determine RM cell number. Transcription factors and chromatin-remodelling factors have been implicated in regulating the switch from stem cells to transit-amplifying cells. Here we show that two Arabidopsis thaliana paralogs encoding plant-specific histone deacetylases, HDT1 and HDT2, regulate a second switch from transit-amplifying cells to expanding cells. Knockdown of HDT½ (hdt1,2i) results in an earlier switch and causes a reduced RM cell number. Our data show that HDT½ negatively regulate the acetylation level of the C19-GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE 2 (GA2ox2) locus and repress the expression of GA2ox2 in the RM and elongation zone. Overexpression of GA2ox2 in the RM phenocopies the hdt1,2i phenotype. Conversely, knockout of GA2ox2 partially rescues the root growth defect of hdt1,2i. These results suggest that by repressing the expression of GA2ox2, HDT½ likely fine-tune gibberellin metabolism and they are crucial for regulating the switch from cell division to expansion to determine RM cell number. We propose that HDT½ function as part of a mechanism that modulates root growth in response to environmental factors.

  15. Hydrologic responses to restored wildfire regimes revealed by soil moisture-vegetation relationships

    Boisramé, Gabrielle; Thompson, Sally; Stephens, Scott

    2018-02-01

    Many forested mountain watersheds worldwide evolved with frequent fire, which Twentieth Century fire suppression activities eliminated, resulting in unnaturally dense forests with high water demand. Restoration of pre-suppression forest composition and structure through a variety of management activities could improve forest resilience and water yields. This study explores the potential for "managed wildfire", whereby naturally ignited fires are allowed to burn, to alter the water balance. Interest in this type of managed wildfire is increasing, yet its long-term effects on water balance are uncertain. We use soil moisture as a spatially-distributed hydrologic indicator to assess the influence of vegetation, fire history and landscape position on water availability in the Illilouette Creek Basin in Yosemite National Park. Over 6000 manual surface soil moisture measurements were made over a period of three years, and supplemented with continuous soil moisture measurements over the top 1m of soil in three sites. Random forest and linear mixed effects models showed a dominant effect of vegetation type and history of vegetation change on measured soil moisture. Contemporary and historical vegetation maps were used to upscale the soil moisture observations to the basin and infer soil moisture under fire-suppressed conditions. Little change in basin-averaged soil moisture was inferred due to managed wildfire, but the results indicated that large localized increases in soil moisture had occurred, which could have important impacts on local ecology or downstream flows.

  16. Response of microbial communities to pesticide residues in soil restored with Azolla imbricata.

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Under conditions of Azolla imbricata restoration, the high-throughput sequencing technology was employed to determine change trends of microbial community structures in the soil that had undergone long-term application of pesticides. The relationship between the content of pesticide residues in the soil and the microbial community structure was analyzed. The results indicated that the microbial diversity was strongly negatively correlated with the contents of pesticide residues in the soil. At a suitable dosage of 5 kg fresh A. imbricata per square meter of soil area, the soil microbial diversity increased by 12.0%, and the contents of pesticide residues decreased by 26.8-72.1%. Sphingobacterium, Sphingopyxis, Thermincola, Sphingobium, Acaryochloris, Megasphaera, Ralstonia, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Desulfitobacterium, Nostoc, Oscillochloris, and Aciditerrimonas may play major roles in the degradation of pesticide residues. Thauera, Levilinea, Geothrix, Thiobacillus, Thioalkalispira, Desulfobulbus, Polycyclovorans, Fluviicola, Deferrisoma, Erysipelothrix, Desulfovibrio, Cytophaga, Vogesella, Zoogloea, Azovibrio, Halomonas, Paludibacter, Crocinitomix, Haliscomenobacter, Hirschia, Silanimonas, Alkalibacter, Woodsholea, Peredibacter, Leptolinea, Chitinivorax, Candidatus_Lumbricincola, Anaerovorax, Propionivibrio, Parasegetibacter, Byssovorax, Runella, Leptospira, and Nitrosomonas may be indicators to evaluate the contents of pesticide residues.

  17. [Effects of fluridone, gibberellin acid and germination temperature on dormancy-breaking for Epimedium wushanense].

    Su, He; Wang, Yue; Yang, Yang; Dong, Xue-Hui

    2016-07-01

    We introduced Epimedium wushanense seed which has been stratified for 90 days at 10/20 ℃ as experimental materials, with which we studied the effects of fluridone, gibberellin acid and temperature on E. wushanense germination. The results were suggested as shown below. ①Temperature, fluridone and gibberellin acid can both solely or jointly affect germination energy, germination rate significantly. Among those factors, fluridone affect germination rate and germination energy the most, followed by gibberellin acid and temperature. The highest germination rate under 4 ℃ and 10/20 ℃ stratification are 79.3%, 72.0% respectively, which resulted from treatment of F10GA300 and F20GA200 respectively. The highest germination energy under 4 ℃ and 10/20 ℃ stratification are 52.7%, 52.0%, respectively, which both resulted from F20GA200. ②Compared with 4 ℃ germination, seed could not germinate at 10/20 ℃ germination. Nontheless, application of fluridone can lead E. wushanense seeds to germinating.③The effects of gibberellin acid and interaction between gibberellin acid and fluridone significantly affect seed rotten rate during germination. In addition, soaking is another remarkable factor which increased seed rotten rate. As a result, it is feasible to promote E. wushanense dormancy releasing with gibberellin acid and fluridone associating with a proper germination temperature. Further, it is necessary taking actions to avoid seed rotten rate for saving E. wushanense nurseries'cost. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Restoring the salivary cortisol awakening response through nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Ghiciuc, Cristina Mihaela; Dima Cozma, Lucia Corina; Bercea, Raluca Mihaela; Lupusoru, Catalina Elena; Mihaescu, Traian; Szalontay, Andreea; Gianfreda, Angela; Patacchioli, Francesca Romana

    2013-10-01

    Partial and largely conflicting data are currently available on the interplay between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity in adult obese men. This study was performed to evaluate the daily trajectories of salivary cortisol, specifically with respect to the salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR), a common method used to assess HPA axis activity. The main findings of this study were that adult male obese subjects who were newly diagnosed with severe OSA showed the following: (1) a flattening of the CAR; (2) levels of cortisol at awakening that were lower than those of the controls; and (3) maintenance of the physiological circadian activity of the HPA axis, with the highest hormone concentrations produced in the morning and the lowest in the evening. This study was also designed to investigate the effects of 3 and 6 mos of treatment with continuous airways positive pressure (CPAP). CPAP use resulted in a significant recovery of the sleep patterns disrupted by OSA; moreover, mild neuropsychological signs of depression and anxiety in severe OSA patients were concomitantly progressively improved by CPAP treatment. Furthermore, this study reports that 3 and 6 mos of CPAP therapy restored the presence of CAR and was able to significantly reduce the difference in the morning cortisol levels between the OSA and control groups. In conclusion, we report here that compared with obese nonapneic matched controls, OSA patients present a dysregulation of HPA axis activity, as shown by the flattening of the diurnal pattern of cortisol production in response to repeated challenge due to hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. This dysregulation was especially detectable in the first hour after awakening and restored after 3 and 6 mos of treatment with CPAP.

  19. Large-scale dam removal in the northeast United States: documenting ecological responses to the Penobscot River Restoration Project

    Collins, M. J.; Aponte Clarke, G.; Baeder, C.; McCaw, D.; Royte, J.; Saunders, R.; Sheehan, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Penobscot River Restoration Project aims to improve aquatic connectivity in New England's second largest watershed ( 22,000 km2) by removing the two lowermost, mainstem dams and bypassing a third dam on a principal tributary upstream. Project objectives include: restoring unobstructed access to the entire historic riverine range for five lower river diadromous species including Atlantic and shortnose sturgeon; significantly improving access to upstream habitat for six upper river diadromous species including Atlantic salmon; reconnecting trophic linkages between headwater areas and the Gulf of Maine; restoring fluvial processes to the former impoundments; improving recreational and Penobscot Nation cultural opportunities; and maintaining basin-wide hydropower output. The project is expected to have landscape-scale benefits and the need for a significant investment in long-term monitoring and evaluation to formally quantify ecosystem response has been recognized. A diverse group of federal, state, tribal, NGO, and academic partners has developed a long-term monitoring and evaluation program composed of nine studies that began in 2009. Including American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding that leveraged partner contributions, we have invested nearly $2M to date in pre- and post-removal investigations that evaluate geomorphology/bed sediment, water quality, wetlands, and fisheries. Given the number of affected diadromous species and the diversity of their life histories, we have initiated six distinct, but related, fisheries investigations to document these expected changes: Atlantic salmon upstream and downstream passage efficiency using passive integrated transponder (PIT) and acoustic telemetry; fish community structure via an index of biotic integrity (IBI); total diadromous fish biomass through hydroacoustics; shortnose sturgeon spawning and habitat use via active and passive acoustic telemetry; and freshwater-marine food web interactions by

  20. Gibberellin control of stamen development: a fertile field.

    Plackett, Andrew R G; Thomas, Stephen G; Wilson, Zoe A; Hedden, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Stamen development is governed by a conserved genetic pathway, within which the role of hormones has been the subject of considerable recent research. Our understanding of the involvement of gibberellin (GA) signalling in this developmental process is further advanced than for the other phytohormones, and here we review recent experimental results in rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that have provided insight into the timing and mechanisms of GA regulation of stamen development, identifying the tapetum and developing pollen as major targets. GA signalling governs both tapetum secretory functions and entry into programmed cell death via the GAMYB class of transcription factor, the targets of which integrate with the established genetic framework for the regulation of tapetum function at multiple hierarchical levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical screening and development of novel gibberellin mimics.

    Jiang, Kai; Shimotakahara, Hiroaki; Luo, Ming; Otani, Masato; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Moselhy, Said Salama; Abualnaja, Khalid Omer; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman Labeed; Kumosani, Taha Abduallah; Kitahata, Nobutaka; Nakano, Takeshi; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Asami, Tadao

    2017-08-15

    Gibberellin (GA) plays versatile roles in the regulation of plant growth and development and therefore is widely used as a regulator in agriculture. We performed a chemical library screening and identified a chemical, named 67D, as a stimulator of seed germination that was suppressed by paclobutrazol (PAC), a GA biosynthesis inhibitor. In vitro binding assays indicated that 67D binds to the GID1 receptor. Further studies on the structure-activity relationship identified a chemical, named chemical 6, that strongly promoted seed germination suppressed by PAC. Chemical 6 was further confirmed to promote the degradation of RGA (for repressor of ga1-3), a DELLA protein, and suppress the expression levels of GA3ox1 in the same manner as GA does. 67D and its analogs are supposed to be agonists of GID1 and are expected to be utilized in agriculture and basic research as an alternative to GA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcriptomic Analysis of Gibberellin- and Paclobutrazol-Treated Rice Seedlings under Submergence

    Jing Xiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Submergence stress is a limiting factor for rice growing in rainfed lowland areas of the world. It is known that the phytohormone gibberellin (GA has negative effects on submergence tolerance in rice, while its inhibitor paclobutrazol (PB does the opposite. However, the physiological and molecular basis underlying the GA- and PB-regulated submergence response remains largely unknown. In this study, we reveal that PB could significantly enhance rice seedling survival by retaining a higher level of chlorophyll content and alcohol dehydrogenase activity, and decelerating the consumption of non-structure carbohydrate when compared with the control and GA-treated samples. Further transcriptomic analysis identified 3936 differentially expressed genes (DEGs among the GA- and PB-treated samples and control, which are extensively involved in the submergence and other abiotic stress responses, phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, photosynthesis, and nutrient metabolism. The results suggested that PB enhances rice survival under submergence through maintaining the photosynthesis capacity and reducing nutrient metabolism. Taken together, the current study provided new insight into the mechanism of phytohormone-regulated submergence response in rice.

  3. Evidence for the Translocation of Gibberellin A_3 and Gibberellin-Like Substances in Grafts between Normal, Dwarf_1 and Dwarf_5 Seedlings of Zea mays L.

    M., Katsumi; D.E., Foard; B.O., Phinney; Biology Department, International Christian University; Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University; Department of Biology, University of California

    1983-01-01

    Approach grafts were made between the cut surfaces of mesocotyls from normal and dwarf seedlings of Zea mays L. (maize). The dwarfs were the non-allelic single gene gibberellin mutants, dwarf_1 and dwarf_5. The graft combinations were normal-normal, normal-dwarf_1, normal-dwarf_5, dwarf_1-dwarf_1, dwarf_5-dwarf_5, and dwarf_1-dwarf_5. The grafts were used to demonstrate the movement of gibberellin-like substances across the union. GA_3, added to one member of the graft, resulted in leaf-sheat...

  4. Restoring stakeholders’ trust in multinationals’ tax planning practices with corporate social responsibility (CSR)

    Jallai, Ave-Geidi; Peeters, Bruno; Gribnau, Hans; Badisco, Jo

    2017-01-01

    This contribution discusses the tax planning behaviour of big corporations and investigates Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a tool to battle the issue. It will be argued that certain legal tax planning strategies of multinationals are not acceptable to local communities and the public in

  5. Enhanced Antibody Responses in a Novel NOG Transgenic Mouse with Restored Lymph Node Organogenesis

    Takeshi Takahashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymph nodes (LNs are at the center of adaptive immune responses. Various exogenous substances are transported into LNs and a series of immune responses ensue after recognition by antigen–specific lymphocytes. Although humanized mice have been used to reconstitute the human immune system, most lack LNs due to deficiency of the interleukin (IL-2Rγ gene (cytokine common γ chain, γc. In this study, we established a transgenic strain, NOG-pRORγt-γc, in the NOD/shi-scid-IL-2Rγnull (NOG background, in which the γc gene was expressed in a lymph-tissue inducer (LTi lineage by the endogenous promoter of RORγt. In this strain, LN organogenesis was normalized and the number of human T cells substantially increased in the periphery after reconstitution of the human immune system by human hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The distribution of human T cells differed between NOG-pRORγt-γc Tg and NOG-non Tg mice. About 40% of human T cells resided in LNs, primarily the mesenteric LNs. The LN-complemented humanized mice exhibited antigen-specific immunoglobulin G responses together and an increased number of IL-21+–producing CD4+ T cells in LNs. This novel mouse strain will facilitate recapitulation of human immune responses.

  6. Isolation and characterisation of a dwarf rice mutant exhibiting defective gibberellins biosynthesis.

    Ji, S H; Gururani, M A; Lee, J W; Ahn, B-O; Chun, S-C

    2014-03-01

    We have isolated a severe dwarf mutant derived from a Ds (Dissociation) insertion mutant rice (Oryza sativa var. japonica c.v. Dongjin). This severe dwarf phenotype, has short and dark green leaves, reduced shoot growth early in the seedling stage, and later severe dwarfism with failure to initiate flowering. When treated with bioactive GA3 , mutants are restored to the normal wild-type phenotype. Reverse transcription PCR analyses of 22 candidate genes related to the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway revealed that among 22 candidate genes tested, a dwarf mutant transcript was not expressed only in one OsKS2 gene. Genetic analysis revealed that the severe dwarf phenotype was controlled by recessive mutation of a single nuclear gene. The putative OsKS2 gene was a chromosome 4-located ent-kaurene synthase (KS), encoding the enzyme that catalyses an early step of the GA biosynthesis pathway. Sequence analysis revealed that osks2 carried a 1-bp deletion in the ORF region of OsKS2, which led to a loss-of-function mutation. The expression pattern of OsKS2 in wild-type cv Dongjin, showed that it is expressed in all organs, most prominently in the stem and floral organs. Morphological characteristics of the dwarf mutant showed dramatic modifications in internal structure and external morphology. We propose that dwarfism in this mutant is caused by a point mutation in OsKS2, which plays a significant role in growth and development of higher plants. Further investigation on OsKS2 and other OsKS-like proteins is underway and may yield better understanding of the putative role of OsKS in severe dwarf mutants. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Stamen-derived bioactive gibberellin is essential for male flower development of Cucurbita maxima L.

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Knop, Nicole; Lange, Theo

    2012-04-01

    Gibberellin (GA) signalling during pumpkin male flower development is highly regulated, including biosynthetic, perception, and transduction pathways. GA 20-oxidases, 3-oxidases, and 2-oxidases catalyse the final part of GA synthesis. Additionally, 7-oxidase initiates this part of the pathway in some cucurbits including Cucurbita maxima L. (pumpkin). Expression patterns for these GA-oxidase-encoding genes were examined by competitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and endogenous GA levels were determined during pumpkin male flower development. In young flowers, GA20ox3 transcript levels are high in stamens, followed by high levels of the GA precursor GA(9). Later, just before flower opening, transcript levels for GA3ox3 and GA3ox4 increase in the hypanthium and stamens, respectively. In the stamen, following GA3ox4 expression, bioactive GA(4) levels rise dramatically. Accordingly, catabolic GA2ox2 and GA2ox3 transcript levels are low in developing flowers, and increase in mature flowers. Putative GA receptor GID1b and DELLA repressor GAIPb transcript levels do not change in developing flowers, but increase sharply in mature flowers. Emasculation arrests floral development completely and leads to abscission of premature flowers. Application of GA(4) (but not of its precursors GA(12)-aldehyde or GA(9)) restores normal growth of emasculated flowers. These results indicate that de novo GA(4) synthesis in the stamen is under control of GA20ox3 and GA3ox4 genes just before the rapid flower growth phase. Stamen-derived bioactive GA is essential and sufficient for male flower development, including the petal and the pedicel growth.

  8. Rice early flowering1, a CKI, phosphorylates DELLA protein SLR1 to negatively regulate gibberellin signalling.

    Dai, Cheng; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2010-06-02

    The plant hormone gibberellin (GA) is crucial for multiple aspects of plant growth and development. To study the relevant regulatory mechanisms, we isolated a rice mutant earlier flowering1, el1, which is deficient in a casein kinase I that has critical roles in both plants and animals. el1 had an enhanced GA response, consistent with the suppression of EL1 expression by exogenous GA(3). Biochemical characterization showed that EL1 specifically phosphorylates the rice DELLA protein SLR1, proving a direct evidence for SLR1 phosphorylation. Overexpression of SLR1 in wild-type plants caused a severe dwarf phenotype, which was significantly suppressed by EL1 deficiency, indicating the negative effect of SLR1 on GA signalling requires the EL1 function. Further studies showed that the phosphorylation of SLR1 is important for maintaining its activity and stability, and mutation of the candidate phosphorylation site of SLR1 results in the altered GA signalling. This study shows EL1 a novel and key regulator of the GA response and provided important clues on casein kinase I activities in GA signalling and plant development.

  9. Gibberellins Promote Brassinosteroids Action and Both Increase Heterosis for Plant Height in Maize (Zea mays L.

    Songlin Hu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs and Gibberellins (GAs are two classes of plant hormones affecting plant height (PHT. Thus, manipulation of BR and GA levels or signaling enables optimization of crop grain and biomass yields. We established backcross (BC families, selected for increased PHT, in two elite maize inbred backgrounds. Various exotic accessions used in the germplasm enhancement in maize project served as donors. BC1-derived doubled haploid lines in the same two elite maize inbred backgrounds established without selection for plant height were included for comparison. We conducted genome-wide association studies to explore the genetic control of PHT by BR and GA. In addition, we used BR and GA inhibitors to compare the relationship between PHT, BR, and GA in inbred lines and heterozygotes from a physiological and biological perspective. A total of 73 genomic loci were discovered to be associated with PHT, with seven co-localized with GA, and two co-localized with BR candidate genes. PHT determined in field trials was significantly correlated with seedling stage BR and GA inhibitor responses. However, this observation was only true for maize heterozygotes, not for inbred lines. Path analysis results suggest that heterozygosity increases GA levels, which in turn promote BR levels. Thus, at least part of heterosis for PHT in maize can be explained by increased GA and BR levels, and seedling stage hormone inhibitor response is promising to predict heterosis for PHT.

  10. Influence of water table decline on growth allocation and endogenous gibberellins in black cottonwood

    Rood, S.B.; Zanewich, K.; Stefura, C. [Lethbridge Univ., Lethbridge, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Mahoney, J.M. [Alberta Environmental Protection, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    Cottonwoods have shown an adaptation to the riparian zone by coordinating root elongation to maintain contact with the water table, whose depth varies with the elevation of the adjacent river. The rate of water decline on growth allocation and concentrations of endogenous gibberellins (GAs) in black cottonwood saplings were studied at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta. Water declines were achieved by using rhizopods, and root elongation approximately doubled in response whereas leaf area was reduced. At some point, a greater water decline rate led to water stress resulting in reduced growth, increased leaf diffusive resistance, decreased water potential, and leaf senescence and abscission. After extraction of endogenous GAs, they were purified and analysed by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring with internal ({sup 2}H{sub 2})GA standards. The results showed that GAs were higher in shoot tips and sequentially lower in basal stems, root tips, leaves and upper roots. Noticeable relationships did not appear between GA concentration and growth allocation across the water decline treatments. Only GA{sub 8} showed a consistent reduction in plants experiencing water table decline. This research did not permit the authors to conclude whether endogenous GAs play a primary role in the regulation of root elongation in response to water table decline. 7 figs., 25 refs.

  11. Evaluating small mammal response to natural disturbance and restoration in oak ecosystems in the Mississippi alluvial valley

    Smith Carl G; Hamel Paul B; Fuzaro Gullo, Manoelle

    2010-01-01

    Oak species form a conspicuous and often dominant component of bottom land forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. The extent of these forests has been drastically reduced as a result of clearing for agriculture in the past two centuries. Patterns of clearing have reduced the distribution of remaining forest patches to a much more flood-prone subset of the landscape than was historically the case, reducing the diversity of oak species currently present on the landscape. Intensive harvesting has further changed the composition of the remaining stands. Small remnant patches of primary forest continue to exist as Research Natural Areas on the Delta National Forest in Sharkey County, Mississippi. In particular, the Over cup Oak (Quercus lyrata) and Redgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) Research Natural Areas pres ent substantial components of the trees for which the areas were named, as well as Quercus nuttallii and smaller components of other species. Recent interest in afforestation has produced a resurgence of interest in restoration of oak forest to abandoned farmland in the region. We have studied small mammal response to restoration on an extensive experiment near the Delta National Forest since 1995. We have also examined small mammal response to a tornado that disturbed approximately half of the Over cup Oak Research Natural Area in 2008. We use these studies to demonstrate how population estimates of small mammals can be obtained from capture-recapture studies, employing different designs, and utilizing Program Capture for population estimation. Small mammal communities in these stands are more species-rich in early succession than in primary forest. The study of response to tornado damage to the Over cup Oak Research Natural Area is complicated by the fact that this particular forest type is very flood-prone, creating obstacles to colonization by small mammals. Analysis of capture-recapture data with robust methods illustrated in this study permits extraction

  12. Intraspecific variation in growth of marsh macrophytes in response to salinity and soil type: Implications for wetland restoration

    Howard, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic diversity within plant populations can influence plant community structure along environmental gradients. In wetland habitats, salinity and soil type are factors that can vary along gradients and therefore affect plant growth. To test for intraspecific growth variation in response to these factors, a greenhouse study was conducted using common plants that occur in northern Gulf of Mexico brackish and salt marshes. Individual plants of Distichlis spicata, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus californicus, and Schoenoplectus robustus were collected from several locations along the coast in Louisiana, USA. Plant identity, based on collection location, was used as a measure of intraspecific variability. Prepared soil mixtures were organic, silt, or clay, and salinity treatments were 0 or 18 psu. Significant intraspecific variation in stem number, total stem height, or biomass was found in all species. Within species, response to soil type varied, but increased salinity significantly decreased growth in all individuals. Findings indicate that inclusion of multiple genets within species is an important consideration for marsh restoration projects that include vegetation plantings. This strategy will facilitate establishment of plant communities that have the flexibility to adapt to changing environmental conditions and, therefore, are capable of persisting over time. ?? Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation 2009.

  13. Status of environmental response efforts at radioactively contaminated sites in the united states air force installation restoration program

    Rowe, W.D. Jr.; McEntee, T.E. Jr.; Johnson, B.; Manning, L.

    1995-01-01

    The United States Air Force has identified approximately 170 radioactively contaminated sites at its domestic installations. These sites contain a variety of low level radioactive and mixed wastes and are classified as burial sites, landfills, buildings, and other disposal sites. Of these 170, approximately 70 are presently being evaluated under the Air Force Installation Restoration Program (IRP) in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. Removal and/or remedial actions have been taken at specific sites using site-specific residual radioactivity criteria. The remaining sites are either under investigation to determine the need for possible action or have been classified as response complete based on restricted or unrestricted future use. This paper describes past Air Force operations that generated radioactive waste materials; examines the current inventory of resulting radioactively contaminated sites in the Air Force IRP; reviews criteria used to evaluate sites for removal and/or remedial actions; provides summary information on actions taken at sites; and focuses on response actions and cleanup levels at two completed sites. The paper concludes with an assessment of outstanding issues relevant to the remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. (author)

  14. Landowner and visitor response to forest landscape restoration: the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest Northeast Sands Project

    Kristin Floress; Anna Haines; Emily Usher; Paul Gobster; Mike. Dockry

    2018-01-01

    This report is intended to support the ongoing pine barrens restoration on work in the Lakewood-Laona Ranger District on the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest (CNNF). The report provides the results from 2016 surveys and focus groups examining landowner and visitor attitudes toward forest management treatments, communication, and restoration project outcomes; their...

  15. Reach-scale stream restoration in agricultural streams of southern Minnesota alters structural and functional responses of macroinvertebrates

    Dolph, Christine L.; Eggert, Susan L.; Magner, Joe; Ferrington, Leonard C.; Vondracek, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that stream restoration at the reach scale may not increase stream biodiversity, raising concerns about the utility of this conservation practice. We examined whether reach-scale restoration in disturbed agricultural streams was associated with changes in macroinvertebrate community structure (total macroinvertebrate taxon richness, total macroinvertebrate density, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera [EPT] taxon richness, % abundance of EPT taxa) or secondary production (macroinvertebrate biomass over time). We collected macroinvertebrate samples over the course of 1 y from restored and unrestored reaches of 3 streams in southern Minnesota and used generalized least-square (GLS) models to assess whether measures of community structure were related to reach type, stream site, or sampling month. After accounting for effects of stream site and time, we found no significant difference in total taxon richness or % abundance of EPT taxa between restored and unrestored reaches. However, the number of EPT taxa and macroinvertebrate density were significantly higher in restored than in unrestored reaches. We compared secondary production estimates among study reaches based on 95th-percentile confidence intervals generated via bootstrapping. In each study stream, secondary production was significantly (2–3×) higher in the restored than in the unrestored reach. Higher productivity in the restored reaches was largely a result of the disproportionate success of a few dominant, tolerant taxa. Our findings suggest that reach-scale restoration may have ecological effects that are not detected by measures of total taxon richness alone.

  16. Brassinosteroid Regulates Cell Elongation by Modulating Gibberellin Metabolism in Rice[C][W][OPEN

    Tong, Hongning; Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Dapu; Gao, Shaopei; Liu, Linchuan; Yin, Yanhai; Jin, Yun; Qian, Qian; Chu, Chengcai

    2014-01-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) are two predominant hormones regulating plant cell elongation. A defect in either of these leads to reduced plant growth and dwarfism. However, their relationship remains unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Here, we demonstrated that BR regulates cell elongation by modulating GA metabolism in rice. Under physiological conditions, BR promotes GA accumulation by regulating the expression of GA metabolic genes to stimulate cell elongation. BR greatly induces the expression of D18/GA3ox-2, one of the GA biosynthetic genes, leading to increased GA1 levels, the bioactive GA in rice seedlings. Consequently, both d18 and loss-of-function GA-signaling mutants have decreased BR sensitivity. When excessive active BR is applied, the hormone mostly induces GA inactivation through upregulation of the GA inactivation gene GA2ox-3 and also represses BR biosynthesis, resulting in decreased hormone levels and growth inhibition. As a feedback mechanism, GA extensively inhibits BR biosynthesis and the BR response. GA treatment decreases the enlarged leaf angles in plants with enhanced BR biosynthesis or signaling. Our results revealed a previously unknown mechanism underlying BR and GA crosstalk depending on tissues and hormone levels, which greatly advances our understanding of hormone actions in crop plants and appears much different from that in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25371548

  17. The rice YABBY1 gene is involved in the feedback regulation of gibberellin metabolism.

    Dai, Mingqiu; Zhao, Yu; Ma, Qian; Hu, Yongfeng; Hedden, Peter; Zhang, Qifa; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2007-05-01

    Gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis is regulated by feedback control providing a mechanism for GA homeostasis in plants. However, regulatory elements involved in the feedback control are not known. In this report, we show that a rice (Oryza sativa) YABBY1 (YAB1) gene had a similar expression pattern as key rice GA biosynthetic genes GA3ox2 and GA20ox2. Overexpression of YAB1 in transgenic rice resulted in a semidwarf phenotype that could be fully rescued by applied GA. Quantification of the endogenous GA content revealed increases of GA(20) and decreases of GA(1) levels in the overexpression plants, in which the transcripts of the biosynthetic gene GA3ox2 were decreased. Cosuppression of YAB1 in transgenic plants induced expression of GA3ox2. The repression of GA3ox2 could be obtained upon treatment by dexamethasone of transgenic plants expressing a YAB1-glucocorticoid receptor fusion. Importantly, we show that YAB1 bound to a GA-responsive element within the GA3ox2 promoter. In addition, the expression of YAB1 was deregulated in GA biosynthesis and signaling mutants and could be either transiently induced by GA or repressed by a GA inhibitor. Finally, either overexpression or cosuppression of YAB1 impaired GA-mediated repression of GA3ox2. These data together suggest that YAB1 is involved in the feedback regulation of GA biosynthesis in rice.

  18. Characterization of ent-kaurene synthase and kaurene oxidase involved in gibberellin biosynthesis from Scoparia dulcis.

    Yamamura, Yoshimi; Taguchi, Yukari; Ichitani, Kei; Umebara, Io; Ohshita, Ayako; Kurosaki, Fumiya; Lee, Jung-Bum

    2018-03-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are ubiquitous diterpenoids in higher plants, whereas some higher plants produce unique species-specific diterpenoids. In GA biosynthesis, ent-kaurene synthase (KS) and ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) are key players which catalyze early step(s) of the cyclization and oxidation reactions. We have studied the functional characterization of gene products of a KS (SdKS) and two KOs (SdKO1 and SdKO2) involved in GA biosynthesis in Scoparia dulcis. Using an in vivo heterologous expression system of Escherichia coli, we found that SdKS catalyzed a cyclization reaction from ent-CPP to ent-kaurene and that the SdKOs oxidized ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid after modification of the N-terminal region for adaptation to the E. coli expression system. The real-time PCR results showed that the SdKS, SdKO1 and SdKO2 genes were mainly expressed in the root and lateral root systems, which are elongating tissues. Based on these results, we suggest that these three genes may be responsible for the metabolism of GAs in S. dulcis.

  19. Restoration of Shallow Lakes in Subtropical and Tropical China: Response of Nutrients and Water Clarity to Biomanipulation by Fish Removal and Submerged Plant Transplantation

    Jinlei Yu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish removal has been used to restore temperate lakes, and positive effects on ecological state and water clarity have frequently been recorded in many lakes. Recently, a supplementary measure, transplantation of submerged macrophytes after fish removal, has been applied to restore warm Chinese shallow lakes in order to compensate for the expected lack of increasing grazing control of phytoplankton after the biomanipulation. These measures have successfully shifted turbid warm lakes to a clear water state, but little is known about the responses to restoration of key physico-chemical variables. We analyzed the seasonal variation in nutrient concentrations in two subtropical and one tropical biomanipulated shallow Chinese lakes subjected to restoration. In all three lakes, a marked decline occurred in the concentrations of lake total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, total suspended solids (TSS, and chlorophyll a (Chl a, while the transparency (SD:WD ratio, Secchi depth to water depth ratio increased. A clear water state was established, lasting so far for 7 to 23 months, and TN, TP, Chl a, and TSS levels in the three restored lakes decreased to, on average, 49%, 58%, 41%, and 18% of the level prior to restoration and/or the level in a reference lake, respectively, while the annual mean SD:WD ratio exhibited a 1.5–4 fold increase. In conclusion, lake restoration by transplantation of submerged macrophytes after fish removal had major positive effects on the physico-chemical variables in our study lakes. However, continuous control of omnivorous and herbivorous fish biomass is recommended as the fish typically present in warm, shallow lakes to some extent feed on submerged macrophytes, when available.

  20. Changes in endogenous gibberellin-like substances in onion bulbs (Allium cepa L. cv. Sochaczewska during storage

    Elżbieta Kielak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Onions cv. Sochaczewska were dried up under an umbrella roof till October 15th or till November 15th and thereafter stored in a cold room at 0-1°C until May 15th. During 4-year of experiment gibberellin activity was determined each month during storage. Three periods of high activity of gibberellins were found in most cases: in December, in February-March and in late spring. In general, onions dried longer (till November 15th, showed lower gibberellin activity than onions dried shorter. Gibberellin-like substances under investigation are localized in almost all Rf zones of chromatogram. Sprouting and rooting was related to gibberellin activity.

  1. Contrasting physiological responses of two co-occurring eucalypts to seasonal drought at restored bauxite mine sites.

    Szota, Christopher; Farrell, Claire; Koch, John M; Lambers, Hans; Veneklaas, Erik J

    2011-10-01

    This study describes the physiological response of two co-occurring tree species (Eucalyptus marginata and Corymbia calophylla) to seasonal drought at low- and high-quality restored bauxite mine sites in south-western Australia. Seasonal changes in photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)), leaf water potential (ψ), leaf osmotic potential (ψ), leaf relative water content (RWC) and pressure-volume analysis were captured over an 18-month field study to (i) determine the nature and severity of physiological stress in relation to site quality and (ii) identify any physiological differences between the two species. Root system restriction at the low-quality site reduced maximum rates of gas exchange (g(s) and A) and increased water stress (midday ψ and daily RWC) in both species during drought. Both species showed high stomatal sensitivity during drought; however, E. marginata demonstrated a higher dehydration tolerance where ψ and RWC fell to -3.2 MPa and 73% compared with -2.4 MPa and 80% for C. calophylla. Corymbia calophylla showed lower g(s) and higher ψ and RWC during drought, indicating higher drought tolerance. Pressure-volume curves showed that cell-wall elasticity of E. marginata leaves increased in response to drought, while C. calophylla leaves showed lower osmotic potential at zero turgor in summer than in winter, indicating osmotic adjustment. Both species are clearly able to tolerate seasonal drought at hostile sites; however, by C. calophylla closing stomata earlier in the drought cycle, maintaining a higher water status during drought and having the additional mechanism of osmotic adjustment, it may have a greater capacity to survive extended periods of drought.

  2. Atractylenolide I restores HO-1 expression and inhibits Ox-LDL-induced VSMCs proliferation, migration and inflammatory responses in vitro

    Li, Weifeng, E-mail: liwf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhi, Wenbing; Liu, Fang; He, Zehong; Wang, Xiuei; Niu, Xiaofeng, E-mail: niuxf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2017-04-01

    Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is characterized by the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and inflammatory lesions. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of atractylenolide I (AO-I) on smooth muscle cell inflammation, proliferation and migration induced by oxidized modified low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL). Here, We found that atractylenolide I inhibited Ox-LDL-induced VSMCs proliferation and migration in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased the production of inflammatory cytokines and the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in VSMCs. The study also identified that AO-I prominently inhibited p38-MAPK and NF-κB activation. More importantly, the specific heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) IX partially abolished the beneficial effects of atractylenolide I on Ox-LDL-induced VSMCs. Furthermore, atractylenolide I blocked the foam cell formation in macrophages induced by Ox-LDL. In summary, inhibitory roles of AO-I in VSMCs proliferation and migration, lipid peroxidation and subsequent inflammatory responses might contribute to the anti-atherosclerotic property of AO-I. - Highlights: • AO-I inhibited Ox-LDL-induced VSMCs proliferation and migration. • AO-I alleviated inflammatory response via inhibiting TNF-α, IL-6 and NO production. • AO-I restored HO-1 expression and down-regulated PCNA expression. • MCP-1 overexpression is potentially regulated by NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathway. • AO-I possesses strong anti-lipid peroxidation effect.

  3. Computation of restoration of ligand response in the random kinetics of a prostate cancer cell signaling pathway.

    Dana, Saswati; Nakakuki, Takashi; Hatakeyama, Mariko; Kimura, Shuhei; Raha, Soumyendu

    2011-01-01

    Mutation and/or dysfunction of signaling proteins in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway are frequently observed in various kinds of human cancer. Consistent with this fact, in the present study, we experimentally observe that the epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced activation profile of MAP kinase signaling is not straightforward dose-dependent in the PC3 prostate cancer cells. To find out what parameters and reactions in the pathway are involved in this departure from the normal dose-dependency, a model-based pathway analysis is performed. The pathway is mathematically modeled with 28 rate equations yielding those many ordinary differential equations (ODE) with kinetic rate constants that have been reported to take random values in the existing literature. This has led to us treating the ODE model of the pathways kinetics as a random differential equations (RDE) system in which the parameters are random variables. We show that our RDE model captures the uncertainty in the kinetic rate constants as seen in the behavior of the experimental data and more importantly, upon simulation, exhibits the abnormal EGF dose-dependency of the activation profile of MAP kinase signaling in PC3 prostate cancer cells. The most likely set of values of the kinetic rate constants obtained from fitting the RDE model into the experimental data is then used in a direct transcription based dynamic optimization method for computing the changes needed in these kinetic rate constant values for the restoration of the normal EGF dose response. The last computation identifies the parameters, i.e., the kinetic rate constants in the RDE model, that are the most sensitive to the change in the EGF dose response behavior in the PC3 prostate cancer cells. The reactions in which these most sensitive parameters participate emerge as candidate drug targets on the signaling pathway. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro gibberellin A1 binding in Zea mays L

    Keith, B.; Rappaport, L.

    1987-01-01

    The first and second leaf sheaths of Zea mays L. cv Golden Jubilee were extracted and the extract centrifuged at 100,000g to yield a supernatant or cytosol fraction. Binding of [ 3 H]gibberellin A 1 (GA 1 ) to a soluble macromolecular component present in the cytosol was demonstrated at 4 0 C by Sephadex G-200 chromatography. The binding component was of high molecular weight (HMW) and greater than 500 kilodaltons. The HMW component was shown to be a protein and the 3 H-activity bound to this protein was largely [ 3 H]GA 1 and not a metabolite. Binding was pH sensitive but only a small percentage (20%) appeared to be exchangeable on addition of unlabeled GA 1 . Both biologically active and inactive GAs and non-GAs were able to inhibit GA 1 binding. [ 3 H]GA 1 binding to an intermediate molecular weight (IMW) fraction (40-100 kilodaltons) was also detected, provided cytosol was first desalted using Sephadex G-200 chromatography. Gel filtration studies suggest that the HMW binding component is an aggregate derived from the IMW fraction. The HMW binding fraction can be separated into two components using anion exchange chromatography

  5. Regulation of Strigolactone Biosynthesis by Gibberellin Signaling1[OPEN

    Ito, Shinsaku; Yamagami, Daichi; Umehara, Mikihisa; Hanada, Atsushi; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Yajima, Shunsuke; Kyozuka, Junko; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro

    2017-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of plant hormones that regulate diverse physiological processes, including shoot branching and root development. They also act as rhizosphere signaling molecules to stimulate the germination of root parasitic weeds and the branching of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Although various types of cross talk between SLs and other hormones have been reported in physiological analyses, the cross talk between gibberellin (GA) and SLs is poorly understood. We screened for chemicals that regulate the level of SLs in rice (Oryza sativa) and identified GA as, to our knowledge, a novel SL-regulating molecule. The regulation of SL biosynthesis by GA is dependent on the GA receptor GID1 and F-box protein GID2. GA treatment also reduced the infection of rice plants by the parasitic plant witchers weed (Striga hermonthica). These data not only demonstrate, to our knowledge, the novel plant hormone cross talk between SL and GA, but also suggest that GA can be used to control parasitic weed infections. PMID:28404726

  6. Methylation of Gibberellins by Arabidopsis GAMT1 and GAMT2

    Varbanova,M.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yang, Y.; McKelvey, K.; Hanada, A.; Borochov, R.; Yu, F.; Jikumaru, Y.; Ross, J.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana GAMT1 and GAMT2 encode enzymes that catalyze formation of the methyl esters of gibberellins (GAs). Ectopic expression of GAMT1 or GAMT2 in Arabidopsis, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and petunia (Petunia hybrida) resulted in plants with GA deficiency and typical GA deficiency phenotypes, such as dwarfism and reduced fertility. GAMT1 and GAMT2 are both expressed mainly in whole siliques (including seeds), with peak transcript levels from the middle until the end of silique development. Within whole siliques, GAMT2 was previously shown to be expressed mostly in developing seeds, and we show here that GAMT1 expression is also localized mostly to seed, suggesting a role in seed development. Siliques of null single GAMT1 and GAMT2 mutants accumulated high levels of various GAs, with particularly high levels of GA1 in the double mutant. Methylated GAs were not detected in wild-type siliques, suggesting that methylation of GAs by GAMT1 and GAMT2 serves to deactivate GAs and initiate their degradation as the seeds mature. Seeds of homozygous GAMT1 and GAMT2 null mutants showed reduced inhibition of germination, compared with the wild type, when placed on plates containing the GA biosynthesis inhibitor ancymidol, with the double mutant showing the least inhibition. These results suggest that the mature mutant seeds contained higher levels of active GAs than wild-type seeds.

  7. Adventitious staminate flower formation in gibberellin treated gynoecious cucumber plants

    Fuchs, E.; Atsmon, D.; Halevy, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Single gibberellin (A sub(4 + 7)) treatments induced the appearance of staminate floral buds in several consecutive nodes on the main stem of genetically female cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). The staminate buds appeared next to pistillate buds which showed various degrees of degeneration. Similarly, repeated GA treatments induced the appearance of staminate flowers in otherwise strictly hermaphrodite plants, next to bisexual flowers. However, the bisexual buds, unlike the pistillate ones, did not show any deleterious effects of the GA treatment. Therefore, it is inferred that the hormonally induced staminate buds did not develop by sexual reversion of would-be pistillate or bisexual buds, but rather, represent adventitious buds which, in normally grown female or hermaphrodite plants, never develop. It thus seems that predetermined pistillate or bisexual buds do not change into staminate ones, while change in the reverse direction has been demonstrated in the past (at least for the gynoecious ones). The effectiveness of the GA treatment in the gynoecious plants showed an acropetal gradient both within the affected region, as well as along the main stem. Autoradiographic histological examinations showed that the course of development of the induced staminate floral bud did not differ from that of normally developing buds. (auth.)

  8. Gibberellins in shoots and developing capsules of Populus species.

    Pearce, David W; Hutt, Oliver E; Rood, Stewart B; Mander, Lewis N

    2002-03-01

    Extracts of stems of growing shoots of Populus deltoides and P. trichocarpa, and developing capsules of P. deltoides were analysed for gibberellins (GAs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The following known GAs were identified by comparison of their Kovats retention indices (KRIs) and mass spectra with those of standards: GA1, GA8, GA9, GA19, GA20, 16 beta,17-dihydro-17-hydroxy GA20, GA23, GA28, GA29, GA34, GA44, and GA97. Several of these have not been previously reported from Populus. In addition, two new GAs were identified as 12 beta-hydroxy GA53 (GA127) and 16 beta,17-dihydro-17-hydroxy GA53 and their structures were confirmed by partial synthesis. Evidence was found of 16,17-dihydro-16,17-dihydroxy GA9, 16,17-dihydro-16,17-dihydroxy GA12, 12-hydroxy GA14, and GA34-catabolite by comparison of mass spectra and KRIs with published data. Several putative GAs (hydroxy- and dihydroxy-GA12-like) were also found. The catabolites of active GAs or of key precursors, hydroxylated at C-2 in stems and either C-2, C-12, C-17, or C-16,17 in capsules, were the major proportion of the GAs.

  9. Morphological Modeling of a Low-Dune Barrier Headland System's Response to Hurricane Forcing Before and After a Large Scale Restoration

    Johnson, C.; Chen, Q. J.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal barrier landforms serve as the first line of defense against oceanic and meteorological forcing. Widespread recognition of this function has prompted coastal managers to adopt systematic restoration programs. The state of Louisiana has, in response to its critically eroding shorelines (Byrnes et al., 2017), implemented 30 barrier island and headland restoration projects over the past three decades. The Caminada Headlands Beach and Dune Restoration Project, completed in 2016, restored 22.5 kilometers of Louisiana's coastline by elevating the cross-shore profile and placing approximately 250,000 m3 of sediment within the back- and foreshore. Interventions of this magnitude are significant perturbations to the local sediment budget and geomorphodynamic equilibrium. In Louisiana, an important question is the immediate fate of placed sediment transported during the passage of a hurricane, as the potential to ultimately retain this sediment is influenced by the location of its deposition. The direction of net sediment transport (on- or offshore) depends mainly on the elevation of the storm surge relative to the dune crest, but also on the evolution of the cross-shore water surface gradient and the spatial configuration of biogeophysical properties and hard-structures (Sherwood et al., 2014; Smallegan et al., 2016) . Prior to its restoration, the Caminada headlands were generally of low elevation with the majority of dune crest extending less than 50 cm above MHW and several active breaches. Hurricanes Gustav (2008) and Isaac (2012) made landfall directly on the headlands with inundating storm surges that resulted in observed overwash deposition (Doran et al, 2009; Guy et al, 2013), i.e. landward directed sediment transport and deposition. An open-source process-based morphological model (XBeach) is used to study hurricane induced sediment transport for both pre- and post-restoration of the Caminada headlands. Hindcast pre-restoration simulations of Gustav's and

  10. Retributive and restorative justice.

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking.

  11. Comprehensive Gene Expression Analysis of Rice Aleurone Cells: Probing the Existence of an Alternative Gibberellin Receptor1

    Yano, Kenji; Aya, Koichiro; Hirano, Ko; Ordonio, Reynante Lacsamana; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Current gibberellin (GA) research indicates that GA must be perceived in plant nuclei by its cognate receptor, GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1). Recognition of GA by GID1 relieves the repression mediated by the DELLA protein, a model known as the GID1-DELLA GA perception system. There have been reports of potential GA-binding proteins in the plasma membrane that perceive GA and induce α-amylase expression in cereal aleurone cells, which is mechanistically different from the GID1-DELLA system. Therefore, we examined the expression of the rice (Oryza sativa) α-amylase genes in rice mutants impaired in the GA receptor (gid1) and the DELLA repressor (slender rice1; slr1) and confirmed their lack of response to GA in gid1 mutants and constitutive expression in slr1 mutants. We also examined the expression of GA-regulated genes by genome-wide microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses and confirmed that all GA-regulated genes are modulated by the GID1-DELLA system. Furthermore, we studied the regulatory network involved in GA signaling by using a set of mutants defective in genes involved in GA perception and gene expression, namely gid1, slr1, gid2 (a GA-related F-box protein mutant), and gamyb (a GA-related trans-acting factor mutant). Almost all GA up-regulated genes were regulated by the four named GA-signaling components. On the other hand, GA down-regulated genes showed different expression patterns with respect to GID2 and GAMYB (e.g. a considerable number of genes are not controlled by GAMYB or GID2 and GAMYB). Based on these observations, we present a comprehensive discussion of the intricate network of GA-regulated genes in rice aleurone cells. PMID:25511432

  12. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Biosynthesis and Deactivation of Gibberellin-Dioxygenases Gene Family in Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze

    Cheng Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellins (GAs, a class of diterpenoid phytohormones, play a key role in regulating diverse processes throughout the life cycle of plants. Bioactive GA levels are rapidly regulated by Gibberellin-dioxygenases (GAox, which are involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of gibberellin. In this manuscript, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis was carried out to find all GAox in Camellia sinensis. For the first time in a tea plant, 14 CsGAox genes, containing two domains, DIOX_N (PF14226 and 2OG-FeII_Oxy, were identified (PF03171. These genes all belong to 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODD, including four CsGA20ox (EC: 1.14.11.12, three CsGA3ox (EC: 1.14.11.15, and seven CsGA2ox (EC: 1.14.11.13. According to the phylogenetic classification as in Arabidopsis, the CsGAox genes spanned five subgroups. Each CsGAox shows tissue-specific expression patterns, although these vary greatly. Some candidate genes, which may play an important role in response to external abiotic stresses, have been identified with regards to patterns, such as CsGA20ox2, CsGA3ox2, CsGA3ox3, CsGA2ox1, CsGA2ox2, and CsGA2ox4. The bioactive GA levels may be closely related to the GA20ox, GA3ox and GA2ox genes. In addition, the candidate genes could be used as marker genes for abiotic stress resistance breeding in tea plants.

  13. Colonization by the endophyte Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana likely by triggering gibberellin biosynthesis

    Kim, Dongjin; Abdelaziz, Mohamad E.; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Guo, Xiujie; Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus colonizing roots of a wide variety of plants. Previous studies showed that P. indica promotes early flowering and plant growth in the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. To determine the impact of P. indica on flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated the plants with P. indica under long day condition. P. indica inoculated Arabidopsis plants displayed significant early flowering phenotype. qRT-PCR analysis of colonized plants revealed an up-regulation of flowering regulatory (FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and APETALA1) and gibberellin biosynthetic (Gibberellin 20-Oxidase2, Gibberellin 3-Oxidase1 and Gibberellin requiring1) genes, while the flowering-repressing gene FLOWERING LOCUS C was down regulated. Quantification of gibberellins content showed that the colonization with P. indica caused an increase in GA4 content. Compared to wild-type plants, inoculation of the Arabidopsis ga5 mutant affected in gibberellin biosynthetic gene led to less pronounced changes in the expression of genes regulating flowering and to a lower increase in GA4 content. Taken together, our data indicate that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely by increasing gibberellin content.

  14. Colonization by the endophyte Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana likely by triggering gibberellin biosynthesis

    Kim, Dongjin

    2017-06-28

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus colonizing roots of a wide variety of plants. Previous studies showed that P. indica promotes early flowering and plant growth in the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. To determine the impact of P. indica on flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated the plants with P. indica under long day condition. P. indica inoculated Arabidopsis plants displayed significant early flowering phenotype. qRT-PCR analysis of colonized plants revealed an up-regulation of flowering regulatory (FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and APETALA1) and gibberellin biosynthetic (Gibberellin 20-Oxidase2, Gibberellin 3-Oxidase1 and Gibberellin requiring1) genes, while the flowering-repressing gene FLOWERING LOCUS C was down regulated. Quantification of gibberellins content showed that the colonization with P. indica caused an increase in GA4 content. Compared to wild-type plants, inoculation of the Arabidopsis ga5 mutant affected in gibberellin biosynthetic gene led to less pronounced changes in the expression of genes regulating flowering and to a lower increase in GA4 content. Taken together, our data indicate that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely by increasing gibberellin content.

  15. Evolutionary rate patterns of the Gibberellin pathway genes

    Zhang Fu-min

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of molecular evolutionary patterns of different genes within metabolic pathways allows us to determine whether these genes are subject to equivalent evolutionary forces and how natural selection shapes the evolution of proteins in an interacting system. Although previous studies found that upstream genes in the pathway evolved more slowly than downstream genes, the correlation between evolutionary rate and position of the genes in metabolic pathways as well as its implications in molecular evolution are still less understood. Results We sequenced and characterized 7 core structural genes of the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway from 8 representative species of the rice tribe (Oryzeae to address alternative hypotheses regarding evolutionary rates and patterns of metabolic pathway genes. We have detected significant rate heterogeneity among 7 GA pathway genes for both synonymous and nonsynonymous sites. Such rate variation is mostly likely attributed to differences of selection intensity rather than differential mutation pressures on the genes. Unlike previous argument that downstream genes in metabolic pathways would evolve more slowly than upstream genes, the downstream genes in the GA pathway did not exhibited the elevated substitution rate and instead, the genes that encode either the enzyme at the branch point (GA20ox or enzymes catalyzing multiple steps (KO, KAO and GA3ox in the pathway had the lowest evolutionary rates due to strong purifying selection. Our branch and codon models failed to detect signature of positive selection for any lineage and codon of the GA pathway genes. Conclusion This study suggests that significant heterogeneity of evolutionary rate of the GA pathway genes is mainly ascribed to differential constraint relaxation rather than the positive selection and supports the pathway flux theory that predicts that natural selection primarily targets enzymes that have the greatest control on fluxes.

  16. Gibberellin regulates pollen viability and pollen tube growth in rice.

    Chhun, Tory; Aya, Koichiro; Asano, Kenji; Yamamoto, Eiji; Morinaka, Yoichi; Watanabe, Masao; Kitano, Hidemi; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako

    2007-12-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) play many biological roles in higher plants. We collected and performed genetic analysis on rice (Oryza sativa) GA-related mutants, including GA-deficient and GA-insensitive mutants. Genetic analysis of the mutants revealed that rice GA-deficient mutations are not transmitted as Mendelian traits to the next generation following self-pollination of F1 heterozygous plants, although GA-insensitive mutations are transmitted normally. To understand these differences in transmission, we examined the effect of GA on microsporogenesis and pollen tube elongation in rice using new GA-deficient and GA-insensitive mutants that produce semifertile flowers. Phenotypic analysis revealed that the GA-deficient mutant reduced pollen elongation1 is defective in pollen tube elongation, resulting in a low fertilization frequency, whereas the GA-insensitive semidominant mutant Slr1-d3 is mainly defective in viable pollen production. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that GA biosynthesis genes tested whose mutations are transmitted to the next generation at a lower frequency are preferentially expressed after meiosis during pollen development, but expression is absent or very low before the meiosis stage, whereas GA signal-related genes are actively expressed before meiosis. Based on these observations, we predict that the transmission of GA-signaling genes occurs in a sporophytic manner, since the protein products and/or mRNA transcripts of these genes may be introduced into pollen-carrying mutant alleles, whereas GA synthesis genes are transmitted in a gametophytic manner, since these genes are preferentially expressed after meiosis.

  17. Expression Studies of Gibberellin Oxidases in Developing Pumpkin Seeds1

    Frisse, Andrea; Pimenta, Maria João; Lange, Theo

    2003-01-01

    Two cDNA clones, 3-ox and 2-ox, have been isolated from developing pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) embryos that show significant amino acid homology to gibberellin (GA) 3-oxidases and 2-oxidases, respectively. Recombinant fusion protein of clone 3-ox converted GA12-aldehyde, GA12, GA15, GA24, GA25, and GA9 to GA14-aldehyde, GA14, GA37, GA36, GA13, and GA4, respectively. Recombinant 2-ox protein oxidized GA9, GA4, and GA1 to GA51, GA34, and GA8, respectively. Previously cloned GA 7-oxidase revealed additional 3β-hydroxylation activity of GA12. Transcripts of this gene were identified in endosperm and embryo of the developing seed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and localized in protoderm, root apical meristem, and quiescent center by in situ hybridization. mRNA of the previously cloned GA 20-oxidase from pumpkin seeds was localized in endosperm and in tissues of protoderm, ground meristem, and cotyledons of the embryo. However, transcripts of the recently cloned GA 20-oxidase from pumpkin seedlings were found all over the embryo, and in tissues of the inner seed coat at the micropylar end. Previously cloned GA 2β,3β-hydroxylase mRNA molecules were specifically identified in endosperm tissue. Finally, mRNA molecules of the 3-ox and 2-ox genes were found in the embryo only. 3-ox transcripts were localized in tissues of cotyledons, protoderm, and inner cell layers of the root apical meristem, and 2-ox transcripts were found in all tissues of the embryo except the root tips. These results indicate tissue-specific GA-biosynthetic pathways operating within the developing seed. PMID:12644672

  18. RESTORATION OF FERTILITY IN A MAN WITH AZOOSPERMIA DEVELOPED IN RESPONSE TO TREATMENT WITH TESTOSTERONE GEL (A CASE REPORT

    I. A. Korneev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT allows to combat the symptoms of age-related androgen deficiency (AAD; however, it may have side effects, including the reduction in sperm count and even complete cessation of spermatogenesis and development of azoospermia. The fertility may not be restored even within 18 month after treatment completion. Russian researcher explored the impact of TRT with gel on the ejaculate parameters in men with hypogonadism and observed no negative effects on spermatogenesis within 3 months after treatment initiation. We describe a clinical case of reversible azoospermia induced by a relatively short course of TRT with gel. Fertilizing capacity of sperm was finally restored, which was confirmed by a clinical pregnancy obtained by in vitro fertilization. Physicians prescribing TRT should inform their patients that such treatment is contraindicated to those men who would like to preserve their fertility and explain that the restoration of fertility will take some time after treatment completion.

  19. Gibberellin requirement for Arabidopsis seed germination is determined both by testa characteristics and embryonic abscisic acid

    Debeaujon, I.; Koornneef, M.

    2000-01-01

    The mechanisms imposing a gibberellin (GA) requirement to promote the germination of dormant and non-dormant Arabidopsis seeds were analyzed using the GA-deficient mutant ga1, several seed coat pigmentation and structure mutants, and the abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant aba1. Testa mutants,

  20. Gibberellin-Abscisic Acid Balances during Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Formation in Tomato

    Martin-Rodriguez, J.A.; Huertas, R.; Ho-Plagaro, T.; Ocampo, J.A.; Turečková, Veronika; Tarkowská, Danuše; Ludwig-Mueller, J.; Garcia-Garrido, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, AUG 23 (2016), s. 1273 ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhiza * plant hormones * gibberellins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  1. Heterosis in rice seedlings: its relationship to gibberellin content and expression of gibberellin metabolism and signaling genes.

    Ma, Qian; Hedden, Peter; Zhang, Qifa

    2011-08-01

    Despite the accumulation of data on the genetic and molecular understanding of heterosis, there is little information on the regulation of heterosis at the physiological level. In this study, we performed a quantitative analysis of endogenous gibberellin (GA) content and expression profiling of the GA metabolism and signaling genes to investigate the possible relationship between GA signaling and heterosis for seedling development in rice (Oryza sativa). The materials used were an incomplete diallele set of 3 × 3 crosses and the six parents. In the growing shoots of the seedlings at 20 d after sowing, significant positive correlations between the contents of some GA species and performance and heterosis based on shoot dry mass were detected. Expression analyses of GA-related genes by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that 13 out of the 16 GA-related genes examined exhibited significant differential expression among the F1 hybrid and its parents, acting predominantly in the modes of overdominance and positive dominance. Expression levels of nine genes in the hybrids displayed significant positive correlations with the heterosis of shoot dry mass. These results imply that GAs play a positive role in the regulation of heterosis for rice seedling development. In shoots plus root axes of 4-d-old germinating seeds that had undergone the deetiolation, mimicking normal germination in soil, the axis dry mass was positively correlated with the content of GA₂₉ but negatively correlated with that of GA₁₉. Our findings provide supporting evidence for GAs playing an important regulatory role in heterosis for rice seedling development.

  2. Physiological responses of eastern hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis) to biological control and silvicultural release: implications for hemlock restoration

    Chelcy F. Miniat; David Zeitlow; Steven T. Brantley; Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Rusty Rhea; Robert Jetton; Paul.  Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The rapid loss of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) from riparian zones in the southern Appalachian Mountains due to Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelgis tsugae, HWA) infestation has resulted in changes to watershed structure and function. Several restoration strategies have been proposed, including silvicultural treatments that increase incident light in forest...

  3. Modulating the aggregation behaviour to restore the mechanical response of acid induced mixed gels of sodium caseinate and soy proteins

    Martin, Anneke H.; Los Reyes Jiménez, De Marta L.; Pouvreau, Laurice

    2016-01-01

    Partial replacement of milk proteins with plant proteins is a challenge due to the reported negative effect on physical and sensory properties. Understanding of how the mechanical properties of acidified milk gels can be restored when 30% casein is replaced with soy proteins is therefore

  4. Modulating the aggregation behaviour to restore the mechanical response of acid induced mixed gels of sodium caseinate and soy proteins

    Martin, A.H.; Reyes Jiménez, M. L. de los; Pouvreau, L.

    2016-01-01

    Partial replacement of milk proteins with plant proteins is a challenge due to the reported negative effect on physical and sensory properties. Understanding of how the mechanical properties of acidified milk gels can be restored when 30% casein is replaced with soy proteins is therefore explored.

  5. Asymmetric ecological and economic responses for rangeland restoration: A case study of tree thickening in Queensland, Australia

    Ecological and economic thresholds are important considerations when making decisions about safeguarding or restoring degraded rangelands. When degradation levels have passed a threshold, most managers figure it is either time to take action or too late to take action depending on the particular c...

  6. An N-terminal region of a Myb-like protein is involved in its intracellular localization and activation of a gibberellin-inducible proteinase gene in germinated rice seeds.

    Sutoh, Keita; Washio, Kenji; Imai, Ryozo; Wada, Masamitsu; Nakai, Tomonori; Yamauchi, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    The expression of the gene for a proteinase (Rep1) is upregulated by gibberellins. The CAACTC regulatory element (CARE) of the Rep1 promoter is involved in the gibberellin response. We isolated a cDNA for a CARE-binding protein containing a Myb domain in its carboxyl-terminal region and designated the gene Carboxyl-terminal Myb1 (CTMyb1). This gene encodes two polypeptides of two distinctive lengths, CTMyb1L and CTMyb1S, which include or exclude 213 N-terminal amino acid residues, respectively. CTMyb1S transactivated the Rep1 promoter in the presence of OsGAMyb, but not CTMyb1L. We observed an interaction between CTMyb1S and the rice prolamin box-binding factor (RPBF). A bimolecular fluorescence complex analysis detected the CTMyb1S and RPBF complex in the nucleus, but not the CTMyb1L and RPBF complex. The results suggest that the arrangement of the transfactors is involved in gibberellin-inducible expression of Rep1.

  7. Interim restorations.

    Gratton, David G; Aquilino, Steven A

    2004-04-01

    Interim restorations are a critical component of fixed prosthodontic treatment, biologically and biomechanically. Interim restoration serves an important diagnostic role as a functional and esthetic try-in and as a blueprint for the design of the definitive prosthesis. When selecting materials for any interim restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, handling properties, patient acceptance, and material cost. Although no single material meets all the requirements and material classification alone of a given product is not a predictor of clinical performance, bis-acryl materials are typically best suited to single-unit restorations, and poly(methylmethacrylate) interim materials are generally ideal for multi-unit, complex, long-term, interim fixed prostheses. As with most dental procedures, the technique used for fabrication has a greater effect on the final result than the specific material chosen.

  8. Restoring forests

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...... and competitive combinations in the longer term. Non-native species may serve an important role under some circumstances, e.g., to facilitate reintroduction of native species. Propagation and field establishment techniques must promote survival through seedling stress resistance and site preparation. An improved...

  9. The rice dwarf virus P2 protein interacts with ent-kaurene oxidases in vivo, leading to reduced biosynthesis of gibberellins and rice dwarf symptoms.

    Zhu, Shifeng; Gao, Feng; Cao, Xuesong; Chen, Mao; Ye, Gongyin; Wei, Chunhong; Li, Yi

    2005-12-01

    The mechanisms of viral diseases are a major focus of biology. Despite intensive investigations, how a plant virus interacts with host factors to cause diseases remains poorly understood. The Rice dwarf virus (RDV), a member of the genus Phytoreovirus, causes dwarfed growth phenotypes in infected rice (Oryza sativa) plants. The outer capsid protein P2 is essential during RDV infection of insects and thus influences transmission of RDV by the insect vector. However, its role during RDV infection within the rice host is unknown. By yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays, we report that P2 of RDV interacts with ent-kaurene oxidases, which play a key role in the biosynthesis of plant growth hormones gibberellins, in infected plants. Furthermore, the expression of ent-kaurene oxidases was reduced in the infected plants. The level of endogenous GA1 (a major active gibberellin in rice vegetative tissues) in the RDV-infected plants was lower than that in healthy plants. Exogenous application of GA3 to RDV-infected rice plants restored the normal growth phenotypes. These results provide evidence that the P2 protein of RDV interferes with the function of a cellular factor, through direct physical interactions, that is important for the biosynthesis of a growth hormone leading to symptom expression. In addition, the interaction between P2 and rice ent-kaurene oxidase-like proteins may decrease phytoalexin biosynthesis and make plants more competent for virus replication. Moreover, P2 may provide a novel tool to investigate the regulation of GA metabolism for plant growth and development.

  10. The Rice Dwarf Virus P2 Protein Interacts with ent-Kaurene Oxidases in Vivo, Leading to Reduced Biosynthesis of Gibberellins and Rice Dwarf Symptoms1

    Zhu, Shifeng; Gao, Feng; Cao, Xuesong; Chen, Mao; Ye, Gongyin; Wei, Chunhong; Li, Yi

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms of viral diseases are a major focus of biology. Despite intensive investigations, how a plant virus interacts with host factors to cause diseases remains poorly understood. The Rice dwarf virus (RDV), a member of the genus Phytoreovirus, causes dwarfed growth phenotypes in infected rice (Oryza sativa) plants. The outer capsid protein P2 is essential during RDV infection of insects and thus influences transmission of RDV by the insect vector. However, its role during RDV infection within the rice host is unknown. By yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays, we report that P2 of RDV interacts with ent-kaurene oxidases, which play a key role in the biosynthesis of plant growth hormones gibberellins, in infected plants. Furthermore, the expression of ent-kaurene oxidases was reduced in the infected plants. The level of endogenous GA1 (a major active gibberellin in rice vegetative tissues) in the RDV-infected plants was lower than that in healthy plants. Exogenous application of GA3 to RDV-infected rice plants restored the normal growth phenotypes. These results provide evidence that the P2 protein of RDV interferes with the function of a cellular factor, through direct physical interactions, that is important for the biosynthesis of a growth hormone leading to symptom expression. In addition, the interaction between P2 and rice ent-kaurene oxidase-like proteins may decrease phytoalexin biosynthesis and make plants more competent for virus replication. Moreover, P2 may provide a novel tool to investigate the regulation of GA metabolism for plant growth and development. PMID:16299167

  11. Resilience of Penicillium resedanum LK6 and exogenous gibberellin in improving Capsicum annuum growth under abiotic stresses.

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-03-01

    Understanding how endophytic fungi mitigate abiotic stresses in plants will be important in a changing global climate. A few endophytes can produce phytohormones, but their ability to induce physiological changes in host plants during extreme environmental conditions are largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the ability of Penicillium resedanum LK6 to produce gibberellins and its role in improving the growth of Capsicum annuum L. under salinity, drought, and heat stresses. These effects were compared with exogenous application of gibberellic acid (GA3). Endophyte treatment significantly increased shoot length, biomass, chlorophyll content, and the photosynthesis rate compared with the uninfected control during abiotic stresses. The endophyte and combined endophyte + GA3 treatments significantly ameliorated the negative effects of stresses compared with the control. Stress-responsive endogenous abscisic acid and its encoding genes, such as zeaxanthin epoxidase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 3, and ABA aldehyde oxidase 3, were significantly reduced in endophyte-treated plants under stress. Conversely, salicylic acid and biosynthesis-related gene (isochorismate synthase) had constitutive expressions while pathogenesis related (PR1 and PR5) genes showed attenuated responses during endophyte treatment under abiotic stresses. The present findings suggest that endophytes have effects comparable to those of exogenous GA3; both can significantly increase plant growth and yield under changing environmental conditions by reprogramming the host plant's physiological responses.

  12. ramic restorations

    Ashish R Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of a patient with severely worn dentition after restoring the vertical dimension is a complex procedure and assessment of the vertical dimension is an important aspect in these cases. This clinical report describes the full mouth rehabilitation of a patient who was clinically monitored to evaluate the adaptation to a removable occlusal splint to restore vertical dimension for a period 1 month and provisional restorations to determine esthetic and functional outcome for a period of 3 months. It is necessary to recognizing that form follows function and that anterior teeth play a vital role in the maintenance of oral health. Confirmation of tolerance to changes in the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is of paramount importance. Articulated study casts and a diagnostic wax-up can provide important information for the evaluation of treatment options. Alteration of the VDO should be conservative and should not be changed without careful consideration.

  13. Hair restoration.

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  14. Biosynthesis of 12α-and 13-hydroxylated gibberellins in a cell-free system from Cucurbita maxima endosperm and the identification of new endogenous gibberellins.

    Lange, T; Hedden, P; Graebe, J E

    1993-03-01

    Gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis in cell-free systems from Cucurbita maxima L. endosperm was reinvestigated using incubation conditions different from those employed in previous work. The metabolism of GA12 yielded GA13, GA43 and 12α-hydroxyGA43 as major products, GA4, GA37, GA39, GA46 and four unidentified compounds as minor products. The intermediates GA15, GA24 and GA25 accumulated at low protein concentrations. The structure of the previously uncharacterised 12α-hydroxyGA43 was inferred from its mass spectrum and by its formation from both GA39 and GA43. Gibberellin A39 and 12α-hydroxyGA43 were formed by a soluble 12α-hydroxylase that had not been detected before. Gibberellin A12-aldehyde was metabolised to essentially the same products as GA12 but with less efficiency. A new 13-hydroxylation pathway was found. Gibberellin A53, formed from GA12 by a microsomal oxidase, was converted by soluble 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxidases to GA1 GA23, GA28, GA44, and putative 2β-hydroxyGA28. Minor products were GA19, GA20, GA38 and three unidentified GAs. Microsomal 13-hydroxylation (the formation of GA53) was suppressed by the cofactors for 2-oxoglutarate-dependent enzymes. Reinvestigation of the endogenous GAs confirmed the significance of the new metabolic products. In addition to the endogenous GAs reported by Blechschmidt et al. (1984, Phytochemistry 23, 553-558), GA1, GA8, GA25, GA28, GA36, GA48 and 12α-hydroxyGA43 were identified by full-scan capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Kovats retention indices. Thus both the 12α-hydroxylation and the 13-hydroxylation pathways found in the cell-free system operate also in vivo, giving rise to 12α-hydroxyGA43 and GA1 (or GA8), respectively, as their end products. Evidence for endogenous GA20 and GA24 was also obtained but it was less conclusive due to interference.

  15. Studies on the role of gibberellins in the regulation of spermatogenesis in Chara vulgaris L.

    Maria Kwiatkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antheridia from isolated nodes of Chara vulgaris, developing in the presence of either AMO-1618 or GA3, were studied. AMO-1618 which lowers the level of endogenous gibberellins causes a significant, proportional to the concentration, reduction in: 1 the number of antheridial filaments formed in antheridia, 2 spermatid number within a filament, as a result of eliminating one mitotic division at the first stage of spermatogenesis. Exogenous GA3 at the concentration 10-5 M evokes opposite effect i.e. increase in the number of antheridial filaments and increase in the number of spermatids within filament. Total number of spermatids within an antheridium decreases under the influence of 10-4M AMO-1618 three times in comparison with the control, whereas it increases twice following 10-5M GA3 treatment. It has been suggested that the normal course of spermatogenesis requires precisely determined level of endogenous gibberellins.

  16. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid

    2011-01-01

    Background Seed germination is a complex multi-stage developmental process, and mainly accomplished through concerted activities of many gene products and biological pathways that are often subjected to strict developmental regulation. Gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) are two key phytohormones regulating seed germination and seedling growth. However, transcriptional regulatory networks underlying seed germination and its associated biological pathways are largely unknown. Results The studies examined transcriptomes of barley representing six distinct and well characterized germination stages and revealed that the transcriptional regulatory program underlying barley germination was composed of early, late, and post-germination phases. Each phase was accompanied with transcriptional up-regulation of distinct biological pathways. Cell wall synthesis and regulatory components including transcription factors, signaling and post-translational modification components were specifically and transiently up-regulated in early germination phase while histone families and many metabolic pathways were up-regulated in late germination phase. Photosynthesis and seed reserve mobilization pathways were up-regulated in post-germination phase. However, stress related pathways and seed storage proteins were suppressed through the entire course of germination. A set of genes were transiently up-regulated within three hours of imbibition, and might play roles in initiating biological pathways involved in seed germination. However, highly abundant transcripts in dry barley and Arabidopsis seeds were significantly conserved. Comparison with transcriptomes of barley aleurone in response to GA and ABA identified three sets of germination responsive genes that were regulated coordinately by GA, antagonistically by ABA, and coordinately by GA but antagonistically by ABA. Major CHO metabolism, cell wall degradation and protein degradation pathways were up-regulated by both GA and seed

  17. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid

    Lin Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed germination is a complex multi-stage developmental process, and mainly accomplished through concerted activities of many gene products and biological pathways that are often subjected to strict developmental regulation. Gibberellins (GA and abscisic acid (ABA are two key phytohormones regulating seed germination and seedling growth. However, transcriptional regulatory networks underlying seed germination and its associated biological pathways are largely unknown. Results The studies examined transcriptomes of barley representing six distinct and well characterized germination stages and revealed that the transcriptional regulatory program underlying barley germination was composed of early, late, and post-germination phases. Each phase was accompanied with transcriptional up-regulation of distinct biological pathways. Cell wall synthesis and regulatory components including transcription factors, signaling and post-translational modification components were specifically and transiently up-regulated in early germination phase while histone families and many metabolic pathways were up-regulated in late germination phase. Photosynthesis and seed reserve mobilization pathways were up-regulated in post-germination phase. However, stress related pathways and seed storage proteins were suppressed through the entire course of germination. A set of genes were transiently up-regulated within three hours of imbibition, and might play roles in initiating biological pathways involved in seed germination. However, highly abundant transcripts in dry barley and Arabidopsis seeds were significantly conserved. Comparison with transcriptomes of barley aleurone in response to GA and ABA identified three sets of germination responsive genes that were regulated coordinately by GA, antagonistically by ABA, and coordinately by GA but antagonistically by ABA. Major CHO metabolism, cell wall degradation and protein degradation pathways were up

  18. Action of Gibberellins on Growth and Metabolism of Arabidopsis Plants Associated with High Concentration of Carbon Dioxide1[W

    Ribeiro, Dimas M.; Araújo, Wagner L.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Schippers, Jos H.M.; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Although the positive effect of elevated CO2 concentration [CO2] on plant growth is well known, it remains unclear whether global climate change will positively or negatively affect crop yields. In particular, relatively little is known about the role of hormone pathways in controlling the growth responses to elevated [CO2]. Here, we studied the impact of elevated [CO2] on plant biomass and metabolism in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in relation to the availability of gibberellins (GAs). Inhibition of growth by the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC) at ambient [CO2] (350 µmol CO2 mol−1) was reverted by elevated [CO2] (750 µmol CO2 mol−1). Thus, we investigated the metabolic adjustment and modulation of gene expression in response to changes in growth of plants imposed by varying the GA regime in ambient and elevated [CO2]. In the presence of PAC (low-GA regime), the activities of enzymes involved in photosynthesis and inorganic nitrogen assimilation were markedly increased at elevated [CO2], whereas the activities of enzymes of organic acid metabolism were decreased. Under ambient [CO2], nitrate, amino acids, and protein accumulated upon PAC treatment; however, this was not the case when plants were grown at elevated [CO2]. These results suggest that only under ambient [CO2] is GA required for the integration of carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism underlying optimal biomass determination. Our results have implications concerning the action of the Green Revolution genes in future environmental conditions. PMID:23090585

  19. Comparison of Effect of Brassinosteroid and Gibberellin Biosynthesis Inhibitors on Growth of Rice Seedlings

    Matusmoto, Tadashi; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Yoshizawa, Yuko; Oh, Keimei

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) are two predominant plant hormones that regulate plant cell elongation. Mutants disrupt the biosynthesis of these hormones and display different degrees of dwarf phenotypes in rice. Although the role of each plant hormone in promoting the longitudinal growth of plants has been extensively studied using genetic methods, their relationship is still poorly understood. In this study, we used two specific inhibitors targeting BR and GA biosynthesis to inve...

  20. Microarray and Proteomic Analysis of Brassinosteroid- and Gibberellin-Regulated Gene and Protein Expression in Rice

    Yang, Guangxiao; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) are two groups of plant growth regulators essential for normal plant growth and development. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism by which BR and GA regulate the growth and development of plants, especially the monocot plant rice, it is necessary to identify and analyze more genes and proteins that are regulated by them. With the availability of draft sequences of two major types, japonica and indica rice, it has become possible to analyze exp...

  1. Functional Characterization of Gibberellin-Regulated Genes in Rice Using Microarray System

    Jan, Asad; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2006-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) is collectively referred to a group of diterpenoid acids, some of which act as plant hormones and are essential for normal plant growth and development. DNA microarray technology has become the standard tool for the parallel quantification of large numbers of messenger RNA transcripts. The power of this approach has been demonstrated in dissecting plant physiology and development, and in unraveling the underlying cellular signaling pathways. To understand the molecular mechan...

  2. Karrikins delay soybean seed germination by mediating abscisic acid and gibberellin biogenesis under shaded conditions

    Meng, Yongjie; Chen, Feng; Shuai, Haiwei; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jun; Tang, Shengwen; Xu, Shuanshuan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Weiguo; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Sun, Xin; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun

    2016-01-01

    Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interest...

  3. Analysis of gibberellins as free acids by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Urbanová, Terezie; Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Hedden, P.; Strnad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 2013 (2013), s. 85-94 ISSN 0039-9140 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Gibberellins * Brassica napus * Arabidopsis thaliana Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.511, year: 2013

  4. Transparent Restoration

    Barou, L.; Bristogianni, T.; Oikonomopoulou, F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of structural glass in restoration and conservation practices in order to highlight and safeguard our built heritage. Cast glass masonry is introduced in order to consolidate a half-ruined historic tower in Greece, by replacing the original parts of the façade

  5. Site Restoration

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  6. Site Restoration

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

  7. Restorative neuroscience

    Andres, Robert H; Meyer, Morten; Ducray, Angélique D

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the search for therapeutic options for diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS), for which currently no effective treatment strategies are available. Replacement of damaged cells and restoration of function can be accomplished by transplantation of...

  8. Environmental Restoration

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmarcke, H

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's programme on environmental restoration are (1) to optimize and validate models for the impact assessment from environmental, radioactive contaminations, including waste disposal or discharge; (2) to support the policy of national authorities for public health and radioactive waste management. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported.

  9. Interactions between ethylene, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids in the development of rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses of pea.

    Foo, Eloise; McAdam, Erin L; Weller, James L; Reid, James B

    2016-04-01

    The regulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal development and nodulation involves complex interactions between the plant and its microbial symbionts. In this study, we use the recently identified ethylene-insensitive ein2 mutant in pea (Pisum sativum L.) to explore the role of ethylene in the development of these symbioses. We show that ethylene acts as a strong negative regulator of nodulation, confirming reports in other legumes. Minor changes in gibberellin1 and indole-3-acetic acid levels in ein2 roots appear insufficient to explain the differences in nodulation. Double mutants produced by crosses between ein2 and the severely gibberellin-deficient na and brassinosteroid-deficient lk mutants showed increased nodule numbers and reduced nodule spacing compared with the na and lk single mutants, but nodule numbers and spacing were typical of ein2 plants, suggesting that the reduced number of nodules innaandlkplants is largely due to the elevated ethylene levels previously reported in these mutants. We show that ethylene can also negatively regulate mycorrhizae development when ethylene levels are elevated above basal levels, consistent with a role for ethylene in reducing symbiotic development under stressful conditions. In contrast to the hormone interactions in nodulation, ein2 does not override the effect of lk or na on the development of arbuscular mycorrhizae, suggesting that brassinosteroids and gibberellins influence this process largely independently of ethylene. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. A Novel Gibberellin-Induced Gene from Rice and Its Potential Regulatory Role in Stem Growth1

    van der Knaap, Esther; Kim, Jeong Hoe; Kende, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Os-GRF1 (Oryza sativa-GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR1) was identified in a search for genes that are differentially expressed in the intercalary meristem of deepwater rice (Oryza sativa L.) internodes in response to gibberellin (GA). Os-GRF1 displays general features of transcription factors, contains a functional nuclear localization signal, and has three regions with similarities to sequences in the database. One of these regions is similar to a protein interaction domain of SWI2/SNF2, which is a subunit of a chromatin-remodeling complex in yeast. The two other domains are novel and found only in plant proteins of unknown function. To study its role in plant growth, Os-GRF1 was expressed in Arabidopsis. Stem elongation of transformed plants was severely inhibited, and normal growth could not be recovered by the application of GA. Our results indicate that Os-GRF1 belongs to a novel class of plant proteins and may play a regulatory role in GA-induced stem elongation. PMID:10712532

  11. The differential gene expression of key enzyme in the gibberellin pathway in the potato (solanum tuberosum) mutant

    Shi, J.B.; Ye, G.J.; Yang, Y.Z.; Wang, F.; Zhou, Y; Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the expression patterns of the key genes in the gibberellin synthesis pathway in the potato dwarf mutant M4P-9 were detected using quantitative real-time PCR. Using Actin as an internal control, CPS1, KS, KO, GA20ox1, and GA2ox1, genes for key gibberellin synthesis enzymes, were evaluated, along with a gibberellin receptor gene. The standard curves were obtained from dilutions of PCR product; the correlation coefficient for Actin was 0.995, and those for the target genes varied from 0.994 to 1.000. The expression patterns of gibberellin pathway genes in different growth stages and tissues were calculated according to the method of Pfaffl. These genes showed expression patterns that varied based on growth stage and tissue type. The higher expression levels of CPS1 and GA2ox1 in roots, the lower expression levels of GA20ox1 in roots during tuber formation stage; as well as the increased expression of GA20ox1 and GA2ox1 genes in stems during the tuber formation stage, likely play key roles in the plant height phenotype in M4P-9 mutant materials. This article provides a basis for researching the mechanism of gibberellin synthesis in potato. (author)

  12. Community-level response of fishes and aquatic macroinvertebrates to stream restoration in a third-order tributary of the Potomac River, USA

    Selego, Stephen M.; Rose, Charnee L.; Merovich, George T.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Anderson, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Natural stream channel design principles and riparian restoration practices were applied during spring 2010 to an agriculturally impaired reach of the Cacapon River, a tributary of the Potomac River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled from the restoration reach, two degraded control, and two natural reference reaches prior to, concurrently with, and following restoration (2009 through 2010). Collector filterers and scrapers replaced collector gatherers as the dominant macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the restoration reach. Before restoration, based on indices of biotic integrity (IBI), the restoration reach fish and macroinvertebrate communities closely resembled those sampled from the control reaches, and after restoration more closely resembled those from the reference reaches. Although the macroinvertebrate community responded more favorably than the fish community, both communities recovered quickly from the temporary impairment caused by the disturbance of restoration procedures and suggest rapid improvement in local ecological conditions.

  13. Community-Level Response of Fishes and Aquatic Macroinvertebrates to Stream Restoration in a Third-Order Tributary of the Potomac River, USA

    Stephen M. Selego

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural stream channel design principles and riparian restoration practices were applied during spring 2010 to an agriculturally impaired reach of the Cacapon River, a tributary of the Potomac River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled from the restoration reach, two degraded control, and two natural reference reaches prior to, concurrently with, and following restoration (2009 through 2010. Collector filterers and scrapers replaced collector gatherers as the dominant macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the restoration reach. Before restoration, based on indices of biotic integrity (IBI, the restoration reach fish and macroinvertebrate communities closely resembled those sampled from the control reaches, and after restoration more closely resembled those from the reference reaches. Although the macroinvertebrate community responded more favorably than the fish community, both communities recovered quickly from the temporary impairment caused by the disturbance of restoration procedures and suggest rapid improvement in local ecological conditions.

  14. Morphological Response of a Mud Capped Dredge Pit in Western Louisiana After Sand Excavation for Barrier Island Restoration

    Robichaux, P. A.; Xu, K.; Bentley, S. J.; Li, C.; Miner, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Sand resources play a crucial role in supporting tourism, maintaining coastal ecosystems, and protecting property and infrastructure. Mud capped dredge pits (MCDPs) are created when paleochannel sand, covered by muddy shelf overburden, is excavated for restoration purposes; such paleochannels are one significant sand resource for coastal barrier protection. However, our knowledge of MCDPs is limited. To improve understanding of their morphological behavior, a dredge pit called Peveto Channel (PC) offshore of Holly Beach, LA, was studied in 2016. Our study consisted of a survey using multiple geophysical methods, including multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, subbottom profiling, and magnetometry. Results indicate that PC has undergone 100% infilling since dredging occurred. Although the pit is filled up, analyses indicate the newly deposited material is unconsolidated and has yet to equilibrate to the ambient seafloor conditions. The surface of the pit area is pockmarked and uneven, likely caused by degassing processes and differential consolidation. Sidescan sonar images confirm that the pit walls have experienced little to no lateral erosion and are well preserved. The results from this survey and from historical surveys conducted in 2003 (a few months after dredging), 2004, 2006, and 2007 are compared to previously constructed numerical models used to predict the behavior of dredge pits. To our knowledge, PC is the only filled-up offshore dredge pit in coastal Louisiana. Thus the findings of this study provide new long-term information for regulatory policies and the feasibility of MCDPs as sand resources in the future.

  15. Hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid micro-extraction with osmosis: II. Application to quantification of endogenous gibberellins in rice plant.

    Wu, Qian; Wu, Dapeng; Duan, Chunfeng; Shen, Zheng; Guan, Yafeng

    2012-11-23

    The phenomenon and benefits of osmosis in hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid micro-extraction (HF-LLLME) were theoretically discussed in part I of this study. In this work, HF-LLLME with osmosis was coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-triple quadrupole MS/MS) to analyze eight gibberellins (gibberellin A(1), gibberellin A(3), gibberellin A(4), gibberellin A(7), gibberellin A(8), gibberellin A(9), gibberellin A(19) and gibberellin A(20)) in rice plant samples. According to the theory of HF-LLLME with osmosis, single factor experiments, orthogonal design experiments and mass transfer simulation of extraction process were carried out to select the optimal conditions. Cyclohexanol - n-octanol (1:3, v/v) was selected as organic membrane. Donor phase of 12 mL was adjusted to pH 2 and 20% NaCl (w/v) was added. Acceptor phase with an initial volume of 20 μL was the solution of 0.12 mol L(-1) Na(2)CO(3)-NaHCO(3) buffer (pH 9). Temperature was chosen to be 30 °C and extraction time was selected to be 90 min. Under optimized conditions, this method provided good linearity (r, 0.99552-0.99991) and low limits of detection (0.0016-0.061 ng mL(-1)). Finally, this method was applied to the analysis of endogenous gibberellins from plant extract which was obtained with traditional solvent extraction of rice plant tissues, and the relative recoveries were from 62% to 166%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling reveal tissue-specific expression and differentially-regulated genes involved in gibberellin metabolism between Williams banana and its dwarf mutant.

    Chen, Jingjing; Xie, Jianghui; Duan, Yajie; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Li, Weiming

    2016-05-27

    Dwarfism is one of the most valuable traits in banana breeding because semi-dwarf cultivars show good resistance to damage by wind and rain. Moreover, these cultivars present advantages of convenient cultivation, management, and so on. We obtained a dwarf mutant '8818-1' through EMS (ethyl methane sulphonate) mutagenesis of Williams banana 8818 (Musa spp. AAA group). Our research have shown that gibberellins (GAs) content in 8818-1 false stems was significantly lower than that in its parent 8818 and the dwarf type of 8818-1 could be restored by application of exogenous GA3. Although GA exerts important impacts on the 8818-1 dwarf type, our understanding of the regulation of GA metabolism during banana dwarf mutant development remains limited. Genome-wide screening revealed 36 candidate GA metabolism genes were systematically identified for the first time; these genes included 3 MaCPS, 2 MaKS, 1 MaKO, 2 MaKAO, 10 MaGA20ox, 4 MaGA3ox, and 14 MaGA2ox genes. Phylogenetic tree and conserved protein domain analyses showed sequence conservation and divergence. GA metabolism genes exhibited tissue-specific expression patterns. Early GA biosynthesis genes were constitutively expressed but presented differential regulation in different tissues in Williams banana. GA oxidase family genes were mainly transcribed in young fruits, thus suggesting that young fruits were the most active tissue involved in GA metabolism, followed by leaves, bracts, and finally approximately mature fruits. Expression patterns between 8818 and 8818-1 revealed that MaGA20ox4, MaGA20ox5, and MaGA20ox7 of the MaGA20ox gene family and MaGA2ox7, MaGA2ox12, and MaGA2ox14 of the MaGA2ox gene family exhibited significant differential expression and high-expression levels in false stems. These genes are likely to be responsible for the regulation of GAs content in 8818-1 false stems. Overall, phylogenetic evolution, tissue specificity and differential expression analyses of GA metabolism genes can provide a

  17. Investigations of the effect of exogenous gibberellin on the electrophoretic repair of plant DNA damaged by the gamma radiation

    Kryukova, L.M.; Medvedkova, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    Effect of the exogenous gibberellin on the DNA of plants irradiated with high doses of γ-radiation is studied. Repair of the molecular weight of DNA can be judged on according to electrophoretic mobility in 1% agar sludge of DNA samples denaturated in alkaline. Investigation results reaffirm that exogenous gibberellin promotes to the repair of the DNA of plants damaged with high doses of radiation. The mechanism of the effect of the hormone is not yet studied, but it is supposed that physiological action of the phytohormone is realized through the ferment systems of plants [ru

  18. Purification and partial amino-acid sequence of gibberellin 20-oxidase from Cucurbita maxima L. endosperm.

    Lange, T

    1994-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase was purified to apparent homogeneity from Cucurbita maxima endosperm by fractionated ammonium-sulphate precipitation, gel-filtration chromatography and anion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Average purification after the last step was 55-fold with 3.9% of the activity recovered. The purest single fraction was enriched 101-fold with 0.2% overall recovery. Apparent relative molecular mass of the enzyme was 45 kDa, as determined by gel-filtration HPLC and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that GA 20-oxidase is probably a monomeric enzyme. The purified enzyme degraded on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, giving two protein spots: a major one corresponding to a molecular mass of 30 kDa and a minor one at 45 kDa. The isoelectric point for both was 5.4. The amino-acid sequences of the amino-terminus of the purified enzyme and of two peptides from a tryptic digest were determined. The purified enzyme catalysed the sequential conversion of [14C]GA12 to [14C]GA15, [14C]GA24 and [14C]GA25, showing that carbon atom 20 was oxidised to the corresponding alcohol, aldehyde and carboxylic acid in three consecutive reactions. [14C]Gibberellin A53 was similarly converted to [14C]GA44, [14C]GA19, [14C]GA17 and small amounts of a fourth product, which was preliminarily identified as [14C]GA20, a C19-gibberellin. All GAs except [14C]GA20 were identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The cofactor requirements in the absence of dithiothreitol were essentially as in its presence (Lange et al., Planta 195, 98-107, 1994), except that ascorbate was essential for enzyme activity and the optimal concentration of catalase was lower.

  19. Sedimentation and response to sea-level rise of a restored marsh with reduced tidal exchange: Comparison with a natural tidal marsh

    Vandenbruwaene, W.; Maris, T.; Cahoon, D.R.; Meire, P.; Temmerman, S.

    2011-01-01

    accelerated MHWL rise (acceleration of 0.02 cm a-1), the CRT marsh is much less able to keep up with the MHWL rise; after 75 years the CRT elevation is already 0.21 m lower than for the natural marsh. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that although short-term (4 years) ΔE rates are similar in a restored CRT marsh and natural tidal marsh, these ecosystems may evolve differently in response to sea-level rise in the longer term (10–100 years).

  20. Arabidopsis scaffold protein RACK1A modulates rare sugar D-allose regulated gibberellin signaling

    Fennell, Herman; Olawin, Abdulquadri; Mizanur, Rahman M.; Izumori, Ken; Chen, Jin-Gui; Ullah, Hemayet

    2012-01-01

    As energy sources and structural components, sugars are the central regulators of plant growth and development. In addition to the abundant natural sugars in plants, more than 50 different kinds of rare sugars exist in nature, several of which show distinct roles in plant growth and development. Recently, one of the rare sugars, D-allose, an epimer of D-glucose at C3, is found to suppress plant hormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in rice. Scaffold protein RACK1A in the model plant Arabidopsis ...

  1. Gibberellin deficiency pleiotropically induces culm bending in sorghum: an insight into sorghum semi-dwarf breeding

    Ordonio, Reynante L.; Ito, Yusuke; Hatakeyama, Asako; Ohmae-Shinohara, Kozue; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Tokunaga, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto; Sazuka, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of symmetrical cell growth in the culm is important for proper culm development. So far, the involvement of gibberellin (GA) in this process has not yet been demonstrated in sorghum. Here, we show that GA deficiency resulting from any loss-of-function mutation in four genes (SbCPS1, SbKS1, SbKO1, SbKAO1) involved in the early steps of GA biosynthesis, not only results in severe dwarfism but also in abnormal culm bending. Histological analysis of the bent culm revealed that the intr...

  2. Site Restoration

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  3. Climate adaption and post-fire restoration of a foundational perennial in cold desert: Insights from intraspecific variation in response to weather

    Brabec, Martha M.; Germino, Matthew; Richardson, Bryce A.

    2017-01-01

    1.The loss of foundational but fire-intolerant perennials such as sagebrush due to increases in fire size and frequency in semiarid regions has motivated efforts to restore them, often with mixed or even no success. Seeds of sagebrush Artemisia tridentata and related species must be moved considerable distances from seed source to planting sites, but such transfers have not been guided by an understanding of local climate adaptation. Initial seedling establishment and its response to weather are a key demographic bottleneck that likely varies among subspecies and populations of sagebrush. 2.We assessed differences in survival, growth, and physiological responses of sagebrush to weather among eleven seed sources that varied in subspecies, cytotype, and climates-of-origin over 18 months following outplanting. Diploid or polyploid populations of mountain, Wyoming, and basin big sagebrush (A.tridentata ssp. vaseyana, A.tridentata ssp. wyomingensis, and A.tridentata ssp. tridentata, respectively) were planted onto five burned sites that normally support A.t.wyomingensis with some A.t.tridentata. 3.A.t.wyomingensis had the most growth and survival, and tetraploid populations had greater survival and height than diploids. Seasonal timing of mortality varied among the subspecies/cytotypes and was more closely related to minimum temperatures than water deficit. 4.Temperatures required to induce ice formation were up to 6°C more negative in 4n-A.t.tridentata and A.t.wyomingensis than other subspecies/cytotypes, indicating greater freezing avoidance. In contrast, freezing resistance of photosynthesis varied only 1°C among subspecies/cytotypes, being greatest in A.t.wyomingensis and least in the subspecies normally considered most cold-adapted,A.t.vaseyana. A large spectrum of reliance on freezing-avoidance vs. freezing-tolerance was observed and corresponded to differences in post-fire survivorship among subspecies/cytotypes. Differences in water deficit

  4. Gibberellin-induced changes in the populations of translatable mRNAs and accumulated polypeptides in dwarfs of maize and pea

    Chory, J.; Voytas, D.F.; Olszewski, N.E.; Ausubel, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to characterize the molecular mechanism of gibberellin-induced stem elongation in maize and pea. Dwarf mutants of maize and pea lack endogenous gibberellin (GA 1 ) but become phenotypically normal with exogenous applications of this hormone. Sections from either etiolated maize or green pea seedlings were incubated in the presence of [ 35 S] methionine for 3 hours with or without gibberellin. Labeled proteins from soluble and particulate fractions were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and specific changes in the patterns of protein synthesis were observed upon treatment with gibberellin. Polyadenylated mRNAs from etiolated or green maize shoots and green pea epicotyls treated or not with gibberellin (a 0.5 to 16 hour time course) were assayed by translation in a rabbit reticulocyte extract and separation of products by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Both increases and decreases in the levels of specific polypeptides were seen for pea and corn, and these changes were observed within 30 minutes of treatment with gibberellin. Together, these data indicate that gibberellin induces changes in the expression of a subset of gene products within elongating dwarfs. This may be due to changes in transcription rate, mRNA stability, or increased efficiency of translation of certain mRNAs

  5. A Study of Gibberellin Homeostasis and Cryptochrome-Mediated Blue Light Inhibition of Hypocotyl Elongation1[W][OA

    Zhao, Xiaoying; Yu, Xuhong; Foo, Eloise; Symons, Gregory M.; Lopez, Javier; Bendehakkalu, Krishnaprasad T.; Xiang, Jing; Weller, James L.; Liu, Xuanming; Reid, James B.; Lin, Chentao

    2007-01-01

    Cryptochromes mediate blue light-dependent photomorphogenic responses, such as inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we analyzed a genetic suppressor, scc7-D (suppressors of cry1cry2), which suppressed the long-hypocotyl phenotype of the cry1cry2 (cryptochrome1/cryptochrome2) mutant in a light-dependent but wavelength-independent manner. scc7-D is a gain-of-expression allele of the GA2ox8 gene encoding a gibberellin (GA)-inactivating enzyme, GA 2-oxidase. Although scc7-D is hypersensitive to light, transgenic seedlings expressing GA2ox at a level higher than scc7-D showed a constitutive photomorphogenic phenotype, confirming a general role of GA2ox and GA in the suppression of hypocotyl elongation. Prompted by this result, we investigated blue light regulation of mRNA expression of the GA metabolic and catabolic genes. We demonstrated that cryptochromes are required for the blue light regulation of GA2ox1, GA20ox1, and GA3ox1 expression in transient induction, continuous illumination, and photoperiodic conditions. The kinetics of cryptochrome induction of GA2ox1 expression and cryptochrome suppression of GA20ox1 or GA3ox1 expression correlate with the cryptochrome-dependent transient reduction of GA4 in etiolated wild-type seedlings exposed to blue light. Therefore we propose that in deetiolating seedlings, cryptochromes mediate blue light regulation of GA catabolic/metabolic genes, which affect GA levels and hypocotyl elongation. Surprisingly, no significant change in the GA4 content was detected in the whole shoot samples of the wild-type or cry1cry2 seedlings grown in the dark or continuous blue light, suggesting that cryptochromes may also regulate GA responsiveness and/or trigger cell- or tissue-specific changes of the level of bioactive GAs. PMID:17644628

  6. Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests.

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S; Chazdon, Robin L; Lindenmayer, David B; Sansevero, Jerônimo B B; Monteiro, Lara; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Latawiec, Agnieszka E; Strassburg, Bernardo B N

    2017-11-01

    Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biomass, and height) tested. Restoration success for biodiversity and vegetation structure was 34 to 56% and 19 to 56% higher in natural regeneration than in active restoration systems, respectively, after controlling for key biotic and abiotic factors (forest cover, precipitation, time elapsed since restoration started, and past disturbance). Biodiversity responses were based primarily on ecological metrics of abundance and species richness (74%), both of which take far less time to achieve restoration success than similarity and composition. This finding challenges the widely held notion that natural forest regeneration has limited conservation value and that active restoration should be the default ecological restoration strategy. The proposition that active restoration achieves greater restoration success than natural regeneration may have arisen because previous comparisons lacked controls for biotic and abiotic factors; we also did not find any difference between active restoration and natural regeneration outcomes for vegetation structure when we did not control for these factors. Future policy priorities should align the identified patterns of biophysical and ecological conditions where each or both restoration approaches are more successful, cost-effective, and compatible with socioeconomic incentives for tropical forest restoration.

  7. Edaravone protects against oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation/restoration-induced apoptosis in spinal cord astrocytes by inhibiting integrated stress response

    Bin Dai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously found that oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation/restoration (OGSD/R induces apoptosis of spinal cord astrocytes, possibly via caspase-12 and the integrated stress response, which involves protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK, eukaryotic initiation factor 2-alpha (eIF2α and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4. We hypothesized that edaravone, a low molecular weight, lipophilic free radical scavenger, would reduce OGSD/R-induced apoptosis of spinal cord astrocytes. To test this, we established primary cultures of rat astrocytes, and exposed them to 8 hours/6 hours of OGSD/R with or without edaravone (0.1, 1, 10, 100 μM treatment. We found that 100 μM of edaravone significantly suppressed astrocyte apoptosis and inhibited the release of reactive oxygen species. It also inhibited the activation of caspase-12 and caspase-3, and reduced the expression of homologous CCAAT/enhancer binding protein, phosphorylated (p-PERK, p-eIF2α, and ATF4. These results point to a new use of an established drug in the prevention of OGSD/R-mediated spinal cord astrocyte apoptosis via the integrated stress response.

  8. Adalimumab (Humira) restores clinical response in patients with secondary loss of efficacy from infliximab (Remicade) or etanercept (Enbrel): results from the STURE registry at Karolinska University Hospital.

    Wick, M C; Ernestam, S; Lindblad, S; Bratt, J; Klareskog, L; van Vollenhoven, R F

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) antagonist adalimumab (Humira) can be efficacious after secondary loss of efficacy (i.e. loss of clinical response in patients who had initially demonstrated clinical response) to infliximab (Remicade) or etanercept (Enbrel). We studied 36 patients from the Stockholm TNF-alpha follow-up registry (STURE) who received adalimumab after secondary loss of efficacy to infliximab (group A, n = 27) or etanercept (group B, n = 9), and 26 patients who were started on adalimumab as the first TNF-alpha antagonist (group C). In group A, the baseline disease activity score 28 (DAS28) at infliximab institution was 5.5+/-0.2. During infliximab treatment, the mean best DAS28 was 3.7+/-0.2 (p<0.001), but increased to 5.2+/-0.3 when infliximab was stopped. After 3 months on adalimumab, the mean DAS28 decreased to 4.5+/-0.3 (p<0.003), and then to 4.2+/-0.2 at 6 months (p<0.001). In group B, the baseline DAS28 at etanercept institution was 6.6+/-0.5. During etanercept treatment, the mean best DAS28 was 4.6+/-0.5 (p<0.01), but increased to 5.7+/-0.4 by the time etanercept was stopped. After 3 months on adalimumab, the mean DAS28 decreased to 4.8+/-0.3 (p<0.005), and to 4.1+/-0.2 at 6 months (p<0.001). In group C, the mean baseline DAS28 was 5.6+/-0.3. After 6 months of adalimumab therapy, the DAS28 decreased to 3.5+/-0.4 (p<0.001). ACR20 responses with adalimumab in groups A, B, and C were similar (70-78%). For patients with secondary loss of efficacy from infliximab or etanercept, switching to adalimumab can restore a good clinical response.

  9. Science supporting Gulf of Mexico oil-spill response, mitigation, and restoration activities-Assessment, monitoring, mapping, and coordination

    Kindinger, Jack; Tihansky, Ann B.; Cimitile, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigates physical processes related to coastal and marine environments and societal implications related to natural hazards, resource sustainability, and environmental change. Immediately after the Deepwater Horizon event, the USGS began responding to data requests, directing response personnel, and providing coastal and shelf geophysical data to coastal-resource managers. The USGS provided oil-spill responders with up-to-date coastal bathymetry, geologic data, and maps characterizing vulnerability and levels of risk from potential spill impacts in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Baseline conditions prior to any spill impacts were documented through programs that included shoreline sampling and sediment coring from east Texas to the east coast of Florida and aerial photography of many environmentally sensitive Gulf coastal areas. The USGS responded to numerous verbal and written data requests from Federal, State, and local partners and academic institutions with USGS scientific staff participating in the Coast Guard Unified Commands (UC) and Operational Science Advisory Teams (OSAT). The USGS conducted technical review of reports and plans for many response activities. Oil-spill responders, managers, and personnel on the ground, including partners such as the National Park Service, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Chandeleur Islands Refuge, and State agencies, continue to rely on USGS products.

  10. Habitat change and restoration: responses of a forest-floor mammal species to manipulations of fallen timber in floodplain forests

    Mac Nally, R

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In forests and woodlands, fallen timber (logs and large branches is an important habitat element for many species of animals. Fallen timber has been systematically stripped in many forests, eliminating an important structural element. This study describes results of a ‘meso-scale’ experiment in which fallen timber was manipulated in a floodplain forest of the Murray River in south-eastern Australia. A thousand tons of wood were redistributed after one-year’s pre-manipulation monitoring, while a further two-year’s post-manipulation monitoring was conducted. The response of the main forest-floor small-mammal species, the Yellow-footed Antechinus Antechinus flavipes, to alterations of fallen-wood loads is documented. Results of the experiment will help to frame guidelines for fallen-timber management in these extensive floodplain forests.

  11. 75 FR 32877 - Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety

    2010-06-10

    ... resources, aquatic-life forms, and sport fishing; and (e) develop responsible attitudes and ethics toward..., Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... governing the Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, and Hunter Education and Safety (Enhanced Hunter...

  12. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    2010-01-01

    ... OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.53... justify restoration, trustees may proceed with the Restoration Planning Phase. Otherwise, trustees may not... discount all service quantities and/or values to the date the demand is presented to the responsible...

  13. Interaction of a gibberellin-induced factor with the upstream region of an alpha-amylase gene in rice aleurone tissue.

    Ou-Lee, T M; Turgeon, R; Wu, R

    1988-01-01

    The interaction between the DNA sequences of an alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) gene and a tissue-specific factor induced in rice (Oryza sativa L.) aleurone tissue by gibberellin was studied. DNA mobility-shift during electrophoresis indicated that a 500-base-pair sequence (HS500) of a rice alpha-amylase genomic clone (OSamy-a) specifically interacted with a factor from gibberellin-induced rice aleurone tissue. The amount of complex formed between the HS500 DNA fragment and the gibberellin-induced...

  14. The development of a high performance liquid chromatograph with a sensitive on-stream radioactivity monitor for the analysis of 3H- and 14C-labelled gibberellins

    Reeve, D.R.; Yokota, T.; Nash, L.; Crozier, A.

    1976-01-01

    The development of a high performance liquid chromatograph for the separation of gibberellins is described. The system combines high efficiency, peak capacity, and sample capacity with rapid speed of analysis. In addition, the construction details of a sensitive on-stream radioactivity monitor are outlined. The overall versatility of the chromatograph has been demonstrated by the separation of a range of 3 H- and 14 C-labelled gibberellins and gibberellin precursors. The system also has considerable potential for the analysis of abscisic acid and acidic and neutral indoles. (author)

  15. Exogenous GA3 application can compensate the morphogenetic effects of the GA-responsive dwarfing gene Rht12 in bread wheat.

    Liang Chen

    Full Text Available The most common dwarfing genes in wheat, Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b, classified as gibberellin-insensitive (GAI dwarfing genes due to their reduced response to exogenous GA, have been verified as encoding negative regulators of gibberellin signaling. In contrast, the response of gibberellin-responsive (GAR dwarfing genes, such as Rht12, to exogenous GA is still unclear and the role of them, if any, in GA biosynthesis or signaling is unknown. The responses of Rht12 to exogenous GA3 were investigated on seedling vigour, spike phenological development, plant height and other agronomic traits, using F2 ∶ 3 and F3 ∶ 4 lines derived from a cross between Ningchun45 and Karcagi-12 in three experiments. The application of exogenous GA3 significantly increased coleoptile length and seedling leaf 1 length and area. While there was no significant difference between the dwarf and the tall lines at the seedling stage in the responsiveness to GA3, plant height was significantly increased, by 41 cm (53% averaged across the three experiments, in the GA3-treated Rht12 dwarf lines. Plant height of the tall lines was not affected significantly by GA3 treatment (<10 cm increased. Plant biomass and seed size of the GA3-treated dwarf lines was significantly increased compared with untreated dwarf plants while there was no such difference in the tall lines. GA3-treated Rht12 dwarf plants with the dominant Vrn-B1 developed faster than untreated plants and reached double ridge stage 57 days, 11 days and 50 days earlier and finally flowered earlier by almost 7 days while the GA3-treated tall lines flowering only 1-2 days earlier than the untreated tall lines. Thus, it is clear that exogenous GA3 can break the masking effect of Rht12 on Vrn-B1 and also restore other characters of Rht12 to normal. It suggested that Rht12 mutants may be deficient in GA biosynthesis rather than in GA signal transduction like the GA-insensitive dwarfs.

  16. A novel class of gibberellin 2-oxidases control semidwarfism, tillering, and root development in rice.

    Lo, Shuen-Fang; Yang, Show-Ya; Chen, Ku-Ting; Hsing, Yue-Ie; Zeevaart, Jan A D; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Yu, Su-May

    2008-10-01

    Gibberellin 2-oxidases (GA2oxs) regulate plant growth by inactivating endogenous bioactive gibberellins (GAs). Two classes of GA2oxs inactivate GAs through 2beta-hydroxylation: a larger class of C(19) GA2oxs and a smaller class of C(20) GA2oxs. In this study, we show that members of the rice (Oryza sativa) GA2ox family are differentially regulated and act in concert or individually to control GA levels during flowering, tillering, and seed germination. Using mutant and transgenic analysis, C(20) GA2oxs were shown to play pleiotropic roles regulating rice growth and architecture. In particular, rice overexpressing these GA2oxs exhibited early and increased tillering and adventitious root growth. GA negatively regulated expression of two transcription factors, O. sativa homeobox 1 and TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, which control meristem initiation and axillary bud outgrowth, respectively, and that in turn inhibited tillering. One of three conserved motifs unique to the C(20) GA2oxs (motif III) was found to be important for activity of these GA2oxs. Moreover, C(20) GA2oxs were found to cause less severe GA-defective phenotypes than C(19) GA2oxs. Our studies demonstrate that improvements in plant architecture, such as semidwarfism, increased root systems and higher tiller numbers, could be induced by overexpression of wild-type or modified C(20) GA2oxs.

  17. Further identification of endogenous gibberellins in the shoots of pea, line G2

    Halinska, A.; Davies, P.J.; Lee, J.W.; Zhu, Yuxian

    1989-01-01

    To interpret the metabolism of radiolabeled gibberellins A 12 -aldehyde and A 12 in shoots of pea (Pisum sativum L.), the identity of the radiolabeled peaks has to be determined and the endogenous presence of the gibberellins demonstrated. High specific activity [ 14 C]GA 12 and [ 14 C]GA 12 -aldehyde were synthesized using a pumpkin endosperm enzyme preparation, and purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). [ 14 C]GA 12 was supplied to upper shoots of pea, line G2, to produce radiolabeled metabolites on the 13-OH pathway. Endogenous compounds copurifying with the [ 14 C]GAs on HPLC were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The endogenous presence of GA 53 , GA 44 , GA 19 and GA 20 was demonstrated and their HPLC peak identity ascertained. The 14 C was progressively diluted in GAs further down the pathway, proportional to the levels found in the tissue and inversely proportional to the speed of metabolism, ranging from 63% in GA 53 to 4% in GA 20 . Calculated levels of GA 20 , GA 19 , GA 44 , and GA 53 were 42, 8, 10, and 0.5 nanograms/gram, respectively

  18. Proteomics of Arabidopsis Seed Germination : a Comparative Study of Wild-Type and Gibberellin-Deficient Seeds

    Gallardo, K.; Job, C.; Groot, S.P.C.; Puype, M.; Vandekerckhove, J.; Job, D.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the role of gibberellins (GAs) in germination of Arabidopsis seeds by a proteomic approach. For that purpose, we used two systems. The first system consisted of seeds of the GA-deficient ga1 mutant, and the second corresponded to wild-type seeds incubated in paclobutrazol, a specific GA

  19. Hormonal control of seed development in gibberellin- and ABA-deficient tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker) mutants

    Castro, de R.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Developing seeds of tomato gibberellin (GA)-deficient gib1 and abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient sitw mutants enabled us to analyze the role of GA in the regulation of embryo histo-differentiation, and the role of ABA in the regulation of maturation and quiescence. Our data show that DNA synthesis and

  20. The role of phytochrome A and gibberellins in growth under long and short day conditions: Studies in hybrid aspen

    Eriksson, M.E. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology

    2000-07-01

    This thesis addresses questions concerning the regulation of growth and, specifically, the cessation of growth in response to short days in deciduous tree species. The model tree used in the studies was hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.). We have exploited the possibility of transforming this species to modulate the level of expression of target genes using over-expression and antisense techniques. The target genes in the studies were the photoreceptor phytochrome A (phyA) and gibberellin 20-oxidase (GA 20-oxidase), the latter being a highly regulated enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs). The photoreceptor phyA has been implicated in photoperiodic regulation of growth, while GAs may regulate the physiological response further downstream. The endogenous expression of these genes has been investigated in parallel with studies of various plants with ectopic and reduced levels of expression. The main focus has been on the early stages of induction of growth cessation and its physiological and molecular mechanisms. Studies of hybrid aspen plants with an increased or reduced expression of phyA, show this receptor to mediate the photoperiodic regulation of growth. Plants with ectopic expression could not stop growing despite drastically shortened photoperiods, while the antisense plants showed the reverse phenotype, with a higher sensitivity resulting in earlier cessation of growth. The role of GAs in growth inhibition was also addressed using plants with a reduction in GA levels. These plants showed early cessation of growth and dormancy, and thus an increased sensitivity toward daylength. Conversely, plants with increased rates of GA biosynthesis showed increased growth and stopped growing much later. Furthermore, increases in GA biosynthesis, resulting in high levels of GAs have a major impact on growth. Plants with high GA levels have increased elongation and diameter growth, due to higher rates of cell production in the

  1. The single IGF-1 partial deficiency is responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction and is restored by IGF-1 replacement therapy.

    Olleros Santos-Ruiz, M; Sádaba, M C; Martín-Estal, I; Muñoz, U; Sebal Neira, C; Castilla-Cortázar, I

    2017-08-01

    We previously described in cirrhosis and aging, both conditions of IGF-1 deficiency, a clear hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction with increased oxidative damage. In both conditions, the hepatic mitochondrial function was improved with low doses of IGF-1. The aim of this work was to explore if the only mere IGF-1 partial deficiency, without any exogenous insult, is responsible for hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction. Heterozygous (igf1 +/- ) mice were divided into two groups: untreated and treated mice with low doses of IGF-1. WT group was used as controls. Parameters of hepatic mitochondrial function were determined by flow cytometry, antioxidant enzyme activities were determined by spectrophotometry, and electron chain transport enzyme levels were determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses. Liver expression of genes coding for proteins involved in mitochondrial protection and apoptosis was studied by microarray analysis and RT-qPCR. Hz mice showed a significant reduction in hepatic mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATPase activity, and an increase in intramitochondrial free radical production and proton leak rates, compared to controls. These parameters were normalized by IGF-1 replacement therapy. No significant differences were found between groups in oxygen consumption and antioxidant enzyme activities, except for catalase, whose activity was increased in both Hz groups. Relevant genes coding for proteins involved in mitochondrial protection and survival were altered in Hz group and were reverted to normal in Hz+IGF-1 group. The mere IGF-1 partial deficiency is per se associated with hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction sensitive to IGF-1 replacement therapy. Results in this work prove that IGF-1 is involved in hepatic mitochondrial protection, because it is able to reduce free radical production, oxidative damage and apoptosis. All these IGF-1 actions are mediated by the modulation of the expression of genes encoding citoprotective

  2. A synopsis of short-term response to alternative restoration treatments in sagebrush-steppe: the SageSTEP project

    McIver, James; Brunson, Mark; Bunting, Steve; Chambers, Jeanne; Doescher, Paul; Grace, James; Hulet, April; Johnson, Dale; Knick, Steven T.; Miller, Richard; Pellant, Mike; Pierson, Fred; Pyke, David; Rau, Benjamin; Rollins, Kim; Roundy, Bruce; Schupp, Eugene; Tausch, Robin; Williams, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is an integrated long-term study that evaluates ecological effects of alternative treatments designed to reduce woody fuels and to stimulate the herbaceous understory of sagebrush steppe communities of the Intermountain West. This synopsis summarizes results through 3 yr posttreatment. Woody vegetation reduction by prescribed fire, mechanical treatments, or herbicides initiated a cascade of effects, beginning with increased availability of nitrogen and soil water, followed by increased growth of herbaceous vegetation. Response of butterflies and magnitudes of runoff and erosion closely followed herbaceous vegetation recovery. Effects on shrubs, biological soil crust, tree cover, surface woody fuel loads, and sagebrush-obligate bird communities will take longer to be fully expressed. In the short term, cool wet sites were more resilient than warm dry sites, and resistance was mostly dependent on pretreatment herbaceous cover. At least 10 yr of posttreatment time will likely be necessary to determine outcomes for most sites. Mechanical treatments did not serve as surrogates for prescribed fire in how each influenced the fuel bed, the soil, erosion, and sage-obligate bird communities. Woody vegetation reduction by any means resulted in increased availability of soil water, higher herbaceous cover, and greater butterfly numbers. We identified several trade-offs (desirable outcomes for some variables, undesirable for others), involving most components of the study system. Trade-offs are inevitable when managing complex natural systems, and they underline the importance of asking questions about the whole system when developing management objectives. Substantial spatial and temporal heterogeneity in sagebrush steppe ecosystems emphasizes the point that there will rarely be a “recipe” for choosing management actions on any specific area. Use of a consistent evaluation process linked to monitoring may be the

  3. Tall or short? Slender or thick? A plant strategy for regulating elongation growth of roots by low concentrations of gibberellin.

    Tanimoto, Eiichi

    2012-07-01

    Since the plant hormone gibberellin (GA) was discovered as a fungal toxin that caused abnormal elongation of rice shoots, the physiological function of GA has mainly been investigated in relation to the regulation of plant height. However, an indispensable role for GA in root growth has been elucidated by using severely GA-depleted plants, either with a gene mutation in GA biosynthesis or which have been treated by an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis. The molecular sequence of GA signalling has also been studied to understand GA functions in root growth. This review addresses research progress on the physiological functions of GA in root growth. Concentration-dependent stimulation of elongation growth by GA is important for the regulation of plant height and root length. Thus the endogenous level of GA and/or the GA sensitivity of shoots and roots plays a role in determining the shoot-to-root ratio of the plant body. Since the shoot-to-root ratio is an important parameter for agricultural production, control of GA production and GA sensitivity may provide a strategy for improving agricultural productivity. The sequence of GA signal transduction has recently been unveiled, and some component molecules are suggested as candidate in planta regulatory sites and as points for the artificial manipulation of GA-mediated growth control. This paper reviews: (1) the breakthrough dose-response experiments that show that root growth is regulated by GA in a lower concentration range than is required for shoot growth; (2) research on the regulation of GA biosynthesis pathways that are known predominantly to control shoot growth; and (3) recent research on GA signalling pathways, including GA receptors, which have been suggested to participate in GA-mediated growth regulation. This provides useful information to suggest a possible strategy for the selective control of shoot and root growth, and to explain how GA plays a role in rosette and liana plants with tall or short, and slender

  4. Gibberellins Interfere with Symbiosis Signaling and Gene Expression and Alter Colonization by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Lotus japonicus1

    Takeda, Naoya; Handa, Yoshihiro; Tsuzuki, Syusaku; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a mutualistic plant-fungus interaction that confers great advantages for plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi enter the host root and form symbiotic structures that facilitate nutrient supplies between the symbionts. The gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones known to inhibit AM fungal infection. However, our transcriptome analysis and phytohormone quantification revealed GA accumulation in the roots of Lotus japonicus infected with AM fungi, suggesting that de novo GA synthesis plays a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza development. We found pleiotropic effects of GAs on the AM fungal infection. In particular, the morphology of AM fungal colonization was drastically altered by the status of GA signaling in the host root. Exogenous GA treatment inhibited AM hyphal entry into the host root and suppressed the expression of Reduced Arbuscular Mycorrhization1 (RAM1) and RAM2 homologs that function in hyphal entry and arbuscule formation. On the other hand, inhibition of GA biosynthesis or suppression of GA signaling also affected arbuscular mycorrhiza development in the host root. Low-GA conditions suppressed arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced subtilisin-like serine protease1 (SbtM1) expression that is required for AM fungal colonization and reduced hyphal branching in the host root. The reduced hyphal branching and SbtM1 expression caused by the inhibition of GA biosynthesis were recovered by GA treatment, supporting the theory that insufficient GA signaling causes the inhibitory effects on arbuscular mycorrhiza development. Most studies have focused on the negative role of GA signaling, whereas our study demonstrates that GA signaling also positively interacts with symbiotic responses and promotes AM colonization of the host root. PMID:25527715

  5. Gibberellins interfere with symbiosis signaling and gene expression and alter colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Lotus japonicus.

    Takeda, Naoya; Handa, Yoshihiro; Tsuzuki, Syusaku; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a mutualistic plant-fungus interaction that confers great advantages for plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi enter the host root and form symbiotic structures that facilitate nutrient supplies between the symbionts. The gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones known to inhibit AM fungal infection. However, our transcriptome analysis and phytohormone quantification revealed GA accumulation in the roots of Lotus japonicus infected with AM fungi, suggesting that de novo GA synthesis plays a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza development. We found pleiotropic effects of GAs on the AM fungal infection. In particular, the morphology of AM fungal colonization was drastically altered by the status of GA signaling in the host root. Exogenous GA treatment inhibited AM hyphal entry into the host root and suppressed the expression of Reduced Arbuscular Mycorrhization1 (RAM1) and RAM2 homologs that function in hyphal entry and arbuscule formation. On the other hand, inhibition of GA biosynthesis or suppression of GA signaling also affected arbuscular mycorrhiza development in the host root. Low-GA conditions suppressed arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced subtilisin-like serine protease1 (SbtM1) expression that is required for AM fungal colonization and reduced hyphal branching in the host root. The reduced hyphal branching and SbtM1 expression caused by the inhibition of GA biosynthesis were recovered by GA treatment, supporting the theory that insufficient GA signaling causes the inhibitory effects on arbuscular mycorrhiza development. Most studies have focused on the negative role of GA signaling, whereas our study demonstrates that GA signaling also positively interacts with symbiotic responses and promotes AM colonization of the host root. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Transient gibberellin application promotes Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl cell elongation without maintaining transverse orientation of microtubules on the outer tangential wall of epidermal cells

    Sauret-Gü eto, Susanna; Calder, Grant; Harberd, Nicholas P.

    2011-01-01

    The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) promotes plant growth by stimulating cellular expansion. Whilst it is known that GA acts by opposing the growth-repressing effects of DELLA proteins, it is not known how these events promote cellular expansion. Here

  7. The science and practice of river restoration

    Wohl, Ellen; Lane, Stuart N.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2015-08-01

    River restoration is one of the most prominent areas of applied water-resources science. From an initial focus on enhancing fish habitat or river appearance, primarily through structural modification of channel form, restoration has expanded to incorporate a wide variety of management activities designed to enhance river process and form. Restoration is conducted on headwater streams, large lowland rivers, and entire river networks in urban, agricultural, and less intensively human-altered environments. We critically examine how contemporary practitioners approach river restoration and challenges for implementing restoration, which include clearly identified objectives, holistic understanding of rivers as ecosystems, and the role of restoration as a social process. We also examine challenges for scientific understanding in river restoration. These include: how physical complexity supports biogeochemical function, stream metabolism, and stream ecosystem productivity; characterizing response curves of different river components; understanding sediment dynamics; and increasing appreciation of the importance of incorporating climate change considerations and resiliency into restoration planning. Finally, we examine changes in river restoration within the past decade, such as increasing use of stream mitigation banking; development of new tools and technologies; different types of process-based restoration; growing recognition of the importance of biological-physical feedbacks in rivers; increasing expectations of water quality improvements from restoration; and more effective communication between practitioners and river scientists.

  8. An A20/AN1-type zinc finger protein modulates gibberellins and abscisic acid contents and increases sensitivity to abiotic stress in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Zhang, Ye; Lan, Hongxia; Shao, Qiaolin; Wang, Ruqin; Chen, Hui; Tang, Haijuan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Huang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormones gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) play important roles in plant development and stress responses. Here we report a novel A20/AN1-type zinc finger protein ZFP185 involved in GA and ABA signaling in the regulation of growth and stress response. ZFP185 was constitutively expressed in various rice tissues. Overexpression of ZFP185 in rice results in a semi-dwarfism phenotype, reduced cell size, and the decrease of endogenous GA3 content. By contrast, higher GA3 content was observed in RNAi plants. The application of exogenous GA3 can fully rescue the semi-dwarfism phenotype of ZFP185 overexpressing plants, suggesting the negative role of ZFP185 in GA biosynthesis. Besides GA, overexpression of ZFP185 decreased ABA content and expression of several ABA biosynthesis-related genes. Moreover, it was found that ZFP185, unlike previously known A20/AN1-type zinc finger genes, increases sensitivity to drought, cold, and salt stresses, implying the negative role of ZFP185 in stress tolerance. ZFP185 was localized in the cytoplasm and lacked transcriptional activation potential. Our study suggests that ZFP185 regulates plant growth and stress responses by affecting GA and ABA biosynthesis in rice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Effective CD4+ T-cell restoration in gut-associated lymphoid tissue of HIV-infected patients is associated with enhanced Th17 cells and polyfunctional HIV-specific T-cell responses.

    Macal, M; Sankaran, S; Chun, T-W; Reay, E; Flamm, J; Prindiville, T J; Dandekar, S

    2008-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to severe CD4+ T-cell depletion in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) that persists despite the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It is not known whether restoration of gut mucosal CD4+ T cells and their functions is feasible during therapy and how that relates to immune correlates and viral reservoirs. Intestinal biopsies and peripheral blood samples from HIV-infected patients who were either HAART naive or on long-term HAART were evaluated. Our data demonstrated that gut CD4+ T-cell restoration ranged from modest (50%), compared with uninfected controls. Despite persistent CD4+ T-cell proviral burden and residual immune activation in GALT during HAART, effective CD4+ T-cell restoration (>50%) was achieved, which was associated with enhanced Th17 CD4+ T-cell accumulation and polyfunctional anti-HIV cellular responses. Our findings suggest that a threshold of>50% CD4+ T-cell restoration may be sufficient for polyfunctional HIV-specific T cells with implications in the evaluation of vaccines and therapeutics.

  10. 43 CFR 11.21 - Emergency restorations.

    2010-10-01

    ... Preassessment Phase § 11.21 Emergency restorations. (a) Reporting requirements and definition. (1) In the event of a natural resource emergency, the natural resource trustee shall contact the National Response... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency restorations. 11.21 Section 11...

  11. The APETALA-2-like transcription factor OsAP2-39 controls key interactions between abscisic acid and gibberellin in rice.

    Yaish, Mahmoud W; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Zhu, Tong; Beatty, Perrin H; Good, Allen G; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2010-09-09

    The interaction between phytohormones is an important mechanism which controls growth and developmental processes in plants. Deciphering these interactions is a crucial step in helping to develop crops with enhanced yield and resistance to environmental stresses. Controlling the expression level of OsAP2-39 which includes an APETALA 2 (AP2) domain leads to phenotypic changes in rice. Overexpression of OsAP2-39 leads to a reduction in yield by decreasing the biomass and the number of seeds in the transgenic rice lines. Global transcriptome analysis of the OsAP2-39 overexpression transgenic rice revealed the upregulation of a key abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthetic gene OsNCED-I which codes for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and leads to an increase in the endogenous ABA level. In addition to OsNCED-1, the gene expression analysis revealed the upregulation of a gene that codes for the Elongation of Upper most Internode (EUI) protein, an enzyme that catalyzes 16α, 17-epoxidation of non-13-hydroxylated GAs, which has been shown to deactivate gibberellins (GAs) in rice. The exogenous application of GA restores the wild-type phenotype in the transgenic line and ABA application induces the expression of EUI and suppresses the expression of OsAP2-39 in the wild-type line. These observations clarify the antagonistic relationship between ABA and GA and illustrate a mechanism that leads to homeostasis of these hormones. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that the expression of both OsNCED-1 and EUI are directly controlled by OsAP2-39. Together, these results reveal a novel mechanism for the control of the ABA/GA balance in rice which is regulated by OsAP2-39 that in turn regulates plant growth and seed production.

  12. The APETALA-2-like transcription factor OsAP2-39 controls key interactions between abscisic acid and gibberellin in rice.

    Mahmoud W Yaish

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between phytohormones is an important mechanism which controls growth and developmental processes in plants. Deciphering these interactions is a crucial step in helping to develop crops with enhanced yield and resistance to environmental stresses. Controlling the expression level of OsAP2-39 which includes an APETALA 2 (AP2 domain leads to phenotypic changes in rice. Overexpression of OsAP2-39 leads to a reduction in yield by decreasing the biomass and the number of seeds in the transgenic rice lines. Global transcriptome analysis of the OsAP2-39 overexpression transgenic rice revealed the upregulation of a key abscisic acid (ABA biosynthetic gene OsNCED-I which codes for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and leads to an increase in the endogenous ABA level. In addition to OsNCED-1, the gene expression analysis revealed the upregulation of a gene that codes for the Elongation of Upper most Internode (EUI protein, an enzyme that catalyzes 16α, 17-epoxidation of non-13-hydroxylated GAs, which has been shown to deactivate gibberellins (GAs in rice. The exogenous application of GA restores the wild-type phenotype in the transgenic line and ABA application induces the expression of EUI and suppresses the expression of OsAP2-39 in the wild-type line. These observations clarify the antagonistic relationship between ABA and GA and illustrate a mechanism that leads to homeostasis of these hormones. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that the expression of both OsNCED-1 and EUI are directly controlled by OsAP2-39. Together, these results reveal a novel mechanism for the control of the ABA/GA balance in rice which is regulated by OsAP2-39 that in turn regulates plant growth and seed production.

  13. Transient gibberellin application promotes Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl cell elongation without maintaining transverse orientation of microtubules on the outer tangential wall of epidermal cells

    Sauret-Güeto, Susanna

    2011-11-25

    The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) promotes plant growth by stimulating cellular expansion. Whilst it is known that GA acts by opposing the growth-repressing effects of DELLA proteins, it is not known how these events promote cellular expansion. Here we present a time-lapse analysis of the effects of a single pulse of GA on the growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Our analyses permit kinetic resolution of the transient growth effects of GA on expanding cells. We show that pulsed application of GA to the relatively slowly growing cells of the unexpanded light-grown Arabidopsis hypocotyl results in a transient burst of anisotropic cellular growth. This burst, and the subsequent restoration of initial cellular elongation rates, occurred respectively following the degradation and subsequent reappearance of a GFP-tagged DELLA (GFP-RGA). In addition, we used a GFP-tagged α-tubulin 6 (GFP-TUA6) to visualise the behaviour of microtubules (MTs) on the outer tangential wall (OTW) of epidermal cells. In contrast to some current hypotheses concerning the effect of GA on MTs, we show that the GA-induced boost of hypocotyl cell elongation rate is not dependent upon the maintenance of transverse orientation of the OTW MTs. This confirms that transverse alignment of outer face MTs is not necessary to maintain rapid elongation rates of light-grown hypocotyls. Together with future studies on MT dynamics in other faces of epidermal cells and in cells deeper within the hypocotyl, our observations advance understanding of the mechanisms by which GA promotes plant cell and organ growth. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination through decreasing the gibberellin/abscisic acid (GA/ABA) ratio

    Shuai, Haiwei; Meng, Yongjie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Zhou, Wenguan; Dai, Yujia; Qi, Ying; Du, Junbo; Yang, Feng; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Wenyu; Shu, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Auxin is an important phytohormone which mediates diverse development processes in plants. Published research has demonstrated that auxin induces seed dormancy. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of auxin on seed germination need further investigation, especially the relationship between auxins and both abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs), the latter two phytohormones being the key regulators of seed germination. Here we report that exogenous auxin treatment represse...

  15. Response of soil physico-chemical properties to restoration approaches and submergence in the water level fluctuation zone of the Danjiangkou Reservoir, China.

    Shu, Xiao; Zhang, KeRong; Zhang, QuanFa; Wang, WeiBo

    2017-11-01

    With the completion of the Danjiangkou Dam, the impoundment and drainage of dams can significantly alter shorelines, hydrological regime, and sediment and can result in the loss of soil and original riparian vegetation. Revegetation may affect soil properties and have broad important implications both for ecological services and soil recovery. In this work, we investigated the soil properties under different restoration approaches, and before and after submergence in the water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) of the Danjiangkou Reservoir. Soil physical (bulk density and soil moisture), chemical (pH, soil organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents), and heavy metals were determined. This study reported that restoration approaches have impacts on soil moisture, pH, N, soil organic carbon, P, K and heavy metals in the WLFZ of the Danjiangkou Reservoir. Our results indicated that different restoration approaches could increase the soil moisture while decrease soil pH. Higher soil organic carbon in propagule banks transplantation (PBT) and shrubs restoration (SR) indicate that PBT and SR may provide soil organic matter more quickly than trees restoration (TR). SR and TR could significantly improve the soil total P and available P. PBT and SR could improve the soil total K and available K. SR and TR could significantly promote Cu and Zn adsorption, and Pb and Fe release by plant. Submergence could significantly affect the soil pH, NO 3 - -N, NH 4 + -N, total P and available P. Submergence could promote NO 3 - -N and available P adsorption, and NH 4 + -N and total P release by soil. The soil quality index (SQI) values implied that TR and PBT greatly improved soil quality. The present study suggests that PBT and TR could be effective for soil restoration in WLFZ of the Danjiangkou Reservoir. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microwave synthesis of gibberellin acid 3 magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer beads for the trace analysis of gibberellin acids in plant samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry detection.

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Tan, Wei; Hu, Yuling; Li, Gongke; Zan, Song

    2012-02-21

    In this study, novel GA3 magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (mag-MIP) beads were synthesized by a microwave irradiation method, and the beads were applied for the trace analysis of gibberellin acids (GAs) in plant samples including rice and cucumber coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The microwave synthetic procedure was optimized in detail. In particular, the interaction between GA3 and functional monomers was further studied for the selection of the optimal functional monomers during synthesis. It can be seen that the interaction between GA3 and acrylamide (AM) finally selected was stronger than that between GA3 and other functional monomers. GA3 mag-MIP beads were characterized by a series of physical tests. GA3 mag-MIP beads had a porous and homogeneous surface morphology with stable chemical, thermal and magnetic properties. Moreover, GA3 mag-MIP beads demonstrated selective and specific absorption behavior for the target compounds during unsaturated extraction, which resulted in a higher extraction capacity (∼708.4 pmol for GA3) and selectivity than GA3 mag-non-imprinted polymer beads. Finally, an analytical method of GA3 mag-AM-MIP bead extraction coupled with HPLC-MS detection was established and applied for the determination of trace GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 in rice and cucumber samples. It was satisfactory that GA4 could be actually found to be 121.5 ± 1.4 μg kg(-1) in real rice samples by this novel analytical method. The recoveries of spiked rice and cucumber samples were found to be 76.0-109.1% and 79.9-93.6% with RSDs of 2.8-8.8% and 3.1-7.7% (n = 3), respectively. The proposed method is efficient and applicable for the trace analysis of GAs in complicated plant samples.

  17. Heterosis in Rice Seedlings: Its Relationship to Gibberellin Content and Expression of Gibberellin Metabolism and Signaling Genes1[W][OA

    Ma (马谦), Qian; Hedden, Peter; Zhang (张启发), Qifa

    2011-01-01

    Despite the accumulation of data on the genetic and molecular understanding of heterosis, there is little information on the regulation of heterosis at the physiological level. In this study, we performed a quantitative analysis of endogenous gibberellin (GA) content and expression profiling of the GA metabolism and signaling genes to investigate the possible relationship between GA signaling and heterosis for seedling development in rice (Oryza sativa). The materials used were an incomplete diallele set of 3 × 3 crosses and the six parents. In the growing shoots of the seedlings at 20 d after sowing, significant positive correlations between the contents of some GA species and performance and heterosis based on shoot dry mass were detected. Expression analyses of GA-related genes by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that 13 out of the 16 GA-related genes examined exhibited significant differential expression among the F1 hybrid and its parents, acting predominantly in the modes of overdominance and positive dominance. Expression levels of nine genes in the hybrids displayed significant positive correlations with the heterosis of shoot dry mass. These results imply that GAs play a positive role in the regulation of heterosis for rice seedling development. In shoots plus root axes of 4-d-old germinating seeds that had undergone the deetiolation, mimicking normal germination in soil, the axis dry mass was positively correlated with the content of GA29 but negatively correlated with that of GA19. Our findings provide supporting evidence for GAs playing an important regulatory role in heterosis for rice seedling development. PMID:21693671

  18. Cloning of gibberellin 3 beta-hydroxylase cDNA and analysis of endogenous gibberellins in the developing seeds in watermelon.

    Kang, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Joonyul; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Yuji; An, Gynheung

    2002-02-01

    We have isolated Cv3h, a cDNA clone from the developing seeds of watermelon, and have demonstrated significant amino acid homology with gibberellin (GA) 3 beta-hydroxylases. This cDNA clone was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein that oxidized GA(9) and GA(12) to GA(4) and GA(14), respectively. The Cv3h protein had the highest similarity with pumpkin GA 2 beta,3 beta-hydroxylase, but did not possess 2 beta-hydroxylation function. RNA blot analysis showed that the gene was expressed primarily in the inner parts of developing seeds, up to 10 d after pollination (DAP). In the parthenocarpic fruits induced by treatment with 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU), the embryo and endosperm of the seeds were undeveloped, whereas the integumental tissues, of maternal origin, showed nearly normal development. Cv3h mRNA was undetectable in the seeds of CPPU-treated fruits, indicating that the GA 3 beta-hydroxylase gene was expressed in zygotic cells. In our analysis of endogenous GAs from developing seeds, GA(9) and GA(4) were detected at high levels but those of GA(20) and GA(1) were very low. This demonstrates that GA biosynthesis in seeds prefers a non-13-hydroxylation pathway over an early 13-hydroxylation pathway. We also analyzed endogenous GAs from seeds of the parthenocarpic fruits. The level of bioactive GA(4 )was much lower there than in normal seeds, indicating that bioactive GAs, unconnected with Cv3h, exist in integumental tissues during early seed development.

  19. A novel method for non-parametric identification of nonlinear restoring forces in nonlinear vibrations from noisy response data: A conservative system

    Jang, T. S.; Kwon, S. H.; Han, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    A novel procedure is proposed to identify the functional form of nonlinear restoring forces in the nonlinear oscillatory motion of a conservative system. Although the problem of identification has a unique solution, formulation results in a Volterra-type of integral equation of the 'first' kind: the solution lacks stability because the integral equation is the 'first' kind. Thus, the new problem at hand is ill-posed. Inevitable small errors during the identification procedure can make the prediction of nonlinear restoring forces useless. We overcome the difficulty by using a stabilization technique of Landweber's regularization in this study. The capability of the proposed procedure is investigated through numerical examples

  20. Physiological response of soybean and wheat to gamma radiation and gibberellin

    Maghraby, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to study and evaluate physiological effects of gamma radiation and/or GA 3 on plant growth, nutritional status of plants, yield and some quality of seeds of soybean and wheat. Two field experiments were conducted under the condition of clay loam soil at kaliobia governorate during 1993 and 1994 and 1992/1993 and 1993/1994 for soybean and wheat, respectively. Growth of soybean and wheat plants was considerably stimulated by irradiation seeds before sowing with low gamma doses and/or concentration of Ga 3. Maximum growth of both plants was obtained by the combined treatment of 2 0 Gy x 25 ppm GA 3 and 1 0 Gy x 100 ppm GA 3 for soybean and wheat, respectively. On the contrary high gamma doses and/or high rates of GA 3 depressed growth of both plants. Low gamma doses and/or GA 3 at low concentration greatly encouraged nutrients uptake by soybean and wheat plants, i.e., N, Fe, Mn and Zn which seemed to be positively related to plant growth. Whereas, high doses and/or high concentrations of GA 3 reduced these nutrients in plant. 53 tabs., 5 figs., 91 refs

  1. Restoration of Gooseberry Creek

    Jonathan W. Long

    2000-01-01

    Grazing exclusion and channel modifications were used to restore wet meadows along a stream on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. The efforts are reestablishing functional processes to promote long-term restoration of wetland health and species conservation.

  2. Restoration of leptin responsiveness in diet-induced obese mice using an optimized leptin analog in combination with exendin-4 or FGF21

    Müller, Timo D.; Sullivan, Lorraine M.; Habegger, Kirk; Yi, Chun-Xia; Kabra, Dhiraj; Grant, Erin; Ottaway, Nickki; Krishna, Radha; Holland, Jenna; Hembree, Jazzminn; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Pfluger, Paul T.; DeGuzman, Michael J.; Siladi, Marc E.; Kraynov, Vadim S.; Axelrod, Douglas W.; DiMarchi, Richard; Pinkstaff, Jason K.; Tschöp, Matthias H.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of leptin as a mediator of body weight regulation provided much initial excitement for the treatment of obesity. Unfortunately, leptin monotherapy is insufficient in reversing obesity in rodents or humans. Recent findings suggest that amylin is able to restore leptin sensitivity

  3. Hydrological responses of a valley-bottom wetland to land-use/land-cover change in a South African catchment: making a case for wetland restoration

    Rebelo, AJ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available were constructed to match 5 different decades in the last 50 years to explore the potential effects of restoring the catchment to different historic benchmarks. In the Kromme catchment, valley-bottom wetlands have declined by 84%, driven by key LULC...

  4. Periapical tissue response after use of intermediate restorative material, gutta-percha, reinforced zinc oxide cement, and mineral trioxide aggregate as retrograde root-end filling materials: a histologic study in dogs.

    Wälivaara, Dan-Åke; Abrahamsson, Peter; Isaksson, Sten; Salata, Luiz Antonio; Sennerby, Lars; Dahlin, Christer

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the periapical tissue response of 4 different retrograde root-filling materials, ie, intermediate restorative material, thermoplasticized gutta-percha, reinforced zinc oxide cement (Super-EBA), and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), in conjunction with an ultrasonic root-end preparation technique in an animal model. Vital roots of the third and fourth right mandibular premolars in 6 healthy mongrel dogs were apicectomized and sealed with 1 of the materials using a standardized surgical procedure. After 120 days, the animals were sacrificed and the specimens were analyzed radiologically, histologically, and scanning electron microscopically. The Fisher exact test was performed on the 2 outcome values. Twenty-three sections were analyzed histologically. Evaluation showed better re-establishment of the periapical tissues and generally lower inflammatory infiltration in the sections from teeth treated with the intermediate restorative material and the MTA. New root cement on the resected dentin surfaces was seen on all sections regardless of the used material. New hard tissue formation, directly on the surface of the material, was seen only in the MTA sections. There was no statistical difference in outcome among the tested materials. The results from this dog model favor the intermediate restorative material and MTA as retrograde fillings when evaluating the bone defect regeneration. MTA has the most favorable periapical tissue response when comparing the biocompatibility of the materials tested. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Heterologous expression and transcript analysis of gibberellin biosynthetic genes of grasses reveals novel functionality in the GA3ox family.

    Pearce, Stephen; Huttly, Alison K; Prosser, Ian M; Li, Yi-dan; Vaughan, Simon P; Gallova, Barbora; Patil, Archana; Coghill, Jane A; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Hedden, Peter; Phillips, Andrew L

    2015-06-05

    The gibberellin (GA) pathway plays a central role in the regulation of plant development, with the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODDs: GA20ox, GA3ox, GA2ox) that catalyse the later steps in the biosynthetic pathway of particularly importance in regulating bioactive GA levels. Although GA has important impacts on crop yield and quality, our understanding of the regulation of GA biosynthesis during wheat and barley development remains limited. In this study we identified or assembled genes encoding the GA 2-ODDs of wheat, barley and Brachypodium distachyon and characterised the wheat genes by heterologous expression and transcript analysis. The wheat, barley and Brachypodium genomes each contain orthologous copies of the GA20ox, GA3ox and GA2ox genes identified in rice, with the exception of OsGA3ox1 and OsGA2ox5 which are absent in these species. Some additional paralogs of 2-ODD genes were identified: notably, a novel gene in the wheat B genome related to GA3ox2 was shown to encode a GA 1-oxidase, named as TaGA1ox-B1. This enzyme is likely to be responsible for the abundant 1β-hydroxylated GAs present in developing wheat grains. We also identified a related gene in barley, located in a syntenic position to TaGA1ox-B1, that encodes a GA 3,18-dihydroxylase which similarly accounts for the accumulation of unusual GAs in barley grains. Transcript analysis showed that some paralogs of the different classes of 2-ODD were expressed mainly in a single tissue or at specific developmental stages. In particular, TaGA20ox3, TaGA1ox1, TaGA3ox3 and TaGA2ox7 were predominantly expressed in developing grain. More detailed analysis of grain-specific gene expression showed that while the transcripts of biosynthetic genes were most abundant in the endosperm, genes encoding inactivation and signalling components were more highly expressed in the seed coat and pericarp. The comprehensive expression and functional characterisation of the multigene families encoding the 2-ODD

  6. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  7. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  8. Release of the repressive activity of rice DELLA protein SLR1 by gibberellin does not require SLR1 degradation in the gid2 mutant.

    Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Hirano, Ko; Hasegawa, Yasuko; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2008-09-01

    The rice (Oryza sativa) DELLA protein SLR1 acts as a repressor of gibberellin (GA) signaling. GA perception by GID1 causes SLR1 protein degradation involving the F-box protein GID2; this triggers GA-associated responses such as shoot elongation and seed germination. In GA-insensitive and GA biosynthesis mutants, SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1) accumulates to high levels, and the severity of dwarfism is usually correlated with the level of SLR1 accumulation. An exception is the GA-insensitive F-box mutant gid2, which shows milder dwarfism than mutants such as gid1 and cps even though it accumulates higher levels of SLR1. The level of SLR1 protein in gid2 was decreased by loss of GID1 function or treatment with a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, and dwarfism was enhanced. Conversely, overproduction of GID1 or treatment with GA(3) increased the SLR1 level in gid2 and reduced dwarfism. These results indicate that derepression of SLR1 repressive activity can be accomplished by GA and GID1 alone and does not require F-box (GID2) function. Evidence for GA signaling without GID2 was also provided by the expression behavior of GA-regulated genes such as GA-20oxidase1, GID1, and SLR1 in the gid2 mutant. Based on these observations, we propose a model for the release of GA suppression that does not require DELLA protein degradation.

  9. Endogenous gibberellins in Arabidopsis thaliana and possible steps blocked in the biosynthetic pathways of the semidwarf ga4 and ga5 mutants

    Talon, M.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.; Koornneef, M.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty gibberellins (GAs) have been identified in extracts from shoots of the Landsberg erecta line of Arabidopsis thaliana by full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Kovats retention indices. Eight of them are members of the early-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA 53 , GA 44 , GA 19 , GA 17 , GA 20 , GA 1 , GA 29 , and GA 8 ), six are members of the early-3-hydroxylation pathway (GA 37 , GA 27 , GA 36 , GA 13 , GA 4 , and GA 34 ), and the remaining six are members of the non-3,13-hydroxylation pathway (GA 12 , GA 15 , GA 24 , GA 25 , GA 9 , and GFA 51 ). Seven of these GAs were quantified in the Landsberg erecta line of Arabidopsis and in the semidwarf ga4 and ga5 mutants by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring (SIM) using internal standards. The relative levels of the remaining 13 GAs were compared by the use of ion intensities only. The growth-response data, as well as the accumulation of GA 9 in the ga4 mutant, indicate that GA 9 is not active in Arabidopsis, but it must be 3β-hydroxytlated to GA 4 to become bioactive. It is concluded that the reduced levels of the 3β-hydroxy-GAs, GA 1 and GA 4 , are the cause of the semidwarf growth habit of both mutants

  10. Activation of gibberellin 2-oxidase 6 decreases active gibberellin levels and creates a dominant semi-dwarf phenotype in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Huang, Jian; Tang, Ding; Shen, Yi; Qin, Baoxiang; Hong, Lilan; You, Aiqing; Li, Ming; Wang, Xin; Yu, Hengxiu; Gu, Minghong; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2010-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) 2-oxidase plays a key role in the GA catabolic pathway through 2beta-hydroxylation. In the present study, we isolated a CaMV 35S-enhancer activation tagged mutant, H032. This mutant exhibited a dominant dwarf and GA-deficient phenotype, with a final stature that was less than half of its wild-type counterpart. The endogenous bioactive GAs are markedly decreased in the H032 mutant, and application of bioactive GAs (GA(3) or GA(4)) can reverse the dwarf phenotype. The integrated T-DNA was detected 12.8 kb upstream of the OsGA2ox6 in the H032 genome by TAIL-PCR. An increased level of OsGA2ox6 mRNA was detected at a high level in the H032 mutant, which might be due to the enhancer role of the CaMV 35S promoter. RNAi and ectopic expression analysis of OsGA2ox6 indicated that the dwarf trait and the decreased levels of bioactive GAs in the H032 mutant were a result of the up-regulation of the OsGA2ox6 gene. BLASTP analysis revealed that OsGA2ox6 belongs to the class III of GA 2-oxidases, which is a novel type of GA2ox that uses C20-GAs (GA(12) and/or GA(53)) as the substrates. Interestingly, we found that a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol, positively regulated the OsGA2ox6 gene. Unlike the over-expression of OsGA2ox1, which led to a high rate of seed abortion, the H032 mutant retained normal flowering and seed production. These results indicate that OsGA2ox6 mainly affects plant stature, and the dominant dwarf trait of the H032 mutant can be used as an efficient dwarf resource in rice breeding. Copyright 2010 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology and the Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Technology needs assessment for DOE environmental restoration programs

    Duray, J.R.; Carlson, T.J.; Carpenter, C.E.; Cummins, L.E.; Daub, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    The 'Technology Needs Assessment Final Report' describes current and planned environmental restoration activity, identifies technologies intended to be used or under consideration, and ranks technology deficiencies in the U.S. Department of Energy's environmental restoration program. Included in the ranking are treatment technologies, characterization technologies, and non-technology issues that affect environmental restoration. Data used for the assessment was gathered during interviews in the spring of 1991 with DOE site personnel responsible for the environmental restoration work. (author)

  12. Karrikins delay soybean seed germination by mediating abscisic acid and gibberellin biogenesis under shaded conditions

    Meng, Yongjie; Chen, Feng; Shuai, Haiwei; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jun; Tang, Shengwen; Xu, Shuanshuan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Weiguo; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Sun, Xin; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Yuqi; Shu, Kai; Yang, Wenyu

    2016-01-01

    Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interestingly, KAR only retarded soybean seed germination under shaded conditions, rather than under dark and white light conditions, which differs from in Arabidopsis. Phytohormone quantification showed that KAR enhanced ABA biogenesis while impairing GA biosynthesis during the seed imbibition process, and subsequently, the ratio of active GA4 to ABA was significantly reduced. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed that the transcription pattern of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolic pathways are consistent with the hormonal measurements. Finally, fluridone, an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, remarkably rescued the delayed-germination phenotype of KAR-treatment; and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Taken together, these evidences suggest that KAR inhibit soybean seed germination by mediating the ratio between GA and ABA biogenesis. PMID:26902640

  13. Comparison of Effect of Brassinosteroid and Gibberellin Biosynthesis Inhibitors on Growth of Rice Seedlings

    Tadashi Matusmoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroid (BR and gibberellin (GA are two predominant plant hormones that regulate plant cell elongation. Mutants disrupt the biosynthesis of these hormones and display different degrees of dwarf phenotypes in rice. Although the role of each plant hormone in promoting the longitudinal growth of plants has been extensively studied using genetic methods, their relationship is still poorly understood. In this study, we used two specific inhibitors targeting BR and GA biosynthesis to investigate the roles of BR and GA in growth of rice seedlings. Yucaizol, a specific inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, and Trinexapac-ethyl, a commercially available inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, were used. The effect of Yucaizol on rice seedlings indicated that Yucaizol significantly retarded stem elongation. The IC50 value was found to be approximately 0.8 μmol/L. Yucaizol also induced small leaf angle phenocopy in rice seedlings, similarly to BR-deficient rice, while Trinexapac-ethyl did not. When Yucaizol combined with Trinexapac-ethyl was applied to the rice plants, the mixture of these two inhibitors retarded stem elongation of rice at lower doses. Our results suggest that the use of a BR biosynthesis inhibitor combined with a GA biosynthesis inhibitor may be useful in the development of new technologies for controlling rice plant height.

  14. OsGSR1 is involved in crosstalk between gibberellins and brassinosteroids in rice.

    Wang, Li; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Yunyuan; Joo, Se-Hwan; Kim, Seong-Ki; Xue, Zhen; Xu, Zhihong; Wang, Zhiyong; Chong, Kang

    2009-02-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) and brassinosteroids (BRs), two growth-promoting phytohormones, regulate many common physiological processes. Their interactions at the molecular level remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that OsGSR1, a member of the GAST (GA-stimulated transcript) gene family, is induced by GA and repressed by BR. RNA interference (RNAi) transgenic rice plants with reduced OsGSR1 expression show phenotypes similar to plants deficient in BR, including short primary roots, erect leaves and reduced fertility. The OsGSR1 RNAi transgenic rice shows a reduced level of endogenous BR, and the dwarf phenotype could be rescued by the application of brassinolide. The yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that OsGSR1 interacts with DIM/DWF1, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion from 24-methylenecholesterol to campesterol in BR biosynthesis. These results suggest that OsGSR1 activates BR synthesis by directly regulating a BR biosynthetic enzyme at the post-translational level. Furthermore, OsGSR1 RNAi plants show a reduced sensitivity to GA treatment, an increased expression of the GA biosynthetic gene OsGA20ox2, which is feedback inhibited by GA signaling, and an elevated level of endogenous GA: together, these suggest that OsGSR1 is a positive regulator of GA signaling. These results demonstrate that OsGSR1 plays important roles in both BR and GA pathways, and also mediates an interaction between the two signaling pathways.

  15. A Gibberellin-Mediated DELLA-NAC Signaling Cascade Regulates Cellulose Synthesis in Rice[OPEN

    Huang, Debao; Wang, Shaogan; Zhang, Baocai; Shang-Guan, Keke; Shi, Yanyun; Zhang, Dongmei; Liu, Xiangling; Wu, Kun; Xu, Zuopeng; Fu, Xiangdong; Zhou, Yihua

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose, which can be converted into numerous industrial products, has important impacts on the global economy. It has long been known that cellulose synthesis in plants is tightly regulated by various phytohormones. However, the underlying mechanism of cellulose synthesis regulation remains elusive. Here, we show that in rice (Oryza sativa), gibberellin (GA) signals promote cellulose synthesis by relieving the interaction between SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), a DELLA repressor of GA signaling, and NACs, the top-layer transcription factors for secondary wall formation. Mutations in GA-related genes and physiological treatments altered the transcription of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE genes (CESAs) and the cellulose level. Multiple experiments demonstrated that transcription factors NAC29/31 and MYB61 are CESA regulators in rice; NAC29/31 directly regulates MYB61, which in turn activates CESA expression. This hierarchical regulation pathway is blocked by SLR1-NAC29/31 interactions. Based on the results of anatomical analysis and GA content examination in developing rice internodes, this signaling cascade was found to be modulated by varied endogenous GA levels and to be required for internode development. Genetic and gene expression analyses were further performed in Arabidopsis thaliana GA-related mutants. Altogether, our findings reveal a conserved mechanism by which GA regulates secondary wall cellulose synthesis in land plants and provide a strategy for manipulating cellulose production and plant growth. PMID:26002868

  16. Gibberellin biosynthesis and signal transduction is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice.

    Ayano, Madoka; Kani, Takahiro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kitaoka, Takuya; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagai, Keisuke; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2014-10-01

    Under flooded conditions, the leaves and internodes of deepwater rice can elongate above the water surface to capture oxygen and prevent drowning. Our previous studies showed that three major quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulate deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. In this study, we investigated the age-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. We also investigated the relationship between deepwater-dependent internode elongation and the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) by physiological and genetic approach using a QTL pyramiding line (NIL-1 + 3 + 12). Deepwater rice did not show internode elongation before the sixth leaf stage under deepwater condition. Additionally, deepwater-dependent internode elongation occurred on the sixth and seventh internodes during the sixth leaf stage. These results indicate that deepwater rice could not start internode elongation until the sixth leaf stage. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the phytohormone contents showed a deepwater-dependent GA1 and GA4 accumulation in deepwater rice. Additionally, a GA inhibitor abolished deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. On the contrary, GA feeding mimicked internode elongation under ordinary growth conditions. However, mutations in GA biosynthesis and signal transduction genes blocked deepwater-dependent internode elongation. These data suggested that GA biosynthesis and signal transduction are essential for deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A Gibberellin-Mediated DELLA-NAC Signaling Cascade Regulates Cellulose Synthesis in Rice.

    Huang, Debao; Wang, Shaogan; Zhang, Baocai; Shang-Guan, Keke; Shi, Yanyun; Zhang, Dongmei; Liu, Xiangling; Wu, Kun; Xu, Zuopeng; Fu, Xiangdong; Zhou, Yihua

    2015-06-01

    Cellulose, which can be converted into numerous industrial products, has important impacts on the global economy. It has long been known that cellulose synthesis in plants is tightly regulated by various phytohormones. However, the underlying mechanism of cellulose synthesis regulation remains elusive. Here, we show that in rice (Oryza sativa), gibberellin (GA) signals promote cellulose synthesis by relieving the interaction between SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), a DELLA repressor of GA signaling, and NACs, the top-layer transcription factors for secondary wall formation. Mutations in GA-related genes and physiological treatments altered the transcription of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE genes (CESAs) and the cellulose level. Multiple experiments demonstrated that transcription factors NAC29/31 and MYB61 are CESA regulators in rice; NAC29/31 directly regulates MYB61, which in turn activates CESA expression. This hierarchical regulation pathway is blocked by SLR1-NAC29/31 interactions. Based on the results of anatomical analysis and GA content examination in developing rice internodes, this signaling cascade was found to be modulated by varied endogenous GA levels and to be required for internode development. Genetic and gene expression analyses were further performed in Arabidopsis thaliana GA-related mutants. Altogether, our findings reveal a conserved mechanism by which GA regulates secondary wall cellulose synthesis in land plants and provide a strategy for manipulating cellulose production and plant growth. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  18. Gibberellin modulates anther development in rice via the transcriptional regulation of GAMYB.

    Aya, Koichiro; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Kondo, Maki; Hamada, Kazuki; Yano, Kentaro; Nishimura, Mikio; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2009-05-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) play important roles in regulating reproductive development, especially anther development. Our previous studies revealed that the MYB transcriptional factor GAMYB, an important component of GA signaling in cereal aleurone cells, is also important for anther development. Here, we examined the physiological functions of GA during anther development through phenotypic analyses of rice (Oryza sativa) GA-deficient, GA-insensitive, and gamyb mutants. The mutants exhibited common defects in programmed cell death (PCD) of tapetal cells and formation of exine and Ubisch bodies. Microarray analysis using anther RNAs of these mutants revealed that rice GAMYB is involved in almost all instances of GA-regulated gene expression in anthers. Among the GA-regulated genes, we focused on two lipid metabolic genes, a cytochrome P450 hydroxylase CYP703A3 and beta-ketoacyl reductase, both of which might be involved in providing a substrate for exine and Ubisch body. GAMYB specifically interacted with GAMYB binding motifs in the promoter regions in vitro, and mutation of these motifs in promoter-beta-glucuronidase (GUS) transformants caused reduced GUS expression in anthers. Furthermore, a knockout mutant for CYP703A3 showed gamyb-like defects in exine and Ubisch body formation. Together, these results suggest that GA regulates exine formation and the PCD of tapetal cells and that direct activation of CYP703A3 by GAMYB is key to exine formation.

  19. APETALA 2-domain-containing transcription factors: focusing on abscisic acid and gibberellins antagonism.

    Shu, Kai; Zhou, Wenguan; Yang, Wenyu

    2018-02-01

    The phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) antagonistically mediate diverse plant developmental processes including seed dormancy and germination, root development, and flowering time control, and thus the optimal balance between ABA and GA is essential for plant growth and development. Although more than a half and one century have passed since the initial discoveries of ABA and GA, respectively, the precise mechanisms underlying ABA-GA antagonism still need further investigation. Emerging evidence indicates that two APETALA 2 (AP2)-domain-containing transcription factors (ATFs), ABI4 in Arabidopsis and OsAP2-39 in rice, play key roles in ABA and GA antagonism. These two transcription factors precisely regulate the transcription pattern of ABA and GA biosynthesis or inactivation genes, mediating ABA and GA levels. In this Viewpoint article, we try to shed light on the effects of ATFs on ABA-GA antagonism, and summarize the overlapping but distinct biological functions of these ATFs in the antagonism between ABA and GA. Finally, we strongly propose that further research is needed into the detailed roles of additional numerous ATFs in ABA and GA crosstalk, which will improve our understanding of the antagonism between these two phytohormones. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. [Mutual Effect on Determination of Gibberellins and Glyphosate in Groundwater by Spectrophotometry].

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Fei

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, a spectrophotometry method for the simultaneous determination of gibberellins (GA3) and glyphosate in groundwater was established and optimized. In addition, the mutual effect on simultaneous determination of GA3 and glyphosate was studied. Based on the experiment, good linearity (R2 > 0.99) was obtained for GA3 in the range of 0-20 and 0-100 µg and for glyphosate in the range of 0-8 and 5-15 µg. The method's detection limit (MDL) of GA3 and glyphosate was 0.48 and 0.82 µg, respectively; and the recovery rates of 15 to 150 µg GA3 and 3 to 10 µg glyphosate in all samples at a spiked level were 71.3% ± 1.9% and 98.4% ± 8.1%, respectively. No obvious influence of glyphosate (0-100 mg · L(-1)) on the recovery rates of GA3 was observed, but the presence of glyphosate could cause slight determination precision decrease of GA3. Meanwhile, adding 2 mg · L(-1) GA3 can increase the recovery rate of glyphosate.

  1. Arabidopsis scaffold protein RACK1A modulates rare sugar D-allose regulated gibberellin signaling.

    Fennell, Herman; Olawin, Abdulquadri; Mizanur, Rahman M; Izumori, Ken; Chen, Jin-Gui; Ullah, Hemayet

    2012-11-01

    As energy sources and structural components, sugars are the central regulators of plant growth and development. In addition to the abundant natural sugars in plants, more than 50 different kinds of rare sugars exist in nature, several of which show distinct roles in plant growth and development. Recently, one of the rare sugars, D-allose, an epimer of D-glucose at C3, is found to suppress plant hormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in rice. Scaffold protein RACK1A in the model plant Arabidopsis is implicated in the GA pathway as rack1a knockout mutants show insensitivity to GA in GA-induced seed germination. Using genetic knockout lines and a reporter gene, the functional role of RACK1A in the D-allose pathway was investigated. It was found that the rack1a knockout seeds showed hypersensitivity to D-allose-induced inhibition of seed germination, implicating a role for RACK1A in the D-allose mediated suppression of seed germination. On the other hand, a functional RACK1A in the background of the double knockout mutations in the other two RACK1 isoforms, rack1b/rack1c, showed significant resistance to the D-allose induced inhibition of seed germination. The collective results implicate the RACK1A in the D-allose mediated seed germination inhibition pathway. Elucidation of the rare sugar signaling mechanism will help to advance understanding of this less studied but important cellular signaling pathway.

  2. Divergence and adaptive evolution of the gibberellin oxidase genes in plants.

    Huang, Yuan; Wang, Xi; Ge, Song; Rao, Guang-Yuan

    2015-09-29

    The important phytohormone gibberellins (GAs) play key roles in various developmental processes. GA oxidases (GAoxs) are critical enzymes in GA synthesis pathway, but their classification, evolutionary history and the forces driving the evolution of plant GAox genes remain poorly understood. This study provides the first large-scale evolutionary analysis of GAox genes in plants by using an extensive whole-genome dataset of 41 species, representing green algae, bryophytes, pteridophyte, and seed plants. We defined eight subfamilies under the GAox family, namely C19-GA2ox, C20-GA2ox, GA20ox,GA3ox, GAox-A, GAox-B, GAox-C and GAox-D. Of these, subfamilies GAox-A, GAox-B, GAox-C and GAox-D are described for the first time. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses and characteristic motifs of GAox genes, we demonstrated a rapid expansion and functional divergence of the GAox genes during the diversification of land plants. We also detected the subfamily-specific motifs and potential sites of some GAox genes, which might have evolved under positive selection. GAox genes originated very early-before the divergence of bryophytes and the vascular plants and the diversification of GAox genes is associated with the functional divergence and could be driven by positive selection. Our study not only provides information on the classification of GAox genes, but also facilitates the further functional characterization and analysis of GA oxidases.

  3. CHANGES IN THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ‘PRATA’ BANANA TREATED WITH CYTOKININ AND GIBBERELLIN

    JULIANA DOMINGUES LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant growth regulators can influence fruit yield and quality. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cytokinin and gibberelin on the agronomic and physicochemical characteristics of banana fruits cv. ‘Prata’ (Musa spp. AAB, according to the formation period and position in the bunch. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized 2 x 5 factorial design, two periods of bunch development (summer and winter, five treatments and ten replicates. To study the effect of position in the bunch, split plot was adopted, considering in the plot, 2 x 5 factorial and in subplots, hand 1, hand 4 and last hand. Treatments consisted of 2 pulverizations with water, 150 mg L-1 cytokinin, 200 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid, 100 mg L-1 of cytokinin plus 200 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid and 200 mg L-1 of cytokinin plus 200 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid, applied from the fourth to the last hand of the bunch. Cytokinin and gibberellin, alone or associated, regardless of formation period and position, did not affect the size and physicochemical characteristics of fruits, only delayed the bunch harvest.

  4. An unusual spliced variant of DELLA protein, a negative regulator of gibberellin signaling, in lettuce.

    Sawada, Yoshiaki; Umetsu, Asami; Komatsu, Yuki; Kitamura, Jun; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Asami, Tadao; Fukuda, Machiko; Honda, Ichiro; Mitsuhashi, Wataru; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Toyomasu, Tomonobu

    2012-01-01

    DELLA proteins are negative regulators of the signaling of gibberellin (GA), a phytohormone regulating plant growth. DELLA degradation is triggered by its interaction with GID1, a soluble GA receptor, in the presence of bioactive GA. We isolated cDNA from a spliced variant of LsDELLA1 mRNA in lettuce, and named it LsDELLA1sv. It was deduced that LsDELLA1sv encodes truncated LsDELLA1, which has DELLA and VHYNP motifs at the N terminus but lacks part of the C-terminal GRAS domain. The recombinant LsDELLA1sv protein interacted with both Arabidopsis GID1 and lettuce GID1s in the presence of GA. A yeast two-hybrid assay suggested that LsDELLA1sv interacted with LsDELLA1. The ratio of LsDELLA1sv to LsDELLA1 transcripts was higher in flower samples at the late reproductive stage and seed samples (dry seeds and imbibed seeds) than in the other organ samples examined. This study suggests that LsDELLA1sv is a possible modulator of GA signaling in lettuce.

  5. Karrikins delay soybean seed germination by mediating abscisic acid and gibberellin biogenesis under shaded conditions.

    Meng, Yongjie; Chen, Feng; Shuai, Haiwei; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jun; Tang, Shengwen; Xu, Shuanshuan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Weiguo; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Sun, Xin; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Yuqi; Shu, Kai; Yang, Wenyu

    2016-02-23

    Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interestingly, KAR only retarded soybean seed germination under shaded conditions, rather than under dark and white light conditions, which differs from in Arabidopsis. Phytohormone quantification showed that KAR enhanced ABA biogenesis while impairing GA biosynthesis during the seed imbibition process, and subsequently, the ratio of active GA4 to ABA was significantly reduced. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed that the transcription pattern of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolic pathways are consistent with the hormonal measurements. Finally, fluridone, an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, remarkably rescued the delayed-germination phenotype of KAR-treatment; and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Taken together, these evidences suggest that KAR inhibit soybean seed germination by mediating the ratio between GA and ABA biogenesis.

  6. 2-Oxoglutarate: linking TCA cycle function with amino acid, glucosinolate, flavonoid, alkaloid, and gibberellin biosynthesis.

    Araújo, Wagner L; Martins, Auxiliadora O; Fernie, Alisdair R; Tohge, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) is used as an obligatory substrate in a range of oxidative reactions catalyzed by 2-OG-dependent dioxygenases. These enzymes are widespread in nature being involved in several important biochemical processes. We have recently demonstrated that tomato plants in which the TCA cycle enzyme 2-OG dehydrogenase (2-ODD) was antisense inhibited were characterized by early senescence and modified fruit ripening associated with differences in the levels of bioactive gibberellin (GA). Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence that the TCA cycle plays an important role in modulating the rate of flux from 2-OG to amino acid metabolism. Here we discuss recent advances in the biochemistry and molecular biology of 2-OG metabolism occurring in different biological systems indicating the importance of 2-OG and 2-OG dependent dioxygenases not only in glucosinolate, flavonoid and alkaloid metabolism but also in GA and amino acid metabolism. We additionally summarize recent findings regarding the impact of modification of 2-OG metabolism on biosynthetic pathways involving 2-ODDs.

  7. Gibberellin overproduction promotes sucrose synthase expression and secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers.

    Wen-Qin Bai

    Full Text Available Bioactive gibberellins (GAs comprise an important class of natural plant growth regulators and play essential roles in cotton fiber development. To date, the molecular base of GAs' functions in fiber development is largely unclear. To address this question, the endogenous bioactive GA levels in cotton developing fibers were elevated by specifically up-regulating GA 20-oxidase and suppressing GA 2-oxidase via transgenic methods. Higher GA levels in transgenic cotton fibers significantly increased micronaire values, 1000-fiber weight, cell wall thickness and cellulose contents of mature fibers. Quantitative RT-PCR and biochemical analysis revealed that the transcription of sucrose synthase gene GhSusA1 and sucrose synthase activities were significantly enhanced in GA overproducing transgenic fibers, compared to the wild-type cotton. In addition, exogenous application of bioactive GA could promote GhSusA1 expression in cultured fibers, as well as in cotton hypocotyls. Our results suggested that bioactive GAs promoted secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers by enhancing sucrose synthase expression.

  8. A local maximum in gibberellin levels regulates maize leaf growth by spatial control of cell division.

    Nelissen, Hilde; Rymen, Bart; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Demuynck, Kirin; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Kamiya, Yuji; Inzé, Dirk; Beemster, Gerrit T S

    2012-07-10

    Plant growth rate is largely determined by the transition between the successive phases of cell division and expansion. A key role for hormone signaling in determining this transition was inferred from genetic approaches and transcriptome analysis in the Arabidopsis root tip. We used the developmental gradient at the maize leaf base as a model to study this transition, because it allows a direct comparison between endogenous hormone concentrations and the transitions between dividing, expanding, and mature tissue. Concentrations of auxin and cytokinins are highest in dividing tissues, whereas bioactive gibberellins (GAs) show a peak at the transition zone between the division and expansion zone. Combined metabolic and transcriptomic profiling revealed that this GA maximum is established by GA biosynthesis in the division zone (DZ) and active GA catabolism at the onset of the expansion zone. Mutants defective in GA synthesis and signaling, and transgenic plants overproducing GAs, demonstrate that altering GA levels specifically affects the size of the DZ, resulting in proportional changes in organ growth rates. This work thereby provides a novel molecular mechanism for the regulation of the transition from cell division to expansion that controls organ growth and size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Salinity Inhibits Rice Seed Germination by Reducing α-Amylase Activity via Decreased Bioactive Gibberellin Content

    Li Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination plays important roles in the establishment of seedlings and their subsequent growth; however, seed germination is inhibited by salinity, and the inhibitory mechanism remains elusive. Our results indicate that NaCl treatment inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing the contents of bioactive gibberellins (GAs, such as GA1 and GA4, and that this inhibition can be rescued by exogenous bioactive GA application. To explore the mechanism of bioactive GA deficiency, the effect of NaCl on GA metabolic gene expression was investigated, revealing that expression of both GA biosynthetic genes and GA-inactivated genes was up-regulated by NaCl treatment. These results suggest that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency is caused by up-regulated expression of GA-inactivated genes, and the up-regulated expression of GA biosynthetic genes might be a consequence of negative feedback regulation of the bioactive GA deficiency. Moreover, we provide evidence that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing α-amylase activity via down-regulation of α-amylase gene expression. Additionally, exogenous bioactive GA rescues NaCl-inhibited seed germination by enhancing α-amylase activity. Thus, NaCl treatment reduces bioactive GA content through promotion of bioactive GA inactivation, which in turn inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing α-amylase activity via down-regulation of α-amylase gene expression.

  10. Hydrologic modeling in a marsh-mangrove ecotone: Predicting wetland surface water and salinity response to restoration in the Ten Thousand Islands region of Florida, USA

    Michot, B.D.; Meselhe, E.A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Shrestha, Surendra; From, Andrew S.; Patino, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    At the fringe of Everglades National Park in southwest Florida, United States, the Ten Thousand Islands National Wildlife Refuge (TTINWR) habitat has been heavily affected by the disruption of natural freshwater flow across the Tamiami Trail (U.S. Highway 41). As the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) proposes to restore the natural sheet flow from the Picayune Strand Restoration Project area north of the highway, the impact of planned measures on the hydrology in the refuge needs to be taken into account. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, computationally efficient mass balance model to simulate the spatial and temporal patterns of water level and salinity within the area of interest. This model could be used to assess the effects of the proposed management decisions on the surface water hydrological characteristics of the refuge. Surface water variations are critical to the maintenance of wetland processes. The model domain is divided into 10 compartments on the basis of their shared topography, vegetation, and hydrologic characteristics. A diversion of +10% of the discharge recorded during the modeling period was simulated in the primary canal draining the Picayune Strand forest north of the Tamiami Trail (Faka Union Canal) and this discharge was distributed as overland flow through the refuge area. Water depths were affected only modestly. However, in the northern part of the refuge, the hydroperiod, i.e., the duration of seasonal flooding, was increased by 21 days (from 115 to 136 days) for the simulation during the 2008 wet season, with an average water level rise of 0.06 m. The average salinity over a two-year period in the model area just south of Tamiami Trail was reduced by approximately 8 practical salinity units (psu) (from 18 to 10 psu), whereas the peak dry season average was reduced from 35 to 29 psu (by 17%). These salinity reductions were even larger with greater flow diversions (+20%). Naturally, the reduction

  11. Restorative dentistry for children.

    Donly, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses contemporary pediatric restorative dentistry. Indications and contraindications for the choice of different restorative materials in different clinical situations, including the risk assessment of the patient, are presented. The specific use of glass ionomer cement or resin-modified glass ionomer cement, resin-based composite, and stainless steel crowns is discussed so that preparation design and restoration placement is understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Wetland restoration, flood pulsing, and disturbance dynamics

    Middleton, Beth A.

    1999-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics are critical to wetland viability, there is as yet no consensus among those responsible for wetland restoration about how best to plan for those phenomena or even whether it is really necessary to do so at all. In this groundbreaking book, Dr. Beth Middleton draws upon the latest research from around the world to build a strong case for making flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics integral to the wetland restoration planning process.While the initial chapters of the book are devoted to laying the conceptual foundations, most of the coverage is concerned with demonstrating the practical implications for wetland restoration and management of the latest ecological theory and research. It includes a fascinating case history section in which Dr. Middleton explores the restoration models used in five major North American, European, Australian, African, and Asian wetland projects, and analyzes their relative success from the perspective of flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics planning.Wetland Restoration also features a wealth of practical information useful to all those involved in wetland restoration and management, including: * A compendium of water level tolerances, seed germination, seedling recruitment, adult survival rates, and other key traits of wetland plant species * A bibliography of 1,200 articles and monographs covering all aspects of wetland restoration * A comprehensive directory of wetland restoration ftp sites worldwide * An extensive glossary of essential terms

  13. Abscisic acid in the thermoinhibition of lettuce seed germination and enhancement of its catabolism by gibberellin.

    Gonai, Takeru; Kawahara, Shusuke; Tougou, Makoto; Satoh, Shigeru; Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Hirai, Nobuhiro; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Yuji; Yoshioka, Toshihito

    2004-01-01

    Germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. 'Grand Rapids') seeds was inhibited at high temperatures (thermoinhibition). Thermoinhibition at 28 degrees C was prevented by the application of fluridone, an inhibitor of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. At 33 degrees C, the sensitivity of the seeds to ABA increased, and fluridone on its own was no longer effective. However, a combined application of fluridone and gibberellic acid (GA3) was able to restore the germination. Exogenous GA3 lowered endogenous ABA content in the seeds, enhancing catabolism of ABA and export of the catabolites from the intact seeds. The fluridone application also decreased the ABA content. Consequently, the combined application of fluridone and GA3 decreased the ABA content to a sufficiently low level to allow germination at 33 degrees C. There was no significant temperature-dependent change in endogenous GA1 contents. It is concluded that ABA is an important factor in the regulation of thermoinhibition of lettuce seed germination, and that GA affects the temperature responsiveness of the seeds through ABA metabolism.

  14. Rice black streaked dwarf virus P7-2 forms a SCF complex through binding to Oryza sativa SKP1-like proteins, and interacts with GID2 involved in the gibberellin pathway.

    Tao Tao

    Full Text Available As a core subunit of the SCF complex that promotes protein degradation through the 26S proteasome, S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1 plays important roles in multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes, including gibberellin (GA, jasmonate, ethylene, auxin and light responses. P7-2 encoded by Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, a devastating viral pathogen that causes severe symptoms in infected plants, interacts with SKP1 from different plants. However, whether RBSDV P7-2 forms a SCF complex and targets host proteins is poorly understood. In this study, we conducted yeast two-hybrid assays to further explore the interactions between P7-2 and 25 type I Oryza sativa SKP1-like (OSK proteins, and found that P7-2 interacted with eight OSK members with different binding affinity. Co-immunoprecipitation assay further confirmed the interaction of P7-2 with OSK1, OSK5 and OSK20. It was also shown that P7-2, together with OSK1 and O. sativa Cullin-1, was able to form the SCF complex. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid assays revealed that P7-2 interacted with gibberellin insensitive dwarf2 (GID2 from rice and maize plants, which is essential for regulating the GA signaling pathway. It was further demonstrated that the N-terminal region of P7-2 was necessary for the interaction with GID2. Overall, these results indicated that P7-2 functioned as a component of the SCF complex in rice, and interaction of P7-2 with GID2 implied possible roles of the GA signaling pathway during RBSDV infection.

  15. Rice black streaked dwarf virus P7-2 forms a SCF complex through binding to Oryza sativa SKP1-like proteins, and interacts with GID2 involved in the gibberellin pathway.

    Tao, Tao; Zhou, Cui-Ji; Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiang-Ru; Sun, Qian; Zhao, Tian-Yu; Ye, Jian-Chun; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Zong-Ying; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Guo, Ze-Jian; Wang, Xian-Bing; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2017-01-01

    As a core subunit of the SCF complex that promotes protein degradation through the 26S proteasome, S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1) plays important roles in multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes, including gibberellin (GA), jasmonate, ethylene, auxin and light responses. P7-2 encoded by Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a devastating viral pathogen that causes severe symptoms in infected plants, interacts with SKP1 from different plants. However, whether RBSDV P7-2 forms a SCF complex and targets host proteins is poorly understood. In this study, we conducted yeast two-hybrid assays to further explore the interactions between P7-2 and 25 type I Oryza sativa SKP1-like (OSK) proteins, and found that P7-2 interacted with eight OSK members with different binding affinity. Co-immunoprecipitation assay further confirmed the interaction of P7-2 with OSK1, OSK5 and OSK20. It was also shown that P7-2, together with OSK1 and O. sativa Cullin-1, was able to form the SCF complex. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid assays revealed that P7-2 interacted with gibberellin insensitive dwarf2 (GID2) from rice and maize plants, which is essential for regulating the GA signaling pathway. It was further demonstrated that the N-terminal region of P7-2 was necessary for the interaction with GID2. Overall, these results indicated that P7-2 functioned as a component of the SCF complex in rice, and interaction of P7-2 with GID2 implied possible roles of the GA signaling pathway during RBSDV infection.

  16. Incorporating climate change projections into riparian restoration planning and design

    Perry, Laura G.; Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Collins, Mathias J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and associated changes in streamflow may alter riparian habitats substantially in coming decades. Riparian restoration provides opportunities to respond proactively to projected climate change effects, increase riparian ecosystem resilience to climate change, and simultaneously address effects of both climate change and other human disturbances. However, climate change may alter which restoration methods are most effective and which restoration goals can be achieved. Incorporating climate change into riparian restoration planning and design is critical to long-term restoration of desired community composition and ecosystem services. In this review, we discuss and provide examples of how climate change might be incorporated into restoration planning at the key stages of assessing the project context, establishing restoration goals and design criteria, evaluating design alternatives, and monitoring restoration outcomes. Restoration planners have access to numerous tools to predict future climate, streamflow, and riparian ecology at restoration sites. Planners can use those predictions to assess which species or ecosystem services will be most vulnerable under future conditions, and which sites will be most suitable for restoration. To accommodate future climate and streamflow change, planners may need to adjust methods for planting, invasive species control, channel and floodplain reconstruction, and water management. Given the considerable uncertainty in future climate and streamflow projections, riparian ecological responses, and effects on restoration outcomes, planners will need to consider multiple potential future scenarios, implement a variety of restoration methods, design projects with flexibility to adjust to future conditions, and plan to respond adaptively to unexpected change.

  17. Thermal Energy Transfer Through All Ceramic Restorations

    2016-06-01

    correlate to a histological status or disease process. A positive response only expresses that there is a viable nerve fibers located within the pulp ...INTRODUCTION: The literature has demonstrated that cold testing with 1,1,1,2- tetrafluoroethane (TFE) can be used to assess the pulp vitality of teeth restored...restorative materials to natural teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thermoprobes (T-type, Omega) were inserted into the pulp chamber of 3 extracted human

  18. Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project

    2015-07-01

    across the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic...USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project (Deer Island AERP...Mississippi Wetlands Restoration Projects). The project received additional funding through several public laws in response to hurricane damages

  19. Rice PLASTOCHRON genes regulate leaf maturation downstream of the gibberellin signal transduction pathway.

    Mimura, Manaki; Nagato, Yasuo; Itoh, Jun-Ichi

    2012-05-01

    Rice PLASTOCHRON 1 (PLA1) and PLA2 genes regulate leaf maturation and plastochron, and their loss-of-function mutants exhibit small organs and rapid leaf emergence. They encode a cytochrome P450 protein CYP78A11 and an RNA-binding protein, respectively. Their homologs in Arabidopsis and maize are also associated with plant development/organ size. Despite the importance of PLA genes in plant development, their molecular functions remain unknown. Here, we investigated how PLA1 and PLA2 genes are related to phytohormones. We found that gibberellin (GA) is the major phytohormone that promotes PLA1 and PLA2 expression. GA induced PLA1 and PLA2 expression, and conversely the GA-inhibitor uniconazole suppressed PLA1 and PLA2 expression. In pla1-4 and pla2-1 seedlings, expression levels of GA biosynthesis genes and the signal transduction gene were similar to those in wild-type seedlings. GA treatment slightly down-regulated the GA biosynthesis gene GA20ox2 and up-regulated the GA-catabolizing gene GA2ox4, whereas the GA biosynthesis inhibitor uniconazole up-regulated GA20ox2 and down-regulated GA2ox4 both in wild-type and pla mutants, suggesting that the GA feedback mechanism is not impaired in pla1 and pla2. To reveal how GA signal transduction affects the expression of PLA1 and PLA2, PLA expression in GA-signaling mutants was examined. In GA-insensitive mutant, gid1 and less-sensitive mutant, Slr1-d1, PLA1 and PLA2 expression was down-regulated. On the other hand, the expression levels of PLA1 and PLA2 were highly enhanced in a GA-constitutive-active mutant, slr1-1, causing ectopic overexpression. These results indicate that both PLA1 and PLA2 act downstream of the GA signal transduction pathway to regulate leaf development.

  20. Gibberellins inhibit adventitious rooting in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis by affecting auxin transport.

    Mauriat, Mélanie; Petterle, Anna; Bellini, Catherine; Moritz, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of processes involved in adventitious rooting is important to improve both fundamental understanding of plant physiology and the propagation of numerous plants. Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloïdes) plants overexpressing a key gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis gene (AtGA20ox1) grow rapidly but have poor rooting efficiency, which restricts their clonal propagation. Therefore, we investigated the molecular basis of adventitious rooting in Populus and the model plant Arabidopsis. The production of adventitious roots (ARs) in tree cuttings is initiated from the basal stem region, and involves the interplay of several endogenous and exogenous factors. The roles of several hormones in this process have been characterized, but the effects of GAs have not been fully investigated. Here, we show that a GA treatment negatively affects the numbers of ARs produced by wild-type hybrid aspen cuttings. Furthermore, both hybrid aspen plants and intact Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing AtGA20ox1, PttGID1.1 or PttGID1.3 genes (with a 35S promoter) produce few ARs, although ARs develop from the basal stem region of hybrid aspen and the hypocotyl of Arabidopsis. In Arabidopsis, auxin and strigolactones are known to affect AR formation. Our data show that the inhibitory effect of GA treatment on adventitious rooting is not mediated by perturbation of the auxin signalling pathway, or of the strigolactone biosynthetic and signalling pathways. Instead, GAs appear to act by perturbing polar auxin transport, in particular auxin efflux in hybrid aspen, and both efflux and influx in Arabidopsis. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Reactivation of meristem activity and sprout growth in potato tubers require both cytokinin and gibberellin.

    Hartmann, Anja; Senning, Melanie; Hedden, Peter; Sonnewald, Uwe; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2011-02-01

    Reactivation of dormant meristems is of central importance for plant fitness and survival. Due to their large meristem size, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers serve as a model system to study the underlying molecular processes. The phytohormones cytokinins (CK) and gibberellins (GA) play important roles in releasing potato tuber dormancy and promoting sprouting, but their mode of action in these processes is still obscure. Here, we established an in vitro assay using excised tuber buds to study the dormancy-releasing capacity of GA and CK and show that application of gibberellic acid (GA(3)) is sufficient to induce sprouting. In contrast, treatment with 6-benzylaminopurine induced bud break but did not support further sprout growth unless GA(3) was administered additionally. Transgenic potato plants expressing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GA 20-oxidase or GA 2-oxidase to modify endogenous GA levels showed the expected phenotypical changes as well as slight effects on tuber sprouting. The isopentenyltransferase (IPT) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the Arabidopsis cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase1 (CKX) were exploited to modify the amounts of CK in transgenic potato plants. IPT expression promoted earlier sprouting in vitro. Strikingly, CKX-expressing tubers exhibited a prolonged dormancy period and did not respond to GA(3). This supports an essential role of CK in terminating tuber dormancy and indicates that GA is not sufficient to break dormancy in the absence of CK. GA(3)-treated wild-type and CKX-expressing tuber buds were subjected to a transcriptome analysis that revealed transcriptional changes in several functional groups, including cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, and auxin and ethylene signaling, denoting events associated with the reactivation of dormant meristems.

  2. Ecological restoration [book review

    Eric J. Gustafson

    2010-01-01

    Ecological restoration has increased in prominence in recent years as environmental policies have slowed the rate of environmental degradation in many parts of the world and practitioners have looked for active ways to reverse the damage. Because of the vast number of types and contexts of degraded ecological systems, the field of ecological restoration is still very...

  3. Challenges of ecological restoration

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars

    2013-01-01

    we introduce northern forests as an ecosystem, discuss the historical and recent human impact and provide a brief status report on the ecological restoration projects and research already conducted there. Based on this discussion, we argue that before any restoration actions commence, the ecology......The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many...... on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here...

  4. Exxon Valdez -- Framework for natural resource restoration

    O'Connor, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Once the task of evaluating the nature and extent of natural resource injuries caused by the Exxon Valdez oil spill neared completion, the equally daunting task of formulating proper restorative measures began. The essence of the natural resource restoration effort is to determine how to utilize the monies received from the criminal and civil settlements to fulfill the natural resource trustees' responsibilities to restore Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska to their condition prior to the spill. Given the magnitude and variety of environmental impact, i.e., natural resource injuries ranging from the death of thousands of sea birds and marine mammals to the persistent sublethal affects of hydrocarbon contamination in intertidal sediments, the field of restorative endeavor is as broad and perplexing as was responding to the spill itself. This paper discusses the policy and legal parameters which give structure to the scientific and technical decisions the natural resource trustees must make in the years to come as they engage in their restoration responsibilities. The discussed policy and legal parameters translate generally to natural resource restoration under such statutes as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, the Clean Water Act and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990

  5. Water quality and algal conditions in the North Umpqua River, Oregon, 1995-2007, and their response to Diamond Lake restoration

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Anderson, Chauncey W.; Jones, Mikeal E.

    2014-01-01

    The Wild and Scenic North Umpqua River is one of the highest-quality waters in the State of Oregon, supporting runs of wild salmon, steelhead, and trout. For many years, blooms of potentially toxic blue-green algae in Diamond and Lemolo Lakes have threatened water quality, fisheries, and public health. The blooms consist primarily of Anabaena, a nitrogen (N)-fixing planktonic alga that appears to have contributed to N enrichment, which could account for changes in communities and biomass of periphyton, or attached benthic algae, in the river. Periphyton can become a nuisance in summer by affecting riffle habitat and causing high pH that fails to meet State of Oregon water-quality standards. These symptoms of nutrient enrichment in the North Umpqua River were first documented in 1995, and the symptoms have continued since then. Restoring natural ecosystem processes that store nutrients rather than fueling algae might help improve pH and water-clarity conditions.

  6. Lake Sturgeon, Lake Whitefish, and Walleye egg deposition patterns with response to fish spawning substrate restoration in the St. Clair–Detroit River system

    Fischer, Jason L.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward; Prichard, Carson G.; Craig, Jaquelyn M.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2018-01-01

    Egg deposition and use of restored spawning substrates by lithophilic fishes (e.g., Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens, Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis, and Walleye Sander vitreus) were assessed throughout the St. Clair–Detroit River system from 2005 to 2016. Bayesian models were used to quantify egg abundance and presence/absence relative to site-specific variables (e.g., depth, velocity, and artificial spawning reef presence) and temperature to evaluate fish use of restored artificial spawning reefs and assess patterns in egg deposition. Lake Whitefish and Walleye egg abundance, probability of detection, and probability of occupancy were assessed with detection-adjusted methods; Lake Sturgeon egg abundance and probability of occurrence were assessed using delta-lognormal methods. The models indicated that the probability of Walleye eggs occupying a site increased with water velocity and that the rate of increase decreased with depth, whereas Lake Whitefish egg occupancy was not correlated with any of the attributes considered. Egg deposition by Lake Whitefish and Walleyes was greater at sites with high water velocities and was lower over artificial spawning reefs. Lake Sturgeon eggs were collected least frequently but were more likely to be collected over artificial spawning reefs and in greater abundances than elsewhere. Detection-adjusted egg abundances were not greater over artificial spawning reefs, indicating that these projects may not directly benefit spawning Walleyes and Lake Whitefish. However, 98% of the Lake Sturgeon eggs observed were collected over artificial spawning reefs, supporting the hypothesis that the reefs provided spawning sites for Lake Sturgeon and could mitigate historic losses of Lake Sturgeon spawning habitat.

  7. Nanowire arrays restore vision in blind mice.

    Tang, Jing; Qin, Nan; Chong, Yan; Diao, Yupu; Yiliguma; Wang, Zhexuan; Xue, Tian; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Jiayi; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2018-03-06

    The restoration of light response with complex spatiotemporal features in retinal degenerative diseases towards retinal prosthesis has proven to be a considerable challenge over the past decades. Herein, inspired by the structure and function of photoreceptors in retinas, we develop artificial photoreceptors based on gold nanoparticle-decorated titania nanowire arrays, for restoration of visual responses in the blind mice with degenerated photoreceptors. Green, blue and near UV light responses in the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are restored with a spatial resolution better than 100 µm. ON responses in RGCs are blocked by glutamatergic antagonists, suggesting functional preservation of the remaining retinal circuits. Moreover, neurons in the primary visual cortex respond to light after subretinal implant of nanowire arrays. Improvement in pupillary light reflex suggests the behavioral recovery of light sensitivity. Our study will shed light on the development of a new generation of optoelectronic toolkits for subretinal prosthetic devices.

  8. Transcriptional mechanisms associated with seed dormancy and dormancy loss in the gibberellin-insensitive sly1-2 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana

    While widespread transcriptome changes have been previously observed with seed dormancy loss, this study specifically characterized transcriptional changes associated with the increased seed dormancy and dormancy loss of the gibberellin (GA) hormone-insensitive sleepy1-2 (sly1-2) mutant. The SLY1 g...

  9. Features of gas exchange and use of reserve substances in pumpkin seedlings in conditions of skoto- and photomorphogenesis under the influence of gibberellin and chlormequat-chloride

    I. V. Poprotska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of gibberellin and the antigibberellic agent chlormequat-chloride on gas exchange and use of reserve substances in pumpkin seedlings during germination in the light and in the dark. We established that an artificial strengthening or growth inhibition of pumpkin seedlings in conditions of skotomorphogenesis caused an increase in of respiration intensity. Gibberellin treatment increased the proportion of assimilation processes in carbon dioxide gas exchange of seedlings, and growth inhibition by retardant caused an increase in respiratory costs when the nutrition type switches in the light from heterotrophic to autotrophic. The formation by seedlings of the demand for reserve assimilates from cotyledons was largely determined by change of activity of subapical meristems, which is manifested in the acceleration of seed germination, enhancing of histogenesis for the actions of gibberellin and in the weakening of these processes under the influence of retardants. Reserve substances used both oil and nitrogen-containing compounds. The content of protein nitrogen in pumpkin cotyledons decreased more in the light than in the dark, moreover growth inhibition by the retardant slowed down and growth increase by gibberellin accelerated this process both in conditions of photomorphogenesis and skotomorphogenesis.

  10. Response Analysis of eight native species of high Andean forest with two methods of propagation

    Castaneda Sandra Liliana; Garzon Alvaro Ernesto; Cantillo Miguel Angel; Torres Monica Patricia; Silva Luis Jairo

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to generate information on the native tree species represent an alternative in the ecological restoration of the Colombian high Andean forests, according to its dynamo-genetic characteristics. We have chosen and spread the species: Baccharis latifolia (R and P), Bocconia frutescens L., Cordia cylindrostachya (R and P), Diplostephium rosmarinifolium (Benth), Drymis granadensis L f., Eupatorium angustifolium (Kunth), Palicourea vaginata Benth, and Palicourea linearifolia Wernham. The species include a morphological description of flowers, fruits and seeds, and ISTA tests. The spread experiments were made in the nurseries of the Universidad Distrital and La Florida park. For the sexual spread, we have used as treatments four gibberellins concentrations and three shadow conditions, while the vegetative spread consisted of two diameters and ive indol butiric acid (IBA) concentrations. Results have shown that pre-germination treatments are needed for Bocconia frutescens y Palicourea vaginata, in order to increase the probability and germination rate. On the other hand, shadow conditions are needed for Baccharis latifolia, Diplostephium rosmarinifolium, Drymis granadensis, Eupatorium angustifolium and Palicourea vaginata, as their seeds exhibit photoblastic characteristics. Due to the Cordia cylindrostachya and Palicourea linearifolia seed attack by insects (Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera) their sexual spread is highly limited. Finally, regarding the species response to the IBA and diameter combinations, each species responded in a different manner. Additionally, regarding the vegetative spread, the species Bocconia frutescens, Cordia cylindrostachya, Palicourea vaginata, Diplostephium rosmarinifolium and Drymis granadensis were very difficult to spread

  11. Bearing restoration by grinding

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  12. Restoration of landfill sites

    Jones, A K; Chamley, M E

    1986-10-01

    Many excavated quarries are subsequently used for waste disposal operations and frequently imported landfill provides the only means of restoring a former quarry to some beneficial afteruse. Concentrating solely on the final surface cover, this paper sets out some of the principles, which should be considered by those involved in landfill operations to ensure the long term success of restoration schemes. With the emphasis on restoration to agriculture, factors such as availability of cover materials and depths necessary are discussed in terms of requirements to support plant growth, protect clay capping layers and prevent damage to agricultural implements. Soil handling and appropriate after care management are considered. 4 refs.

  13. Responses of soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structure to closed-off management (an ecological natural restoration measures): A case study of Dongting Lake wetland, middle China.

    Dai, Juan; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guangming; Liang, Jie; Guo, Shenglian; Li, Xiaodong; Huang, Lu; Lu, Lunhui; Yuan, Yujie

    2016-09-01

    Soil microbial biomass (SMB) and bacterial community structure, which are critical to global ecosystem and fundamental ecological processes, are sensitive to anthropogenic activities and environmental conditions. In this study, we examined the possible effects of closed-off management (an ecological natural restoration measures, ban on anthropogenic activity, widely employed for many important wetlands) on SMB, soil bacterial community structure and functional marker genes of nitrogen cycling in Dongting Lake wetland. Soil samples were collected from management area (MA) and contrast area (CA: human activities, such as hunting, fishing and draining, are permitted) in November 2013 and April 2014. Soil properties, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and bacterial community structure were investigated. Comparison of the values of MA and CA showed that SMB and bacterial community diversity of the MA had a significant increase after 7 years closed-off management. The mean value of Shannon-Weiner diversity index of MA and CA respectively were 2.85 and 2.07. The gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA and nosZ of MA were significant higher than those of CA. the gene copy numbers of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and nirK of MA were significant lower than those of CA. However, there was no significant change in the gene copy numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nirS. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  15. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  16. Principles of Wetland Restoration

    the return of a degraded ecosystem to a close approximation of its remaining natural potential - is experiencing a groundswell of support across the United States. The number of stream, river, lake, wetland and estuary restoration projects grows yearly

  17. Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    In 2003 the Skjern River Restoration Project in Denmark was awarded the prestigious Europa Nostra Prize for ‘conserving the European cultural heritage’ (Danish Nature Agency 2005). In this case, however, it seems that the conservation of one cultural heritage came at the expense of another cultural...... this massive reconstruction work, which involved moving more than 2,7 million cubic meters of earth, cause a lot of ‘dissonance’ among the local population, the resulting ‘nature’ and its dynamic processes are also constantly compromising the preferred image of the restored landscape (Clemmensen 2014......). The presentation offers insight into an on-going research and development project - Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual, which question existing trends and logics within nature restoration. The project explores how the Skjern River Delta could have been ‘restored’ with a greater sensibility for its cultural...

  18. based dynamic voltage restorer

    HOD

    operation due to presence of increased use of nonlinear loads (computers, microcontrollers ... simulations of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) was achieved using MATLAB/Simulink. ..... using Discrete PWM generator, then the IGBT inverter.

  19. Low temperature sensing in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) is mediated through an increased response to auxin.

    Rietveld, P L; Wilkinson, C; Franssen, H M; Balk, P A; van der Plas, L H; Weisbeek, P J; Douwe de Boer, A

    2000-03-01

    Tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) is a bulbous plant species that requires a period of low temperature for proper growth and flowering. The mechanism of sensing the low temperature period is unknown. The study presented in this paper shows that the essential developmental change in tulip bulbs during cold treatment is an increase in sensitivity to the phytohormone auxin. This is demonstrated using a model system consisting of isolated internodes grown on tissue culture medium containing different combinations of the phytohormones auxin and gibberellin. Using mathematical modelling, equations taken from the field of enzyme kinetics were fitted through the data. By doing so it became apparent that longer periods of low temperature resulted in an increased maximum response at a lower auxin concentration. Besides the cold treatment, gibberellin also enhances the response to auxin in the internodes in this in vitro system. A working model describing the relationship between the cold requirement, gibberellin action and auxin sensitivity is put forward. Possible analogies with other cold-requiring processes such as vernalization and stratification, and the interaction of auxin and gibberellin in the stalk elongation process in other plant species are discussed.

  20. Control of Memory CD8+ T Cell Differentiation by CD80/CD86-CD28 Costimulation and Restoration by IL-2 during the Recall Response1

    Fuse, Shinichiro; Zhang, Weijun; Usherwood, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    Memory CD8+ T cell responses have been considered to be independent of CD80/CD86-CD28 costimulation. However, recall responses are often severely blunted in CD28−/− mice. Whether this impairment represents a requirement for CD28 costimulation for proper memory CD8+ T cell development or a requirement during the recall response is unknown. Furthermore, how CD28 costimulation affects the phenotype and function of memory CD8+ T cells has not been characterized in detail. In this study, we invest...

  1. Technical framework for groundwater restoration

    1991-04-01

    This document provides the technical framework for groundwater restoration under Phase II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. A preliminary management plan for Phase II has been set forth in a companion document titled ''Preplanning Guidance Document for Groundwater Restoration''. General principles of site characterization for groundwater restoration, restoration methods, and treatment are discussed in this document to provide an overview of standard technical approaches to groundwater restoration

  2. Leadership success within disaster restoration projects.

    Rapp, Randy R; Baroudi, Bassam

    2014-01-01

    Successful project managers draw their performance from essential leadership traits, as guided by their core values.Within disaster recovery, contractors who mitigate, repair, and reconstruct the built environment are often faced with challenges exceeding the norm. The effective leader is commonly expected to consider stakeholder motivations within distressing situations as well as other external and environmental factors when seeking to lead the project team to successful outcomes. This research is most concerned with leadership within the context of disaster restoration of the built environment. Its stimulus comes from the Restoration Industry Association (RIA)'s efforts to highlight leadership traits and core values for its Certified Restorer Body of Knowledge but would be of value to others associated with disaster recovery operations. Among organizations whose membership includes thousands of practitioners who restore and reconstruct the built environment after disasters, the RIA is the only one yet to formally and substantially research which core values and leader traits are deemed critical for the success of efforts to manage the means and methods applied on recovery job sites. Forty-six seasoned disaster restoration industry project professionals voluntarily responded to a survey questionnaire that sought their opinions about the traits and core values that they consider most important for successful disaster restoration project leadership. The most important leader traits were effective communication, professional competence, and leadership by example. The most important restoration industry values were integrity, compassion, and trustworthiness. The recognized imperative of compassion was unexpected in light of stereotypes often associated with construction-related contractors. This and other findings permit disaster response and recovery stakeholders to better understand qualities they should wish to see in leaders of contractor organizations, which

  3. Gibberellin-regulated gene in the basal region of rice leaf sheath encodes basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor.

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Takasaki, Hironori

    2009-07-01

    Genes regulated by gibberellin (GA) during leaf sheath elongation in rice seedlings were identified using the transcriptome approach. mRNA from the basal regions of leaf sheaths treated with GA3 was analyzed by high-coverage gene expression profiling. 33,004 peaks were detected, and 30 transcripts showed significant changes in the presence of GA3. Among these, basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (AK073385) was significantly upregulated. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that expression of AK073385 was controlled by GA3 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (AK073385) is therefore involved in the regulation of gene expression by GA3.

  4. A gibberellin-stimulated transcript, OsGASR1, controls seedling growth and α-amylase expression in rice.

    Lee, Sang-Choon; Kim, Soo-Jin; Han, Soon-Ki; An, Gynheung; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2017-07-01

    From a T-DNA-tagging population in rice, we identified OsGASR1 (LOC_Os03g55290), a member of the GAST (gibberellin (GA)-Stimulated Transcript) family that is induced by salt stress and ABA treatment. This gene was highly expressed in the regions of cell proliferation and panicle development, as revealed by a GUS assay of the mutant line. In the osgasr1 mutants, the second leaf blades were much longer than those of the segregating wild type due to an increase in cell length. In addition, five α-amylase genes were up-regulated in the mutants, implying that OsGASR1 is a negative regulator of those genes. These results suggest that OsGASR1 plays important roles in seedling growth and α-amylase gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Antagonism between abscisic acid and gibberellins is partially mediated by ascorbic acid during seed germination in rice.

    Ye, Nenghui; Zhang, Jianhua

    2012-05-01

    The antagonism between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) plays a key role in controlling seed germination, but the mechanism of antagonism during this process is not known. In the associated study, we investigated the relationship among ABA, reactive oxygen species (ROS), ascorbic acid (ASC) and GA during rice seed germination. ROS production is reduced by ABA, which hence results in decreasing ASC accumulation during imbibition. GA accumulation was also suppressed by a reduced ROS and ASC level, whereas application of exogenous ASC can partially rescue seed germination from ABA treatment. Further results show that production of ASC, which acts as a substrate in GA biosynthesis, was significantly inhibited by lycorine which thus suppressed the accumulation of GA. Consequently, expression of GA biosynthesis genes was suppressed by the low levels of ROS and ASC in ABA-treated seeds. These studies reveal a new role for ASC in mediating the antagonism between ABA and GA during seed germination in rice.

  6. Enzymatic and structural characterization of hydrolysis of gibberellin A4 glucosyl ester by a rice β-D-glucosidase.

    Hua, Yanling; Sansenya, Sompong; Saetang, Chiraporn; Wakuta, Shinji; Ketudat Cairns, James R

    2013-09-01

    In order to identify a rice gibberellin ester β-D-glucosidase, gibberellin A4 β-D-glucosyl ester (GA4-GE) was synthesized and used to screen rice β-glucosidases. Os3BGlu6 was found to have the highest hydrolysis activity to GA4-GE among five recombinantly expressed rice glycoside hydrolase family GH1 enzymes from different phylogenic clusters. The kinetic parameters of Os3BGlu6 and its mutants E178Q, E178A, E394D, E394Q and M251N for hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPGlc) and GA4-GE confirmed the roles of the catalytic acid/base and nucleophile for hydrolysis of both substrates and suggested M251 contributes to binding hydrophobic aglycones. The activities of the Os3BGlu6 E178Q and E178A acid/base mutants were rescued by azide, which they transglucosylate to produce β-D-glucopyranosyl azide, in a pH-dependent manner, while acetate also rescued Os3BGlu6 E178A at low pH. High concentrations of sodium azide (200-400 mM) inhibited Os3BGlu6 E178Q but not Os3BGlu6 E178A. The structures of Os3BGlu6 E178Q crystallized with either GA4-GE or pNPGlc had a native α-D-glucosyl moiety covalently linked to the catalytic nucleophile, E394, which showed the hydrogen bonding to the 2-hydroxyl in the covalent intermediate. These data suggest that a GH1 β-glucosidase uses the same retaining catalytic mechanism to hydrolyze 1-O-acyl glucose ester and glucoside. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Enterococcus faecium LKE12 Cell-Free Extract Accelerates Host Plant Growth via Gibberellin and Indole-3-Acetic Acid Secretion.

    Lee, Ko-Eun; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; You, Young-Hyun; Joo, Gil-Jae; Lee, In-Jung; Ko, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-09-01

    The use of microbial extracts containing plant hormones is a promising technique to improve crop growth. Little is known about the effect of bacterial cell-free extracts on plant growth promotion. This study, based on phytohormonal analyses, aimed at exploring the potential mechanisms by which Enterococcus faecium LKE12 enhances plant growth in oriental melon. A bacterial strain, LKE12, was isolated from soil, and further identified as E. faecium by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The plant growth-promoting ability of an LKE12 bacterial culture was tested in a gibberellin (GA)-deficient rice dwarf mutant (waito-C) and a normal GA biosynthesis rice cultivar (Hwayongbyeo). E. faecium LKE12 significantly improved the length and biomass of rice shoots in both normal and dwarf cultivars through the secretion of an array of gibberellins (GA1, GA3, GA7, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA19, GA20, GA24, and GA53), as well as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study indicating that E. faecium can produce GAs. Increases in shoot and root lengths, plant fresh weight, and chlorophyll content promoted by E. faecium LKE12 and its cell-free extract inoculated in oriental melon plants revealed a favorable interaction of E. faecium LKE12 with plants. Higher plant growth rates and nutrient contents of magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, silicon, zinc, and nitrogen were found in cell-free extract-treated plants than in control plants. The results of the current study suggest that E. faecium LKE12 promotes plant growth by producing GAs and IAA; interestingly, the exogenous application of its cell-free culture extract can be a potential strategy to accelerate plant growth.

  8. RhHB1 mediates the antagonism of gibberellins to ABA and ethylene during rose (Rosa hybrida) petal senescence.

    Lü, Peitao; Zhang, Changqing; Liu, Jitao; Liu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Guimei; Jiang, Xinqiang; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Wang, Liangsheng; Hong, Bo; Gao, Junping

    2014-05-01

    Rose (Rosa hybrida) is one of the most important ornamental plants worldwide; however, senescence of its petals terminates the ornamental value of the flower, resulting in major economic loss. It is known that the hormones abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene promote petal senescence, while gibberellins (GAs) delay the process. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the antagonistic effects amongst plant hormones during petal senescence are still unclear. Here we isolated RhHB1, a homeodomain-leucine zipper I transcription factor gene, from rose flowers. Quantitative RT-PCR and GUS reporter analyses showed that RhHB1 was strongly expressed in senescing petals, and its expression was induced by ABA or ethylene in petals. ABA or ethylene treatment clearly accelerated rose petal senescence, while application of the gibberellin GA3 delayed the process. However, silencing of RhHB1 delayed the ABA- or ethylene-mediated senescence, and resulted in higher petal anthocyanin levels and lower expression of RhSAG12. Moreover, treatment with paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, repressed these delays. In addition, silencing of RhHB1 blocked the ABA- or ethylene-induced reduction in expression of the GA20 oxidase encoded by RhGA20ox1, a gene in the GA biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, RhHB1 directly binds to the RhGA20ox1 promoter, and silencing of RhGA20ox1 promoted petal senescence. Eight senescence-related genes showed substantial differences in expression in petals after treatment with GA3 or paclobutrazol. These results suggest that RhHB1 mediates the antagonistic effect of GAs on ABA and ethylene during rose petal senescence, and that the promotion of petal senescence by ABA or ethylene operates through an RhHB1-RhGA20ox1 regulatory checkpoint. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Survey and Restoration

    Mileto, C.; Vegas, F.

    2017-05-01

    In addition to the technological evolution over the last two centuries, survey has experienced two main conceptual leaps: the introduction of photography as a tool for an indiscriminate register for reality, and the shift from autographic to allographic survey, phenomena which can generate a distancing effect within the restoration process. Besides, this text presents the relationship between survey in its numerous forms and technologies (manual and semi-manual to more complex ones like scanner-laser) and the restoration of the building, either for establishing a diagnosis, operating or valorizating, illustrating it with examples developed by the authors, as well as the criteria to be applied when documenting a building to be restored, irrespective of the means and technology available in each case.

  10. SURVEY AND RESTORATION

    C. Mileto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the technological evolution over the last two centuries, survey has experienced two main conceptual leaps: the introduction of photography as a tool for an indiscriminate register for reality, and the shift from autographic to allographic survey, phenomena which can generate a distancing effect within the restoration process. Besides, this text presents the relationship between survey in its numerous forms and technologies (manual and semi-manual to more complex ones like scanner-laser and the restoration of the building, either for establishing a diagnosis, operating or valorizating, illustrating it with examples developed by the authors, as well as the criteria to be applied when documenting a building to be restored, irrespective of the means and technology available in each case.

  11. Exogenous Restoration of TUSC2 Expression Induces Responsiveness to Erlotinib in Wildtype Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR Lung Cancer Cells through Context Specific Pathways Resulting in Enhanced Therapeutic Efficacy.

    Bingbing Dai

    Full Text Available Expression of the tumor suppressor gene TUSC2 is reduced or absent in most lung cancers and is associated with worse overall survival. In this study, we restored TUSC2 gene expression in several wild type EGFR non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines resistant to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib and analyzed their sensitivity to erlotinib in vitro and in vivo. A significant inhibition of cell growth and colony formation was observed with TUSC2 transient and stable expression. TUSC2-erlotinib cooperativity in vitro could be reproduced in vivo in subcutaneous tumor growth and lung metastasis formation lung cancer xenograft mouse models. Combination treatment with intravenous TUSC2 nanovesicles and erlotinib synergistically inhibited tumor growth and metastasis, and increased apoptotic activity. High-throughput qRT-PCR array analysis enabling multi-parallel expression profile analysis of eighty six receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinase genes revealed a significant decrease of FGFR2 expression level, suggesting a potential role of FGFR2 in TUSC2-enhanced sensitivity to erlotinib. Western blots showed inhibition of FGFR2 by TUSC2 transient transfection, and marked increase of PARP, an apoptotic marker, cleavage level after TUSC2-erlotinb combined treatment. Suppression of FGFR2 by AZD4547 or gene knockdown enhanced sensitivity to erlotinib in some but not all tested cell lines. TUSC2 inhibits mTOR activation and the latter cell lines were responsive to the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin combined with erlotinib. These results suggest that TUSC2 restoration in wild type EGFR NSCLC may overcome erlotinib resistance, and identify FGFR2 and mTOR as critical regulators of this activity in varying cellular contexts. The therapeutic activity of TUSC2 could extend the use of erlotinib to lung cancer patients with wildtype EGFR.

  12. Restorative Practices as Formal and Informal Education

    Carter, Candice C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews restorative practices (RP) as education in formal and informal contexts of learning that are fertile sites for cultivating peace. Formal practices involve instruction about response to conflict, while informal learning occurs beyond academic lessons. The research incorporated content analysis and a critical examination of the…

  13. Restorative Justice: Principles, Practices, and Application

    O'Brien, Sandra Pavelka

    2007-01-01

    A modern-day movement is transforming the way that communities and justice systems think about and respond to crime and wrongful occurrences. This response implements a holistic continuum of services, providing for prevention, intervention, diversion, commitment, probation, reentry, and aftercare. This approach--known as restorative justice--seeks…

  14. Adaptive Restoration of Airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM Thermal Data

    D. Yuan; E. Doak; P. Guss; A. Will

    2002-01-01

    To incorporate the georegistration and restoration processes into airborne data processing in support of U.S. Department of Energy's nuclear emergency response task, we developed an adaptive restoration filter for airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM thermal data based on the Wiener filtering theory. Preliminary assessment shows that this filter enhances the detectability of small weak thermal anomalies in AADS1268 thermal images

  15. Muddied Waters: the case for mitigating sediment and nutrient flux to optimise restoration response in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia.

    Peter Andrew Gell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The waters of the Murray Darling Basin, Australia, have endured multiple stressors for more than a century. Detectable salinisation impacts are evident from 1880 CE and elevated fluxes of sediments and nutrients are now widespread. Most wetlands examined paleolimnologically have shown increased sedimentation rates or have lost aquatic plant communities due to the shading effect of increased turbidity, prompting the observation that the waterways of the Murray Darling Basin are among ten Australian ecosystems most at risk from tipping points. This post-European heightened sediment flux threatens the potential ecological recovery from the application of scarce and expensive environmental water. Nutrients and fine sediments are implicated as drivers of regime shifts that advantage phytoplankton and inhibit the growth of productive macrophyte beds. However, with the river channels identified as likely sources of sediments and sediment-bound phosphorous, it remains possible that the documented ecological changes represent an ongoing response from continued doses from the River. Syntheses of multiple paleolimnological records provide evidence for the management focus to be on sediment supply to maximise the ecological benefit from environmental flow allocations. Here we use paleolimnology to examine in detail the nature and magnitude of the response in a subset of 17 wetlands, to propose means of optimising the ecological bounce from the release of river waters, encumbered with high doses of sediments and nutrients, to wetlands and floodplains.

  16. The Effect of Salicylic Acid and Gibberellin on Seed Reserve Utilization, Germination and Enzyme Activity of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Seeds Under Drought Stress

    Roghayyeh Sheykhbaglou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming methods have been used to increases germination characteristics under stress conditions. The study aimed was to determine the effect of salicylic acid and gibberellin on seed reserve utilization, germination and enzyme activity of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. seeds under drought stress. Factorial experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with three replications. The first factor was the seed treatments (unpriming, salicylic acid and gibberellin and the second factor was drought stress (0, -4, -8 and -12 bar. The results indicated that for these traits: germination percentage, germination index, weight of utilized (mobilized seed, seed reserve utilization efficiency, seedling dry weight and seed reserve depletion percentage was a significant treatment Ч drought interaction. Thus priming improved study traits in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. seeds under drought stress. Also, priming improves enzyme activity as compared to the unprimed seeds.

  17. OsLOL1, a C2C2-type zinc finger protein, interacts with OsbZIP58 to promote seed germination through the modulation of gibberellin biosynthesis in Oryza sativa.

    Wu, Jiahe; Zhu, Chuanfeng; Pang, Jinhuan; Zhang, Xiangrong; Yang, Chunlin; Xia, Guixian; Tian, Yingchuan; He, Chaozu

    2014-12-01

    Seed germination is a key developmental process in the plant life cycle that is influenced by various environmental cues and phytohormones through gene expression and a series of metabolism pathways. In the present study, we investigated a C2C2-type finger protein, OsLOL1, which promotes gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and affects seed germination in Oryza sativa (rice). We used OsLOL1 antisense and sense transgenic lines to explore OsLOL1 functions. Seed germination timing in antisense plants was restored to wild type when exogenous GA3 was applied. The reduced expression of the GA biosynthesis gene OsKO2 and the accumulation of ent-kaurene were observed during germination in antisense plants. Based on yeast two-hybrid and firefly luciferase complementation analyses, OsLOL1 interacted with the basic leucine zipper protein OsbZIP58. The results from electrophoretic mobility shift and dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that OsbZIP58 binds the G-box cis-element of the OsKO2 promoter and activates LUC reporter gene expression, and that interaction between OsLOL1 and OsbZIP58 activates OsKO2 gene expression. In addition, OsLOL1 decreased SOD1 gene expression and accelerated programmed cell death (PCD) in the aleurone layer of rice grains. These findings demonstrate that the interaction between OsLOL1 and OsbZIP58 influences GA biosynthesis through the activation of OsKO2 via OsbZIP58, thereby stimulating aleurone PCD and seed germination. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Restorative justice and victimology

    The growth of restorative justice has sparked debate over the future of the criminal justice system, which has historically adopted a retributive, punitive philosophy and advocated for an individualistic, treatment-orientated approach. This approach has over time failed to address the needs of crime victims, communities and.

  19. Restoration of contaminated soils

    Miranda J, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A great variety of techniques are used for the restoration of contaminated soils. The contamination is present by both organic and inorganic pollutants. Environmental conditions and soil characteristics should take into account in order to implement a remedial technique. The bioremediation technologies are showed as help to remove a variety of soil contaminants. (author) [es

  20. Restoration in South Africa

    Blignaut, J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration can provide a wide range of direct and indirect benefits to society. However, there are very few projects that have attempted to properly quantify those benefits and present them in such a way that society is motivated to invest...

  1. The RESTORE program of restorative justice for sex crimes: vision, process, and outcomes.

    Koss, Mary P

    2014-06-01

    The article reports empirical evaluation of RESTORE, a restorative justice (RJ) conferencing program adapted to prosecutor-referred adult misdemeanor and felony sexual assaults. RESTORE conferences included voluntary enrollment, preparation, and a face-to-face meeting where primary and secondary victims voice impacts, and responsible persons acknowledge their acts and together develop a re-dress plan that is supervised for 1 year. Process data included referral and consent rates, participant characteristics, observational ratings of conferences compared with program design, services delivered, and safety monitoring. Outcome evaluation used 22 cases to assess (a) pre-post reasons for choosing RESTORE, (b) preparation and conference experiences, (c) overall program and justice satisfaction, and (d) completion rates. This is the first peer-reviewed quantitative evaluation of RJ conferencing for adult sexual assault. Although the data have limitations, the results support cautious optimism regarding feasibility, safety, and satisfactory outcomes. They help envision how conferencing could expand and individualize justice options for sexual assault.

  2. Myrigalone A Inhibits Lepidium sativum Seed Germination by Interference with Gibberellin Metabolism and Apoplastic Superoxide Production Required for Embryo Extension Growth and Endosperm Rupture

    Oracz, K.; Voegele, A.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Jacquemoud, D.; Turečková, Veronika; Urbanová, Terezie; Strnad, Miroslav; Sliwinska, E.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2012), s. 81-95 ISSN 0032-0781 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA MŠk ED0007/01/01; GA ČR GD522/08/H003 Keywords : Embryo cell extension growth * Endoreduplication * Endosperm rupture * Gibberellin metabolism * Lepidium sativum * Myrica gale * Phytotoxicity * Reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.134, year: 2012

  3. Total glucosides of paeony inhibit the inflammatory responses of mice with allergic contact dermatitis by restoring the balanced secretion of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines.

    Wang, Chun; Yuan, Jun; Wu, Hua-Xun; Chang, Yan; Wang, Qing-Tong; Wu, Yu-Jing; Zhou, Peng; Yang, Xiao-Dan; Yu, Jun; Wei, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the regulation exerted by the total glucosides of paeony (TGP) on the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 in the serum and lymphocytes of mice with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). ACD in mice was induced by the repeated application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to their skins. The mice were orally administered TGP (35, 70, and 140mg/kg/d) and prednisone (Pre, 5mg/kg/d) from day 1 to day 7 after immunization. The inflammatory responses were evaluated by ear swelling and histological examination. Thymocyte proliferation was assayed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide assay. The cytokine production in the serum and lymphocytes supernatant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results indicated that the topical application of DNCB to the skin provoked obvious inflammatory responses. The oral administration of TGP (70 and 140mg/kg/d) and Pre (5mg/kg/d) significantly inhibited skin inflammation, decreased the thymus and spleen indices, and inhibited thymocyte proliferation in mice treated with DNCB. Further study indicated that TGP increased IL-4 and IL-10 production but decreased the production of IL-2 and IL-17 in the serum and lymphocyte supernatant. The correlation analysis suggested significantly positive correlations between IL-2 and IL-17 production and the severity of skin inflammation, whereas negative correlations were obtained for IL-4 and IL-10 production and skin inflammation. In summary, these results suggest that the therapeutic effects of TGP on ACD may result from its regulation of the imbalanced secretion of IL-2/IL-4 and IL-10/IL-17. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental Restoration Information Resource Management Program Plan

    1994-09-01

    The Environmental Restoration Information Resources Management (ER IRM) Program Plan defines program requirements, organizational structures and responsibilities, and work breakdown structure and to establish an approved baseline against which overall progress of the program as well as the effectiveness of its management will be measured. This plan will guide ER IRM Program execution and define the program`s essential elements. This plan will be routinely updated to incorporate key decisions and programmatic changes and will serve as the project baseline document. Environmental Restoration Waste Management Program intersite procedures and work instructions will be developed to facilitate the implementation of this plan.

  5. Environmental Restoration Information Resource Management Program Plan

    1994-09-01

    The Environmental Restoration Information Resources Management (ER IRM) Program Plan defines program requirements, organizational structures and responsibilities, and work breakdown structure and to establish an approved baseline against which overall progress of the program as well as the effectiveness of its management will be measured. This plan will guide ER IRM Program execution and define the program's essential elements. This plan will be routinely updated to incorporate key decisions and programmatic changes and will serve as the project baseline document. Environmental Restoration Waste Management Program intersite procedures and work instructions will be developed to facilitate the implementation of this plan

  6. Prolonged Response and Restoration of Functional Independence with Bevacizumab plus Vinorelbine as Third-Line Treatment for Breast Cancer-Related Leptomeningeal Metastases

    Emilie Le Rhun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Survival of patients with leptomeningeal metastases (LM and impaired functional status is limited to several months, and rarely does neurological function improve with treatment. Case Report: A 34-year-old female with hormone-negative and HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer was diagnosed with bulky radiographic LM 45 months after initial diagnosis. She was treated with intra-CSF trastuzumab followed by intra-CSF liposomal cytarabine; however, the cancer progressed 8 months after the diagnosis of LM. At the time of the third LM progression, the patient presented with a cauda equina syndrome and cerebellar impairment resulting in an inability to walk. She was treated with CNS-directed radiotherapy (lumbosacral and cerebellar and bevacizumab plus vinorelbine. Rapid functional improvement occurred, and the patient regained the ability to walk and independently manage her daily activities. Twelve months later, she presented with rapid progression of the LM resulting in death within several weeks. Conclusion: In radiographically defined bulky LM, the combination of systemic therapy and CNS-directed radiotherapy likely is more active than intra-CSF therapy only. In lieu of the rapid and significant improvement in neurological function combined with the prolonged response, bevacizumab alone or in combination with chemotherapy and CNS-directed radiotherapy may be considered in select patients with radiographically bulky breast cancer-related LM.

  7. Evolutionary conservation and neuronal mechanisms of auditory perceptual restoration.

    Petkov, Christopher I; Sutter, Mitchell L

    2011-01-01

    Auditory perceptual 'restoration' occurs when the auditory system restores an occluded or masked sound of interest. Behavioral work on auditory restoration in humans began over 50 years ago using it to model a noisy environmental scene with competing sounds. It has become clear that not only humans experience auditory restoration: restoration has been broadly conserved in many species. Behavioral studies in humans and animals provide a necessary foundation to link the insights being obtained from human EEG and fMRI to those from animal neurophysiology. The aggregate of data resulting from multiple approaches across species has begun to clarify the neuronal bases of auditory restoration. Different types of neural responses supporting restoration have been found, supportive of multiple mechanisms working within a species. Yet a general principle has emerged that responses correlated with restoration mimic the response that would have been given to the uninterrupted sound of interest. Using the same technology to study different species will help us to better harness animal models of 'auditory scene analysis' to clarify the conserved neural mechanisms shaping the perceptual organization of sound and to advance strategies to improve hearing in natural environmental settings. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Dronen, V.R.

    1998-06-01

    The Hanford Site is operated by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) with a primary mission of environmental cleanup and restoration. The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) is an integral part of the DOE environmental restoration effort at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this document is to establish the ERDF waste acceptance criteria for disposal of materials resulting from Hanford Site cleanup activities. Definition of and compliance with the requirements of this document will enable implementation of appropriate measures to protect human health and the environment, ensure the integrity of the ERDF liner system, facilitate efficient use of the available space in the ERDF, and comply with applicable environmental regulations and DOE orders. To serve this purpose, the document defines responsibilities, identifies the waste acceptance process, and provides the primary acceptance criteria and regulatory citations to guide ERDF users. The information contained in this document is not intended to repeat or summarize the contents of all applicable regulations

  9. Design for Restoration: beyond the survey

    Giovanni Carbonara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  This new issue, that we can define special, marks an important change for DISEGNARECON (its transfer from the University of Bologna to the University of L’Aquila facing the topic of the Design for the Restoration in a way that is special too. Treated in fact - beside the outgoing editor in chief, Roberto Mingucci - by Mario Centofanti, who now assumes the responsibility for the magazine, and Giovanni Carbonara, which is definitely authoritative reference in the field. Sharing a strong interest for communicating the Restoration Project, they intended to indicate the substantial union of methods and objectives between the disciplines of architectural survey and of restoration, which makes the meaning of an aggregation now also institutionally formalized and particularly significant for the project on the existing architecture. 

  10. Identification of rice Os4BGlu13 as a β-glucosidase which hydrolyzes gibberellin A4 1-O-β-d-glucosyl ester, in addition to tuberonic acid glucoside and salicylic acid derivative glucosides.

    Hua, Yanling; Ekkhara, Watsamon; Sansenya, Sompong; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Saburi, Wataru; Takeda, Ryosuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Mori, Haruhide; Ketudat Cairns, James R

    2015-10-01

    Gibberellin 1-O-β-d-glucose ester hydrolysis activity has been detected in rice seedling extracts, but no enzyme responsible for this activity has ever been purified and identified. Therefore, gibberellin A4 glucosyl ester (GA4-GE) β-d-glucosidase activity was purified from ten-day rice seedling stems and leaves. The family 1 glycoside hydrolase Os4BGlu13 was identified in the final purification fraction. The Os4BGlu13 cDNA was amplified from rice seedlings and expressed as an N-terminal thioredoxin-tagged fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant Os4BGlu13 protein (rOs4BGlu13) had an optimum pH of 4.5, for hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl β-d-glucopyranoside (pNPGlc), which was the best substrate identified, with a kcat/Km of 637 mM(-1) s(-1). rOs4BGlu13 hydrolyzed helicin best among natural glycosides tested (kcat/Km of 74.4 mM(-1) s(-1)). Os4BGlu13 was previously designated tuberonic acid glucoside (TAG) β-glucosidase (TAGG), and here the kcat/Km of rOsBGlu13 for TAG was 6.68 mM(-1) s(-1), while that for GA4-GE was 3.63 mM(-1) s(-1) and for salicylic acid glucoside (SAG) is 0.88 mM(-1) s(-1). rOs4BGlu13 also hydrolyzed oligosaccharides, with preference for short β-(1 → 3)-linked over β-(1 → 4)-linked glucooligosaccharides. The enzymatic data suggests that Os4BGlu13 may contribute to TAG, SAG, oligosaccharide and GA4-GE hydrolysis in the rice plant, although helicin or a similar compound may be its primary target. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term competence restoration.

    Morris, Douglas R; DeYoung, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    While the United States Supreme Court's Jackson v. Indiana decision and most state statutes mandate determinations of incompetent defendants' restoration probabilities, courts and forensic clinicians continue to lack empirical evidence to guide these determinations and do not yet have a consensus regarding whether and under what circumstances incompetent defendants are restorable. The evidence base concerning the restoration likelihood of those defendants who fail initial restoration efforts is even further diminished and has largely gone unstudied. In this study, we examined the disposition of a cohort of defendants who underwent long-term competence restoration efforts (greater than six months) and identified factors related to whether these defendants were able to attain restoration and adjudicative success. Approximately two-thirds (n = 52) of the 81 individuals undergoing extended restoration efforts were eventually deemed restored to competence. Lengths of hospitalization until successful restoration are presented with implications for the reasonable length of time that restoration efforts should persist. Older individuals were less likely to be restored and successfully adjudicated, and individuals with more severe charges and greater factual legal understanding were more likely to be restored and adjudicated. The significance of these findings for courts and forensic clinicians is discussed.

  12. Ecosystem Restoration: Fact or Fancy?

    John A. Stanturf; Callie J. Schweitzer; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; James P. Barnett; Charles K. McMahon; Donald J. Tomszak

    1998-01-01

    Ecological restoration is generally accepted as the reestablishment of natural ecological processes that produce certain dynamic ecosystem properties of structure, function, and processes. But restore to what? The most frequently used conceptual model for the restoration process is the shift of conditions from some current (degraded) dynamic state to some past dynamic...

  13. Ecological Restoration: Guidance from Theory

    Joy Zedler

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of the science and practice of ecosystem restoration led me to identify key ecological theories and concepts that are relevant to planning, implementing, and sustaining restoration efforts. From experience with actual restoration projects, I provide guidance for improving the restoration process. Despite an abundance of theory and guidance, restoration goals are not always achieved, and pathways toward targets are not highly predictable. This is understandable, since each restoration project has many constraints and unique challenges. To improve restoration progress, I advise that sites be designed as experiments to allow learning while doing. At least the larger projects can be restored in phases, each designed as experimental treatments to test alternative restoration approaches. Subsequent phases can then adopt one or more of the treatments that best achieved goals in earlier phases while applying new tests of other restoration measures. Both science and restoration can progress simultaneously. This phased, experimental approach (called “adaptive restoration” is an effective tool for improving restoration when monitoring, assessment, interpretation and research are integrated into the process.

  14. Ecological restoration: Biodiversity and conservation

    Vargas Rios, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    In this essay the principal concepts and methods applied on projects aimed at ecological restoration are reviewed, with emphasis on the relationship between conservation, biodiversity and restoration. The most common definitions are provided and the steps to take into account to develop projects on ecological restoration, which will be determined by the level of degradation of the ecosystem to be intervened.

  15. Endophytic fungal association via gibberellins and indole acetic acid can improve plant growth under abiotic stress: an example of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10

    Khan Abdul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endophytic fungi are little known for exogenous secretion of phytohormones and mitigation of salinity stress, which is a major limiting factor for agriculture production worldwide. Current study was designed to isolate phytohormone producing endophytic fungus from the roots of cucumber plant and identify its role in plant growth and stress tolerance under saline conditions. Results We isolated nine endophytic fungi from the roots of cucumber plant and screened their culture filtrates (CF on gibberellins (GAs deficient mutant rice cultivar Waito-C and normal GAs biosynthesis rice cultivar Dongjin-byeo. The CF of a fungal isolate CSH-6H significantly increased the growth of Waito-C and Dongjin-byeo seedlings as compared to control. Analysis of the CF showed presence of GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA20 and GA24 and indole acetic acid. The endophyte CSH-6H was identified as a strain of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. Under salinity stress, P. formosus inoculation significantly enhanced cucumber shoot length and allied growth characteristics as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The hypha of P. formosus was also observed in the cortical and pericycle regions of the host-plant roots and was successfully re-isolated using PCR techniques. P. formosus association counteracted the adverse effects of salinity by accumulating proline and antioxidants and maintaining plant water potential. Thus the electrolytic leakage and membrane damage to the cucumber plants was reduced in the association of endophyte. Reduced content of stress responsive abscisic acid suggest lesser stress convened to endophyte-associated plants. On contrary, elevated endogenous GAs (GA3, GA4, GA12 and GA20 contents in endophyte-associated cucumber plants evidenced salinity stress modulation. Conclusion The results reveal that mutualistic interactions of phytohormones secreting endophytic

  16. Clinical decisions for anterior restorations: the concept of restorative volume.

    Cardoso, Jorge André; Almeida, Paulo Júlio; Fischer, Alex; Phaxay, Somano Luang

    2012-12-01

    The choice of the most appropriate restoration for anterior teeth is often a difficult decision. Numerous clinical and technical factors play an important role in selecting the treatment option that best suits the patient and the restorative team. Experienced clinicians have developed decision processes that are often more complex than may seem. Less experienced professionals may find difficulties making treatment decisions because of the widely varied restorative materials available and often numerous similar products offered by different manufacturers. The authors reviewed available evidence and integrated their clinical experience to select relevant factors that could provide a logical and practical guideline for restorative decisions in anterior teeth. The presented concept of restorative volume is based on structural, optical, and periodontal factors. Each of these factors will influence the short- and long-term behavior of restorations in terms of esthetics, biology, and function. Despite the marked evolution of esthetic restorative techniques and materials, significant limitations still exist, which should be addressed by researchers. The presented guidelines must be regarded as a mere orientation for risk analysis. A comprehensive individual approach should always be the core of restorative esthetic treatments. The complex decision process for anterior esthetic restorations can be clarified by a systematized examination of structural, optical, and periodontal factors. The basis for the proposed thought process is the concept of restorative volume that is a contemporary interpretation of restoration categories and their application. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    Chu CH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations. Keywords: operative, practice, tunnel preparation, composite, amalgam, glass ionomer

  18. Restoration of longitudinal images.

    Hu, Y; Frieden, B R

    1988-01-15

    In this paper, a method of restoring longitudinal images is developed. By using the transfer function for longitudinal objects, and inverse filtering, a longitudinal image may be restored. The Fourier theory and sampling theorems for transverse images cannot be used directly in the longitudinal case. A modification and reasonable approximation are introduced. We have numerically established a necessary relationship between just-resolved longitudinal separation (after inverse filtering), noise level, and the taking conditions of object distance and lens diameter. An empirical formula is also found to well-fit the computed results. This formula may be of use for designing optical systems which are to image longitudinal details, such as in robotics or microscopy.

  19. Lesser prairie-chicken nest site selection, microclimate, and nest survival in association with vegetation response to a grassland restoration program

    Boal, Clint W.; Grisham, Blake A.; Haukos, David A.; Zavaleta, Jennifer C.; Dixon, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Climate models predict that the region of the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative (GPLCC) will experience increased maximum and minimum temperatures, reduced frequency but greater intensity of precipitation events, and earlier springs. These climate changes along with different landscape management techniques may influence the persistence of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act and a priority species under the GPLCC, in positive or negative ways. The objectives of this study were to conduct (1) a literature review of lesser prairie-chicken nesting phenology and ecology, (2) an analysis of thermal aspects of lesser prairie-chicken nest microclimate data, and (3) an analysis of nest site selection, nest survival, and vegetation response to 10 years of tebuthiuron and/or grazing treatments. We found few reports in the literature containing useful data on the nesting phenology of lesser prairie-chickens; therefore, managers must rely on short-term observations and measurements of parameters that provide some predictive insight into climate impacts on nesting ecology. Our field studies showed that prairie-chickens on nests were able to maintain relatively consistent average nest temperature of 31 °C and nest humidities of 56.8 percent whereas average external temperatures (20.3–35.0 °C) and humidities (35.2–74.9 percent) varied widely throughout the 24 hour (hr) cycle. Grazing and herbicide treatments within our experimental areas were designed to be less intensive than in common practice. We determined nest locations by radio-tagging hen lesser prairie-chickens captured at leks, which are display grounds at which male lesser prairie-chickens aggregate and attempt to attract a female for mating. Because nest locations selected by hen lesser prairie-chicken are strongly associated with the lek at which they were captured, we assessed nesting habitat use on the basis of hens

  20. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  1. A Hoseus Banjo Restoration

    Politzer, David

    2016-01-01

    Intrigued by the sound of another recently restored example, I attempted to bring a sadly abused, bottom-of-the-line, Hoseus-equipped banjo up to playable condition. Reminders, lessons learned, and the joy of (albeit crude) handiwork made it well- worth the purchase price. The actual sound and physics of the Hoseus contraption remain hidden in the complex interaction of the various parts, as demonstrated by the accompanying sound samples.

  2. The notion and basic principles of restorative justice

    Ćopić Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important achievements of the contemporary criminal justice system and criminal policy is development of the concept of restorative justice. Contemporary concept of restorative justice was developed in 1970s on the basis of the criticism of the traditional criminal law and criminal justice system. Since that time, it has been developing through different programs in many countries. Reform of the criminal justice system in Serbia staring from 2002 went into direction of entering elements of restorative justice into existing criminal justice system. In that sense, development of restorative justice is still at the beginning in our country. However, it can be noticed that there is a low level of awareness on the nature and importance of restorative forms of response to crime among our professionals, as well as a lack of understanding of the concept itself. Due to that, the aim of the paper is to enable better understanding of restorative concept in general through defining restorative justice and basic principles it relies on. That may put a basis for further recognition of restorative elements in our criminal justice system, which may provide adequate implementation of relevant provisions of restorative character in practice. .

  3. Searching for Affective and Cognitive Restoration: Examining the Restorative Effects of Casual Video Game Play.

    Rupp, Michael A; Sweetman, Richard; Sosa, Alejandra E; Smither, Janan A; McConnell, Daniel S

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the effects of a passive break, relaxation activity, and casual video game on affect, stress, engagement, and cognitive performance. Reducing stress and improving cognitive performance is critical across many domains. Previous studies investigated taking a break, relaxation techniques, or playing a game; however, these methods have not been compared within a single experiment. Participants completed a baseline affective and cognitive assessment (ACA), which included the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, shortened version of the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire, and backward digit-span. Next, participants completed a vigilance task, followed by another ACA. Participants were then assigned at random to complete a break or relaxation activity or play a casual video game, followed by a final ACA. Participants who played the casual video game exhibited greater engagement and affective restoration than the relaxation condition. The break condition slightly decreased affect and prevented cognitive restoration. Playing a casual video game even briefly can restore individuals' affective abilities, making it a suitable activity to restore mood in response to stress. However, future research is needed to find activities capable of cognitive restoration. Many activities in life require sustained cognitive demand, which are stressful and decrease performance, especially for workers in performance-critical domains. Our research suggests some leisure activities are better than others for restoring fatigued affective processes.

  4. Setting standards of restorative justice

    Kostić Miomira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author deals with the basic theoretical statements and discussions about the practical use of restorative justice. She discusses the questions of introducing and application of restorative justice in order to reach the balance of interests between a victim, society and a delinquent. There is no unique statement about the restorative justice concept, so the authors make this concept by listing certain activities with rispect of standards and principles. Also she emphasizes the values of restorative justice process. A part of the article is dedicated to the standards for restorative justice that are harmonized with the international documents of human rights. .

  5. Image restoration, uncertainty, and information.

    Yu, F T

    1969-01-01

    Some of the physical interpretations about image restoration are discussed. From the theory of information the unrealizability of an inverse filter can be explained by degradation of information, which is due to distortion on the recorded image. The image restoration is a time and space problem, which can be recognized from the theory of relativity (the problem of image restoration is related to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics). A detailed discussion of the relationship between information and energy is given. Two general results may be stated: (1) the restoration of the image from the distorted signal is possible only if it satisfies the detectability condition. However, the restored image, at the best, can only approach to the maximum allowable time criterion. (2) The restoration of an image by superimposing the distorted signal (due to smearing) is a physically unrealizable method. However, this restoration procedure may be achieved by the expenditure of an infinite amount of energy.

  6. Mapping of a Cellulose-Deficient Mutant Named dwarf1-1 in Sorghum bicolor to the Green Revolution Gene gibberellin20-oxidase Reveals a Positive Regulatory Association between Gibberellin and Cellulose Biosynthesis.

    Petti, Carloalberto; Hirano, Ko; Stork, Jozsef; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-09-01

    Here, we show a mechanism for expansion regulation through mutations in the green revolution gene gibberellin20 (GA20)-oxidase and show that GAs control biosynthesis of the plants main structural polymer cellulose. Within a 12,000 mutagenized Sorghum bicolor plant population, we identified a single cellulose-deficient and male gametophyte-dysfunctional mutant named dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1). Through the Sorghum propinquum male/dwf1-1 female F2 population, we mapped dwf1-1 to a frameshift in GA20-oxidase. Assessment of GAs in dwf1-1 revealed ablation of GA. GA ablation was antagonistic to the expression of three specific cellulose synthase genes resulting in cellulose deficiency and growth dwarfism, which were complemented by exogenous bioactive gibberellic acid application. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that GA was positively regulating the expression of a subset of specific cellulose synthase genes. To cross reference data from our mapped Sorghum sp. allele with another monocotyledonous plant, a series of rice (Oryza sativa) mutants involved in GA biosynthesis and signaling were isolated, and these too displayed cellulose deficit. Taken together, data support a model whereby suppressed expansion in green revolution GA genes involves regulation of cellulose biosynthesis. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations.

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Mei, May L; Cheung, Chloe; Nalliah, Romesh P

    2013-07-30

    The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED) and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations.

  8. Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume 3, Appendix A: Public response to revised NOI, Appendix B: Environmental restoration, Appendix C, Environmental impact analysis methods, Appendix D, Risk

    1995-08-01

    Volume three contains appendices for the following: Public comments do DOE's proposed revisions to the scope of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement; Environmental restoration sensitivity analysis; Environmental impacts analysis methods; and Waste management facility human health risk estimates

  9. River Restoration and Meanders

    G. Mathias Kondolf

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the most visually striking river restoration projects are those that involve the creation of a new channel, often in a new alignment and generally with a form and dimensions that are different from those of the preproject channel. These channel reconstruction projects often have the objective of creating a stable, single-thread, meandering channel, even on rivers that were not historically meandering, on rivers whose sediment load and flow regime would not be consistent with such stable channels, or on already sinuous channels whose bends are not symmetrical. Such meandering channels are often specified by the Rosgen classification system, a popular restoration design approach. Although most projects of this type have not been subject to objective evaluation, completed postproject appraisals show that many of these projects failed within months or years of construction. Despite its, at best, mixed results, this classification and form-based approach continues to be popular because it is easy to apply, because it is accessible to those without formal training in fluvial geomorphology, and probably because it satisfies a deep-seated, although unrecognized, cultural preference for single-thread meandering channels. This preference is consistent with 18th-century English landscape theories, which held the serpentine form to be ideal and led to widespread construction of meandering channels on the country estates of the era. The preference for stability in restored channels seems to be widely accepted by practitioners and funders despite the fact that it is antithetical to research showing that dynamically migrating channels have the greatest ecological richness.

  10. SHOEBOX Modulates Root Meristem Size in Rice through Dose-Dependent Effects of Gibberellins on Cell Elongation and Proliferation.

    Li, Jintao; Zhao, Yu; Chu, Huangwei; Wang, Likai; Fu, Yanru; Liu, Ping; Upadhyaya, Narayana; Chen, Chunli; Mou, Tongmin; Feng, Yuqi; Kumar, Prakash; Xu, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about how the size of meristem cells is regulated and whether it participates in the control of meristem size in plants. Here, we report our findings on shoebox (shb), a mild gibberellin (GA) deficient rice mutant that has a short root meristem size. Quantitative analysis of cortical cell length and number indicates that shb has shorter, rather than fewer, cells in the root meristem until around the fifth day after sowing, from which the number of cortical cells is also reduced. These defects can be either corrected by exogenous application of bioactive GA or induced in wild-type roots by a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of paclobutrazol on GA biosynthesis, suggesting that GA deficiency is the primary cause of shb mutant phenotypes. SHB encodes an AP2/ERF transcription factor that directly activates transcription of the GA biosynthesis gene KS1. Thus, root meristem size in rice is modulated by SHB-mediated GA biosynthesis that regulates the elongation and proliferation of meristem cells in a developmental stage-specific manner.

  11. Cadophora malorum Cs-8-1 as a new fungal strain producing gibberellins isolated from Calystegia soldanella.

    You, Young-Hyun; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kang, Sang-Mo; Woo, Ju-Ri; Choo, Yeon-Sik; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2013-07-01

    Fourteen endophytic fungi with different colony morphologies were isolated from the roots of Calystegia soldanella. Endophytic fungi isolated from C. soldanella were identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. To verify plant growth promotion (PGP), culture filtrates of isolated endophytic fungi were treated in Waito-c rice (WR) and C. soldanella seedlings. Culture filtrates of Cs-8-1 fungal strain had advanced PGP activity. The presence of physiologically bioactive gibberellins (GA) GA(1) (1.213 ng ml(-1)), GA(3) (1.292 ng ml(-1)), GA(4) (3.6 ng ml(-1)), GA(7) (1.328 ng ml(-1)), other inactive GA(9) (0.796 ng ml(-1)) and GA(12) (0.417 ng ml(-1)), GA(20) (0.302 ng ml(-1)), GA(24) (1.351 ng ml(-1)), GA(34) (0.076 ng ml(-1)), and GA(53) (0.051 ng ml(-1)) in culture filtrates of Cs-8-1 fungal strain was detected. The Cs-8-1 fungal strain was confirmed as a producer of GAs. Molecular analysis of sequences showed high similarity of 99% to Cadophora malorum. Consequentially, the Cs-8-1 fungal strain was identified as a new C. malorum producing GAs. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. SHOEBOX Modulates Root Meristem Size in Rice through Dose-Dependent Effects of Gibberellins on Cell Elongation and Proliferation.

    Jintao Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how the size of meristem cells is regulated and whether it participates in the control of meristem size in plants. Here, we report our findings on shoebox (shb, a mild gibberellin (GA deficient rice mutant that has a short root meristem size. Quantitative analysis of cortical cell length and number indicates that shb has shorter, rather than fewer, cells in the root meristem until around the fifth day after sowing, from which the number of cortical cells is also reduced. These defects can be either corrected by exogenous application of bioactive GA or induced in wild-type roots by a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of paclobutrazol on GA biosynthesis, suggesting that GA deficiency is the primary cause of shb mutant phenotypes. SHB encodes an AP2/ERF transcription factor that directly activates transcription of the GA biosynthesis gene KS1. Thus, root meristem size in rice is modulated by SHB-mediated GA biosynthesis that regulates the elongation and proliferation of meristem cells in a developmental stage-specific manner.

  13. New approach to increasing rice lodging resistance and biomass yield through the use of high gibberellin producing varieties.

    Ayako Okuno

    Full Text Available Traditional breeding for high-yielding rice has been dependent on the widespread use of fertilizers and the cultivation of gibberellin (GA-deficient semi-dwarf varieties. The use of semi-dwarf plants facilitates high grain yield since these varieties possess high levels of lodging resistance, and thus could support the high grain weight. Although this approach has been successful in increasing grain yield, it is desirable to further improve grain production and also to breed for high biomass. In this study, we re-examined the effect of GA on rice lodging resistance and biomass yield using several GA-deficient mutants (e.g. having defects in the biosynthesis or perception of GA, and high-GA producing line or mutant. GA-deficient mutants displayed improved bending-type lodging resistance due to their short stature; however they showed reduced breaking-type lodging resistance and reduced total biomass. In plants producing high amounts of GA, the bending-type lodging resistance was inferior to the original cultivars. The breaking-type lodging resistance was improved due to increased lignin accumulation and/or larger culm diameters. Further, these lines had an increase in total biomass weight. These results show that the use of rice cultivars producing high levels of GA would be a novel approach to create higher lodging resistance and biomass.

  14. New approach to increasing rice lodging resistance and biomass yield through the use of high gibberellin producing varieties.

    Okuno, Ayako; Hirano, Ko; Asano, Kenji; Takase, Wakana; Masuda, Reiko; Morinaka, Yoichi; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Traditional breeding for high-yielding rice has been dependent on the widespread use of fertilizers and the cultivation of gibberellin (GA)-deficient semi-dwarf varieties. The use of semi-dwarf plants facilitates high grain yield since these varieties possess high levels of lodging resistance, and thus could support the high grain weight. Although this approach has been successful in increasing grain yield, it is desirable to further improve grain production and also to breed for high biomass. In this study, we re-examined the effect of GA on rice lodging resistance and biomass yield using several GA-deficient mutants (e.g. having defects in the biosynthesis or perception of GA), and high-GA producing line or mutant. GA-deficient mutants displayed improved bending-type lodging resistance due to their short stature; however they showed reduced breaking-type lodging resistance and reduced total biomass. In plants producing high amounts of GA, the bending-type lodging resistance was inferior to the original cultivars. The breaking-type lodging resistance was improved due to increased lignin accumulation and/or larger culm diameters. Further, these lines had an increase in total biomass weight. These results show that the use of rice cultivars producing high levels of GA would be a novel approach to create higher lodging resistance and biomass.

  15. Effects of abscisic acid, gibberellin, ethylene and their interactions on production of phenolic acids in salvia miltiorrhiza bunge hairy roots.

    Liang, Zongsuo; Ma, Yini; Xu, Tao; Cui, Beimi; Liu, Yan; Guo, Zhixin; Yang, Dongfeng

    2013-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is one of the most important traditional Chinese medicinal plants because of its excellent performance in treating coronary heart disease. Phenolic acids mainly including caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B are a group of active ingredients in S. miltiorrhiza. Abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA) and ethylene are three important phytohormones. In this study, effects of the three phytohormones and their interactions on phenolic production in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots were investigated. The results showed that ABA, GA and ethylene were all effective to induce production of phenolic acids and increase activities of PAL and TAT in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. Effects of phytohormones were reversed by their biosynthetic inhibitors. Antagonistic actions between the three phytohormones played important roles in the biosynthesis of phenolic acids. GA signaling is necessary for ABA and ethylene-induced phenolic production. Yet, ABA and ethylene signaling is probably not necessary for GA3-induced phenolic production. The complex interactions of phytohormones help us reveal regulation mechanism of secondary metabolism and scale-up production of active ingredients in plants.

  16. Effect of the Application of Gibberellin (GA3 on Tomato Seed Germination (Solanum Lycopersicum L. Variety Santa Cruz

    Yuli Alexandra Deaquiz-Oyola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The tomato is one of the most important vegetable, economical and nutritionally, around the world. For this reason the germination process in the tomato is a vital stage in the growth and development of plants. In this study, the effect of different doses of gibberellin over the germination of Santa Cruz variety tomato seeds was evaluated. The seeds were embedded for 24 hours in different concentrations of gibberellic acid, sown in a peat substrate in the screen house of the UPTC. A complete randomized design was used with 4 treatments corresponding to 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 of GAs with three replicates, for a total of 12 experimental units (EU, and each unit with 35 seeds. The treatment of 0 mg L-1 had a favorable impact on the mean germination time (GT, average speed of germination (ASG and germination percentage (GP, showing significant differences with respect to the other treatments. The seeds soaked in 400 mg L-1 of GAs presented the lowest values in the variables GT, ASG and GP, attributed to negative effect this type of hormone over this tomato variety, which delayed the death of the embryo and the seed germination.

  17. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Abscisic Acid/Gibberellin Balance in the Control of Seed Dormancy and Germination in Cereals

    Pham A. Tuan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy is an adaptive trait that does not allow the germination of an intact viable seed under favorable environmental conditions. Non-dormant seeds or seeds with low level of dormancy can germinate readily under optimal environmental conditions, and such a trait leads to preharvest sprouting, germination of seeds on the mother plant prior to harvest, which significantly reduces the yield and quality of cereal crops. High level of dormancy, on the other hand, may lead to non-uniform germination and seedling establishment. Therefore, intermediate dormancy is considered to be a desirable trait as it prevents the problems of sprouting and allows uniformity of postharvest germination of seeds. Induction, maintenance, and release of seed dormancy are complex physiological processes that are influenced by a wide range of endogenous and environmental factors. Plant hormones, mainly abscisic acid (ABA and gibberellin (GA, are the major endogenous factors that act antagonistically in the control of seed dormancy and germination; ABA positively regulates the induction and maintenance of dormancy, while GA enhances germination. Significant progress has been made in recent years in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms regulating ABA/GA balance and thereby dormancy and germination in cereal seeds, and this review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the topic.

  18. Exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination through decreasing the gibberellin/abscisic acid (GA/ABA) ratio.

    Shuai, Haiwei; Meng, Yongjie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Zhou, Wenguan; Dai, Yujia; Qi, Ying; Du, Junbo; Yang, Feng; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Wenyu; Shu, Kai

    2017-10-03

    Auxin is an important phytohormone which mediates diverse development processes in plants. Published research has demonstrated that auxin induces seed dormancy. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of auxin on seed germination need further investigation, especially the relationship between auxins and both abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs), the latter two phytohormones being the key regulators of seed germination. Here we report that exogenous auxin treatment represses soybean seed germination by enhancing ABA biosynthesis, while impairing GA biogenesis, and finally decreasing GA 1 /ABA and GA 4 /ABA ratios. Microscope observation showed that auxin treatment delayed rupture of the soybean seed coat and radicle protrusion. qPCR assay revealed that transcription of the genes involved in ABA biosynthetic pathway was up-regulated by application of auxin, while expression of genes involved in GA biosynthetic pathway was down-regulated. Accordingly, further phytohormone quantification shows that auxin significantly increased ABA content, whereas the active GA 1 and GA 4 levels were decreased, resulting insignificant decreases in the ratiosGA 1 /ABA and GA 4 /ABA.Consistent with this, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone reversed the delayed-germination phenotype associated with auxin treatment, while paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Altogether, exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination by mediating ABA and GA biosynthesis.

  19. Cloning and molecular analyses of a gibberellin 20-oxidase gene expressed specifically in developing seeds of watermelon.

    Kang, H G; Jun, S H; Kim, J; Kawaide, H; Kamiya, Y; An, G

    1999-10-01

    To understand the biosynthesis and functional role of gibberellins (GAs) in developing seeds, we isolated Cv20ox, a cDNA clone from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) that shows significant amino acid homology with GA 20-oxidases. The complementary DNA clone was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein, which oxidized GA(12) at C-20 to the C(19) compound GA(9), a precursor of bioactive GAs. RNA-blot analysis showed that the Cv20ox gene was expressed specifically in developing seeds. The gene was strongly expressed in the integument tissues, and it was also expressed weakly in inner seed tissues. In parthenocarpic fruits induced by 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea treatment, the expression pattern of Cv20ox did not change, indicating that the GA 20-oxidase gene is expressed primarily in the maternal cells of developing seeds. The promoter of Cv20ox was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene. In a transient expression system, beta-glucuronidase staining was detectable only in the integument tissues of developing watermelon seeds.

  20. Cloning and Molecular Analyses of a Gibberellin 20-Oxidase Gene Expressed Specifically in Developing Seeds of Watermelon1

    Kang, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Junyul; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Yuji; An, Gynheung

    1999-01-01

    To understand the biosynthesis and functional role of gibberellins (GAs) in developing seeds, we isolated Cv20ox, a cDNA clone from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) that shows significant amino acid homology with GA 20-oxidases. The complementary DNA clone was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein, which oxidized GA12 at C-20 to the C19 compound GA9, a precursor of bioactive GAs. RNA-blot analysis showed that the Cv20ox gene was expressed specifically in developing seeds. The gene was strongly expressed in the integument tissues, and it was also expressed weakly in inner seed tissues. In parthenocarpic fruits induced by 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea treatment, the expression pattern of Cv20ox did not change, indicating that the GA 20-oxidase gene is expressed primarily in the maternal cells of developing seeds. The promoter of Cv20ox was isolated and fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene. In a transient expression system, β-glucuronidase staining was detectable only in the integument tissues of developing watermelon seeds. PMID:10517828

  1. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Abscisic Acid/Gibberellin Balance in the Control of Seed Dormancy and Germination in Cereals

    Tuan, Pham A.; Kumar, Rohit; Rehal, Pawanpuneet K.; Toora, Parneet K.; Ayele, Belay T.

    2018-01-01

    Seed dormancy is an adaptive trait that does not allow the germination of an intact viable seed under favorable environmental conditions. Non-dormant seeds or seeds with low level of dormancy can germinate readily under optimal environmental conditions, and such a trait leads to preharvest sprouting, germination of seeds on the mother plant prior to harvest, which significantly reduces the yield and quality of cereal crops. High level of dormancy, on the other hand, may lead to non-uniform germination and seedling establishment. Therefore, intermediate dormancy is considered to be a desirable trait as it prevents the problems of sprouting and allows uniformity of postharvest germination of seeds. Induction, maintenance, and release of seed dormancy are complex physiological processes that are influenced by a wide range of endogenous and environmental factors. Plant hormones, mainly abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA), are the major endogenous factors that act antagonistically in the control of seed dormancy and germination; ABA positively regulates the induction and maintenance of dormancy, while GA enhances germination. Significant progress has been made in recent years in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms regulating ABA/GA balance and thereby dormancy and germination in cereal seeds, and this review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the topic. PMID:29875780

  2. Baseline restoration using current conveyors

    Morgado, A.M.L.S.; Simoes, J.B.; Correia, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    A good performance of high resolution nuclear spectrometry systems, at high pulse rates, demands restoration of baseline between pulses, in order to remove rate dependent baseline shifts. This restoration is performed by circuits named baseline restorers (BLRs) which also remove low frequency noise, such as power supply hum and detector microphonics. This paper presents simple circuits for baseline restoration based on a commercial current conveyor (CCII01). Tests were performed, on two circuits, with periodic trapezoidal shaped pulses in order to measure the baseline restoration for several pulse rates and restorer duty cycles. For the current conveyor based Robinson restorer, the peak shift was less than 10 mV, for duty cycles up to 60%, at high pulse rates. Duty cycles up to 80% were also tested, being the maximum peak shift 21 mV. The peak shift for the current conveyor based Grubic restorer was also measured. The maximum value found was 30 mV at 82% duty cycle. Keeping the duty cycle below 60% improves greatly the restorer performance. The ability of both baseline restorer architectures to reject low frequency modulation is also measured, with good results on both circuits

  3. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Cheung,; Nalliah,Romesh; Mei,May L

    2013-01-01

    Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slo...

  4. Response Analysis of eight native species of high Andean forest with two methods of propagation; Analisis de la respuesta de ocho especies nativas del bosque alto andino ante dos metodos de propagacion

    Liliana, Castaneda Sandra; Ernesto, Garzon Alvaro; Angel, Cantillo Miguel; Patricia, Torres Monica; Jairo, Silva Luis

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this research was to generate information on the native tree species represent an alternative in the ecological restoration of the Colombian high Andean forests, according to its dynamo-genetic characteristics. We have chosen and spread the species: Baccharis latifolia (R and P), Bocconia frutescens L., Cordia cylindrostachya (R and P), Diplostephium rosmarinifolium (Benth), Drymis granadensis L f., Eupatorium angustifolium (Kunth), Palicourea vaginata Benth, and Palicourea linearifolia Wernham. The species include a morphological description of flowers, fruits and seeds, and ISTA tests. The spread experiments were made in the nurseries of the Universidad Distrital and La Florida park. For the sexual spread, we have used as treatments four gibberellins concentrations and three shadow conditions, while the vegetative spread consisted of two diameters and ive indol butiric acid (IBA) concentrations. Results have shown that pre-germination treatments are needed for Bocconia frutescens y Palicourea vaginata, in order to increase the probability and germination rate. On the other hand, shadow conditions are needed for Baccharis latifolia, Diplostephium rosmarinifolium, Drymis granadensis, Eupatorium angustifolium and Palicourea vaginata, as their seeds exhibit photoblastic characteristics. Due to the Cordia cylindrostachya and Palicourea linearifolia seed attack by insects (Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera) their sexual spread is highly limited. Finally, regarding the species response to the IBA and diameter combinations, each species responded in a different manner. Additionally, regarding the vegetative spread, the species Bocconia frutescens, Cordia cylindrostachya, Palicourea vaginata, Diplostephium rosmarinifolium and Drymis granadensis were very difficult to spread.

  5. Predictable repair of provisional restorations.

    Hammond, Barry D; Cooper, Jeril R; Lazarchik, David A

    2009-01-01

    The importance of provisional restorations is often downplayed, as they are thought of by some as only "temporaries." As a result, a less-than-ideal provisional is sometimes fabricated, in part because of the additional chair time required to make provisional modifications when using traditional techniques. Additionally, in many dental practices, these provisional restorations are often fabricated by auxillary personnel who may not be as well trained in the fabrication process. Because provisionals play an important role in achieving the desired final functional and esthetic result, a high-quality provisional restoration is essential to fabricating a successful definitive restoration. This article describes a method for efficiently and predictably repairing both methacrylate and bis-acryl provisional restorations using flowable composite resin. By use of this relatively simple technique, provisional restorations can now be modified or repaired in a timely and productive manner to yield an exceptional result. Successful execution of esthetic and restorative dentistry requires attention to detail in every aspect of the case. Fabrication of high-quality provisional restorations can, at times, be challenging and time consuming. The techniques for optimizing resin provisional restorations as described in this paper are pragmatic and will enhance the delivery of dental treatment.

  6. Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Thom, Ronald M.; Fuller, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (< 5 ppt) at flood tide. Potential implications of predicted changes in salinity and flow dynamics are discussed relative to the distribution of tidal marsh habitat.

  7. Technologies for lake restoration

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  8. High prevalence of sensitization to gibberellin-regulated protein (peamaclein) in fruit allergies with negative immunoglobulin E reactivity to Bet v 1 homologs and profilin: Clinical pattern, causative fruits and cofactor effect of gibberellin-regulated protein allergy.

    Inomata, Naoko; Miyakawa, Mami; Aihara, Michiko

    2017-07-01

    Gibberellin-regulated protein (GRP) is a new allergen in peach allergy, with an amino acid sequence very well conserved through several botanical species. We investigated the allergenicity of GRP in fruit allergies other than peaches and identified the clinical characteristics of fruit allergy patients with GRP sensitization. One hundred consecutive Japanese patients with fruit allergies were enrolled in the present study. To identify the features of GRP sensitization, we selected patients with negative ImmunoCAP results for Bet v 1 homologs and profilin, which are marker allergens for pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS), or lipid transfer protein. These patients underwent specific immunoglobulin E measurements by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and skin prick tests (SPT) using purified nPru p 7. Twenty of 100 consecutive patients with fruit allergies had negative ImmunoCAP results for Bet v 1 homologs and profilin. Thirteen (65.0%) of the 20 patients had positive ELISA and/or SPT results using nPru p 7, whereas one of the 20 patients had positive ImmunoCAP results for Pru p 3. In 13 nPru p 7-sensitized patients, the causative foods were peaches (92.3%), apricots (61.5%), oranges (46.2%) and apples (30.8%). Ten patients (76.9%) had multiple causative fruits. Frequent symptoms included facial edema (92.3%) and laryngeal tightness (66.7%). In eight patients (61.5%), exercise or aspirin intake enhanced the allergic reaction onset as cofactors. The prevalence of GRP sensitization was high in Japanese fruit allergy patients except for PFAS patients. In conclusion, GRP-sensitized patients may have allergies to multiple fruits and may show peculiar characteristics such as facial swelling and cofactor dependence. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  9. Restoration of harvested peatlands

    Saarmets, Tiit

    1999-01-01

    A short analysis of the main topics of the IPS Symposium Peatland Restoration and Reclamation, Duluth, Minnesota, USA, 1998 is given. It has been single-mindedly recommended in Estonia so far that harvested peatland surfaces should be levelled and outflows shut. But following these recommendations will lead to an unfounded formation of marshy areas with a very low growth of plants. The reclamation of harvested peatlands for agricultural purposes is expensive and there is no commercial need for agricultural land in today's Estonia now. In the author's opinion the foreflows and intermediate ditches should be left open which would favour the growth of the brushwood to grow later into the forest of commercial value. (author)

  10. Restoring rape survivors: justice, advocacy, and a call to action.

    Koss, Mary P

    2006-11-01

    Rape results in mental and physical health, social, and legal consequences. For the latter, restorative justice-based programs might augment community response, but they generate controversy among advocates and policy makers. This article identifies survivors' needs and existing community responses to them. Survivors feel their legal needs are most poorly met due to justice system problems that can be summarized as attrition, retraumatization, and disparate treatment across gender, class, and ethnic lines. Empirical data support each problem and the conclusion that present justice options are inadequate. The article concludes by identifying common ground in advocacy and restorative justice goals and calls for a holistic approach to the needs of rape survivors that includes advocating for expanded justice alternatives. A call to action is issued to implement restorative alternatives to expand survivor choice and offender accountability. Conventional and restorative justice are often viewed as mutually exclusive whereas the author argues they are complementary.

  11. DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 mediates a conserved coat-dormancy mechanism for the temperature- and gibberellin-dependent control of seed germination

    Graeber, K.; Linkies, A.; Steinbrecher, T.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Turečková, Veronika; Ignatz, M.; Voegele, A.; Urbanová, Terezie; Strnad, Miroslav; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 34 (2014), E3571-E3580 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD522/08/H003; GA MŠk LK21306; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR GA14-34792S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : dormancy gene DOG1 * gibberellin metabolism * germination temperature Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.674, year: 2014

  12. Restorative Justice in Children.

    Riedl, Katrin; Jensen, Keith; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-06-29

    An important, and perhaps uniquely human, mechanism for maintaining cooperation against free riders is third-party punishment. Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, will not punish third parties even though they will do so when personally affected. Until recently, little attention has been paid to how punishment and a sense of justice develop in children. Children respond to norm violations. They are more likely to share with a puppet that helped another individual as opposed to one who behaved harmfully, and they show a preference for seeing a harmful doll rather than a victim punished. By 6 years of age, children will pay a cost to punish fictional and real peers, and the threat of punishment will lead preschoolers to behave more generously. However, little is known about what motivates a sense of justice in children. We gave 3- and 5-year-old children--the youngest ages yet tested--the opportunity to remove items and prevent a puppet from gaining a reward for second- and third-party violations (experiment 1), and we gave 3-year-olds the opportunity to restore items (experiment 2). Children were as likely to engage in third-party interventions as they were when personally affected, yet they did not discriminate among the different sources of harm for the victim. When given a range of options, 3-year-olds chose restoration over removal. It appears that a sense of justice centered on harm caused to victims emerges early in childhood and highlights the value of third-party interventions for human cooperation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Will Restored Tidal Marshes Be Sustainable?

    Michelle Orr

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available We assess whether or not restored marshes in the San Francisco Estuary are expected to be sustainable in light of future landscape scale geomorphic processes given typical restored marsh conditions. Our assessment is based on a review of the literature, appraisal of monitoring data for restored marshes, and application of vertical accretion modeling of organic and inorganic sedimentation. Vertical accretion modeling suggests that salt marshes in San Pablo Bay will be sustainable for moderate relative sea level rise (3 to 5 mm yr-1 and average sediment supply (c. 100 mg L-1. Accelerated relative sea level rise (above 6 mm yr-1 and/or reduced sediment supply (50 mg L-1 will cause lowering of the marsh surface relative to the tide range and may cause shifts from high to low marsh vegetation by the year 2100. Widespread conversion of marsh to mudflat-"ecological drowning"-is not expected within this time frame. Marshes restored at lower elevations necessary to aid the natural development of channel systems (c. 0.5 m below mean higher high water are predicted to accrete to high marsh elevations by the year 2100 for moderate relative sea level rise and sediment supply conditions. Existing rates of sediment accretion in restored fresh water tidal marshes of the Delta of greater than 9 mm yr-1 and slightly lower drowning elevations suggest that these marshes will be resilient against relatively high rates of sea level rise. Because of higher rates of organic production, fresh water marshes are expected to be less sensitive to reduced sediment availability than salt marshes. The ultimate long-term threat to the sustainability of tidal marshes is the interruption of coastal rollover-the process by which landward marsh expansion in response to sea level rise compensates for shoreline erosion. Bay front development now prevents most landward marsh expansion, while shoreline erosion is expected to accelerate as sea level rises.

  14. Brassinosteroid and gibberellin control of seedling traits in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Hu, Songlin; Sanchez, Darlene L; Wang, Cuiling; Lipka, Alexander E; Yin, Yanhai; Gardner, Candice A C; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we established two doubled haploid (DH) libraries with a total of 207 DH lines. We applied BR and GA inhibitors to all DH lines at seedling stage and measured seedling BR and GA inhibitor responses. Moreover, we evaluated field traits for each DH line (untreated). We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with 62,049 genome wide SNPs to explore the genetic control of seedling traits by BR and GA. In addition, we correlate seedling stage hormone inhibitor response with field traits. Large variation for BR and GA inhibitor response and field traits was observed across these DH lines. Seedling stage BR and GA inhibitor response was significantly correlate with yield and flowering time. Using three different GWAS approaches to balance false positive/negatives, multiple SNPs were discovered to be significantly associated with BR/GA inhibitor responses with some localized within gene models. SNPs from gene model GRMZM2G013391 were associated with GA inhibitor response across all three GWAS models. This gene is expressed in roots and shoots and was shown to regulate GA signaling. These results show that BRs and GAs have a great impact for controlling seedling growth. Gene models from GWAS results could be targets for seeding traits improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Social welfare and restorative justice

    Fox, Darrell

    2009-01-01

    "This paper explores the links and connections between social work and restorative justice. After a brief description of social work, restorative justice and family group conferencing, I will explore some the complementary theoretical links and practice applications, critically examining the potential implications and opportunities for social work practitioners and academics in relation to practice." [author's abstract

  16. Forest restoration is forward thinking

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Brian J. Palik; John A. Stanturf

    2015-01-01

    It is not surprising to us that the topic of forest restoration is being discussed in the Journal of Forestry. It is a topic frequently bantered about in the literature; a quick search in Google Scholar for "forest restoration" generates more than 1 million hits. A significant portion of the debate centers on the search for succinct, holistic, universally...

  17. [Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations].

    Mainjot, Amélie; Vanheusden, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations are conservative and esthetic approaches for compromised teeth. Overlays constitute a less invasive alternative for tooth tissues than crown preparations. With inlays and onlays they are also indicated in case of full arch or quadrant rehabilitations including several teeth. This article screens indications and realization of this type of restorations.

  18. Prescribed burning for understory restoration

    Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2006-01-01

    Because the longleaf ecosystem evolved with and is adapted to frequent fire, every 2 to 8 years, prescribed burning is often useful for restoring understory communities to a diverse ground layer of grasses, herbs, and small shrubs. This restoration provides habitat for a number of plant and animal species that are restricted to or found mostly in longleaf pine...

  19. Gibberellin 20-oxidase gene OsGA20ox3 regulates plant stature and disease development in rice.

    Qin, Xue; Liu, Jun Hua; Zhao, Wen Sheng; Chen, Xu Jun; Guo, Ze Jian; Peng, You Liang

    2013-02-01

    Gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase (GA20ox) catalyses consecutive steps of oxidation in the late part of the GA biosynthetic pathway. A T-DNA insertion mutant (17S-14) in rice, with an elongated phenotype, was isolated. Analysis of the flanking sequences of the T-DNA insertion site revealed that an incomplete T-DNA integration resulted in enhanced constitutively expression of downstream OsGA20ox3 in the mutant. The accumulation of bioactive GA(1) and GA(4) were increased in the mutant in comparison with the wild-type plant. Transgenic plants overexpressing OsGA20ox3 showed phenotypes similar to those of the 17S-14 mutant, and the RNA interference (RNAi) lines that had decreased OsGA20ox3 expression exhibited a semidwarf phenotype. Expression of OsGA20ox3 was detected in the leaves and roots of young seedlings, immature panicles, anthers, and pollens, based on β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity staining in transgenic plants expressing the OsGA20ox3 promoter fused to the GUS gene. The OsGA20ox3 RNAi lines showed enhanced resistance against rice pathogens Magnaporthe oryzae (causing rice blast) and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (causing bacterial blight) and increased expression of defense-related genes. Conversely, OsGA20ox3-overexpressing plants were more susceptible to these pathogens comparing with the wild-type plants. The susceptibility of wild-type plants to X. oryzae pv. oryzae was increased by exogenous application of GA(3) and decreased by S-3307 treatment. Together, the results provide direct evidence for a critical role of OsGA20ox3 in regulating not only plant stature but also disease resistance in rice.

  20. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L. Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile.

    Sen Yang

    Full Text Available The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3 production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26 °C. A total of 371 g housefly larvae meal and 2,064 g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500 g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400 g rice straw in the unit of (calculated dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources.

  1. The α-Amylase Induction in Endosperm during Rice Seed Germination Is Caused by Gibberellin Synthesized in Epithelium1

    Kaneko, Miyuki; Itoh, Hironori; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    We recently isolated two genes (OsGA3ox1 and OsGA3ox2) from rice (Oryza sativa) encoding 3β-hydroxylase, which catalyzes the final step of active gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis (H. Itoh, M. Ueguchi-Tanaka, N. Sentoku, H. Kitano, M. Matsuoka, M. Kobayashi [2001] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 8909–8914). Using these cloned cDNAs, we analyzed the temporal and spatial expression patterns of the 3β-hydroxylase genes and also an α-amylase gene (RAmy1A) during rice seed germination to investigate the relationship between GA biosynthesis and α-amylase expression. Northern-blot analyses revealed that RAmy1A expression in the embryo occurs before the induction of 3β-hydroxylase expression, whereas in the endosperm, a high level of RAmy1A expression occurs 1 to 2 d after the peak of OsGA3ox2 expression and only in the absence of uniconazol. Based on the analysis of an OsGA3ox2 null mutant (d18-Akibare dwarf), we determined that 3β-hydroxylase produced by OsGA3ox2 is important for the induction of RAmy1A expression and that the OsGA3ox1 product is not essential for α-amylase induction. The expression of OsGA3ox2 was localized to the shoot region and epithelium of the embryo, strongly suggesting that active GA biosynthesis occurs in these two regions. The synthesis of active GA in the epithelium is important for α-amylase expression in the endosperm, because an embryonic mutant defective in shoot formation, but which developed epithelium cells, induced α-amylase expression in the endosperm, whereas a mutant defective in epithelium development did not. PMID:11950975

  2. A negative regulator encoded by a rice WRKY gene represses both abscisic acid and gibberellins signaling in aleurone cells.

    Zhang, Zhong-Lin; Shin, Margaret; Zou, Xiaolu; Huang, Jianzhi; Ho, Tun-hua David; Shen, Qingxi J

    2009-05-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs) control several developmental processes including seed maturation, dormancy, and germination. The antagonism of these two hormones is well-documented. However, recent data from transcription profiling studies indicate that they can function as agonists in regulating the expression of many genes although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we report a rice WRKY gene, OsWRKY24, which encodes a protein that functions as a negative regulator of both GA and ABA signaling. Overexpression of OsWRKY24 via particle bombardment-mediated transient expression in aleurone cells represses the expression of two reporter constructs: the beta-glucuronidase gene driven by the GA-inducible Amy32b alpha-amylase promoter (Amy32b-GUS) and the ABA-inducible HVA22 promoter (HVA22-GUS). OsWRKY24 is unlikely a general repressor because it has little effect on the expression of the luciferase reporter gene driven by a constitutive ubiquitin promoter (UBI-Luciferase). As to the GA signaling, OsWRKY24 differs from OsWRKY51 and -71, two negative regulators specifically function in the GA signaling pathway, in several ways. First, OsWRKY24 contains two WRKY domains while OsWRKY51 and -71 have only one; both WRKY domains are essential for the full repressing activity of OsWRKY24. Second, binding of OsWRKY24 to the Amy32b promoter appears to involve sequences in addition to the TGAC cores of the W-boxes. Third, unlike OsWRKY71, OsWRKY24 is stable upon GA treatment. Together, these data demonstrate that OsWRKY24 is a novel type of transcriptional repressor that inhibits both GA and ABA signaling.

  3. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L.) Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile

    Yang, Sen; Xie, Jiufeng; Hu, Nan; Liu, Yixiong; Zhang, Jiner; Ye, Xiaobin; Liu, Ziduo

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR) during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3) production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL) and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile) to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26°C. A total of 371g housefly larvae meal and 2,064g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400g rice straw in the unit of (calculated) dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources. PMID:25992605

  4. Role of gibberellins in parthenocarpic fruit development induced by the genetic system pat-3/pat-4 in tomato.

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Nuez, Fernando; García-Martínez, José L.

    2001-04-01

    The role of gibberellins (GAs) in the induction of parthenocarpic fruit-set and growth by the pat-3/pat-4 genetic system in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was investigated using wild type (WT; Cuarenteno) and a near-isogenic line derived from the German line RP75/59 (the source of pat-3/pat-4 parthenocarpy). Unpollinated WT ovaries degenerated but GA3 application induced parthenocarpic fruit growth. On the contrary, parthenocarpic growth of pat-3/pat-4 fruits, which occurs in the absence of pollination and hormone treatment, was not affected by applied GA3. Unpollinated pat-3/pat-4 fruit growth was negated by paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of ent-kaurene oxidase, and this inhibitory effect was negated by GA3. The quantification of the main GAs of the early 13-hydroxylation pathway (GA1, GA8, GA19, GA20, GA29 and GA44) in unpollinated ovaries at 3 developmental stages (flower bud, FB; pre-anthesis, PR; and anthesis, AN), by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring, showed that the concentration of most of them was higher in pat-3/pat-4 than in WT ovaries at PR and AN stages. The concentration of GA1, suggested previously to be the active GA in tomate, was 2-4 times higher. Unpollinated pat-3/pat-4 ovaries at FB, PR and AN stages also contained relatively high amounts (5-12 ng g-1) of GA3, a GA found at less than 0.5 ng g-1 in WT ovaries. It is concluded that the mutations pat-3/pat-4 may induce natural facultative parthenocarpy capacity in tomato by increasing the concentration of GA1 and GA3 in the ovaries before pollination.

  5. Roles of gibberellins and abscisic acid in regulating germination of Suaeda salsa dimorphic seeds under salt stress

    Weiqiang eLi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed heteromorphism observed in many halophytes is an adaptive phenomenon toward high salinity. However, the relationship between heteromorphic seed germination and germination-related hormones under salt stress remains elusive. To gain an insight into this relationship, the roles of gibberellins (GAs and abscisic acid (ABA in regulating germination of Suaeda salsa dimorphic brown and black seeds under salinity were elucidated by studying the kinetics of the two hormones during germination of the two seed types with or without salinity treatment. Morphological analysis suggested that brown and black are in different development stage. The content of ABA was higher in dry brown than in black seeds, which gradually decreased after imbibition in water and salt solutions. Salt stress induced ABA accumulation in both germinating seed types, with higher induction effect on black than brown seeds. Black seeds showed lower germination percentage than brown seeds under both water and salt stress, which might be attributed to their higher ABA sensitivity rather than the difference in ABA content between black and brown seeds. Bioactive GA4 and its biosynthetic precursors showed higher levels in brown than in black seeds, whereas deactivated GAs showed higher content in black than brown seeds in dry or in germinating water or salt solutions. High salinity inhibited seed germination through decreasing the levels of GA4 in both seeds, and the inhibited effect of salt stress on GA4 level of black seeds was more profound than that of brown seeds. Taken together higher GA4 content, and lower ABA sensitivity contributed to the higher germination percentage of brown seeds than black seeds in water and salinity; increased ABA content and sensitivity, and decreased GA4 content by salinity were more profound in black than brown seeds, which contributed to lower germination of black seeds than brown seeds in salinity. The differential regulation of ABA and GA

  6. Gibberellins producing Bacillus methylotrophicus KE2 supports plant growth and enhances nutritional metabolites and food values of lettuce.

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-12-01

    The nutritional quality of green leafy vegetables can be enhanced by application of plant beneficial micro-organisms. The present study was aimed to increase the food values of lettuce leaves by bacterial treatment. We isolated bacterial strain KE2 from Kimchi food and identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus by phylogenetic analysis. The beneficial effect of B. methylotrophicus KE2 on plants was confirmed by increasing the percentage of seed germination of Lactuca sativa L., Cucumis melo L., Glycine max L. and Brassica juncea L. It might be the secretion of array of gibberellins (GA 1 , GA 3 , GA 7 , GA 8 , GA 9 , GA 12 , GA 19 , GA 20 , GA 24 , GA 34 and GA 53 ) and indole-acetic acid from B. methylotrophicus KE2. The mechanism of plant growth promotion via their secreted metabolites was confirmed by a significant increase of GA deficient mutant rice plant growth. Moreover, the bacterial association was favor to enhance shoot length, shoot fresh weight and leaf width of lettuce. The higher concentration of protein, amino acids (Asp, Thr, Ser, Glu, Gly, Ala, Leu, Tyr and His), gama-aminobutric acid and fructose was found in bacterial culture (KE2) applied plants. The macro and micro minerals such as K, Mg, Na, P, Fe, Zn and N were also detected as significantly higher quantities in bacteria treated plants than untreated control plants. In addition, the carotenoids and chlorophyll a were also increased in lettuce at bacterial inoculation. The results of this study suggest that B. methylotrophicus KE2 application to soil helps to increase the plant growth and food values of lettuce. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of gibberellins in improving the resistance of tebuconazole-coated maize seeds to chilling stress by microencapsulation.

    Yang, Lijuan; Yang, Daibin; Yan, Xiaojing; Cui, Li; Wang, Zhenying; Yuan, Huizhu

    2016-11-07

    Chilling stress during germination often causes severe injury. In the present study, maize seed germination and shoot growth under chilling stress were negatively correlated with the dose of tebuconazole in an exponential manner as predicted by the model Y = A + B × e (-x/k) . Microencapsulation was an effective means of eliminating potential phytotoxic risk. The gibberellins (GAs) contents were higher after microencapsulation treatment than after conventional treatment when the dose of tebuconazole was higher than 0.12 g AI (active ingredient) kg -1 seed. Further analysis indicated that microencapsulation can stimulate ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) activity to some extent, whereas GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox) and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) activities remained similar to those in the control. Genes encoding GA metabolic enzymes exhibited different expression patterns. Transcript levels of ZmKO1 increased in the microcapsule treatments compared to the control. Even when incorporated into microcapsules, tebuconazole led to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox1 at doses of less than 0.12 g AI kg -1 seed and to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox2 when the dose was higher than 0.12 g AI kg -1 seed. With increasing doses of microencapsulated tebuconazole, the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox4, ZmGA2ox5 and ZmGA2ox6 exhibited upward trends, whereas the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox7 exhibited a downward trend.

  8. Natural resource damage assessments: Linking injury to restoration

    Newell, M.; Collinson-Kahl, C.

    1993-01-01

    Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), natural resource trustees have the authority to act on behalf of the public to file claims for damages against potentially responsible parties for injury to, destruction of, or loss of natural resources and related human services caused by releases of hazardous substances or discharges of oil. Damages recovered must be used to restore, replace, or acquire the equivalent of such resources. Therefore, to adequately restore an injured resource and the services it provides, a natural resource restoration proposal should address, as directly as possible, the injuries caused by a hazardous substance release. In other words, the resources restored and services generated by the restoration activities should be commensurate in type and amount with the reduction in services caused by the release. More specifically, the natural resource damage assessment regulations indicate that services should be used as the common currency for linking injury to restoration. The following conceptual steps may be followed to develop a primary restoration program that is linked to the injuries: Define the resources that were injured, and identify the services provided by those resources that were reduced by the injury. Define the baseline levels of the quantity of the resource, and the quantity of the services that would have been provided by the resource if the injury had not occurred. Quantify the interim lost value, which represents the reduction in services (compared to a baseline) from the time of the injury through the time of full recovery of the resources, assuming natural recovery. Evaluate the potential restoration projects for inclusion in the primary restoration program, which is designed to accelerate and enhance natural recovery of the resources and the flow of services from the resources

  9. Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume 3, Appendix A: Public response to revised NOI, Appendix B: Environmental restoration, Appendix C, Environmental impact analysis methods, Appendix D, Risk

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Volume three contains appendices for the following: Public comments do DOE`s proposed revisions to the scope of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement; Environmental restoration sensitivity analysis; Environmental impacts analysis methods; and Waste management facility human health risk estimates.

  10. "I Was Dead Restorative Today": From Restorative Justice to Restorative Approaches in School

    McCluskey, G.; Lloyd, G.; Stead, J.; Kane, J.; Riddell, S.; Weedon, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores definitions and understandings of restorative practices in education. It offers a critique of current theoretical models of restorative justice originally derived from the criminal justice system and now becoming popular in educational settings. It questions the appropriateness of these concepts as they are being introduced to…

  11. The effect of gibberellins on sprouting of cuttings and quality of bush ...

    Total polyphenols were determined using Folin Ciocalteau method, total tannins were determined using the Vanillin HCL method and total antioxidants were determined using the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. The results of this study showed favourable response of bush tea growth to increased rates ...

  12. Hormonal regulation of gluconeogenesis in cereal aleurone is strongly cultivar-dependent and gibberellin action involves SLENDER1 but not GAMYB.

    Eastmond, Peter J; Jones, Russell L

    2005-11-01

    Storage oil is a major constituent in the cereal aleurone layer. The aim of this study was to investigate how gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) regulate conversion of oil to sugar in barley aleurone. The activity of the glyoxylate cycle enzyme isocitrate lyase (ICL) was surveyed in eight barley cultivars. Surprisingly, some cultivars do not require GA for the induction of ICL (e.g. Himalaya), whereas some do (e.g. Golden Promise). Furthermore, in Golden Promise, GA also stimulates triacylglycerol breakdown and enhances the net flux of carbon from acetate to sugar. In contrast, ABA strongly represses ICL activity and the flux of carbon from oil to sugar in both Golden Promise and Himalaya. Biolistics using a promoter reporter showed that GA and ABA regulate ICL at the level of transcription. Studies using barley and rice mutants and pharmacological agents show that GA-dependent induction of ICL activity is mediated by SLENDER1 and requires cGMP, but does not involve the transcription factor GAMYB. Gibberellin and ABA therefore act antagonistically to regulate gluconeogenesis in the aleurone layer as well as controlling the production and secretion of hydrolases into the starchy endosperm. We suggest that the variation between different barley cultivars might be a result of selective breeding to alter seed dormancy.

  13. Overexpression of Jatropha Gibberellin 2-oxidase 6 (JcGA2ox6 Induces Dwarfism and Smaller Leaves, Flowers and Fruits in Arabidopsis and Jatropha

    Ying-Xiong Hu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellins (GAs are plant hormones that play fundamental roles in plant growth and development. Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2ox plays a direct role in determining the levels of bioactive GAs by catalyzing bioactive GAs or their immediate precursors to inactive forms. In this study, a GA2ox gene, designated JcGA2ox6, was isolated from Jatropha curcas. JcGA2ox6 is expressed in all tissues of adult Jatropha, with the highest expression level in male flowers and the lowest expression level in young leaves. Overexpression of JcGA2ox6 in Arabidopsis resulted in a typical dwarf phenotype, along with late flowering, smaller leaves and flowers, shorter siliques and smaller seeds. Similarly, when JcGA2ox6 was overexpressed in Jatropha, the transgenic plants exhibited a dwarf phenotype with dark-green leaves and smaller inflorescences, flowers, fruits and seeds. However, the flowering time of Jatropha was not affected by overexpression of JcGA2ox6, unlike that in the transgenic Arabidopsis. Moreover, the number of flowers per inflorescence, the weight of 10 seeds and the seed oil content were significantly decreased in transgenic Jatropha. The results indicated that overexpression of JcGA2ox6 had a great impact on the vegetative and reproductive growth of transgenic Jatropha. Furthermore, we found that the dwarf phenotype of transgenic Jatropha was caused by a decrease in endogenous bioactive GA4, which was correlated with the degree of dwarfism.

  14. CvADH1, a member of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family, is inducible by gibberellin and sucrose in developing watermelon seeds.

    Kim, Joonyul; Kang, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Jinwon; Yim, Jieun; An, Gynheung

    2003-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that control seed formation, we selected a seed-preferential gene (CvADH1) from the ESTs of developing watermelon seeds. RNA blot analysis and in situ localization showed that CvADH1 was preferentially expressed in the nucellar tissue. The CvADH1 protein shared about 50% homology with short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase including ABA2 in Arabidopsis thaliana, stem secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase in Forsythia intermedia, and 3beta-hydroxysterol dehydrogenase in Digitalis lanata. We investigated gene-expression levels in seeds from both normally pollinated fruits and those made parthenocarpic via N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea treatment, the latter of which lack zygotic tissues. Whereas the transcripts of CvADH1 rapidly started to accumulate from about the pre-heart stage in normal seeds, they were not detectable in the parthenocarpic seeds. Treating the parthenogenic fruit with GA(3) strongly induced gene expression, up to the level accumulated in pollinated seeds. These results suggest that the CvADH1 gene is induced in maternal tissues by signals made in the zygotic tissues, and that gibberellin might be one of those signals. We also observed that CvADH1 expression was induced by sucrose in the parthenocarpic seeds. Therefore, we propose that the CvADH1 gene is inducible by gibberellin, and that sucrose plays an important role in the maternal tissues of watermelon during early seed development.

  15. Site occupancy of brown-headed nuthatches varies with habitat restoration and range-limit context

    Richard A. Stanton; Frank R. Thompson; Dylan C. Kesler

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about species’ responses to habitat restoration can inform subsequent management and reintroduction planning. We used repeated call-response surveys to study brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla) patch occupancy at the current limits of its apparently expanding range in an area with active habitat restoration. We fit a probit occupancy...

  16. Provisional Restorations – A Permanent Problem?

    Keys, William F; Keirby, Naomi; Ricketts, David N J

    2016-12-01

    Provisional restorations play an important role when providing indirect restorations. There are a number of materials and techniques available for their construction. Careful planning and construction can protect the prepared tooth surface, improve the periodontal condition and help plan for the definitive restoration. A good provisional restoration can save time, money and effort. Clinical relevance: Provisional restoration construction is an integral part of the indirect restorative process for inlays, onlays, crowns and bridges.

  17. Fernald restoration: ecologists and engineers integrate restoration and cleanup

    Woods, Eric; Homer, John

    2002-07-15

    As cleanup workers excavate pits and tear down buildings at the Fernald site in southwest Ohio, site ecologists are working side-by-side to create thriving wetlands and develop the early stages of forest, prairie, and savanna ecosystems to restore natural resources that were impacted by years of site operations. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy-Fernald Office (DOE-FN) and its cleanup contractor, Fluor Fernald, Inc., initiated several ecological restoration projects in perimeter areas of the site (e.g., areas not used for or impacted by uranium processing or waste management). The projects are part of Fernald's final land use plan to restore natural resources over 904 acres of the 1,050-acre site. Pete Yerace, the DOE-FN Natural Resource Trustee representative is working with the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees in an oversight role to resolve the state of Ohio's 1986 claim against DOE for injuries to natural resources. Fluor Fernald, Inc., and DOE-FN developed the ''Natural Resource Restoration Plan'', which outlines 15 major restoration projects for the site and will restore injured natural resources at the site. In general, Fernald's plan includes grading to maximize the formation of wetlands or expanded floodplain, amending soil where topsoil has been removed during excavation, and establishing native vegetation throughout the site. Today, with cleanup over 35 percent complete and site closure targeted for 2006, Fernald is entering a new phase of restoration that involves heavily remediated areas. By working closely with engineers and cleanup crews, site ecologists can take advantage of remediation fieldwork (e.g., convert an excavated depression into a wetland) and avoid unnecessary costs and duplication. This collaboration has also created opportunities for relatively simple and inexpensive restoration of areas that were discovered during ongoing remediation. To ensure the survival of the plant material in heavily

  18. VT River Restoration Data in Lamoille County

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Documented river and riparian buffer restoration projects in Lamoille County, Vermont. Restoration includes buffer plantings (trees and shrubs),...

  19. Restorative treatment decisions of Croatian university teachers.

    Baraba, Anja; Doméjean, Sophie; Jurić, Hrvoje; Espelid, Ivar; Tveit, Anne B; Anić, Ivica

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to identify differences in diagnostic criteria and restorative treatment among Croatian university teachers. The questionnaire was distributed to 120 Croatian university teachers in Zagreb and Rijeka. Responses were collected from 59 (49.2%) university teachers. Treatment thresholds for hypothetical approximal and occlusal caries, as well as most favored types of restorative techniques and materials were assessed. The majority (34%) of the respondents would intervene for an approximal caries lesion at the enamel-dentin junction. The leading strategy for occlusal caries was postponing operative treatment until the caries lesion was in the outer third of dentin and removing caries tissue only. Composite resin was the predominant material of choice for restoration of approximal and occlusal caries (70% and 81% respectively). More than half (54%) of Croatian university teachers believed the radiographs underestimated the depth of the caries lesion compared with clinical finding. Findings of this study should be a guideline for Croatian university teachers for a more consistent and modern teaching on the subject of caries management.

  20. Basic research for environmental restoration

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Wetlands Restoration Definitions and Distinctions

    Ecological restoration is a valuable endeavor that has proven very difficult to define. The term indicates that degraded and destroyed natural wetland systems will be reestablished to sites where they once existed. But, what wetland ecosystems are we talki

  2. Basic research for environmental restoration

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Restorative justice innovations in Canada.

    Wilson, Robin J; Huculak, Bria; McWhinnie, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    As many jurisdictions move towards more retributive measures as a means to address public discontent with crime, a parallel movement has developed in regard to restorative justice. This article presents three restorative initiatives currently in use in Canada. Each initiative addresses offender behavior and community engagement at a different point in the justice continuum. The use of Sentencing Circles is an example of how restorative justice principles can be instituted at the front end, prior to an offender becoming lodged in the system. The Restorative Justice Options to Parole Suspension project demonstrates how community engagement can assist in preventing offenders from being returned to the system once they have achieved conditional release. The Circles of Support and Accountability project has enlisted the support of professionally supported volunteers in the community reintegration of high-risk sexual offenders. These initiatives are presented within a framework of effective correctional interventions and increased empowerment for a variety of stakeholders. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Wetland Restoration and Sediment Removal

    Department of the Interior — In 2008, Minnesota’s Private Lands Program and Wetland Management Districts began to compare different methods of restoring prairie pothole wetlands to see if there...

  5. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    Jensen, Per Hedemann

    1999-01-01

    techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps:-characterisation of relevant contaminated sites -identication and characterisation of relevant restoration...... techniques -assessment of the radiological impact -development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options -formulation ofgeneric conclusions and development of a manual The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated...

  6. ABI4 regulates primary seed dormancy by regulating the biogenesis of abscisic acid and gibberellins in arabidopsis.

    Kai Shu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy is an important economic trait for agricultural production. Abscisic acid (ABA and Gibberellins (GA are the primary factors that regulate the transition from dormancy to germination, and they regulate this process antagonistically. The detailed regulatory mechanism involving crosstalk between ABA and GA, which underlies seed dormancy, requires further elucidation. Here, we report that ABI4 positively regulates primary seed dormancy, while negatively regulating cotyledon greening, by mediating the biogenesis of ABA and GA. Seeds of the Arabidopsis abi4 mutant that were subjected to short-term storage (one or two weeks germinated significantly more quickly than Wild-Type (WT, and abi4 cotyledons greened markedly more quickly than WT, while the rates of germination and greening were comparable when the seeds were subjected to longer-term storage (six months. The ABA content of dry abi4 seeds was remarkably lower than that of WT, but the amounts were comparable after stratification. Consistently, the GA level of abi4 seeds was increased compared to WT. Further analysis showed that abi4 was resistant to treatment with paclobutrazol (PAC, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, during germination, while OE-ABI4 was sensitive to PAC, and exogenous GA rescued the delayed germination phenotype of OE-ABI4. Analysis by qRT-PCR showed that the expression of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolism in dry and germinating seeds corresponded to hormonal measurements. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation qPCR (ChIP-qPCR and transient expression analysis showed that ABI4 repressed CYP707A1 and CYP707A2 expression by directly binding to those promoters, and the ABI4 binding elements are essential for this repression. Accordingly, further genetic analysis showed that abi4 recovered the delayed germination phenotype of cyp707a1 and cyp707a2 and further, rescued the non-germinating phenotype of ga1-t. Taken together, this study suggests that ABI4 is a key

  7. Gibberellin Is Involved in Inhibition of Cucumber Growth and Nitrogen Uptake at Suboptimal Root-Zone Temperatures.

    Longqiang Bai

    Full Text Available Suboptimal temperature stress often causes heavy yield losses of vegetables by suppressing plant growth during winter and early spring. Gibberellin acid (GA has been reported to be involved in plant growth and acquisition of mineral nutrients. However, no studies have evaluated the role of GA in the regulation of growth and nutrient acquisition by vegetables under conditions of suboptimal temperatures in greenhouse. Here, we investigated the roles of GA in the regulation of growth and nitrate acquisition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants under conditions of short-term suboptimal root-zone temperatures (Tr. Exposure of cucumber seedlings to a Tr of 16°C led to a significant reduction in root growth, and this inhibitory effect was reversed by exogenous application of GA. Expression patterns of several genes encoding key enzymes in GA metabolism were altered by suboptimal Tr treatment, and endogenous GA concentrations in cucumber roots were significantly reduced by exposure of cucumber plants to 16°C Tr, suggesting that inhibition of root growth by suboptimal Tr may result from disruption of endogenous GA homeostasis. To further explore the mechanism underlying the GA-dependent cucumber growth under suboptimal Tr, we studied the effect of suboptimal Tr and GA on nitrate uptake, and found that exposure of cucumber seedlings to 16°C Tr led to a significant reduction in nitrate uptake rate, and exogenous application GA can alleviate the down-regulation by up regulating the expression of genes associated with nitrate uptake. Finally, we demonstrated that N accumulation in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal Tr conditions was improved by exogenous application of GA due probably to both enhanced root growth and nitrate absorption activity. These results indicate that a reduction in endogenous GA concentrations in roots due to down-regulation of GA biosynthesis at transcriptional level may be a key event to underpin the suboptimal Tr

  8. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Environmental Restoration Program

    1992-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) has initiated the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) in an effort to manage, control and remediate existing hazardous, toxic and radioactive wastes generated at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). This ERP Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) is responsive to the PORTS ESH Division QAPP and the ES Environmental Restoration Division (ERD) QAPP. This QAPP establishes the policies, requirements and responsibilities by which an appropriate level of QA shall be implemented within the PORTS-ERP. All PORTS-ERP activities shall be conducted in accordance with the requirements of this document and/or of a project level document which is derivative of this document

  9. Oak restoration trials: Santa Catalina Island

    Lisa Stratton

    2002-01-01

    Two restoration trials involving four oak species have been implemented as part of a larger restoration program for Catalina Island. In 1997 the Catalina Island Conservancy began an active program of restoration after 50 years of ranching and farming activities on the island. The restoration program includes removing feral goats and pigs island-wide and converting 80...

  10. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat—Part 1. Concepts for understanding and applying restoration

    Pyke, David A.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pellant, Mike; Knick, Steven T.; Miller, Richard F.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Doescher, Paul S.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Brunson, Mark; McIver, James D.

    2015-10-26

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is a landscape-dependent bird that requires intact habitat and combinations of sagebrush and perennial grasses to exist. In addition, other sagebrush-obligate animals also have similar requirements and restoration of landscapes for greater sage-grouse also will benefit these animals. Once sagebrush lands are degraded, they may require restoration actions to make those lands viable habitat for supporting sagebrushobligate animals. This restoration handbook is the first in a three-part series on restoration of sagebrush ecosystems. In Part 1, we discuss concepts surrounding landscape and restoration ecology of sagebrush ecosystems and greater sage-grouse that habitat managers and restoration practitioners need to know to make informed decisions regarding where and how to restore specific areas. We will describe the plant dynamics of sagebrush steppe ecosystems and their responses to major disturbances, fire, and defoliation. We will introduce the concepts of ecosystem resilience to disturbances and resistance to invasions of annual grasses within sagebrush steppe. An introduction to soils and ecological site information will provide insights into the specific plants that can be restored in a location. Soil temperature and moisture regimes are described as a tool for determining resilience and resistance and the potential for various restoration actions. Greater sage-grouse are considered landscape birds that require large areas of intact sagebrush steppe; therefore, we describe concepts of landscape ecology that aid our decisions regarding habitat restoration. We provide a brief overview of

  11. Brassinosteroids Antagonize Gibberellin- and Salicylate-Mediated Root Immunity in Rice1[C][W][OA

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Van Buyten, Evelien; Satoh, Kouji; Balidion, Johny; Mauleon, Ramil; Choi, Il-Ryong; Vera-Cruz, Casiana; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Höfte, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a unique class of plant steroid hormones that orchestrate myriad growth and developmental processes. Although BRs have long been known to protect plants from a suite of biotic and abiotic stresses, our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still rudimentary. Aiming to further decipher the molecular logic of BR-modulated immunity, we have examined the dynamics and impact of BRs during infection of rice (Oryza sativa) with the root oomycete Pythium graminicola. Challenging the prevailing view that BRs positively regulate plant innate immunity, we show that P. graminicola exploits BRs as virulence factors and hijacks the rice BR machinery to inflict disease. Moreover, we demonstrate that this immune-suppressive effect of BRs is due, at least in part, to negative cross talk with salicylic acid (SA) and gibberellic acid (GA) pathways. BR-mediated suppression of SA defenses occurred downstream of SA biosynthesis, but upstream of the master defense regulators NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and OsWRKY45. In contrast, BR alleviated GA-directed immune responses by interfering at multiple levels with GA metabolism, resulting in indirect stabilization of the DELLA protein and central GA repressor SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1). Collectively, these data favor a model whereby P. graminicola coopts the plant BR pathway as a decoy to antagonize effectual SA- and GA-mediated defenses. Our results highlight the importance of BRs in modulating plant immunity and uncover pathogen-mediated manipulation of plant steroid homeostasis as a core virulence strategy. PMID:22353574

  12. Differences and similarities in the photoregulation of gibberellin metabolism between rice and dicots.

    Hirose, Fumiaki; Inagaki, Noritoshi; Takano, Makoto

    2013-03-01

    In rice seedlings, elongation of leaf sheaths is suppressed by light stimuli. The response is mediated by two classes of photoreceptors, phytochromes and cryptochromes. However, it remains unclear how these photoreceptors interact in the process. Our recent study using phytochrome mutants and novel cryptochrome RNAi lines revealed that cryptochromes and phytochromes function cooperatively, but independently to reduce active GA contents in seedlings in visible light. Blue light captured by cryptochrome 1 (cry1a and cry1b) induces robust expression of GA 2-oxidase genes (OsGA2ox4-7). In parallel, phytochrome B with auxiliary action of phytochrome A mediates repression of GA 20-oxidase genes (OsGA20ox2 and OsGA20ox4). The independent effects cumulatively reduce active GA contents, leading to a suppression of leaf sheath elongation. These regulatory mechanisms are distinct from phytochrome B function in dicots. We discuss reasons why the distinct system appeared in rice, and advantages of the rice system in early photomorphogenesis.

  13. Brassinosteroids antagonize gibberellin- and salicylate-mediated root immunity in rice.

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Van Buyten, Evelien; Satoh, Kouji; Balidion, Johny; Mauleon, Ramil; Choi, Il-Ryong; Vera-Cruz, Casiana; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Höfte, Monica

    2012-04-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a unique class of plant steroid hormones that orchestrate myriad growth and developmental processes. Although BRs have long been known to protect plants from a suite of biotic and abiotic stresses, our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still rudimentary. Aiming to further decipher the molecular logic of BR-modulated immunity, we have examined the dynamics and impact of BRs during infection of rice (Oryza sativa) with the root oomycete Pythium graminicola. Challenging the prevailing view that BRs positively regulate plant innate immunity, we show that P. graminicola exploits BRs as virulence factors and hijacks the rice BR machinery to inflict disease. Moreover, we demonstrate that this immune-suppressive effect of BRs is due, at least in part, to negative cross talk with salicylic acid (SA) and gibberellic acid (GA) pathways. BR-mediated suppression of SA defenses occurred downstream of SA biosynthesis, but upstream of the master defense regulators NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and OsWRKY45. In contrast, BR alleviated GA-directed immune responses by interfering at multiple levels with GA metabolism, resulting in indirect stabilization of the DELLA protein and central GA repressor SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1). Collectively, these data favor a model whereby P. graminicola coopts the plant BR pathway as a decoy to antagonize effectual SA- and GA-mediated defenses. Our results highlight the importance of BRs in modulating plant immunity and uncover pathogen-mediated manipulation of plant steroid homeostasis as a core virulence strategy.

  14. Response

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  15. Prioritizing ecological restoration among sites in multi-stressor landscapes.

    Neeson, Thomas M; Smith, Sigrid D P; Allan, J David; McIntyre, Peter B

    2016-09-01

    Most ecosystems are impacted by multiple local and long-distance stressors, many of which interact in complex ways. We present a framework for prioritizing ecological restoration efforts among sites in multi-stressor landscapes. Using a simple model, we show that both the economic and sociopolitical costs of restoration will typically be lower at sites with a relatively small number of severe problems than at sites with numerous lesser problems. Based on these results, we propose using cumulative stress and evenness of stressor impact as complementary indices that together reflect key challenges of restoring a site to improved condition. To illustrate this approach, we analyze stressor evenness across the world's rivers and the Laurentian Great Lakes. This exploration reveals that evenness and cumulative stress are decoupled, enabling selection of sites where remediating a modest number of high-intensity stressors could substantially reduce cumulative stress. Just as species richness and species evenness are fundamental axes of biological diversity, we argue that cumulative stress and stressor evenness constitute fundamental axes for identifying restoration opportunities in multi-stressor landscapes. Our results highlight opportunities to boost restoration efficiency through strategic use of multi-stressor datasets to identify sites that maximize ecological response per stressor remediated. This prioritization framework can also be expanded to account for the feasibility of remediation and the expected societal benefits of restoration projects. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Technical approach to groundwater restoration

    1993-01-01

    The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures

  17. Evaluating Stream Restoration Projects: What Do We Learn from Monitoring?

    Zan Rubin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two decades since calls for stream restoration projects to be scientifically assessed, most projects are still unevaluated, and conducted evaluations yield ambiguous results. Even after these decades of investigation, do we know how to define and measure success? We systematically reviewed 26 studies of stream restoration projects that used macroinvertebrate indicators to assess the success of habitat heterogeneity restoration projects. All 26 studies were previously included in two meta-analyses that sought to assess whether restoration programs were succeeding. By contrast, our review focuses on the evaluations themselves, and asks what exactly we are measuring and learning from these evaluations. All 26 studies used taxonomic diversity, richness, or abundance of invertebrates as biological measures of success, but none presented explicit arguments why those metrics were relevant measures of success for the restoration projects. Although changes in biodiversity may reflect overall ecological condition at the regional or global scale, in the context of reach-scale habitat restoration, more abundance and diversity may not necessarily be better. While all 26 studies sought to evaluate the biotic response to habitat heterogeneity enhancement projects, about half of the studies (46% explicitly measured habitat alteration, and 31% used visual estimates of grain size or subjectively judged ‘habitat quality’ from protocols ill-suited for the purpose. Although the goal of all 26 projects was to increase habitat heterogeneity, 31% of the studies either sampled only riffles or did not specify the habitats sampled. One-third of the studies (35% used reference ecosystems to define target conditions. After 20 years of stream restoration evaluation, more work remains for the restoration community to identify appropriate measures of success and to coordinate monitoring so that evaluations are at a scale capable of detecting ecosystem change.

  18. Philopatry in a changing world: Response of Pink-footed Geese Anser brachyrhynchus to the loss of a key autumn staging area due to restoration of Filsø Lake, Denmark

    Clausen, Kevin; Madsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    to the sudden loss of a major autumn staging area along their migration corridor, Filsø in Denmark, which followed the re-establishment of a former lake on open arable land serving as foraging site to tens of thousands of geese. Comparisons of goose usage before and after the restoration event revealed that 1...... philopatric to the Filsø area was unaffected by these changes, suggesting that geese quickly moved to other areas and responded well to the sudden decline in available food at their formerly preferred staging site. These findings indicate that at least for Pink-footed Geese the cognitive plasticity necessary...

  19. Water Awareness Through Environmental Restoration

    Davis-Caldwell, K.

    2012-04-01

    and negative effects of human presence on the local and global water supply. Student research scientifically tested ways to slow down the effects of run-off contaminants. Students also revisit water analysis and plant trees as buffers as part of their stream preservation efforts in a culminating activity. Oyster Reef Restoration Project: As a result of changes in climate, pollution and human consumption, the oyster population in the Chesapeake Bay had previously been on a rapid decline. The Oyster Reef Restoration Project allows students to understand the creatures of the bay and the cause of this decline. They explore the domino effect this has had on the quality of the water in the bay and future implications on the environment when the oyster population fluctuates significantly. Students construct concrete reefs and study the components of its contents and the reef's impact on the bay. Students are responsible for mixing, pouring and preparing the reef for its eventual drop in the bay. Wetlands Recovery: Following the elimination of a substantial amount of the natural wetlands behind the elementary and middle schools, a wetlands area was erected on the school grounds. This pond has been used to learn about habitats and the role humans, plants and organisms play in the preservation of the earth soil and water supply. This wetland is used by both the elementary and middle schools as a place for hands-on inquiry based learning. Students maintain the upkeep of the pond and teach other students at lower grades.

  20. Effect of gibberellin, auxin and kinetin treatments combined with foliar applied NPK on the yield of Capsicum annuum L. fruits and their capsaicin content

    Tomasz J. Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Wrocław version of hydroponic culture was applied. Under optimal conditions of root fertilization the plants were sprayed with growth regulators sueh as gibberellins, auxins and kinetins, and .their mixtures. Each growth regulator treatment was applied with or without NPK added. The influence of these treatments on the fresh and dry weight of the fruit, percentage of ripe fruits and content and yield of capsaicin was studied. The highest yield of fruits and capsaicin. was obtained from plants sprayed with gibberellic acid and kinetin (in concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/l, respectively together with NPK foliar application. No influence of ,growth regulators and foliar-applied NPK was noted on capsaicin content and dry weight of fruits.

  1. Restoration of motion blurred images

    Gaxiola, Leopoldo N.; Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.

    2017-08-01

    Image restoration is a classic problem in image processing. Image degradations can occur due to several reasons, for instance, imperfections of imaging systems, quantization errors, atmospheric turbulence, relative motion between camera or objects, among others. Motion blur is a typical degradation in dynamic imaging systems. In this work, we present a method to estimate the parameters of linear motion blur degradation from a captured blurred image. The proposed method is based on analyzing the frequency spectrum of a captured image in order to firstly estimate the degradation parameters, and then, to restore the image with a linear filter. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by processing synthetic and real-life images. The obtained results are characterized in terms of accuracy of image restoration given by an objective criterion.

  2. A Rice gid1 Suppressor Mutant Reveals That Gibberellin Is Not Always Required for Interaction between Its Receptor, GID1, and DELLA Proteins[W][OA

    Yamamoto, Yuko; Hirai, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kawamura, Mayuko; Sato, Tomomi; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako

    2010-01-01

    To investigate gibberellin (GA) signaling using the rice (Oryza sativa) GA receptor GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) mutant gid1-8, we isolated a suppressor mutant, Suppressor of gid1-1 (Sgd-1). Sgd-1 is an intragenic mutant containing the original gid1-8 mutation (L45F) and an additional amino acid substitution (P99S) in the loop region. GID1P99S interacts with the rice DELLA protein SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), even in the absence of GA. Substitution of the 99th Pro with other amino acids revealed that substitution with Ala (P99A) caused the highest level of GA-independent interaction. Physicochemical analysis using surface plasmon resonance revealed that GID1P99A has smaller Ka (association) and Kd (dissociation) values for GA4 than does wild-type GID1. This suggests that the GID1P99A lid is at least partially closed, resulting in both GA-independent and GA-hypersensitive interactions with SLR1. One of the three Arabidopsis thaliana GID1s, At GID1b, can also interact with DELLA proteins in the absence of GA, so we investigated whether GA-independent interaction of At GID1b depends on a mechanism similar to that of rice GID1P99A. Substitution of the loop region or a few amino acids of At GID1b with those of At GID1a diminished its GA-independent interaction with GAI while maintaining the GA-dependent interaction. Soybean (Glycine max) and Brassica napus also have GID1s similar to At GID1b, indicating that these unique GID1s occur in various dicots and may have important functions in these plants. PMID:21098733

  3. A rice gid1 suppressor mutant reveals that gibberellin is not always required for interaction between its receptor, GID1, and DELLA proteins.

    Yamamoto, Yuko; Hirai, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kawamura, Mayuko; Sato, Tomomi; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako

    2010-11-01

    To investigate gibberellin (GA) signaling using the rice (Oryza sativa) GA receptor GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) mutant gid1-8, we isolated a suppressor mutant, Suppressor of gid1-1 (Sgd-1). Sgd-1 is an intragenic mutant containing the original gid1-8 mutation (L45F) and an additional amino acid substitution (P99S) in the loop region. GID1(P99S) interacts with the rice DELLA protein SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), even in the absence of GA. Substitution of the 99th Pro with other amino acids revealed that substitution with Ala (P99A) caused the highest level of GA-independent interaction. Physicochemical analysis using surface plasmon resonance revealed that GID1(P99A) has smaller K(a) (association) and K(d) (dissociation) values for GA(4) than does wild-type GID1. This suggests that the GID1(P99A) lid is at least partially closed, resulting in both GA-independent and GA-hypersensitive interactions with SLR1. One of the three Arabidopsis thaliana GID1s, At GID1b, can also interact with DELLA proteins in the absence of GA, so we investigated whether GA-independent interaction of At GID1b depends on a mechanism similar to that of rice GID1(P99A). Substitution of the loop region or a few amino acids of At GID1b with those of At GID1a diminished its GA-independent interaction with GAI while maintaining the GA-dependent interaction. Soybean (Glycine max) and Brassica napus also have GID1s similar to At GID1b, indicating that these unique GID1s occur in various dicots and may have important functions in these plants.

  4. Dormancy in Peach (Prunus persica L.) Flower Buds : I. Floral Morphogenesis and Endogenous Gibberellins at the End of the Dormancy Period.

    Luna, V; Lorenzo, E; Reinoso, H; Tordable, M C; Abdala, G; Pharis, R P; Bottini, R

    1990-05-01

    Flower buds of peach (Prunus persica L.) trees, cv Novedad de Cordoba (Argentina), were collected near the end of the dormant period and immediately before anthesis. After removal of scale leaves, morphological observations of representative buds, made on transverse and longitudinal microtome sections, showed that all verticils making up the flower are present in an undifferentiated form during the dormant period (June). Flower buds collected at the end of dormant period (August) showed additional growth and differentiation, at which time formation of two ovules was beginning in the unicarpelar gynoecium. Dehiscence of anthers had not yet occurred 10 days before full bloom, and the ovules were still developing. Free endogenous gibberellin (GA)-like substances were quantified by bioassay (Tan-ginbozu dwarf rice microdrop) after SiO(2) partition column chromatography, reversed phase C18-high performance liquid chromatography, and finally Nucleosil [N(CH(3))(2)]high performance liquid chromatography. Bioactive fractions were then subjected to capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM). Gibberellins A(1), A(3), and A(8) were tentatively identified in peach flower buds using GC-SIM and Kovat's retention indices, and relative amounts approximated by GC-SIM (2:8:6 for GA(1), GA(3), and GA(8), respectively). The highest concentration (330 nanograms per gram dry weight) of free GA(1)/GA(3) was found in dormant buds (June) and diminished thereafter. The concentration free of GA(1)/GA(3) did not increase immediately prior to bud break. However, high GA(1)/GA(3) concentrations occurred during stages where rate of growth and cellular differentiation of (mainly fertile) verticils can be influenced.

  5. Gibberellic Acid-Stimulated Arabidopsis6 Serves as an Integrator of Gibberellin, Abscisic Acid, and Glucose Signaling during Seed Germination in Arabidopsis.

    Zhong, Chunmei; Xu, Hao; Ye, Siting; Wang, Shiyi; Li, Lingfei; Zhang, Shengchun; Wang, Xiaojing

    2015-11-01

    The DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3-LIKE2 (RGL2) plays an important role in seed germination under different conditions through a number of transcription factors. However, the functions of the structural genes associated with RGL2-regulated germination are less defined. Here, we report the role of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell wall-localized protein, Gibberellic Acid-Stimulated Arabidopsis6 (AtGASA6), in functionally linking RGL2 and a cell wall loosening expansin protein (Arabidopsis expansin A1 [AtEXPA1]), resulting in the control of embryonic axis elongation and seed germination. AtGASA6-overexpressing seeds showed precocious germination, whereas transfer DNA and RNA interference mutant seeds displayed delayed seed germination under abscisic acid, paclobutrazol, and glucose (Glc) stress conditions. The differences in germination rates resulted from corresponding variation in cell elongation in the hypocotyl-radicle transition region of the embryonic axis. AtGASA6 was down-regulated by RGL2, GLUCOSE INSENSITIVE2, and ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 genes, and loss of AtGASA6 expression in the gasa6 mutant reversed the insensitivity shown by the rgl2 mutant to paclobutrazol and the gin2 mutant to Glc-induced stress, suggesting that it is involved in regulating both the gibberellin and Glc signaling pathways. Furthermore, it was found that the promotion of seed germination and length of embryonic axis by AtGASA6 resulted from a promotion of cell elongation at the embryonic axis mediated by AtEXPA1. Taken together, the data indicate that AtGASA6 links RGL2 and AtEXPA1 functions and plays a role as an integrator of gibberellin, abscisic acid, and Glc signaling, resulting in the regulation of seed germination through a promotion of cell elongation. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. The Paradox of Restoring Native River Landscapes and Restoring Native Ecosystems in the Colorado River System

    Schmidt, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the Colorado River basin (CRb), scientists and river managers collaborate to improve native ecosystems. Native ecosystems have deteriorated due to construction of dams and diversions that alter natural flow, sediment supply, and temperature regimes, trans-basin diversions that extract large amounts of water from some segments of the channel network, and invasion of non-native animals and plants. These scientist/manager collaborations occur in large, multi-stakeholder, adaptive management programs that include the Lower Colorado River Multi-Species Conservation Program, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program, and the Upper Colorado River Endangered Species Recovery Program. Although a fundamental premise of native species recovery is that restoration of predam flow regimes inevitably leads to native species recovery, such is not the case in many parts of the CRb. For example, populations of the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) are largest in the sediment deficit, thermally altered conditions of the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, but these species occur in much smaller numbers in the upper CRb even though the flow regime, sediment supply, and sediment mass balance are less perturbed. Similar contrasts in the physical and biological response of restoration of predam flow regimes occurs in floodplains dominated by nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) where reestablishment of floods has the potential to exacerbate vertical accretion processes that disconnect the floodplain from the modern flow regime. A significant challenge in restoring segments of the CRb is to describe this paradox of physical and biological response to reestablishment of pre-dam flow regimes, and to clearly identify objectives of environmentally oriented river management. In many cases, understanding the nature of the perturbation to sediment mass balance caused by dams and diversions and understanding the constraints imposed by societal commitments to provide

  7. Gibberellin Application at Pre-Bloom in Grapevines Down-Regulates the Expressions of VvIAA9 and VvARF7, Negative Regulators of Fruit Set Initiation, during Parthenocarpic Fruit Development

    Jung, Chan Jin; Hur, Youn Young; Yu, Hee-Ju; Noh, Jung-Ho; Park, Kyo-Sun; Lee, Hee Jae

    2014-01-01

    Fruit set is initiated only after fertilization and is tightly regulated primarily by gibberellins (GAs) and auxins. The application of either of these hormones induces parthenocarpy, fruit set without fertilization, but the molecular mechanism underlying this induction is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that the parthenocarpic fruits induced by GA application at pre-bloom result from the interaction of GA with auxin signaling. The transcriptional levels of the putative negative regulators of fruit set initiation, including Vitis auxin/indole-3-acetic acid transcription factor 9 (VvIAA9), Vitis auxin response factor 7 (VvARF7), and VvARF8 were monitored during inflorescence development in seeded diploid ‘Tamnara’ grapevines with or without GA application. Without GA application, VvIAA9, VvARF7, and VvARF8 were expressed at a relatively high level before full bloom, but decreased thereafter following pollination. After GA application at 14 days before full bloom (DBF); however, the expression levels of VvIAA9 and VvARF7 declined at 5 DBF prior to pollination. The effects of GA application on auxin levels or auxin signaling were also analyzed by monitoring the expression patterns of auxin biosynthesis genes and auxin-responsive genes with or without GA application. Transcription levels of the auxin biosynthesis genes Vitis anthranilate synthase β subunit (VvASB1-like), Vitis YUCCA2 (VvYUC2), and VvYUC6 were not significantly changed by GA application. However, the expressions of Vitis Gretchen Hagen3.2 (VvGH3.2) and VvGH3.3, auxin-responsive genes, were up-regulated from 2 DBF to full bloom with GA application. Furthermore, the Vitis GA signaling gene, VvDELLA was up-regulated by GA application during 12 DBF to 7 DBF, prior to down-regulation of VvIAA9 and VvARF7. These results suggest that VvIAA9 and VvARF7 are negative regulators of fruit set initiation in grapevines, and GA signaling is integrated with auxin signaling via VvDELLA during

  8. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    Moos, L.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning and facility dismantelment projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized. In fact, however, there are three significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling; segregation of waste types; and reducing generation of secondary waste. This paper will discuss several examples of reuse, recycle, segregation, and secondary waste reduction at ANL restoration programs

  9. Intellectual system for images restoration

    Mardare, Igor

    2005-02-01

    Intelligence systems on basis of artificial neural networks and associative memory allow to solve effectively problems of recognition and restoration of images. However, within analytical technologies there are no dominating approaches of deciding of intellectual problems. Choice of the best technology depends on nature of problem, features of objects, volume of represented information about the object, number of classes of objects, etc. It is required to determine opportunities, preconditions and field of application of neural networks and associative memory for decision of problem of restoration of images and to use their supplementary benefits for further development of intelligence systems.

  10. Restorative Glass : Reversible, discreet restoration using structural glass components

    Oikonomopoulou, F.; Bristogianni, T.; Barou, L.; van Hees, R.P.J.; Nijsse, R.; Veer, F.A.; Henk, Schellen; van Schijndel, Jos

    2016-01-01

    The application of structural glass as the principal material in restoration and conservation practices is a distinguishable, yet discreet approach. The transparency of glass allows the simultaneous perception of the monument at both its original and present condition, preserving its historical and

  11. Seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 produces gibberellins and regulates endogenous phytohormones of Oryza sativa.

    Shahzad, Raheem; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-09-01

    Some microorganisms are adapted to an endophytic mode, living symbiotically with plants through vertical transmission in seeds. The role of plant growth-promoting endophytes has been well studied, but those of seed-associated endophytic bacteria are less understood. The current study aimed to isolate and identify bacterial endophytes associated with rice (Oryza sativa L. 'Jin so mi') seeds, their potential to produce gibberellins (GAs), and role in improving host-plant physiology. The isolated bacterial endophyte RWL-1 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The pure culture of B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1, supplied with deuterated internal standards, was subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectrometric selected ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) for quantification of GAs. Results showed the presence of GAs in various quantities (ng/mL) viz., GA20 (17.88 ± 4.04), GA36 (5.75 ± 2.36), GA24 (5.64 ± 2.46), GA4 (1.02 ± 0.16), GA53 (0.772 ± 0.20), GA9 (0.12 ± 0.09), GA19 (0.093 ± 0.13), GA5 (0.08 ± 0.04), GA12 (0.014 ± 0.34), and GA8 (0.013 ± 0.01). Since endogenous seed GAs are essential for prolonged seed growth and subsequent plant development, we used exogenous GA3 as a positive control and water as a negative control for comparative analysis of the application of B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 to rice plants. The growth parameters of rice plants treated with endophytic bacterial cell application was significantly increased compared to the plants treated with exogenous GA3 and water. This was also revealed by the significant up-regulation of endogenous GA1 (17.54 ± 2.40 ng), GA4 (310 ± 5.41 ng), GA7 (192.60 ± 3.32 ng), and GA9 (19.04 ± 2.49 ng) as compared to results of the positive and negative control treatments. Rice plants inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 exhibited significantly higher endogenous salicylic acid (1615.06 ± 10.81 μg), whereas

  12. The effects of benzil amino purin (BAP and gibberellin with in vitro seedling growth of pulesari (Alyxia reinwardtii Bl

    Heru Sudrajad

    2016-12-01

    vulnerable status. The high price and high market demand made the over harvested beyond regeneration capacity of the plant while the conservation efforts are terribly limited. Presentage of seed germination is not only very low but also time consuming, therefore we conducting preliminary study on in vitro propagation using  seed  Alyxia reinwardtii Bl. Methods: The research was conducted in laboratory tissue culture of Medicinal Plant and Traditional Medicine Research and Development Center Tawangmangu for three months. Seeds of A. reinwardtii Bl. obtained from Pringgondani Forest, Tawangmangu Central Java.  Seeds were peeled and air dryed for five days, washed using steril aquadest, soaked on 0.5% Agrept (5 minutes then on 2.125% sodium hypochloride (5 minutes and rinsed using sterile distilled water. This study uses a Murashige and Skoog (MS with a completely randomized design (CRD factorial design.. The first factor is   BAP at a concentration of 3, 4, 5 mg.L-1 and the second factor is giberelin concentration of 1, 2, 3 mg.L-1. MS media  with addition of BAP the concentration of 3, 4, 5 mg.L-1 and gibberellin the concentration of 1, 2, 3 mg.L-1 obtained 9 treatment combination. Results: The results showed the combination treatment of growth regulators BAP (4 mg.L-1 and giberelin (2 mg.L-1 is formed shoots and roots. The shoots were formed  30 days after planting with a height of 2 cm and the roots appear at 45 days after planting. Conclusion: Pulasari (Alyxia reinwardtii Bl. can be propagated through tissue culture using seeds as explants.Keywords: pulesari, Alyxia reinwardtii BI, BAP and giberelin 

  13. Principles for the Conservation and Restoration of Collections in Libraries.

    Dureau, Jeanne M.

    This statement of principles, which represents a general approach to the nature and objectives of conservation and restoration work rather than a detailed description of methods and practices, is designed to encourage those responsible for the care of library collections to face up to the consequences of neglect and, together with their technical…

  14. Optical properties of composite restorations influenced by dissimilar dentin restoratives.

    Marjanovic, Jovana; Veljovic, Djordje N; Stasic, Jovana N; Savic-Stankovic, Tatjana; Trifkovic, Branka; Miletic, Vesna

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate optical properties (color and translucency) of 'sandwich' restorations of resin-based composites and esthetically unfavorable dentin restoratives. Cylindrical 'dentin' specimens (8mm in diameter and 2mm thick, N=5/group) were prepared using EverX Posterior (GC), Biodentine (Septodont), experimental hydroxyapatite (HAP) or conventional composites (Gradia Direct Posterior, GC; Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z500, 3M ESPE). Capping 'enamel' layers were prepared using composites (Gradia Direct Posterior, Filtek Z250 or Z550) of A1 or A3 shade and the following thickness: 0.6, 1 or 2mm. Color (ΔE) and translucency parameter (TP) were determined using a spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0, VITA Zahnfabrik). Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance with Tukey's post-hoc tests (α=0.05). TP was greatly affected by layer thickness, whilst ΔE depended on shade and layer thickness of the capping composite. HAP and Biodentine showed significantly lower TP and higher ΔE (deviation from 'ideal white') than composites (p<0.05). Greater TP was seen in EverX_composite groups than in corresponding control groups of the same shade and thickness. TP of composites combined with Biodentine or HAP was below 2, lower than the corresponding control groups (p<0.05). Within-group differences of ΔE were greatest in HAP_composite groups. EverX_Gradia and EverX_FiltekZ250 combinations showed the most comparable ΔE with the control groups. A 2mm thick layer of composite covering dentin restoratives with unfavorable esthetics is recommended for a final 'sandwich' restoration that is esthetically comparable to a conventional, mono-composite control restoration. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vegetation recovery in slash-pile scars following conifer removal in a grassland-restoration experiment

    Charles B. Halpern; Joseph A. Antos; Liam M. Beckman

    2014-01-01

    A principal challenge to restoring tree-invaded grasslands is the removal of woody biomass. Burning of slash piles to reduce woody residues from forest restoration practices generates intense, prolonged heating, with adverse effects on soils and vegetation. In this study, we examined vegetation responses to pile burning following tree removal from conifer-invaded...

  16. Collaborative restoration effects on forest structure in ponderosa pine-dominated forests of Colorado

    Jeffery B. Cannon; Kevin J. Barrett; Benjamin M. Gannon; Robert N. Addington; Mike A. Battaglia; Paula J. Fornwalt; Gregory H. Aplet; Antony S. Cheng; Jeffrey L. Underhill; Jennifer S. Briggs; Peter M. Brown

    2018-01-01

    In response to large, severe wildfires in historically fire-adapted forests in the western US, policy initiatives, such as the USDA Forest Service’s Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program (CFLRP), seek to increase the pace and scale of ecological restoration. One required component of this program is collaborative adaptive management, in which monitoring...

  17. The Fairness Committee: Restorative Justice in a Small Urban Public High School

    Hantzopoulos, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Rather than creating safer schools, punitive policies--such as zero-tolerance discipline policies--appear only to have created hostile learning environments. In response, many advocacy organizations have urged schools to adopt a human rights framework, including restorative practices. Schools with restorative approaches have noted dramatic…

  18. Modern comprehensive approach to monitor the morphodynamic evolution of restored river corridors

    Pasquale, N; Perona, P; Schneider, P.; Shrestha, J.; Wombacher, Andreas; Burlando, P

    2011-01-01

    River restoration has become a common measure to repair anthropogenically-induced alteration of fluvial ecosystems. The inherent complexity of ecohydrologic systems leads to limitations in understanding the response of such systems to restoration over time. Therefore, a significant effort has been

  19. The Soil Program of the Restoration Seedbank Initiative: addressing knowledge gaps in degraded soils for use in dryland restoration

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Bateman, Amber; Erickson, Todd E.; Turner, Shane; Merritt, David J.

    2017-04-01

    (i) the determination of ecophysiological indicators influencing drought responses of arid native plants in reconstructed soils (Bateman et al, 2016), ii) the analysis of the influence of climate and edaphic factors in the recruitment of arid zone seedlings (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016a) and (ii) the evaluation of soil physicochemical and microbiological indicators to assess functionality of restored soils in degraded semiarid ecosystems (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016b). Here, we summarize our latest results in the soil program of the RSB, and propose recommendations for integrating soil science in cost-effective landscape-scale restoration practices in ecosystems worldwide. References Bateman A, Lewandrowski W, Stevens J, Muñoz-Rojas M (2016b) Ecophysiological indicators to assess drought responses of arid zone native seedlings in reconstructed soils. Land Degradation & Development, in press, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2660. Kildisheva OA, Erickson TE, Merritt DJ, Dixon KW (2016), Setting the scene for dryland recovery: an overview and key findings from a workshop targeting seed-based restoration. Restoration Ecology 24, S36-S42. Muñoz-Rojas M, Erickson TE, Dixon KW, Merritt DJ (2016) Soil quality indicators to assess functionality of restored soils in degraded semiarid ecosystems. Restoration Ecology 24, S43-S52. DOI: 10.1111/rec.12368 Muñoz-Rojas M, Erickson TE, Martini DC, Dixon KW, Merritt DJ (2016a) Climate and soil factors influencing seedling recruitment of plant species used for dryland restoration. SOIL 2, 287-298. DOI: 10.5194/soil-2016-25

  20. Changes in habitat availability for outmigrating juvenile salmon (Oncorhychus spp.) following estuary restoration

    Ellings, Christopher S.; Davis, Melanie; Grossman, Eric E.; Hodgson, Sayre; Turner, Kelley L.; Woo PR, Isa; Nakai, Glynnis; Takekawa, Jean E.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    The restoration of the Nisqually River Delta (Washington, U.S.A.) represents one of the largest efforts toward reestablishing the ecosystem function and resilience of modified habitat in the Puget Sound, particularly for anadromous salmonid species. The opportunity for outmigrating salmon to access and benefit from the expansion of available tidal habitat can be quantified by several physical attributes, which are related to the ecological and physiological responses of juvenile salmon. We monitored a variety of physical parameters to measure changes in opportunity potential from historic, pre-restoration, and post-restoration habitat conditions at several sites across the delta. These parameters included channel morphology, water quality, tidal elevation, and landscape connectivity. We conducted fish catch surveys across the delta to determine if salmon was utilizing restored estuary habitat. Overall major channel area increased 42% and major channel length increased 131% from pre- to post-restoration conditions. Furthermore, the results of our tidal inundation model indicated that major channels were accessible up to 75% of the time, as opposed to 30% pre-restoration. Outmigrating salmon utilized this newly accessible habitat as quickly as 1 year post-restoration. The presence of salmon in restored tidal channels confirmed rapid post-restoration increases in opportunity potential on the delta despite habitat quality differences between restored and reference sites.