WorldWideScience

Sample records for restoration study number

  1. Implementation Of Law Number 11 Of 2012 Concerning Child Related Criminal Justice System Concept Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Karangan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine how the application of the concept of restorative justice in accordance with Law No. 11 of 2012 on Child Criminal Justice system. This study uses normative namely a study that discusses the problem based on the literature and legislation relating to the matter to be investigated. Law No. 11 of 2012 on the Criminal Justice System Child has provided a new concept in the criminal justice system, especially those in the juvenile justice system. Related to the concept of Restorative Justice or restorative justice is a resolution processes involving perpetrators, victims, families, and other relevant parties in a criminal act, jointly seek solutions to the offense and its implications by emphasizing restoration and not retribution

  2. A Systematic Study of Zerbar Lake Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Reza; Oveis Torabi, Seyed; Forman Asgharzadeh, Deonna

    2017-04-01

    The beautiful lake of Zerbar, located near Marivan City at the west of Iran, is a freshwater lake with an area of 20 km2 and average depth of 5 meters. The lake is created by regional tectonic activities and is mainly fed with natural spring water from bottom. During the past three decades, regional development has caused much disturbance to the natural environment of the lake and its watershed. Rescuing the lake is crucial to the sustainability of the whole region. The study of Zerbar Restoration was performed with the aim to restore its health indicators. Variety of human activities in the watershed, as well as the multidisciplinary nature of lake restoration studies, made it necessary to develop a systematic approach to conduct the study. In Step I of restoration studies, satellite images were investigated to identify the historical changes of watershed during the past 30 years. Meanwhile, documents since 50 years ago were studied. Results indicate that farmland and graze land areas have been relatively constant during the past 50 years. Also, the area of lake, its riparian canes and floating plants have not changed much. In fact, the only significant land use change observed was the significant spread of Marivan City that has stretched toward the lake. The main physical variation to the lake has been elevating the southern edge of the lake by a constructing a landfill dam which was done to control the lake's overflow discharge for irrigation of downstream farmland development. Step II consists of studies performed by disciplines of water resources, hydrogeology, water quality, wetland and watershed ecology, agriculture, animal farming and fishery. Study results indicate that eutrophication (TSL>100), mainly caused by sewage from Marivan City and the surrounding rural areas has been the main reason for lake ecosystem degradation. DPSIR framework, as a novel approach in lake restoration, was applied to synthesize the study results of different disciplines in a

  3. Clinical studies in restorative dentistry: New directions and new demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdam, N J M; Collares, K; Hickel, R; Bayne, S C; Loomans, B A; Cenci, M S; Lynch, C D; Correa, M B; Demarco, F; Schwendicke, F; Wilson, N H F

    2018-01-01

    Clinical research of restorative materials is confounded by problems of study designs, length of trials, type of information collected, and costs for trials, despite increasing numbers and considerable development of trials during the past 50 years. This opinion paper aims to discuss advantages and disadvantages of different study designs and outcomes for evaluating survival of dental restorations and to make recommendations for future study designs. Advantages and disadvantages of randomized trials, prospective and retrospective longitudinal studies, practice-based, pragmatic and cohort studies are addressed and discussed. The recommendations of the paper are that clinical trials should have rational control groups, include confounders such as patient risk factors in the data and analysis and should use outcome parameters relevant for profession and patients. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Criminal Justice System of Children in The Law Number 11 of 2012 (Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansori Ansori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of the children will determine the future of the nation. The increasing problem of juvenile delinquency in this globalization and information technology era, requires the state to give more attention to the child's future. Application of the criminal justice system for children in Indonesia is as stipulated in Law Number 3 of 1997 potentially detrimental to the child's interests. In practice, the judicial system had many problems, among them is a violation of the rights of children, such as: physical and psychological violence, as well as deprivation of the right to education and welfare. It happened because the juvenile justice system is against to national and international regulations on the protection of children’s rights. Besides that, theory of punishment for the juvenile delinquency still refers to the concept of retribution for the crimes. This concept is not very useful for the development of the child, so the concept need to be repaired with the concept of restorative justice. With this concept, the criminal justice system for the juvenile delinquency, leads to the restoration of the state and the settlement pattern, involving the perpetrator, the victim, their families and engage with the community. This is done with consideration for the protection of children against the law. Whereas in line with this spirit of the restorative justice, it gives birth to the Law No. 11 of 2012 on The Criminal Justice System of Children. How To Cite: Ansori, A. (2014. Criminal Justice System of Children in The Law Number 11 of 2012 (Restorative Justice. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 11-26. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.95

  5. Ecosystem Management and Restoration. Overview of Stream Restoration Technology: State of the Science. EMRRP, Volume 2, Number 3

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fischenich, J

    1999-01-01

    The Ecosystem Management and Restoration Research Program (EMRRP), established in 1997, provides state-of-the-science techniques for prediction and analysis of environmental impacts of Corps projects and activities...

  6. Survival Rates from Fracture of Endodontically Treated Premolars Restored with Full-coverage Crowns or Direct Resin Composite Restorations: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksaphar, Warattama; Banomyong, Danuchit; Jirathanyanatt, Titalee; Ngoenwiwatkul, Yaowaluk

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the survival rates against fracture of premolar endodontically treated teeth (ETT) restored with resin composite or crowns and to identify risk factors associated with the fracture. Data from dental records and radiographs of premolar ETT with postendodontic restorations (ie, resin composite or crowns) were collected between 2012 and 2016 and selected following selected inclusion and exclusion criteria. Tooth location, type of restoration, number of proximal contacts, and amount of tooth surface loss were recorded. The incidence and restorability of postendodontic fractures were identified. Survival rates against fracture of the 2 restoration types were calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Any potential factors associated with fractures were identified using Cox proportional hazards models. The survival rate against fracture of ETT restored with crowns (95.1%) was higher than resin composite (77.0%). ETT restored with resin composite with 1 or 2 tooth surface losses and 2 proximal contacts had a high survival rate of 88.5% that was not significantly different from ETT with crowns. A higher incidence of restorability after fracture was observed in teeth restored with resin composite than crowns. The type of restoration and number of proximal contacts were identified as potential risk factors associated with fracture incidence. The survival rate against fracture of ETT restored with crowns was higher than resin composite. However, ETT with 1 or 2 tooth surface losses and 2 proximal contacts and restored with resin composite showed a high survival rate that was comparable with ETT restored with crowns. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Thom, Ronald M.; Fuller, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (< 5 ppt) at flood tide. Potential implications of predicted changes in salinity and flow dynamics are discussed relative to the distribution of tidal marsh habitat.

  8. Implications of a valuation study for ecological and social indicators associated with Everglades restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeteram, Nadia A; Engel, Victor; Mozumder, Pallab

    2018-06-15

    The Everglades of south Florida, although degraded, imparts vital ecosystem benefits, including contributions to high quality drinking water supplies and habitat for a number of threatened and endangered species. Restoration of the Everglades can improve the provision of these benefits but also may impose tradeoffs with competing societal demands. This study focuses on understanding public preferences for Everglades restoration and estimating the willingness to pay (WTP) values for restored ecosystem services (ES) through the implementation of a discrete choice experiment (DCE). We collected data from 2302 respondents from the general public from an online survey designed to elicit WTP values for selected ecological and social attributes associated with Everglades restoration scenarios. We compare the findings to results from earlier studies (Milon et al., 1999; Milon and Scrogin, 2005), which also estimated WTP values among Floridians for Everglades restoration. For some attributes, WTP for Everglades restoration appears to have slightly increased while for others WTP appears to have decreased. We estimated statewide aggregate WTP values for components of species population restoration up to $2B over 10 years. Several factors impeded a direct comparison of current and historical WTP values, including time elapsed, different samples and sampling methods- which may have implications for integrating ecosystem service valuation studies into water management decisions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of functional restoration versus 3 hours per week physical therapy: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Nathalie; Fanello, Serge; Bontoux, Luc; Dubus, Valérie; Billabert, Colette; Vielle, Bruno; Roquelaure, Yves; Penneau-Fontbonne, Dominique; Richard, Isabelle

    2004-03-01

    Randomized parallel-group comparative trial with a 6-month follow-up period. To compare, in chronic low back pain patients, the effectiveness of a functional restoration program, including intensive physical training, occupational therapy, and psychological support to an active individual therapy consisting of 3 hours physical therapy per week during 5 weeks. Controlled studies conducted in the United States showed a benefit of functional restoration in patients with low back pain, especially on return to work. Randomized Canadian and European trials had less favorable results. In France, there has been up to now no randomized study. Controlled studies suggested a positive effect of functional restoration programs. Eighty-six patients with low back pain were randomized to either the functional restoration (44 patients) or the active individual therapy (42 patients) program. One person in each group never started the program. Two patients did not complete the functional restoration program, and one was lost to follow-up at 6 months. The mean number of sick-leave days in the 2 previous years was 6 months. After adjustment on the variable "workplace enrolled in an ergonomic program", the mean number of sick-leave days was significantly lower in the functional restoration group. Physical criteria and treatment appreciation were also better. There was no significant difference in the intensity of pain, the quality of life and functional indexes, the psychological characteristics, the number of contacts with the medical system, and the drug intake. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of a functional restoration program on important outcome measures, such as sick leave, in a country that has a social system that protects people facing difficulties at work.

  10. Measures to restore metallurgical mine wasteland using ecological restoration technologies: A case study at Longnan Rare Earth Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yunzhang; Gu, Ruizhi; Guo, Ruikai; Zhang, Xueyan

    2017-01-01

    Whereas mining activities produce the raw materials that are crucial to economic growth, such activities leave extensive scarring on the land, contributing to the waste of valuable land resources and upsetting the ecological environment. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate various ecological technologies to restore metallurgical mine wastelands. These technologies include measures such as soil amelioration, vegetation restoration, different vegetation planting patterns, and engineering technologies. The Longnan Rare Earth Mine in the Jiangxi Province of China is used as the case study. The ecological restoration process provides a favourable reference for the restoration of a metallurgical mine wasteland.

  11. Mount St. Helens Ecosystem Restoration General Reevaluation Study Reconnaissance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    reproduction observed in impacted streams was attributed to temporary groundwater upwelling. Adult salmon and steelhead that returned to the Toutle River...to 33.5% in 1982. Survival of eggs to hatching stage in volcanic substrate ranged from 50% to 95%. Successful reproduction observed in...areas with native conifers . Look for opportunities to enhance or restore off-channel rearing habitat. 84 A number of habitat constraints still

  12. Lower Columbia River and Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program Reference Site Study: 2011 Restoration Analysis - FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borde, Amy B.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Sagar, Jina; Buenau, Kate E.; Corbett, C.

    2012-05-31

    The Reference Site (RS) study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District [USACE], and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinions (BiOp). While the RS study was initiated in 2007, data have been collected at relatively undisturbed reference wetland sites in the LCRE by PNNL and collaborators since 2005. These data on habitat structural metrics were previously summarized to provide baseline characterization of 51 wetlands throughout the estuarine and tidal freshwater portions of the 235-km LCRE; however, further analysis of these data has been limited. Therefore, in 2011, we conducted additional analyses of existing field data previously collected for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP) - including data collected by PNNL and others - to help inform the multi-agency restoration planning and ecosystem management work underway in the LCRE.

  13. The influence of poly(acrylic) acid number average molecular weight and concentration in solution on the compressive fracture strength and modulus of a glass-ionomer restorative.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dowling, Adam H

    2011-06-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of number average molecular weight and concentration of the poly(acrylic) acid (PAA) liquid constituent of a GI restorative on the compressive fracture strength (σ) and modulus (E).

  14. The Frari bell tower in Venice: study and restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Cavaggioni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary study, project and restoration process of the bell tower of the Frari church in Venice is an exemplary case of intervention on a historic building. This intervention started within depth research into the documentary data along with a detailed study of the material fabric which has made it possible to compare the verisimilitude and gaps in the historic sources, the evolution of the building, its built reality and the effects of the repair works carried out in the past at the same time as the damages in the fabric were monitored. Thanks to the knowledge thus gleaned, the restoration works proceeded with great caution in order to respect the material history of the building and short and long-term structural compatibility.

  15. Analysis of factors affecting failure of glass cermet tunnel restorations in a multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilebro, C E; van Dijken, J W

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze factors influencing the failures of tunnel restorations performed with a glass cermet cement (Ketac Silver). Caries activity, lesion size, tunnel cavity opening size, partial or total tunnel, composite lamination or operating time showed no significant correlation to failure rate. Twelve dentists in eight clinics clinically experienced and familiar with the tunnel technique placed 374 restorations. The occlusal sections of fifty percent of the restorations were laminated with hybrid resin composite. The results of the yearly clinical and radiographic evaluations over the course of 3 years were correlated to factors that could influence the failure rate using logistic regression analysis. At the 3-year recall a cumulative number of 305 restorations were available. The cumulative replacement rate was 20%. The main reasons for replacement were marginal ridge fracture (14%) and dentin caries (3%). Another 7% of the restorations which had not been replaced were classified as failures because of untreated dentin caries. The only significant variable observed was the individual failure rate of the participating dentists varying between 9 and 50% (p=0.013).

  16. Genotoxic effects of silver amalgam and composite restorations: Micronuclei-Based cohort and case–control study in oral exfoliated cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jeslin Mary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A huge number of people carry dental fillings which contain either mercury-based amalgam and/or the recently introduced methacrylate-based resins. It has been shown that both these materials are known to be leached into the oral cavity and induce genotoxic alterations in the buccal mucosal cells. Because of its low cost and ease of manipulation, dental amalgam is still widely used as a restorative material in developing countries. The health risks associated with the components of this restorative material has always been a matter of concern. The present study was designed to assess the frequency of micronuclei (MN in oral mucosal cells as it is a promising tool for studying the genotoxic effect of clastogenic agents on them. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the genotoxic effects of silver amalgam and composite restorations by measuring the mean number of MN in oral exfoliated cells. Materials and Methods: The present study was a prospective cohort study which includes a study group consisting of 110 participants. The study sample was equally divided into 55 participants requiring only amalgam restoration and 55 participants requiring only composite restoration in any permanent molar teeth. The same participants before the restoration formed the control group. Smears were obtained from each patient before and 10 days after restoration and were stained with DNA-specific Feulgen stain. The number of cells containing MN out of 500 cells were counted and recorded. After the evaluation of the slides, the results were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant (P < 0.01 variation in the mean number of MN after the restoration in both amalgam (5.41 ± 1.25 and composite (2.83 ± 0.85 restorations when compared to before the restoration. However, the mean number of MN in composite restoration was significantly less when compared to amalgam restoration. There was also a statistically

  17. Restoring effective sleep tranquility (REST): A feasibility and pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakman, Aaron M; Schmid, Arlene A; Henry, Kimberly L; Rolle, Natalie R; Schelly, Catherine; Pott, Christine E; Burns, Joshua E

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to establish the feasibility of completing a future controlled trial of a multi-component cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia program for military veterans with sleep disturbance. This was a single-arm feasibility and pilot study. Participants were United States post-9/11 veterans with service-connected injuries, university students, and had self-reported sleep disturbances. Restoring Effective Sleep Tranquility was a multi-component cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia intervention consisting of seven sessions of group therapy and eight 1:1 sessions delivered by occupational therapists. Feasibility and pilot indicators were process, resources, management, and scientific, including pre-post-assessments of sleep difficulties, dysfunctional sleep beliefs, participation, and pain interference. Indicators were supportive of feasibility, including reduced sleep difficulties (for example Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Measure [ t  = 3.29, p  = .02]), reduced nightmares: t  = 2.79, p  = .03; fewer dysfunctional sleep beliefs: t  = 3.63, p  = .01, and greater ability to participate in social roles: t  = -2.86, p  = .03, along with trends towards improved satisfaction with participation and reduced pain interference. The Restoring Effective Sleep Tranquility program may reduce sleep difficulties and improve participation in US veterans with service-connected injuries, and evidence indicates a controlled trial would be feasible to deliver.

  18. Language and number: a bilingual training study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelke, E S; Tsivkin, S

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of a specific language in human representations of number. Russian-English bilingual college students were taught new numerical operations (Experiment 1), new arithmetic equations (Experiments 1 and 2), or new geographical or historical facts involving numerical or non-numerical information (Experiment 3). After learning a set of items in each of their two languages, subjects were tested for knowledge of those items, and new items, in both languages. In all the studies, subjects retrieved information about exact numbers more effectively in the language of training, and they solved trained problems more effectively than untrained problems. In contrast, subjects retrieved information about approximate numbers and non-numerical facts with equal efficiency in their two languages, and their training on approximate number facts generalized to new facts of the same type. These findings suggest that a specific, natural language contributes to the representation of large, exact numbers but not to the approximate number representations that humans share with other mammals. Language appears to play a role in learning about exact numbers in a variety of contexts, a finding with implications for practice in bilingual education. The findings prompt more general speculations about the role of language in the development of specifically human cognitive abilities.

  19. Restoration of Movement using FES: An Introductory Study I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M.; Huq, M. S.; Ibrahim, B. S. K. K.

    2018-03-01

    FES has been applied for movement restoration, rehabilitation and therapy in spinal cord injury and nervous system failure subjects, whose number rise worldwide every year. Despite the increase, assist devices that are expected to aid healthcare delivery are not in abundance and could be as a result of standards imposed due to the sensitive condition of the subjects. Although closed loop control systems are expected to positively aid in that regards, the delicacy of the plant was a big constraint. An existing model from the works Ferrarin and Pedotti was elaborated from the knee swinging to the sit-to-stand movements and from the two mathematical models it can be inferred that even though similar higher level of excitation would be required for sit-to-stand manoeuvre. As part of research to improve on closed approach for the FES system, an appraisal was successfully done on the neuromuscular model together with fatigue models from the works on Lynch. The remodelled fatigue models to suit the research were presented.

  20. Weaver Bottoms Wildlife Habitat Restoration: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Mary M; Damberg, Carol

    1994-01-01

    .... The Weaver Bottoms Rehabilitation Project is a large scale wetland restoration project that is directed at regaining lost habitat by creating hydrological and energy conditions conducive to marsh growth and production. Davis et al. (1993...

  1. A study of dentists’ preferences for the restoration of shortened dental arches with partial dentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria; Ibraheem, Shukran; Al-Hallak, Khaled Rateb; Ali El Khalifa, Mohammed Othman; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to use a utility method in order to assess dentists’ preferences for the restoration of shortened dental arches (SDAs) with partial dentures. Also, the impact of patient age and length of the SDA on dentists’ preferences for the partial dentures was investigated. Materials and Methods: Totally, 104 subjects holding a basic degree in dentistry and working as staff members in a private dental college in Saudi Arabia were interviewed and presented with 12 scenarios for patients of different ages and mandibular SDAs of varying length. Participants were asked to indicate on a standardized visual analog scale how they would value the health of the patient's mouth if the mandibular SDAs were restored with cobalt-chromium removable partial dentures (RPDs). Results: With a utility value of 0.0 representing the worst possible health state for a mouth and 1.0 representing the best, dentists’ average utility value of the RPD for the SDAs was 0.49 (sd= 0.15). Mean utility scores of the RPDs across the 12 SDA scenarios ranged between 0.35 and 0.61. RPDs that restored the extremely SDAs attracted the highest utility values and dentists’ utility of the RPD significantly increased with the increase in the number of missing posterior teeth. No significant differences in dentists’ mean utility values for the RPD were identified among SDA scenarios for patients of different ages. Conclusion: Restoration of the mandibular SDAs by RPDs is not a highly preferred treatment option among the surveyed group of dentists. Length of the SDA affects dentists’ preferences for the RPD, but patient age does not. PMID:26038647

  2. Clinical study of the marginal microfiltration in restorations with amalgam applying sealant cavitario

    OpenAIRE

    Lahoud Salem, Víctor; Mendoza Zapata, Janet; Vidal Goñi, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    The present study to evaluate the clinical evaluation, marginal leakage of 30 amalgams restorations with sealers cavity and 30 amalgams restorations not sealers cavity. After of 12 months observation in amalgams restorations with sealers cavity 100% success in marginal leakage and not presents of secondary caries, not to have presents clinical cases of sensitivity post-operative and pulp inflammation. El presente estudio consistió en evaluar clínicamente la microfiltración marginal en 30 r...

  3. Occlusal glass ionomer cermet, resin sandwich and amalgam restorations: a 2-year clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidums, A; Wilkie, R; Smales, R

    1993-08-01

    This study compared the clinical behavior of a glass ionomer silver cermet (Ketac-Silver), a posterior resin composite (Visio-Molar) used with the "sandwich" technique, and a high-copper amalgam (Dispersalloy) for restoring conventional Class I occlusal cavity preparations. Two dentists placed 116 restorations in the posterior permanent teeth of 35 adults treated at a dental hospital. Restorations were assessed at 6-month intervals over 2 years for bulk loss of material and occlusal wear, surface voids, roughness and cracking, surface and marginal staining, and marginal fracture. Losses of material and surface voids were obvious with the cermet material, with surface crazing or cracking being present in 33% of the restorations. The cermet cannot be recommended as a long-term permanent restorative material if the restorations are likely to be subjected to heavy occlusal stresses and abrasive wear.

  4. Comparative study of image restoration techniques in forensic image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijhold, Jurrien; Kuijper, Arjan; Westhuis, Jaap-Harm

    1997-02-01

    In this work we investigated the forensic applicability of some state-of-the-art image restoration techniques for digitized video-images and photographs: classical Wiener filtering, constrained maximum entropy, and some variants of constrained minimum total variation. Basic concepts and experimental results are discussed. Because all methods appeared to produce different results, a discussion is given of which method is the most suitable, depending on the image objects that are questioned, prior knowledge and type of blur and noise. Constrained minimum total variation methods produced the best results for test images with simulated noise and blur. In cases where images are the most substantial part of the evidence, constrained maximum entropy might be more suitable, because its theoretical basis predicts a restoration result that shows the most likely pixel values, given all the prior knowledge used during restoration.

  5. Environmental Restoration/Waste Management - applied technology. Semiannual report, July 1992--June 1993, Volume 1, Number 2, and Volume 2, Number 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.W.; Bruner, J.M.; Price, M.E.; Talaber, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Restoration/Waste Management-Applied Technology (ER/WM-AT) Program is developing restoration and waste treatment technologies needed for the ongoing environmental cleanup of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and treatment technologies for wastes generated in the nuclear weapons production complex. These technologies can find application to similar problems nationally and even worldwide. They can be demonstrated at the Livermore site, which mirrors (on a small scale) many of the environmental and waste management problems of the rest of the DOE complex. Their commercialization should speed cleanup, and the scope of the task should make it attractive to US industry. The articles in this semi-annual report cover the following areas: ceramic final forms for residues of mixed waste treatment; treatment of wastes containing sodium nitrate; actinide volatility in thermal oxidation processes; in situ microbial filters for remediating contaminated soils; collaboration with scientists in the former Soviet Union on new ER/WM technologies; and fiber-optic sensors for chlorinated organic solvents

  6. Influence of restoration adjustments on prefrontal blood flow: A simplified NIRS preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaguri, Kenichi; Otsuka, Takero; Tsunashima, Hiroyuki; Shimazaki, Tateshi; Kubo, Kin-Ya; Onozuka, Minoru

    The aim of this study was to examine, after setting several restorations, the influence of adjusted occlusal interference during gum chewing on blood flow in the prefrontal area as determined using near-infrared spectroscopy. The physiological rate was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaire. We selected 16 patients who desired prosthetic restorative treatment on the lateral dentition, and eight healthy volunteers. Subjects were divided into three eight-person groups. One group received restorations on the premolar area (PA), another group received restorations on the molar area (MA), and the control group (CT) received no prosthetic restorations. The spectroscope was fastened to the frontal region of the head after placement of the final restoration, but before adjustment. Pre-adjustment (first gum chewing for CT) blood flow in the prefrontal cortex was measured during gum chewing. Blood flow was again measured during gum chewing after the restoration (second gum chewing for CT) had been adjusted in accordance with the subjective assessment of the patient while wearing the device. The VAS provided quantification of comfort during gum chewing before and after restoration adjustment. For the PA and MA groups, adjusting restorations decreased discomfort significantly during gum chewing. Moreover, in the MA group, prefrontal blood flow was significantly reduced, and blood flow correlated with discomfort. Activation of the prefrontal area may provide an objective criterion for judging the functionality of occlusion after prosthetic occlusal reconstruction and/or orthodontics.

  7. Teatro zandonai in Rovereto, Italy: a case study for restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pompoli, Roberto; Prodi, Nicola; Ortega, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Early in 2002 the Municipality of Rovereto, North Italy, planned the theatre restoration works, which were ended in success by reopening of the theatre on October 18th 2014 with the 9th Beethoven Symphony. The most important interventions regarded the raising of the stage tower by 5 m, the revision...

  8. Effect of restoration volume on stresses in a mandibular molar: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Jennifer S; Chande, Ruchi; Porter, H Christian; Janus, Charles

    2014-10-01

    There can be significant disagreement among dentists when planning treatment for a tooth with a failing medium-to-large--sized restoration. The clinician must determine whether the restoration should be replaced or treated with a crown, which covers and protects the remaining weakened tooth structure during function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stresses generated in different sized amalgam restorations via a computational modeling approach and reveal whether a predictable pattern emerges. A computer tomography scan was performed of an extracted mandibular first molar, and the resulting images were imported into a medical imaging software package for tissue segmentation. The software was used to separate the enamel, dentin, and pulp cavity through density thresholding and surface rendering. These tissue structures then were imported into 3-dimensional computer-aided design software in which material properties appropriate to the tissues in the model were assigned. A static finite element analysis was conducted to investigate the stresses that result from normal occlusal forces. Five models were analyzed, 1 with no restoration and 4 with increasingly larger restoration volume proportions: a normal-sized tooth, a small-sized restoration, 2 medium-sized restorations, and 1 large restoration as determined from bitewing radiographs and occlusal surface digital photographs. The resulting von Mises stresses for dentin-enamel of the loaded portion of the tooth grew progressively greater as the size of the restoration increased. The average stress in the normal, unrestored tooth was 4.13 MPa, whereas the smallest restoration size increased this stress to 5.52 MPa. The largest restoration had a dentin-enamel stress of 6.47 MPa. A linear correlation existed between restoration size and dentin-enamel stress, with an R(2) of 0.97. A larger restoration volume proportion resulted in higher dentin-enamel stresses under static loading. A comparison of the von Mises

  9. Bruxism in prospective studies of veneered zirconia restorations-a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter, Marc; Boemicke, Wolfgang; Stober, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to systematically review the effect of bruxism on the survival of zirconia restorations on teeth and to assess the prevalence of nocturnal masseter muscle activity in a clinical sample. A Medline search was performed independently and in triplicate using the term "zirconia" and activating the filter "clinical trial." Furthermore, three other electronic databases were searched using the same term. Only papers published in English on prospective studies of veneered zirconia frameworks on teeth were included. To estimate the prevalence of sleep bruxism in clinical settings, subjects with no clinical signs of bruxism and who did not report grinding and/or clenching were examined by use of a disposable electromyographic device. The initial search resulted in 107 papers, of which 22 were included in the analysis. Bruxers were excluded in 20 of these articles. In 1 study bruxers were not excluded, and 1 study did not provide information regarding this issue. The methods used to identify bruxers were heterogeneous/not described, and no study used reliable, valid methods. Of 33 subjects without clinical signs of bruxism, nocturnal muscle activity exceeded predefined muscle activity for 63.8% of the subjects. There is a lack of information about the effect of bruxism on the incidence of technical failure of veneered zirconia restorations because all available studies failed to use suitable instruments for diagnosis of bruxism. Nocturnal muscle activity without clinical symptoms/report of bruxism was observed for a relevant number of patients.

  10. Urban forest restoration cost modeling: a Seattle natural areas case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean M. Daniels; Weston Brinkley; Michael D. Paruszkiewicz

    2016-01-01

    Cities have become more committed to ecological restoration and management activities in urban natural areas. Data about costs are needed for better planning and reporting. The objective of this study is to estimate the costs for restoration activities in urban parks and green space in Seattle, Washington. Stewardship activity data were generated from a new database...

  11. How to scientifically assess a restoration project: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.; Freire, D. M.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Vazquez-Calvo, C.

    2012-04-01

    Commonly, it is said that there is lack of communication among scientists, conservators, restorers, project managers and architects. But sometimes this communication flows, and we can find enormous benefits from and for all the participating agents. This is the case we present in this work, in which technical agents in charge of the restoration of a building, asked for some scientific advice to perform the restoration of a heritage building. The results were successful and fantastic for both of them, in terms of one part asking for consultation and the other answering to the demands and resolving real problems. This is the case of a marvellous Renaissance building (Medinaceli Dukes palace, 15th-16th centuries) in the central area of Spain (Cogolludo, Guadalajara). Focused on the restoration project, we were asked for consultancy on how to solve matters like the assessment of the already fixed in project cleaning method for the stone façades, the efficacy and durability methods for some conservation products to be applied, the presence or not of a patina on the stone; the viability of using some restoration mortars, and the origin of some efflorescences that came out just after placed in the building a restoration rendering mortar. Responses to these matters were answered by performing tests both in the lab and on site in the building. The efficiency and effects on stone of the blasting cleaning method was assessed by first analysing the nature and thickness of the surface deposits to be removed (SEM-EDS analyses); secondly, roughness and colour measurements were performed, and thirdly, SEM-EDS analyses were carried out again to determine whether the cleaning method was able to remove part of the surface deposits, completely, or even part of the stone substrate. Some conservation products were tested on stone specimens, both their efficacy and their durability, concluding that it was better not to apply any of them. A patina was found on the stone façade under SEM

  12. Public support for river restoration. A mixed-method study into local residents' support for and framing of river management and ecological restoration in the Dutch floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Arjen E

    2009-06-01

    In many European countries, accommodating water has become the dominant paradigm in river management. In the Netherlands, extensive river restoration projects are being implemented, many of which draw serious opposition from the public. To investigate the causes of such opposition, a comprehensive study of public attitudes towards river restoration was conducted in three floodplains, both before and after river restoration. The study combined quantitative questionnaires (N=562) with open interviews (N=29). This paper describes how local residents perceive the effects of river restoration on landscape quality and how residents and protest groups use landscape quality in combination with other arguments to strategically frame river management policies. Results show that measurement of the perceived outcomes of nature restoration needs to be complemented by a more dynamic type of research, focusing on the social processes of the framing of restoration plans. Theoretically, the paper aims to contribute to the development of a rigorous research strategy to study framing processes in environmental management, using a mixed-methods approach. In general, local residents are supportive of river restoration projects. Although restoration may diminish feelings of attachment to an area, for most people this negative effect is compensated by the positive effects on scenic beauty and perceived protection from flooding. However, these positive effects may become contested because of the active framing of river restoration by protest groups. Residents use three distinct frames to give meaning to river restoration projects: (i) an attachment frame, focusing on cultural heritage and place attachment (ii) an attractive nature frame, focusing on nature as attractive living space and the intrinsic value of nature (iii) a rurality frame, focusing on rural values, agriculture and cultural heritage. Resistance to river restoration plans stems from the attachment and rurality frames

  13. Hydrological science and wetland restoration: some case studies from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world, wetlands are increasingly being recognised as important elements of the landscape because of their high biodiversity and goods and services they provide to mankind. After many decades of wetland destruction and conversion, large areas of wetlands are now protected under the International Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar and regional or national legislation such as the European Union Habitats Directive. In many cases, there is a need to restore the ecological character of the wetland through appropriate water management. This paper provides examples of scientific knowledge of wetland hydrology that can guide such restoration. It focuses on the need for sound hydrological science on a range of issues including water level control, topography, flood storage, wetland connections with rivers and sustainability of water supply under climate change.

  14. Environmental restoration: Integrating hydraulic control of groundwater, innovative contaminant removal technologies and wetlands restoration--A case study at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.M.; Serkiz, S.M.; Adams, J.; Welty, M.

    1992-01-01

    The groundwater remediation program at the F and H Seepage Basins, Savannah River Sits (SRS) is a case study of the integration of various environmental restoration technologies at a single waste site. Hydraulic control measures are being designed to mitigate the discharge of groundwater plumes to surface water. One of the primary constituents of the plumes is tritium. An extraction and reinjection scenario is being designed to keep the tritium in circulation in the shallow groundwater, until it can naturally decay. This will be accomplished by extracting groundwater downgradient of the waste sites, treatment, and reinjection of the tritiated water into the water table upgradient of the basins. Innovative in-situ technologies, including electrolytic migration, are being field tested at the site to augment the pump-treat-reinject system. The in-situ technologies target removal of contaminants which are relatively immobile, yet represent long term risks to human health and the environment. Wetland restoration is an integral part of the F and H remediation program. Both in-situ treatment of the groundwater discharging the wetlands to adjust the pH, and replacement of water loss due to the groundwater extraction program ar being considered. Toxicity studies indicate that drought and the effects of low pH groundwater discharge have been factors in observed tree mortality in wetlands near the waste sites

  15. In vitro Comparative Evaluation of Various Restorative Materials used for restoring Class III Cavities in Deciduous Anterior Teeth: A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyank, Harsh; Verma, Ankita; Gupta, Komal; Chaudhary, Esha; Khandelwal, Deepak; Nihalani, Shweta

    2016-12-01

    Beauty standards in today's modernized world scenario are formed by well-aligned and well-designed bright white teeth. One of the major reasons behind patients reporting to dental clinics is pain. Caries in the anterior primary teeth forms one of the major concerns from a restorative point of view. Very few studies are quoted in literature which stresses on the follow-up of anterior restorations in primary teeth. Hence, we evaluated and compared the efficacy of composite resin and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RGIC) for class III restorations in primary anterior teeth. The present study was conducted in the pediatric dental wing and included a total of 80 patients aged 3 to 5½ years who reported with the chief complaint of carious lesions in the primary anterior teeth. Patients having minimal of a pair of similar appearing small carious lesions on the same proximal surfaces of the deciduous maxillary incisors were included for the study. All the patients were randomly divided into two groups: One in which RGIC restoration was done and other in which composite restoration was done. Cavity preparation was done and filling of the cavity with the restorative materials was carried out. Assessment of the restorations was done at 4, 8, and 12 months time following criteria given by Ryge et al. All the results were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Mann-Whitney test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to evaluate the level of significance; p value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. For composite and RGIC restorations, the mean score for anatomic shape was 1.21 and 1.10 respectively. While comparing the clinical parameters, nonsignificant results were obtained between composite and RGIC restorative materials at 4-, 8-, and 12-month interval. On comparing the clinical parameters for individual restorative materials at different time intervals, statistically significant results were obtained only for

  16. Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2014-06-01

    River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics

  17. Classification system on the selection of number of implants and superstructure design on the basis available vertical restorative space and interforaminal distance for implant supported mandibular overdenture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Bhargava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The rehabilitation of the edentulous mandible is a challenge due to various limiting factors, of which the available vertical restorative space (AVRS has been well understood in the literature. However, other anatomic variations such as arch form, arch size, and also the interforaminal distance (IFD (due to the presence of mandibular nerve are influential in the selection of size and position of implants, and thereby the prosthetic design. Materials and Method: In the present study, 30 edentulous patients from a group of 300 edentulous patients, representing all the three jaw relations (Class I, II, and III were evaluated for designing a classification that could help in a comprehensive treatment plan for the edentulous mandible. Dental panoramic radiographs of each individual with a trial or final prosthesis were made. The horizontal IFD and AVRS values were calculated. Results: One-way analysis of variance followed by post-hoc test (multiple comparison and Bonferroni method having P < 0.05 as significant value showed an overall mean of 38.9 mm for horizontal distance and 13.69 mm for the AVRS in 30 edentulous patients. Conclusion: The results showed that in the majority of cases (90% there is insufficient space to place a bar attachment supported by five implants for mandibular overdentures. This suggests that a universal treatment plan cannot be followed due to varying anatomic factors. Hence, it becomes imperative to have a set of clinical guidelines based on the AVRS and IFD, for the selection of implant number and type of attachment. The article proposes a simple classification system based on the AVRS and IFD for establishing guidelines in the treatment planning of the edentulous mandible, to aid in selection of implant size, number, and position along with the associated prosthetic design.

  18. Immediate restoration of single tapered implants with nonoccluding provisional crowns: a 5-year clinical prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Lisa A; Turkyilmaz, Ilser; Edgin, Wendell A; Verrett, Ronald; Garcia, Lily T

    2014-04-01

    Dental literature has limited number of publications regarding long-term outcome data of immediate restoration of single missing teeth with an implant-supported provisional crown. This 5-year study evaluated hard and soft tissue responses to the immediate placement of single implant-supported provisional crowns. Twenty patients received one dental implant restored immediately with a provisional acrylic resin screw-retained crown. Crestal bone loss was evaluated from standardized periapical radiographs collected at 3-month intervals for the first 21 months followed by a 5-year evaluation. Historical controls acquired from available dental literature were used for comparison. One implant failed within 2 months of surgical placement, presenting with pain and mobility. The remaining implants demonstrated no infection, pain, or radiolucencies. Nineteen implants were clinically immobile, osseointegrated, and asymptomatic at 21 months. At 5 years, one patient died, three patients were noncompliant, and 15 implants were evaluated as functional. Mean bone loss (MBL) at 1 year and 21 months was approximately 0.5 ± 0.5 mm and 0.70 ± 0.26 mm at 5 years. There was no statistically significant difference between MBLs at p provisionalization of single dental implants compares favorably with conventional loading protocols. Long-term data suggest that immediate provisionalization of single dental implants is a viable treatment option. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A Restorative Justice Approach to Empathy Development in Sex Offenders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Christopher P.; Ritchie, Martin; Laux, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe an exploratory study in sex offender treatment using a restorative justice approach to examine the shame, guilt, and empathy development of convicted sexual offenders. Implications for clinical practice and future research are highlighted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  20. Towards Biological Restoration of Tehran Megalopolis River Valleys- Case Study: Farahzad River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Nafishe; Oveis Torabi, Seyed; Akhani, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    Towards biological restoration of Tehran megalopolis river-valleys: case study Farahzad river 1Nafiseh Samadi, 2OveisTorabi, 3Hossein Akhani 1Mahsab Shargh Company, Tehran ,Iran, nafiseh19@gmail.com 2 Mahsab Shargh Company, Tehran ,Iran, weg@tna-co.com 3Department of Plant Sciences, Halophytes and C4 Research Laboratory, School of Biology, College of Sciences, University of Tehran, PO Box 14155-6455, Tehran, Iran, akhani@khayam.ut.ac.ir Tehran is located in northcentral parts of Iran on the alluvium of southern Alborz Mountains. Seven rivers originated from the highlands of N Tehran run inside and around the city. Many of these river valleys have been deformed by a variety of urban utilizations such as garden, building, canal, park, autobahn etc. Tehran with more than eight million populations suffered from adverse environmental conditions such as pollution and scarcity of natural habitats for recreational activities. Ecological restoration of altered river valleys of Tehran is one of the priorities of Tehran municipality started as a pilot project in Farahzad river. Intensive disturbance, conversion into various urban utilization, illegal building construction, waste water release into the river, garbage accumulation, artificial park constructions and domination of invasive species have largely altered the river. Parts of the river located in Pardisan Nature Park was studied before its complete deformation into a modern park. The riparian vegetation consisted of Tamarix ramosissima and Salix acmophylla shrubs with large number of aquatic and palustric plants. The norther parts of the river still contain semi-natural vegetation which change into patchy and intensive degraded habitats towards its southern parts. In northern parts of valley there are old gardens of Morus alba and Juglans regia, and planted trees such as Plataneus oreientalis and Acer negundo. Salix acmophylla, Fraxinus excelsior and Celtis caucasica are native species growing on river margin or

  1. African Studies Abstracts Online : number 53, 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    African Studies Centre Leiden (ASCL),

    2016-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 53 (2016). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  2. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 53, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    African Studies Centre Leiden (ASCL)

    2016-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 53 (2016). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  3. Experiencing Restorative Justice Practices within the Context of an Academic Course--A Phenomenological Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedinsky, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored restorative justice arising in the context of an academic high school course in which students learned restorative justice principles and strategies. Given that the literature provided limited guidance of restorative justice in this context, these novel circumstances presented a unique opportunity for study. The central…

  4. The study on the immunity restoring function of cWPROL in treating experimental radiation esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Li; Shan Baoen; Zhang Li; Lu Fuhe; Guo Xiujuan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the restorative function of compound white peony root oral liquids (cWPROL) in treating rats' experimental acute radiation-induced esophagitis from the aspect of immunodeficiency. Methods: 128 Wistar rats were divided into eight groups. The radiation esophagitis was induced by 43 Gy 60 Co. Then the rats were treated with medicine in different ways. On every experimental point the absolute number and percentage of T lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. The changes of the leukocyte in number and differential count were detected by haemocyte counting instrument. IgG and C3 in rats' serum were analyzed by immunological turbidimetry. Results: Radiation brought on decrease of experimental rats 'leukocyte count, the lymphocyte differential count, absolute count and absolute T lymphocyte subsets in the blood and the content of IgG and C3 with radiation esophagitis. cWPROL could increase the lymphocyte percentage compared that in with the radiated group 2. The preventive (high dose) could increase lymphocyte count while Western medicine decreased rats' leukocyte count, lymphocyte percentage and absolute count (P<0.05). The absolute T lymphocyte subsets in rats' peripheral blood increased in the group infused with cWPROL (high dose) (P<0.001). Compared with the radiated group 2 the absolute T lymphocyte subsets decreased significantly(P<0.001), and the content of complement C3 increased in the group infused with cWPROL (high dose) (P<0.05) but decreased in the group infused with Western medicine (P<0.01). Conclusion: cWPROL plays the role of restoring the cytoimmunity and immunity damaged by radiation in rats with radiation esophagitis. (authors)

  5. Study on monitoring ecological restoration in Jiuli mining area by SAR image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Na; Chen, Fu; Tang, Qian

    2011-10-01

    The ecological restoration in mining area is one of the study hot spots in the field of resources and environment at present. The vegetation biomass is used as the ecological restoration evaluation index in mining area in the paper. The synthetic aperture radar image after ecological restoration in mining area is used to classify different kinds of vegetation covers. Integrating the field data and the data of L band, the average total backward scattering coefficient which corresponds to the synthetic aperture radar image is calculated and the relation model between the average total backward scattering coefficient and vegetation biomass is established. At last the vegetation biomass is assessed in Jiuli mining area. The results show that the vegetation biomass characteristics which are assessed by using synthetic aperture radar image data and the field data of vegetation biomass characteristics have better consistency in Jiuli mining area. The effects of ecological restoration can be evaluated by using this relation model effectively and accurately.

  6. Studies on the restoration succession of PFU microbial communities in a pilot-scale microcosm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian-Guo; Shen, Yun-Fen

    2007-06-01

    In order to imitate the restoration succession process of natural water ecosystem, a laboratory microcosm system of constant-flow-restoration was designed and established. A eutrophycation lake, Lake Donghu, was selected as the subject investigated. Six sampling stations were set on the lake, among which the water of station IV was natural clean water, and others were polluted with different degrees. Polyurethane foam unit microbial communities, which had colonized in the stations for a month, were collected from these stations and placed in their respective microcosms, using clean water of station IV to gradually replace the water of these microcosms. In this process, the healthy community in clean water continuously replaced the damaged communities in polluted water, the restoration succession of the damaged communities was characterized by weekly determination of several functional and structural community parameters, including species number (S), diversity index (DI), community pollution value (CPV), heterotrophy index (HI), and similarity coefficient. Cluster analysis based on similarity coefficient was used to compare the succession discrepancies of these microbial communities from different stations. The ecological succession of microbial communities during restoration was investigated by the variable patterns of these parameters, and based on which, the restoration standards of these polluted stations were suggested in an ecological sense. That was, while being restored, the water of station 0 (supereutrophycation) should be substituted with natural clean water by 95%; station I (eutrophycation), more than 90%; station II (eutrophycation), more than 85%; station III (eutrophycation), about 85%; station V (mesoeutrophycation), less than 50%. The effects of the structural and functional parameters in monitoring and assessing ecological restoration are analyzed and compared.

  7. Authenticity and Restoration: The Benefits of Historical Studies on Re-Examining the Implemented Restorations in Persepolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Motamedmanesh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Preserving the authenticity of historical monuments is an inseparable part of restoration activities that has always been asserted by the international principles of historical preservation. However, the local condition of historical sites may influence such a primitive intention of restorers. While historical documents are appropriate sources which can provide restorers with the real condition of ancient structures in the course of time, investigation through these precious materials is a time-consuming process and the reliability of these old evidences is, itself, a challenging issue. The Italian Institute for Middle and Far East (IsMEO missioned long-term restoration activities in Persepolis between 1964 and the Islamic Revolution in Iran. Generally, this institute is praised for this series of projects. In this paper, the author questions the historical authenticity of restoration activities missioned by this institute in a structure so-called The Gate of All Nations. Indeed, the restoration of this structure was influenced by the 2500th anniversary of the Persian Empire, which was held in Persepolis in 1971. By tracing the context of historical evidences and presenting a method for obtaining the authenticity of these documents, this paper demonstrates a new perspective towards the arrangement of a stone-made capital, which ornaments the uppermost part of a re-erected ancient column.

  8. Spectrophotometric Evaluation of the Pulpal Peroxide Levels in Intact and Restored Teeth - An Invitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patri, Gaurav; Acharya, Gourismita; Agrawal, Pratik; Panda, Vijeta

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (30%) is a commonly used "in office" bleaching agent. Deleterious effects of hydrogen peroxide on the pulp have been observed. The present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the penetration of 30% hydrogen peroxide into the pulp chamber through intact teeth and through the surface of teeth, restored with either hybrid composite or Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC). Sixty extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided into six groups. Two groups were restored with hybrid composite resin and two with RMGIC, while two groups were left intact. The teeth with acetate buffer solution in their pulp cavity were then immersed in either 30% hydrogen peroxide or distilled water depending upon the group, for 60 minutes at 37°C. Then horseradish peroxidase and leucocrystal violet were added to the acetate buffer solution present in the pulp chamber after it was transferred to a test tube and the optical density of the resultant blue solution obtained was measured spectrophotometrically. The data obtained were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Student's t-test. The data obtained established that hydrogen peroxide penetrated into the pulp from the bleaching agent used. Hydrogen peroxide (30%) showed the highest pulpal peroxide level in teeth restored with RMGIC followed by teeth restored with hybrid composite resin and the least amount of penetration was observed in intact teeth. The amount of peroxide penetration into the tooth is more through restored tooth than intact tooth and is also dependant on the type of restorative materials used.

  9. "In Situ Vascular Nerve Graft" for Restoration of Intrinsic Hand Function: An Anatomical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Kamran; Zemoodeh, Hamid Reza; Zarenezhad, Mohammad; Owji, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    In combined high median and ulnar nerve injury, transfer of the posterior interosseous nerve branches to the motor branch of the ulnar nerve (MUN) is previously described in order to restore intrinsic hand function. In this operation a segment of sural nerve graft is required to close the gap between the donor and recipient nerves. However the thenar muscles are not innervated by this nerve transfer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the superficial radial nerve (SRN) can be used as an "in situ vascular nerve graft" to connect the donor nerves to the MUN and the motor branch of median nerve (MMN) at the same time in order to address all denervated intrinsic and thenar muscles. Twenty fresh male cadavers were dissected in order to evaluate the feasibility of this modification of technique. The size of nerve branches, the number of axons and the tension at repair site were evaluated. This nerve transfer was technically feasible in all specimens. There was no significant size mismatch between the donor and recipient nerves Conclusions: The possible advantages of this modification include innervation of both median and ulnar nerve innervated intrinsic muscles, preservation of vascularity of the nerve graft which might accelerate the nerve regeneration, avoidance of leg incision and therefore the possibility of performing surgery under regional instead of general anesthesia. Briefly, this novel technique is a viable option which can be used instead of conventional nerve graft in some brachial plexus or combined high median and ulnar nerve injuries when restoration of intrinsic hand function by transfer of posterior interosseous nerve branches is attempted.

  10. Hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  11. Evaluation of dental restorations: a comparative study between clinical and digital photographic assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, G; Silva, F; Angel, P; Oliveira, O B; Fresno, M C; Cisternas, P; Fernandez, E; Estay, J; Martin, J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a direct clinical evaluation method with an indirect digital photographic method in assessing the quality of dental restorations. Seven parameters (color, occlusal marginal adaptation, anatomy form, roughness, occlusal marginal stain, luster, and secondary caries) were assessed in 89 Class I and Class II restorations from 36 adults using the modified US Public Health Service/Ryge criteria. Standardized photographs of the same restorations were digitally processed by Adobe Photoshop software, separated into the following four groups and assessed by two calibrated examiners: Group A: The original photograph displayed at 100%, without modifications (IMG100); Group B: Formed by images enlarged at 150% (IMG150); Group C: Formed by digital photographs displayed at 100% (mIMG100), with digital modifications (levels adjustment, shadow and highlight correction, color balance, unsharp Mask); and Group D: Formed by enlarged photographs displayed at 150% with modifications (mIMG150), with the same adjustments made to Group C. Photographs were assessed on a calibrated screen (Macbook) by two calibrated clinicians, and the results were statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon tests (SSPS 11.5) at 95% CI. The photographic method produced higher reliability levels than the direct clinical method in all parameters. The evaluation of digital images is more consistent with clinical assessment when restorations present some moderate defect (Bravo) and less consistent when restorations are clinically classified as either satisfactory (Alpha) or in cases of severe defects (Charlie). The digital photographic method is a useful tool for assessing the quality of dental restorations, providing information that goes unnoticed with the visual-tactile clinical examination method. Additionally, when analyzing restorations using the Ryge modified criteria, the digital photographic method reveals a significant increase of defects compared to those

  12. Phase 1 studies summary of major findings of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valoppi, Laura

    2018-04-02

    Wildlife, the Santa Clara Valley Water District, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.To implement the AMP, the PMT have selected and funded applied studies and monitoring projects to address key uncertainties. This information is used by the PMT to make decisions about current management of the project area and future restoration actions in order to meet project.This document summarizes the major scientific findings from studies conducted from 2009 to 2016, as part of the science program that was conducted in conjunction with Phase 1 restoration and management actions. Additionally, this report summarizes the management response to the study results under the guidance of the AMP framework and provides a list of suggested studies to be conducted in “Phase 2–A scorecard summarizing the Project’s progress toward meeting the AMP goals for a range of Project objectives.” The scoring to date indicates that the Project is meeting or exceeding expectations for sediment accretion and western snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) recovery. There is uncertainty with respect to objectives for California gulls (Larus californicus), California least tern (Sternula antillarum), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and regulatory water quality objectives. Water quality and algal blooms, specifically of the managed ponds, is indicated as trending negative. However, the vast majority of objectives are trending positive, including increased abundance for a number of bird guilds, increasing marsh habitat, maintenance of mudflats, visitor experience, estuarine fish numbers, and special-status marsh species numbers.

  13. Radiologic study of peridontal and periapical changes for the restorated teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of dental restorations on the periodontal and periapical tissues. The author examined 620 cases of amalgam, 390 cases of fold inlay, 442 cases of crown and 644 cases of bridge through the standard intraoral films being appended in the charts that gad been kept at the Dept. of Oral Diagnosis in Seoul National University Hospital. This study obtained the following results; 1. The restorations of amalgam, gold inlay crown and bridge were found more frequently in female than in male. 2. The restorations of amalgam, gold inlay and crown were found more numerously in mandibular teeth than in maxillary teeth in both sexes. But in the case of crown, the fact is quite the reverse especially in anterior teeth. 3. On the contrary, tn the case of bridge, the restorations of bridge were much more distributed in the maxillary teeth than in the mandibular teeth. 4. Roentgenographic changes of periodontal tissues whose teeth were treated with any type of four restorations were periodontal space widening, lamina dura discontinuity and periapical lesion in the order described in both sexes. 5. On the occasion of between amalgam and gold inlay or between crown and bridge, the differences of periodontal changes were of no consequence. On the other hand, the differences of periodontal changes were apparent between the group of amalgam and gold inlay and the group of crown and bridge.

  14. A comparative study of additive and subtractive manufacturing for dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Eun-Jeong; Jeong, Il-Do; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2017-08-01

    Digital systems have recently found widespread application in the fabrication of dental restorations. For the clinical assessment of dental restorations fabricated digitally, it is necessary to evaluate their accuracy. However, studies of the accuracy of inlay restorations fabricated with additive manufacturing are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the accuracy of inlay restorations fabricated by using recently introduced additive manufacturing with the accuracy of subtractive methods. The inlay (distal occlusal cavity) shape was fabricated using 3-dimensional image (reference data) software. Specimens were fabricated using 4 different methods (each n=10, total N=40), including 2 additive manufacturing methods, stereolithography apparatus and selective laser sintering; and 2 subtractive methods, wax and zirconia milling. Fabricated specimens were scanned using a dental scanner and then compared by overlapping reference data. The results were statistically analyzed using a 1-way analysis of variance (α=.05). Additionally, the surface morphology of 1 randomly (the first of each specimen) selected specimen from each group was evaluated using a digital microscope. The results of the overlap analysis of the dental restorations indicated that the root mean square (RMS) deviation observed in the restorations fabricated using the additive manufacturing methods were significantly different from those fabricated using the subtractive methods (Padditive manufacturing methods (P=.466). Similarly, no significant differences were found between wax and zirconia, the subtractive methods (P=.986). The observed RMS values were 106 μm for stereolithography apparatus, 113 μm for selective laser sintering, 116 μm for wax, and 119 μm for zirconia. Microscopic evaluation of the surface revealed a fine linear gap between the layers of restorations fabricated using stereolithography apparatus and a grooved hole with inconsistent weak scratches

  15. Risk profile and quality of dental restorations: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonbul, Helal; Birkhed, Dowen

    2010-03-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the percentage of recurrent caries with respect to the estimated caries risk profile obtained with a Cariogram, (2) to evaluate the quality of restorations in a Saudi population with several restorations and (3) to determine the additional value of bite-wing radiographs as an aid to quality evaluation. A total of 803 restorations were examined in 100 adults according to the United States Public Health Service/Ryge criteria. Salivary and microbiological factors, dietary habits and plaque index were investigated. The Cariogram was used to evaluate the risk profiles. Class II bite-wing radiographs (n = 281) were taken to examine the marginal integrity and the anatomic form proximally. The patients were categorized according to 'the chance of avoiding caries' into three risk groups: 0%-20% (n = 38), 21%-40% (n = 28) and 41%-100% (n = 34). ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences between the risk groups with respect to the recurrent caries (P percentage of the total restorations (56%) were diagnosed with recurrent caries. The quality of anatomic form and surface texture was unacceptable in the majority of cases. After adding the evaluations of class II bite-wings, the percentage of unacceptable restorations increased by 28% and 17% with regard to marginal integrity and anatomic form, respectively (P percentage 'chance of avoiding caries' as estimated by the Cariogram. The importance of bite-wings was emphasized as an aid to quality evaluation.

  16. 200 Areas Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Implementation Plan - Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knepp, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    The 200 Areas Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Implementation Plan - Environmental Restoration Program (Implementation Plan) addresses approximately 700 soil waste sites (and associated structures such as pipelines) resulting from the discharge of liquids and solids from processing facilities to the ground (e.g., ponds, ditches, cribs,burial grounds) in the 200 Areas and assigned to the Environmental Restoration Program. The Implementation Plan outlines the framework for implementing assessment activities in the 200 Areas to ensure consistency in documentation, level of characterization, and decision making. The Implementation Plan also consolidates background information and other typical work plan materials, to serve as a single referenceable source for this type of information

  17. Using plant functional traits to guide restoration: A case study in California coastal grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Corbin, Jeffrey; Krupa, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Restoration ecology can benefit greatly from developments in trait-based ecology that enable improved predictions of how the composition of plant communities will respond to changes in environmental conditions. Plant functional traits can be used to guide the restoration of degraded habitats...... generally from the treatments. Carbon addition led to large intraspecific trait shifts, with individuals in C addition plots having smaller, denser leaves and shorter stature. Species' trait plasticity, however, was not related to the community composition response to C addition.   Our study indicates...

  18. Dental caries, restorations and extractions by dental caries in first permanent molars. Clinical and radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Sandra Maria H.C. Avila de; Santos Pinto, Ruy dos

    1996-01-01

    This research analyse by clinical and radiographic study, dental caries, restorations and extractions in 1.600 first permanent molars, from 400 children, both sexes, aged 5 to 13 years old, assisted in the Children's Clinic, Faculdade de Odontologia de Aracatuba, UNESP, in 1994. (author)

  19. Energy study of a medieval tower, restored as a museum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, A.M.; Avgelis, A. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Santamouris, M. [National Kapodestrean University, Athens (Greece). Dept. of Applied Physics

    2003-10-01

    Museums are buildings of particular significance due to their function and their status. At the same time they are buildings in which the principles of energy conservation are rarely applied, sometimes without reason. It has been decided by the Hellenic Ministry of Culture to convert a medieval tower, built in the year 1344 as a fortress with 0.8-1.5 m thick walls and almost no windows, into a museum. The present paper discusses the difficulties that arise in the attempt to balance between the indoor climate conditions necessary to protect the exhibits and to provide comfortable conditions to the visitors, whilst respecting the aesthetics and the historical significance of the building. Furthermore, one needs to consider the difficult but necessary task of assessing factors such as the building's shell's thermal conductivity and capacity, the ventilation necessary as well as the indoor air movement, in order to determine the cooling loads. Finally, the challenge lies in designing and dimensioning an effective and efficient HVAC system, which should be as discrete as possible. The present paper aims to present the results of the study, to discuss the expected energy behaviour of the building and to comment on the options for introducing energy conservation techniques. (author)

  20. ramic restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish R Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of a patient with severely worn dentition after restoring the vertical dimension is a complex procedure and assessment of the vertical dimension is an important aspect in these cases. This clinical report describes the full mouth rehabilitation of a patient who was clinically monitored to evaluate the adaptation to a removable occlusal splint to restore vertical dimension for a period 1 month and provisional restorations to determine esthetic and functional outcome for a period of 3 months. It is necessary to recognizing that form follows function and that anterior teeth play a vital role in the maintenance of oral health. Confirmation of tolerance to changes in the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is of paramount importance. Articulated study casts and a diagnostic wax-up can provide important information for the evaluation of treatment options. Alteration of the VDO should be conservative and should not be changed without careful consideration.

  1. Using unassisted ecosystem development to restore marginal land case study of post mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouz, Jan

    2017-04-01

    When we evaluate efficiency of individual restoration measures we typically compare individual restoration treatments or compare them with initial state or similar ecosystem in surrounding landscape. We argue that sensible way to show added value of restoration measure is to compare them with unassisted ecosystem development. Case study of ecosystem development in Sokolov post mining district (Czech Republic) show that spontaneous succession of ecosystem can be, in many parameters, comparable with various reclamation approaches. In suitable substrates the succession is driven mainly by site topography. In sites which were leveled grassy vegetation develops. In sites where original wave like topography was preserved the ecosystem develops towards forest. In forest sites the development on most of the investigated ecosystem parameters (cower, biomass soil developments, water holding capacity, carbon storage) in succession sites is little bit slower compare to reclaimed plantation during first 15-20 years. However in older sites differences disappear and succession sites show similarity with restored sites. Despite similarity in these ecosystem functions possibilities of spontaneous sites for commercial use has to be explored.

  2. Fracture resistance of class IV fiber-reinforced composite resin restorations: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Praveen Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate fracture resistance of incisal edge fractures (Class IV restored with a Glass Fiber-reinforced Composite (FRC. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four extracted sound maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into two groups. Group I (control contained untreated teeth. Samples in experimental groups II were prepared by cutting the incisal (one-third part of the crown horizontally and was subjected to enamel preparations, then restored with a Glass FRC. Fracture resistance was evaluated as Newton's for samples tested in a Hounsfield universal testing machine. Failure modes were examined microscopically. Results: Mean peak failure load (Newton's observed in Glass Fiber-reinforced Nanocomposite was 863.50 ± 76.12. The experimental group showed similar types of failure modes with the majority occurring as cohesive and mixed type. 58% of the teeth in Glass FRC group fractured below the cementoenamel junction. Conclusion: Using Fiber reinforced composite substructure under conventional composites in Class IV restorations, the fracture resistance of the restored incisal edge could be increased.

  3. Dementia wander garden aids post cerebrovascular stroke restorative therapy: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Mark B; Warf, Carlena

    2005-01-01

    An increasing amount of literature suggests the positive effects of nature in healthcare. The extended life expectancy in the US and the consequent need for long-term care indicates a future need for restorative therapy innovations to reduce the expense associated with long-term care. Moving carefully selected stroke patients' sessions to the peaceful setting of a dementia wander garden, with its designed paths and natural stimuli, may be beneficial. Natural settings have been shown to improve attention and reduce stress--both important therapy objectives in many post-stroke rehabilitation programs. In this case study, using the dementia wander garden for restorative therapy of a non-dementia patient was a novel idea for the restorative therapy group, which does not have a horticultural therapy program. The dementia wander garden stage of the post-stroke rehabilitation helped the patient through a period of treatment resistance. The garden provided both an introduction to the patient's goal of outdoor rehabilitation and a less threatening environment than the long-term care facility hallways. In part because the patient was less self-conscious about manifesting his post-stroke neurological deficits, falling, and being viewed as handicapped when in the dementia wander garden setting, he was able to resume his treatment plan and finish his restorative therapy. In many physical and mental rehabilitation plans, finding a treatment modality that will motivate an individual to participate is a principal goal. Use of a dementia wander garden may help some patients achieve this goal in post-stroke restorative therapy.

  4. A twin-case study of developmental number sense impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidse, Neeltje J.; de Jong, Maria T.; Shaul, Shelley; Bus, Adriana G

    2014-01-01

    The current study reports on 9-year-old monozygotic twin girls who fail to make any progress in learning basic mathematics in primary education. We tested the hypothesis that the twins' core maths problems were deficits in number sense that manifested as impairments in approximate and small number

  5. Investigating the Value of Restorative Practice: An Action Research Study of One Boy in a Mixed Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Vicky; Fearon, Colm; Dee, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In response to an increasingly high level of exclusion rates for boys within secondary school in the UK, this study seeks to explore the value of restorative practice and justice for changing student behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: As a piece of action research, the authors aimed to look at how methods of restorative practice…

  6. Process to identify and evaluate restoration options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.; Senner, S.; Weiner, A.; Rabinowitch, S.; Brodersen, M.; Rice, K.; Klinge, K.; MacMullin, S.; Yender, R.; Thompson, R.

    1993-01-01

    The restoration planning process has yielded a number of possible alternatives for restoring resources and services injured by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. They were developed by resource managers, scientists, and the public, taking into consideration the results of damage assessment and restoration studies and information from the scientific literature. The alternatives thus far identified include no action natural recovery, management of human uses, manipulation of resources, habitat protection and acquisition, acquisition of equivalent resources, and combinations of the above. Each alternative consists of a different mix of resource- or service-specific restoration options. To decide whether it was appropriate to spend restoration funds on a particular resource or service, first criteria had to be developed that evaluated available evidence for consequential injury and the adequacy and rate of natural recovery. Then, recognizing the range of effective restoration options, a second set of criteria was applied to determine which restoration options were the most beneficial. These criteria included technical feasibility, potential to improve the rate or degree of recovery, the relationship of expected costs to benefits, cost effectiveness, and the potential to restore the ecosystem as a whole. The restoration options considered to be most beneficial will be grouped together in several or more of the above alternatives and presented in a draft restoration plan. They will be further evaluated in a companion draft environmental impact statement

  7. Revitalisation of Orlík reservoir – case study of a regional restoration project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Očásková

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This case study describes the bottom-up formation of a regional project for restoring a reservoir. Land use changes in the upper Vltava river basin caused the eutrophication of Orlík reservoir, which resulted in water blooms, which in association with socio-economic changes caused a decline in tourism in this region and serious difficulties for local people. The study examines how public awareness helped in the establishment of a restoration project, its framework and strategy. Regional governance of the project management took into consideration both knowledge-based solutions and the interests of local people and municipalities. The project has the potential for resolving both environmental and socio-economic problems and providing a sustainable win-win strategy for the region, residents, tourists and stakeholders.

  8. Number of patients studied prior to approval of new medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijnhoven, Ruben G; Straus, Sabine M J M; Raine, June M

    2013-01-01

    length of time), whereas 67 (79.8%) of the medicines met the criteria for 12-mo patient exposure (at least 100 participants studied for 12 mo). CONCLUSIONS: For medicines intended for chronic use, the number of patients studied before marketing is insufficient to evaluate safety and long-term efficacy....... Both safety and efficacy require continued study after approval. New epidemiologic tools and legislative actions necessitate a review of the requirements for the number of patients studied prior to approval, particularly for chronic use, and adequate use of post-marketing studies. Please see later...

  9. Urban river design and aesthetics: A river restoration case study from the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Prior, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the restoration of an urbanized section of the River Skerne where it flows through a suburb of Darlington, England; a project which was one of the first comprehensive urban river restorations undertaken in the UK. It is shown how aesthetic values were central to the identification of the River Skerne as a site for restoration, the production of restoration objectives, and a design vision of urban river renewal via restoration. Secondly, the means by which these aesthetic v...

  10. An in vitro study of dental enamel wear by restorative materials using radiometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa

    2000-01-01

    There is an increasing demand and interest to study the dental materials wear as well as about the abrasion effect on antagonistic teeth. Due to the fact that the existent restorative materials have no specifications about their abrasiveness, it is necessary the establishment of degrees of comparison among them to support clinical application. In this work, the radiometric method was applied to study the enamel wear caused by another enamel and by restorative materials (Ceramco II, Noritake and Finesse porcelains, Artglass and Targis). The dental enamel made radioactive by irradiation at the IEA-R1m nuclear research reactor under a thermal neutron flux was submitted to wear in a machine which allows sliding motion of an antagonistic surface in contact with this radioactive enamel. The enamel wear was evaluated by measuring beta activity of 32 P transferred to water from this irradiated tooth. Results obtained indicated that dental porcelains cause pronounced enamel wear when compared with that provoked by another enamel or by resin materials. Resin materials caused less enamel wear than another enamel. Vickers microhardness data obtained for antagonistic materials showed a correlation with the wear caused to the enamel. This study allowed to conclude that the radiometric method proposed can be used satisfactorily in the evaluation of enamel wear by restorative materials. This method presents advantages due to quick responses and ease of analyses There is (author)

  11. Building Kindergartners' Number Sense: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C; Glutting, Joseph; Dyson, Nancy; Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Irwin, Casey

    2012-08-01

    Math achievement in elementary school is mediated by performance and growth in number sense during kindergarten. The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of a targeted small group number sense intervention for high-risk kindergartners from low-income communities. Children were randomly assigned to one of three groups ( n = 44 in each group): a number sense intervention group, a language intervention group, or a business as usual control group. Accounting for initial skill level in mathematical knowledge, children who received the number sense intervention performed better than controls at immediate post test, with meaningful effects on measures of number competencies and general math achievement. Many of the effects held eight weeks after the intervention was completed, suggesting that children internalized what they had learned. There were no differences between the language and control groups on any math-related measures.

  12. Building Kindergartners’ Number Sense: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C.; Glutting, Joseph; Dyson, Nancy; Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Irwin, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Math achievement in elementary school is mediated by performance and growth in number sense during kindergarten. The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of a targeted small group number sense intervention for high-risk kindergartners from low-income communities. Children were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n = 44 in each group): a number sense intervention group, a language intervention group, or a business as usual control group. Accounting for initial skill level in mathematical knowledge, children who received the number sense intervention performed better than controls at immediate post test, with meaningful effects on measures of number competencies and general math achievement. Many of the effects held eight weeks after the intervention was completed, suggesting that children internalized what they had learned. There were no differences between the language and control groups on any math-related measures. PMID:25866417

  13. Study on underground-water restoration of acid in-situ leaching process with electrodialytic desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chongyuan; Meng Jin; Li Weicai

    2003-01-01

    The study focus undergrounder water restoration of acid in-situ leaching process with electrodialysis desalination in Yining Uranium Mine. It is shown in field test that electrodialysis desalination is an effective method for underground water restoration of acid in-situ leaching process. When TDS of underground-water at the decommissioning scope is 10-12 g/L, and TDS will be less than 1 g/L after the desalination process, the desalination rate is more than 90%, freshwater recovery 60%-70%, power consumption for freshwater recovery 5 kW·h/m 3 , the distance of the desalination flow 12-13 m, current efficiency 80%, and the throughput of the twin membrane 0.22-0.24 m 3 /(m 2 ·d)

  14. A Study for the Restoration of the Sundials in King Sejong Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Sam; Kim, Sang Hyuk

    2011-06-01

    The sundials produced in King Sejong era had the functions of accurate observation instruments and were fabricated in various forms such as Angbuilgu (hemispherical sundial). In this study, we investigated the literature, structural characteristics and principles of Hyeonjuilgu, Cheonpyeongilgu and Jeongnamilgu that were developed in Joseon to have the unique structures. Additionally, the sundials were reviewed in the perspective of technical history by comparing them with the sundials of China. For the restoration of the sundials, we identified the principle in which the light spots and shade of the sun were used, and drew the variations of the altitude and azimuth by the yearly motion of the sun on the Siban on the hemispheric and flat surfaces. Based on these results, we completed the design drawings of the three sundials and proposed the restoration models.

  15. A Study for the Restoration of the Sundials in King Sejong Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Sam Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The sundials produced in King Sejong era had the functions of accurate observation instruments and were fabricated in various forms such as Angbuilgu (hemispherical sundial. In this study, we investigated the literature, structural characteristics and principles of Hyeonjuilgu, Cheonpyeongilgu and Jeongnamilgu that were developed in Joseon to have the unique structures. Additionally, the sundials were reviewed in the perspective of technical history by comparing them with the sundials of China. For the restoration of the sundials, we identified the principle in which the light spots and shade of the sun were used, and drew the variations of the altitude and azimuth by the yearly motion of the sun on the Siban on the hemispheric and flat surfaces. Based on these results, we completed the design drawings of the three sundials and proposed the restoration models.

  16. Shared visions, future challenges: a case study of three Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily H. Walpole

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The USDA Forest Service is encouraging the restoration of select forest ecosystems through its Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program (CFLRP. Collaboration is often necessary to implement landscape-scale management projects such as these, and a substantial body of research has examined the benefits and limitations of using collaboration as a tool for improving relationships, trust, and other outcomes among stakeholder groups. However, limited research has investigated the use of collaboration to achieve large-scale ecological restoration goals. Restoration poses some unique conditions for a collaborative approach, including reaching agreement on which historic conditions to use as a reference point, the degree of departure from these reference conditions that warrants management intervention, and how to balance historic conditions with expected future conditions and current human uses of the landscape. Using a mental-models approach, semistructured interviews were conducted with a total of 25 participants at three CFLRP sites. Results indicate that collaboration contributed to improved relationships and trust among participants, even among stakeholder groups with a history of disagreement over management goals. In addition, a shared focus on improving ecosystem resilience helped groups to address controversial management topics such as forest thinning in some areas. However, there was also evidence that CFLRP partnerships in our study locations have primarily focused on areas of high agreement among their stakeholders to date, and have not yet addressed other contentious topics. Previous studies suggest that first conducting management in areas with high consensus among participating stakeholders can build relationships and advance long-term goals. Nonetheless, our results indicate that achieving compromise in less obviously departed systems will require more explicit value-based discussions among stakeholders.

  17. Structural Study and Evaluation of Previous Restoration Work of Mohammad 'Ali Pasha Mosque at the Citadel in Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Yaser Yehya Amin Abdel-Aty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad 'Ali Pasha Mosque at the Citadel in Cairo is considered one of the main landmarks in Egypt. It majestically stands at a northwestern bend of the Citadel and it is visible from numerous locations in Cairo. It has become the symbol of the Citadel, to the point that its name is given to the whole complex in the colloquial Egyptian parlance. This paper studies analytically the static and dynamic structural behavior of this great mosque using computer numerical modeling techniques, to reach the main reasons for past cracking and failures in its domed-roof and other structural elements, which occurred by the end of 19th Century. A number of 3D-models are analyzed to study the mosque, in both original and after restoration conditions, under static (i.e. dead and live loads and dynamic (i.e. Eigenvector modal analysis, response-spectrum and time-history cases of loading. Besides, structural evaluation of major restoration project, in 1930s, is conducted to determine the current structural safety status of the mosque

  18. Coronal microleakage with five different temporary restorative materials following walking bleach technique: An ex-vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. V Srikumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Walking bleach technique uses 30% hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate, and this paste mixture causes loosening of the coronal temporary restorative materials and thus decreasing its clinical effectiveness and causing irritation to the patients oral tissues. In the present study, sealing ability of hygroscopic coronal temporary restorative materials were compared with the other commonly used temporary restorative materials. Aim: To evaluate the effects of walking bleach material on the marginal sealing ability and coronal microleakage of the hydrophilic temporary restorative materials with that of the other commonly used temporary restorative materials in endodontic practice. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth were prepared chemo-mechanically and obturated with gutta-percha in lateral condensation technique. Surface of each tooth was double coated with cyanoacrylate glue. All the teeth were randomly divided in to five groups. Out of 15 teeth in each group, 10 teeth served as experimental specimens, in which bleaching agent was placed in the pulp chamber and 5 teeth served as control, in which no bleaching agent was placed. The access cavities were restored with temporary restorative materials being tested per each group respectively. The specimens were then immersed in 1% India ink dye and subjected to thermo cycling for 7 days. All the teeth were longitudinally sectioned and observed with stereomicroscope and were graded according to the depth of linear dye penetration. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Hydrophilic temporary restorative materials Cavit G and Coltosol F have shown minimal coronal dye leakage with better sealing ability when exposed to walking bleach paste mixture in the dye penetration tests compared to other commonly used temporary restorative materials. Conclusion: Marginal sealing ability of Cavit G and Coltosol F were

  19. Effect of CO2 laser on root caries inhibition around composite restorations: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Jociana Bandeira; Hanashiro, Fernando Seishim; Steagall, Washington; Turbino, Miriam Lacalle; Nobre-dos-Santos, Marinês; Youssef, Michel Nicolau; de Souza-Zaroni, Wanessa Christine

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effect of CO2 laser on the inhibition of root surface demineralization around composite resin restorations. For this purpose, 30 blocks obtained from human molar roots were divided into three groups: group 1 (negative control), cavity prepared with cylindrical diamond bur + acid etching + adhesive + composite resin restoration; group 2, cavity prepared with cylindrical diamond bur + CO2 laser (5.0 J/cm(2)) + acid etching + adhesive + composite resin; and group 3, cavity prepared with cylindrical diamond bur + CO2 laser (6.0 J/cm(2)) + acid etching + adhesive + composite resin. After this procedure, the blocks were submitted to thermal and pH cycling. Root surface demineralization around the restorations was measured by microhardness analysis. The hardness results of the longitudinally sectioned root surface were converted into percentage of mineral volume, which was used to calculate the mineral loss delta Z (ΔZ). The percentage of mineral volume, ΔZ, and the percentage of demineralization inhibition of the groups were statistically analyzed by using analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer test. The percentage of mineral volume was higher in the irradiated groups up to 80 μm deep. The ΔZ was significantly lower in the irradiated groups than in the control group. The percentage of reduction in demineralization ranged from 19.73 to 29.21 in position 1 (50 μm), and from 24.76 to 26.73 in position 2 (100 μm), when using 6 and 5 J/cm(2), respectively. The CO2 laser was effective in inhibiting root demineralization around composite resin restorations.

  20. Laboratory studies on natural restoration of ground water after in-situ leach uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, N.E.; Deutsch, W.J.; Serne, R.J.

    1983-05-01

    When uranium is mined using in-situ leach techniques, the chemical quality of the ground water in the ore-zone aquifer is affected. This could lead to long-term degradation of the ground water if restoration techniques are not applied after the leaching is completed. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), is conducting an NRC-sponsored research project on natural restoration and induced-restoration techniques. Laboratory studies were designed to evaluate the ability of the natural system (ore-zone sediments and groundwater) to mitigate the effects of mining on aquifer chemistry. Using batch and flow-through column experiments [performed with lixiviant (leaching solution) and sediments from the reduced zone of an ore-zone aquifer], we found that the natural system can lower uranium and bicarbonate concentrations in solutions and reduce the lixiviant redox potential (Eh). The change in redox potential could cause some of the contaminants that were dissolved during the uranium leaching operation to precipitate, thereby lowering their solution concentration. The concentrations of other species such as calcium, potassium, and sulfate increased, possibly as a result of mineral dissolution and ion exchange. In this paper, we describe the experimentally determined mobility of contaminants after in-situ leach mining, and discuss the possible chemical process affecting mobility

  1. Laboratory studies on natural restoration of ground water after in-situ leach uranium mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, N.E.; Deutsch, W.J.; Serne, R.J.

    1983-05-01

    When uranium is mined using in-situ leach techniques, the chemical quality of the ground water in the ore-zone aquifer is affected. This could lead to long-term degradation of the ground water if restoration techniques are not applied after the leaching is completed. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), is conducting an NRC-sponsored research project on natural restoration and induced-restoration techniques. Laboratory studies were designed to evaluate the ability of the natural system (ore-zone sediments and groundwater) to mitigate the effects of mining on aquifer chemistry. Using batch and flow-through column experiments (performed with lixiviant (leaching solution) and sediments from the reduced zone of an ore-zone aquifer), we found that the natural system can lower uranium and bicarbonate concentrations in solutions and reduce the lixiviant redox potential (Eh). The change in redox potential could cause some of the contaminants that were dissolved during the uranium leaching operation to precipitate, thereby lowering their solution concentration. The concentrations of other species such as calcium, potassium, and sulfate increased, possibly as a result of mineral dissolution and ion exchange. In this paper, we describe the experimentally determined mobility of contaminants after in-situ leach mining, and discuss the possible chemical process affecting mobility.

  2. Case Study Application of the Biodiversity Security Index to Ranking Feasibility Studies for Ecosystem Restoration Projects of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    ER D C/ EL C R- 16 -1 Ecosystem Management and Restoration Research Program Case Study Application of the Biodiversity Security Index... Biodiversity Security Index to Ranking Feasibility Studies for Ecosystem Restoration Projects of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Richard A. Cole... Biodiversity Security Index (BSI) was applied to 23 project sites ranked for restoration feasibility study annual funding by the U. S. Army Corps of

  3. Weight restoration therapy rapidly reverses cortical thinning in anorexia nervosa: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardoni, Fabio; King, Joseph A; Geisler, Daniel; Stein, Elisa; Jaite, Charlotte; Nätsch, Dagmar; Tam, Friederike I; Boehm, Ilka; Seidel, Maria; Roessner, Veit; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2016-04-15

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have documented reduced gray matter in acutely ill patients with anorexia nervosa to be at least partially reversible following weight restoration. However, few longitudinal studies exist and the underlying mechanisms of these structural changes are elusive. In particular, the relative speed and completeness of brain structure normalization during realimentation remain unknown. Here we report from a structural neuroimaging study including a sample of adolescent/young adult female patients with acute anorexia nervosa (n=47), long-term recovered patients (n=34), and healthy controls (n=75). The majority of acutely ill patients were scanned longitudinally (n=35): at the beginning of standardized weight restoration therapy and again after partial weight normalization (>10% body mass index increase). High-resolution structural images were processed and analyzed with the longitudinal stream of FreeSurfer software to test for changes in cortical thickness and volumes of select subcortical regions of interest. We found globally reduced cortical thickness in acutely ill patients to increase rapidly (0.06 mm/month) during brief weight restoration therapy (≈3 months). This significant increase was predicted by weight restoration alone and could not be ascribed to potentially mediating factors such as duration of illness, hydration status, or symptom improvements. By comparing cortical thickness in partially weight-restored patients with that measured in healthy controls, we confirmed that cortical thickness had normalized already at follow-up. This pattern of thinning in illness and rapid normalization during weight rehabilitation was largely mirrored in subcortical volumes. Together, our findings indicate that structural brain insults inflicted by starvation in anorexia nervosa may be reversed at a rate much faster than previously thought if interventions are successful before the disorder becomes chronic. This provides

  4. Restoration of Oral Function for Adult Edentulous Patients with Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Prospective Preliminary Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiqun; Wang, Xu Dong; Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Kaigler, Darnell; Zou, Duohong

    2015-10-01

    Therapy with zygomatic implants (ZIs) or conventional implants (CIs) has proven to be an effective method to restore oral function for systemically healthy patients. However, it is still a major challenge to fully restore oral function to edentulous adult patients with ectodermal dysplasia (ED). The aim of this study was to determine an effective treatment protocol for restoring oral function using ZIs and CIs to edentulous adult ED patients. Ten edentulous adult ED patients were treated in this study. The treatment protocol involved the following: (1) bone augmentation in the region of the anterior teeth; (2) placement of two ZIs and four CIs in the maxilla, and four CIs in the mandible; (3) fabrication of dental prosthesis; and (4) psychological and oral education. Following treatment of these patients, implant success rates, biological complications, patient satisfaction, and psychological changes were recorded. Although there was evidence of bone graft resorption in the maxilla, bone augmentation of the mandible was successful in all patients. Nine CIs in the maxilla failed and were removed. All ZIs were successful, and the CIs success rates were 77.50% in the maxilla and 100% in the mandible, with a mean of 88.75%. The mean peri-implant bone resorption for the CIs ranged from 1.3 ± 0.4 mm to 1.8 ± 0.6 mm, and four cases exhibited gingival hyperplasia in the maxilla and mandible. One hundred percent of the patients were satisfied with the restoration of their oral function, and >50% of the patients exhibited enhanced self-confidence and self-esteem. This study demonstrates that oral function can be restored in edentulous adult ED patients using a comprehensive and systematic treatment protocol involving psychological and oral education, bone augmentation, implant placement, and denture fabrication. Despite these positive outcomes, bone augmentation remains challenging in the anterior region of the maxilla for edentulous adult ED patients. © 2015

  5. Treatability study Number PDC-1-O-T. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory provided treatability study samples from four waste streams, designated Stream number-sign 1, Stream number-sign 3, Stream number-sign 6, and Stream number-sign 7. Stream number-sign 1 consisted of one 55-gallon drum of personal protective equipment (PPE), rags, and neutralizing agent (bicarbonate) generated during the cleanup of a sodium dichromate solution spill. Stream number-sign 3 was one 55-gallon drum of paper, rags, lab utensils, tools, and tape from the decontamination of a glovebox. The sample of Stream number-sign 6 was packaged in three 30-gallon drums and a 100 ft 3 wooden box. It consisted of plastic sheeting, PPE, and paper generated from the cleanup of mock explosive (barium nitrate) from depleted uranium parts. Stream number-sign 7 was scrap metal (copper, stainless and carbon steel joined with silver solder) from the disassembly of gas manifolds. The objective of the treatability study is to determine: (1) whether the Perma-Fix stabilization/solidification process can treat the waste sample to meet Land Disposal Restrictions and the Waste Acceptance Criteria for LANL Technical Area 54, Area G, and (2) optimum loading and resulting weight and volume of finished waste form. The stabilized waste was mixed into grout that had been poured into a lined drum. After each original container of waste was processed, the liner was closed and a new liner was placed in the same drum on top of the previous closed liner. This allowed an overall reduction in waste volume but kept waste segregated to minimize the amount of rework in case analytical results indicated any batch did not meet treatment standards. Samples of treated waste from each waste stream were analyzed by Perma-Fix Analytical Services to get a preliminary approximation of TCLP metals. Splits of these samples were sent to American Environmental Network's mixed waste analytical lab in Cary, NC for confirmation analysis. Results were all below applicable limits

  6. A Study on Ganui-Dae’s External Form and Its Modeling for Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Soo Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ganui-Dae, built in the reign of King Sejong, Joseon Dynasty, is a comprehensive observatory. It has various instruments for observation and time signal such as Ganui, Gyupyo(Gnomon, water-hammering type Honui and Honsang, and so on. Studying on Ganui-Dae has been focused on its location, history, criterion, etc, so far. However, studying on its external form and construction method has been conducted insufficiently. This study suggests the model for restoration of Ganui-Dae. The model is based on the analysis about external form of Ganui-Dae in various antique maps, and its construction method in those days.

  7. A Case Study on Nitrogen Uptake and Denitrification in a Restored Urban Stream in Baltimore, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoring urban infrastructure and managing the nitrogen cycle represent emerging challenges for urban water quality. We investigated whether stormwater control measures (SCMs), a form of green infrastructure, integrated into restored and degraded urban stream networks can influe...

  8. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 52, Number 4, December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    about their profession.Origins In April 2007, a British newspaper the Mail on Sunday ran a story headlined “Can Sherlock Holmes restore the...reputation of our bungling spies?” The report observed, “Spies and Whitehall officials are being given a crash course in Sherlock Holmes ’ deduction

  9. Restorative green outdoor environments at acute care hospitals - case studies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Shukor, Shureen Faris Binti

    The PhD thesis is based on research which was conducted between 2009 and 2012. It deals with green outdoor environments (GOEs) at acute care hospitals in the capital region of Denmark. The aim of this PhD study is to gain deeper knowledge about the design and use of GOEs which supports mental...... the buildings. The majority of users are satisfied with the existing GOEs and the results gained from the PRS indicate that they regard the GOEs as having potential for mental restoration. The important contributions of this PhD study are that it highlights the importance of having GOE at acute care hospitals...

  10. Ecological restoration [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson

    2010-01-01

    Ecological restoration has increased in prominence in recent years as environmental policies have slowed the rate of environmental degradation in many parts of the world and practitioners have looked for active ways to reverse the damage. Because of the vast number of types and contexts of degraded ecological systems, the field of ecological restoration is still very...

  11. Ghana Journal of Development Studies, Volume 7, Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    Ghana Journal of Development Studies, Volume 7, Number 2 2010. 53 ... The use of motorcycles for urban passenger transport in Nigeria popularly called okada is a source of ..... Gap in Mexico Washington, DC: The World Bank. Becker, S. G. ...

  12. Vegetation series, curve numbers and soil water availabilities. Application to forest restoration in dry lands; Series de vegetacion, numeros de curva y disponibilidades hidricas. Aplicacion a la restauracion forestal en zonas secas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongil, J.; Martin, L.; Navarro, J.; Martinez de Azagra, A.

    2012-11-01

    Vegetation series related with plants succession in the ecosystems are associated to hydrologic properties of the land such as runoff curve numbers, runoff thresholds and soil water availability. The most evolved vegetation stages in a successional series usually present better soil and hydrologic conditions. In this way curve numbers decrease meanwhile runoff thresholds increase, and therefore water availability grows in the ecosystem. These postulates are analyzed in this paper using field data (7 sampling points) and a hydrologic model (MODIPE). One vegetation series (specifically: Guadarramico-Iberica (supra-meso) holm oak siliceous series) and its successional stages have been chosen to find out its associated curve numbers and ecosystem water availability using MODIPE model. The objective is to apply these items to hydrologic planning and forest restoration in dry lands, where water floods and water scarcity control urban and ecosystem development and restoration measures. (Author) 37 refs.

  13. Multisite study of particle number concentrations in urban air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roy M; Jones, Alan M

    2005-08-15

    Particle number concentration data are reported from a total of eight urban site locations in the United Kingdom. Of these, six are central urban background sites, while one is an urban street canyon (Marylebone Road) and another is influenced by both a motorway and a steelworks (Port Talbot). The concentrations are generally of a similar order to those reported in the literature, although higher than those in some of the other studies. Highest concentrations are at the Marylebone Road site and lowest are at the Port Talbot site. The central urban background locations lie somewhere between with concentrations typically around 20 000 cm(-3). A seasonal pattern affects all sites, with highest concentrations in the winter months and lowest concentrations in the summer. Data from all sites show a diurnal variation with a morning rush hour peak typical of an anthropogenic pollutant. When the dilution effects of windspeed are accounted for, the data show little directionality at the central urban background sites indicating the influence of sources from all directions as might be expected if the major source were road traffic. At the London Marylebone Road site there is high directionality driven by the air circulation in the street canyon, and at the Port Talbot site different diurnal patterns are seen for particle number count and PM10 influenced by emissions from road traffic (particle number count) and the steelworks (PM10) and local meteorological factors. Hourly particle number concentrations are generally only weakly correlated to NO(x) and PM10, with the former showing a slightly closer relationship. Correlations between daily average particle number count and PM10 were also weak. Episodes of high PM10 concentration in summer typically show low particle number concentrations consistent with transport of accumulation mode secondary aerosol, while winter episodes are frequently associated with high PM10 and particle number count arising from poor dispersion of

  14. Evaluation of Microhardness of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate after Immediate Placement of Different Coronal Restorations: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kazemipoor

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of immediate placement of different restorative materials in comparison with a temporary restoration on the surface microhardness of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA.Materials and Methods: Access cavities were prepared in 40 extracted human molars, and a 3-mm layer of MTA was placed in the pulp chamber. The samples were divided into eight groups (n=5. Ten minutes after the MTA placement, two groups were restored with Zonalin temporary restoration, while the other six groups were restored with glass-ionomer cement (GIC, resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI, or resin-based composite. In each group, the Vickers microhardness (VMH of MTA was determined after 7 and 21 days. Data were entered into SPSS 17 software program and were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. The significance level was set at 5%.Results: The type of restorative materials had a statistically significant effect on the microhardness of MTA (P=0.002. However, the microhardness of MTA was neither significantly influenced by the timing of final restoration (P=0.246 nor by the time-material interaction (P=0.116.Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study and by considering the limitations of laboratory studies, it is recommended to postpone the placement of final restorations until the underlying MTA is completely set. Otherwise, in the clinical conditions in which early covering of MTA is recommended, sufficient moist-curing and hydration should be guaranteed by selecting a restorative material with the lowest hydrophilic interaction energy.

  15. Restoration of a coal-mine overburden dump - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R.S.; Chaulya, S.K.; Tewary, B.K.; Dhar, B.B. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1996-03-01

    For the restoration of a coal-mine overburden dump, five tree species viz Delgergia sisoo, Azadirachta indica, Albizia procera, Delonix regia and Acacia nilotica were seeded to evaluate their germination and growth performance. Dalbergia sisoo was found to be the best early successional leguminous plant species showing maximum increase in shoot length and diameter on the mine dump. Therefore, it is recommended that the findings of this study be implemented on mass scale in the dry tropics of India. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Monte Carlo study of quantum number retention in hadron jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, S.K.; Weiss, N.

    1992-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo study in which we used weighted quantum numbers of hadron jets in an attempt to identify the parent parton of these jets. Two-jet events produced by e + e- annihilation were studied using the Lund Monte Carlo program. It was found that the sign of the charge of the leading parton could be determined in a majority of events and that the quark jet could be distinguished from the antiquark jet in a majority of events containing baryons. A careful selection of a subset of the events by making cuts on the value of these weighted quantum numbers increased significantly the accuracy with which both the charge and the baryon number of the leading parton could be determined. Some success was also made in differentiating light-quark from heavy-quark events and in determining the leading quark flavor in the light-quark events. Unfortunately quantum number retention does not differentiate gluon jets from quark jets. The consequences of this for three-jet events and for jet identification in other reactions is discussed

  17. Numerical study of circular synthetic jets at low Reynolds numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Qingfeng; Lei, Shenghui; Ma, Jieyan; Zhong, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Parameter maps depicting different flow regimes of synthetic jets are produced. • Boundaries separating these regimes are defined using quantitative criteria. • The Reynolds number is most appropriate for classifying different flow regimes. • A use of high suction cycle factors enhances the effectiveness of synthetic jets. - Abstract: In this paper, the flow patterns of circular synthetic jets issuing into a quiescent flow at low Reynolds numbers are studied numerically. The results confirm the presence of the three jet flow regimes, i.e. no jet formation, jet flow without rollup and jet flow with rollup reported in the literature. The boundaries of the different jet flow regimes are determined by tracking the structures produced by the synthetic jets in the near field of the jet orifice over several actuation cycles and examining the cycle-averaged streamwise velocity profiles along the jet central axis. When the Stokes number is above a certain threshold value appropriate for the corresponding flow regime, a good correlation between the flow patterns and the jet Reynolds number defined using the jet orifice diameter, Re Do , is also found. Furthermore, the flow structures of synthetic jets with different suction duty cycle factors are compared. The use of a high suction duty cycle factor strengthens the synthetic jet resulting in a greater penetration depth into the surrounding fluid. Overall, the finding from this study enables the flow regimes, in which a synthetic jet actuator with a circular orifice operates, to be determined. It also provides a way of designing more effective synthetic jet actuators for enhancing mass and momentum transfer at very low Reynolds numbers

  18. Does river restoration affect diurnal and seasonal changes to surface water quality? A study along the Thur River, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chittoor Viswanathan, Vidhya [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Université de Neuchâtel, Centre d' Hydrogéologie et de Géothermie (CHYN), Rue Emile-Argand 11, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Molson, John [Université Laval, Département de Géologie et Génie Géologique, Québec City, Québec (Canada); Schirmer, Mario [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Université de Neuchâtel, Centre d' Hydrogéologie et de Géothermie (CHYN), Rue Emile-Argand 11, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

    2015-11-01

    Changes in river water quality were investigated along the lower reach of the Thur River, Switzerland, following river restoration and a summer storm event. River restoration and hydrological storm events can each cause dramatic changes to water quality by affecting various bio-geochemical processes in the river, but have to date not been well documented, especially in combination. Evaluating the success of river restoration is often restricted in large catchments due to a lack of high frequency water quality data, which are needed for process understanding. These challenges were addressed in this study by measuring water quality parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with a high temporal frequency (15 min–1 h) over selected time scales. In addition, the stable isotopes of water (δD and δ{sup 18}O-H{sub 2}O) as well as those of nitrate (δ{sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}{sup −} and δ{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}{sup −}) were measured to follow changes in water quality in response to the hydrological changes in the river. To compare the spatial distribution of pre- and post-restoration water quality, the sampling stations were chosen upstream and downstream of the restored section. The diurnal and seasonal changes were monitored by conducting 24-hour campaigns in three seasons (winter, summer and autumn) in 2012 and 2013. The amplitude of the diurnal changes of the various observed parameters showed significant seasonal and spatial variability. Biological processes — mainly photosynthesis and respiration — were found to be the major drivers of these diurnal cycles. During low flow in autumn, a reduction of nitrate (attributed to assimilation by autotrophs) in the pre-dawn period and a production of DOC during the daytime (attributed to photosynthesis) were observed downstream of the restored site. Further, a summer storm event was found to override the influence of these biological

  19. Does river restoration affect diurnal and seasonal changes to surface water quality? A study along the Thur River, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chittoor Viswanathan, Vidhya; Molson, John; Schirmer, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Changes in river water quality were investigated along the lower reach of the Thur River, Switzerland, following river restoration and a summer storm event. River restoration and hydrological storm events can each cause dramatic changes to water quality by affecting various bio-geochemical processes in the river, but have to date not been well documented, especially in combination. Evaluating the success of river restoration is often restricted in large catchments due to a lack of high frequency water quality data, which are needed for process understanding. These challenges were addressed in this study by measuring water quality parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with a high temporal frequency (15 min–1 h) over selected time scales. In addition, the stable isotopes of water (δD and δ 18 O-H 2 O) as well as those of nitrate (δ 15 N-NO 3 − and δ 18 O-NO 3 − ) were measured to follow changes in water quality in response to the hydrological changes in the river. To compare the spatial distribution of pre- and post-restoration water quality, the sampling stations were chosen upstream and downstream of the restored section. The diurnal and seasonal changes were monitored by conducting 24-hour campaigns in three seasons (winter, summer and autumn) in 2012 and 2013. The amplitude of the diurnal changes of the various observed parameters showed significant seasonal and spatial variability. Biological processes — mainly photosynthesis and respiration — were found to be the major drivers of these diurnal cycles. During low flow in autumn, a reduction of nitrate (attributed to assimilation by autotrophs) in the pre-dawn period and a production of DOC during the daytime (attributed to photosynthesis) were observed downstream of the restored site. Further, a summer storm event was found to override the influence of these biological processes that control the diurnal

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life after Restorative Proctocolectomy: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helavirta, I; Hyöty, M; Oksanen, P; Huhtala, H; Haapamäki, J; Aitola, P

    2018-05-01

    Patients undergoing restorative proctocolectomy have often suffered from active ulcerative colitis which should be remembered when assessing quality of life after operation. The aim of this study was to explore health-related quality of life after restorative proctocolectomy in those with poor or good pouch function and to compare that to patients with active or inactive ulcerative colitis and to the general population. Altogether, 282 restorative proctocolectomy patients were investigated. The control group comprised 408 ulcerative colitis patients from the local register. Generic 15D and disease-specific inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire health-related quality of life instruments were used. Population-based data were available for 15D. Pouch function was evaluated with Öresland score and colitis activity with simple clinical colitis activity index. 15D results showed that patients with good pouch function had health-related quality of life similar to that of the general population. Health-related quality of life with inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire was equally good in patients with good pouch function (n = 131; 70%) and inactive colitis (n = 95; 63%), and equally impaired in patients with poor pouch function (n = 56; 30%) and active colitis (n = 18; 12%). The majority of patients had health-related quality of life comparable to that in general population. Most patients with active ulcerative colitis are likely to improve their health-related quality of life after successful surgery. These findings are important when informing colitis patients about life after surgery.

  1. Study on random number generator in Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Kentaro; Kitada, Takanori; Tanaka, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    The Monte Carlo code uses a sequence of pseudo-random numbers with a random number generator (RNG) to simulate particle histories. A pseudo-random number has its own period depending on its generation method and the period is desired to be long enough not to exceed the period during one Monte Carlo calculation to ensure the correctness especially for a standard deviation of results. The linear congruential generator (LCG) is widely used as Monte Carlo RNG and the period of LCG is not so long by considering the increasing rate of simulation histories in a Monte Carlo calculation according to the remarkable enhancement of computer performance. Recently, many kinds of RNG have been developed and some of their features are better than those of LCG. In this study, we investigate the appropriate RNG in a Monte Carlo code as an alternative to LCG especially for the case of enormous histories. It is found that xorshift has desirable features compared with LCG, and xorshift has a larger period, a comparable speed to generate random numbers, a better randomness, and good applicability to parallel calculation. (author)

  2. Principles of Wetland Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    the return of a degraded ecosystem to a close approximation of its remaining natural potential - is experiencing a groundswell of support across the United States. The number of stream, river, lake, wetland and estuary restoration projects grows yearly

  3. Er:YAG Laser and Fractured Incisor Restorations: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fornaini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of an Er:YAG laser on enamel and dentine in cases of dental restorations involving fractured teeth, utilizing the dental fragment. Materials and Methods. Seventy-two freshly extracted bovine incisors were fractured at the coronal level by using a hammer applied with a standardized method, and the fragment was reattached by using three different methods: Er:YAG laser, orthophosphoric acid, and laser plus acid. The different groups were evaluated by a test realized with the dynamometer to know the force required to successfully detach the reattached fragment and by a microinfiltration test by using a 0.5% methylene blue solution followed by the optic microscope observation. Results. The compression test showed only a slight difference between the three groups, without any statistical significance. The infiltration test used to evaluate the marginal seal between the fracture fragment and the tooth demonstrated that etching with Er:YAG laser alone or in combination with orthophosphoric acid gives better results than orthophosphoric acid alone, with a highly significant statistical result. Discussion. Reattaching a tooth fragment represents a clinically proven methodology, in terms of achieving resistance to detachment, and the aim of this work was to demonstrate the advantages of Er:YAG laser on this procedure. Conclusion. This “in vitro” study confirms that Er:YAG laser can be employed in dental traumatology to restore frontal teeth after coronal fracture.

  4. Technology Corner: Calculating the Number of Android Lock Patterns: An Unfinished Study in Number Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kessler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although one is unlikely to ever want to brute-force an Android lock pattern, many do wonder about the relative strength of the lock pattern versus a multi-digit personal identification number (PIN. It becomes obvious pretty quickly that there are many more lock patterns than the 10,000 possible four-digit PINs.(see PDF for full technology corner

  5. Drivers of Ecological Restoration: Lessons from a Century of Restoration in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ása L. Aradóttir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the main drivers for ecological restoration in Iceland from 1907 to 2010 and assessed whether the drivers have changed over time and what factors might explain the changes, if any. Our study was based on a catalogue of 100 restoration projects, programs, and areas, representing 75% to 85% of all restoration activities in Iceland. Catastrophic erosion was an early driver for soil conservation and restoration efforts that still ranked high in the 2000s, reflecting the immense scale of soil erosion and desertification in Iceland. Socioeconomic drivers such as farming and the provision of wood products were strong motivators of ecological restoration over most of the 20th century, although their relative importance decreased with time as the number and diversity of drivers increased. In the 1960s and 1970s, the construction of hard infrastructure, and moral values such as improving the aesthetics of the countryside and "repaying the debt to the land" emerged as motivations for restoration actions. In the late 1990s, the United Nations Climate Change Convention became a driver for restoration, and the importance of nature conservation and recreation increased. Technological development and financial incentives did not show up as drivers of ecological restoration in our study, although there are some indications of their influence. Furthermore, policy was a minor driver, which might reflect weak policy instruments for ecological restoration and some counteractive policies.

  6. INTEGRATED SURVEY FOR ARCHITECTURAL RESTORATION: A METHODOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF TWO CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bianchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary survey campaign is essential in projects of restoration, urban renewal, rebuilding or promotion of architectural heritage. Today several survey techniques allow full 3D object restitution and modelling that provides a richer description than simple 2D representations. However, the amount of data to collect increases dramatically and a trade-off between efficiency and productivity from one side and assuring accuracy and completeness of the results on the other must be found. Depending on the extent and the complexity of the task, a single technique or a combination of several ones might be employed. Especially when documentation at different scales and with different levels of detail are foreseen, the latter will likely be necessary. The paper describes two architectural surveys in Italy: the old village of Navelli (AQ, affected by the earthquake in 2009, and the two most relevant remains in Codiponte (MS, damaged by the earthquake in 2013, both in the context of a project of restoration and conservation. In both sites, a 3D survey was necessary to represent effectively the objects. An integrated survey campaign was performed in both cases, which consists of a GPS network as support for georeferencing, an aerial survey and a field survey made by laser scanner and close range photogrammetry. The two case studies, thanks to their peculiarities, can be taken as exemplar to wonder if the integration of different surveying techniques is today still mandatory or, considering the technical advances of each technology, it is in fact just optional.

  7. Digital Workflows for Restoration and Management of the Museum Affandi - a Case Study in Challenging Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, U.; Styhler-Aydın, G.; Grandits, D.; Stampfer, L.; Pont, U.; Mayer, I.

    2017-08-01

    The appropriate restoration of architectural heritage needs a careful and comprehensive documentation of the existing structures, which even elaborates, if the function of the building needs special attention, like in museums. In a collaborative project between the Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia and two universities in Austria (TU Wien and the Danube University Krems) a restoration and adaptation concept of the Affandi Museum in Yogyakarta is currently in progress. It provides a perfect case study for the development of a workflow to combine data from a building survey, architectural research, indoor climate measurements and the documentation of artwork in a challenging environment, from hot and humid tropical climate to continuous threads by natural hazards like earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. The Affandi Museum houses the collection of Affandi, who is considered to be Indonesia's foremost Expressionist painter and partly designed and constructed the museum by himself. With the spirit of the artist still perceptible in the complex the Affandi Museum is an important part of the Indonesian cultural heritage. Thus its preservation takes special attention and adds to the complexity of the development of a monitoring and maintenance concept. This paper describes the ongoing development of an approach to a workflow from the measurement and research of the objects, both architectural and artwork, to the semantically enriched BIM Model as the base for a sustainable monitoring tool for the Affandi Museum.

  8. DIGITAL WORKFLOWS FOR RESTORATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE MUSEUM AFFANDI - A CASE STUDY IN CHALLENGING CIRCUMSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Herbig

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate restoration of architectural heritage needs a careful and comprehensive documentation of the existing structures, which even elaborates, if the function of the building needs special attention, like in museums. In a collaborative project between the Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia and two universities in Austria (TU Wien and the Danube University Krems a restoration and adaptation concept of the Affandi Museum in Yogyakarta is currently in progress. It provides a perfect case study for the development of a workflow to combine data from a building survey, architectural research, indoor climate measurements and the documentation of artwork in a challenging environment, from hot and humid tropical climate to continuous threads by natural hazards like earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. The Affandi Museum houses the collection of Affandi, who is considered to be Indonesia's foremost Expressionist painter and partly designed and constructed the museum by himself. With the spirit of the artist still perceptible in the complex the Affandi Museum is an important part of the Indonesian cultural heritage. Thus its preservation takes special attention and adds to the complexity of the development of a monitoring and maintenance concept. This paper describes the ongoing development of an approach to a workflow from the measurement and research of the objects, both architectural and artwork, to the semantically enriched BIM Model as the base for a sustainable monitoring tool for the Affandi Museum.

  9. PERIPHERAL APPLICATION OF REPETITIVE PULSE MAGNETIC STIMULATION ON JOINT CONTRACTURE FOR MOBILITY RESTORATION: CONTROLLED RANDOMIZED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthimios J. Kouloulas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Joint contracture is a limitation in the passive or active range of motion (ROM of a joint, where in addition to the mobility limiting factor the pain is also present. Repetitive pulsed Magnetic Stimulation (rPMS appears to be an effective, non-invasive and safety solution for treating this condition. Therefore aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of rPMS in treating joint contracture. Methods: 30 subjects with joint contracture in the knee were enrolled in this study and divided respectively into Treatment and Control group. The treatment group were delivered with rPMS therapy. The control group was delivered with conventional physiotherapy method (ultrasound. The primary outcome measurements were: 1. Mobility evaluation by goniometry (ROM in degrees while performing flexion and Patient Functional Assessment Questionnaire (PFAQ for ability to perform Activities of Daily Living (ADL and 2. Pain evaluation by 10-point Visual Analog Scale (VAS for pain perception. Absence of adverse events was set as a secondary measure. Results: The results of the study show statistical difference (p<0.05 between the levels of improvement of all studied parameters while comparing between both groups. The results suggest greater immobility restoration and pain relieving effect of the rPMS in comparison to conventional physiotherapy method. Conclusion: rPMS an effective and safe non-invasive method for mobility restoration and pain relief in case of joint contractures. This study suggests the method as beneficial and quality of life ameliorating among patients suffering from immobilized joints accompanied by pain.

  10. 'Number-forms' in neuroimaging?;- a PET activation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, S.F.; Code, C.; Harasty, J.; Egan, G.F.; Watson, J.D.G.; University of New South Wales,; Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW; University of Melbourne, VIC; University of Exeter,

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In 1880 Francis Galton reported a mental imagery study in which imagers were able to describe and draw arithmetic operations called 'number-forms' (NF). While many studies have reported NFs, little is known about their neural basis. We report a PET case study of a normal volunteer who invoked NFs during mental arithmetic tasks. This PET study used two conditions, repetition and calculation, presented bi-aurally while the subject was blindfolded. The calculation condition required the subject to say out loud the answers to arithmetic tasks, eg. 'nineteen minus seven'. A post-test protocol for vividness of visual imagery during calculation (PVVIC), based on the interviews of Galton (1880) and Seron and colleagues (1992), identified AF, a 43year-old women, as the highest imager (PVVIC - 95%) from a group of 12 normal volunteers. She was able to accurately describe and draw a well-used imagery strategy for mental arithmetic. Her results were contrasted with non-imager, FM (PVVIC - 10%). AF's MRI guided PET results showed significant rCBF activations during the calculation tasks including the right precuneus, right superior frontal gyrus (BA8), left superior parietal lobe (BA7), left visual cortex, medial thalamus and cerebellum. Except for the activation in the right BA8, common to both subjects, AF's areas were not activated by FM. These data confirm previous PET findings that the precuneus plays a major role in mental imagery and point to a neural network for mental imagery during simple calculation. AF's imagery strategies could be the first number-forms reported in a neuroimaging study. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  11. Provisional Restorations – A Permanent Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, William F; Keirby, Naomi; Ricketts, David N J

    2016-12-01

    Provisional restorations play an important role when providing indirect restorations. There are a number of materials and techniques available for their construction. Careful planning and construction can protect the prepared tooth surface, improve the periodontal condition and help plan for the definitive restoration. A good provisional restoration can save time, money and effort. Clinical relevance: Provisional restoration construction is an integral part of the indirect restorative process for inlays, onlays, crowns and bridges.

  12. A study of tooth number anomaly using panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Eok; Choi, Karp Shik

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of tooth number anomaly by means of the analysis of panoramic radiographs in 6,531 patients visited the Dental Infirmary of Kyungpook National University Hospital from January 1983 to May 1992 . The results were as follows : 1. The prevalence of congenitally missing teeth except third molar was revealed to be 10.8%, and there was a higher prevalence in females (44.6%) than in males (55.4%). Mandibular 2nd premolars (23.2%), and maxillary second primolars (15.4%) in descending order of frequency. As to the number of congentally missing teeth, the percentage of missing one tooth was 48%, missing two teeth was 35.4%, missing three teeth was 6.6%. 2. The prevalence of congenitally missing third molars was revealed to be 39.7%. There was a higher prevalence in the maxilla (60.3%) than in the mandible (39.7%). Maxillary right 3rd molars (30.6%) were absent most frequently, followed by maxillary left 3rd molar (29.7%), mandibular right 3rd molar (20.2%), mandibular left 3rd molar (19.5%) in descending order of frequency. 3. The prevalence of supernumerary teeth was revealed to be 4.2%, and there was a higher prevalence in the males (65.7%) than in females (34.3%). They were found most frequently in maxillary central incesor area (64.8%), followed by maxillary lateral incisor area (13.2%), posterior area of maxillary third molar (8.7%) in descending order of frequency. As to the number of supernumerary teeth; the percentage of one supernumerary tooth was 79.9%, two supernumarary teeth was 8.9%, three supernumerary teeth was 1.2%.

  13. Comparative study of nanomechanical properties of cements used in teeth restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peluccio, M S; Bignardi, C; Lombardo, S; Montevecchi, F M; Carossa, S

    2007-01-01

    The discipline of dental science includes the diagnosis of disease in the mouth and teeth, its manifestations and the procedures involved in the restoration of their integrity and function. Restoration of lost tooth structure with suitable materials plays an integral part in the successful rehabilitation of oral tissues. Several factors influence the performance of dental restorations. These factors include the type of cement used to bond crown restoration to prepared teeth. The nanoindentation method was used to explore the mechanical properties of different types of resin cement polymerized using different techniques. A Nano Indenter XP (from MTS Nano Instruments, USA) was used for the experimental tests. A sample of 40 extracted human teeth were restored using two different resin cements: Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) and Venus A2 (Heraeus Kulzer, Germany). Both resin cements are light-cured and one of them is self-cured so that the degree of polymerization would be higher. The data obtained for nanohardness and the Young's modulus were analysed using ANOVA to evaluate the influence of different factors (the resin cement and polymerization technique used, the position on the tooth-restoration interface) and to determine the best performance for restoration. The results obtained could give a useful indication of the choice of cementation technique and of the materials used for the restoration of lost tooth structure in different clinical cases

  14. A Phenomenological Study of the Experience of Respondents in Campus-Based Restorative Justice Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation was the use of restorative justice practices in the collegiate setting. Some have expressed concern with the legal nature of campus conduct processes. Restorative practices have been implemented in criminal justice and K-12 settings and are seen by some as an antidote to overly legalistic campus conduct processes.…

  15. Steps Towards Sustainability and Tools for Restoring Natural Capital: Etang de Berre (southern France) case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronson, J.; Claeys, F.; Westerberg, V.; Picon, P.; Bernard, G.; Bocognano, J.M.; Groot, de R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Communities, nations, not-for-pro fi t groups, and some mining, infrastructure, and energy corporations are catching on to the fact that the ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems is vital to their search for sustainability and ecological accountability. The science of restoration ecology can

  16. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the feasibility study project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Feasibility studies (FS) determine what remedial alternatives are presented to regulators for site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best remedial option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user in incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FS phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments

  17. Study on the forest vegetation restoration monitoring using HJ-1A hyperspectral data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuan, Zhang; Fawang, Ye; Hongcheng, Liu; Haixia, He

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, Xunke County was studied using HJ-1A hyperspectral data for monitoring vegetation restoration after forest fires. The pre-processing procedure including data format conversion, image mosaicing and atmospheric correction. Support vector machine classification was used to perform surface feature identification based on the extracted spectral end-members. On that basis, the image area was divided into seven categories and statistical analysis of classification types was performed. The results showed that HJ-1A hyperspectral data had great potential in fine classification of surface features and the accuracy of classification was 91.8%. The mild and severe fire-affected area extraction provided useful reference for disaster recovery monitoring. Furthermore, the distinction between coniferous forest and broadleaved forest can offer useful information for forest fire prevention and early warning to some extent

  18. Accounting for imperfect detection in Hill numbers for biodiversity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broms, Kristin M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Fitzpatrick, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    Hill numbers unify biodiversity metrics by combining several into one expression. For example, species richness, Shannon's diversity index and the Gini–Simpson index are a few of the most used diversity measures, and they can be expressed as Hill numbers. Traditionally, Hill numbers have been calculated from relative abundance data, but the expression has been modified to use incidence data as well. We demonstrate an approach for estimating Hill numbers using an occupancy modelling framework that accounts for imperfect detection.

  19. Study of sticky rice-lime mortar technology for the restoration of historical masonry construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuwei; Zhang, Bingjian; Ma, Qinglin

    2010-06-15

    mortar is a special organic-inorganic composite material. The inorganic component is calcium carbonate, and the organic component is amylopectin, which is presumably derived from the sticky rice soup added to the mortar. A systematic study of sticky rice-lime mortar technology was conducted to help determine the proper courses of action in restoring ancient buildings. Lime mortars with varying sticky rice content were prepared and tested. The physical properties, mechanical strength, and compatibility of lime mortar were found to be significantly improved by the introduction of sticky rice, suggesting that sticky rice-lime mortar is a suitable material for repairing mortar in ancient masonry. Moreover, the amylopectin in the lime mortar was found to act as an inhibitor; the growth of the calcium carbonate crystals is controlled by its presence, and a compact structure results, which may explain the enhanced performance of this organic-inorganic composite compared to single-component lime mortar.

  20. Contrasting the roles of section length and instream habitat enhancement for river restoration success: a field study on 20 European restoration projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hering, D.; Aroviita, J.; Baattrup-Pedersen, A.; Brabec, K.; Buijse, T.; Ecke, F.; Friberg, N.; Gielczewski, Marek; Januschke, K.; Köhler, J.; Kupilas, Benjamin; Lorenz, A.W.; Muhar, S.; Paillex, Amael; Poppe, Michaela; Schmidt, T.; Schmutz, S.; Vermaat, J.; Verdonschot, R.C.M.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Wolter, Christian; Kail, J.

    2015-01-01

    1. Restoration of river hydromorphology often has limited detected effects on river biota. One frequently discussed reason is that the restored river length is insufficient to allow populations to develop and give the room for geomorphologic processes to occur. 2. We investigated ten pairs of

  1. Long-term temporal trajectories to enhance restoration efficiency and sustainability on large rivers: an interdisciplinary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschbach, David; Schmitt, Laurent; Imfeld, Gwenaël; May, Jan-Hendrik; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Preusser, Frank; Trauerstein, Mareike; Skupinski, Grzegorz

    2018-05-01

    While the history of a fluvial hydrosystem can provide essential knowledge on present functioning, historical context remains rarely considered in river restoration. Here we show the relevance of an interdisciplinary study for improving restoration within the framework of a European LIFE+ project on the French side of the Upper Rhine (Rohrschollen Island). Investigating the planimetric evolution combined with historical high-flow data enabled us to reconstruct pre-disturbance hydromorphological functioning and major changes that occurred on the reach. A deposition frequency assessment combining vertical evolution of the Rhine thalweg, chronology of deposits in the floodplain, and a hydrological model revealed that the period of incision in the main channel corresponded to high rates of narrowing and lateral channel filling. Analysis of filling processes using Passega diagrams and IRSL dating highlights that periods of engineering works were closely related to fine sediment deposition, which also presents concomitant heavy metal accumulation. In fact, current fluvial forms, processes and sediment chemistry around Rohrschollen Island directly reflect the disturbances that occurred during past correction works, and up to today. Our results underscore the advantage of combining functional restoration with detailed knowledge of the past trajectory to (i) understand the functioning of the hydrosystem prior to anthropogenic disturbances, (ii) characterize the human-driven morphodynamic adjustments during the last 2 centuries, (iii) characterize physico-chemical sediment properties to trace anthropogenic activities and evaluate the potential impact of the restoration on pollutant remobilization, (iv) deduce the post-restoration evolution tendency and (v) evaluate the efficiency and sustainability of the restoration effects. We anticipate our approach will expand the toolbox of decision-makers and help orientate functional restoration actions in the future.

  2. Long-term temporal trajectories to enhance restoration efficiency and sustainability on large rivers: an interdisciplinary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Eschbach

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available While the history of a fluvial hydrosystem can provide essential knowledge on present functioning, historical context remains rarely considered in river restoration. Here we show the relevance of an interdisciplinary study for improving restoration within the framework of a European LIFE+ project on the French side of the Upper Rhine (Rohrschollen Island. Investigating the planimetric evolution combined with historical high-flow data enabled us to reconstruct pre-disturbance hydromorphological functioning and major changes that occurred on the reach. A deposition frequency assessment combining vertical evolution of the Rhine thalweg, chronology of deposits in the floodplain, and a hydrological model revealed that the period of incision in the main channel corresponded to high rates of narrowing and lateral channel filling. Analysis of filling processes using Passega diagrams and IRSL dating highlights that periods of engineering works were closely related to fine sediment deposition, which also presents concomitant heavy metal accumulation. In fact, current fluvial forms, processes and sediment chemistry around Rohrschollen Island directly reflect the disturbances that occurred during past correction works, and up to today. Our results underscore the advantage of combining functional restoration with detailed knowledge of the past trajectory to (i understand the functioning of the hydrosystem prior to anthropogenic disturbances, (ii characterize the human-driven morphodynamic adjustments during the last 2 centuries, (iii characterize physico-chemical sediment properties to trace anthropogenic activities and evaluate the potential impact of the restoration on pollutant remobilization, (iv deduce the post-restoration evolution tendency and (v evaluate the efficiency and sustainability of the restoration effects. We anticipate our approach will expand the toolbox of decision-makers and help orientate functional restoration actions in the

  3. Atraumatic restorative treatment in atypical cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Simino Carvalho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The atraumatic restorative treatment has been widely divulged among professionals in the area of Pediatric Dentistry. This restorative technique is included in the philosophy of Minimal Intervention and is considered one of the most conservative treatments, because only the layer of infected dentin caries is removed. Moreover, the atraumatic restorative treatment has been shown to be less painful than conventional approaches, and local anesthesia is rarely required. After the removal of the infected dentin, the cavities are filled with glass ionomer cement, a material that has antimicrobial capacity, good marginal sealing and constant fluorine release and recharge. In spite of the increasing number of studies about atraumatic restorative treatment, only studies related to restorations in occlusal cavities have shown scientific evidences about the technique. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of atraumatic restorative treatment in cavities with 3 or more surfaces involved, by means of a clinical case report of a patient with extensive dstruction in primary teeth, who was submitted to atraumatic restorative treatment, and observe the result of the treatment after one year of clinical and radiographic control.

  4. A study on the radiopacity of cavity lining materials for posterior composite resin restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Joo Hoon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eui Hwan [Dept. of Conservative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the relative radiopacities of cavity lining materials (Resin-modified Glass Ionomer cement, Compomer and Flowable resin) for posterior composite resin restoration. Resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Fuji II LC, Vitrebond (TM)), Compomers (Dyract , Compoglass, F2000, Dyract(R) flow Compoglass Flow) and Flowable resins (Tetric (R) flow, Aeliteflo (TM) Revolution (TM)) were used. Five specimens of 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick were fabricated with each material. Human molars were horizontally sectioned 2 mm thick to include both enamel and dentin. The radiopacities of enamel, dentin, cavity lining materials, aluminum step wedge were obtained from conventional radiograph and NIH image program. All the tested lining materials showed levels of radiopacity the same as or greater than that of dentin. All compomer tested (Dyract (R), Compoglass, F2000, Dyract (R) flow, Compoglass Flow) and Vitrebond (TM), Tetric (R) flow were more radiopaque than enamel. The radiopacities of Fuji II LC and Revolution (TM) were between enamel and dentin and resin-modified glass ionomer cement, Compomer and Tetric (R) flow were greater than those of Revolution (TM), Aeliteflo (TM) or dentin. The level of radiopacity of the tested materials was variable; those with low radiopacity should be avoided in class II restorations, where a clear determination of recurrent caries by the examining clinician could be compromised. Clinician should be able to distinguish these cavity lining materials radiographically from recurrent decay, voids, gaps, or other defects that lead to clinical failure. Utilization of materials ranked more radiopaque than enamel would enable clinicians to distinguish the lining material from tooth structure.

  5. A study on the radiopacity of cavity lining materials for posterior composite resin restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Joo Hoon; Choi, Eui Hwan

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relative radiopacities of cavity lining materials (Resin-modified Glass Ionomer cement, Compomer and Flowable resin) for posterior composite resin restoration. Resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Fuji II LC, Vitrebond (TM)), Compomers (Dyract , Compoglass, F2000, Dyract(R) flow Compoglass Flow) and Flowable resins (Tetric (R) flow, Aeliteflo (TM) Revolution (TM)) were used. Five specimens of 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick were fabricated with each material. Human molars were horizontally sectioned 2 mm thick to include both enamel and dentin. The radiopacities of enamel, dentin, cavity lining materials, aluminum step wedge were obtained from conventional radiograph and NIH image program. All the tested lining materials showed levels of radiopacity the same as or greater than that of dentin. All compomer tested (Dyract (R), Compoglass, F2000, Dyract (R) flow, Compoglass Flow) and Vitrebond (TM), Tetric (R) flow were more radiopaque than enamel. The radiopacities of Fuji II LC and Revolution (TM) were between enamel and dentin and resin-modified glass ionomer cement, Compomer and Tetric (R) flow were greater than those of Revolution (TM), Aeliteflo (TM) or dentin. The level of radiopacity of the tested materials was variable; those with low radiopacity should be avoided in class II restorations, where a clear determination of recurrent caries by the examining clinician could be compromised. Clinician should be able to distinguish these cavity lining materials radiographically from recurrent decay, voids, gaps, or other defects that lead to clinical failure. Utilization of materials ranked more radiopaque than enamel would enable clinicians to distinguish the lining material from tooth structure.

  6. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  7. From quantity to number : Studies on magnitude processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebuis, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836362

    2009-01-01

    The ability to work with the symbolic number system, the Arabic numbers, enables humans to perform more complex and accurate calculations than the non-symbolic numerosity system (e.g. arrays of dots). The application of this symbolic system has turned out to be so useful that we have a hard time

  8. Experimental Study of the Effect of Octane Number on the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed R. Jasem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiments had been carried out using two stroke, single cylinder type (TD113, with compression ratio of (7.3:1 Coupled to hydraulic dynamometer type (TD115.          The results showed that there is  enhancement   of the engine  performance  with increasing octane number. This appears clearly when comparing the results of performance with fuel of 75 and 95 octane number.The torque increases 10% at speed of 2750 RPM. The break power also increases 18% when the octane number changed from 75 to 95 at 3000 RPM of engine speed. The same change in octane number will increase the thermal efficiency by 9% at 2300 RPM of engine speed. The break specific fuel consumption decreases at the same ratio of thermal efficiency 9% but at 2400 RPM. The less fuel consumption happens at 2400 RPM for octane number 95. 

  9. Posterior bulk-filled resin composite restorations. A 5-year randomized controlled clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    mm as needed to fill the cavity 2 mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2 mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using slightly......, 4 SDR-CeramX mono+ and 6 CeramX mono +-only restorations. The main reasons for failure were tooth fracture (6) and secondary caries (4). The annual failure rate (AFR) for all restorations (Class I and II) was for the bulk-filled-1.1% and for the resin composite-only restorations 1.3% (p = 0...

  10. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration : evidence from three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, P.M. van; Grootjans, A.P.; Sorrell, B.K.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W.A.; Middleton, B.

    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative

  11. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration: evidence from three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Grootjans, A.P.; Sorrell, B.K.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative

  12. Fracture resistance of structurally compromised and normal endodontically treated teeth restored with different post systems: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihesadat Mortazavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the aim of developing methods that could increase the fracture resistance of structurally compromised endodontically treated teeth, this study was conducted to compare the effect of three esthetic post systems on the fracture resistance and failure modes of structurally compromised and normal roots. Materials and Methods: Forty five extracted and endodontically treated maxillary central teeth were assigned to 5 experimental groups (n=9. In two groups, the post spaces were prepared with the corresponding drills of the post systems to be restored with double taper light posts (DT.Light-Post (group DT.N and zirconia posts (Cosmopost (group Zr.N. In other 3 groups thin wall canals were simulated to be restored with Double taper Light posts (DT.W, double taper Light posts and Ribbond fibers (DT+R.W and Zirconia posts (Zr.W. After access cavity restoration and thermocycling, compressive load was applied and the fracture strength values and failure modes were evaluated. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA, Tukey and Fisher exact tests (P<0.05. Results: The mean failure loads (N were 678.56, 638.22, 732.44, 603.44 and 573.67 for groups DT.N, Zr.N, DT.W, DT+R.W and Zr.w respectively. Group DT+R.W exhibited significantly higher resistance to fracture compared to groups Zr.N, DT.W and Zr.w (P<0.05. A significant difference was detected between groups DT.N and Zr.W (P=0.027. Zirconia posts showed significantly higher root fracture compared to fiber posts (P=0.004. Conclusion: The structurally compromised teeth restored with double taper light posts and Ribbond fibers showed the most fracture resistance and their strengths were comparable to those of normal roots restored with double taper light posts. More desirable fracture patterns were observed in teeth restored with fiber posts.

  13. The importance of genetic make-up in seagrass restoration : a case study of the seagrass Zostera noltei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahnke, Marlene; Serra, Ilia Anna; Bernard, Guillaume; Procaccini, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass meadows are among the most important coastal ecosystems. Their ongoing decline is of concern, and transplantations are carried out in many parts of the world to restore the ecosystem services seagrass meadows provide. Several studies have highlighted the importance of genetic diversity for

  14. Studying long-term, large-scale grassland restoration outcomes to improve seeding methods and reveal knowledge gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1) Considerable research is currently focused on restoring the World’s degraded grasslands by introducing species from seed. The research is continually providing valuable new insights into early seeded plant establishment, but more emphasis on longer, larger studies is needed to better quantify s...

  15. Ecological, political and social challenges of prescribed fire restoration in east Texas pineywoods ecosystems: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra Rideout; Brian P. Oswald; Michael H. Legg

    2003-01-01

    The effectiveness of prescribed fire restoration of forested sites in three state parks in east Texas, USA was studied. Two sites consisted of mixed shortleaf (Pinus echinata Mill.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and broadleaf overstoreys. The third site was a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.)/little...

  16. Model Studies on the Effectiveness of MBBR Reactors for the Restoration of Small Water Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Agata; Mazur, Robert; Panek, Ewa; Chmist, Joanna

    2018-02-01

    The authors present the Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) model with a quasi-continuous flow for small water reservoir restoration, characterized by high concentrations of organic pollutants. To determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment the laboratory analysis of physic-chemical parameters were conducted for the model on a semi-technical scale of 1:3. Wastewater treatment process was carried out in 24 h for 1 m3 for raw sewage. The startup period was 2 weeks for all biofilters (biological beds). Approximately 50% reduction in COD and BOD5 was obtained on average for the studied bioreactors. Significant improvements were achieved in theclarity of the treated wastewater, with the reduction of suspension by 60%. The oxygen profile has improved significantly in 7 to 9 hours of the process, and a diametric reduction in the oxidative reduction potential was recorded. A preliminary model of biological treatment effectiveness was determined based on the conducted studies. In final stages, the operation mode was set in real conditions of polluted water reservoirs.

  17. Successional study for the restoration at Carpatos forest reserve in Guasca, Cundinamarca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantillo Higuera Edgard Ernesto; Lozada Silva Alberto; Pinzon Gonzalez Julian

    2009-01-01

    Based on floristic and structural characterization, four stages of secondary succession were analyzed within a matrix of vegetation that had been disrupted (185 ha) at Carpatos Forest Reserve. This reserve is located in the foothills of Colombian's Eastern Mountain Range (Cordillera Oriental), among 2600 and 3000 meters above sea level, and it is aimed at making a contribution to prepare a restoration protocol. In flat, wet areas, vegetation represented by grassland whit Rubus floribundum y Pteridium aquilinum, grows up to 0.7 m height on average. It is characterized by Pteridium aquilinum, which holds an average of 1638 individuals per 0.1 ha and a total of four species with the same number of genera and families bushes of Solanum inopinum and Chusquea scandens, less than 3 m height, were dominated by Chusquea scandens, with an estimated average of 638 individuals per 0.1 ha and a total of four species and the same number of genera and families. In areas of steeper slopes and lower humidity more structured vegetation grows. This forests in recovery dominated by Miconia theaezans y Myrsine coriacea, which contains two types of vegetation: Hedyosmum crenatum y Myrsine coriacea, which are dominated by a shrub layer no taller than 5 m, with Myrsine coriacea as its most important species, and an estimated average of 1742 individuals per 0.1 ha and a total of 18 species, 16 genera and 13 families, and Weinmannia pinnata y Miconia theaezans, represented by Myrsine coriacea, Miconia theaezans and Weinmannia pinnata as important species, which held an estimated average of 1833 individuals per 0.1 ha and a total of 14 species, 12 genera and 11 families. Myrsine coriacea, Miconia theaezans, Weinmannia pinnata and Hedyosmun crenatum are regarded as the most suitable to start reproductive, adaptive and developing silvicultural protocols. Management analysis suggests that there is a correlation between higher clay content and the secondary-succession initial-state communities

  18. Shade variance in ceramic restoration and shade tab: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannaikadu Somasundaram Prabu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In clinical practice aesthetics for any restoration needs to consider the parameters of surface form, translucency and colour.To achieve ideal aesthetics the colour replication process for dental porcelain is the most important step which comprises of a shade selection phase followed by shade duplication. Materials and Methods: The ceramic brands Vita VMK95 (classic and Ivoclar classic V were used for comparison with Vita classic shade tab guide shades A2 and B2. The samples were made of specific shape, size, and were of the recommended dimensions from investing self-cure acrylic strips to casted NiCr specimens Objective. The objective of this study was to quantify the results in CIE AE units system for the colour differences between the Vita shade guide colours and two commercial porcelains for metal ceramic crowns. Results: The results indicated that the porcelains do not match the shade guides to which they are compared and shade variations exist between different lots of porcelain from the same and different manufacturer. Conclusion: Problems identified that porcelains do not match the shade guides to which they are compared and shade variations exist between different lots of porcelain from the same and different manufacturer

  19. Restoration of a wild grey partridge shoot: a major development in the Sussex study, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewald, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific basis of wild grey partridge management has been known for a generation. This includes controlling nest predators, providing nesting cover, having sufficient insect food for chicks and appropriate rates of shooting. More recently, measures such as providing food for adult birds and habitats for protection from birds of prey have also been considered important. Habitat provision can be expensive, but in the UK costs can be partially recovered through governmental agri–environment schemes. The landowner still needs to pay for the essential gamekeeper. Since 2003/04, one part of the Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust’s (GWCT Sussex Study area has put these principles of environmental management into practice with the aim of restoring a wild grey partridge shoot to this part of Southern England. Results have been impressive, with the spring pair density increasing from 0.3 pairs/100 ha in 2003 to nearly 20 pairs/100 ha in 2010 on an area of just over 10 km2. Over the past two years a wild grey partridge shoot has taken place, and the landowner and his team have gained national recognition for their conservation work.

  20. Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis for Leque Island and zis a ba Restoration Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiting, Jonathan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Khangaonkar, Tarang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    Ducks Unlimited, Inc. in collaboration with Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians have proposed the restoration of Leque Island and zis a ba (formerly Matterand) sites near the mouth of Old Stillaguamish River Channel in Port Susan Bay, Washington. The Leque Island site, which is owned by WDFW, consists of nearly 253 acres of land south of Highway 532 that is currently behind a perimeter dike. The 90-acres zis a ba site, also shielded by dikes along the shoreline, is located just upstream of Leque Island and is owned by Stillaguamish Tribes. The proposed actions consider the removal or modification of perimeter dikes at both locations to allow estuarine functions to be restored. The overall objective of the proposed projects is to remove the dike barriers to 1) provide connectivity and access between the tidal river channel and the restoration site for use by juvenile migrating salmon and 2) create a self-sustaining tidal marsh habitat. Ducks Unlimited engaged Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Port Susan Bay, Skagit Bay, and the interconnecting Leque Island region for use in support of the feasibility assessment for the Leque Island and zis a ba restoration projects. The objective of this modeling-based feasibility assessment is to evaluate the performance of proposed restoration actions in terms of achieving habitat goals while assessing the potential hydraulic and sediment transport impacts to the site and surrounding parcels of land.

  1. Interim restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, David G; Aquilino, Steven A

    2004-04-01

    Interim restorations are a critical component of fixed prosthodontic treatment, biologically and biomechanically. Interim restoration serves an important diagnostic role as a functional and esthetic try-in and as a blueprint for the design of the definitive prosthesis. When selecting materials for any interim restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, handling properties, patient acceptance, and material cost. Although no single material meets all the requirements and material classification alone of a given product is not a predictor of clinical performance, bis-acryl materials are typically best suited to single-unit restorations, and poly(methylmethacrylate) interim materials are generally ideal for multi-unit, complex, long-term, interim fixed prostheses. As with most dental procedures, the technique used for fabrication has a greater effect on the final result than the specific material chosen.

  2. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...... and competitive combinations in the longer term. Non-native species may serve an important role under some circumstances, e.g., to facilitate reintroduction of native species. Propagation and field establishment techniques must promote survival through seedling stress resistance and site preparation. An improved...

  3. Bacterial adhesion on direct and indirect dental restorative composite resins: An in vitro study on a natural biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derchi, Giacomo; Vano, Michele; Barone, Antonio; Covani, Ugo; Diaspro, Alberto; Salerno, Marco

    2017-05-01

    Both direct and indirect techniques are used for dental restorations. Which technique should be preferred or whether they are equivalent with respect to bacterial adhesion is unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the affinity of bacterial biofilm to dental restorative composite resins placed directly and indirectly. Five direct composite resins for restorations (Venus Diamond, Adonis, Optifil, Enamel Plus HRi, Clearfil Majesty Esthetic) and 3 indirect composite resins (Gradia, Estenia, Signum) were selected. The materials were incubated in unstimulated whole saliva for 1 day. The biofilms grown were collected and their bacterial cells counted. In parallel, the composite resin surface morphology was analyzed with atomic force microscopy. Both bacterial cell count and surface topography parameters were subjected to statistical analysis (α=.05). Indirect composite resins showed significantly lower levels than direct composite resins for bacterial cell adhesion, (Pcomposite resins (P>.05). However, within the indirect composite resins a significantly lower level was found for Gradia than Estenia or Signum (Pcomposite resin roughness and bacterial adhesion when the second and particularly the third-order statistical moments of the composite resin height distributions were considered. Indirect dental restorative composite resins were found to be less prone to biofilm adhesion than direct composite resins. A correlation of bacterial adhesion to surface morphology exists that is described by kurtosis; thus, advanced data analysis is required to discover possible insights into the biologic effects of morphology. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Studies on the male sterility-fertility restoration system of AE. Kotschyi 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Junyuan; Sun Guoqing; Liu Luxiang; Zhao Linshu; Lu Xiuxia

    1996-01-01

    Sterile plants were obtained from the distant hybridization between Ae. Kotschyi 19 as the female parent and the Chinese Spring and T. yunnanense King as the male parent. Common wheat lines were used to testcross and backcross with the F 1 sterile plants successively. Male sterile line K-19 with Ae. Kotschyi cytoplasm and common wheat nucleus was bred. Over 10 K-19 MS lines were obtained. They are steady without monoploid. 7 restorers were obtained with the restoring ability from 88.2% to 96.9% according to the domestic method, from 116.4% to 150.4% according to the international method

  5. The passive river restoration approach as an efficient tool to improve the hydromorphological diversity of rivers - Case study from two river restoration projects in the German lower mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, M.

    2017-09-01

    Intensive use of European rivers during the last hundreds of years has led to profound changes in the physicochemical properties, river morphology, and aquatic faunistic communities. Rectifying these changes and improving the ecological state of all surface water bodies is the central aim of the European Water Frame Directive (WFD), and river restoration measures are the main tool to achieve this goal for many rivers. As the cost-effectiveness of all measures is crucial to the WFD implementation, the approach of the passive river restoration has become very popular over the last decades. But while costs of this approach are minimal, not much is known about the long-term effectiveness of passive river restorations. The research presented here provides essential and in-depth data about the effects of two such restoration measures on the riverbed morphology of a large river of the lower mountain region in Germany (type 9.2). More than 3200 data sets were acquired using the TRiSHa method (Typology of Riverbed Structures and Habitats). The results show a high spatial and temporal diversity and dynamic for all analyzed hydromorphologic parameters - ranging from riverbed sediments, organic structures like dead wood or macrophytes, to the distribution of 32 microhabitat types. The structures and their dynamic depend on the character of the study area (free-flowing or impounded), the location of the study sites within the research area (main channel or restored side channel), and on the occurrence of major flood events (the mapping and sampling were conducted annually from 2006 to 2008 with a 50-year flood event occurring in early 2007). These results show the potential of the passive restoration approach for creating morphologically diverse riverbeds, as habitat diversity and the spatial heterogeneity of the riverbed substrates increased significantly (e.g., more than 40% of all habitat types were only detected in the newly restored side channels). But the results also

  6. Parametric Blade Study Test Report Rotor Configuration. Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    Figure 2. The rotor shaft is mounted on an oil-damped roller bearing at the forward location and a ball bearing at the aft location; radial runout does...thermodynamic properties. 22 d. Corrections were made to measured compressor temperatures and pressures, facility flowrate, and rotor wheel speed to...1152 .Z660 .1024 STRM- BLADE BLADE WHEEL LINE SECT. LEAN SPEED NUMBER ANGLE ANGLE 1 -55.15 7.32 1497.9 2 -53.85 8.09 1434.7 3 -52.96 7.11 1372.1 4

  7. Parametric Blade Study Test Report Rotor Configuration. Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    location and a ball bearing at the aft location; radial runout does not exceed 0.001 inch. Forward and aft buffer controlled gap carbon seals were used...made to measured compressor temperatures and pressures, facility flowrate, and rotor wheel speed to correspond to standard inlet conditions of...0662 .1034 STRM- BLADE BLADE WHEEL LINE SECT. LEAN SPEED NUMBER ANGLE ANGLE I -53.96 7.35 1497.5 2 -52.68 8.11 1434.6 3 -51.88 7.15 1372.5 4 -50.49

  8. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 6, Number 3. Fall 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    in use, down to the level of specific version, the build number in use, and the history of security patches applied to it; • IP addresses of...IP addresses from 4,294,967,296 in IPv4 to 2128 in IPv6. It is recognized today that “deploying IPv6 is the only perennial way to ease pressure on...the public IPv4 address pool.”41 As the world begins a transition from using IPv4 to IPv6 as the dominant communications protocol for the global

  9. A comparative study of the accuracy between plastic and metal impression transfer copings for implant restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Monica A; Paez de Mendoza, Carmen Y; Platt, Jeffrey A; Levon, John A; Hovijitra, Suteera T; Nimmo, Arthur

    2013-07-01

    A precise transfer of the position and orientation of the antirotational mechanism of an implant to the working cast is particularly important to achieve optimal fit of the final restoration. This study evaluated and compared the accuracy of metal and plastic impression copings for use in a full-arch mandibular edentulous simulation with four implants. Metal and plastic impression transfer copings for two implant systems, Nobel Biocare™ Replace and Straumann SynOcta®, were assessed on a laboratory model to simulate clinical practice. The accuracy of producing stone casts using these plastic and metal impression transfer copings was measured against a standard prosthetic framework consisting of a cast gold bar. A total of 20 casts from the four combinations were obtained. The fit of the framework on the cast was tested by a noncontact surface profilometer, the Proscan 3D 2000 A, using the one-screw test. The effects of implant/system and impression/coping material on gap measurements were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. The findings of this in vitro study were as follows: plastic copings demonstrated significantly larger average gaps than metal for Straumann (p = 0.001). Plastic and metal copings were not significantly different for Nobel (p = 0.302). Nobel had significantly larger average gaps than Straumann for metal copings (p = 0.003). Nobel had marginally smaller average gaps than Straumann (p = 0.096) for plastic copings. The system-by-screw location interaction was significant as well (p impression copings were more accurate than plastic copings when using the Straumann system, and there was no difference between metal and plastic copings for the Nobel Replace system. The system-by-screw location was not conclusive, showing no correlation within each system. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  10. Combined association of clinical and lifestyle factors with non-restorative sleep: The Nagahama Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Non-restorative sleep (NRS was suggested to be associated with cardiovascular outcomes. However, causative factors for NRS have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to clarify factors and their relationships with NRS to better understand the clinical and epidemiological implications of NRS and to develop a score that can objectively evaluate NRS status.Study subjects consisted of 9,788 community residents (age 53.6 ± 13.4 y. Subjective NRS as well as possible clinical and lifestyle factors for NRS were investigated by questionnaires. Other clinical parameters were obtained from personal records of information obtained at the baseline examination.A total of 3,261 participants complained of NRS. Factors independently associated with subjective NRS were younger age (odds ratio = 1.43, use of a hypnotic drug (2.04, irregular sleep schedule (2.02, short sleep duration (<5 h, 11.7; 5-6 h, 4.81; 6-7 h, 2.40, frequent sleepiness (2.33, routine stress (4.63, no habitual exercise (1.61, nocturia symptoms (1.43, symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (1.44, and depression (1.46 (all P <0.001. The NRS score comprised of these 10 factors was linearly associated with the frequency of subjective NRS (Ptrend <0.001. Frequency of individuals with a high NRS score was greater in women (52.3% than in men (42.1%, P<0.001, while no clear association was observed with common risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.NRS was a phenomenon representing various clinical and lifestyle features. Careful attention should be paid to individuals with a high NRS score who might be at risk for mental fatigue and have unfavorable lifestyle factors.

  11. Green Walls for a Restorative Classroom Environment : A Controlled Evaluation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Agnes E; Wesselius, Janke E; Maas, Jolanda; Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin

    2017-01-01

    In the present research, we evaluated the restorative impacts of green walls with living plants in classrooms of two elementary schools using a controlled, prospective design with baseline measurements and follow-ups at 2 and 4 months. At each time of measurement, children's (n = 170, age = 7-10)

  12. Restoration of high zinc and lead tailings with municipal biosolids and lime: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sally; Svendsen, Alex; Henry, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    A field study was conducted to test the ability of biosolids (BS) and different types of lime to increase soil pH, neutralize subsoil acidity, and restore a vegetative cover to alluvial mine tailings in Leadville, CO. The tailings had soil pH of 5.2 and total Cd, Pb, and Zn of 75+/-20, 2600+/-1100, and 6700+/-1900 mg kg(-1). Types of lime included agricultural lime (AL), sugar beet lime (SBL), and lime kiln dust (LKD) applied at 224 Mg ha(-1) calcium carbonate equivalent. Plots were established in 2000 and monitored intermittently through 2007. All amendments increased pH in surface and subsurface depths, with LKD, LKD+BS, and SBL+BS being the most effective. Amendments also reduced 0.01 mol L(-1) Ca(NO3)2 extractable Zn and Cd compared to the control. Plant growth was sparse on all treatments with limited yield for three of four harvests. Poor growth may have been related to elevated electrical conductivity (EC). All amendments except LKD alone (5.79 dS m(-1)) increased EC compared to the control treatment (5.28 dS m(-1)). Electrical conductivity was highest in 2002 which had the lowest summer rainfall. In 2005 EC in all treatments except the SBL+BS was similar in the surface soil. Aboveground plant tissue concentrations of Zn and Cd were also elevated. Limited precipitation and high electrical conductivity may be responsible for poor plant growth. Higher rainfall for the last sampling period resulted in significant growth in the LKD+BS, SBL+BS, and LKD alone treatments.

  13. In-situ leaching of crownpoint, NM, uranium ore: Part 7 - Laboratory study of chemical agents for molybdenum restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, E.T.; Vogt, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    One possible drawback to the use of an in-situ leaching to recover uranium is the potential release of previously insoluble chemical species into the formation water. Before a pilot test of in-situ uranium leaching at Crownpoint, NM, was begun, extensive laboratory studies were undertaken to develop chemical methods for treating one possible contaminant, molybdenum (Mo). New Mexico regulations restrict the amount of Mo permissable in formation waters after leaching to less than 1 ppm. Two techniques to restore Mo after leaching were studied with core and pack tests. These studies suggest that if Mo restoration problems occur in the field, the use of precipitating agents such as Ca/sup 2+/ or reducing agents such as Fe/sup 2+/ may be helpful in ameliorating such problems

  14. Human Paraoxonase-1 Activity Is Related to the Number of CD4+ T-Cells and Is Restored by Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Morganti Ferreira Maselli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 activity is suggested to be altered in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1. We investigated PON1 activity in individuals receiving different regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Methods. PON1 activity was evaluated in 91 HIV-1 seronegative and 624 HIV-1 infected individuals (115 were not undergoing therapy (ART-naïve, and 509 were receiving HAART. HIV-1 infected individuals were treated with the following: efavirenz (EFV; n=195 or nevirapine (NVP; n=95 or lopinavir/ritonavir (LOP/r; n=219. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, HDL, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL fractions and the atherogenic indices (AI, TC : HDL, and LDL : HDL ratios were determined. Results. PON1 activity (U/L was lower in the ART-naïve group compared with the other groups. PON1 activity correlated with CD4+ T-cell number of ART-naïve group (r=0,121; P=0,014. The LOP/r group showed a reduction in HDL and an increase in AI (TC : HDL ratio in comparison with other groups. Conclusion. PON1 activity was reduced in untreated individuals, but not in individuals receiving HAART. PON1 activity correlated with the number of CD4+ T-cells. The findings suggest that the activity of PON1 is associated with the immune status of HIV-1 infected individuals.

  15. A comparison of stresses in molar teeth restored with inlays and direct restorations, including polymerization shrinkage of composite resin and tooth loading during mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejak, Beata; Młotkowski, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    Polymerization shrinkage of composites is one of the main causes of leakage around dental restorations. Despite the large numbers of studies there is no consensus, what kind of teeth reconstruction--direct or indirect composite restorations are the most beneficial and the most durable. The aim was to compare equivalent stresses and contact adhesive stresses in molar teeth with class II MOD cavities, which were restored with inlays and direct restorations (taking into account polymerization shrinkage of composite resin) during simulated mastication. The study was conducted using the finite elements method with the application of contact elements. Three 3D models of first molars were created: model A was an intact tooth; model B--a tooth with a composite inlay, and model C--a tooth with a direct composite restoration. Polymerization linear shrinkage 0.7% of a direct composite restoration and resin luting cement was simulated (load 1). A computer simulation of mastication was performed (load 2). In these 2 situations, equivalent stresses according to the modified von Mises criterion (mvM) in the materials of mandibular first molar models with different restorations were calculated and compared. Contact stresses in the luting cement-tooth tissue adhesive interface around the restorations were also assessed and analyzed. Equivalent stresses in a tooth with a direct composite restoration (the entire volume of which was affected by polymerization shrinkage) were many times higher than in the tooth restored with a composite inlay (where shrinkage was present only in a thin layer of the luting cement). In dentin and enamel the stress values were 8-14 times higher, and were 13 times higher in the direct restoration than in the inlay. Likewise, contact stresses in the adhesive bond around the direct restoration were 6.5-7.7 times higher compared to an extraorally cured restoration. In the masticatory simulation, shear contact stresses in the adhesive bond around the direct

  16. Long-term competence restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Douglas R; DeYoung, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    While the United States Supreme Court's Jackson v. Indiana decision and most state statutes mandate determinations of incompetent defendants' restoration probabilities, courts and forensic clinicians continue to lack empirical evidence to guide these determinations and do not yet have a consensus regarding whether and under what circumstances incompetent defendants are restorable. The evidence base concerning the restoration likelihood of those defendants who fail initial restoration efforts is even further diminished and has largely gone unstudied. In this study, we examined the disposition of a cohort of defendants who underwent long-term competence restoration efforts (greater than six months) and identified factors related to whether these defendants were able to attain restoration and adjudicative success. Approximately two-thirds (n = 52) of the 81 individuals undergoing extended restoration efforts were eventually deemed restored to competence. Lengths of hospitalization until successful restoration are presented with implications for the reasonable length of time that restoration efforts should persist. Older individuals were less likely to be restored and successfully adjudicated, and individuals with more severe charges and greater factual legal understanding were more likely to be restored and adjudicated. The significance of these findings for courts and forensic clinicians is discussed.

  17. Social Studies Review, Numbers 1-12, 1989-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewall, Gilbert T., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This documents consists of 12 issues of a journal that seeks to provide information and reviews concerning social studies textbooks; each issue consists of 16 pages. Contents in the 12 issues include: (1) California control over textbook content; (2) "skills" teaching in elementary-level social studies texts; (3) readability formulas;…

  18. Fracture resistance of prepared premolars restored with bonded new lab composite and all-ceramic inlay/onlay restorations: Laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafaie, Ramy Ahmed; Ibrahim Ali, Ashraf; Mahmoud, Salah Hasab

    2018-01-25

    To assess the influence of new light curing lab composite, lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic and yttrium-stabilized zirconia-based ceramic on the fracture resistance of maxillary premolars with class II inlay and onlay preparations. Seventy sound maxillary premolars were divided randomly into seven main groups. The first group was left intact (control group). The remaining six groups were prepared with inlay and onlay cavities and restored with lab composite (SR Nexco), lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max Press) and yttrium-stabilized zirconia-based ceramic (ICE Zirkon). The restorations were cemented with luting resin composite (Variolink N). All specimens were thermocycled 5000 cycles between 5°C ± 2°C and 55°C ± 2°C and were then cyclic loaded for 500 000 cycles. The specimens were subjected to a compressive load in a universal testing machine using a metal sphere until fracture occurred. The results were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post hoc tests. The level of significance was set at P  .05). However, statistically significant differences were found among the means of control group and the groups restored with lab composite inlays, lab composite onlays, pressable glass ceramic inlays and pressable glass ceramic onlays (P lab composite is used. Conversely, when a ceramic material being used, the prepared teeth for inlay and onlay restorations showed a comparable strength to the intact teeth especially zirconia ceramic. Premolar teeth restored with zirconia ceramic inlays and onlays exhibited fracture resistance comparable to intact teeth. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Prescribed burning for understory restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2006-01-01

    Because the longleaf ecosystem evolved with and is adapted to frequent fire, every 2 to 8 years, prescribed burning is often useful for restoring understory communities to a diverse ground layer of grasses, herbs, and small shrubs. This restoration provides habitat for a number of plant and animal species that are restricted to or found mostly in longleaf pine...

  20. Study of nanostructured clay's application in photoactivated restorative resins, used in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Luiza Melo de Paiva

    2012-01-01

    The problem caused by polymerization shrinkage is critical, because the resin must remain closely in the tooth cavity while gaining rigidity and decrease its dimensions. Forcing the restorative material to distance or to separate the walls of the cavity, the resulting disruption would lead to microleakage, responsible for other problems such as secondary caries, postoperative soreness and may even cause pulpal changes. This process induces the volumetric change of the compound, given by the union of radicals in the formation of the macromolecule (polymer), causing a decrease in volume. This study aimed to develop new experimental composites through the addition of nano components clay minerals in a polymer matrix-based BisGMA / TEGDMA, to evaluate the possibility of a different dimensional behavior during the polymerization. Were used in this study, experimental composites added nanoparticle clay MMT Cloisite 10A (at concentrations of 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70 wt%) and Cloisite 30B (at concentrations of 50, 55, 60 and 65 wt%), which were then compared with the performance of the experimental composites added with micro-particles of silanized silica hybrid Aerosil OX-50 (at concentrations of 50, 60, 65 and 70 wt%). Was used the methods of characterization: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Thermal-Mechanical Analysis (TMA), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Absorption Spectroscopy in the Region of the Infrared (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Micro Hardness Knoop, Holographic Interferometry Technique (HIT), Digital Holography (DH), Correlation Image (CI) and Thermography. It was observed that the experimental composites with nanoparticles added clay Cloisite 10A and Cloisite 30B, performed better on tests that measured the polymerization shrinkage (TMA, HIT/HD/IC) and the micro hardness (Knoop), in relation to composites added with Silica Aerosil OX-50. These results may be related to the interaction polymer/clay and the nano

  1. Comparison of Micro-Leakage around Temporary Restorative Materials Placed in Complex Endodontic Access Cavities: An In-Vitro Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnan, S.; Khan, F. R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare mean micro-leakage around 3 types of temporary restorative materials in-vitro, when placed adjacent to permanent restorations (amalgam) in complex endodontic access cavities. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Dental Clinics, Dental Laboratory and Research Laboratory at The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January to Jun 2014. Methodology: After random allocation of 60 teeth into 3 experimental groups, each group had conventional class II cavities prepared and amalgam placed. After 14 days, endodontic access cavities were made in these teeth, followed byplacement of Cavit, IRM and CLIP (depth of 4 mm each). After thermo-cycling and immersion in 0.5 percentage methylene blue dye, the teeth were sectioned mesio-distally and observed under stereoscopic microscope (magnification * 4) along 2 interfaces 'a' and 'b' (tooth-temporary restoration and temporary restoration-primary restoration), respectively. Depth of dye penetration was measured in millimeters. Results: IRM was leakiest at interface 'a', cavit had highest dye penetration at interface 'b', while CLIP exhibited least micro-leakage at 'a' and 'b'. The mean dye penetration for Cavit was 0.80 ± 0.23 mm at 'a', and 2.24 ± 0.48 mm at 'b'. For IRM, it was 1.82 ± 0.09 mm at 'a', and 0.44 ± 0.13 mm at 'b'. For CLIP, the mean dye penetration was 0.43 ± 0.05 mm at 'a', and 0.32 ± 0.12 mm at 'b'. The difference in dye penetration observed between the 3 groups at both interfaces was statistically significant. Conclusion: In a complex access cavity made adjacent to a pre-existing amalgam restoration, CLIP exhibits the least micro-leakage, followed by IRM and Cavit. (author)

  2. Environmental Impact Assessment of reservoir construction: new perspectives for restoration economy, and development: the Belo Monte Power Plant case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundisi, J G; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Tundisi, J E M

    2015-08-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment of reservoir construction can be viewed as a new strategic perspective for the economic development of a region. Based on the principles of a watershed approach a interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary systemic view including biogeophysiographical, economic and socio environmental studies the new vision of a EIA provides a basic substratum for the restoration economy and an advanced model for the true development much well ahead of the modernization aspects of the project of a reservoir construction.

  3. Ghana Journal of Development Studies, Volume 7, Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    concentration of national resources in the export-oriented cocoa, timber and mining sectors (Tonah,. 1994), which are all located in ... The import of rice from Asia and the USA has led to the abandonment of many rice farms in northern .... electricity and cooling facilities, such as the study communities. In order to evaluate the ...

  4. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 10, Number 3. Fall 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Function Amanda M. Schrand DARPA Emerging Technologies Maj Paul Calhoun, USAF Book Essay : The Future of Artificial Intelligence Allison Berke...Paul Calhoun, USAF Book Essay The Future of Artificial Intelligence ............................................... 114 Allison Berke Book Review...Worlds Many readers of Strategic Studies Quarterly will no doubt remember lyrics from the song “In the Year 2525,” released in 1969, written and

  5. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 8, Number 1, Spring 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    columnist in the IT trade press: “My fear is that when it comes to cyber war- fare there is no Billy Mitchell today in Washington,” http...from Michael Roth and Murat Sever, “The Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) as Criminal Syndicate : Funding Terrorism through Organized Crime,” Studies in

  6. Recovery, restoration, and development of an enhancement plan for the Leading Creek watershed after dewatering of the Meigs number-sign 31 coal mine in Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, D.S.; Hassel, J.H. Van; Yeager, M.M.; Babendreier, J.E.; Currie, R.J.; Astin, L.E.; Lynde, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    Following the flooding of the Meigs number-sign 31 deep coal mine in Meigs County, Ohio, a proactive plan was developed to evaluate effects of initial dewatering, recovery, and development of a watershed enhancement plan. Approximately half of the 31-mile Leading Creek mainstem received coal mine discharge of high conductivity, low pH, high metals and total suspended solids loading. Most forms of aquatic life were depleted in the impacted areas of the creek. After three years since the incident, many forms of benthic macroinvertebrates and fish have returned to the creek, and sediments have been purged of metal loading by storm water events. The enhancement plan involves a reconnaissance of the creek and tributaries pinpointing areas of agricultural sedimentation and abandoned mined land (AML) influences in the lower half. Research activities involved sampling water and sediment in 10 stations of the creek and 17 major tributaries. The tributaries were addressed as point source discharges with water/sediment toxicity testing conducted. In-situ testing included growth impairment evaluation of Asian clams at 27 stations in the watershed. Several tributaries were intermittently toxic depending upon rainfall and the degree of AML input. Benthic macroinvertebrate assembles in most tributaries were stressed and comprised 0--3 taxa. Erosion/sedimentation loading was being addressed by hydrological modeling of the creek, land use management/habitat assessment, and data management by geographic information systems

  7. Effect of ecological restoration programs on dust concentrations in the North China Plain: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xin; Tie, Xuexi; Li, Guohui; Cao, Junji; Feng, Tian; Zhao, Shuyu; Xing, Li; An, Zhisheng

    2018-05-01

    In recent decades, the Chinese government has made a great effort in initiating large-scale ecological restoration programs (ERPs) to reduce the dust concentrations in China, especially for dust storm episodes. Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product, the ERP-induced land cover changes are quantitatively evaluated in this study. Two obvious vegetation protective barriers arise throughout China from the southwest to the northeast, which are well known as the Green Great Wall (GGW). Both the grass GGW and forest GGW are located between the dust source region (DSR) and the densely populated North China Plain (NCP). To assess the effect of ERPs on dust concentrations, a regional transport/dust model (WRF-DUST, Weather Research and Forecast model with dust) is applied to investigate the evolution of dust plumes during a strong dust storm episode from 2 to 8 March 2016. The WRF-DUST model generally performs reasonably well in reproducing the temporal variations and spatial distributions of near-surface [PMC] (mass concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 µm) during the dust storm event. Sensitivity experiments have indicated that the ERP-induced GGWs help to reduce the dust concentration in the NCP, especially in BTH (Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei). When the dust storm is transported from the upwind DSR to the downwind NCP, the [PMC] reduction ranges from -5 to -15 % in the NCP, with a maximum reduction of -12.4 % (-19.2 µg m-3) in BTH and -7.6 % (-10.1 µg m-3) in the NCP. We find the dust plumes move up to the upper atmosphere and are transported from the upwind DSR to the downwind NCP, accompanied by dust decrease. During the episode, the forest GGW is nonsignificant in dust concentration control because it is of benefit for dry deposition and not for emission. Conversely, the grass GGW is beneficial in controlling dust erosion and is the dominant reason for [PMC] decrease in the NCP

  8. Effect of ecological restoration programs on dust concentrations in the North China Plain: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Long

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the Chinese government has made a great effort in initiating large-scale ecological restoration programs (ERPs to reduce the dust concentrations in China, especially for dust storm episodes. Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS land cover product, the ERP-induced land cover changes are quantitatively evaluated in this study. Two obvious vegetation protective barriers arise throughout China from the southwest to the northeast, which are well known as the Green Great Wall (GGW. Both the grass GGW and forest GGW are located between the dust source region (DSR and the densely populated North China Plain (NCP. To assess the effect of ERPs on dust concentrations, a regional transport/dust model (WRF-DUST, Weather Research and Forecast model with dust is applied to investigate the evolution of dust plumes during a strong dust storm episode from 2 to 8 March 2016. The WRF-DUST model generally performs reasonably well in reproducing the temporal variations and spatial distributions of near-surface [PMC] (mass concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 µm during the dust storm event. Sensitivity experiments have indicated that the ERP-induced GGWs help to reduce the dust concentration in the NCP, especially in BTH (Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei. When the dust storm is transported from the upwind DSR to the downwind NCP, the [PMC] reduction ranges from −5 to −15 % in the NCP, with a maximum reduction of −12.4 % (−19.2 µg m−3 in BTH and −7.6 % (−10.1 µg m−3 in the NCP. We find the dust plumes move up to the upper atmosphere and are transported from the upwind DSR to the downwind NCP, accompanied by dust decrease. During the episode, the forest GGW is nonsignificant in dust concentration control because it is of benefit for dry deposition and not for emission. Conversely, the grass GGW is beneficial in controlling dust erosion and is the

  9. Electronic document management meets environmental restoration recordkeeping requirements: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts at migrating records management at five Department of Energy sites operated under management by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. for Environmental Restoration (ER) business activities are described. The corporate environment, project definition, records keeping requirements are described first. Then an evaluation of electronic document management technologies and of internal and commercially available systems are provided. Finally adopted incremental implementation strategy and lessons learned are discussed

  10. Estuarine conservation and restoration: the Somme and the Seine case studies (English Channel, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Jean-Paul; Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Megatidal estuaries such as the Seine and the Somme (North-Western France) are rather well delimited and human impacts on them are well understood. Since the middle of the 19th Century, there has been a slow but irreversible degradation of the state of these English Channel estuaries. However, current conservation and restoration strategies tend to freeze habitats in a particular state, their status being defined, most often, through a patrimonial or utilitarian approach. Connectedness between biotopes (sensu habitat+community) has a tendency to be neglected, especially with regard to main ecological gradients, i.e., salinity. In this paper, evaluation methodologies are proposed with the intention of assessing changes to ecosystem functions, under anthropogenic disturbance, controlled or otherwise. The Seine (a heavily industrialised ecosystem) is compared to the Somme (considered here for its pseudo-natural features) in order to discriminate between oceanic processes (siltation and plugging of estuaries) and anthropogenic influences. Preservation and restoration of habitats rely on a robust scientific methodology. The multi-scale approach adopted in the projects presented here relies on sensitive socio-ecological assessment procedures, tools for evaluating ecological quality, and well-built monitoring programmes based upon pertinent indicators. Such managerial tools were used to refine strategies and make them compatible with the sustainable co-development of resources in a European context. This paper demonstrates how scientists were able to acquire and apply knowledge in the field of rehabilitation and restoration. Jointly with managers and policy-makers, they have brought scientific information and socio-economics together in order to answer questions about the restoration of sites or habitats and to anticipate future propositions in the spirit of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM).

  11. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 8, Number 3, Fall 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Human knowledge and human power meet in one; for where the cause is not known the effect cannot be produced. —Sir Francis Bacon In a 2011 study, the...for Resourcing Readiness Nearly 400 years ago, Sir Frances Bacon challenged other scholars to apply a more rigorous approach to developing theories for...com- plex systems, such as nature. As Jim Manzi notes in his book, Uncon- trolled, Bacon recognized that nature is “extraordinarily complicated as

  12. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 9, Number 1. Spring 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Spring 2015 Applying Cost Imposition Strategies against China The focus on monetary and other costs has a decidedly miUtary bias . Broadly...Institute of War and Peace Studies at Colum- bia University for the fall 2014 semester. He has pubHshed in International Security, International Rela...because the brain subconsciously associates any risky policy to the initia- tor. Indeed, experiencing the fear of imminent nuclear war will cause

  13. Strategic Studies Quarterly, Volume 4, Number 3, Fall 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Prepress Production Manager Betty R. Littlejohn, Editorial Assistant Sherry C. Terrell , Editorial Assistant Daniel M. Armstrong, Illustrator Editorial...persuade an opponent to cease ag- gression without requiring the actual use of violence. Anne Sartori best describes diplomacy by deterrence as "the...incidents 1920-2007 bv Ann E. Robertson, Terrorism and Global Security (New STRATEGII STUDIES QUARTERLY • FALL 2010 [79] Christopher C. Harmon York

  14. STUDYING THE SECONDARY STRUCTURE OF ACCESSION NUMBER USING CETD MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamika Dutta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper, we have tried to analyze about the Secondary Structure of nucleotide sequences of rice. The data have been collected from NCBI (National Centre for Biotechnology Information using Nucleotide as data base. All the programs were developed using R programming language using “sequinr” package. Here, we have used CETD matrix method to study the prediction. The conclusions are drawn accordingly.

  15. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 52, Number 3, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    September 2008) Center for the Study of Intelligence In Memory of Thomas Francis Troy, CIA Teacher, Historian, 1919–2008 Amnesia to Anamnesis ...CIA Teacher, Historian, 1919–2008 1 By Hayden Peake and Nicholas Dujmovic Amnesia to Anamnesis Commemoration of the Dead at CIA 3 Nicholas Dujmovic...Intelligence Vol. 52, No. 3 Amnesia to Anamnesis Commemoration of the Dead at CIA Nicholas Dujmovic “History—as it is learned and remembered— ” shapes

  16. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 7, Number 2, Summer 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    study of Malaysia shows that in a major departure from former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad’s anti-American rhetoric and policies, Malaysian...Malaysia’s prime minister Mahathir declared that "it is high time for us to stop seeing China through the lenses of threat and to fully view China as...Order government and subsequent democratization in the late 1990s. Echoing Malaysian prime minister Mahathir , Indonesian president Abdurrahman

  17. Studies in the history of astronomy. Number 19, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurshtein, A. A.

    Papers are presented on such topics as the history of the exploration of Venus, the history of the discovery of the relic radiation, Copernicus' star catalog, Euler's contribution to potential theory in connection with the theory of the earth's figure, the role of astrology in ancient culture, and the history of the study of astronomical refraction. Attention is also given to astronomy in Kazakhstan during the Second World War, the contribution of Arago to the development of astrophysics instrumentation, and the work on astronomy written by Kirik of Novgorod in the year 1136.

  18. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu CH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations. Keywords: operative, practice, tunnel preparation, composite, amalgam, glass ionomer

  19. Transparent Restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barou, L.; Bristogianni, T.; Oikonomopoulou, F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of structural glass in restoration and conservation practices in order to highlight and safeguard our built heritage. Cast glass masonry is introduced in order to consolidate a half-ruined historic tower in Greece, by replacing the original parts of the façade

  20. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  1. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

  2. Restorative neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Robert H; Meyer, Morten; Ducray, Angélique D

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the search for therapeutic options for diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS), for which currently no effective treatment strategies are available. Replacement of damaged cells and restoration of function can be accomplished by transplantation of...

  3. Environmental Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmarcke, H

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's programme on environmental restoration are (1) to optimize and validate models for the impact assessment from environmental, radioactive contaminations, including waste disposal or discharge; (2) to support the policy of national authorities for public health and radioactive waste management. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported.

  4. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  5. Is it better to leave or restore carious deciduous molar teeth? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, M; Milsom, K; Kennedy, A

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the extraction and exfoliation experience of filled and unfilled carious deciduous molar teeth. The study was carried out in 1997 in four general dental practices in south Cheshire, UK and involved a longitudinal retrospective review of case notes. A quota sample of 20 case notes of children from each practice was selected according to strict criteria. Subjects had to: Have had experience of approximal caries in one or more of the deciduous molar teeth. Have a date of birth between 1st January 1984 and 31st December 1985. Be a regular attender and in continuous contact with the practice. Data were collected on a common data abstraction form. Variables measured included: Base-line dmft. Site and number of filled teeth. Site and number of unfilled carious teeth. Number of courses of antibiotics. Site and number of pulp therapies. Site, number, method (local or general anaesthetic) of extractions. Reasons for extraction. All teeth not recorded as being extracted were assumed to have exfoliated. In addition, information was collected on the dentists' treatment philosophies. A series of group discussions revealed that the four dentists fitted into two groups according to treatment philosophies; two dentists shared a philosophy of minimal intervention, the other two shared the same views of treating more radically. There was no significant difference between the proportion of filled teeth and the proportion of carious unfilled teeth that were extracted (chi-square 0.05 P = 0.83). A logistic regression showed that for each course of antibiotics administered the odds of having an extraction was multiplied by 5.5 and children who were patients of the interventionist dentists were five times more likely to have an extraction than patients of non-interventionist dentists. Although the study was preliminary in nature no clear benefit could be found in filling deciduous molar teeth against leaving carious teeth unfilled, if avoidance

  6. Land use change for flood protection: A prospective study for the restoration of the river Jelašnica watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Ratko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia’s hilly-mountainous regions are extremely vulnerable to flooding as a consequence of their natural characteristics and human impacts. Land mismanagement influences the development of erosion processes, and causes soil degradation that significantly reduces the land’s capacity to infiltrate and retain rainwater. Inappropriate land use as well as development activities replace permeable with impervious surfaces in the watershed. This leads to more rapid runoff generation and the more frequent appearance of torrential floods and bed-load deposits on downstream sections. Environmental degradation creates economicsocial problems within local societies which is often followed by depopulation. Restoring watersheds to their optimal hydrologic state would reduce flood discharge and by increasing groundwater recharge would increase both low-flow and average discharges in springs and streams. Best management practices could be developed through the application of specific combinations of biotechnical, technical and administrative measures, and by using the concept of ″natural reservoirs″. The design of such practices is explored through a case study of the watershed of the river Jelašnica, southeastern Serbia. Realization of these planned restoration works should help decrease the annual yields of erosive material by 44.1% and the specific annual transport of sediment through hydrographic network by 43.6%. Representative value of the coefficient of erosion will be reduced from Z=0.555 to Z=0.379. The value of maximal discharge Qmax-AMCIII (1%=54.17 m3•s-1, before restoration, is decreased to Qmax-AMCIII (1%=41.22 m3•s-1 after restoration, indicating the improvement of hydrological conditions, as a direct consequence of land use changes. Administrative measures are applied through ″Plans for announcement of erosive regions and protection from torrential floods in the territory of Leskovac municipality″.

  7. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993; Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers, thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin. Adult pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River. In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River. To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2001.

  8. [Comparative study of the fracture resistance of sound upper premolars and upper premolars restored with bonded amalgam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minto, André Marcelo Peruchi; Dinelli, Welingtom; Nonaka, Tomio; Thome, Luis Henrique de Camargo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the fracture resistance of upper premolars which had received class II preparations (conservative and extensive) and were restored with bonded amalgam, with two different adhesive systems. Seventy teeth were divided in four groups: group 1 (control), with ten sound teeth; group 2, with twenty prepared teeth (10 teeth received conservative cavities and 10, extensive cavities) restored with amalgam without any kind of liner; groups 3 and 4, similar to group 2, though with linings of glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond - 3M) (group 3) and dental adhesive (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus - 3M) (group 4). The teeth were previously fixed in PVC cylinders with acrylic resin. After being restored and thermocycled, the test specimens were submitted to fracture by means of compression in an EMIC-MEM 2000 universal testing machine. After the application of the analysis of variance and complementary Tukey's test, we concluded that the utilized adhesive systems produced an increase of the fracture resistance of teeth presenting with conventional cavities; the teeth presenting with conservative cavities were more resistant in all experimental situations.

  9. An Experimental Study on Hybrid Noncompression CF Bracing and GF Sheet Wrapping Reinforcement Method to Restore Damaged RC Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Seok Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel technique for restoration of reinforced concrete (RC structures that have sustained damage during an earthquake. The reinforcement scheme described here is a hybrid seismic retrofitting technique that combines noncompression X-bracing using CF with externally bonded GF sheets to strengthen RC structures that have sustained damage following an earthquake. The GF sheet is used to improve the ductility of columns, and the noncompression CF X-bracing system, which consists of CF bracing and anchors to replace the conventional steel bracing and bolt connections, is used to increase the lateral strength of the framing system. We report seismic restoration capacity, which enables reuse of the damaged RC frames via the hybrid CF X-bracing and GF sheet wrapping system. Cyclic loading tests were carried out to investigate hysteresis of the lateral load-drift relations, as well as the ductility. The GF sheet significantly improved the ductility of columns, resulting in a change in failure mode. The strengthening effect of conventional CF sheets used in columns is not sufficient with respect to lateral strength and stiffness. However, this study results in a significant increase in the strength of the structure due to the use of CF X-bracing and inhibited buckling failure of the bracing. This result can be exploited to develop guidelines for the application of the reinforcement system to restore damaged RC structures.

  10. Comparative evaluation of microleakage in class II cavities restored with Ceram X and Filtek P-90: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Bogra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Polymerization shrinkage in composite resins is responsible for microleakage. Methacrylate-based composite resins have linear reactive groups resulting in high polymerization shrinkage. A recently introduced composite resin Filtek P90 is based on siloxanes and oxiranes which polymerize by cationic "ring opening" polymerization resulting in reduced polymerization shrinkage. Objectives: Aim of this study was to compare microleakage in class II cavities restored with a nanoceramic restorative (Ceram X and a silorane composite (Filtek P90. Materials and Methods: Standardized class II box type cavities were prepared on mesial (Groups Ia and IIa and distal (Groups Ib and IIb surfaces of twenty extracted permanent molar teeth with gingival floor ending 1 mm coronal and apical to the cementoenamel junction, respectively. The teeth in Group Ia and Ib were restored with Ceram X and Group IIa and IIb with Filtek P90. The specimens were thermocycled and microleakage evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test at the 0.05 level of significance. Results: Mean microleakage score of group la and lb was 1 ± 2.260 and 2.8 ± 1.229, respectively. And that of group Ila and llb was 0.2 ± .869 and 0.3 ± .588, respectively. When groups I and II were compared, results were statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that silorane-based composite may be a better substitute for methacrylate-based composites.

  11. A novel method to reduce postoperative sensitivity after composite restoration: A triple-blinded in-vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Janardhanan Vejai Vekaash

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Zinc-carbonated hydroxyapatite in the reduction of postoperative sensitivity during composite placement. Context: Postoperative sensitivity after composite restoration still remains a major clinical challenge. Materials and Methods: Sixty class I cavities were prepared in 60 patients by the same operator with the following inclusion and exclusion criteria: The patients selected for the study were between 20–45 years with vital pulp and having remaining dentin thickness of 1mm. Previously restored, nonvital and tooth with periodical changes were excluded. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each—Group I self-etch and Group II selective-etch with Subgroup A- zinc-carbonated hydroxyapatite applied and Subgroup B- zinc-carbonated hydroxyapatite not applied. After the surface treatment, the teeth were restored with composite resin. The patients were evaluated with visual analogue scale (VAS at the end of one week and one month. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis. Results: Comparing within groups, Group I self-etch mean values showed statistically significant lower values compared with Group II selective-etch (P < 0.01. Zinc-carbonated hydroxyapatite Subgroup A showed statistically significant lower values compared with Subgroup B where zinc-carbonated hydroxyapatite was not applied (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Application of zinc-carbonated hydroxyapatite showed significant reduction in postoperative sensitivity after composite placement.

  12. Restoration of Eutrophic Lakes with Fluctuating Water Levels: A 20-Year Monitoring Study of Two Inter-Connected Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Beklioğlu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication continues to be the most important problem preventing a favorable environmental state and detrimentally impacting the ecosystem services of lakes. The current study describes the results of analyses of 20 year monitoring data from two interconnected Anatolian lakes, Lakes Mogan and Eymir, receiving sewage effluents and undergoing restoration. The first step of restoration in both lakes was sewage effluent diversion. Additionally, in hypertrophic Lake Eymir, biomanipulation was conducted, involving removal of benthi-planktivorous fish and prohibition of pike fishing. The monitoring period included high (H and low (L water levels (WL enabling elucidation of the effects of hydrological changes on lake restoration. In shallower Lake Mogan, macrophyte abundance increased after the sewage effluent diversion in periods with low water levels even at turbid water. In comparatively deeper Lake Eymir, the first biomanipulation led to a clear water state with abundant macrophyte coverage. However, shortly after biomanipulation, the water clarity declined, coinciding with low water level (LWL periods during which nutrient concentrations increased. A second biomanipulation was conducted, mostly during high water level (HWL period, resulting in a major decrease in nutrient concentrations and clearer water, but without an expansion of macrophytes. We conclude that repetitive fish removal may induce recovery but its success may be confounded by high availability of nutrients and adverse hydrological conditions.

  13. Poverty Alleviation and Environmental Restoration Using the Clean Development Mechanism: A Case Study from Humbo, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Douglas R.; Dettmann, Paul; Rinaudo, Tony; Tefera, Hailu; Tofu, Assefa

    2011-08-01

    Poverty, hunger and demand for agricultural land have driven local communities to overexploit forest resources throughout Ethiopia. Forests surrounding the township of Humbo were largely destroyed by the late 1960s. In 2004, World Vision Australia and World Vision Ethiopia identified forestry-based carbon sequestration as a potential means to stimulate community development while engaging in environmental restoration. After two years of consultation, planning and negotiations, the Humbo Community-based Natural Regeneration Project began implementation—the Ethiopian organization's first carbon sequestration initiative. The Humbo Project assists communities affected by environmental degradation including loss of biodiversity, soil erosion and flooding with an opportunity to benefit from carbon markets while reducing poverty and restoring the local agroecosystem. Involving the regeneration of 2,728 ha of degraded native forests, it brings social, economic and ecological benefits—facilitating adaptation to a changing climate and generating temporary certified emissions reductions (tCERs) under the Clean Development Mechanism. A key feature of the project has been facilitating communities to embrace new techniques and take responsibility for large-scale environmental change, most importantly involving Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR). This technique is low-cost, replicable, and provides direct benefits within a short time. Communities were able to harvest fodder and firewood within a year of project initiation and wild fruits and other non-timber forest products within three years. Farmers are using agroforestry for both environmental restoration and income generation. Establishment of user rights and local cooperatives has generated community ownership and enthusiasm for this project—empowering the community to more sustainably manage their communal lands.

  14. RESTORATION AND SUSTAINABLE VALORIZATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE AND REGIONAL POLICY IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA. CASE STUDY OF REVITALIZATION OF THE ORADEA FORTRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dodescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents cultural heritage, cultural tourism potential of North-West Region of Romania face to face with restoration and sustainable valorization of cultural heritage as a major domain of intervention of regional policy in Romania. Due to Romanian regionalization form, the Regional Operational Programme (ROP is currently the only programme of regional policy in Romania in 2007-2013. One of the major domains of intervention of ROP 2007-2013 in Romania was restoration and sustainable valorization of cultural heritage. The first paper specific objective is to explore projects contracted until 31.12.2013 in the field of restoration and sustainable valorization of cultural heritage in North-West Region of Romania and their regional development relevance in the context of existing regional development strategies. The second paper specific objective is to present a model of restoration of cultural heritage in a sustainable way throughout the case study of Revitalization of the Oradea Fortress in order to introduce it in the tourism circuit - that could become an example for other cultural sites around the region and a succes story in the field of cultural tourism based of ROP 2007-2013 experience. Exploring rich cultural heritage of the North-West Region face to face with poor condition of cultural heritage sites and investments required in order to introduce them in touristic circuit, the paper concludes that all contracted projects are relevant for sustainable valorization of regional cultural heritage and cultural tourism potential in the context of existing regional development strategies, but they contributed only partially to regional specific needs. Also, the paper concludes that number of ROP 2007-2013 projects implemented in the field of cultural heritage is surprisingly small, area of interest of these projects is rather narrow and analyzes the most important causes for these gaps. Based on the case study presented, the paper

  15. Theoretical study of Beloussov's hyper-restoration hypothesis for mechanical regulation of morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Larry A

    2008-12-01

    Computational models were used to explore the idea that morphogenesis is regulated, in part, by feedback from mechanical stress according to Beloussov's hyper-restoration (HR) hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, active tissue responses to stress perturbations tend to restore, but overshoot, the original (target) stress. To capture this behavior, the rate of growth or contraction is assumed to depend on the difference between the current and target stresses. Stress overshoot is obtained by letting the target stress change at a rate proportional to the same stress difference. The feasibility of the HR hypothesis is illustrated by models for stretching of epithelia, cylindrical bending of plates, invagination of cylindrical and spherical shells, and early amphibian development. In each case, an initial perturbation leads to an active mechanical response that changes the form of the tissue. The results show that some morphogenetic processes can be entirely self-driven by HR responses once they are initiated (possibly by genetic activity). Other processes, however, may require secondary mechanisms or perturbations to proceed to completion.

  16. [Denitrification study of Elodea nuttallii-nitrogen cycling bacteria restoration in Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lin; Li, Zheng-Kui; Zhou, Tao; Wu, Ning-Mei; Ye, Zhong-Xiang; Liu, Dan-Dan

    2013-08-01

    Undisturbed sediment cores were collected from Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, and the integrated Elodea nuttallii-nitrogen cycling bacteria technology was applied as a restoration method. The effects of the Elodea nuttallii-nitrogen cycling bacteria technology on sediment denitrification was observed by isotope pairing technique. The highest denitrification rate of 104.64 micromol x (m2 x h)(-1) was achieved in sediments with Elodea nuttallii-nitrogen cycling bacteria assemblage. The abundance of nirS, nirK and nosZ genes involved in denitrification processes in the sediments (within 2 cm below the water-sediment interface) were measured by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The abundance of nirS and nosZ genes in the sediments with restoration treatments was increased, which was more than one order of magnitudes higher than that in bare sediments. The results indicated that the presence of macrophyte and nitrogen cycling bacteria could increase benthic nitrogen removal by facilitating coupled nitrification-denitrification and uncoupled nitrification-denitrification.

  17. Increasing Restorability for Local-to-Egress Restoration in GMPLS Controlled Networks with Limited Wavelength Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Buron, Jakob Due; Andriolli, N.

    2006-01-01

    We study the performance of the local-to-egress restoration method in GMPLS controlled optical networks, when a limited number of wavelength converters are available. We evaluate the recovery percentage for a converter-saving label assignment scheme and compare its performance to a simple scheme...

  18. Microbial Communities as Environmental Indicators of Ecological Disturbance in Restored Carbonate Fen-Results of 10 Years of Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieczan, Tomasz; Tarkowska-Kukuryk, Monika

    2017-08-01

    Interactions between bacteria and protists are essential to the ecosystem ecology of fens. Until now, however, there has been almost no information on how restoration procedures in carbonate fens affect the functioning of microbial food webs. Changes in vegetation patterns resulting from restoration may take years to be observed, whereas microbial processes display effects even after short-term exposure to changes in environmental conditions caused by restoration. Therefore, microbial processes and patterns can be used as sensitive indicators of changes in environmental conditions. The present study attempts to verify the hypothesis that the species richness and abundance of microbial loop components would differ substantially before and after restoration. The effect of restoration processes on the functioning of the food web was investigated for a 10 years in a carbonate-rich fen, before and after restoration. The restoration procedure (particularly the improvement in hydrological conditions) distinctly modified the taxonomic composition and functioning of microbial food webs. This is reflected in the increased abundance and diversity of testate amoeba, i.e. top predators, within the microbial food web and in the pronounced increase in the abundance of bacteria. This study suggests potential use of microbial loop components as bio-indicators and bio-monitoring tools for hydrological status of fens and concentrations of nutrients. Better understanding of what regulates microbial populations and activity in fens and unravelling of these fundamental mechanisms are particularly critical in order to more accurately predict how fens will respond to global change or anthropogenic disturbances.

  19. Restoring lepidopteran diversity in a tropical dry forest: relative importance of restoration treatment, tree identity and predator pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizet Solis-Gabriel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests (TDFs have been widely transformed by human activities worldwide and the ecosystem services they provide are diminishing. There has been an urgent call for conservation and restoration of the degraded lands previously occupied by TDFs. Restoration experiences aim to recover species diversity and ecological functions. Different restoration strategies have been used to maximize plant performance including weeding, planting or using artificial mulching. In this investigation, we evaluated whether different restoration practices influence animal arrival and the reestablishment of biotic interactions. We particularly evaluated lepidopteran larvae diversity and caterpillar predation on plants established under different restoration treatments (mulching, weeding and control in the Pacific West Coast of México. This study corroborated the importance of plant host identity for lepidopteran presence in a particular area. Lepidopteran diversity and herbivory rates were not affected by the restoration treatment but they were related to tree species. In contrast, caterpillar predation marks were affected by restoration treatment, with a greater number of predation marks in control plots, while caterpillar predation marks among plant species were not significantly different. This study highlights the importance of considering the introduction of high plant species diversity when planning TDF restoration to maximize lepidopteran diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  20. Restoring lepidopteran diversity in a tropical dry forest: relative importance of restoration treatment, tree identity and predator pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Gabriel, Lizet; Mendoza-Arroyo, Wendy; Boege, Karina; Del-Val, Ek

    2017-01-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) have been widely transformed by human activities worldwide and the ecosystem services they provide are diminishing. There has been an urgent call for conservation and restoration of the degraded lands previously occupied by TDFs. Restoration experiences aim to recover species diversity and ecological functions. Different restoration strategies have been used to maximize plant performance including weeding, planting or using artificial mulching. In this investigation, we evaluated whether different restoration practices influence animal arrival and the reestablishment of biotic interactions. We particularly evaluated lepidopteran larvae diversity and caterpillar predation on plants established under different restoration treatments (mulching, weeding and control) in the Pacific West Coast of México. This study corroborated the importance of plant host identity for lepidopteran presence in a particular area. Lepidopteran diversity and herbivory rates were not affected by the restoration treatment but they were related to tree species. In contrast, caterpillar predation marks were affected by restoration treatment, with a greater number of predation marks in control plots, while caterpillar predation marks among plant species were not significantly different. This study highlights the importance of considering the introduction of high plant species diversity when planning TDF restoration to maximize lepidopteran diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  1. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Mei, May L; Cheung, Chloe; Nalliah, Romesh P

    2013-07-30

    The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED) and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations.

  2. Surface topography of composite restorative materials following ultrasonic scaling and its Impact on bacterial plaque accumulation. An in-vitro SEM study

    OpenAIRE

    Hossam, A. Eid; Rafi, A. Togoo; Ahmed, A Saleh; Sumanth, Phani CR

    2013-01-01

    Background: This is an in vitro study to investigate the effects of ultrasonic scaling on the surface roughness and quantitative bacterial count on four different types of commonly used composite restorative materials for class V cavities.

  3. Immune restoration does not invariably occur following long-term HIV-1 suppression during antiretroviral therapy. INCAS Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakker, N G; Kroon, E D; Roos, M T; Otto, S A; Hall, D; Wit, F W; Hamann, D; van der Ende, M E; Claessen, F A; Kauffmann, R H; Koopmans, P P; Kroon, F P; ten Napel, C H; Sprenger, H G; Weigel, H M; Montaner, J S; Lange, J M; Reiss, P; Schellekens, P T; Miedema, F

    1999-02-04

    Current antiretroviral treatment can induce significant and sustained virological and immunological responses in HIV-1-infected persons over at least the short- to mid-term. In this study, long-term immune reconstitution was investigated during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Patients enrolled in the INCAS study in The Netherlands were treated for 102 weeks (range 52-144 weeks) with nevirapine (NVP) + zidovudine (ZDV) (n = 9), didanosine (ddl) + ZDV (n = 10), or NVP + ddl + ZDV (n = 10). Memory and naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were measured using CD45RA and CD27 monoclonal antibodies (mAb), T-cell function was assayed by CD3 + CD28 mAb stimulation, and plasma HIV-1 RNA load was measured by ultra-direct assay (cut-off < 20 copies/ml). Compared to both double combination regimens the triple combination regimen resulted in the most sustained increase in CD4+ T cells (change in CD4+, + 253 x 10(6) cells/l; standard error, 79 x 10(6) cells/l) and reduction of plasma HIV-1 RNA. In nine patients (31%) (ddl + ZDV, n = 2; NVP + ddl + ZDV, n = 7) plasma HIV-1 RNA levels remained below cut-off for at least 2 years. On average, these long-term virological responders demonstrated a significantly higher increase of naïve and memory CD4+ T cells (P = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively) as compared with patients with a virological failure, and showed improved T-cell function and normalization of the naïve; memory CD8+ T-cell ratio. However, individual virological success or failure did not predict the degree of immunological response. T-cell patterns were independent of baseline CD4+ T-cell count, T-cell function, HIV-1 RNA load or age. Low numbers of naïve CD4+ T cells at baseline resulted in modest long-term naïve T-cell recovery. Patients with prolonged undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA levels during antiretroviral therapy do not invariably show immune restoration. Naïve T-cell recovery in the setting of complete viral suppression is a gradual process, similar to that reported

  4. Collaborative Evaluation: Balancing Rigour and Relevance in a Research Study of Restorative Approaches in Schools in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jean; Lloyd, Gwynedd; McCluskey, Gillean; Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    Restorative Practices (RPs) in schools developed out of growing interest in Restorative Justice in the community. Schools looking for strategies to address disaffection, behaviour difficulties and violence were attracted by the key ideas: the need to restore good relationships when there has been conflict or harm; and develop a school ethos,…

  5. Hydrogen peroxide bleaching induces changes in the physical properties of dental restorative materials: Effects of study protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Zhang, Chang-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Ning; Cheng, Hui

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of study protocols on the effects of bleaching on the surface roughness, substance loss, flexural strength (FS), flexural modulus (FM), Weibull parameters, and color of 7 restorative materials. The test materials included 4 composite resins, 1 glass-ionomer cement, 1 dental ceramic, and 1 polyacid-modified composite. The specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 20) according to different study protocols: a bleaching group at 25°C (group 25B), a bleaching group at 37°C (group 37B), a control group at 25°C (group 25C), and a control group at 37°C (group 37C). The specimens in the bleaching group were treated with 40% hydrogen peroxide for 80 min at the respective environmental temperatures. The surface roughness, substance loss, FS, FM, and color of the specimens were measured before and after treatment. FS data were also subjected to Weibull analysis, which was used to estimate of the Weibull modulus (m) and the characteristic strength (σ 0 ). Surface roughness increased and significant color changes were observed for all tested specimens after bleaching treatment, except for the ceramic. After bleaching at 37°C, the polyacid-modified composite showed significantly reduced FS, FM, m, and σ 0 values in comparison to the control specimens stored at 37°C in whole saliva. Significant differences were also found between the 37B and 25B polyacid-modified composite groups in terms of surface roughness, FS, m, σ 0 , and color changes. Varying effects of bleaching on the physical properties of dental restorative materials were observed, and the influences of the study protocols on bleaching effects were found to be material-dependent. The influence of study protocols on the effects of bleaching on the surface roughness, flexural properties, and color of dental restorative materials are material-dependent and should be considered when evaluating the effects of bleaching on dental restorative

  6. Clinical risk factors related to failures with zirconia-based restorations: an up to 9-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Vinciane; Vanheusden, Alain J; Le Goff, Stéphane O; Mainjot, Amélie K

    2013-12-01

    The first objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate zirconia-based restorations (ZBR). The second was to correlate failures with clinical parameters and to identify and to analyse chipping failures using fractographic analysis. 147 ZBR (tooth- and implant-supported crowns and fixed partial dentures (FPDs)) were evaluated after a mean observation period of 41.5 ± 31.8 months. Accessorily, zirconia implant abutments (n=46) were also observed. The technical (USPHS criteria) and the biological outcomes of the ZBR were evaluated. Occlusal risk factors were examined: occlusal relationships, parafunctional habits, and the presence of occlusal nightguard. SEM fractographic analysis was performed using the intra-oral replica technique. The survival rate of crowns and FPDs was 93.2%, the success rate was 81.63% and the 9-year Kaplan-Meier estimated success rate was 52.66%. The chipping rate was 15% and the framework fracture rate was 2.7%. Most fractographic analyses revealed that veneer fractures originated from occlusal surface roughness. Several parameters were shown to significantly influence veneer fracture: the absence of occlusal nightguard (p=0.0048), the presence of a ceramic restoration as an antagonist (p=0.013), the presence of parafunctional activity (p=0.018), and the presence of implants as support (p=0.026). The implant abutments success rate was 100%. The results of the present study confirm that chipping is the first cause of ZBR failure. They also underline the importance of clinical parameters in regards to the explanation of this complex problem. This issue should be considered in future prospective clinical studies. Practitioners can reduce chipping failures by taking into account several risk parameters, such as the presence of a ceramic restoration as an antagonist, the presence of parafunctional activity and the presence of implants as support. The use of an occlusal nightguard can also decrease failure rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  7. Random-Number Generator Validity in Simulation Studies: An Investigation of Normality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jung W.; Schumacker, Randall E.; Schlieve, Paul L.

    1998-01-01

    The normality of number distributions generated by various random-number generators were studied, focusing on when the random-number generator reached a normal distribution and at what sample size. Findings suggest the steps that should be followed when using a random-number generator in a Monte Carlo simulation. (SLD)

  8. Benefits from restoring wetlands for nitrogen abatement: A case study of Gotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gren, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    The values of nitrogen abatement by measures involving restoration of wetlands, sewage treatment plants and agriculture are calculated and compared. The analytical results show that the value of wetlands is likely to exceed the values of other measures due to the multi-functionality of wetlands and their self-organizing ability. The multi-functionality implies that, in addition to nitrogen abatement, other outputs like buffering of water and biodiversity are produced and the self-organizing feature reduces the rate at which future values of outputs are discounted. According to the empirical results applied to Gotland, a Swedish island in the Baltic with high concentrations of nitrate in the ground water, the imputed value of wetlands exceeds the corresponding values of the other nitrogen abatement measures by several hundred per cent. 21 refs, 6 tabs

  9. Restoration of environments with radioactive residues - the Elliot Lake case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Elliot Lake area experienced the boom and bust of uranium mining over a 40-year period. In 1996, the last mine closed, which left nine tailings areas for closure and long term maintenance. The practices of the 1950s left a legacy of environmental damage which has been effectively reversed through remediation and closure of the mines. Detailed environmental assessments were completed on decommissioning proposals for the mines in the late 1980s and 1990s. These assessments have demonstrated that the area's ecology can be effectively protected, and that there are no impediments to the restoration of the entire Serpent River Watershed. Environmental monitoring has shown that the reclaimed sites are performing as expected, and that healthy aquatic communities are present in all major waterways in the region. (author)

  10. Lake Restoration in Terms of Ecological Resilience: a Numerical Study of Biomanipulations under Bistable Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Amemiya

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An abstract version of the comprehensive aquatic simulation model (CASM is found to exhibit bistability under intermediate loading of nutrient input, supporting the alternative-stable-states theory and field observations for shallow lakes. Our simulations of biomanipulations under the bistable conditions reveal that a reduction in the abundance of zooplanktivorous fish cannot switch the system from a turbid to a clear state. Rather, a direct reduction of phytoplankton and detritus was found to be most effective to make this switch in the present model. These results imply that multiple manipulations may be effective for practical restorations of lakes. We discuss the present results of biomanipulations in terms of ecological resilience in multivariable systems or natural systems.

  11. Case Study of Urban Residential Remediation and Restoration in Port Hope, Canada - 13250

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geddes, Brian [AMEC Environment and Infrastructure, 140 Quarry Park Blvd., Calgary, AB, T2C 3G3 (Canada); DeJong, John [AMEC Environment and Infrastructure, Port Hope, ON (Canada); Owen, Michael [Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office, 196 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON, L1A 3V5 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Canadian Municipality of Port Hope, Ontario, is located some 100 km east of Toronto and has been the location of radium and/or uranium refining since the 1930's. Historically, these activities involved materials containing radium-226, uranium, arsenic and other contaminants generated by the refining process. In years past, properties and sites in Port Hope became contaminated from spillage during transportation, unrecorded, un-monitored or unauthorized diversion of contaminated fill and materials, wind and water erosion and spread from residue storage areas. Residential properties in Port Hope impacted by radioactive materials are being addressed by the Canadian federal government under programs administered by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office (LLRWMO) and the Port Hope Area Initiative Management Office (PHAIMO). Issues that currently arise at these properties are addressed by the LLRWMO's Interim Waste Management Program (IWM). In the future, these sites will be included in the PHAIMO's Small Scale Sites (SSS) remedial program. The LLRWMO has recently completed a remediation and restoration program at a residential property in Port Hope that has provided learnings that will be applicable to the PHAIMO's upcoming SSS remedial effort. The work scope at this property involved remediating contaminated refinery materials that had been re-used in the original construction of the residence. Following removal of the contaminated materials, the property was restored for continued residential use. This kind of property represents a relatively small, but potentially challenging subset of the portfolio of sites that will eventually be addressed by the SSS program. (authors)

  12. Remedidal investigation and feasibility study report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeck, F.V.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of the remedial investigation (RI) is to collect data necessary to adequately characterize the site for the purpose of developing and evaluating effective remedial alternatives. To characterize the site, the lead agency shall, as appropriate, conduct field investigations, including treatability studies, and conduct a baseline risk assessment. The RI provides information to assess the risks to human health and the environment and to support the development, evaluation, and selection of appropriate response alternatives. The primary objective of the feasibility study (FS) is to ensure that appropriate remedial alternatives are developed and evaluated such that relevant information concerning the remedial action options can be presented to a decision-maker and an appropriate remedy selected. The lead agency may develop a feasibility study to address a specific site problem or the entire site. The development and evaluation of alternatives shall reflect the scope and complexity of the remedial action under consideration and the site problems being addressed. Development of alternatives shall be fully integrated with the site characterization activities of the remedial investigation described in paragraph (d) of this section. The lead agency shall include an alternatives screening step, when needed, to select a reasonable number of alternatives for detailed analysis

  13. Remedidal investigation and feasibility study report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeck, F.V.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of the remedial investigation (RI) is to collect data necessary to adequately characterize the site for the purpose of developing and evaluating effective remedial alternatives. To characterize the site, the lead agency shall, as appropriate, conduct field investigations, including treatability studies, and conduct a baseline risk assessment. The RI provides information to assess the risks to human health and the environment and to support the development, evaluation, and selection of appropriate response alternatives. The primary objective of the feasibility study (FS) is to ensure that appropriate remedial alternatives are developed and evaluated such that relevant information concerning the remedial action options can be presented to a decision-maker and an appropriate remedy selected. The lead agency may develop a feasibility study to address a specific site problem or the entire site. The development and evaluation of alternatives shall reflect the scope and complexity of the remedial action under consideration and the site problems being addressed. Development of alternatives shall be fully integrated with the site characterization activities of the remedial investigation described in paragraph (d) of this section. The lead agency shall include an alternatives screening step, when needed, to select a reasonable number of alternatives for detailed analysis.

  14. Strategic planning for instream flow restoration: a case study of potential climate change impacts in the central Columbia River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, Erin E; Naiman, Robert J; Marineau, Mathieu D

    2012-10-01

    We provide a case study prioritizing instream flow restoration activities by sub-basin according to the habitat needs of Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed salmonids relative to climate change in the central Columbia River basin in Washington State (USA). The objective is to employ scenario analysis to inform and improve existing instream flow restoration projects. We assess the sensitivity of late summer (July, August, and September) flows to the following scenario simulations - singly or in combination: climate change, changes in the quantity of water used for irrigation and possible changes to existing water resource policy. Flows for four sub-basins were modeled using the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP) under historical and projected conditions of 2020 and 2040 for each scenario. Results indicate that Yakima will be the most flow-limited sub-basin with average reductions in streamflow of 41% under climate conditions of 2020 and 56% under 2040 conditions; 1.3-2.5 times greater than those of other sub-basins. In addition, irrigation plays a key role in the hydrology of the Yakima sub-basin - with flow reductions ranging from 78% to 90% under severe to extreme (i.e., 20-40%) increases in agricultural water use (2.0-4.4 times the reductions in the other sub-basins). The Yakima and Okanogan sub-basins are the most responsive to simulations of flow-bolstering policy change (providing salmon with first priority water allocation and at biologically relevant flows), as demonstrated by 91-100% target flows attained. The Wenatchee and Methow sub-basins do not exhibit similar responsiveness to simulated policy changes. Considering climate change only, we conclude that flow restoration should be prioritized first in the Yakima and Wenatchee sub-basins, and second in the Okanogan and Methow. Considering both climate change and possible policy changes, we recommend that the Yakima sub-basin receive the highest priority for flow restoration activities to sustain

  15. Randomized Crossover Study of the Natural Restorative Environment Intervention to Improve Attention and Mood in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Miyeon; Jonides, John; Northouse, Laurel; Berman, Marc G; Koelling, Todd M; Pressler, Susan J

    In heart failure (HF), attention may be decreased because of lowered cerebral blood flow and increased attentional demands needed for self-care. Guided by the Attention Restoration Theory, the objective was to test the efficacy of the natural restorative environment (NRE) intervention on improving attention and mood among HF patients and healthy adults. A randomized crossover pilot study was conducted among 20 HF patients and an age- and education-matched comparison group of 20 healthy adults to test the efficacy of the NRE intervention compared with an active control intervention. Neuropsychological tests were administered to examine attention, particularly attention span, sustained attention, directed attention, and attention switching, at before and after the intervention. Mood was measured with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. No significant differences were found in attention and mood after the NRE intervention compared with the control intervention among the HF patients and the healthy adults. In analyses with HF patients and healthy adults combined (n = 40), significant differences were found. Compared with the control intervention, sustained attention improved after the NRE intervention (P = .001) regardless of the presence of HF. Compared with the healthy adults, HF patients performed significantly worse on attention switching after the control intervention (P = .045). The NRE intervention may be efficacious in improving sustained attention in HF patients. Future studies are needed to enhance the NRE intervention to be more efficacious and tailored for HF patients and test the efficacy in a larger sample of HF patients.

  16. Responses of soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structure to closed-off management (an ecological natural restoration measures): A case study of Dongting Lake wetland, middle China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Juan; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guangming; Liang, Jie; Guo, Shenglian; Li, Xiaodong; Huang, Lu; Lu, Lunhui; Yuan, Yujie

    2016-09-01

    Soil microbial biomass (SMB) and bacterial community structure, which are critical to global ecosystem and fundamental ecological processes, are sensitive to anthropogenic activities and environmental conditions. In this study, we examined the possible effects of closed-off management (an ecological natural restoration measures, ban on anthropogenic activity, widely employed for many important wetlands) on SMB, soil bacterial community structure and functional marker genes of nitrogen cycling in Dongting Lake wetland. Soil samples were collected from management area (MA) and contrast area (CA: human activities, such as hunting, fishing and draining, are permitted) in November 2013 and April 2014. Soil properties, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and bacterial community structure were investigated. Comparison of the values of MA and CA showed that SMB and bacterial community diversity of the MA had a significant increase after 7 years closed-off management. The mean value of Shannon-Weiner diversity index of MA and CA respectively were 2.85 and 2.07. The gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA and nosZ of MA were significant higher than those of CA. the gene copy numbers of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and nirK of MA were significant lower than those of CA. However, there was no significant change in the gene copy numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nirS. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. a Restoration Oriented Hbim System for Cultural Heritage Documentation: the Case Study of Parma Cathedral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, N.; Roncella, R.

    2018-05-01

    The need to safeguard and preserve Cultural Heritage (CH) is increasing and especially in Italy, where the amount of historical buildings is considerable, having efficient and standardized processes of CH management and conservation becomes strategic. At the time being, there are no tools capable of fulfilling all the specific functions required by Cultural Heritage documentation and, due to the complexity of historical assets, there are no solution as flexible and customizable as CH specific needs require. Nevertheless, BIM methodology can represent the most effective solution, on condition that proper methodologies, tools and functions are made available. The paper describes an ongoing research on the implementation of a Historical BIM system for the Parma cathedral, aimed at the maintenance, conservation and restoration. Its main goal was to give a concrete answer to the lack of specific tools required by Cultural Heritage documentation: organized and coordinated storage and management of historical data, easy analysis and query, time management, 3D modelling of irregular shapes, flexibility, user-friendliness, etc. The paper will describe the project and the implemented methodology, focusing mainly on survey and modelling phases. In describing the methodology, critical issues about the creation of a HBIM will be highlighted, trying to outline a workflow applicable also in other similar contexts.

  18. Restoring jawline contour with calcium hydroxylapatite: A prospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baspeyras, Martine; Dallara, Jean-Marie; Cartier, Hugues; Charavel, Marie-Hélène; Dumas, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    Jawline reshaping by replacing volume has become an indispensable component of modern facial rejuvenation. To evaluate calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) for the treatment of an aging jawline in a routine setting. Five investigators enrolled 35 subjects requesting jawline rejuvenation with CaHA. Injections were performed according to investigators usual practice. Baseline and post-treatment scores were evaluated using Merz Aesthetics Scales®. Follow-up visits took place at Day 30 (Day 60 for those with touch-up at Day 30), 180, and 360. Physician and patient satisfaction, esthetic impact of treatment, and adverse events were recorded. Improvements in jawline contour compared with baseline were statistically significant at each visit, with scores of 2.42 (moderate to severe sagging) at baseline, 1.02 (mild) at Day 30/60 (P≤.0001), 1.11 at Day 180 (P≤.0001), and 1.45 at Day 360 (P=.0015). Statistically significant improvements in marionette line scores were also observed. Investigators rated results as "improved" to "very much improved" in all subjects up to Day 180, and in 81% of subjects at Day 360. Satisfaction with treatment was very high. Adverse events were mostly mild and related to either the procedure or injection technique. CaHA is a very effective agent for restoring jawline contour in routine practice and is associated with high levels of physician and patient satisfaction. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [A ten-year clinical study of cracked teeth restored with glass ceramic crowns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X P; Yuan, Y; Shi, Y J; Qian, D D

    2016-10-09

    Objective: To evaluate the clinic performance of high strength glass ceramic crowns for the painful cracked teeth during a 10-year observation period. Methods: Forty-two posterior teeth from 36 patients were diagnosed as having a crack, biting painful and sensitivity to cold were selected in the Department of Prosthodontic, Institute and Hospital of Stomatology, Nanjing University Medical School. The lost-wax hot pressed glass ceramic crowns were bonded on the minimally invasive prepared teeth by modern adhesive technology. Patients were interviewed and went through clinic examination after one week, one month, and every six months. Results: The effectiveness of 42 glass ceramic crowns for cracked teeth was evaluated for a mean observation time over 10-year. At the first week, 29(81%) patients were free of pain, three still had sensitivity to cold and chewing pain, three still had sensitivity to cold, one had painful to cold and hot. After one month, two patients still had chewing pain, and one tooth needed endodontic treatment after six months. In 10 years, 2(5%) all ceramic crowns were broken, the other 40 restorations kept good clinical performances with a 10-year survival rate of 95%. Conclusions: The high strength glass ceramic crowns are very effective and successful in treating the cracked teeth and then keep the good mastication function and appearance.

  20. Restoration of diaphragmatic function after diaphragm reinnervation by inferior laryngeal nerve; experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Barros Angelique

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To assess the possibilities of reinnervation in a paralyzed hemidiaphragm via an anastomosis between phrenic nerve and inferior laryngeal nerve in rabbits. Reinnervation of a paralyzed diaphragm could be an alternative to treat patients with ventilatory insufficiency due to upper cervical spine injuries. Material and method Rabbits were divided into five groups of seven rabbits each. Groups I and II were respectively the healthy and the denervated control groups. The 3 other groups were all reinnervated using three different surgical procedures. In groups III and IV, phrenic nerve was respectively anastomosed with the abductor branch of the inferior laryngeal nerve and with the trunk of the inferior laryngeal nerve. In group V, the fifth and fourth cervical roots were respectively anastomosed with the abductor branch of the inferior laryngeal nerve and with the nerve of the sternothyroid muscle (originating from the hypoglossal nerve. Animals were evaluated 4 months later using electromyography, transdiaphragmatic pressure measurements, sonomicrometry and histological examination. Results A poor inspiratory activity was found in quiet breathing in the reinnervated groups, with an increasing pattern of activity during effort. In the reinnervated groups, transdiaphragmatic pressure measurements and sonomicrometry were higher in group III with no significant differencewith groups IV and V. Conclusion Inspiratory contractility of an hemidiaphragm could be restored with immediate anastomosis after phrenic nerve section between phrenic nerve and inferior laryngeal nerve.

  1. Projecting the success of plant restoration with population viability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T.J.; Bowles, M.L.; McEachern, A.K.; Brigham, C.A.; Schwartz, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Conserving viable populations of plant species requires that they have high probabilities of long-term persistence within natural habitats, such as a chance of extinction in 100 years of less than 5% (Menges 1991, 1998; Brown 1994; Pavlik 1994; Chap. 1, this Vol.). For endangered and threatened species that have been severely reduces in range and whose habitats have been fragmented, important species conservation strategies may include augmenting existing populations or restoring new viable populations (Bowles and Whelan 1994; Chap. 2, this Vol.). Restoration objectives may include increasing population numbers to reduce extinction probability, deterministic manipulations to develop a staged cohort structure, or more complex restoration of a desired genetic structure to allow outcrossing or increase effective population size (DeMauro 1993, 1994; Bowles et al. 1993, 1998; Pavlik 1994; Knapp and Dyer 1998; Chap. 2, this Vol.). These efforts may require translocation of propagules from existing (in situ) populations, or from ex situ botanic gardens or seed storage facilities (Falk et al. 1996; Guerrant and Pavlik 1998; Chap. 2, this Vol.). Population viability analysis (PVA) can provide a critical foundation for plant restoration, as it models demographic projections used to evaluate the probability of population persistence and links plant life history with restoration strategies. It is unknown how well artificially created populations will meet demographic modeling requirements (e.g., due to artificial cohort transitions) and few, if any, PVAs have been applied to restorations. To guide application of PVA to restored populations and to illustrate potential difficulties, we examine effects of planting different life stages, model initial population sizes needed to achieve population viability, and compare demographic characteristics between natural and restored populations. We develop and compare plant population restoration viability analysis (PRVA) case studies of

  2. Study of radiation damage restoration and antimony ions redistribution in Si(1 0 0) and Si(1 1 1) crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Labbani, R; Chafi, Z

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we study the radiation damage restoration and antimony ions redistribution into and oriented silicon substrates. The samples are implanted with antimony to a dose of 5x10 sup 1 sup 4 Sb sup + cm sup - sup 2 at 60 keV energy, then annealed under oxygen atmosphere at 900 deg. C, 30 min. The thin layer of SiO sub 2 (which is formed on Si surface by dry oxidation and expected to prevent any loss of Sb sup + dopant during Si recovery) is removed by a 10% HF solution. The specimens are analyzed by H sup + Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry operating at 0.3 MeV energy in both random and channelling modes. The values of the projected range, R sub p , the standard deviation, DELTA R sub p , and the dose of antimony ions, which are estimated with a simple program, are in agreement with tabulated ones. It is also shown that the surface damage restoration is better for Si(1 0 0) samples than for Si(1 1 1) ones, in other words, the radiation damage is more significant in Si(1 1 1) substrates. Moreover,...

  3. Assessing the Potential Stem Growth and Quality of Yellow Birch Prior to Restoration: A Case Study in Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Achim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Past silvicultural treatments have resulted in the high-grading mixed temperate forests of Québec, Canada. Despite recognition of this issue, the low occurrence of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton within current stands raises questions about the potential of the species to grow and eventually constitute a high-quality forest resource. The objective of this study was to assess this potential using tree characteristics, forest structure and additional site and climatic conditions as predictors. A total of 145 trees were sampled in two areas located in the same bioclimatic zone. Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix was chosen as an area where a restoration plan could be implemented, whereas Portneuf was selected as a reference. We used nonlinear mixed models to investigate which environmental factors are likely to influence the radial growth and stem quality of yellow birch sample trees. Our results suggest that topographic and climatic conditions, as well as the competitive environment of the trees, are important factors to consider in the evaluation of yellow birch production. Despite the limited occurrence of yellow birch, the potential for growth and quality was high in the Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix area. For equivalent topographic, climatic, and competitive environment conditions, there was no significant difference in either radial growth or stem quality with Portneuf. We suggest that the economic interest of producing high quality timber should be used to justify the implementation of a restoration strategy in the Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix area.

  4. Restoration of areas disturbed by site studies for a mined commercial radioactive waste repository: The Basalt Waste Isolation Project [BWIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Biehert, R.W.; Newell, R.L.; Page, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) was undertaken to environmentally characterize a portion of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State as a potential host for the nation's first mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Studies were terminated by Congress in 1987. Between 1976 and 1987, 72 areas located across the Hanford Site were disturbed by the BWIP. These areas include borehole pads, a large Exploratory Shaft Facility, and the Near Surface Test Facility. Most boreholes were cleared of vegetation, leveled, and stabilized with a thick layer of compacted pit-run gravel and sand. The Near Surface Test Facility consists of three mined adits, a rock-spoils bench, and numerous support facilities. Restoration began in 1988 with the objective of returning sites to pre-existing conditions using native species. The Hanford Site retains some of the last remnants of the shrub-steppe ecosystem in Washington. The primary constraints to restoring native vegetation at Hanford are low precipitation and the presence of cheatgrass, an extremely capable alien competitor. 5 figs

  5. The success rate of narrow body implants used for supporting immediate provisional restorations: a pilot feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hom-Lay; Okayasu, Kozue; Fu, Jia-Hui; Hamerink, Howard A; Layher, Mary G; Rudek, Ivan Elimar

    2012-12-01

    Implants were first designed to be used in the reconstruction of edentulous mandibles. However, with the technological advancement, enormous changes were made to improve the implant design and surface characteristics leading to the wide use of implants in the replacement of missing teeth. During the transition from an edentulous span to a fixed prosthesis, narrow body implants (NBIs) have been proposed to enhance patient comfort and function. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the survival and success rates of NBIs used for supporting immediately nonfunctional loaded provisional fixed partial denture (PFPD). Either 2.2- or 2.4-mm-diameter dental implants were placed transmucosally into the edentulous ridges of 10 partially edentulous patients. PFPD of self-cured bis-acryl composite material were made using either a vacuform template chairside or a relined prefabricated PFPD. Occlusal adjustments were made to ensure that there was no functional loading on the provisional restorations before they were secured onto the transitional implants. At 1 year, the implant success and survival rates were 38.7% and 93.5%, respectively, with a mean percentage of bone loss of 9.46% (0%-40%) and a mean bone loss of 1.19 mm (range: 0-3.5 mm). With a favorable implant survival rate, the use of NBIs to support provisional restorations seemed to be a feasible treatment option. In addition, there is merit for research on the long-term use of NBIs-supported final prostheses.

  6. Comparative in vitro study of the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with restorative and orthodontic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Isber

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with different restorative systems and compare it with that afforded by an established orthodontic bonding system. Seventy human bicuspids were used, divided into five different groups with 14 teeth each. Whereas a specific orthodontic bonding resin (TransbondTM XT was used in the control group, the restorative systems Charisma, Tetric Ceram, TPH Spectrum and Z100 were used in the other four groups. Seven days after bonding the brackets to the samples, shear forces were applied under pressure in a universal testing machine. The data collected was evaluated using the ANOVA test and, when a difference was identified, the Tukey test was applied. A 5% level of significance was adopted. The mean results of the shear bond strength tests were as follows: Group 1 (Charisma, 14.98 MPa; Group 2 (Tetric Ceram, 15.16 MPa; Group 3 (TPH, 17.70 MPa; Group 4 (Z100, 13.91 MPa; and Group 5 or control group (TransbondTM XT, 17.15 MPa. No statistically significant difference was found among the groups. It was concluded that all tested resins have sufficient bond strength to be recommended for bonding orthodontic brackets.

  7. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  8. Oak woodland restoration in the Missouri Ozarks: two case studies examining responses of ground flora vegetation to prescribed fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron P. Stevenson

    2016-01-01

    Prescribed fire and thinning are two primary tools for restoring overgrown oak and oak-pine woodlands in Missouri. We wanted to examine woodland restoration efforts and determine if we were meeting our goals of promoting herbaceous ground flora cover and richness. We examined herbaceous responses to fire at two restoration sites in the Missouri Ozarks. At the first...

  9. Documentation of a groundwater flow model (SJRRPGW) for the San Joaquin River Restoration Program study area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traum, Jonathan A.; Phillips, Steven P.; Bennett, George L.; Zamora, Celia; Metzger, Loren F.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the potential effects of restoration flows on existing drainage problems, anticipated as a result of the San Joaquin River Restoration Program (SJRRP), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), developed a groundwater flow model (SJRRPGW) of the SJRRP study area that is within 5 miles of the San Joaquin River and adjacent bypass system from Friant Dam to the Merced River. The primary goal of the SJRRP is to reestablish the natural ecology of the river to a degree that restores salmon and other fish populations. Increased flows in the river, particularly during the spring salmon run, are a key component of the restoration effort. A potential consequence of these increased river flows is the exacerbation of existing irrigation drainage problems along a section of the river between Mendota and the confluence with the Merced River. Historically, this reach typically was underlain by a water table within 10 feet of the land surface, thus requiring careful irrigation management and (or) artificial drainage to maintain crop health. The SJRRPGW is designed to meet the short-term needs of the SJRRP; future versions of the model may incorporate potential enhancements, several of which are identified in this report. The SJRRPGW was constructed using the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW and was built on the framework of the USGS Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) within which the SJRRPGW model domain is embedded. The Farm Process (FMP2) was used to simulate the supply and demand components of irrigated agriculture. The Streamflow-Routing Package (SFR2) was used to simulate the streams and bypasses and their interaction with the aquifer system. The 1,300-square mile study area was subdivided into 0.25-mile by 0.25-mile cells. The sediment texture of the aquifer system, which was used to distribute hydraulic properties by model cell, was refined from that used in the CVHM to better represent

  10. Studies on decommissioning of TRIGA reactors and site restoration technologies in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won-Zin; Kim, Gye-Nam; Won, Hui-Jun

    2002-01-01

    Research and development on research reactor decommissioning and environmental restoration has been carried out at KAERI since 1997 to prepare for the decommissioning of KAERI's two TRIGA-type research reactors, which had been shut down since 1995. A 3-D graphic model of the TRIGA research reactor was built using IGRIP. The dismantling process was simulated in the graphic environment to verify the feasibility of individual operations before the execution of the remote dismantling process. An under-water wall-climbing robot, moving by propeller injection, and identifying its coordinates by using a laser sensor, was developed and tested in the TRIGA reactor pool by measuring a radioactive contamination map of the reactor surface. Using MODFLOW and TRIGA site geological data, a computer simulation of the underground migration of residual radionuclides, after the TRIGA reactor decommissioning, was carried out. It was found that the underground migration rate was very slow such that, when radionuclide decay and dilution are considered, the residual radionuclides will not have a significant environmental impact. The soil decontamination R and D, using soil washing, solvent flushing and electro-decontamination technologies, was carried out to determine the best method for decontaminating the soil waste accumulated in KAERI. The decontamination results indicated that, using the soil washing method, more than 80% of the soil wastes could be decontaminated well enough to discharge them to the environment. It was also determined that the control of solution pH and temperature in the soil washing process is important for the reduction of decontamination waste. Further decontamination, using an electro-kinetic decontamination method, was considered necessary for the residual soil waste, which consisted mainly of fine soil particles. (author)

  11. Environmental restoration disposal facility applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements study report. Revision 00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeck, F.V.; Vedder, B.L.; Rugg, J.E.

    1995-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) will be a landfill authorized under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) and will comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) substantive requirements. The facility will also comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR), including portions of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC), and to-be-considered (TBC) elements such as U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. In considering the requirements of CERCLA, a detailed analysis of various alternatives for ERDF was completed using the nine CERCLA criteria, National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), and public comments. The ERDF record of decision (ROD) selected an alternative that includes a RCRA-compliant double-lined trench for the disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes resulting from the remediation of operable units (OU) within the National Priorities List (NPL) sites in the 100, 200, and 300 Areas. Only wastes resulting from the remediation of Hanford NPL sites will be allowed in the ERDF. Of the various siting and design alternatives proposed for ERDF, the selected alternative provides the best combination of features by balancing the nine CERCLA criteria, ARAR compliance, environmentally protective site, and various stakeholder and public recommendations. The ERDF trench design, compliant with RCRA Subtitle C minimum technical requirements (MTR), will be double lined and equipped with a leachate collection system. This design provides a more reliable system to protect groundwater than other proposed alternatives. The ERDF is located on the Hanford Site Central Plateau, southeast of the 200 West Area

  12. The Cognitive Predictors of Computational Skill with Whole versus Rational Numbers: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Star, Jon R.; Bryant, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the 3rd-grade cognitive predictors of 5th-grade computational skill with rational numbers and how those are similar to and different from the cognitive predictors of whole-number computational skill. Students (n=688) were assessed on incoming whole-number calculation skill, language, nonverbal…

  13. Implementation and effects of Movement-oriented Restorative Care in a nursing home - a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henskens, Marinda; Nauta, Ilse M; Scherder, Erik J A; Oosterveld, Frits G J; Vrijkotte, Susan

    2017-10-23

    The prevalence of dementia is expected to increase rapidly, and institutionalization is a common consequence of the disease. Dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) is a predictor for institutionalization and a determinant for the quality of life (QoL). A promising method to increase functional independence in nursing homes is a restorative care or function focused care (FFC) approach. Movement-oriented restorative care (MRC) is derived from the concept of FFC and restorative care and focuses on the integration of physical activity in the daily lives of nursing home residents with dementia using a multidisciplinary approach. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of MRC in preservation of ADL independence and QoL in nursing home residents with dementia. In this quasi-experimental 12-month study, the effects of MRC were compared to care as usual in 61 nursing home residents with moderate to severe dementia. The outcome measures were ADL independence and QoL. These outcomes were measured five times (i.e. at baseline, and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months). Additionally, data was collected regarding the degree of implementation, and the barriers to the implementation process. The effect of the intervention was analyzed using linear mixed model analyses. There was no significant overall intervention effect on ADL independence and QoL. A significant group-by-time interaction was found for the QoL subscale positive self-image: after a 12 month intervention period, the MRC group scored significantly better than the control group on positive self-image. Regarding the other subscales and the total score of the QoL, as well as ADL, no significant group-by-time interactions were found. MRC did not demonstrate significant improvements in ADL or QoL. After a 12-month intervention period, residents who received MRC showed higher scores on positive self-image compared to the control group. This study contributes to the limited research regarding the

  14. Intricate Estimation and Assessment of Surface Conditioning of Posts to improve Interfacial Adhesion in Post-core Restorations: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priyanka; Sharma, Amil; Pathak, Vivek K; Mankeliya, Saurabh; Bhardwaj, Shivanshu; Dhanare, Poorvasha

    2017-12-01

    Post and core restorations are routinely used for restoring grossly decayed tooth structures. Various chemical agents are known to affect the interfacial adhesions between the post and the core. Hence, we planned the present study to evaluate the effect of various post-surface treatments on the interfacial strength between the posts and composite materials that are used for building up the core portion. The present study included assessment of the effect of surface conditioning of posts on the interfacial adhesion in post-core restorations. A total of 80 clear post-tapers were included and were divided broadly into four study groups based on the type of chemical testing protocols used. Various chemical treatments included alkaline potassium permanganate, hydrogen peroxide, and phosphoric acid. The fourth group was the control group. The composite core material was used for building up the core. Testing of the tensile load was done on a universal testing machine. All the results were analyzed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The highest bond strength was observed in the study group treated with alkaline potassium permanganate, while the lowest was observed in the control group followed by the hydrogen peroxide group. While comparing the mean bond strength in between various study groups, significant results were obtained. Chemical treatment protocol significantly alters the mean bond strength of the post and core restoration. Potassium permanganate significantly increases the bond strength between the fiber post and core restoration.

  15. 42 CFR 456.245 - Number of studies required to be performed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Number of studies required to be performed. 456.245 Section 456.245 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ur Plan: Medical Care Evaluation Studies § 456.245 Number of studies required to be performed. The...

  16. 42 CFR 456.145 - Number of studies required to be performed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Number of studies required to be performed. 456.145 Section 456.145 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...: Medical Care Evaluation Studies § 456.145 Number of studies required to be performed. The hospital must...

  17. The Cognitive Predictors of Computational Skill with Whole versus Rational Numbers: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethaler, Pamela M; Fuchs, Lynn S; Star, Jon R; Bryant, Joan

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the 3(rd)-grade cognitive predictors of 5th-grade computational skill with rational numbers and how those are similar to and different from the cognitive predictors of whole-number computational skill. Students (n = 688) were assessed on incoming whole-number calculation skill, language, nonverbal reasoning, concept formation, processing speed, and working memory in the fall of 3(rd) grade. Students were followed longitudinally and assessed on calculation skill with whole numbers and with rational numbers in the spring of 5(th) grade. The unique predictors of skill with whole-number computation were incoming whole-number calculation skill, nonverbal reasoning, concept formation, and working memory (numerical executive control). In addition to these cognitive abilities, language emerged as a unique predictor of rational-number computational skill.

  18. Hydro-biogeochemical phosphorus mobilization - evaluating a wetland restoration "P risk" assesment tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Forsmann, Ditte M.; Hoffmann, Carl Christian

    2012-01-01

    recognized as one of the most important mitigation options in obeying the quality goals of the European Water Framework Directive. While the nitrogen removal efficiency of restored wetlands is well accepted, the impact of wetland restoration on phosphorus (P) is less obvious. An increasing number...... of studies have called to the attention that wetland restoration on former agricultural soils may result in P release. Despite the high priority of wetland restoration there is a serious lack in understanding the fate of P following wetland restoration, and predictive model tools are highly needed....... Prediction of P dynamics in restored wetlands is extremely challenging because of the complex interactions and feedbacks between hydrology, hydrochemistry and sediment geochemistry. In the Danish Strategic Research project MONITECH, one of the major objectives was to investigate the possibility of developing...

  19. Long-term River Trajectories to Enhance Restoration Efficiency and Sustainability on the Upper Rhine: an Interdisciplinary Study (Rohrschollen Island, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschbach, D.; Laurent, S.; May, J. H.; Imfeld, G.; Payraudeau, S.; Preusser, F.

    2017-12-01

    While the history of a fluvial hydrosystem can provide essential knowledge on present functioning, historical context remains rarely considered in river restoration. Here we show the relevance of an interdisciplinary historical study for improving restoration within the framework of a European LIFE+ project on the French side of the Upper-Rhine (Rohrschollen Island). Planimetric evolution combined with historical high flow data enabled to reconstruct pre-disturbance hydromorphological functioning and major changes that occurred on the reach. A deposition frequency assessment combining vertical evolution of the Rhine thalweg, chronology of deposits in the floodplain and a hydrological model revealed that the period of vertical incision in the main channel corresponded to high rates of narrowing and lateral channel filling. The analysis of filling processes by Passega diagram and IRLS dating highlight that periods of engineering works were closely related to fine sediment deposition, which present also concomitant heavy metal accumulation. In fact, current fluvial forms, processes and sediment chemistry around the Rohrschollen Island directly reflect the disturbances that occurred during past correction works, and up to today. Our results underscore the advantage of combining functional restoration with detailed knowledge of past-trajectory to: (i) understand the functioning of the hydrosystem prior anthropogenic disturbances, (ii) characterize the human-driven morphodynamic adjustments during the two last centuries, (iii) characterize physio-chemical sediment properties to trace anthropogenic activities and evaluate the potential impact of the restoration on pollutant remobilization, (iv) deduce post-restoration evolution and (v) evaluate efficiency and sustainability of the restoration effects. We anticipate our approach to expand the toolbox of decision-makers and help orientating functional restoration actions in the future.

  20. It is not all bad for the grey city - A crossover study on physiological and psychological restoration in a forest and an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigsdotter, Ulrika K; Corazon, Sus Sola; Sidenius, Ulrik; Kristiansen, Jesper; Grahn, Patrik

    2017-07-01

    Today, urbanization presents a challenge to urban planning with regard to creating healthy living environments. The aim of this research is to gain further knowledge of the restorativeness of a best case urban and natural environment: that is a historic down town urban environment and forest environment located in an arboretum. The study has a cross-over design where 51 (N) female university students are exposed to the two environments through both seated viewing and walking. A mixed method approach is used with both physiological measurements of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) and psychological measurements of mood change and perceived restorativeness. The HRV results show no significant differences between the two environments, and both environments are found to be more physiologically restorative than being at the office or on the minibus. The results of the psychological measures indicate that the forest walk has a positive effect on mood, while the walk in the urban environment has no effect. The forest environment is also rated more highly with regard to perceived restorativeness than the urban environment. The results support the current research that shows natural environments as more restorative than urban environments. The study also adds to the ongoing debate on healthy urban planning by indicating that architectural and historical qualities may be associated with the physiological well-being of citizens. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The science and politics of human well-being: a case study in cocreating indicators for Puget Sound restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Biedenweg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Across scientific fields, there have been calls to improve the integration of scientific knowledge in policy making. Particularly since the publication of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, these calls increasingly refer to data on human well-being related to the natural environment. However, policy decisions involve selective uptake of information across communities with different preferences and decision-making processes. Additionally, researchers face the fact that there are important trade-offs in producing knowledge that is simultaneously credible, legitimate, socially relevant, and socially just. We present a study that developed human well-being indicators for Washington State's Puget Sound ecosystem recovery agency over 3 years. Stakeholders, decision makers, and social scientists were engaged in the identification, modification, and prioritization of well-being indicators that were adopted by the agency for tracking progress toward ecosystem recovery and strategic planning. After substantial literature review, interviews, workshops, and indicator ranking exercises, 15 indicators were broadly accepted and important to all audiences. Although the scientists, decision makers, and stakeholders used different criteria to identify and prioritize indicators, they all agreed that indicators associated with each of 6 broad domains (social, cultural, psychological, physical, economic, and governance were critical to assess the holistic concept of well-being related to ecosystem restoration. Decision makers preferred indicators that mirrored stakeholder preferences, whereas social scientists preferred only a subset. The Puget Sound indicator development process provides an example for identifying, selecting, and monitoring diverse concepts of well-being related to environmental restoration in a way that promotes recognition, participation, and a fair distribution of environmental benefits across the region.

  2. Public participation in environmental decision-making: a case study of ecosystem restoration in South FloridaPublic participation in environmental decision-making: a case study of ecosystem restoration in South Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, Laura

    2006-01-01

    The “ecosystem” is the conceptual model guiding environmental restoration projects in the Florida Everglades, a large wetlands region in the southern United States. According to applied ecological frameworks, ecosystems are geographies (of various temporal and spatial scales) where systemic interrelationships of organisms and habitat occur. With current project estimates at 14.8 billion dollars, ecosystem restoration in South Florida represents one of the largest and most expensive environmen...

  3. Restoration and conversion to re-use of historic buildings incorporating increased energy efficiency: A case study - the Haybarn complex, Hilandar Monastery, Mount Athos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Šekularac Jelena A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper approach to restoration of historic buildings is crucial for monumental heritage protection. The objective of the paper is to define a methodology for historic buildings restoration in order to increase energy efficiency and re-usability in accordance with modern standards. The main method used in the paper is the observation of historic buildings during their restoration and exploitation, analysis and evaluation of achieved results regarding energy efficiency and energy saving, through the examples of the buildings belonging to Hilandar Monastery, Mount Athos, in Greece. Mount Athos was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List for its cultural and natural values. This case study discusses the abandoned and dilapidated historic buildings of the Haybarn Complex (Stable, Mulekeepers’ House and Haybarn, the achieved results regarding the restoration of these buildings, their energy efficiency and turning into the premises for occasional stays. The research results are recommendations for increasing energy efficiency while performing the restoration of historic buildings, so that these buildings could be re-used in a new way. The most significant contribution of the paper is the practical test of energy refurbishment of these historic buildings conducted using the principles and methods of energy efficiency, in compliance with conservation requirements and authenticity of historic buildings.

  4. Resistance to fracture of endodontically treated premolars restored with glass ionomer cement or acid etch composite resin: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ranga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Due to the weakness of endodontically treated posterior teeth requires more strengthened restoration to withstand occlusal forces. The purpose of the present study was to determine and compare the resistance to fracture of endodontically treated maxillary 1 st premolars restored with different materials in mesio-occluso-distal (MOD cavity preparations. Materials and Methods: MOD cavity preparations in 80 endodontically treated maxillary 1 st premolars were restored using four different methods. Fiber rings were filled with stone plaster and the teeth were placed into the plaster up to the level of cemento-enamel junction. The teeth were grouped according to restorative method, mounted in an Instrom T.T. machine, and the buccal walls subjected to a slowly increasing compressive force until fracture occurred. Result: The force of fracture of the walls of each tooth was recorded and the results in the various groups compared. All teeth fractured in a similar manner irrespective of the restorative method used. Conclusion: The resistance to the fracture of the teeth was the same when they were stored with glass ionomer cement as a base over which composite resin was placed. When the entire cavities were filled with glass ionomer cement, the resistance to fracture of the teeth decreased significantly compared with the acid etch resin technique.

  5. A phase III, open-label, single-arm study of tenecteplase for restoration of function in dysfunctional central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbi, Cameron; Costanzi, John; Shulman, Robert; Dreisbach, Luke; Jacobs, Brian R; Blaney, Martha; Ashby, Mark; Gillespie, Barbara S; Begelman, Susan M

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate, in a phase III, single-arm study, the safety and efficacy of the thrombolytic agent tenecteplase in restoring function to dysfunctional central venous catheters (CVCs). Pediatric and adult patients with dysfunctional CVCs were eligible to receive as much as 2 mL (2 mg) of intraluminal tenecteplase, which was left to dwell in the CVC lumen for a maximum of 120 minutes. If CVC function was not restored at 120 minutes, a second dose was instilled for an additional 120 minutes. Tenecteplase was administered to 246 patients. Mean patient age was 44 years (range, 0-92 y); 72 patients (29%) were younger than 17 years of age. Chemotherapy was the most common reason for catheter insertion. Restoration of CVC function was achieved in 177 patients (72%) within 120 minutes after the first dose. After instillation of a maximum of two doses of tenecteplase, CVC function was restored in 200 patients (81%), with similar frequencies in pediatric (83%) and adult (80%) patients. Adverse events (AEs) were reported in 31 patients (13%); fever (2%), neutropenia (1%), and nausea (0.8%) were most common. One serious AE, an allergic hypersensitivity reaction, was judged to be related to tenecteplase and/or a chemotherapeutic agent that the patient was receiving concurrently. Consecutive administration of one or two doses of tenecteplase into CVCs showed efficacy in the restoration of catheter function in patients with dysfunctional CVCs. Copyright © 2011 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effects of Prostate Cancer Treatment on the Sexual Behavior of Gay and Bisexual Men: Key Results from the "Restore" Study | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker | "The Effects of Prostate Cancer Treatment on the Sexual Behavior of Gay and Bisexual Men: Key Results from the 'Restore' Study" will be presented by B.R. Simon Rosser, PhD, MPH, Professor of the Division of Epidemiology & Community Health and Director of HIV/STI Intervention & Prevention Studies at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health in Minneapolis,

  7. Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S; Chazdon, Robin L; Lindenmayer, David B; Sansevero, Jerônimo B B; Monteiro, Lara; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Latawiec, Agnieszka E; Strassburg, Bernardo B N

    2017-11-01

    Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biomass, and height) tested. Restoration success for biodiversity and vegetation structure was 34 to 56% and 19 to 56% higher in natural regeneration than in active restoration systems, respectively, after controlling for key biotic and abiotic factors (forest cover, precipitation, time elapsed since restoration started, and past disturbance). Biodiversity responses were based primarily on ecological metrics of abundance and species richness (74%), both of which take far less time to achieve restoration success than similarity and composition. This finding challenges the widely held notion that natural forest regeneration has limited conservation value and that active restoration should be the default ecological restoration strategy. The proposition that active restoration achieves greater restoration success than natural regeneration may have arisen because previous comparisons lacked controls for biotic and abiotic factors; we also did not find any difference between active restoration and natural regeneration outcomes for vegetation structure when we did not control for these factors. Future policy priorities should align the identified patterns of biophysical and ecological conditions where each or both restoration approaches are more successful, cost-effective, and compatible with socioeconomic incentives for tropical forest restoration.

  8. Numbers and functional lateralization: A visual half-field and dichotic listening study in proficient bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klichowski, Michal; Króliczak, Gregory

    2017-06-01

    Potential links between language and numbers and the laterality of symbolic number representations in the brain are still debated. Furthermore, reports on bilingual individuals indicate that the language-number interrelationships might be quite complex. Therefore, we carried out a visual half-field (VHF) and dichotic listening (DL) study with action words and different forms of symbolic numbers used as stimuli to test the laterality of word and number processing in single-, dual-language and mixed -task and language- contexts. Experiment 1 (VHF) showed a significant right visual field/left hemispheric advantage in response accuracy for action word, as compared to any form of symbolic number processing. Experiment 2 (DL) revealed a substantially reversed effect - a significant right ear/left hemisphere advantage for arithmetic operations as compared to action word processing, and in response times in single- and dual-language contexts for number vs. action words. All these effects were language independent. Notably, for within-task response accuracy compared across modalities significant differences were found in all studied contexts. Thus, our results go counter to findings showing that action-relevant concepts and words, as well as number words are represented/processed primarily in the left hemisphere. Instead, we found that in the auditory context, following substantial engagement of working memory (here: by arithmetic operations), there is a subsequent functional reorganization of processing single stimuli, whether verbs or numbers. This reorganization - their weakened laterality - at least for response accuracy is not exclusive to processing of numbers, but the number of items to be processed. For response times, except for unpredictable tasks in mixed contexts, the "number problem" is more apparent. These outcomes are highly relevant to difficulties that simultaneous translators encounter when dealing with lengthy auditory material in which single items such

  9. Experimental study on the potential of higher octane number fuels for low load partially premixed combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, S.; van der Waart, K.; Somers, B.; de Goey, P.

    2017-01-01

    The optimal fuel for partially premixed combustion (PPC) is considered to be a gasoline boiling range fuel with an octane number around 70. Higher octane number fuels are considered problematic with low load and idle conditions. In previous studies mostly the intake air temperature did not exceed 30

  10. Microleakage of bonded amalgam restorations using different adhesive agents with dye under vacuum: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Parolia

    2011-01-01

    Clinical Significance: Bonded amalgam restorations prevent over-preparation and reduce the tooth flexure. GIC type I under amalgam provides chemical bonding in between amalgam and tooth structure and thus reduces the microleakage.

  11. Case studies of riparian and watershed restoration in the southwestern United States—Principles, challenges, and successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Barbara E.; Sarr, Daniel A.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Sarr, Daniel A.

    2017-07-18

    Globally, rivers and streams are highly altered by impoundments, diversions, and stream channelization associated with agricultural and water delivery needs. Climate change imposes additional challenges by further reducing discharge, introducing variability in seasonal precipitation patterns, and increasing temperatures. Collectively, these changes in a river or stream’s annual hydrology affects surface and groundwater dynamics, fluvial processes, and the linked aquatic and riparian responses, particularly in arid regions. Recognizing the inherent ecosystem services that riparian and aquatic habitats provide, society increasingly supports restoring the functionality of riparian and aquatic ecosystems.Given the wide range in types and scales of riparian impacts, approaches to riparian restoration can range from tactical, short-term, and site-specific efforts to strategic projects and long-term collaborations best pursued at the watershed scale. In the spirit of sharing information, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center convened a workshop June 23-25, 2015, in Flagstaff, Ariz. for practitioners in restoration science to share general principles, successful restoration practices, and discuss the challenges that face those practicing riparian restoration in the southwestern United States. Presenters from the Colorado River and the Rio Grande basins, offered their perspectives and experiences in restoration at the local, reach and watershed scale. Outcomes of the workshop include this Proceedings volume, which is composed of extended abstracts of most of the presentations given at the workshop, and recommendations or information needs identified by participants. The organization of the Proceedings follows a general progression from local scale restoration to river and watershed scale approaches, and finishes with restoration assessments and monitoring.

  12. Quality of Life during the First Two Years Post Stroke : The Restore4Stroke Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mierlo, Maria L.; van Heugten, Caroline M.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Hajos, Tibor R. S.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Visser-Meily, Johanna M. A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little information is available about the course of quality of life (QoL) post stroke and how dependency on activities of daily living (ADL) influences this course. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the course of QoL from 2 months up to 2 years post stroke and to study the

  13. Frequency of Iatrogenic Changes Caused from Overhang Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boteva E.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Overhangs from different restorations are an iatrogenic error with different results, short and long term consequences related to bone changes and periodontal diseases. Amalgam “tattoos”, idiopathic subgingival hypertrophy, marginal periodontitis and bone reductions in the intradental septum are major problems. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the frequency of traumatic restorations in distal teeth and clinical criteria, related to the x-ray findings. Evaluating criteria, for repairing the overhangs or for replacement of the restorations, is also a goal. Three hundred and sixteen - 316 patients from both sexes, 632 dental x-rays with 948 distal teeth and 632 restorations, at least two radiographs for each patient, were analyzed. Overhangs are classified in three groups: small, middle and large. In the criteria bone changes from the overhangs are analyzed separately from the existing or nonexisting bone changes from a generalized periodontal diseases. The frequency of iatrogenic changes in this cohort group is 10.6% from 632 restored teeth. This is a relatively small number compared with the other published studies. These overhangs are on distal teeth in sound teeth arches which makes them difficult for corrections. The evaluated criteria for replacement based on x-ray findings and clinical experience includes: operative and nonoperative corrections, restoration replacement, perio- and endo-therapy and follow up terms for secondary caries.

  14. Outcomes of implants and restorations placed in general dental practices: a retrospective study by the Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, John D; Kazimiroff, Julie; Papas, Athena; Curro, Frederick A; Thompson, Van P; Vena, Donald A; Wu, Hongyu; Collie, Damon; Craig, Ronald G

    2014-07-01

    The authors conducted a study to determine the types, outcomes, risk factors and esthetic assessment of implants and their restorations placed in the general practices of a practice-based research network. All patients who visited network practices three to five years previously and underwent placement of an implant and restoration within the practice were invited to enroll. Practitioner-investigators (P-Is) recorded the status of the implant and restoration, characteristics of the implant site and restoration, presence of peri-implant pathology and an esthetic assessment by the P-I and patient. The P-Is classified implants as failures if the original implant was missing or had been replaced, the implant was mobile or elicited pain on percussion, there was overt clinical or radiographic evidence of pathology or excessive bone loss (> 0.2 millimeter per year after an initial bone loss of 2 mm). They classified restorations as failures if they had been replaced or if there was abutment or restoration fracture. The authors enrolled 922 implants and patients from 87 practices, with a mean (standard deviation) follow-up of 4.2 (0.6) years. Of the 920 implants for which complete data records were available, 64 (7.0 percent) were classified as failures when excessive bone loss was excluded from the analysis. When excessive bone loss was included, 172 implants (18.7 percent) were classified as failures. According to the results of univariate analysis, a history of severe periodontitis, sites with preexisting inflammation or type IV bone, cases of immediate implant placement and placement in the incisor or canine region were associated with implant failure. According to the results of multivariate analysis, sites with preexisting inflammation (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17; 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.41-3.34]) or type IV bone (OR = 1.99; 95 percent CI, 1.12-3.55) were associated with a greater risk of implant failure. Of the 908 surviving implants, 20 (2.2 percent) had

  15. Sealing ability of a new calcium silicate based material as a dentin substitute in class II sandwich restorations: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Viola Solomon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Class ll sandwich restorations are routinely performed where conventional Glass ionomer cement (GIC or Resin-modified GIC (RMGIC is used as a base or dentin substitute and a light curing composite resin restorative material is used as an enamel substitute. Various authors have evaluated the microleakage of composite resin restorations where glass ionomer cement has been used as a base in class II sandwich restorations, but a literature survey reveals limited studies on the microleakage analysis of similar restorations with biodentine as a dentin substitute, as an alternative to glass ionomer cement. The aim of this study is: To evaluate the marginal sealing efficacy of a new calcium-silicate-based material (Biodentine as a dentin substitute, at the cervical margins, in posterior class II sandwich restorations.To compare and evaluate the microleakage at the biodentine/composite interface with the microleakage at the resin-modified GIC/composite interface, in posterior class II open sandwich restorations. To compare the efficacy between a water-based etch and rinse adhesive (Scotch bond multipurpose and an acetone-based etch and rinse adhesive (Prime and bond NT, when bonding biodentine to the composite. To evaluate the enamel, dentin, and interfacial microleakage at the composite and biodentine/RMGIC interfaces. Materials and Methods: Fifty class II cavities were prepared on the mesial and distal surfaces of 25 extracted human maxillary third molars, which were randomly divided into five groups of ten cavities each: (G1 Biodentine group, (G2 Fuji II LC GIC group, (G3 Biodentine as a base + prime and bond NT + Tetric N-Ceram composite, (G4 Biodentine + scotchbond multi-purpose + Tetric N-Ceram composite, (G5 Fuji II LC as a base + prime and bond NT+ Tetric-N Ceram composite. The samples were then subjected to thermocycling, 2500× (5°C to 55°C, followed by the dye penetration test. Scores are given from 0 to 3 based on the depth of

  16. Restoration of weight-shifting capacity in patients with postacute stroke: a rehabilitation cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haart, M. de; Geurts, A.C.H.; Dault, M.C.; Nienhuis, B.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify and interrelate recovery characteristics of voluntary weight shifting after stroke and to examine whether the assessment of weight shifting adds information about balance recovery compared with the assessment of quiet standing. DESIGN: Exploratory study using an inception

  17. Restoration of weight-shifting capacity in patients with postacute stroke: a rehabilitation cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haart, Mirjam; Geurts, Alexander C.; Dault, Mylène C.; Nienhuis, Bart; Duysens, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify and interrelate recovery characteristics of voluntary weight shifting after stroke and to examine whether the assessment of weight shifting adds information about balance recovery compared with the assessment of quiet standing. DESIGN: Exploratory study using an inception

  18. Research of land reclamation and ecological restoration in the resource-exhausting city : a case study of Huaibei in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, W.; Hu, Z.; Li, J.; Zhang, H.; Hu, J.; Zhang, P.

    2010-01-01

    Eco-city construction is a strong tool which could move a city from traditional industrial civilization to ecological civilization. The city of Huaibet, located in China, has 50 years of coal mining history, and has been listed as a national resource-exhausting city. The city's sustainable development and ecological restoration is encountering extreme challenges. This study used time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in order to study the situation of evolution and distribution of subsidence in the area in Huaibet. The purpose of the study was to provide strategic recommendations to assist Huaibei city transform from a resource-exhausting city to an eco-city. Specifically, the paper discussed the direction of eco-reconstruction in Huaibei such as rural eco-agriculture; wetland park or suburban park; and mine park. It also presented a time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in Huaibet including the subsidence status of the main city of Huaibet and intensive use of land evaluation and land use measures of the main city of Huaibei. Land reclamation and eco-reconstruction of Huaibet was also examined in the paper. It was concluded that based on land use of all aspects of the evaluation area and city's development plan, an integrated tourism with full use of subsidence land could be developed. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  19. Research of land reclamation and ecological restoration in the resource-exhausting city : a case study of Huaibei in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, W.; Hu, Z.; Li, J.; Zhang, H.; Hu, J.; Zhang, P. [China Univ. Of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Inst. of Land Reclamation and Ecological Reconstruction

    2010-07-01

    Eco-city construction is a strong tool which could move a city from traditional industrial civilization to ecological civilization. The city of Huaibet, located in China, has 50 years of coal mining history, and has been listed as a national resource-exhausting city. The city's sustainable development and ecological restoration is encountering extreme challenges. This study used time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in order to study the situation of evolution and distribution of subsidence in the area in Huaibet. The purpose of the study was to provide strategic recommendations to assist Huaibei city transform from a resource-exhausting city to an eco-city. Specifically, the paper discussed the direction of eco-reconstruction in Huaibei such as rural eco-agriculture; wetland park or suburban park; and mine park. It also presented a time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in Huaibet including the subsidence status of the main city of Huaibet and intensive use of land evaluation and land use measures of the main city of Huaibei. Land reclamation and eco-reconstruction of Huaibet was also examined in the paper. It was concluded that based on land use of all aspects of the evaluation area and city's development plan, an integrated tourism with full use of subsidence land could be developed. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  20. Study of radio-restoration by various mineral salts and silice wich products (Tuf and Pouzzolane) of rice embryos (oryza-sativa L, Cigalon variety) exposed to cobalt 60 gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouthia-Khadija.

    1981-12-01

    Mutagenic treatments produce a large number of mutants per unit time and are used for plant improvement. However these treatments cause damage to cells. To counteract this radio-induced damage 2 methods are being tried: - Protection, which consists in the supply of an active product before application of mutagenic agents; - Restoration, which tries to repair the damage after mutagenic treatment. This work is devoted to restoration processes. Technique for the isolation and culture on a suitable nutrient of rice embryos (oryza sativa L, Cigalon variety) separated from non-irradiated caryopses were developed first. By separating out the embryo in this way it is possible to study in vitro the interactions between the embryo and the rest of the caryopsis (albumin + pericarp). The effects of radiations on embryos from caryopses exposed to cobalt 60 gamma rays were measured next, then the action of certain inorganic elements contained in the caryopsis tissues was analysed. On the basis of the first results obtained the differences in response between plantlets from embryos irradiated or otherwise treated or not either by zinc sulphate or by very silice-rich volcanic products (Tuf and Pouzzolane), were examined by chemical analysis techniques. These tests have allowed the detection of ionic changes induced by irradiation during the different stages of plant development and led to a better estimate of the radio-restoration mechanisms brought about by the various chemical compounds used [fr

  1. Re-interventions after restoring teeth-Mining an insurance database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raedel, Michael; Hartmann, Andrea; Priess, Heinz-Werner; Bohm, Steffen; Samietz, Stefanie; Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Walter, Michael H

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine re-interventions after restorative treatment. The data was collected from the digital database of a major German national health insurance company. Only permanent teeth were observed. Placing a permanent restoration other than a crown regardless of involved surfaces and material was the study intervention. The data did not allow for a differentiation between fillings and inlays that were estimated only a very small portion of the restorations. Success was defined as not undergoing any restorative re-intervention with fillings or inlays on the same tooth (primary outcome) and assessed with Kaplan-Meier survival analyses over four years. An additional analysis was conducted rating "crowning" and "extraction" of respective teeth as target events. Differences were tested with the Log-Rank-test. A multivariate Cox regression analyses was carried out. A total of 17,024,344 restorations placed in 4,825,408 anterior teeth and 9,973,177 posterior teeth could be traced. Focussing on the primary outcome re-intervention, the cumulative four-year success rate was 69.9% for one surface restorations, 74.8% for two surface restorations, 66.6% for three surface restorations and 61.0% for four surface and more extended restorations. These differences were significant (prestorations, 67.5% for two surface restorations, 63.0% for three surface restorations and 55.8% for four surface and more extended restorations. The number of restoration surfaces as well as the tooth position remained significant in the multivariate Cox regression. The sustainability of restorative dental treatment under the terms and conditions of the German national health insurance system shows room for improvement. From a public health perspective, special focus should be laid on primary and secondary prevention to minimize the restorative treatment need. This study shows that re-interventions are observed regularly after restorative treatment. Therefore, preventive and

  2. Study of the number of neutrons produced by fission of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.

    1958-01-01

    Study of the number of neutrons produced by fission of 239 Pu. The counting by coincidence of fissions and neutrons produced by these fissions allows the study of the variation of the mean number of neutrons emitted by ν fission. In the first chapter, it studied the variation of the mean number of neutrons emitted by 239 Pu fission with the energy of the incident neutron. A description of the experiment is given: a spectrometer with a crystal of sodium chloride or beryllium (mounted on a goniometer) is used, a fission chamber containing 10 mg of 239 Pu and the neutron detection system constituted of BF 3 counters which are enriched in 10 B. In the second part, the counting by coincidence of fissions and neutrons produced by the same fission and received by two different groups of counters allow the determination of a relationship between the root mean square and the average of neutron number produced by fission. The variation of the mean number of neutrons emitted by fission of 239 Pu is studied when we change from a thermal spectra of neutrons to a fission spectra of incident neutrons. Finally, when separating in two different part the fission chamber, it is possible to measure the mean number of neutrons emitted from fission of two different sources. It compared the mean number of neutrons emitted by fission of 239 Pu and 233 U. (M.P.)

  3. Effects of organic amendments on water use efficiency evaluated by a stable isotope technique. A case study in experimental mine restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Delgado Huertas, Antonio; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Solé Benet, Albert

    2017-04-01

    Water deficit and low infiltration reduce restoration success in semiarid post-mine soils, where high mortality of plants has been observed in early years of the restoration. Species that originate from arid and semi-arid regions are often considered appropriate for xeriscaping, but there have been relatively few direct measurements of main water related parameters as water use efficiency (WUE) in restoration strategies. In this respect, the goal of this study was to analyse the efficiency with which native plants use water when organic amendments and mulches are applied in mine soil restorations. The experimental design was established in a calcareous quarry in Almería (SE Spain), under arid climate. We tested two organic amendments (sewage sludge from water treatment plant and compost from vegetable residues) and gravel mulch. Three plant species were planted in 50 m2 experimental plots: Macrochloa tenacissima, Genista umbellata and Anthyllis cytisoides. Soil moisture was monitored at a depth of 0.1 m during 4 years and at the end of this period stable isotope of Carbon (δ13C), considered as an effective method to evaluate the plant intrinsic WUE, was measured. We did not observe significant differences in soil moisture among the different soil restoration treatments. With regard to WUE, species is the factor most important to establish differences. Anthyllis cytisoides showed the lowest mean δ13C values, indicating low WUE. On the contrary, Macrochloa tenacissima presented high δ13C values. Moreover, species showed higher δ13C values when gravel mulch was applied. To increase WUE in restored soils under arid conditions it is necessary to apply water conservation methods and to use the most appropriate species.

  4. Effectiveness of a resin-modified glass ionomer liner in reducing hypersensitivity in posterior restorations: a study from the practitioners engaged in applied research and learning network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strober, Brad; Veitz-Keenan, Analia; Barna, Julie Ann; Matthews, Abigail G; Vena, Donald; Craig, Ronald G; Curro, Frederick A; Thompson, Van P

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this randomized comparative effectiveness study conducted by members of the Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network were to determine whether using a resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) liner reduces postoperative hypersensitivity (POH) in dentin-bonded Class I and Class II resin-based composite (RBC) restorations, as well as to identify other factors (putative risk factors) associated with increased POH. PEARL Network practitioner-investigators (P-Is) (n = 28) were trained to assess sensitivity determination, enamel and dentin caries activity rankings, evaluation for sleep bruxism, and materials and techniques used. The P-Is enrolled 341 participants who had hypersensitive posterior lesions. Participants were randomly assigned to receive an RBC restoration with or without an RMGI liner before P-Is applied a one-step, self-etching bonding agent. P-Is conducted sensitivity evaluations at baseline, at one and four weeks after treatment, and at all visits according to patient-reported outcomes. P-Is collected complete data regarding 347 restorations (339 participants) at baseline, with 341 (98 percent) (333 participants) recalled at four weeks. Treatment groups were balanced across baseline characteristics and measures. RBC restorations with or without an RMGI liner had the same one-week and four-week POH outcomes, as measured clinically (by means of cold or air stimulation) and according to patient-reported outcomes. Use of an RMGI liner did not reduce clinically measured or patient-reported POH in moderate-depth Class I and Class II restorations. Cold and air clinical stimulation findings were similar between groups. Practical Implications. The time, effort and expense involved in placing an RMGI liner in these moderate-depth RBC restorations may be unnecessary, as the representative liner used did not improve hypersensitivity outcomes.

  5. Cle Elum Lake anadromous salmon restoration feasibility study: Summary of research, Final Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flagg A, Thomas; Ruehle E, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The focus of this research was to study the feasibility for anadromous salmonids to recolonize the habitat above reservoirs in the Yakima River without disruption to irrigation withdrawals. A primary concern was whether anadromous fish could successfully exit reservoirs and survive downstream passage through the Yakima and Columbia Rivers to the ocean

  6. Influence of the shape of the layers in photo-cured dental restorations on the shrinkage stress peaks-FEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Piotr

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse an influence of the shape of the layers in photo-cured dental restorations of Class I on distribution of shrinkage stresses along the tooth-restoration interface. The study is a continuation of the previous considerations (Kowalczyk and Gambin (2008) [1]), where techniques, which reduce stress concentration at the top of the tooth-restoration interface, were considered. The analysis leads to proposition of new layer forming techniques, which diminish the stress peaks at the interface and prevent the crack propagation process. To find the stress distributions in the dental restoration layers and the tooth tissues the finite element method implemented in the ABAQUS (Simulia, Providence, USA) software is used. For Class I restoration of the premolar tooth, the axisymmetrical model is assumed. The restoration is made of four layers of a photo-cured composite. Between the tooth tissues and the restoration, a layer of bonding agent 0.01mm thick is placed and modeled by FEM with help of the cohesive elements. The assumed model takes into account an influence of changes of elastic properties and viscous effects. For each case of the restoration layers system, the Huber-Mises stresses are analysed. The investigations show that the stresses near the restoration-tooth tissue interface are reduced due to viscous flow of the cured material and due to existence of a thin layer of the bonding agent. However, the stress distribution both, in the restoration and in the tooth tissues, is strongly dependent on a shape of the filling layers. Numerical simulations disclose that stress peaks are located at the top corners of each layer. The top corners of the last layer are the places where microleakage may occur. Stress concentrations at the corners of the preceding layers may lead to a growth of uprising crack. It will be shown that the flat layers in the restoration create relatively high values of the stress peaks. The rounded layers, with shapes

  7. Ariadne´s house (Pompeii, Italy) wall paintings: A multidisciplinary study of its present state focused on a future restoration and preventive conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, M.C.; García-Diego, F. J.; Merello, P.; D’Antoni, P.; Fernández-Navajas, A.; Ribera i Lacomba, A.; Ferrazza, L.; Pérez-Miralles, J.; Baró, José-Luis; Merce, P.; D’Antoni, H.; Curiel-Esparza, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of a multidisciplinary study on the current state of conservation of Ariadne's house (Pompeii, Italy), a domus of great archaeological value. The aim of this study is to undertake the preventive conservation actions required and increase the knowledge about its conservation and to generate discussions and points of view for a future restoration. Environmental studies, electromagnetic radiation measurements, study of materials and a photographical study we...

  8. Operational concepts for the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Configuration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-01

    DOE has initiated a planning process in anticipation of upgrading all DOE waste management operations and facilities. The EM Configuration Study examines four areas: (1) planning considerations, (2) system configuration, (3) operational concepts, and (4) resource assessments. Each area is addressed by a different team. Objective of the Operational Concepts Team 3 study is to investigate, identify, define, and evaluate alternative ways to manage DOE waste management facilities, while taking into consideration the information gathered by the other EM Configuration teams. This report provides information and criteria for evaluating the relative effectiveness and efficiency of various organizational alternatives that can be used to operate and manage DOE waste facilities. Intent of this report is not to select one best management alternative but rather to provide recommendations, conclusions, and background information from which decisions will be made at a future date.

  9. Melatonin Treatment May Be Able to Restore Menstrual Cyclicity in Women With PCOS: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Valeria; Romualdi, Daniela; Scarinci, Elisa; Cicco, Simona De; Florio, Christian Di; Immediata, Valentina; Tropea, Anna; Santarsiero, Carla Mariaflavia; Lanzone, Antonio; Apa, Rosanna

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of 6 months of melatonin administration on clinical, endocrine, and metabolic features of women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This is a prospective cohort study including 40 normal-weight women with PCOS between January and September 2016, enrolled in an academic research environment. Ultrasonographic pelvic examinations, hirsutism score evaluation, hormonal profile assays, oral glucose tolerance test, and lipid profile at baseline and after 6 months of melatonin administration were performed. Melatonin treatment significantly decreased androgens levels (free androgen index: P < .05; testosterone: P < .01; 17 hydroxyprogesterone: P < .01). Follicle-stimulating hormone levels significantly raised ( P < .01), and anti-Mullerian hormone serum levels significantly dropped after 6 months of melatonin treatment ( P < .01). No significant changes occurred in glucoinsulinemic and lipid parameters after treatment except a significant decrease of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Almost 95% of participants experienced an amelioration of menstrual cycles. Until now, only few data have been published about the role of melatonin in women with PCOS. This is the first study focused on the effects of exogenous oral melatonin administration on the clinical, endocrine, and metabolic characteristics of patients with PCOS. After 6 months of treatment, melatonin seems to improve menstrual irregularities and biochemical hyperandrogenism in women with PCOS through a direct, insulin-independent effect on the ovary. Based on our results, melatonin could be considered a potential future therapeutic agent for women affected by PCOS.

  10. Preliminary indicators for restoration assessment in riparian reforestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Nogueira dos Reis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The restoration success in forest ecosystems can be adequately assessed by correct selection of indicators that represent the achievement of established goals. The discriminant analysis technique on indicators selection consists of separation and classification of new observations on pre-defined groups, reducing the number of variables that are discriminant functions linearly dependent of the original variables. This study aims to define an index composed by structural attributes (number of species and individuals planted, height, basal area, number of regenerant species and individuals and chemical and pedological soil attributes to classify riparian reforested environments regarding to restoration taking as reference reforestation around the the Volta Grande reservoir, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Eleven variables were used for previous classification of plots in partially restored or unrestored groups and also used for discriminant analysis. Variables selected by the discriminant function generated were: number of species and basal area of planted individuals, number of regenerant species and individuals litter accumulation and soil cation exchange capacity. Compatibility of 98% from previous plot classifications and after index formation, show the representativeness of the selected variables on evaluation of restoration of riparian reforestations.

  11. Neural activation patterns and connectivity in visual attention during Number and Non-number processing: An ERP study using the Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marri, Faraj; Reza, Faruque; Begum, Tahamina; Hitam, Wan Hazabbah Wan; Jin, Goh Khean; Xiang, Jing

    2017-10-25

    Visual cognitive function is important to build up executive function in daily life. Perception of visual Number form (e.g., Arabic digit) and numerosity (magnitude of the Number) is of interest to cognitive neuroscientists. Neural correlates and the functional measurement of Number representations are complex occurrences when their semantic categories are assimilated with other concepts of shape and colour. Colour perception can be processed further to modulate visual cognition. The Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates are one of the best and most common screening tools for basic red-green colour vision testing. However, there is a lack of study of visual cognitive function assessment using these pseudoisochromatic plates. We recruited 25 healthy normal trichromat volunteers and extended these studies using a 128-sensor net to record event-related EEG. Subjects were asked to respond by pressing Numbered buttons when they saw the Number and Non-number plates of the Ishihara colour vision test. Amplitudes and latencies of N100 and P300 event related potential (ERP) components were analysed from 19 electrode sites in the international 10-20 system. A brain topographic map, cortical activation patterns and Granger causation (effective connectivity) were analysed from 128 electrode sites. No major significant differences between N100 ERP components in either stimulus indicate early selective attention processing was similar for Number and Non-number plate stimuli, but Non-number plate stimuli evoked significantly higher amplitudes, longer latencies of the P300 ERP component with a slower reaction time compared to Number plate stimuli imply the allocation of attentional load was more in Non-number plate processing. A different pattern of asymmetric scalp voltage map was noticed for P300 components with a higher intensity in the left hemisphere for Number plate tasks and higher intensity in the right hemisphere for Non-number plate tasks. Asymmetric cortical activation

  12. Restoration of rare earth mine areas: organic amendments and phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyan; Li, Zhaolong; Liu, Wen; Liu, Shenghong; Zhang, Limin; Zhong, Liyan; Luo, Ximei; Liang, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Overexploitation of rare earth mine has caused serious desertification and various environmental issues, and ecological restoration of a mining area is an important concern in China. In this study, experiments involving dry grass landfilling, chicken manure broadcasting, and plant cultivation were carried out to reclaim a rare earth mine area located in Heping County, Guangdong Province, China. The prime focus was to improve soil quality in terms of nutrients, microbial community, enzyme activity, and physicochemical properties so as to reclaim the land. After 2 years of restoration, an increase of organic matter (OM), available potassium (K), available phosphorus (P) levels, and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and a reduction of the available nitrogen (N) level and urease (URE) activity in soil were achieved compared to the original mined land. The nutrients and enzyme activities in soil with 5 years of restoration were close to or surpass those in the unexploited land as control. The bulk density, total porosity, water holding capacity, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) of soil were improved, and the number of cultivable microorganisms and the bacterial diversity in soil were greatly increased with time during ecological restoration, especially for surface soil. Furthermore, the artificial vegetation stably grew at the restored mining sites. The results indicated that organic amendments and phytoremediation could ecologically restore the rare earth mining sites and the mined land could finally be planted as farmland.

  13. Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: A lion case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam M. Ferreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of people present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

  14. Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: a lion case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sam M; Maruping, Nkabeng T; Schoultz, Darius; Smit, Travis R

    2013-05-24

    Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of people present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

  15. A feasibility study of perennial/annual plant species to restore soils contaminated with heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarías, Montserrat; Beltrán, Margarita; Gilberto Torres, Luis; González, Abelardo

    A feasibility study was carried out to evaluate the application of perennial/annual plant species in a phytoextraction process of a previously washed industrial urban soil contaminated by nickel, arsenic and cupper. The plant species selected for this study were Ipomea (Ipomea variada); grass (Poa pratensis); grass mixture (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum sp.); Monks Cress (Tropaeolum majus); ficus (Ficus benajamina) and fern (Pteris cretica). Soil was characterized and it presented the following heavy metals concentrations (dry weight): 80 mg of Ni/kg, 456-656 mg of As/kg and 1684-3166 mg of Cu/kg. Germination and survival in contaminated soil tests were conducted, from these, P. pratensis was discarded and the rest of plant species tested were used for the phytoextraction selection test. After 4 months of growth, biomass production was determined, and content of Ni, As and Cu was analyzed in plant’s tissue. Metal biological absorption coefficient (BAC), bio-concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF), were calculated. Regarding to biomass generation it was observed, in every case, an inhibition of the plant growth compared with blanks sown in a non contaminated soil; inhibition ranged from 22.5% for the Monk cress to 98% for Ipomea. Even though the later presented high BAC, BCF and TF, its growth was severely inhibited, and therefore, due its low biomass generation, it is not recommended for phytoextraction under conditions for this study. Heavy metals concentrations in plant’s tissue (dry weight) were as high as 866 mg Cu/kg and 602 mg As/kg for grass mixture; and 825 mg As/kg was observed for Monks cress. Grass mixture and monks cress had high BAC, BCF and TF, also they had high metal concentrations in its plants tissues and the lowest growth inhibition rates; hence the application in phytoextraction processes of these plants is advisable.

  16. Pilot study of lithium to restore intestinal barrier function in severe graft-versus-host disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Steinbach

    Full Text Available Severe intestinal graft-vs-host disease (GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT causes mucosal ulceration and induces innate and adaptive immune responses that amplify and perpetuate GVHD and the associated barrier dysfunction. Pharmacological agents to target mucosal barrier dysfunction in GVHD are needed. We hypothesized that induction of Wnt signaling by lithium, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3, would potentiate intestinal crypt proliferation and mucosal repair and that inhibition of GSK3 in inflammatory cells would attenuate the deregulated inflammatory response to mucosal injury. We conducted an observational pilot study to provide data for the potential design of a randomized study of lithium. Twenty patients with steroid refractory intestinal GVHD meeting enrollment criteria were given oral lithium carbonate. GVHD was otherwise treated per current practice, including 2 mg/kg per day of prednisone equivalent. Seventeen patients had extensive mucosal denudation (extreme endoscopic grade 3 in the duodenum or colon. We observed that 8 of 12 patients (67% had a complete remission (CR of GVHD and survived more than 1 year (median 5 years when lithium administration was started promptly within 3 days of endoscopic diagnosis of denuded mucosa. When lithium was started promptly and less than 7 days from salvage therapy for refractory GVHD, 8 of 10 patients (80% had a CR and survived more than 1 year. In perspective, a review of 1447 consecutive adult HCT patients in the preceding 6 years at our cancer center showed 0% one-year survival in 27 patients with stage 3-4 intestinal GVHD and grade 3 endoscopic appearance in the duodenum or colon. Toxicities included fatigue, somnolence, confusion or blunted affect in 50% of the patients. The favorable outcomes in patients who received prompt lithium therapy appear to support the future conduct of a randomized study of lithium for management of severe GVHD with

  17. The effects of electromagnetic fields on the number of ovarian primordial follicles: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Bakacak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electromagnetic field (EMF, generated close to the ovaries, on primordial follicles. A total of 16 rats were used in this study. The study group consisted of rats exposed to an EMF in the abdominal region for 15 min/d for 15 days. Both the study and control group were composed of eight rats. After the treatment period of 15 days, the ovaries of the rats were extracted, and sections of ovarian tissue were taken for histological evaluation. The independent samples t test was used to compare the two groups. In the study group, the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers were 34.00 ± 10.20 and 36.00 ± 10.53, respectively. The average total ovarian follicle number was 70.00 ± 19.03. In the control group, the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers were 78.50 ± 25.98 and 71.75 ± 29.66, respectively, and the average total ovarian follicle number was 150.25 ± 49.53. The comparisons of the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers and the means of the total ovarian follicle numbers between the study and control groups indicated that the study group had significantly fewer follicles (p < 0.001, p = 0.011, and p = 0.002, respectively. This study found a significant decrease in the number of ovarian follicles in rats exposed to an EMF. Further clinical studies are needed to reveal the effects of EMFs on ovarian reserve and infertility.

  18. The effects of electromagnetic fields on the number of ovarian primordial follicles: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakacak, Murat; Bostancı, Mehmet Sühha; Attar, Rukset; Yıldırım, Özge Kizilkale; Yıldırım, Gazi; Bakacak, Zeyneb; Sayar, Hamide; Han, Agahan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electromagnetic field (EMF), generated close to the ovaries, on primordial follicles. A total of 16 rats were used in this study. The study group consisted of rats exposed to an EMF in the abdominal region for 15 min/d for 15 days. Both the study and control group were composed of eight rats. After the treatment period of 15 days, the ovaries of the rats were extracted, and sections of ovarian tissue were taken for histological evaluation. The independent samples t test was used to compare the two groups. In the study group, the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers were 34.00 ± 10.20 and 36.00 ± 10.53, respectively. The average total ovarian follicle number was 70.00 ± 19.03. In the control group, the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers were 78.50 ± 25.98 and 71.75 ± 29.66, respectively, and the average total ovarian follicle number was 150.25 ± 49.53. The comparisons of the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers and the means of the total ovarian follicle numbers between the study and control groups indicated that the study group had significantly fewer follicles (p < 0.001, p = 0.011, and p = 0.002, respectively). This study found a significant decrease in the number of ovarian follicles in rats exposed to an EMF. Further clinical studies are needed to reveal the effects of EMFs on ovarian reserve and infertility. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  19. Image Restoration with New Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow-Møller, Anne Marie

    The article examines the role played by the corporate website while a company - Arla - attempted to restore an image tarnished by unethical behaviour. The company's strategy focussed on dialogue: it introduced a large number of authentic employees in their natural role as cook, dairy farmer, etc....

  20. [Dental implant restoration abutment selection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Shi; Hao, Zeng

    2017-04-01

    An increasing number of implant restoration abutment types are produced with the rapid development of dental implantology. Although various abutments can meet different clinical demands, the selection of the appropriate abutment is both difficult and confusing. This article aims to help clinicians select the appropriate abutment by describing abutment design, types, and selection criteria.

  1. Nuclear plant requirements during power system restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamski, G.; Jenkins, R.; Gill, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is one of a series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration issues. This paper discusses a number of nuclear power plant requirements that require special attention during power system restoration

  2. The Effects of Number Theory Study on High School Students' Metacognition and Mathematics Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Anthony M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how the study of number theory might affect high school students' metacognitive functioning, mathematical curiosity, and/or attitudes towards mathematics. The study utilized questionnaire and/or interview responses of seven high school students from New York City and 33 high school students from Dalian,…

  3. Further studies on gold alloys used in fabrication of porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civjan, S; Huget, E F; Dvivedi, N; Cosner, H J

    1975-03-01

    Composition, microstructure, castability, mechanical properties, and heat treatment characteristics of two gold-palladium-silver-based alloys were studied. The materials exhibited compositional as well as microstructural differences. Clinically acceptable castings could not be obtained when manufacturers' recommended casting temperatures were used. Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, modulus of elasticity, and Brinell hardness values for the alloys were comparable. The elastic limit of Cameo, however, was significantly higher than that of vivo-star. Maximum rehardening of annealed castings occurred on reheat treatment at temperatures between 1,200 and 1,300 F. As-cast specimens, however, were not heat hardenable. The sequence of heat treatments used in the application of porcelain reduced slightly the hardness of both alloys. Hardness of the metal substructures was not increased by return of porcelain-coated specimens to a 1,250 F oven for final heat treatment.

  4. RESTORE: REcovery after Serious Trauma--Outcomes, Resource use and patient Experiences study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbe, Belinda J; Braaf, Sandra; Fitzgerald, Mark; Judson, Rodney; Harrison, James E; Lyons, Ronan A; Ponsford, Jennie; Collie, Alex; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Attwood, David; Christie, Nicola; Nunn, Andrew; Cameron, Peter A

    2015-10-01

    Traumatic injury is a leading contributor to the overall global burden of disease. However, there is a worldwide shortage of population data to inform understanding of non-fatal injury burden. An improved understanding of the pattern of recovery following trauma is needed to better estimate the burden of injury, guide provision of rehabilitation services and care to injured people, and inform guidelines for the monitoring and evaluation of disability outcomes. To provide a comprehensive overview of patient outcomes and experiences in the first 5 years after serious injury. This is a population-based, nested prospective cohort study using quantitative data methods, supplemented by a qualitative study of a seriously injured participant sample. All 2547 paediatric and adult major trauma patients captured by the Victorian State Trauma Registry with a date of injury from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012 who survived to hospital discharge and did not opt-off from the registry. To analyse the quantitative data and identify factors that predict poor or good outcome, whether there is change over time, differences in rates of recovery and change between key participant subgroups, multilevel mixed effects regression models will be fitted. To analyse the qualitative data, thematic analysis will be used to identify important themes and the relationships between themes. The results of this project have the potential to inform clinical decisions and public health policy, which can reduce the burden of non-fatal injury and improve the lives of people living with the consequences of severe injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Urban Floods in Lowlands—Levee Systems, Unplanned Urban Growth and River Restoration Alternative: A Case Study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gomes Miguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of cities has always had a very close relation with water. However, cities directly impact land use patterns and greatly change natural landscapes, aggravating floods. Considering this situation, this paper intends to discuss lowland occupation and city sustainability in what regards urban stormwater management, fluvial space, and river restoration, aiming at minimizing flood risks and improving natural and built environment conditions. River plains tend to be attractive places for a city to grow. From ancient times, levees have been used to protect lowland areas along major watercourses to allow their occupation. However, urban rivers demand space for temporary flood storage. From a systemic point of view, levees along extensive river reaches act as canalization works, limiting river connectivity with flood plains, rising water levels, increasing overtopping risks and transferring floods downstream. Departing from this discussion, four case studies in the Iguaçu-Sarapuí River Basin, a lowland area of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, are used to compose a perspective in which the central point refers to the need of respecting watershed limits and giving space to rivers. Different aspects of low-lying city planning are discussed and analyzed concerning the integration of the built and natural environments.

  6. In-situ leaching of Crownpoint, New Mexico, uranium ore: Part 7 - laboratory study of chemical agents for molybdenum restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, E.T.; Vogt, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    While in-situ leaching has significant advantages over conventional uranium recovery methods, one possible drawback to its use is the potential release of previously insoluble chemical species into the formation water. Before Mobil began a pilot test of in-situ uranium leaching at Crownpoint, New Mexico, extensive laboratory studies were undertaken to develop chemical methods for treating one possible contaminant, molybdenum (Mo). In-situ production of uranium entails oxidizing uranium from the insoluble +4 oxidation state to the soluble, readily complexed +6 state. However, this process also transforms insoluble Mo +4 compounds such as molybdenite or jordesite, MoS 2 , into the soluble T6 form, molybdate, Mo0 4 2- . New Mexico regulations restrict the amount of Mo permissible in formation waters after leaching to less than one ppm. Conceptually, Mo restoration after leaching can be dealt with in one of two ways. (1) The oxidizing environment can be left unchanged with something added to render the molybdate ion insoluble or (2) the environment can be changed to a reducing one, converting the Mo back to the less soluble +4 oxidation state

  7. A Lunchtime Walk in Nature Enhances Restoration of Autonomic Control during Night-Time Sleep: Results from a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwell, Valerie F; Kuoppa, Pekka; Tarvainen, Mika P; Rogerson, Mike

    2016-03-03

    Walking within nature (Green Exercise) has been shown to immediately enhance mental well-being but less is known about the impact on physiology and longer lasting effects. Heart rate variability (HRV) gives an indication of autonomic control of the heart, in particular vagal activity, with reduced HRV identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Night-time HRV allows vagal activity to be assessed whilst minimizing confounding influences of physical and mental activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a lunchtime walk in nature increases night-time HRV. Participants (n = 13) attended on two occasions to walk a 1.8 km route through a built or a natural environment. Pace was similar between the two walks. HRV was measured during sleep using a RR interval sensor (eMotion sensor) and was assessed at 1-2 h after participants noted that they had fallen asleep. Markers for vagal activity were significantly greater after the walk in nature compared to the built walk. Lunchtime walks in nature-based environments may provide a greater restorative effect as shown by vagal activity than equivalent built walks. Nature walks may improve essential recovery during night-time sleep, potentially enhancing physiological health.

  8. A comparative evaluation of microleakage of restorations using silorane-based dental composite and methacrylate-based dental composites in Class II cavities: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambai Sampath Kumar Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the microleakage of restorations using low shrinkage silorane-based dental composite and methacrylate-based dental composites in Class II cavity at the occlusal and gingival margins. Materials and Methods: Sixty mandibular molars were collected and divided into three experimental groups and one negative control group. Class II slot cavity was prepared on the mesial surface. Experimental groups were restored with Group I: silorane-based microhybrid composite, Group II: methacrylate-based nanohybrid composite, and Group III: Methacrylate-based microhybrid composite, respectively. Group IV: negative control. The samples were thermocycled, root apices were sealed with sticky wax and coated with nail varnish except 1 mm around the restoration. This was followed by immersion in 2% Rhodamine-B dye solution under vacuum at room temperature for 24 h. Then, the samples were sectioned longitudinally in the mesiodistal direction and evaluated under stereomicroscope ×40 magnification. Scoring was done according to the depth of dye penetration in to the cavity. Statistical analysis of the data was done. Results: The results were that no statistically significant difference in the microleakage at the occlusal margin for all the restorative materials, whereas at the gingival margin, silorane-based microhybrid composite showed less microleakage than the methacrylate-based nano- and micro-hybrid composites. Conclusion: In general, silorane-based microhybrid composite had less microleakage among the other materials used in this in vitro study.

  9. Restoring the voids of voices by signs and gestures, in dentistry: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Suyog; Duggi, Vijay; Avinash, Alok; Dubey, Alok; Fouzdar, Sambodhi; Sagar, Mylavarapu Krishna

    2017-01-01

    To help dentists to communicate with the hearing impaired patients, reach an accurate diagnosis and explain the treatment plan by learning some signs and gestures used in the nonverbal communication (NVC) and by devising some new signs and gestures related to dentistry which shall be easy to learn and understand both by the hearing impaired patients and the dentists. The study was carried out on 100 hearing impaired students in the age group of 10-14 years in two special schools for hearing impaired children located in two different states of India, where different spoken languages and different sign languages are used. One dentist (expert dentist) was trained in the NVC and the other dentist (non expert dentist) had no knowledge of this type of communication, communicated the same sets of statements related to dentistry, to the hearing impaired children. One1 translator was assigned to judge their interactions. Students were asked to tell the interpreter at the end of each signed interaction what they understood from the statement conveyed to them by both the dentists. All data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using Chi-square test and odds ratio test. In the special school of 1st state, the nonexpert dentist conveyed only 36.3% of the information correctly to the students, whereas the expert dentist conveyed 83% of the information correctly. In the special school of 2nd state, the nonexpert dentist conveyed only 37.5% of the information correctly to the students, whereas the expert dentist conveyed 80.3% of the information correctly. Dentists should be made aware of the NVC and signs and gestures related to dentistry should be taught to the hearing impaired students as well as the dental students.

  10. Restoring the voids of voices by signs and gestures, in dentistry: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyog Jain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To help dentists to communicate with the hearing impaired patients, reach an accurate diagnosis and explain the treatment plan by learning some signs and gestures used in the nonverbal communication (NVC and by devising some new signs and gestures related to dentistry which shall be easy to learn and understand both by the hearing impaired patients and the dentists. Settings and Design: The study was carried out on 100 hearing impaired students in the age group of 10–14 years in two special schools for hearing impaired children located in two different states of India, where different spoken languages and different sign languages are used. One dentist (expert dentist was trained in the NVC and the other dentist (non expert dentist had no knowledge of this type of communication, communicated the same sets of statements related to dentistry, to the hearing impaired children. One1 translator was assigned to judge their interactions. Students were asked to tell the interpreter at the end of each signed interaction what they understood from the statement conveyed to them by both the dentists. Statistical Analysis Used: All data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using Chi-square test and odds ratio test. Results: In the special school of 1st state, the nonexpert dentist conveyed only 36.3% of the information correctly to the students, whereas the expert dentist conveyed 83% of the information correctly. In the special school of 2nd state, the nonexpert dentist conveyed only 37.5% of the information correctly to the students, whereas the expert dentist conveyed 80.3% of the information correctly. Conclusions: Dentists should be made aware of the NVC and signs and gestures related to dentistry should be taught to the hearing impaired students as well as the dental students.

  11. TROPICS 1: a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of tenecteplase for restoration of function in dysfunctional central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrail, Nashat; Sandler, Eric; Charu, Veena; Anas, Nick; Lim, Eduardo; Blaney, Martha; Ashby, Mark; Gillespie, Barbara S; Begelman, Susan M

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the thrombolytic tenecteplase, a fibrin-specific recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, for restoring function to dysfunctional central venous catheters (CVCs). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, eligible patients with dysfunctional nonhemodialysis CVCs were randomly assigned to two treatment arms. In the first arm (TNK-TNK-PBO), patients received an initial dose of intraluminal tenecteplase (TNK) (up to 2 mg), a second dose of tenecteplase if indicated, and a third placebo (PBO) dose. In the PBO-TNK-TNK arm, placebo was instilled first followed by up to two doses of tenecteplase, if needed, for restoration of catheter function. After administration of each dose, CVC function was assessed at 15, 30, and 120 minutes. There were 97 patients who received either TNK-TNK-PBO (n = 50) or PBO-TNK-TNK (n = 47). Within 120 minutes of initial study drug instillation, catheter function was restored to 30 patients (60%) in the TNK-TNK-PBO arm and 11 patients (23%) in the PBO-TNK-TNK arm, for a treatment difference of 37 percentage points (95% confidence interval 18-55; P = .0002). Cumulative restoration rates for CVC function increased to 87% after the second dose of tenecteplase in both study arms combined. Two patients developed a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after exposure to tenecteplase; one DVT was considered to be drug related. No cases of intracranial hemorrhage, major bleeding, embolic events, catheter-related bloodstream infections, or catheter-related complications were reported. Tenecteplase was efficacious for restoration of catheter function in these study patients with dysfunctional CVCs. Copyright © 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A descriptive study of the radiographic density of implant restorative cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, Chandur; Hess, Timothy; Faber, Thomas; Piñeyro, Alfonso; Chen, Curtis S K

    2010-05-01

    Cementation of implant prostheses is a common practice. Excess cement in the gingival sulcus may harm the periodontal tissues. Identification of the excess cement may be possible with the use of radiographs if the cement has sufficient radiopacity. The purpose of this study was to compare the radiographic density of different cements used for implant prostheses. Eight different cements were compared: TempBond Original (TBO), TempBond NE (TBN), Fleck's (FL), Dycal (DY), RelyX Unicem (RXU), RelyX Luting (RXL), Improv (IM), and Premier Implant Cement (PIC). Specimen disks, 2 mm in thickness, were radiographed. Images were made using photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plates with standardized exposure values. The average grey level of the central area of each specimen disk was selected and measured in pixels using a software analysis program, ImageTool, providing an average grey level value representative of radiodensity for each of the 8 cements. The radiodensity was determined using the grey level values of the test materials, which were recorded and compared to a standard aluminum step wedge. An equivalent thickness of aluminum in millimeters was calculated using best straight line fit estimates. To assess contrast effects by varying the exposure settings, a second experiment using 1-mm-thick cement specimens radiographed at both 60 kVp and 70 kVp was conducted. The PSP plates with specimens were measured for a grey level value comparison to the standard aluminum step wedge, using the same software program. The highest grey level values were recorded for the zinc cements (TBO, TBN, and FL), with the 1-mm specimen detectable at both 60- and 70-kVp settings. A lower grey level was recorded for DY, indicative of a lower radiodensity compared to the zinc cements, but higher than RXL and RXU. The implant-specific cements had the lowest grey level values. IM could only be detected in 2-mm-thick sections with a lower aluminum equivalence value than the previously mentioned

  13. Three-dimensional study of flow past a square cylinder at low Reynolds numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, A.K.; Biswas, G.; Muralidhar, K.

    2003-01-01

    The spatial evolution of vortices and transition to three-dimensionality in the wake of a square cylinder have been numerically studied. A Reynolds number range between 150 and 500 has been considered. Starting from the two-dimensional Karman vortex street, the transition to three-dimensionality is found to take place at a Reynolds number between 150 and 175. The three-dimensional wake of the square cylinder has been characterized using indicators appropriate for the wake of a bluff body as described by the earlier workers. In these terms, the secondary vortices of Mode-A are seen to persist over the Reynolds number range of 175-240. At about a Reynolds number of 250, Mode-B secondary vortices are present, these having predominantly small-scale structures. The transitional flow around a square cylinder exhibits an intermittent low frequency modulation due to the formation of a large-scale irregularity in the near-wake, called vortex dislocation. The superposition of vortex dislocation and the Mode-A vortices leads to a new pattern, labelled as Mode-A with dislocations. The results for the square cylinder are in good accordance with the three-dimensional modes of transition that are well-known in the circular cylinder wake. In the case of a circular cylinder, the transition from periodic vortex shedding to Mode-A is characterized by a discontinuity in the Strouhal number-Reynolds number relationship at about a Reynolds of 190. The transition from Mode-A to Mode-B is characterized by a second discontinuity in the frequency law at a Reynolds number of ∼250. The numerical computations of the present study with a square cylinder show that the values of the Strouhal number and the time-averaged drag-coefficient are closely associated with each other over the range of Reynolds numbers of interest and reflect the spatial structure of the wake

  14. Intellectual system for images restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardare, Igor

    2005-02-01

    Intelligence systems on basis of artificial neural networks and associative memory allow to solve effectively problems of recognition and restoration of images. However, within analytical technologies there are no dominating approaches of deciding of intellectual problems. Choice of the best technology depends on nature of problem, features of objects, volume of represented information about the object, number of classes of objects, etc. It is required to determine opportunities, preconditions and field of application of neural networks and associative memory for decision of problem of restoration of images and to use their supplementary benefits for further development of intelligence systems.

  15. Effective atomic numbers of some tissue substitutes by different methods: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwanath P Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective atomic numbers of some human organ tissue substitutes such as polyethylene terephthalate, red articulation wax, paraffin 1, paraffin 2, bolus, pitch, polyphenylene sulfide, polysulfone, polyvinylchloride, and modeling clay have been calculated by four different methods like Auto-Z eff, direct, interpolation, and power law. It was found that the effective atomic numbers computed by Auto-Z eff , direct and interpolation methods were in good agreement for intermediate energy region (0.1 MeV < E < 5 MeV where the Compton interaction dominates. A large difference in effective atomic numbers by direct method and Auto-Z eff was observed in photo-electric and pair-production regions. Effective atomic numbers computed by power law were found to be close to direct method in photo-electric absorption region. The Auto-Z eff , direct and interpolation methods were found to be in good agreement for computation of effective atomic numbers in intermediate energy region (100 keV < E < 10 MeV. The direct method was found to be appropriate method for computation of effective atomic numbers in photo-electric region (10 keV < E < 100 keV. The tissue equivalence of the tissue substitutes is possible to represent by any method for computation of effective atomic number mentioned in the present study. An accurate estimation of Rayleigh scattering is required to eliminate effect of molecular, chemical, or crystalline environment of the atom for estimation of gamma interaction parameters.

  16. Multi-Scalar Governance for Restoring the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: A Case Study on Small Landholdings in Protected Areas of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaine A. Ball

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of forest restoration projects requires cross-scale and hybrid forms of governance involving the state, the market, civil society, individuals, communities, and other actors. Using a case study from the Atlantic Forest Hotspot, we examine the governance of a large-scale forest restoration project implemented by an international non-governmental organization (NGO on family farmer landholdings located within protected areas of sustainable development. In addition to forest restoration, the project aims to provide an economic benefit to participating farmers by including native species with market potential (fruits, timber in restoration models and by contracting farmers in the planting phase. We employed qualitative methods such as structured interviews and participant observation to assess the effect of environmental policy and multi-scalar governance on implementation and acceptability of the project by farmers. We demonstrate that NGO and farmer expectations for the project were initially misaligned, hampering farmer participation. Furthermore, current policy complicated implementation and still poses barriers to project success, and projects must remain adaptable to changing legal landscapes. We recommend increased incorporation of social science methods in earlier stages of projects, as well as throughout the course of implementation, in order to better assess the needs and perspectives of participants, as well as to minimize trade-offs.

  17. Fixation method does not affect restoration of rotation center in hip replacements: A single-site retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegner Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aseptic loosening is one of the greatest problems in hip replacement surgery. The rotation center of the hip is believed to influence the longevity of fixation. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of cemented and cementless cup fixation techniques on the position of the center of rotation because cemented cup fixation requires the removal of more bone for solid fixation than the cementless technique. Methods We retrospectively compared pre- and post-operative positions of the hip rotation center in 25 and 68 patients who underwent artificial hip replacements in our department in 2007 using cemented or cementless cup fixation, respectively, with digital radiographic image analysis. Results The mean horizontal and vertical distances between the rotation center and the acetabular teardrop were compared in radiographic images taken pre- and post-operatively. The mean horizontal difference was −2.63 mm (range: -11.00 mm to 10.46 mm, standard deviation 4.23 mm for patients who underwent cementless fixation, and −2.84 mm (range: -10.87 to 5.30 mm, standard deviation 4.59 mm for patients who underwent cemented fixation. The mean vertical difference was 0.60 mm (range: -20.15 mm to 10.00 mm, standard deviation 3.93 mm and 0.41 mm (range: -9.26 mm to 6.54 mm, standard deviation 3.58 mm for the cementless and cemented fixation groups, respectively. The two fixation techniques had no significant difference on the position of the hip rotation center in the 93 patients in this study. Conclusions The hip rotation center was similarly restored using either the cemented or cementless fixation techniques in this patient cohort, indicating that the fixation technique itself does not interfere with the position of the center of rotation. To completely answer this question further studies with more patients are needed.

  18. Clinical studies on thyroid CT number in Graves' disease and destructive thyrotoxicosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamijo, Keiichi

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate CT Hounsfield unit (H.U.) of the thyroid in hyperthyroid and euthyroid Graves' disease and destructive thyrotoxicosis. The mean thyroid CT number in 95 controls was 122±18 H.U.(±SD) and did not change significatly with advancing age. The mean thyroid CT number (±SD) of 85±22 H.U. in 60 patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease was significantly lower than either in normal controls or 116±22 H.U. in 11 patients with euthyroid Graves' disease. Comparison of thyroid hormones and TSH receptor Ab values of untreated patients with a normal and an abnormally low thyroid CT number showed that serum total and free T 3 were significantly higher in the latter group than the former group. With respect to the effect of methimazol (MMI) on the thyroid CT number, in the untreated 10 patients with a low thyroid CT number, the initial mean CT number was 65±11 H.U. and increased significantly to 76±14 H.U. after treatment with MMI. In contrast, in 6 patients with a normal thyroid CT number prior to therapy, the initial mean thyroid CT number was 102±11 H.U. and fell significantly to 84±16 H.U. after treatment with MMI. The thyroid CT number in destructive thyrotoxicosis is markedly decreased to less than 70 H.U. and the mean values of 57±7 H.U. in 6 patients with silent thyroiditis and of 61±5 H.U. in 7 with subacute thyroiditis differ significantly from Graves' disease. In conclusion, the thyroid CT number is significantly reduced in hyperthyroid Graves' disease, normal in euthyroid Graves' disease and markedly decreased in destructive thyrotoxicosis. The high T-3 value seemed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of a decline in the thyroid CT number in Graves' disease. An antithyroid drug therapy caused two different changes in the thyroid CT number, depending on whether the thyroid CT number prior to therapy was normal or low. (author)

  19. Clinical studies on thyroid CT number in Graves' disease and destructive thyrotoxicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamijo, Keiichi (Kamijo Thyroid and Pituitary Clinic, Sapporo (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate CT Hounsfield unit (H.U.) of the thyroid in hyperthyroid and euthyroid Graves' disease and destructive thyrotoxicosis. The mean thyroid CT number in 95 controls was 122[+-]18 H.U.([+-]SD) and did not change significatly with advancing age. The mean thyroid CT number ([+-]SD) of 85[+-]22 H.U. in 60 patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease was significantly lower than either in normal controls or 116[+-]22 H.U. in 11 patients with euthyroid Graves' disease. Comparison of thyroid hormones and TSH receptor Ab values of untreated patients with a normal and an abnormally low thyroid CT number showed that serum total and free T[sub 3] were significantly higher in the latter group than the former group. With respect to the effect of methimazol (MMI) on the thyroid CT number, in the untreated 10 patients with a low thyroid CT number, the initial mean CT number was 65[+-]11 H.U. and increased significantly to 76[+-]14 H.U. after treatment with MMI. In contrast, in 6 patients with a normal thyroid CT number prior to therapy, the initial mean thyroid CT number was 102[+-]11 H.U. and fell significantly to 84[+-]16 H.U. after treatment with MMI. The thyroid CT number in destructive thyrotoxicosis is markedly decreased to less than 70 H.U. and the mean values of 57[+-]7 H.U. in 6 patients with silent thyroiditis and of 61[+-]5 H.U. in 7 with subacute thyroiditis differ significantly from Graves' disease. In conclusion, the thyroid CT number is significantly reduced in hyperthyroid Graves' disease, normal in euthyroid Graves' disease and markedly decreased in destructive thyrotoxicosis. The high T-3 value seemed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of a decline in the thyroid CT number in Graves' disease. An antithyroid drug therapy caused two different changes in the thyroid CT number, depending on whether the thyroid CT number prior to therapy was normal or low. (author).

  20. A 3-year prospective study of implant-supported, single-tooth restorations of all-ceramic and metal-ceramic materials in patients with tooth agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mandana; Worsaae, Nils; Schiødt, Morten; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to describe outcome variables of all-ceramic and metal-ceramic implant-supported, single-tooth restorations. A total of 59 patients (mean age: 27.9 years) with tooth agenesis and treated with 98 implant-supported single-tooth restorations were included in this study. Two patients did not attend baseline examination, but all patients were followed for 3 years. The implants supported 52 zirconia, 21 titanium and 25 gold alloy abutments, which retained 64 all-ceramic and 34 metal-ceramic crowns. At baseline and 3-year follow-up examinations, the biological outcome variables such as survival rate of implants, marginal bone level, modified Plaque Index (mPlI), modified Sulcus Bleeding Index (mBI) and biological complications were registered. The technical outcome variables included abutment and crown survival rate, marginal adaptation of crowns, cement excess and technical complications. The aesthetic outcome was assessed by using the Copenhagen Index Score, and the patient-reported outcomes were recorded using the OHIP-49 questionnaire. The statistical analyses were mainly performed by using mixed model of ANOVA for quantitative data and PROC NLMIXED for ordinal categorical data. The 3-year survival rate was 100% for implants and 97% for abutments and crowns. Significantly more marginal bone loss was registered at gold-alloy compared to zirconia abutments (P = 0.040). The mPlI and mBI were not significantly different at three abutment materials. The frequency of biological complications was higher at restorations with all-ceramic restorations than metal-ceramic crowns. Loss of retention, which was only observed at metal-ceramic crowns, was the most frequent technical complication, and the marginal adaptations of all-ceramic crowns were significantly less optimal than metal-ceramic crowns (P = 0.020). The professional-reported aesthetic outcome demonstrated significantly superior colour match of all-ceramic over metal

  1. Effects of Topical Fluoride on the Marginal Microleakage of Composite Resin and Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Restorations in Primary Molars: An In-vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Topical fluoride may deteriorate dental restorations. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of topical fluoride on the marginal microleakage of composite resin and resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI restorations in primary molars. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 60 primary molars were randomly divided into six groups of 10 based on the type of the restoration materials and before/after the application of fluoride gel, including FC (fluoride + composite, CF (composite + fluoride, C (composite, FG (fluoride + RMGI, GF (RMGI + fluoride, and G (RMGI. Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surface, so that the gingival margins were located in cementum. After storing, thermocycling, and immersing the specimens in basic fuchsin, they were sectioned buccolingually and evaluated in terms of dye penetration. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 18 using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test at the significance level of 0.05. Results: No significant difference was observed between the three composite groups in terms of microleakage (P>0.05. In the RMGI groups, GF showed a significantly higher microleakage compared to G (P=0.029. However, no significant difference was observed between the other groups in this regard (P>0.05. Moreover, comparison of composite and RMGI groups (matched in terms of fluoride application indicated that microleakage was significantly higher in FG than FC (P=0.024, as well as in GF than CF (P=0.002. However, no significant difference was observed between groups C and G in this regard (P=0.268. Conclusion: According to the results, the marginal seal of composite restorations in the primary molars were not affected by the acidic fluoride gel. On the other hand, applying the acidic fluoride gel was associated with a higher microleakage in the cavities restored with RMGI.

  2. The Numerical Study on the Influence of Prandtl Number and Height of the Enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Je-Young; Chung, Bum-Jin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated numerically the internal flow depending on Prandtl number of fluid and height of enclosure. The two-dimensional numerical simulations were performed for several heights of enclosure in the range between 0.01 m and 0.074 m. It corresponds to the aspect ratio (H/L) ranged from 0.07 to 0.5. Prandtl number was 0.2, 0.7 and 7. Rayleigh number based on the height of enclosure ranged between 8.49x10 3 and 1.20x10 8 . The numerical calculations were carried out using FLUENT 6.3. In order to confirm the influence of Prandtl number and height of side walls on the internal flow and heat transfer of the horizontal enclosure, the numerical study is carried out using the FLUENT 6.3. The numerical results for the condition of top cooling only agree well with Rayleigh-Benard natural convection. When the top and side walls were cooled, the internal flow of enclosure is more complex. The thickness of thermal and velocity boundary layer varies with Prandtl number. For Pr>1 the behavior of cells is unstable and irregular owing to the entrained plume, whereas the internal flow for Pr<1 is stable and regular. Also, the number of cells increases depending on decrease of height. As a result, the heat exchange increases

  3. Experimental study on the Reynolds number dependence of turbulent mixing in a rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, Nicolas; Juanico, Luis

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study for Reynolds number dependence of the turbulent mixing between fuel-bundle subchannels, was performed. The measurements were done on a triangular array bundle with a 1.20 pitch to diameter relation and 10 mm rod diameter, in a low-pressure water loop, at Reynolds numbers between 1.4 x 10 3 and 1.3 x 10 5 . The high accuracy of the results was obtained by improving a thermal tracing technique recently developed. The Reynolds exponent on the mixing rate correlation was obtained with two-digit accuracy for Reynolds numbers greater than 3 x 10 3 . It was also found a marked increase in the mixing rate for lower Reynolds numbers. The weak theoretical base of the accepted Reynolds dependence was pointed out in light of the later findings, as well as its ambiguous supporting experimental data. The present results also provide indirect information about dominant large scale flow pulsations at different flow regimes

  4. Estimation of the total number of mast cells in the human umbilical cord. A methodological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg Damsgaard, T M; Windelborg Nielsen, B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the total number of mast cells in the human umbilical cord. Using 50 microns-thick paraffin sections, made from a systematic random sample of umbilical cord, the total number of mast cells per cord was estimated using a combination of the optical...... disector and fractionated sampling. The mast cell of the human umbilical cord was found in Wharton's jelly, most frequently in close proximity to the three blood vessels. No consistent pattern of variation in mast cell numbers from the fetal end of the umbilical cord towards the placenta was seen....... The total number of mast cells found in the umbilical cord was 5,200,000 (median), range 2,800,000-16,800,000 (n = 7), that is 156,000 mast cells per gram umbilical cord (median), range 48,000-267,000. Thus, the umbilical cord constitutes an adequate source of mast cells for further investigation...

  5. Contribution of genetics to ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijangos, Jose Luis; Pacioni, Carlo; Spencer, Peter B S; Craig, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems has emerged as a critical tool in the fight to reverse and ameliorate the current loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Approaches derived from different genetic disciplines are extending the theoretical and applied frameworks on which ecological restoration is based. We performed a search of scientific articles and identified 160 articles that employed a genetic approach within a restoration context to shed light on the links between genetics and restoration. These articles were then classified on whether they examined association between genetics and fitness or the application of genetics in demographic studies, and on the way the studies informed restoration practice. Although genetic research in restoration is rapidly growing, we found that studies could make better use of the extensive toolbox developed by applied fields in genetics. Overall, 41% of reviewed studies used genetic information to evaluate or monitor restoration, and 59% provided genetic information to guide prerestoration decision-making processes. Reviewed studies suggest that restoration practitioners often overlook the importance of including genetic aspects within their restoration goals. Even though there is a genetic basis influencing the provision of ecosystem services, few studies explored this relationship. We provide a view of research gaps, future directions and challenges in the genetics of restoration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Restoration of Upper Limb Function in an Individual with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy using Functional Electrical Stimulation Therapy: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Milos R; Zivanovic, Vera; Valiante, Taufik A

    2016-01-01

    Non-traumatic spinal cord pathology is responsible for 25-52% of all spinal cord lesions. Studies have revealed that spinal stenosis accounts for 16-21% of spinal cord injury (SCI) admissions. Impaired grips as well as slow unskilled hand and finger movements are the most common complaints in patients with spinal cord disorders, such as myelopathy secondary to cervical spondylosis. In the past, our team carried out couple of successful clinical trials, including two randomized control trials, showing that functional electrical stimulation therapy (FEST) can restore voluntary reaching and/or grasping function, in people with stroke and traumatic SCI. Motivated by this success, we decided to examine changes in the upper limb function following FEST in a patient who suffered loss of hand function due to myelopathy secondary to cervical spondylosis. The participant was a 61-year-old male who had C3-C7 posterior laminectomy and instrumented fusion for cervical myelopathy. The participant presented with progressive right hand weakness that resulted in his inability to voluntarily open and close the hand and to manipulate objects unilaterally with his right hand. The participant was enrolled in the study ~22 months following initial surgical intervention. Participant was assessed using Toronto Rehabilitation Institute's Hand Function Test (TRI-HFT), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM). The pre-post differences in scores on all measures clearly demonstrated improvement in voluntary hand function following 15 1-h FEST sessions. The changes observed were meaningful and have resulted in substantial improvement in performance of activities of daily living. These results provide preliminary evidence that FEST has a potential to improve upper limb function in patients with non-traumatic SCI, such as myelopathy secondary to cervical spondylosis.

  7. Research on fast ecological restoration technology of high and steep rocky slope of highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xin

    2017-08-01

    Along with the development of the western region, the traffic construction in mountainous areas is booming. In the infrastructure, it produced a large number of secondary bare land. Soil erosion is serious. Based on the literature search and analysis of the domestic and international slope ecological restoration technology, this paper proposes a fast and efficient adaptive highway high steep rock slope ecological restoration technology (it has been authorized by the national patent). And it states the systemic structure, working principle and key construction technology. The ecological restoration technique combines the growth characteristics of the vegetation and the characteristics of the rock mass, which not only improves the survival rate of plants, but also stable slope. The results of this study make up for the shortcomings of the existing ecological restoration technology of slope. Compared with the prior art, which have obvious advantages and suitable for the ecological restoration of high steep rock slope.

  8. Impact of stream restoration on flood waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtes, J.; Doyle, M.

    2008-12-01

    Restoration of channelized or incised streams has the potential to reduce downstream flooding via storing and dissipating the energy of flood waves. Restoration design elements such as restoring meanders, reducing slope, restoring floodplain connectivity, re-introducing in-channel woody debris, and re-vegetating banks and the floodplain have the capacity to attenuate flood waves via energy dissipation and channel and floodplain storage. Flood discharge hydrographs measured up and downstream of several restored reaches of varying stream order and located in both urban and rural catchments are coupled with direct measurements of stream roughness at various stages to directly measure changes to peak discharge, flood wave celerity, and dispersion. A one-dimensional unsteady flow routing model, HEC-RAS, is calibrated and used to compare attenuation characteristics between pre and post restoration conditions. Modeled sensitivity results indicate that a restoration project placed on a smaller order stream demonstrates the highest relative reduction in peak discharge of routed flood waves compared to one of equal length on a higher order stream. Reductions in bed slope, extensions in channel length, and increases in channel and floodplain roughness follow restoration placement with the watershed in relative importance. By better understanding how design, scale, and location of restored reaches within a catchment hydraulically impact flood flows, this study contributes both to restoration design and site decision making. It also quantifies the effect of reach scale stream restoration on flood wave attenuation.

  9. Restoration of Gooseberry Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long

    2000-01-01

    Grazing exclusion and channel modifications were used to restore wet meadows along a stream on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. The efforts are reestablishing functional processes to promote long-term restoration of wetland health and species conservation.

  10. Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Lindenmayer, David B.; Sansevero, Jerônimo B. B.; Monteiro, Lara; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Latawiec, Agnieszka E.; Strassburg, Bernardo B. N.

    2017-01-01

    Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biom...

  11. Rethinking Partnerships with the Aim of Producing Knowledge with Practical Relevance: a Case Study in the Field of Ecological Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héloïse Gonzalo-Turpin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers in conservation biology and restoration ecology often work in partnership with local actors to increase the practical relevance of the knowledge they produce. Although an academic mode of knowledge production is essential in research for a better understanding of biological systems, it often fails to produce frameworks and methodologies having practical relevance that can be used in conservation and restoration programs. The involvement of researchers in collective plans of action is supposed to contribute to the production of a more contextualized form of knowledge. In this paper, we report our experience of partnership research in an ecological restoration project. We show that changing our mode of knowledge production to one that produces knowledge having more practical relevance requires a particular spectrum of partners and reflexive communication between all the partners. We advocate the need for participatory approaches that favor collective and reflexive processes of problem finding and problem solving in conservation and restoration projects. Putting such processes into practice is not only a challenge for researchers but also for their partners, and presupposes a profound transformation of their roles.

  12. The need for future wetland bird studies: scales of habitat use as input for ecological restoration and spatial water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platteeuw, M.; Foppen, R.P.B.; Eerden, van M.R.

    2010-01-01

    All over Europe, wetlands have decreased in size, lost their original dynamics and became fragmented as the consequence of an ever increasing human land use. These processes have resulted in losses of nature values, among which declines in marshland bird populations. Ecological restoration of

  13. An Exploratory Study of the Restorative Benefits of Hiking in Wilderness Solitude and Its Relationship to Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Mark Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory research was to examine the relationship between the restorative benefits of hiking in wilderness solitude (RBHWS) and job satisfaction. This research is a jumping off point, intended to guide future research on the RBHWS, and the practical utilization of this in human resource development. This research sought to…

  14. Reference-based digital concept to restore partially edentulous patients following an immediate loading protocol: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahmaseb, A.; de Clerck, R.; Eckert, S.; Wismeijer, D.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the use of a computer-aided three-dimensional planning protocol in combination with previously placed reference elements and computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology to restore the partially edentulous patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mini-implants

  15. Asymmetric ecological and economic responses for rangeland restoration: A case study of tree thickening in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological and economic thresholds are important considerations when making decisions about safeguarding or restoring degraded rangelands. When degradation levels have passed a threshold, most managers figure it is either time to take action or too late to take action depending on the particular c...

  16. Hubbard interaction in the arbitrary Chern number insulator: A mean-field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi-Xiang, E-mail: wangyixiang@jiangnan.edu.cn [School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Cao, Jie [College of Science, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China)

    2017-05-10

    The low-dimensional electron gas owing topological property has attracted many interests recently. In this work, we study the influence of the electron-electron interaction on the arbitrary Chern number insulator. Using the mean-field method, we approximately solve the Hubbard model in the half-filling case and obtain the phase diagrams in different parametric spaces. We further verify the results by calculating the entanglement spectrum, which contains C chiral modes and corresponds to a real space partitioning. - Highlights: • In this work, we made a mean-field study of the Hubbard interaction in the arbitrary Chern number insulator. • We point out that how the Zeeman splitting, the local magnetization and the Hubbard interaction are intimately related. • The mean-field phase diagrams are obtained in different parametric spaces. • The Chern number phase is demonstrated by calculating the entanglement spectrum.

  17. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  18. Study and discretization of kinetic models and fluid models at low Mach number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellacherie, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    This thesis summarizes our work between 1995 and 2010. It concerns the analysis and the discretization of Fokker-Planck or semi-classical Boltzmann kinetic models and of Euler or Navier-Stokes fluid models at low Mach number. The studied Fokker-Planck equation models the collisions between ions and electrons in a hot plasma, and is here applied to the inertial confinement fusion. The studied semi-classical Boltzmann equations are of two types. The first one models the thermonuclear reaction between a deuterium ion and a tritium ion producing an α particle and a neutron particle, and is also in our case used to describe inertial confinement fusion. The second one (known as the Wang-Chang and Uhlenbeck equations) models the transitions between electronic quantified energy levels of uranium and iron atoms in the AVLIS isotopic separation process. The basic properties of these two Boltzmann equations are studied, and, for the Wang-Chang and Uhlenbeck equations, a kinetic-fluid coupling algorithm is proposed. This kinetic-fluid coupling algorithm incited us to study the relaxation concept for gas and immiscible fluids mixtures, and to underline connections with classical kinetic theory. Then, a diphasic low Mach number model without acoustic waves is proposed to model the deformation of the interface between two immiscible fluids induced by high heat transfers at low Mach number. In order to increase the accuracy of the results without increasing computational cost, an AMR algorithm is studied on a simplified interface deformation model. These low Mach number studies also incited us to analyse on cartesian meshes the inaccuracy at low Mach number of Godunov schemes. Finally, the LBM algorithm applied to the heat equation is justified

  19. The Development of the Comic Spirit in 17th Century England from James Shirley to William Congreve. Curriculum Projects, April 7-June 16, 1992. The Huntington Theatre Company Master Works Study in Restoration Comedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington Theatre Co., Boston, MA.

    Developed by the participants of the Huntington Theatre Company's Master Works Study in Restoration Comedy, this collection presents one-day lesson plans and curriculum projects for teaching Restoration comedy. The collection offers 15 one-day lesson plans and 15 curriculum projects (ranging over several weeks) suitable for secondary school…

  20. Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome : a cross-disorder study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGrath, Lauren M; Yu, Dongmei; Marshall, Christian; Davis, Lea K; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Li, Bingbin; Cappi, Carolina; Gerber, Gloria; Wolf, Aaron; Schroeder, Frederick A; Osiecki, Lisa; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Kirby, Andrew; Illmann, Cornelia; Haddad, Stephen; Gallagher, Patience; Fagerness, Jesen A; Barr, Cathy L; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Black, Donald W; Bloch, Michael H; Bruun, Ruth D; Budman, Cathy L; Camarena, Beatriz; Cath, Danielle C; Cavallini, Maria C; Chouinard, Sylvain; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Delorme, Richard; Denys, D.; Derks, Eske M; Dion, Yves; Rosário, Maria C; Eapen, Valsama; Evans, Patrick; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas V; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Grabe, Hans J; Grados, Marco A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Heiman, Gary A; Hemmings, Sian M J; Herrera, Luis D; Hounie, Ana G; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L; King, Robert A; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F; Lennertz, Leonhard; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L; Lyon, Gholson J; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; McCracken, James T; McMahon, William; Murphy, Dennis L; Naarden, Allan L; Neale, Benjamin M; Nurmi, Erika; Pakstis, Andrew J; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Reus, Victor I; Richter, Margaret A; Riddle, Mark; Robertson, Mary M; Rosenberg, David; Rouleau, Guy A; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sampaio, Aline S; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S; Smit, Jan H; Stein, Dan J; Tischfield, Jay A; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Wendland, Jens R; Shugart, Yin Yao; Miguel, Euripedes C; Nicolini, Humberto; Oostra, Ben A; Moessner, Rainald; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Heutink, Peter; Nestadt, Gerald; Freimer, Nelson; Petryshen, Tracey; Posthuma, Danielle; Jenike, Michael A; Cox, Nancy J; Hanna, Gregory L; Brentani, Helena; Scherer, Stephen W; Arnold, Paul D; Stewart, S Evelyn; Mathews, Carol A; Knowles, James A; Cook, Edwin H; Pauls, David L; Wang, Kai; Scharf, Jeremiah M

    OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500 kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and the largest

  1. Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome: a cross-disorder study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGrath, Lauren M.; Yu, Dongmei; Marshall, Christian; Davis, Lea K.; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Li, Bingbin; Cappi, Carolina; Gerber, Gloria; Wolf, Aaron; Schroeder, Frederick A.; Osiecki, Lisa; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Kirby, Andrew; Illmann, Cornelia; Haddad, Stephen; Gallagher, Patience; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Black, Donald W.; Bloch, Michael H.; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Cath, Danielle C.; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Derks, Eske M.; Dion, Yves; Rosário, Maria C.; Eapen, Valsama; Evans, Patrick; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M. J.; Herrera, Luis D.; Hounie, Ana G.; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L.; King, Robert A.; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Lyon, Gholson J.; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; McCracken, James T.; McMahon, William; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Nurmi, Erika; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlos N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark; Robertson, Mary M.; Rosenberg, David; Rouleau, Guy A.; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Tischfield, Jay A.; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Wendland, Jens R.; Shugart, Yin Yao; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Nicolini, Humberto; Oostra, Ben A.; Moessner, Rainald; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Heutink, Peter; Nestadt, Gerald; Freimer, Nelson; Petryshen, Tracey; Posthuma, Danielle; Jenike, Michael A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Hanna, Gregory L.; Brentani, Helena; Scherer, Stephen W.; Arnold, Paul D.; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Mathews, Carol A.; Knowles, James A.; Cook, Edwin H.; Pauls, David L.; Wang, Kai; Scharf, Jeremiah M.

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500 kb), rare ( <1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and the largest genome-wide

  2. Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome: A cross-disorder study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. McGrath; D. Yu (D.); C.R. Marshall (Christian); L.K. Davis (Lea); B. Thiruvahindrapuram (Bhooma); B. Li (Bingbin); C. Cappi (Carolina); G. Gerber (Gloria); A. de Wolf (Anneke); F.A. Schroeder (Frederick); L. Osiecki (Lisa); C. O'Dushlaine (Colm); A. Kirby (Andrew); C. Illmann (Cornelia); S. Haddad (Stephen); P. Gallagher (Patience); J. Fagerness (Jesen); C.L. Barr (Cathy); L. Bellodi (Laura); F. Benarroch (Fortu); O.J. Bienvenu (Oscar); D.W. Black (Donald); J. Bloch (Jocelyne); R.D. Bruun (Ruth); C.L. Budman (Cathy); B. Camarena (Beatriz); D. Cath (Daniëlle); M.C. Cavallini (Maria); S. Chouinard; V. Coric (Vladimir); C. Cullen; R. Delorme (Richard); D.A.J.P. Denys (Damiaan); E.M. Derks (Eske); Y. Dion (Yves); M.C. Rosário (Maria); C.E. Eapen (Chundamannil Eapen); P. Evans; P. Falkai (Peter); T.V. Fernandez (Thomas); H. Garrido (Helena); D. Geller (Daniel); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); M. Grados (Marco); B.D. Greenberg (Benjamin); V. Gross-Tsur (Varda); E. Grünblatt (Edna); M.L. Heiman (Mark); S.M.J. Hemmings (Sian); L.D. Herrera (Luis); A.G. Hounie (Ana); J. Jankovic (Joseph); J.L. Kennedy; R.A. King; R. Kurlan; N. Lanzagorta (Nuria); M. Leboyer (Marion); J.F. Leckman; L. Lennertz (Leonhard); C. Lochner (Christine); T.L. Lowe (Thomas); H.N. Lyon (Helen); F. MacCiardi (Fabio); W. Maier (Wolfgang); J.T. McCracken (James); W.M. McMahon (William); D.L. Murphy (Dennis); A.L. Naarden (Allan); E. Nurmi (Erika); A.J. Pakstis; C. Pato (Carlos); C. Pato (Carlos); J. Piacentini (John); C. Pittenger (Christopher); M.N. Pollak (Michael); V.I. Reus (Victor); M.A. Richter (Margaret); M. Riddle (Mark); M.M. Robertson; D. Rosenberg (David); G.A. Rouleau; S. Ruhrmann (Stephan); A.S. Sampaio (Aline); J. Samuels (Jonathan); P. Sandor (Paul); B. Sheppard (Brooke); H.S. Singer (Harvey); J.H. Smit (Jan); D.J. Stein (Dan); J.A. Tischfield (Jay); H. Vallada (Homero); J. Veenstra-Vanderweele (Jeremy); S. Walitza (Susanne); Y. Wang (Ying); A. Wendland (Annika); Y.Y. Shugart; E.C. Miguel (Euripedes); H. Nicolini (Humberto); B.A. Oostra (Ben); R. Moessner (Rainald); M. Wagner (Michael); A. Ruiz-Linares (Andres); P. Heutink (Peter); G. Nestadt (Gerald); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); T.L. Petryshen (Tracey); D. Posthuma (Danielle); M.A. Jenike (Michael); N.J. Cox (Nancy); G.L. Hanna (Gregory); H. Brentani (Helena); S.W. Scherer (Stephen); P.D. Arnold (Paul); S.E. Stewart; C. Mathews; J.A. Knowles (James A); E.H. Cook (Edwin); D.L. Pauls (David); K. Wang (Kai); J.M. Scharf; B.M. Neale (Benjamin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500 kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and

  3. Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome: a cross-disorder study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGrath, L.M.; Yu, D.; Marshall, C.; Davis, L.K.; Thiruvahindrapuram, B.; Li, B.; Cappi, C.; Gerber, G.; Wolf, A.; Schroeder, F.A.; Osiecki, L.; O'Dushlaine, C.; Kirby, A.; Illmann, C.; Haddad, S.; Gallagher, P.; Fagerness, J.A.; Barr, C.L.; Bellodi, L.; Benarroch, F.; Bienvenu, O.J.; Black, D. W.; Bloch, M.H.; Bruun, R.D.; Budman, C.L.; Camarena, B.; Cath, D.C.; Cavallini, M.C.; Chouinard, S.; Coric, V.; Cullen, B.; Delorme, R.; Denys, D.; Derks, E.M.; Dion, Y.; Rosário, M.C.; Eapen, V.; Evans, P.; Falkai, P.; Fernandez, T.V.; Garrido, H.; Geller, D.; Grabe, H.J.; Grados, M.A.; Greenberg, B.D.; Gross-Tsur, V.; Grünblatt, E.; Heiman, G.A.; Hemmings, S.M.; Herrera, L.D.; Hounie, A.G.; Jankovic, J.; Kennedy, J.L.; King, R.A.; Kurlan, R.; Lanzagorta, N.; Leboyer, M.; Leckman, J.F.; Lennertz, L.; Lochner, C.; Lowe, T.L.; Lyon, G.J.; Macciardi, F.; Maier, W.; McCracken, J.T.; McMahon, W.; Murphy, D.L.; Naarden, A.L.; Neale, B. M.; Nurmi, E.; Pakstis, A.J.; Pato, M. T.; Piacentini, J.; Pittenger, C.; Pollak, Y.; Reus, V.I.; Richter, M.A.; Riddle, M.; Robertson, M.M.; Rosenberg, D.; Rouleau, G.A.; Ruhrmann, S.; Sampaio, A.S.; Samuels, J.; Sandor, P.; Sheppard, B.; Singer, H.S.; Smit, J.H.; Stein, D.J.; Tischfield, J.A.; Vallada, H.; Veenstra-Vanderweele, J.; Walitza, S.; Wang, Y.; Wendland, J.R.; Shugart, Y.Y.; Miguel, E.C.; Nicolini, H.; Oostra, B.A.; Moessner, R.; Wagner, M.; Ruiz-Linares, A.; Heutink, P.; Nestadt, G.; Freimer, N.; Petryshen, T.; Posthuma, D.; Jenike, M.A.; Cox, N.J.; Hanna, G.L.; Brentani, H.; Scherer, S.W.; Arnold, P.D.; Stewart, S.E.; Mathews, C.A.; Knowles, J.A.; Cook, E.H.; Pauls, D.L.; Wang, K.; Scharf, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500 kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and the largest

  4. CoNVaQ: a web tool for copy number variation-based association studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Jonas; do Canto, Luisa Matos; Rogatto, Silvia Regina

    2018-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are large segments of the genome that are duplicated or deleted. Structural variations in the genome have been linked to many complex diseases. Similar to how genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have helped discover single-nucleotide polymorphisms linked to diseas...

  5. An Epidemiological Study of Number Processing and Mental Calculation in Greek Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumoula, Anastasia; Tsironi, Vanda; Stamouli, Victoria; Bardani, Irini; Stavroula, Siapati; Graham, Annik; Kafantaris, Ignatios; Charalambidou, Irini; Dellatolas, Georges; von Aster, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate and standardize an instrument for the diagnosis of developmental dyscalculia (mathematics disorder) in a Greek population and to obtain relevant epidemiological data. We used the "Neuropsychological Test Battery for Number Processing and Calculation in Children" (NUCALC) in a community sample of 240 students…

  6. Impact of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) on the treatment profile in pilot government dental clinics in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikwilu, Emil Namakuka; Frencken, Jo; Mulder, Jan

    2009-06-08

    The predominant mode of treatment in government dental clinics in Tanzania has been tooth extraction because the economy could not support the conventional restorative care which depends on expensive equipment, electricity and piped water systems. Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) was perceived as a suitable alternative. A 3.5-year study was designed to document the changes in the treatment profiles ascribed to the systematic introduction of ART in pilot government dental clinics. Dental practitioners who were working in 13 government dental clinics underwent a 7-day ART training. Treatment record data on teeth extracted and teeth restored by the conventional and ART approaches were collected from these clinics for the three study periods. The mean percentage of ART restorations to total treatment, ART restorations to total restorations, and total restorations to total treatments rendered were computed. Differences between variables were determined by ANOVA, t-test and Chi-square. The mean percentage of ART restorations to total treatment rendered was 0.4 (SE = 0.5) and 11.9 (SE = 1.1) during the baseline and second follow-up period respectively (ANOVA mixed model; P ART restorations to total restorations rendered at baseline and 2nd follow-up period was 8.4% and 88.9% respectively (ANOVA mixed model; P ART restorations, 96.6% willing to receive ART restoration again in future, and 94.9% willing to recommend ART treatment to their close relatives. ART introduction in pilot government dental clinics raised the number of teeth saved by restorative care. Countrywide introduction of the ART approach in Tanzania is recommended.

  7. Managerial span of control: a pilot study comparing departmental complexity and number of direct reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Katreena Collette; Pepper, Ginette; Blegen, Mary

    2013-09-01

    Nurse managers play pivotal roles in hospitals. However, restructuring has resulted in nurse managers having wider span of control and reduced visibility. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare two methods of measuring span of control: departmental complexity and number of direct reports. Forty-one nurse managers across nine hospitals completed The Ottawa Hospital Clinical Manager Span of Control Tool (TOH-SOC) and a demographic survey. A moderate positive relationship between number of direct reports and departmental complexity score was identified (r=.49, p=managers' responsibility. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.

  8. [Alcoholism and reformism in restoration Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Marin, R

    1993-01-01

    The number of medical pamphlets dealing with the problem of alcoholism, especially in the working classes, increased during the Restoration. At the same time, the State began to show concern about establishing social policies directed at improving the life-style of the proletariat and at their moralization. This study is attempting to establish the relationship that existed between these two phenomens via the debate about the social causes of alcoholism. The controversy about the closing of taverns on Sundays, developed between the Partido Socialista Obrero Español (Spanish Socialist Party) and certain sectors of the bourgeoisie synthesize the problem to be addressed.

  9. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  10. Traffic engineering and regenerator placement in GMPLS networks with restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetginer, Emre; Karasan, Ezhan

    2002-07-01

    In this paper we study regenerator placement and traffic engineering of restorable paths in Generalized Multipro-tocol Label Switching (GMPLS) networks. Regenerators are necessary in optical networks due to transmission impairments. We study a network architecture where there are regenerators at selected nodes and we propose two heuristic algorithms for the regenerator placement problem. Performances of these algorithms in terms of required number of regenerators and computational complexity are evaluated. In this network architecture with sparse regeneration, offline computation of working and restoration paths is studied with bandwidth reservation and path rerouting as the restoration scheme. We study two approaches for selecting working and restoration paths from a set of candidate paths and formulate each method as an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) prob-lem. Traffic uncertainty model is developed in order to compare these methods based on their robustness with respect to changing traffic patterns. Traffic engineering methods are compared based on number of additional demands due to traffic uncertainty that can be carried. Regenerator placement algorithms are also evaluated from a traffic engineering point of view.

  11. An in vitro study of dental enamel wear by restorative materials using radiometric method; Estudo in vitro do desgaste do esmalte dental pelos materiais restauradores utilizando metodo radiometrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa

    2000-07-01

    There is an increasing demand and interest to study the dental materials wear as well as about the abrasion effect on antagonistic teeth. Due to the fact that the existent restorative materials have no specifications about their abrasiveness, it is necessary the establishment of degrees of comparison among them to support clinical application. In this work, the radiometric method was applied to study the enamel wear caused by another enamel and by restorative materials (Ceramco II, Noritake and Finesse porcelains, Artglass and Targis). The dental enamel made radioactive by irradiation at the IEA-R1m nuclear research reactor under a thermal neutron flux was submitted to wear in a machine which allows sliding motion of an antagonistic surface in contact with this radioactive enamel. The enamel wear was evaluated by measuring beta activity of {sup 32}P transferred to water from this irradiated tooth. Results obtained indicated that dental porcelains cause pronounced enamel wear when compared with that provoked by another enamel or by resin materials. Resin materials caused less enamel wear than another enamel. Vickers microhardness data obtained for antagonistic materials showed a correlation with the wear caused to the enamel. This study allowed to conclude that the radiometric method proposed can be used satisfactorily in the evaluation of enamel wear by restorative materials. This method presents advantages due to quick responses and ease of analyses There is (author)

  12. Study on the Excretion Behaviour in Romanian Black and White Primiparous Cows. Number of Defecations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 9 Romanian Black and White cows in their first hundred days of lactation. The aim ofthis study was to measure the main aspects that characterized the excretion behaviour (defecation of the cows in 24hours that were divided into 3 day periods: 07:00-14:00 (I1, 14:00-2:001 (I2, 21:00-07:00 (I3. During theexperiments, the following defecation behaviour aspects were determined: total number of defecations, number ofdefecations in the three intervals, number of defecations according to administration order of forages (fibroussucculentsand succulents-fibrous. Data was computed by ANOVA/MANOVA. Results showed that the differencesbetween intervals I1-I2 and I1-I3 were statistically very significant (p< 0.01. In fibrous – succulent order thedefecation were 0.69 higher than in succulent- fibrous order (p< 0.01. Total number of defecation resulted bysumming the defecation from the three intervals, was 14.67 in the first administration order (fibrous-succulent and12.61 in the second administration order (succulent-fibrous.

  13. Cytotoxic evaluation of hydroxyapatite-filled and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled acrylate-based restorative composite resins: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadda, Harshita; Naveen, Sangeetha Vasudevaraj; Mohan, Saktiswaren; Satapathy, Bhabani K; Ray, Alok R; Kamarul, Tunku

    2016-07-01

    Although the physical and mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite-filled dental restorative composite resins have been examined, the biocompatibility of these materials has not been studied in detail. The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the toxicity of acrylate-based restorative composite resins filled with hydroxyapatite and a silica/hydroxyapatite combination. Five different restorative materials based on bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (bis-GMA) and tri-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) were developed: unfilled (H0), hydroxyapatite-filled (H30, H50), and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled (SH30, SH50) composite resins. These were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity by using human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Surface morphology, elemental composition, and functional groups were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The spectra normalization, baseline corrections, and peak integration were carried out by OPUS v4.0 software. Both in vitro cytotoxicity results and SEM analysis indicated that the composite resins developed were nontoxic and supported cell adherence. Elemental analysis with EDX revealed the presence of carbon, oxygen, calcium, silicon, and gold, while the presence of methacrylate, hydroxyl, and methylene functional groups was confirmed through FTIR analysis. The characterization and compatibility studies showed that these hydroxyapatite-filled and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled bis-GMA/TEGDMA-based restorative composite resins are nontoxic to human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells and show a favorable biologic response, making them potential biomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identifying conservation and restoration priorities for saproxylic and old-growth forest species: a case study in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, Thibault; Bütler, Rita

    2009-07-01

    Saproxylic (dead-wood-associated) and old-growth species are among the most threatened species in European forest ecosystems, as they are susceptible to intensive forest management. Identifying areas with particular relevant features of biodiversity is of prime concern when developing species conservation and habitat restoration strategies and in optimizing resource investments. We present an approach to identify regional conservation and restoration priorities even if knowledge on species distribution is weak, such as for saproxylic and old-growth species in Switzerland. Habitat suitability maps were modeled for an expert-based selection of 55 focal species, using an ecological niche factor analyses (ENFA). All the maps were then overlaid, in order to identify potential species' hotspots for different species groups of the 55 focal species (e.g., birds, fungi, red-listed species). We found that hotspots for various species groups did not correspond. Our results indicate that an approach based on "richness hotspots" may fail to conserve specific species groups. We hence recommend defining a biodiversity conservation strategy prior to implementing conservation/restoration efforts in specific regions. The conservation priority setting of the five biogeographical regions in Switzerland, however, did not differ when different hotspot definitions were applied. This observation emphasizes that the chosen method is robust. Since the ENFA needs only presence data, this species prediction method seems to be useful for any situation where the species distribution is poorly known and/or absence data are lacking. In order to identify priorities for either conservation or restoration efforts, we recommend a method based on presence data only, because absence data may reflect factors unrelated to species presence.

  15. A comparative study of near-wall turbulence in high and low Reynolds number boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, M.M.; Klewicki, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The present study explores the effects of Reynolds number, over three orders of magnitude, in the viscous wall region of a turbulent boundary layer. Complementary experiments were conducted both in the boundary layer wind tunnel at the University of Utah and in the atmospheric surface layer which flows over the salt flats of the Great Salt Lake Desert in western Utah. The Reynolds numbers, based on momentum deficit thickness, of the two flows were R θ =2x10 3 and R θ ≅5x10 6 , respectively. High-resolution velocity measurements were obtained from a five-element vertical rake of hot-wires spanning the buffer region. In both the low and high R θ flows, the length of the hot-wires measured less than 6 viscous units. To facilitate reliable comparisons, both the laboratory and field experiments employed the same instrumentation and procedures. Data indicate that, even in the immediate vicinity of the surface, strong influences from low-frequency motions at high R θ produce noticeable Reynolds number differences in the streamwise velocity and velocity gradient statistics. In particular, the peak value in the root mean square streamwise velocity profile, when normalized by viscous scales, was found to exhibit a logarithmic dependence on Reynolds number. The mean streamwise velocity profile, on the other hand, appears to be essentially independent of Reynolds number. Spectra and spatial correlation data suggest that low-frequency motions at high Reynolds number engender intensified local convection velocities which affect the structure of both the velocity and velocity gradient fields. Implications for turbulent production mechanisms and coherent motions in the buffer layer are discussed

  16. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowarah, J.; Deka Boruah, H. P.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A. K.

    2009-10-01

    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  17. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowarah, J.; Boruah, H.P.D.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A.K. [CSIR, Jorhat (India). North East Institute of Science & Technology

    2009-10-15

    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  18. Does use of a PACS increase the number of images per study? A case study in ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Steven; Nisenbaum, Harvey; Farn, James; Coleman, Beverly; Rowling, Susan; Langer, Jill; Jacobs, Jill; Arger, Peter; Pinheiro, Lisa; Klein, Wendy; Reber, Michele; Iyoob, Christopher

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) in ultrasonography increased the number of images acquired per examination. The hypothesis that such an increase does occur was based on anecdotal information; this study sought to test the hypothesis. A random sample of all ultrasound examination types was drawn from the period 1998 through 1999. The ultrasound PACS in use (ACCESS; Kodak Health Information Systems, Dallas, TX) records the number of grayscale and color images saved as part of each study. Each examination in the sample was checked in the ultrasound PACS database,.and the number of grayscale and color images was recorded. The comparison film-based sample was drawn from the period 1994 through 1995. The number of examinations of each type selected was based on the overall statistics of the section; that is, the sample was designed to represent the approximate frequency with which the various examination types are done. For film-based image counts, the jackets were retrieved, and the number of grayscale and color images were counted. The number of images obtained per examination (for most examinations) in ultrasound increased with PACS use. This was more evident with some examination types (eg, pelvis). This result, however, has to be examined for possible systematic biases because ultrasound practice has changed over the time since the authors stopped using film routinely. The use of PACS in ultrasonography was not associated with an increase in the number of images per examination based solely on the use of PACS, with the exception of neonatal head studies. Increases in the number of images per study was otherwise associated with examinations for which changes in protocols resulted in the increased image counts.

  19. Socioeconomic status and number of children among Korean women: the Healthy Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinseob; Sung, Joohon

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the birth rate is associated with socioeconomic status in the women of the Republic of Korea, where the birth rate is rapidly decreasing. This study included 732 females from the Healthy Twin Study, a family-twin cohort. The participants were classified into 3 socioeconomic groups according to their average income, education, and occupation. The association between socioeconomic status and number of children was assessed using gamma regression analysis with a generalized linear mixed model, adjusting for the age group, smoking/alcohol status, and family relationships. The group with the highest education level had significantly fewer children compared with the group with the lowest education level (p=0.004). However, no significant associations were found according to household income level. The non-manual labor group had significantly fewer children compared with those working as homemakers (p=0.008). This study aimed to explain the causal relationship between socioeconomic status and number of children. Associations between some socioeconomic status and number of children were found in Korea.

  20. Factors associated with numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Chu; Peng, Yun-Shing; Fan, Jun-Yu; Jane, Sui-Whi; Tu, Liang-Tse; Chang, Chang-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-07-01

    To explore the factors associated with the numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes community residents. Promoting oral health is an important nursing role for patients with diabetes, especially in disadvantaged areas. However, limited research has been carried out on the relationship between numbers of remaining teeth, diabetes-related biomarkers and personal oral hygiene among diabetic rural residents. A cross-sectional, descriptive design with a simple random sample was used. This study was part of a longitudinal cohort study of health promotion for preventing diabetic foot among rural community diabetic residents. It was carried out in 18 western coastal and inland districts of Chiayi County in central Taiwan. In total, 703 participants were enrolled in this study. The findings indicated that a high percentage of the participants (26%) had no remaining natural teeth. Nearly three quarters (74%) had fewer than 20 natural teeth. After controlling for the potential confounding factors, multivariate analysis demonstrated that the factors determining numbers of remaining teeth were age (p teeth were less tooth-brushing with dental floss, abnormal ankle brachial pressure and poor glycemic control. This study highlights the importance of nursing intervention in oral hygiene for patients with type 2 diabetes. It is necessary to initiate oral health promotion activities when diabetes is first diagnosed, especially for older diabetic residents of rural or coastal areas who are poorly educated. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of abutment shade, ceramic thickness, and coping type on the final shade of zirconia all-ceramic restorations: in vitro study of color masking ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seon-Hee; Kim, Seok-Gyu

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of abutment shade, ceramic thickness, and coping type on the final shade of zirconia all-ceramic restorations. Three different types of disk-shaped zirconia coping specimens (Lava, Cercon, Zirkonzahn: ø10 mm × 0.4 mm) were fabricated and veneered with IPS e.max Press Ceram (shade A2), for total thicknesses of 1 and 1.5 mm. A total of sixty zirconia restoration specimens were divided into six groups based on their coping types and thicknesses. The abutment specimens (ø10 mm × 7 mm) were prepared with gold alloy, base metal (nickel-chromium) alloy, and four different shades (A1, A2, A3, A4) of composite resins. The average L*, a*, b* values of the zirconia specimens on the six abutment specimens were measured with a dental colorimeter, and the statistical significance in the effects of three variables was analyzed by using repeated measures analysis of variance (α=.05).The average shade difference (ΔE) values of the zirconia specimens between the A2 composite resin abutment and other abutments were also evaluated. The effects of zirconia specimen thickness (Pabutment shade (Pabutments was higher (close to the acceptability threshold of 5.5 ΔE) than th ose between the A2 composite resin and other abutments. This in-vitro study demonstrated that abutment shade, ceramic thickness, and coping type affected the resulting shade of zirconia restorations.

  2. Zero tolerance against patriarchal norms? A cross-sectional study of Swedish physicians' attitudes towards young females requesting virginity certificates or hymen restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juth, Niklas; Lynöe, Niels

    2015-03-01

    Many countries, Sweden among them, lack professional guidelines and established procedures for responding to young females requesting virginity certificates or hymen restoration due to honour-related threats. The purpose of the present survey study was to further examine the attitudes of the Swedish healthcare professionals concerned towards young females requesting virginity certificates or hymen restorations. The study indicates that a small majority of Swedish general practitioners and gynaecologists would accommodate these patients, at least given certain circumstances. But a large minority of physicians would under no circumstances help the young females, regardless of speciality, years of practice within medicine, gender, or experience of the phenomenon. Their responses are similar to other areas where it has been claimed that society should adopt a zero tolerance policy against certain phenomena, for instance drug policy, where it has also been argued that society should never act in ways that express support for the practice in question. However, this argument is questionable. A more pragmatic approach would also allow for follow-ups and evaluation of virginity certificates and hymen restorations, as is demonstrated by the Dutch policy. Hence, there are some obvious advantages to this pragmatic approach compared to the restrictive one espoused by a large minority of Swedish physicians and Swedish policy-makers in this area. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Tianeptine, olanzapine and fluoxetine show similar restoring effects on stress induced molecular changes in mice brain: An FT-IR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Mutlu, Oğuz; Çelikyurt, İpek K.; Akar, Furuzan; Ulak, Güner

    2016-05-01

    Chronic stress which can cause a variety of disorders and illness ranging from metabolic and cardiovascular to mental leads to alterations in content, structure and dynamics of biomolecules in brain. The determination of stress-induced changes along with the effects of antidepressant treatment on these parameters might bring about more effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we investigated unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced changes in biomolecules in mouse brain and the restoring effects of tianeptine (TIA), olanzapine (OLZ) and fluoxetine (FLX) on these variations, by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that chronic stress causes different membrane packing and an increase in lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity. A significant increment for lipid/protein, Cdbnd O/lipid, CH3/lipid, CH2/lipid, PO-2/lipid, COO-/lipid and RNA/protein ratios but a significant decrease for lipid/protein ratios were also obtained. Additionally, altered protein secondary structure components were estimated, such as increment in random coils and beta structures. The administration of TIA, OLZ and FLX drugs restored these stress-induced variations except for alterations in protein structure and RNA/protein ratio. This may suggest that these drugs have similar restoring effects on the consequences of stress activity in brain, in spite of the differences in their action mechanisms. All findings might have importance in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying chronic stress and contribute to studies aimed for drug development.

  4. Surface topography of composite restorative materials following ultrasonic scaling and its Impact on bacterial plaque accumulation. An in-vitro SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossam, A Eid; Rafi, A Togoo; Ahmed, A Saleh; Sumanth, Phani Cr

    2013-06-01

    This is an in vitro study to investigate the effects of ultrasonic scaling on the surface roughness and quantitative bacterial count on four different types of commonly used composite restorative materials for class V cavities. Nanofilled, hybrid, silorane and flowable composites were tested. Forty extracted teeth served as specimen and were divided into 4 groups of 10 specimens, with each group receiving a different treatment and were examined by a Field emission scanning electron microscope. Bacterial suspension was then added to the pellicle-coated specimens, and then bacterial adhesion was analyzed by using image analyzing program. Flowable and silorane-based composites showed considerably smoother surfaces and lesser bacterial count in comparison to other types, proving that bacterial adhesion is directly proportional to surface roughness. The use of ultrasonic scalers affects the surfaces of composite restorative materials. Routine periodontal scaling should be carried out very carefully, and polishing of the scaled surfaces may overcome the alterations in roughness, thus preventing secondary caries, surface staining, plaque accumulation and subsequent periodontal inflammation. How to cite this article: Eid H A, Togoo R A, Saleh A A, Sumanth C R. Surface Topography of Composite Restorative Materials following Ultrasonic Scaling and its Impact on Bacterial Plaque Accumulation. An In-Vitro SEM Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):13-19.

  5. Effectiveness of a lifestyle exercise program for older people receiving a restorative home care service: study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Elissa; Lewin, Gill; Clemson, Lindy; Boldy, Duncan

    2013-10-18

    Restorative home care services help older people maximise their independence using a multi-dimensional approach. They usually include an exercise program designed to improve the older person's strength, balance and function. The types of programs currently offered require allocation of time during the day to complete specific exercises. This is not how the majority of home care clients prefer to be active and may be one of the reasons that few older people do the exercises regularly and continue the exercises post discharge.This paper describes the study protocol to test whether a Lifestyle Functional Exercise (LiFE) program: 1) is undertaken more often; 2) is more likely to be continued over the longer term; and, 3) will result in greater functional gains compared to a standard exercise program for older people receiving a restorative home care service. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT) design was employed with two study arms: LiFE program (intervention) and the current exercise program (control). Silver Chain, a health and community care organisation in Perth, Western Australia. One hundred and fifty restorative home care clients, aged 65 years and older. The primary outcome is a composite measure incorporating balance, strength and mobility. Other outcome measures include: physical functioning, falls efficacy, and levels of disability and functioning. If LiFE is more effective than the current exercise program, the evidence will be presented to the service management accompanied by the recommendation that it be adopted as the generic exercise program to be used within the restorative home care service. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000788976.

  6. A Controlled and Retrospective Study of 144 Chronic Low Back Pain Patients to Evaluate the Effectiveness of an Intensive Functional Restoration Program in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Caby

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Study Design: A controlled and retrospective study of 144 chronic low back pain patients to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive functional restoration program in France. Objective: Evaluating the efficiency of an intensive, dynamic and multidisciplinary functional restoration program in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP, during 6 and 12 months follow up. Summary of background data: Chronic low back pain disease has a multifactor nature, involving physical, psychological professional and social factors. A functional restoration program (FRP has been included in a multidisciplinary training program which provides an efficient therapeutic solution. However, the effectiveness of an FRP has not been yet established. Methods: 144 subjects (71 males, 73 females with chronic low back pain were included in a functional restoration program. The FRP includes physiotherapy and occupational therapy interventions together with psychological counselling. Patients participated as in- or outpatients 6 h per day, 5 days a week over 5 weeks. Pain intensity, trunk flexibility, trunk strength, lifting ability, quality of life and return to work were recorded before, immediately after, and at 6 months and 12 months after the treatment period. Results: All outcome measures were significantly higher just after the FRP (144 patients and at 6 and 12 months (from available data in 31 subjects compared to pre-treatment values. This FRP for chronic low back pain maintained its benefits whatever the patient’s activities. Conclusions: The effects reflected on all outcome measures, both on short and long term follow-up. The multidisciplinary FRP for chronic low back pain patients durably stopped the de-conditioning syndrome and involved new life-style habits for the patient, daily pain management and a return to work.

  7. Combined Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Vision Restoration Training in Subacute Stroke Rehabilitation: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Raimund; Moser, Hermann; Gall, Carolin; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2017-08-01

    Visual field defects after posterior cerebral artery stroke can be improved by vision restoration training (VRT), but when combined with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which alters brain excitability, vision recovery can be potentiated in the chronic stage. To date, the combination of VRT and tDCS has not been evaluated in postacute stroke rehabilitation. To determine whether combined tDCS and VRT can be effectively implemented in the early recovery phase following stroke, and to explore the feasibility, safety and efficacy of an early intervention. Open-label pilot study including a case series of 7 tDCS/VRT versus a convenience sample of 7 control patients (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02935413). Rehabilitation center. Patients with homonymous visual field defects following a posterior cerebral artery stroke. Seven homonymous hemianopia patients were prospectively treated with 10 sessions of combined tDCS (2.mA, 10 daily sessions of 20 minutes) and VRT at 66 (±50) days on average poststroke. Visual field recovery was compared with the retrospective data of 7 controls, whose defect sizes and age of lesions were matched to those of the experimental subjects and who had received standard rehabilitation with compensatory eye movement and exploration training. All 7 patients in the treatment group completed the treatment protocol. The safety and acceptance were excellent, and patients reported occasional skin itching beneath the electrodes as the only minor side effect. Irrespective of their treatment, both groups (treatment and control) showed improved visual fields as documented by an increased mean sensitivity threshold in decibels in standard static perimetry. Recovery was significantly greater (P stroke was demonstrated to be safe, with excellent applicability and acceptance of the treatment. Preliminary effectiveness calculations show that tDCS/VRT may be superior to standard vision training procedures. A confirmatory, larger-sample, controlled

  8. Restoration of Traditional Children’s Play in Iranian Nomadic Societies (Case Study of Kohgilouyeh and Boyer Ahmad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Taheri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide an insight into play as an important aspect of children’s lives in an under-studied area of Iran. Our observations focus on the province of Kohgilouyeh and Boyer Ahmad with its ancient nomadic cultures. Through first-hand knowledge and lived experiences, supplemented by available literature, we seek to look at children’s games in the frame of culture change, exploring their relationship with children’s health and wellbeing. Play, as in every region in the world, conveys and reflects the dominant culture and teaches the values of the society in which the children live in the here and now and in which they will have to function as adults. Yet, types of play are not static. They develop alongside social, political and economic changes and embrace new forms emerging from modern lifestyles. The latter sometimes come into conflict with and challenge the local culture and traditional types of play, which are based on the lives and histories of the indigenous peoples and local communities. A sample of traditional tribal forms of play is analyzed for their health, entertainment and fun aspects. Such play allows children to prepare for life’s realities, in particular for a life of cooperation. By contrast, whilst also providing children with tools and skills for the needs of modern life, new types of play focus more on competition and individualism. This divergence expressed in different types of play widens the generation gap and contributes to alienation. The shift from a collective to individualistic lifestyle thus has an unsettling impact on the community and impacts on the emotional and physical wellbeing of children. We will describe types of play and their role in the holistic development of nomadic children, as well as the impact of modernization and social change, including sedentarization. The article will highlight some consequences of the demise of indigenous play, through observation and analytical

  9. Restoration of Traditional Children’s Play in Iranian Nomadic Societies (Case Study of Kohgilouyeh and Boyer Ahmad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Laleh; Chahian, Golshan

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to provide an insight into play as an important aspect of children’s lives in an under-studied area of Iran. Our observations focus on the province of Kohgilouyeh and Boyer Ahmad with its ancient nomadic cultures. Through first-hand knowledge and lived experiences, supplemented by available literature, we seek to look at children’s games in the frame of culture change, exploring their relationship with children’s health and wellbeing. Play, as in every region in the world, conveys and reflects the dominant culture and teaches the values of the society in which the children live in the here and now and in which they will have to function as adults. Yet, types of play are not static. They develop alongside social, political and economic changes and embrace new forms emerging from modern lifestyles. The latter sometimes come into conflict with and challenge the local culture and traditional types of play, which are based on the lives and histories of the indigenous peoples and local communities. A sample of traditional tribal forms of play is analyzed for their health, entertainment and fun aspects. Such play allows children to prepare for life’s realities, in particular for a life of cooperation. By contrast, whilst also providing children with tools and skills for the needs of modern life, new types of play focus more on competition and individualism. This divergence expressed in different types of play widens the generation gap and contributes to alienation. The shift from a collective to individualistic lifestyle thus has an unsettling impact on the community and impacts on the emotional and physical wellbeing of children. We will describe types of play and their role in the holistic development of nomadic children, as well as the impact of modernization and social change, including sedentarization. The article will highlight some consequences of the demise of indigenous play, through observation and analytical comparison of children

  10. Forest Landscape Restoration in the Drylands of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian C. Newton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR involves the ecological restoration of degraded forest landscapes, with the aim of benefiting both biodiversity and human well-being. We first identify four fundamental principles of FLR, based on previous definitions. We then critically evaluate the application of these principles in practice, based on the experience gained during an international, collaborative research project conducted in six dry forest landscapes of Latin America. Research highlighted the potential for FLR; tree species of high socioeconomic value were identified in all study areas, and strong dependence of local communities on forest resources was widely encountered, particularly for fuelwood. We demonstrated that FLR can be achieved through both passive and active restoration approaches, and can be cost-effective if the increased provision of ecosystem services is taken into account. These results therefore highlight the potential for FLR, and the positive contribution that it could make to sustainable development. However, we also encountered a number of challenges to FLR implementation, including the difficulty of achieving strong engagement in FLR activities among local stakeholders, lack of capacity for community-led initiatives, and the lack of an appropriate institutional and regulatory environment to support restoration activities. Successful implementation of FLR will require new collaborative alliances among stakeholders, empowerment and capacity building of local communities to enable them to fully engage with restoration activities, and an enabling public policy context to enable local people to be active participants in the decision making process.

  11. Pink shrimp as an indicator for restoration of everglades ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, familiar to most Floridians as either food or bait shrimp, is ubiquitous in South Florida coastal and offshore waters and is proposed as an indicator for assessing restoration of South Florida's southern estuaries: Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the mangrove estuaries of the lower southwest coast. Relationships between pink shrimp and salinity have been determined in both field and laboratory studies. Salinity is directly relevant to restoration because the salinity regimes of South Florida estuaries, critical nursery habitat for the pink shrimp, will be altered by changes in the quantity, timing, and distribution of freshwater inflow planned as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project (CERP). Here we suggest performance measures based on pink shrimp density (number per square meter) in the estuaries and propose a restoration assessment and scoring scheme using these performance measures that can readily be communicated to managers, policy makers, and the interested public. The pink shrimp is an appropriate restoration indicator because of its ecological as well as its economic importance and also because scientific interest in pink shrimp in South Florida has produced a wealth of information about the species and relatively long time series of data on both juveniles in estuarine nursery habitats and adults on the fishing grounds. We suggest research needs for improving the pink shrimp performance measure.

  12. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David; Aronsuu, Kimmo; Jackson, Aaron

    2003-07-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993, Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers (Moser et al. 2002), thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin (Moser and Close in press). Adult Pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River (Close and Jackson 2001). In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River (Close 1999). To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2002.

  13. Restoration ecology: two-sex dynamics and cost minimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Molnár

    Full Text Available We model a spatially detailed, two-sex population dynamics, to study the cost of ecological restoration. We assume that cost is proportional to the number of individuals introduced into a large habitat. We treat dispersal as homogeneous diffusion in a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion system. The local population dynamics depends on sex ratio at birth, and allows mortality rates to differ between sexes. Furthermore, local density dependence induces a strong Allee effect, implying that the initial population must be sufficiently large to avert rapid extinction. We address three different initial spatial distributions for the introduced individuals; for each we minimize the associated cost, constrained by the requirement that the species must be restored throughout the habitat. First, we consider spatially inhomogeneous, unstable stationary solutions of the model's equations as plausible candidates for small restoration cost. Second, we use numerical simulations to find the smallest rectangular cluster, enclosing a spatially homogeneous population density, that minimizes the cost of assured restoration. Finally, by employing simulated annealing, we minimize restoration cost among all possible initial spatial distributions of females and males. For biased sex ratios, or for a significant between-sex difference in mortality, we find that sex-specific spatial distributions minimize the cost. But as long as the sex ratio maximizes the local equilibrium density for given mortality rates, a common homogeneous distribution for both sexes that spans a critical distance yields a similarly low cost.

  14. Restoration ecology: two-sex dynamics and cost minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Ferenc; Caragine, Christina; Caraco, Thomas; Korniss, Gyorgy

    2013-01-01

    We model a spatially detailed, two-sex population dynamics, to study the cost of ecological restoration. We assume that cost is proportional to the number of individuals introduced into a large habitat. We treat dispersal as homogeneous diffusion in a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion system. The local population dynamics depends on sex ratio at birth, and allows mortality rates to differ between sexes. Furthermore, local density dependence induces a strong Allee effect, implying that the initial population must be sufficiently large to avert rapid extinction. We address three different initial spatial distributions for the introduced individuals; for each we minimize the associated cost, constrained by the requirement that the species must be restored throughout the habitat. First, we consider spatially inhomogeneous, unstable stationary solutions of the model's equations as plausible candidates for small restoration cost. Second, we use numerical simulations to find the smallest rectangular cluster, enclosing a spatially homogeneous population density, that minimizes the cost of assured restoration. Finally, by employing simulated annealing, we minimize restoration cost among all possible initial spatial distributions of females and males. For biased sex ratios, or for a significant between-sex difference in mortality, we find that sex-specific spatial distributions minimize the cost. But as long as the sex ratio maximizes the local equilibrium density for given mortality rates, a common homogeneous distribution for both sexes that spans a critical distance yields a similarly low cost.

  15. Study of Perturbations on High Mach Number Blast Waves in Various Gasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, A.; Adams, R.; Rambo, P.; Shores, J.; Smith, I.; Atherton, B.; Ditmire, T.

    2006-10-01

    We have performed a series of experiments examining the properties of high Mach number blast waves. Experiments were conducted on the Z-Beamlet^1 laser at Sandia National Laboratories. We created blast waves in the laboratory by using 10 J- 1000 J laser pulses to illuminate millimeter scale solid targets immersed in gas. Our experiments studied the validity of theories forwarded by Vishniac and Ryu^2-4 to explain the dynamics of perturbations on astrophysical blast waves. These experiments consisted of an examination of the evolution of perturbations of known primary mode number induced on the surface of blast waves by means of regularly spaced wire arrays. The temporal evolution of the amplitude of the induced perturbations relative to the mean radius of the blast wave was fit to a power law in time. Measurements were taken for a number of different mode numbers and background gasses and the results show qualitative agreement with previously published theories for the hydrodynamics of thin shell blast wave. The results for perturbations on nitrogen gas have been recently published^5. .^1 P. K. Rambo, I. C. Smith, J. L. Porter, et al., Applied Optics 44, 2421 (2005). ^2 D. Ryu and E. T. Vishniac, Astrophysical Journal 313, 820 (1987). ^3 D. Ryu and E. T. Vishniac, Astrophysical Journal 368, 411 (1991). ^4 E. T. Vishniac, Astrophysical Journal 274, 152 (1983). ^5 A. D. Edens, T. Ditmire, J. F. Hansen, et al., Physical Review Letters 95 (2005).

  16. Fracture Resistance and Failure Mode of Endodontically Treated Premolars Restored with Different Adhesive Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sarabi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The restoration of endodontically treated teeth is a topic that has been studied extensively but it is still a challenge for dental practitioners. The aim of this study was to evaluate fracture resistance, fracture patterns and fracture location of endodontically treated human maxillary premolars restored with direct and indirect composite resin and ceramic restoration. Methods: Eighty non-carious maxillary premolars were selected and divided into four groups (n=20. Endodontic treatment and mesio-occluso-distal preparations were carried out in all the groups except for the control group (group I. Subsequently, the prepared teeth were restored as follows: group II: indirect composite restoration; group III: ceramic restoration; group IV: direct composite restoration. The specimens were subjected to compressive axial loading until fracture occurred. The mode of failure was also recorded. Results: Group I had higher fracture resistance (1196.82±241.74 than the other groups (P

  17. Transforming Verbal Counts in Reports of Qualitative Descriptive Studies Into Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, YunKyung; Voils, Corrine I.; Sandelowski, Margarete; Hasselblad, Vic; Crandell, Jamie L.

    2009-01-01

    Reports of qualitative studies typically do not offer much information on the numbers of respondents linked to any one finding. This information may be especially useful in reports of basic, or minimally interpretive, qualitative descriptive studies focused on surveying a range of experiences in a target domain, and its lack may limit the ability to synthesize the results of such studies with quantitative results in systematic reviews. Accordingly, the authors illustrate strategies for deriving plausible ranges of respondents expressing a finding in a set of reports of basic qualitative descriptive studies on antiretroviral adherence and suggest how the results might be used. These strategies have limitations and are never appropriate for use with findings from interpretive qualitative studies. Yet they offer a temporary workaround for preserving and maximizing the value of information from basic qualitative descriptive studies for systematic reviews. They show also why quantitizing is never simply quantitative. PMID:19448052

  18. Non-destructive evaluation of teeth restored with different composite resins using synchrotron based micro-imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, A; Kulkarni, V K; Banda, N R; Agrawal, A K; Singh, B; Sarkar, P S; Tripathi, S; Shripathi, T; Kashyap, Y; Sinha, A

    2016-01-01

    Application of high resolution synchrotron micro-imaging in microdefects studies of restored dental samples. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the defects in restorations done by two different resin systems on teeth samples using synchrotron based micro-imaging techniques namely Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) and micro-computed tomography (MCT). With this aim acquired image quality was also compared with routinely used RVG (Radiovisiograph). Crowns of human teeth samples were fractured mechanically involving only enamel and dentin, without exposure of pulp chamber and were divided into two groups depending on the restorative composite materials used. Group A samples were restored using a submicron Hybrid composite material and Group B samples were restored using a Nano-Hybrid restorative composite material. Synchrotron based PCI and MCT was performed with the aim of visualization of tooth structure, composite resin and their interface. The quantitative and qualitative comparison of phase contrast and absorption contrast images along with MCT on the restored teeth samples shows comparatively large number of voids in Group A samples. Quality assessment of dental restorations using synchrotron based micro-imaging suggests Nano-Hybrid resin restorations (Group B) are better than Group A.

  19. A study of the required Rayleigh number to sustain dynamo with various inner core radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Y.; Katoh, Y.; Matsui, H.; Kumamoto, A.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the geomagnetic field is sustained by thermal and compositional driven convections of a liquid iron alloy in the outer core. The generation process of the geomagnetic field has been studied by a number of MHD dynamo simulations. Recent studies of the ratio of the Earth's core evolution suggest that the inner solid core radius ri to the outer liquid core radius ro changed from ri/ro = 0 to 0.35 during the last one billion years. There are some studies of dynamo in the early Earth with smaller inner core than the present. Heimpel et al. (2005) revealed the Rayleigh number Ra of the onset of dynamo process as a function of ri/ro from simulation, while paleomagnetic observation shows that the geomagnetic field has been sustained for 3.5 billion years. While Heimpel and Evans (2013) studied dynamo processes taking into account the thermal history of the Earth's interior, there were few cases corresponding to the early Earth. Driscoll (2016) performed a series of dynamo based on a thermal evolution model. Despite a number of dynamo simulations, dynamo process occurring in the interior of the early Earth has not been fully understood because the magnetic Prandtl numbers in these simulations are much larger than that for the actual outer core.In the present study, we performed thermally driven dynamo simulations with different aspect ratio ri/ro = 0.15, 0.25 and 0.35 to evaluate the critical Ra for the thermal convection and required Ra to maintain the dynamo. For this purpose, we performed simulations with various Ra and fixed the other control parameters such as the Ekman, Prandtl, and magnetic Prandtl numbers. For the initial condition and boundary conditions, we followed the dynamo benchmark case 1 by Christensen et al. (2001). The results show that the critical Ra increases with the smaller aspect ratio ri/ro. It is confirmed that larger amplitude of buoyancy is required in the smaller inner core to maintain dynamo.

  20. High Patient Satisfaction of a Hyaluronic Acid Filler Producing Enduring Full-Facial Volume Restoration: An 18-Month Open Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, Sergio; Meski, Ana P; Buratini, Laura; Manela-Azulay, Mônica; Simpson, Helen; Sidou, Farzaneh; Kerrouche, Nabil

    2015-12-01

    Volume restoration is an essential part of facial rejuvenation. To assess long-term full-facial volume restoration using HAEL Volume Lidocaine hyaluronic acid filler. An 18-month open study in 60 subjects with at least Grade 2 on the 4-point volume loss scale (VLS) for full face and at least 2 indications affected among chin, temporal areas, jawline, cheeks, cheekbones, and nasolabial folds (NLF). Performance was assessed by VLS, Lemperle rating scale (LRS), investigator Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS), and 3-dimensional (3D) imaging. Most subjects (71.6%) had 3 or 4 indications injected, most commonly cheekbones (96.7%) and NLF (93.3%). At 18 months, at least a 1-grade improvement in VLS was observed for full face (68.3% of subjects), chin (77.8%), temporal areas (73.7%), cheeks (66.6%), cheekbones (58.6%), jawline (43.1%), and NLF (71.4%; LRS). For all indications, more than 60% of the volume gained at 3 weeks was sustained at 18 months based on 3D digital imaging. At 18 months, 95.0% of subjects had improved full-face GAIS and all subjects were satisfied with their aesthetic outcome. One subject (1.6%) had treatment-related adverse events. Full-facial volume restoration was well sustained over 18 months with high patient satisfaction and good tolerability.

  1. Shame and Guilt in Restorative Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I examine the relevance and desirability of shame and guilt to restorative justice conferences. I argue that a careful study of the psychology of shame and guilt reveals that both emotions possess traits that can be desirable and traits that can be undesirable for restoration. More...... in particular, having presented the aims of restorative justice, the importance of face-to-face conferences in reaching these aims, the emotional dynamics that take place within such conferences, and the relevant parts of the empirical psychology of shame and guilt, I argue that restorative justice...... practitioners have to take account of a rather more complex picture than it had hitherto been thought. Restorative conferences are not simply about "shame management," though practitioners must certainly avoid shaming and humiliation. Given the nature of shame, guilt, and restorative conferences...

  2. Comparative evaluation of different periods of enamel microabrasion on the microleakage of class V resin-modified glass ionomer and compomer restorations: An In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Disha; Mahajan, Mrinalini

    2017-01-01

    The design of the class V cavity presents a clinical challenge in the field of adhesive dentistry as the margin placement is partially in enamel and partly in dentin, and the trouble associated with this design is the microleakage at the dentinal margin. When these restorations undergo microabrasion due to cosmetic reasons, this trouble aggravates to the significant levels. The aim of this study was the measurement of microleakage of class V glass ionomer restorations over two different periods of enamel microabrasion. This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 120 class V cavities which had been prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 60 sound human premolars. One-half of the cavities were restored with the resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GIC) (60 cavities) and another half with the compomer (60 cavities). Finishing and polishing were performed. Then, the teeth were classified into six groups (n = 20). Microabrasion treatment was performed with Opaluster (Ultradent Product Inc., South Jordan, UT, USA) for 0 (control no treatment), 60 and 120 s. Then, teeth were thermocycled between 5°C and 55°C, immersed in rhodamine B solution (24 h), and sectioned longitudinally in buccolingual direction. Dye penetration was examined with stereomicroscope (×10). Microleakage scores were statistically analyzed. The mean occlusal margin scores and gingival margin scores were compared between all the groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and post hoc comparison. There was a significant difference between Group 1a, Group 2a, Group 1b, Group 2b, Group 1c, and Group 2c. Statistical analysis used in this study was Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and post hoc comparison. The least microleakage scores were observed in occlusal margins of control groups (without microabrasion). Moreover, in both restorations, the microleakage scores in occlusal margins were higher than gingival

  3. Comparative evaluation of different periods of enamel microabrasion on the microleakage of class V resin-modified glass ionomer and compomer restorations: An In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha Bansal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The design of the class V cavity presents a clinical challenge in the field of adhesive dentistry as the margin placement is partially in enamel and partly in dentin, and the trouble associated with this design is the microleakage at the dentinal margin. When these restorations undergo microabrasion due to cosmetic reasons, this trouble aggravates to the significant levels. Aims: The aim of this study was the measurement of microleakage of class V glass ionomer restorations over two different periods of enamel microabrasion. Settings and Design: This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 120 class V cavities which had been prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 60 sound human premolars. One-half of the cavities were restored with the resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GIC (60 cavities and another half with the compomer (60 cavities. Finishing and polishing were performed. Subjects and Methods: Then, the teeth were classified into six groups (n = 20. Microabrasion treatment was performed with Opaluster (Ultradent Product Inc., South Jordan, UT, USA for 0 (control no treatment, 60 and 120 s. Then, teeth were thermocycled between 5°C and 55°C, immersed in rhodamine B solution (24 h, and sectioned longitudinally in buccolingual direction. Dye penetration was examined with stereomicroscope (×10. Microleakage scores were statistically analyzed. The mean occlusal margin scores and gingival margin scores were compared between all the groups using the Kruskal–Wallis test, Mann–Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and post hoc comparison. There was a significant difference between Group 1a, Group 2a, Group 1b, Group 2b, Group 1c, and Group 2c. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis used in this study was Kruskal–Wallis test, Mann–Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and post hoc comparison. Results: The least microleakage scores were observed in occlusal margins of control groups (without

  4. Study of Nonlinear MHD Tribological Squeeze Film at Generalized Magnetic Reynolds Numbers Using DTM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Mohammad Mehdi; Freidoonimehr, Navid; Momoniat, Ebrahim; Rostami, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    In the current article, a combination of the differential transform method (DTM) and Padé approximation method are implemented to solve a system of nonlinear differential equations modelling the flow of a Newtonian magnetic lubricant squeeze film with magnetic induction effects incorporated. Solutions for the transformed radial and tangential momentum as well as solutions for the radial and tangential induced magnetic field conservation equations are determined. The DTM-Padé combined method is observed to demonstrate excellent convergence, stability and versatility in simulating the magnetic squeeze film problem. The effects of involved parameters, i.e. squeeze Reynolds number (N1), dimensionless axial magnetic force strength parameter (N2), dimensionless tangential magnetic force strength parameter (N3), and magnetic Reynolds number (Rem) are illustrated graphically and discussed in detail. Applications of the study include automotive magneto-rheological shock absorbers, novel aircraft landing gear systems and biological prosthetics.

  5. Study of Nonlinear MHD Tribological Squeeze Film at Generalized Magnetic Reynolds Numbers Using DTM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi

    Full Text Available In the current article, a combination of the differential transform method (DTM and Padé approximation method are implemented to solve a system of nonlinear differential equations modelling the flow of a Newtonian magnetic lubricant squeeze film with magnetic induction effects incorporated. Solutions for the transformed radial and tangential momentum as well as solutions for the radial and tangential induced magnetic field conservation equations are determined. The DTM-Padé combined method is observed to demonstrate excellent convergence, stability and versatility in simulating the magnetic squeeze film problem. The effects of involved parameters, i.e. squeeze Reynolds number (N1, dimensionless axial magnetic force strength parameter (N2, dimensionless tangential magnetic force strength parameter (N3, and magnetic Reynolds number (Rem are illustrated graphically and discussed in detail. Applications of the study include automotive magneto-rheological shock absorbers, novel aircraft landing gear systems and biological prosthetics.

  6. Experimental study of a quantum random-number generator based on two independent lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Xu, Feihu

    2017-12-01

    A quantum random-number generator (QRNG) can produce true randomness by utilizing the inherent probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics. Recently, the spontaneous-emission quantum phase noise of the laser has been widely deployed for quantum random-number generation, due to its high rate, its low cost, and the feasibility of chip-scale integration. Here, we perform a comprehensive experimental study of a phase-noise-based QRNG with two independent lasers, each of which operates in either continuous-wave (CW) or pulsed mode. We implement the QRNG by operating the two lasers in three configurations, namely, CW + CW, CW + pulsed, and pulsed + pulsed, and demonstrate their trade-offs, strengths, and weaknesses.

  7. Study of turbulent natural-circulation flow and low-Prandtl-number forced-convection flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.S.; Thompson, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Calculational methods and results are discussed for the coupled energy and momentum equations of turbulent natural circulation flow and low Prandtl number forced convection flow. The objective of this paper is to develop a calculational method for the study of the thermal-hydraulic behavior of coolant flowing in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor channel under natural circulation conditions. The two-equation turbulence model is used to evaluate the turbulent momentum transport property. Because the analogy between momentum transfer and heat transfer does not generally hold for low Prandtl number fluid and natural circulation flow conditions, the turbulent thermal conductivity is calculated independently using equations similar to the two-equation turbulence model. The numerical technique used in the calculation is the finite element method

  8. Correlation Between Coupling Metrics Values and Number of Classes in Multimedia Java Projects: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Bivde

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Coupling is an interdependence relationship between the modules of object-oriented software. It is a property with the most influence on quality attributes of the object-oriented software. Coupling with high values results in complex software design hence software professionals try to keep the coupling as low as possible. The values of coupling metrics are dependent on the type of input source code. Reusability is the main feature of object-oriented languages, so coupling occurs due to reuse of code modules. This paper investigates a correlation between the values of coupling metrics and the number of classes in the multimedia Java code. Here, a case study of a banking multimedia Java project with its forty different versions is conducted to comments on this correlation. The analysis of the results shows that, if the input source code is with a large number of classes then it results in high coupling values.

  9. Shame and Guilt in Restorative Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I examine the relevance and desirability of shame and guilt to restorative justice conferences. I argue that a careful study of the psychology of shame and guilt reveals that both emotions possess traits that can be desirable and traits that can be undesirable for restoration. More...... in particular, having presented the aims of restorative justice, the importance of face-to-face conferences in reaching these aims, the emotional dynamics that take place within such conferences, and the relevant parts of the empirical psychology of shame and guilt, I argue that restorative justice...

  10. Are Secondary School Students Still Hampered by the Natural Number Bias? A Reaction Time Study on Fraction Comparison Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Jo; Lijnen, Tristan; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Rational numbers and particularly fractions are difficult for students. It is often claimed that the "natural number bias" underlies erroneous reasoning about rational numbers. This cross-sectional study investigated the natural number bias in first and fifth year secondary school students. Relying on dual process theory assumptions that…

  11. Can Viral Videos Help Beaver Restore Streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J. M.; Pollock, M. M.; Lewallen, G.; Jordan, C.; Woodruff, K.

    2015-12-01

    Have you watched YouTube lately? Did you notice the plethora of cute animal videos? Researchers, including members of our Beaver Restoration Research team, have been studying the restoration potential of beaver for decades, yet in the past few years, beaver have gained broad acclaim and some much deserved credit for restoration of aquatic systems in North America. Is it because people can now see these charismatic critters in action from the comfort of their laptops? While the newly released Beaver Restoration Guidebook attempts to answer many questions, sadly, this is not one of them. We do, however, address the use of beaver (Castor canadensis) in stream, wetland, and floodplain restoration and discuss the many positive effects of beaver on fluvial ecosystems. Our team, composed of researchers from NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service, and Portland State University, has developed a scientifically rigorous, yet accessible, practitioner's guide that provides a synthesis of the best available science for using beaver to improve ecosystem functions. Divided into two broad sections -- Beaver Ecology and Beaver Restoration and Management -- the guidebook focuses on the many ways in which beaver improve habitat, primarily through the construction of dams that impound water and retain sediment. In Beaver Ecology, we open with a discussion of the general effects that beaver dams have on physical and biological processes, and we close with "Frequently Asked Questions" and "Myth Busters". In Restoration and Management, we discuss common emerging restoration techniques and methods for mitigating unwanted beaver effects, followed by case studies from pioneering practitioners who have used many of these beaver restoration techniques in the field. The lessons they have learned will help guide future restoration efforts. We have also included a comprehensive beaver ecology library of over 1400 references from scientific journals

  12. A Study on Ganui-Dae's External Form and Its Modeling for Ganui-Dae's External Form and Its Modeling for Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Soo; Lee, Yong Sam; Jeon, Jun Hyeok; Kim, Sang Hyuk

    2013-12-01

    Ganui-Dae, built in the reign of King Sejong, Joseon Dynasty, is a comprehensive observatory. It has various instruments for observation and time signal such as Ganui, Gyupyo(Gnomon), water-hammering type Honui and Honsang, and so on. Studying on Ganui-Dae has been focused on its location, history, criterion, etc, so far. However, studying on its external form and construction method has been conducted insufficiently. This study suggests the model for restoration of Ganui-Dae. The model is based on the analysis about external form of Ganui-Dae in various antique maps, and its construction method in those days.

  13. Restorative dentistry for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donly, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses contemporary pediatric restorative dentistry. Indications and contraindications for the choice of different restorative materials in different clinical situations, including the risk assessment of the patient, are presented. The specific use of glass ionomer cement or resin-modified glass ionomer cement, resin-based composite, and stainless steel crowns is discussed so that preparation design and restoration placement is understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated permanent anterior teeth restored with three different esthetic post systems: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameet J Kurthukoti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esthetic coronal reconstruction of fractured anterior teeth is often performed using intra radicular posts. Most of the commonly used commercially esthetic post systems do not exhibit similar physical properties as dentin resulting in failures. Aim: To evaluate and compare the fracture resistance and mode of failure of simulated traumatized permanent central incisors restored with three different post systems including biologic dentin posts. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 recently extracted human maxillary central incisors with similar dimensions were decoronated 2 mm above the cemento-enamel junction and endodontically treated. Ten specimens were randomly selected as the Group I - Control group (core built teeth without intraradicular posts. The remaining 30 teeth were equally divided and restored with zirconia (Group II, n = 10, fiber re-inforced composite (FRC (Group III, n = 10 and biologic dentin posts (Group IV, n = 10 using resin bonded cement and their cores built-up. These samples were embedded in acrylic resin and then secured in a Universal Testing Machine and subjected to fracture resistance testing. The location of failure in the specimens was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Results: Intergroup comparison revealed that the control group and zirconia post group (522 ± 110 N demonstrated the least fracture resistance, while dentin post group (721 ± 127 N the highest. There was no statistically significant difference between fiber post and dentin post groups. Fractures that were repairable were observed in fiber post and dentin post groups, whereas mostly unrestorable, catastrophic fractures were observed in the zirconia post group. Conclusion: Teeth restored with the biologic dentin post system demonstrated the highest fracture resistance and repairable fractures, closely followed by FRC post system. The least fracture resistance and most catastrophic fractures were demonstrated by the zirconia post system.

  15. Forest restoration at Redwood National Park: exploring prescribed fire alternatives to second-growth management: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engber, Eamon; Teraoka, Jason; van Mantgem, Phillip J.

    2017-01-01

    Almost half of Redwood National Park is comprised of second-growth forests characterized by high stand density, deficient redwood composition, and low understory biodiversity. Typical structure of young redwood stands impedes the recovery of old-growth conditions, such as dominance of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.), distinct canopy layers and diverse understory vegetation. Young forests are commonly comprised of dense, even-aged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and redwood stump sprouts, with simple canopy structure and little understory development. Moreover, many of these young stands are believed to be vulnerable to disturbance in the form of drought, disease and fire. Silvicultural practices are increasingly being employed by conservation agencies to restore degraded forests throughout the coast redwood range; however, prescribed fire treatments are less common and potentially under-utilized as a restoration tool. We present an early synthesis from three separate management-scale prescribed fire projects at Redwood National Park spanning 1to 7 years post-treatment. Low intensity prescribed fire had minimal effect on overstory structure, with some mortality observed in trees smaller than 30 cm diameter. Moderate to high intensity fire may be required to reduce densities of larger Douglas-fir, the primary competitor of redwood in the Park’s second growth forests. Fine woody surface fuels fully recovered by 7 years post-burn, while recruitment of larger surface fuels was quite variable. Managers of coastal redwood ecosystems will benefit by having a variety of tools at their disposal for forest restoration and management.

  16. Factors associated with the number of consultations per dietetic treatment: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tol Jacqueline

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Greater understanding of the variance in the number of consultations per dietetic treatment will increase the transparency of dietetic healthcare. Substantial inter-practitioner variation may suggest a potential to increase efficiency and improve quality. It is not known whether inter-practitioner variation also exists in the field of dietetics. Therefore, the aims of this study are to examine inter-practitioner variation in the number of consultations per treatment and the case-mix factors that explain this variation. Methods For this observational study, data were used from the National Information Service for Allied Health Care (LiPZ. LiPZ is a Dutch registration network of allied health care professionals, including dietitians working in primary healthcare. Data were used from 6,496 patients who underwent dietetic treatment between 2006 and 2009, treated by 27 dietitians working in solo practices located throughout the Netherlands. Data collection was based on the long-term computerized registration of healthcare-related information on patients, reimbursement, treatment and health problems, using a regular software program for reimbursement. Poisson multilevel regression analyses were used to model the number of consultations and to account for the clustered structure of the data. Results After adjusting for case-mix, seven percent of the total variation in consultation sessions was due to dietitians. The mean number of consultations per treatment was 4.9 and ranged from 2.3–10.1 between dietitians. Demographic characteristics, patients’ initiative and patients’ health problems explained 28% of the inter-practitioner variation. Certain groups of patients used significantly more dietetic healthcare compared to others, i.e. older patients, females, the native Dutch, patients with a history of dietetic healthcare, patients who started the treatment on their own initiative, patients with multiple diagnoses, overweight

  17. Parametric study of separation and transition characteristics over an airfoil at low Reynolds numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutilier, Michael S.H.; Yarusevych, Serhiy [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Time-resolved surface pressure measurements are used to experimentally investigate characteristics of separation and transition over a NACA 0018 airfoil for the relatively wide range of chord Reynolds numbers from 50,000 to 250,000 and angles of attack from 0 to 21 . The results provide a comprehensive data set of characteristic parameters for separated shear layer development and reveal important dependencies of these quantities on flow conditions. Mean surface pressure measurements are used to explore the variation in separation bubble position, edge velocity in the separated shear layer, and lift coefficients with angle of attack and Reynolds number. Consistent with previous studies, the separation bubble is found to move upstream and decrease in length as the Reynolds number and angle of attack increase. Above a certain angle of attack, the proximity of the separation bubble to the location of the suction peak results in a reduced lift slope compared to that observed at lower angles. Simultaneous measurements of the time-varying component of surface pressure at various spatial locations on the model are used to estimate the frequency of shear layer instability, maximum root-mean-square (RMS) surface pressure, spatial amplification rates of RMS surface pressure, and convection speeds of the pressure fluctuations in the separation bubble. A power-law correlation between the shear layer instability frequency and Reynolds number is shown to provide an order of magnitude estimate of the central frequency of disturbance amplification for various airfoil geometries at low Reynolds numbers. Maximum RMS surface pressures are found to agree with values measured in separation bubbles over geometries other than airfoils, when normalized by the dynamic pressure based on edge velocity. Spatial amplification rates in the separation bubble increase with both Reynolds number and angle of attack, causing the accompanying decrease in separation bubble length. Values of the

  18. Study of Variable Turbulent Prandtl Number Model for Heat Transfer to Supercritical Fluids in Vertical Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ran; Dai, Xiaoye; Wang, Dabiao; Shi, Lin

    2018-06-01

    In order to improve the prediction performance of the numerical simulations for heat transfer of supercritical pressure fluids, a variable turbulent Prandtl number (Prt) model for vertical upward flow at supercritical pressures was developed in this study. The effects of Prt on the numerical simulation were analyzed, especially for the heat transfer deterioration conditions. Based on the analyses, the turbulent Prandtl number was modeled as a function of the turbulent viscosity ratio and molecular Prandtl number. The model was evaluated using experimental heat transfer data of CO2, water and Freon. The wall temperatures, including the heat transfer deterioration cases, were more accurately predicted by this model than by traditional numerical calculations with a constant Prt. By analyzing the predicted results with and without the variable Prt model, it was found that the predicted velocity distribution and turbulent mixing characteristics with the variable Prt model are quite different from that predicted by a constant Prt. When heat transfer deterioration occurs, the radial velocity profile deviates from the log-law profile and the restrained turbulent mixing then leads to the deteriorated heat transfer.

  19. Cost-benefit analysis of wetland restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubgaard, Alex

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is to identify value for money solutions to government policies or projects. Environmental policy appraisal is typically complicated by the fact that thre are a number of feasible solutions to a decision problem - each yielding a different mix of environ...... is to illustrate the application of CBA within the field of river restoration. The Skjern River restoration project in Denmark is used as an empirical example of how these methods can be applied in the wetland restoration context....

  20. Beam-transport study of an isocentric rotating ion gantry with minimum number of quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, Marius; Griesmayer, Erich; Seemann, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    A beam-transport study of an isocentric gantry for ion therapy is presented. The gantry is designed with the number of quadrupoles down to the theoretical minimum, which is the feature published for the first time in this paper. This feature has been achieved without compromising the ion-optical functions of the beam-transport system that is capable of handling non-symmetric beams (beams with different emittances in vertical and horizontal plane), pencil-beam scanning, double-achromatic optics and beam-size control. Ion-optical properties of the beam-transport system are described, discussed and illustrated by computer simulations performed by the TRANSPORT-code

  1. Laboratory Study of Magnetorotational Instability and Hydrodynamic Stability at Large Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, H.; Burin, M.; Schartman, E.; Goodman, J.; Liu, W.

    2006-01-01

    Two plausible mechanisms have been proposed to explain rapid angular momentum transport during accretion processes in astrophysical disks: nonlinear hydrodynamic instabilities and magnetorotational instability (MRI). A laboratory experiment in a short Taylor-Couette flow geometry has been constructed in Princeton to study both mechanisms, with novel features for better controls of the boundary-driven secondary flows (Ekman circulation). Initial results on hydrodynamic stability have shown negligible angular momentum transport in Keplerian-like flows with Reynolds numbers approaching one million, casting strong doubt on the viability of nonlinear hydrodynamic instability as a source for accretion disk turbulence.

  2. Rubber dam may increase the survival time of dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, William; Carson, Susan J

    2017-03-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health's Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, LILACS, SciELO, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, ClinicalTrials.gov, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, OpenGrey and Sciencepaper Online databases. Handsearches in a number of journals.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials, including split-mouth studies assessing the effects of rubber dam isolation for restorative treatments in dental patients.Data extraction and synthesisTwo review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies.ResultsFour studies involving a total of 1,270 patients were included. The studies were at high risk of bias. One trial was excluded from the analysis due to inconsistencies in the presented data. Restorations had a significantly higher survival rate in the rubber dam isolation group compared to the cotton roll isolation group at six months in participants receiving composite restorative treatment of non-carious cervical lesions (risk ratio (RR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 1.37, very low-quality evidence). The rubber dam group had a lower risk of failure at two years in children undergoing proximal atraumatic restorative treatment in primary molars (hazard ratio (HR) 0.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.97, very low-quality evidence). One trial reported limited data showing that rubber dam usage during fissure sealing might shorten the treatment time. None of the included studies mentioned adverse effects or reported the direct cost of the treatment, or the level of patient acceptance/satisfaction. There was also no evidence evaluating the effects of rubber dam usage on the quality of the restorations.ConclusionsWe found some very low-quality evidence, from single studies, suggesting that rubber dam usage in dental direct

  3. A model for estimating the minimum number of offspring to sample in studies of reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph H; Ward, Eric J; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2011-01-01

    Molecular parentage permits studies of selection and evolution in fecund species with cryptic mating systems, such as fish, amphibians, and insects. However, there exists no method for estimating the number of offspring that must be assigned parentage to achieve robust estimates of reproductive success when only a fraction of offspring can be sampled. We constructed a 2-stage model that first estimated the mean (μ) and variance (v) in reproductive success from published studies on salmonid fishes and then sampled offspring from reproductive success distributions simulated from the μ and v estimates. Results provided strong support for modeling salmonid reproductive success via the negative binomial distribution and suggested that few offspring samples are needed to reject the null hypothesis of uniform offspring production. However, the sampled reproductive success distributions deviated significantly (χ(2) goodness-of-fit test p value reproductive success distribution at rates often >0.05 and as high as 0.24, even when hundreds of offspring were assigned parentage. In general, reproductive success patterns were less accurate when offspring were sampled from cohorts with larger numbers of parents and greater variance in reproductive success. Our model can be reparameterized with data from other species and will aid researchers in planning reproductive success studies by providing explicit sampling targets required to accurately assess reproductive success.

  4. 3D image restoration for confocal microscopy: toward a wavelet deconvolution for the study of complex biological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet de Monvel, Jacques; Le Calvez, Sophie; Ulfendahl, Mats

    2000-05-01

    Image restoration algorithms provide efficient tools for recovering part of the information lost in the imaging process of a microscope. We describe recent progress in the application of deconvolution to confocal microscopy. The point spread function of a Biorad-MRC1024 confocal microscope was measured under various imaging conditions, and used to process 3D-confocal images acquired in an intact preparation of the inner ear developed at Karolinska Institutet. Using these experiments we investigate the application of denoising methods based on wavelet analysis as a natural regularization of the deconvolution process. Within the Bayesian approach to image restoration, we compare wavelet denoising with the use of a maximum entropy constraint as another natural regularization method. Numerical experiments performed with test images show a clear advantage of the wavelet denoising approach, allowing to `cool down' the image with respect to the signal, while suppressing much of the fine-scale artifacts appearing during deconvolution due to the presence of noise, incomplete knowledge of the point spread function, or undersampling problems. We further describe a natural development of this approach, which consists of performing the Bayesian inference directly in the wavelet domain.

  5. Salt Marsh Ecosystem Responses to Restored Tidal Connectivity across a 14y Chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capooci, M.; Spivak, A. C.; Gosselin, K.

    2016-02-01

    Salt marshes support valuable ecosystem services. Yet, human activities negatively impact salt marsh function and contribute to their loss at a global scale. On Cape Cod, MA, culverts and impoundments under roads and railways restricted tidal exchange and resulted in salt marsh conversion to freshwater wetlands. Over the past 14 y, these structures have been removed or replaced, restoring tidal connectivity between marshes and a saltwater bay. We evaluated differences in plant community composition, sediment properties, and pore water chemistry in marshes where tidal connectivity was restored using a space-for-time, or chronosequence approach. Each restored marsh was paired with a nearby, natural salt marsh to control for variability between marshes. In each restored and natural salt marsh we evaluated the plant community by measuring species-specific percent cover and biomass and collected sediment cores for bulk density and pore water analyses. Plant communities responded rapidly: salt-tolerant species, such as Spartina alterniflora, became established while freshwater species, including Phragmites australis, were less abundant within 3 y of restoration. The number of plant species was generally greater in marshes restored within 10 y, compared to older and natural marshes. Sediment bulk density varied with depth and across sites. This likely reflects differences in site history and local conditions. Deeper horizons (24-30cm) generally had higher values in restored sites while surface values (0-3cm) were similar in restored and natural marshes. Porewater pH and sulfide were similar in restored and natural marshes, suggesting rapid microbial responses to seawater reintroduction. Overall, marsh properties and processes reflecting biological communities responded rapidly to tidal restoration. However, variability between study locations underscores the potential importance of site history, local hydrology, and geomorphology in shaping marsh biogeochemistry.

  6. [Restorative Justice: Neither care nor repression? The case study of Louis, a multi-recidivist, neither "dangerous" nor "sick"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieu, E; Vandevoorde, J; Hirschelmann, A

    2017-05-01

    The proposed criminological hypothesis is that the restorative justice approach would allow offenders to recognize the victims with more empathic feelings, assuming a decreasing effect on the needs and risks of recidivism (Griffiths and Murdoch, 2007). Authors of aggravated robbery raise several psychological issues (i.e. incomprehension of the causes of their act, euphemistic labelling and moral disengagement, lack of empathy) that the restorative program proposes to work through scriptwriting of personal histories, better comprehension of the conflict in the past and exchanges focused on the personal and social consequences of the acts (emotional chain). The aim of the process is to encourage persons weakened by their social and delinquent situations to elaborate, plan and realize new personal goals. With the collaboration of the service de l'application des peines de Tours (service for the execution of sentences), the service pénitentiaire d'insertion et de probation 37 (probation and social reintegration service) and the service d'aide aux victimes d'infractions pénales (association for victims of crime) of the French department 37, centre, the program PARIS attempted an implementation and evaluation of the relational or restorative justice process in the context of non-custodial sentences and in particular in the cases of aggravated theft (art. 311-1 to 311-16 of the French penal code). Its particularity was to touch the three spheres of victimization: (1) financial, (2) physical and (3) psychological prejudices. After the admission of the participants, a preliminary (psycho)criminological diagnosis served to evaluate the suitability for the perpetrator and the victim to be confronted in following settings. In this context we met Louis, a recidivist of aggravated thefts but causing minimal harm and punished with minimal sentences. He presented no mental illness but showed severe existential problems involved in his delinquent behaviour. His delinquent

  7. Parameter study of simplified dragonfly airfoil geometry at Reynolds number of 6000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David-Elie; Seifert, Avraham

    2010-10-21

    Aerodynamic study of a simplified Dragonfly airfoil in gliding flight at Reynolds numbers below 10,000 is motivated by both pure scientific interest and technological applications. At these Reynolds numbers, the natural insect flight could provide inspiration for technology development of Micro UAV's and more. Insect wings are typically characterized by corrugated airfoils. The present study follows a fundamental flow physics study (Levy and Seifert, 2009), that revealed the importance of flow separation from the first corrugation, the roll-up of the separated shear layer to discrete vortices and their role in promoting flow reattachment to the aft arc, as the leading mechanism enabling high-lift, low drag performance of the Dragonfly gliding flight. This paper describes the effect of systematic airfoil geometry variations on the aerodynamic properties of a simplified Dragonfly airfoil at Reynolds number of 6000. The parameter study includes a detailed analysis of small variations of the nominal geometry, such as corrugation placement or height, rear arc and trailing edge shape. Numerical simulations using the 2D laminar Navier-Stokes equations revealed that the flow accelerating over the first corrugation slope is followed by an unsteady pressure recovery, combined with vortex shedding. The latter allows the reattachment of the flow over the rear arc. Also, the drag values are directly linked to the vortices' magnitude. This parametric study shows that geometric variations which reduce the vortices' amplitude, as reduction of the rear cavity depth or the reduction of the rear arc and trailing edge curvature, will reduce the drag values. Other changes will extend the flow reattachment over the rear arc for a larger mean lift coefficients range; such as the negative deflection of the forward flat plate. These changes consequently reduce the drag values at higher mean lift coefficients. The detailed geometry study enabled the definition of a corrugated airfoil

  8. Nd: YAG laser in art works restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, T.; Ponce, L.; Arronte, M.; Moreno, B.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia, C.

    1998-01-01

    Laser cleaning in works of art has a number of advantages over traditional techniques of restoration. In this article, the technique used and the physical mechanisms that explain the process of ablation of pollutants are described. The results obtained in the cleaning of statues of marble and alabaster are exposed as well as oil-painting restoration. In this last specific case, the Nd: YAG laser is used with successful results. (Author) 6 refs

  9. Longevity of posterior composite restorations: not only a matter of materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, Flávio F; Corrêa, Marcos B; Cenci, Maximiliano S; Moraes, Rafael R; Opdam, Niek J M

    2012-01-01

    Resin composites have become the first choice for direct posterior restorations and are increasingly popular among clinicians and patients. Meanwhile, a number of clinical reports in the literature have discussed the durability of these restorations over long periods. In this review, we have searched the dental literature looking for clinical trials investigating posterior composite restorations over periods of at least 5 years of follow-up published between 1996 and 2011. The search resulted in 34 selected studies. 90% of the clinical studies indicated that annual failure rates between 1% and 3% can be achieved with Class I and II posterior composite restorations depending on several factors such as tooth type and location, operator, and socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral elements. The material properties showed a minor effect on longevity. The main reasons for failure in the long term are secondary caries, related to the individual caries risk, and fracture, related to the presence of a lining or the strength of the material used as well as patient factors such as bruxism. Repair is a viable alternative to replacement, and it can increase significantly the lifetime of restorations. As observed in the literature reviewed, a long survival rate for posterior composite restorations can be expected provided that patient, operator and materials factors are taken into account when the restorations are performed. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  11. Does Habitat Restoration Increase Coexistence of Native Stream Fishes with Introduced Brown Trout: A Case Study on the Middle Provo River, Utah, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Mark C. Belk; Eric J. Billman; Craig Ellsworth; Brock R. McMillan

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of altered or degraded habitats is often a key component in the conservation plan of native aquatic species, but introduced species may influence the response of the native community to restoration. Recent habitat restoration of the middle section of the Provo River in central Utah, USA, provided an opportunity to evaluate the effect of habitat restoration on the native fish community in a system with an introduced, dominant predator—brown trout (Salmo trutta). To determine the ch...

  12. Hydrological Classification, a Practical Tool for Mangrove Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, Anne F; Te Brake, Bram; Van Huijgevoort, Marjolein H J; Dijksma, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration practice. In 15 natural and 8 disturbed sites (i.e. disused shrimp ponds) in three case study regions in south-east Asia, water levels were measured and vegetation species composition was determined. Using an existing hydrological classification for mangroves, sites were classified into hydrological classes, based on duration of inundation, and vegetation classes, based on occurrence of mangrove species. For the natural sites hydrological and vegetation classes were similar, showing clear distribution of mangrove species from wet to dry sites. Application of the classification to disturbed sites showed that in some locations hydrological conditions had been restored enough for mangrove vegetation to establish, in some locations hydrological conditions were suitable for various mangrove species but vegetation had not established naturally, and in some locations hydrological conditions were too wet for any mangrove species (natural or planted) to grow. We quantified the effect that removal of obstructions such as dams would have on the hydrology and found that failure of planting at one site could have been prevented. The hydrological classification needs relatively little data, i.e. water levels for a period of only one lunar tidal cycle without additional measurements, and uncertainties in the measurements and analysis are relatively small. For the study locations, the application of the hydrological classification gave important information about how to restore the hydrology to suitable conditions to improve natural regeneration or to plant mangrove species, which could not have been obtained by estimating elevation only. Based on this research a number of recommendations

  13. Hydrological Classification, a Practical Tool for Mangrove Restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F Van Loon

    Full Text Available Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration practice. In 15 natural and 8 disturbed sites (i.e. disused shrimp ponds in three case study regions in south-east Asia, water levels were measured and vegetation species composition was determined. Using an existing hydrological classification for mangroves, sites were classified into hydrological classes, based on duration of inundation, and vegetation classes, based on occurrence of mangrove species. For the natural sites hydrological and vegetation classes were similar, showing clear distribution of mangrove species from wet to dry sites. Application of the classification to disturbed sites showed that in some locations hydrological conditions had been restored enough for mangrove vegetation to establish, in some locations hydrological conditions were suitable for various mangrove species but vegetation had not established naturally, and in some locations hydrological conditions were too wet for any mangrove species (natural or planted to grow. We quantified the effect that removal of obstructions such as dams would have on the hydrology and found that failure of planting at one site could have been prevented. The hydrological classification needs relatively little data, i.e. water levels for a period of only one lunar tidal cycle without additional measurements, and uncertainties in the measurements and analysis are relatively small. For the study locations, the application of the hydrological classification gave important information about how to restore the hydrology to suitable conditions to improve natural regeneration or to plant mangrove species, which could not have been obtained by estimating elevation only. Based on this research a number

  14. Psychological Restoration Practices among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaher, Yara; Runnerstrom, Miryha G.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the restoration practices and the different types of environments sought out by college students during times of stress and also explores the potential for restorative experiences in built environments. In February 2015, 407 matriculated undergraduates at a large public research university voluntarily participated in this…

  15. PIV and LIF study of slot continuous jet at low Reynolds number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broučková Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a continuous jet issuing from a small narrow slot with a width of 0.36 mm. The experimental arrangement is based on the piezoelectric synthetic jet actuator studied previously for easy comparisons. The working fluid is water at room temperature. The experiments were performed using methods of particle image velocimetry (PIV and flow visualization (laser induced fluorescence, LIF. The time-mean volume flux through the exit nozzle was quantified using precise scales. The mean velocity and the Reynolds number were evaluated as Um = 0.12 m/s and Re = 90, respectively. The results of LIF and PIV techniques revealed the three-dimensional character of the flow field, namely the saddle-shape velocity profiles. This behavior is typical for steady jets from a rectangular nozzle. The obtained results were compared with previous measurements of the synthetic jet issuing from the same cavity and the slot nozzle.

  16. Flapless postextraction socket implant placement in the esthetic zone: part 1. The effect of bone grafting and/or provisional restoration on facial-palatal ridge dimensional change-a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnow, Dennis P; Chu, Stephen J; Salama, Maurice A; Stappert, Christian F J; Salama, Henry; Garber, David A; Sarnachiaro, Guido O; Sarnachiaro, Evangelina; Gotta, Sergio Luis; Saito, Hanae

    2014-01-01

    The dental literature has reported vertical soft tissue changes that can occur with immediate implant placement, bone grafting, and provisional restoration ranging from a gain or loss of 1.0 mm. However, little is known of the effects of facial-palatal collapse of the ridge due to these clinical procedures. Based upon treatment modalities rendered, an ensuing contour change can occur with significant negative esthetic consequences. The results of a retrospective clinical cohort study evaluating the change in horizontal ridge dimension associated with implant placement in anterior postextraction sockets are presented for four treatment groups: (1) group no BGPR = no bone graft and no provisional restoration; (2) group PR = no bone graft, provisional restoration; (3) group BG = bone graft, no provisional restoration; and (4) group BGPR = bone graft, provisional restoration. Bone grafting at the time of implant placement into the gap in combination with a contoured healing abutment or a provisional restoration resulted in the smallest amount of ridge contour change. Therefore, it is recommended to place a bone graft and contoured healing abutment or provisional restoration at the time of flapless postextraction socket implant placement.

  17. Challenges of ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars

    2013-01-01

    we introduce northern forests as an ecosystem, discuss the historical and recent human impact and provide a brief status report on the ecological restoration projects and research already conducted there. Based on this discussion, we argue that before any restoration actions commence, the ecology......The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many...... on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here...

  18. Retributive and restorative justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking.

  19. Correlation study regarding the pelvic floor hypotonia in relation to labour, age and number of births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriana Ioana CIOBANU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. During pregnancy, there is an increased pressure on pelvic floor. During labour and delivery the pelvic floor is stretched and can be damaged, leading to urine leakage, mostly during laughing, sneezing, coughing, running. This condition is called urinary incontinence. Aim. This paperwork aims to emphasize if there is a significant correlation between labor parameters, age, number of deliveries and the presence of pelvic floor hypotonia and urinary incontinence in women, after delivery. Material and method. Study was made on 24 women in the first days after delivery, ages between 21- 42 years old. 66,7% are primiparous, 33,3% are multiparous. As the assessment tools were used: stop urine test, number of perineal muscle contractions, questionnaire regarding the presence of urge urinary incontinence. Results. From the total number of subjects, 33.3% have stress incontinence and 29.2% have urge incontinence. There is a significant correlation between the presence of urinary incontinence and living environment [p = 0,014, (df. = 1], smoking [p = 0,014], the onset of labor [p = 0,014], administration of antispaspasmodic medication in labor [p = 0,010], administration of antialgic medication [p = 0,014] and the duration of delivery period [p = 0,028]. Conclusions. From the 24 subjects, 62,5% of them have urinary incontinence after labor and delivery. From these, 33.3% have stress incontinence, and 29.2% have urge incontinence. After labor and delivery more affected are fast fibers of perineal muscles, responsible withholding the urine during coughing, sneezing, lifting objects, going upstairs, as well as withholding the urine in case of overflow bladder. After labor and delivery, most women have hypotonia of perineal muscles.

  20. Changes in lung morphology and cell number in radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis: a quantitative ultrastructural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, J.A.; Raymond, U.; Thet, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    We used stereologic-morphometric techniques to obtain a detailed quantitative picture of the changes in lung ultrastructure of rats at 12 and 26 weeks after unilateral thoracic irradiation with 3000 cGy. At 12 weeks post-radiation, the total number type 1 epithelial cells, type 2 epithelial cells and capillary endothelial cells were decreased 50-70%, total type 1 epithelial and capillary surface areas were decreased 55-60%, and the total volume of intracapillary blood was decreased 75%. The interstitial cells and matrix together accounted for more than 9% of the peripheral lung tissue volume including air, compared to 3% in controls. The numerical density of interstitial cells was increased to 3-fold the control value. The numerical density of interstitial cells was increased to 3-fold the control value. Although fibroblasts still comprised the largest interstitial cell subgroup, the numerical density of mast cells was increased over 150-fold and other inflammatory and immune cells were increased to a lesser extent. At 26 weeks post-radiation, the number, volume, and surface area of the type 1 epithelium and capillary endothelium had further decreased to only 5-10% of control values. The total number of type 2 epithelial cells was reduced by 75% but the volume density was actually increased because of a 4-fold increase in the mean cell volume. The interstitial cells and matrix now comprised over 77% of total peripheral lung tissue volume including air as compared to 6% in controls. Mast cells and plasma cells comprised 11% and 19% of all interstitial cells respectively and the densities of these cells were 540 and 180-fold the control value respectively. The relation of these morphometric findings to the results of previous morphologic studies is discussed

  1. Review of some experimental studies of turbulent mixed convection covering a wide range Prandtl number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    The early experimental studies of buoyancy-influenced turbulent convective heat transfer to fluids flowing upwards and downwards in long uniformly heated vertical tubes were mainly performed using water at atmospheric pressure as the working fluid. In addition, some experiments using air were reported and even some using mercury. At that time there was also quite a lot of interest in heat transfer to water at supercritical pressure and also carbon dioxide. More recently, experimental results have been obtained using liquid sodium. The Prandtl numbers in the studies referred to above cover a wide range of values, being well in excess of unity under some conditions in the case of the supercritical pressure fluids and atmospheric pressure water, just under unity in the case of air, much less than unity in the case of mercury and even lower in the case of liquid sodium. Over the years a good general understanding has gradually been achieved of the complex manner in which buoyancy affects heat transfer in conventional fluids such as water and air. Up to a point, the behaviour in the case of a liquid metal such as mercury can be reconciled with such arguments. However, this is certainly not so in the case of liquid sodium. In the present paper results from a number of experimental studies of buoyancy-influenced heat transfer in vertical tubes are reviewed. This is done with the aim of providing a picture of observed behaviour consistent with our understanding of the basic mechanisms of convective heat transfer, taking account of the complicated manner in which the mean motion, turbulence and the heat transfer are affected by buoyancy. The starting point is to view convective heat transfer in wall shear flows in terms of the local balance between diffusion of heat (turbulent and molecular) and advection of heat by the flowing fluid. Prandtl number affects the radial temperature profile and therefore the variation of density across the shear flow and, in turn, the extent

  2. Endodontic complications in teeth with vital pulps restored with composite resins: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, V S; Amjad, S; Fransson, H

    2015-07-01

    Composite resin is used extensively for restoration of teeth with vital pulps. Although cell culture studies have disclosed harmful effects on pulpal cells, any untoward clinical effects, manifest as adverse pulpal responses, have yet to be determined. This study comprises a systematic review, designed to address the question of whether the risk of endodontic complications is greater with composite resin restorations than with other restorative materials, such as amalgam. The study methodology involved (i) formulation of the research question, (ii) construction and conduct of an extensive literature search with (iii) interpretation and assessment of the retrieved literature. A search of the medical database PubMed was complemented with a search of the Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL). The initial search yielded 1043 publications, the abstracts of which were read independently by the authors. After additional searches, 10 studies were included in the review. In all the included studies, the level of evidence was assessed as low. No conclusions could therefore be drawn. The included studies reported few, if any, endodontic complications. Little or no differences emerged between teeth restored with composite resins and those restored with amalgam. To determine whether composite resin restorations of teeth with vital pulps are associated with an increased risk for development of endodontic complications such as apical periodontitis, further evidence is needed, from well-constructed studies with a large number of participants. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. HBIM for restoration projects: case-study on San Cipriano Church in Castelvecchio Calvisio, Province of L’Aquila, Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romolo Continenza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been significant developments in research into assigning semantic content to 3D models for the purposes of documentation, conservation and architectural and archaeological heritage management, the application of 3D GIS to individual artifacts has remained rare. Where 3D GIS has been used in this context, it has not been done in a consistent or standardised way.As an alternative to the elaborate construction of 3D GIS, the international academic community has embarked on a process of investigating how HBIM (Historical BIM might be used in the fields of historical architecture and archaeology.In this paper, we report on experiments carried out at the San Cipriano Church in Castelvecchio Calvisio, Province of L’Aquila, Italy, on the basis of the integrated survey of the church, before turning to a discussion of the planning of restoration work in a BIM environment.

  4. Effect of ecological restoration and climate change on ecosystems: a case study in the Three-Rivers Headwater Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chong; Zhang, Linbo

    2016-06-01

    The Three-Rivers Headwater Region (TRHR) is the headwater of the Yangtze River Basin (YARB), Yellow River Basin (YRB), and Lancang River Basin (LRB); it is known as China's 'Water Tower' owing to its important supply of freshwater. In order to assess ecosystem changes in the TRHR during 2000-2012, we systematically and comprehensively evaluated a combination of model simulation results and actual observational data. The results showed the following: (1) Ecosystem pattern was relatively stable during 2000-2010, with a slight decrease in farmland and desert areas, and a slight increase in grassland and wetland/water-body areas. (2) A warmer and wetter climate, and ecological engineering, caused the vegetation cover and productivity to significantly improve. (3) Precipitation was the main controlling factor for streamflow. A significant increase in precipitation during 2000-2012 resulted in an obvious increase in annual and seasonal streamflow. Glacier melting also contributed to the streamflow increase. (4) The total amount of soil conservation increased slightly from 2000 to 2012. The increase in precipitation caused rainfall erosivity to increase, which enhanced the intensity of soil erosion. The decrease in wind speed decreased wind erosion and the frequency of sandstorms. (5) The overall habitat quality in the TRHR was stable between 2000 and 2010, and the spatial pattern exhibited obvious heterogeneity. In some counties that included nature reserves, habitat quality was slightly higher in 2010 than in 2000, which reflected the effectiveness of the ecological restoration. Overall, the aforementioned ecosystem changes are the combined results of ecological restoration and climate change, and they are likely a local and temporary improvement, rather than a comprehensive and fundamental change. Therefore, more investments and efforts are needed to preserve natural ecosystems.

  5. Effect of erosive challenges on deciduous teeth undergoing restorative procedures with different adhesive protocols - an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Cristiane Meira; Goulart, Marcelo; Essvein, Tattiana Enrich; dos Santos, Nicole Marchioro; Erhardt, Maria Carolina Guilherme; Lussi, Adrian; Rodrigues, Jonas de Almeida

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effect of erosive challenges on the tooth- restoration interface of deciduous teeth treated with different adhesive protocols. Material and Methods Deciduous molars were cut mesiodistally, then embedded, abraded and polished (n=80). Samples were randomly divided according to the adhesive system used into: G1 (Adper Single Bond2®, etch-and-rinse), G2 (Universal Single Bond®, self-etching), G3 (OptibondFL®, etch-and-rinse with Fluoride) and G4 (BondForce®, self-etching with Fluoride). After standardized cavity preparation (2 mm diameter x 2 mm depth), adhesive systems were applied and samples were restored (composite resin Z350®). Half of the samples were exposed to erosive/abrasive cycles (n = 10, each adhesive group), and the other half (control group; n = 10) remained immersed in artificial saliva. For microleakage analysis, samples were submersed in methylene blue and analyzed at 40x magnifications. Cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH) was carried out (50 g/5 s) at 25 μm, 50 μm, and 100 μm from the eroded surface and at 25 μm, 75 μm, and 125 μm from the enamel bond interface. Results Regarding microleakage, 7.5% of the samples showed no dye infiltration, 30% showed dye infiltration only at the enamel interface, and 62.5% showed dye infiltration through the dentin-enamel junction, with no difference between groups (p≥0.05). No significant difference was observed in CSMH at different depths (two-way ANOVA, p≥0.05). Conclusions We did not observe significant changes in microleakage or CSMH after erosive/abrasive challenges in deciduous teeth treated with different adhesive protocols (etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesives, with and without fluoride). PMID:29364339

  6. Effect of erosive challenges on deciduous teeth undergoing restorative procedures with different adhesive protocols - an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Meira Assunção

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effect of erosive challenges on the tooth- restoration interface of deciduous teeth treated with different adhesive protocols. Material and Methods: Deciduous molars were cut mesiodistally, then embedded, abraded and polished (n=80. Samples were randomly divided according to the adhesive system used into: G1 (Adper Single Bond2®, etch-and-rinse, G2 (Universal Single Bond®, self-etching, G3 (OptibondFL®, etch-and-rinse with Fluoride and G4 (BondForce®, self-etching with Fluoride. After standardized cavity preparation (2 mm diameter x 2 mm depth, adhesive systems were applied and samples were restored (composite resin Z350®. Half of the samples were exposed to erosive/abrasive cycles (n = 10, each adhesive group, and the other half (control group; n = 10 remained immersed in artificial saliva. For microleakage analysis, samples were submersed in methylene blue and analyzed at 40x magnifications. Cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH was carried out (50 g/5 s at 25 μm, 50 μm, and 100 μm from the eroded surface and at 25 μm, 75 μm, and 125 μm from the enamel bond interface. Results: Regarding microleakage, 7.5% of the samples showed no dye infiltration, 30% showed dye infiltration only at the enamel interface, and 62.5% showed dye infiltration through the dentin-enamel junction, with no difference between groups (p≥0.05. No significant difference was observed in CSMH at different depths (two-way ANOVA, p≥0.05. Conclusions: We did not observe significant changes in microleakage or CSMH after erosive/abrasive challenges in deciduous teeth treated with different adhesive protocols (etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesives, with and without fluoride.

  7. Comparison of shear bond strengths of conventional orthodontic composite and nano-ceramic restorative composite: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Namit; Vaz, Anna C

    2013-01-01

    To compare the shear bond strength of a nano-ceramic restorative composite Ceram-X Mono(TM♦), a restorative resin with the traditional orthodontic composite Transbond XT(TM†) and to evaluate the site of bond failure using Adhesive Remnant Index. Sixty extracted human premolars were divided into two groups of 30 each. Stainless steel brackets were bonded using Transbond XT(TM†) (Group I) and Ceram-X Mono(TM♦) (Group II) according to manufacturer's protocol. Shear bond strength was measured on Universal testing machine at crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. Adhesive Remnant Index scores were assigned to debonded brackets of each group. Data was analyzed using unpaired 't' test and Chi square test. The mean shear bond strength of Group I (Transbond XT(TM†)) was 12.89 MPa ± 2.19 and that of Group II (Ceram-X Mono(TM)) was 7.29 MPa ± 1.76. Unpaired 't' test revealed statistically significant differences amongst the shear bond strength of the samples measured. Chi-square test revealed statistically insignificant differences amongst the ARI scores of the samples measured. Ceram-X Mono(TM♦) had a lesser mean shear bond strength when compared to Transbond XT(TM†) which was statistically significant difference. However, the mean shear bond of Ceram X Mono was within the clinically acceptable range for bonding. Ceram-X Mono(TM†) and Transbond XT(TM†) showed cohesive fracture of adhesive in 72.6% and 66.6% of the specimens, respectively.

  8. Comparison of shear bond strengths of conventional orthodontic composite and nano-ceramic restorative composite: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namit Nagar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the shear bond strength of a nano-ceramic restorative composite Ceram-X MonoTM♦, a restorative resin with the traditional orthodontic composite Transbond XTTM† and to evaluate the site of bond failure using Adhesive Remnant Index. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human premolars were divided into two groups of 30 each. Stainless steel brackets were bonded using Transbond XTTM† (Group I and Ceram-X MonoTM♦ (Group II according to manufacturer′s protocol. Shear bond strength was measured on Universal testing machine at crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. Adhesive Remnant Index scores were assigned to debonded brackets of each group. Data was analyzed using unpaired ′t′ test and Chi square test. Results: The mean shear bond strength of Group I (Transbond XTTM† was 12.89 MPa ± 2.19 and that of Group II (Ceram-X MonoTM was 7.29 MPa ± 1.76. Unpaired ′t′ test revealed statistically significant differences amongst the shear bond strength of the samples measured. Chi-square test revealed statistically insignificant differences amongst the ARI scores of the samples measured. Conclusions: Ceram-X MonoTM♦ had a lesser mean shear bond strength when compared to Transbond XTTM† which was statistically significant difference. However, the mean shear bond of Ceram X Mono was within the clinically acceptable range for bonding. Ceram-X MonoTM† and Transbond XTTM† showed cohesive fracture of adhesive in 72.6% and 66.6% of the specimens, respectively.

  9. Effective atomic numbers (Z_e_f_f) of based calcium phosphate biomaterials: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Zenobio, Madelon Aparecida; Gonçalves Zenobio, Elton; Silva, Teógenes Augusto da; Socorro Nogueira, Maria do

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the interaction of radiation parameters of four biomaterials as attenuators to measure the transmitted X-rays spectra, the mass attenuation coefficient and the effective atomic number by spectrometric system comprising the CdTe detector. The biomaterial BioOss"® presented smaller mean energy than the other biomaterials. The μ/ρ and Z_e_f_f of the biomaterials showed their dependence on photon energy. The data obtained from analytical methods of x-ray spectra, µ/ρ and Z_e_f_f_, using biomaterials as attenuators, demonstrated that these materials could be used as substitutes for dentin, enamel and bone. Further, they are determinants for the characterization of the radiation in tissues or equivalent materials. - Highlights: • Measure of the transmitted x-rays spectra using based calcium phosphate biomaterials as attenuators. • Determination effective atomic number using four dental biomaterials. • Determination of the mass attenuation coefficient (µ/ρ) of the biomaterials samples calculated by the WinXCOM software. • Determination of the chemical composition of calcium phosphate biomaterials.

  10. A Postmortem Study of Frontal and Temporal Gyri Thickness and Cell Number in Human Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Apo, Erick; García-Sierra, Adrián; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Soto-Abraham, Virgilia; Mondragón-Maya, Alejandra; Velasco-Vales, Verónica; Pescatello, Linda S

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare cortex thickness and neuronal cell density in postmortem brain tissue from people with overweight or obesity and normal weight. The cortex thickness and neuron density of eight donors with overweight or obesity (mean = 31.6 kg/m 2 ; SD = 4.35; n = 8; 6 male) and eight donors with normal weight (mean = 21.8 kg/m 2 ; SD = 1.5; n = 8; 5 male) were compared. All participants were Mexican and lived in Mexico City. Randomly selected thickness measures of different cortex areas from the frontal and temporal lobes were analyzed based on high-resolution real-size photographs. A histological analysis of systematic-random fields was used to quantify the number of neurons in postmortem left and right of the first, second, and third gyri of frontal and temporal lobe brain samples. No statistical difference was found in cortical thickness between donors with overweight or obesity and individuals with normal weight. A smaller number of neurons was found among the donors with overweight or obesity than the donors with normal weight at different frontal and temporal areas. A lower density of neurons is associated with overweight or obesity. The morphological basis for structural brain changes in obesity requires further investigation. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  11. Single-cell mRNA transfection studies: delivery, kinetics and statistics by numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Carolin; Schwake, Gerlinde; Stögbauer, Tobias R; Rappl, Susanne; Kuhr, Jan-Timm; Ligon, Thomas S; Rädler, Joachim O

    2014-05-01

    In artificial gene delivery, messenger RNA (mRNA) is an attractive alternative to plasmid DNA (pDNA) since it does not require transfer into the cell nucleus. Here we show that, unlike for pDNA transfection, the delivery statistics and dynamics of mRNA-mediated expression are generic and predictable in terms of mathematical modeling. We measured the single-cell expression time-courses and levels of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) using time-lapse microscopy and flow cytometry (FC). The single-cell analysis provides direct access to the distribution of onset times, life times and expression rates of mRNA and eGFP. We introduce a two-step stochastic delivery model that reproduces the number distribution of successfully delivered and translated mRNA molecules and thereby the dose-response relation. Our results establish a statistical framework for mRNA transfection and as such should advance the development of RNA carriers and small interfering/micro RNA-based drugs. This team of authors established a statistical framework for mRNA transfection by using a two-step stochastic delivery model that reproduces the number distribution of successfully delivered and translated mRNA molecules and thereby their dose-response relation. This study establishes a nice connection between theory and experimental planning and will aid the cellular delivery of mRNA molecules. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimating the total number of susceptibility variants underlying complex diseases from genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon-Cheong So

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified numerous susceptibility variants for complex diseases. In this study we proposed several approaches to estimate the total number of variants underlying these diseases. We assume that the variance explained by genetic markers (Vg follow an exponential distribution, which is justified by previous studies on theories of adaptation. Our aim is to fit the observed distribution of Vg from GWAS to its theoretical distribution. The number of variants is obtained by the heritability divided by the estimated mean of the exponential distribution. In practice, due to limited sample sizes, there is insufficient power to detect variants with small effects. Therefore the power was taken into account in fitting. Besides considering the most significant variants, we also tried to relax the significance threshold, allowing more markers to be fitted. The effects of false positive variants were removed by considering the local false discovery rates. In addition, we developed an alternative approach by directly fitting the z-statistics from GWAS to its theoretical distribution. In all cases, the "winner's curse" effect was corrected analytically. Confidence intervals were also derived. Simulations were performed to compare and verify the performance of different estimators (which incorporates various means of winner's curse correction and the coverage of the proposed analytic confidence intervals. Our methodology only requires summary statistics and is able to handle both binary and continuous traits. Finally we applied the methods to a few real disease examples (lipid traits, type 2 diabetes and Crohn's disease and estimated that hundreds to nearly a thousand variants underlie these traits.

  13. Community-based native seed production for restoration in Brazil - the role of science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, I B; de Urzedo, D I; Piña-Rodrigues, F C M; Vieira, D L M; de Rezende, G M; Sampaio, A B; Junqueira, R G P

    2018-05-20

    Large-scale restoration programmes in the tropics require large volumes of high quality, genetically diverse and locally adapted seeds from a large number of species. However, scarcity of native seeds is a critical restriction to achieve restoration targets. In this paper, we analyse three successful community-based networks that supply native seeds and seedlings for Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado restoration projects. In addition, we propose directions to promote local participation, legal, technical and commercialisation issues for up-scaling the market of native seeds for restoration with high quality and social justice. We argue that effective community-based restoration arrangements should follow some principles: (i) seed production must be based on real market demand; (ii) non-governmental and governmental organisations have a key role in supporting local organisation, legal requirements and selling processes; (iii) local ecological knowledge and labour should be valued, enabling local communities to promote large-scale seed production; (iv) applied research can help develop appropriate techniques and solve technical issues. The case studies from Brazil and principles presented here can be useful for the up-scaling restoration ecology efforts in many other parts of the world and especially in tropical countries where improving rural community income is a strategy for biodiversity conservation and restoration. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Reach-scale stream restoration in agricultural streams of southern Minnesota alters structural and functional responses of macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolph, Christine L.; Eggert, Susan L.; Magner, Joe; Ferrington, Leonard C.; Vondracek, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that stream restoration at the reach scale may not increase stream biodiversity, raising concerns about the utility of this conservation practice. We examined whether reach-scale restoration in disturbed agricultural streams was associated with changes in macroinvertebrate community structure (total macroinvertebrate taxon richness, total macroinvertebrate density, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera [EPT] taxon richness, % abundance of EPT taxa) or secondary production (macroinvertebrate biomass over time). We collected macroinvertebrate samples over the course of 1 y from restored and unrestored reaches of 3 streams in southern Minnesota and used generalized least-square (GLS) models to assess whether measures of community structure were related to reach type, stream site, or sampling month. After accounting for effects of stream site and time, we found no significant difference in total taxon richness or % abundance of EPT taxa between restored and unrestored reaches. However, the number of EPT taxa and macroinvertebrate density were significantly higher in restored than in unrestored reaches. We compared secondary production estimates among study reaches based on 95th-percentile confidence intervals generated via bootstrapping. In each study stream, secondary production was significantly (2–3×) higher in the restored than in the unrestored reach. Higher productivity in the restored reaches was largely a result of the disproportionate success of a few dominant, tolerant taxa. Our findings suggest that reach-scale restoration may have ecological effects that are not detected by measures of total taxon richness alone.

  15. Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Teeth Restored with 2 Different Fiber-reinforced Composite and 2 Conventional Composite Resin Core Buildup Materials: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Ashly Mary; Amirtharaj, L Vijay; Sanjeev, Kavitha; Mahalaxmi, Sekar

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to comparatively evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with 2 fiber-reinforced composite resins and 2 conventional composite resin core buildup materials. Sixty noncarious unrestored human maxillary premolars were collected, endodontically treated (except group 1, negative control), and randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10). Group 2 was the positive control. The remaining 40 prepared teeth were restored with various direct core buildup materials as follows: group 3 teeth were restored with dual-cure composite resin, group 4 with posterior composite resin, group 5 with fiber-reinforced composite resin, and group 6 with short fiber-reinforced composite resin. Fracture strength testing was performed using a universal testing machine. The results were statistically analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance and the post hoc Tukey test. Fracture patterns for each sample were also examined under a light microscope to determine the level of fractures. The mean fracture resistance values (in newtons) were obtained as group 1 > group 6 > group 4 > group 3 > group 5 > group 2. Group 6 showed the highest mean fracture resistance value, which was significantly higher than the other experimental groups, and all the fractures occurred at the level of enamel. Within the limitations of this study, a short fiber-reinforced composite can be used as a direct core buildup material that can effectively resist heavy occlusal forces against fracture and may reinforce the remaining tooth structure in endodontically treated teeth. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Comparison of color reappearance between metal-ceram restoration and foundry-ceram restoration using crystaleye spectrophotometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tao; Zhang, Ning; Kong, Fan-wen; Zhan, De-song

    2010-10-01

    To study the color reappearance effect of metal-ceram restoration and foundry-ceram restoration using Crystaleye spectrophotometer. 58 metal-ceram restorations and 58 foundry-ceram restorations according to the result of the Crystaleye spectrophotometer were made respectively. The deltaE between restorations and natural teeth as referenced were analyzed. And satisfaction of dentists and patients were evaluated. The deltaE between metal-ceram restorations and natural teeth was 7.13 +/- 0.74. The deltaE between foundry-ceram restorations and teeth was 1.47 +/- 0.84. There were statistical differences between the deltaE (P spectrophotometer can provide accurate reference for foundry-ceram restoration, but for metal-ceram restoration it is not accurate.

  17. Techniques of forest restoration in restingas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Garcia da Silva Morais Rodrigues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Restinga is an ecosystem of the Atlantic Forest Biome vegetation which has ecological functions and is undergoing anthropogenic occupations that result in the disturbance and its suppression of these environments. But to be the restoration of degraded restinga is necessary to know the different formations of the ecosystem and their respective characteristics. From this diagnosis, one can choose the most appropriate techniques to apply for its restoration. Thus, this study aims to conduct a literature on restoration techniques in restinga environments. It was found that forest restoration on restinga, in most cases there is use of natural regeneration techniques nucleation, and these studies highlight the successional advances and establishments of life forms preserved features of the area, thus making the restoration in these environments.

  18. Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Kwon, H S; Kim, G N. and others

    1999-03-01

    Through the project of 'Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology', the followings were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Development of environmental restoration technology. (author)

  19. Integrating ecological restoration into CDM forestry projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Maohua; Haapanen, Toni; Singh, Ram Babu; Hietala, Reija

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concerns and issues in sustainability of CDM forestry projects are reviewed. • Ecological restoration is suggested to be integrated in the CDM framework. • As an ecosystem supporting service, soil restoration on degraded land is of primary importance. • Regenerating forests naturally rather than through monoculture plantations is suggested. • Potential social impacts of ecological restoration are discussed. - Abstract: The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is proposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote sustainable development. CDM forestry projects should contribute to mitigation of climate change through afforestation and reforestation (A/R) activities on degraded land in developing countries. However, like other types of CDM projects, the forestry projects have encountered a number of concerns and critiques. Appropriate approaches and concrete aims to achieve long-term sustainability have been lacking, and reforms have therefore been called for. The aims of this paper are to examine the published information relevant to these concerns, and frame appropriate approaches for a more sustainable CDM. In this review, as a first step to tackle some of these issues, ecological restoration is suggested for integration into the CDM framework. Essentially, this involves the restoration of ecosystem supporting service (soil restoration), upon which forests regenerate naturally rather than establishing monoculture plantations. In this way, forestry projects would bring cost-effective opportunities for multiple ecosystem services. Potential approaches, necessary additions to the monitoring plans, and social impacts of ecological restoration in CDM projects are discussed

  20. Study of effective atomic number of breast tissues determined using the elastic to inelastic scattering ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-10-01

    In this work we have measured Compton and Rayleigh scattering radiation from normal (adipose and fibroglandular), benign (fibroadenoma) and malignant (ductal carcinoma) breast tissues using a monoenergetic beam of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90{sup o} (x=0.99 A{sup -1}). A practical method using the area of Rayleigh and Compton scattering was used for determining the effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) of the samples, being validated through measurements of several reference materials. The results show that there are differences in the distributions of Z{sub eff} of breast tissues, which are mainly related to the elemental composition of carbon (Z=6) and oxygen (Z=8) of each tissue type. The results suggest that is possible to use the method to characterize the breast tissues permitting study histological features of the breast tissues related to their elemental composition.

  1. Study of effective atomic number of breast tissues determined using the elastic to inelastic scattering ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we have measured Compton and Rayleigh scattering radiation from normal (adipose and fibroglandular), benign (fibroadenoma) and malignant (ductal carcinoma) breast tissues using a monoenergetic beam of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90 o (x=0.99 A -1 ). A practical method using the area of Rayleigh and Compton scattering was used for determining the effective atomic number (Z eff ) of the samples, being validated through measurements of several reference materials. The results show that there are differences in the distributions of Z eff of breast tissues, which are mainly related to the elemental composition of carbon (Z=6) and oxygen (Z=8) of each tissue type. The results suggest that is possible to use the method to characterize the breast tissues permitting study histological features of the breast tissues related to their elemental composition.

  2. Numerical Study on Sensitivity of Pollutant Dispersion on Turbulent Schmidt Number in a Street Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, J.; Kim, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, sensitivity of pollutant dispersion on turbulent Schmidt number (Sct) was investigated in a street canyon using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. For this, numerical simulations with systematically varied Sct were performed and the CFD model results were validated against a wind‒tunnel measurement data. The results showed that root mean square error (RMSE) was quite dependent on Sct and dispersion patterns of non‒reactive scalar pollutant with different Sct were quite different among the simulation results. The RMSE was lowest in the case of Sct = 0.35 and the apparent dispersion pattern was most similar to the wind‒tunnel data in the case of Sct = 0.35. Also, numerical simulations using spatially weighted Sct were additionally performed in order for the best reproduction of the wind‒tunnel data. Detailed method and procedure to find the best reproduction will be presented.

  3. Comparative study of measured and modelled number concentrations of nanoparticles in an urban street canyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Prashant; Garmory, Andrew; Ketzel, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Pollution Model (OSPM) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT. All models disregarded any particle dynamics. CFD simulations have been carried out in a simplified geometry of the selected street canyon. Four different sizes of emission sources have been used in the CFD simulations to assess......This study presents a comparison between measured and modelled particle number concentrations (PNCs) in the 10-300 nm size range at different heights in a canyon. The PNCs were modelled using a simple modelling approach (modified Box model, including vertical variation), an Operational Street...... the effect of source size on mean PNC distributions in the street canyon. The measured PNCs were between a factor of two and three of those from the three models, suggesting that if the model inputs are chosen carefully, even a simplified approach can predict the PNCs as well as more complex models. CFD...

  4. Study of effective atomic number of breast tissues determined using the elastic to inelastic scattering ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceição, A. L. C.; Poletti, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    In this work we have measured Compton and Rayleigh scattering radiation from normal (adipose and fibroglandular), benign (fibroadenoma) and malignant (ductal carcinoma) breast tissues using a monoenergetic beam of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90° ( x=0.99 Å -1). A practical method using the area of Rayleigh and Compton scattering was used for determining the effective atomic number ( Zeff) of the samples, being validated through measurements of several reference materials. The results show that there are differences in the distributions of Zeff of breast tissues, which are mainly related to the elemental composition of carbon ( Z=6) and oxygen ( Z=8) of each tissue type. The results suggest that is possible to use the method to characterize the breast tissues permitting study histological features of the breast tissues related to their elemental composition.

  5. A Study on the Necessary Number of Bolus Treatments in Radiotherapy after Modified Radical Mastectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Chae Seon; Kim, Jong Sik; Kim, Young Kon; Park, Young Hwan

    2006-01-01

    Post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMR) is known to decrease loco-regional recurrence. Adequate skin and dermal dose are achieved by adding bolus. The more difficult clinical issue is determining the necessary number of bolus treatment, given the limits of normal skin tolerance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the necessary number of bolus treatment after PMR in patients with breast cancer. Four female breast cancer patients were included in the study. The median age was 53 years(range, 38-74), tumor were left sided in 2 patients and right sided in 2 patients. All patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy after MRM. Radiotherapy was delivered to the chest wall (C.W) and supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCL) using 4 MV X-ray. The total dose was 50 Gy, in 2 Gy fractions (with 5 times a week). CT was performed for treatment planning, treatment planning was performed using A DAC-Pinnacles 3 (Phillips, USA) for all patients without and with bolus. Bolus treatment plans were generated using image tool (0.5 cm of thickness and 6 cm of width). Dose distribution was analyzed and the increased skin dose rate in the build-up region was computed and the skin dose using TLD-100 chips (Harshaw, USA) was measured. No significant difference was found in dose distribution without and with bolus; C.W coverage was 95-100% of the prescribed dose in both. But, there was remarkable difference in the skin dose to the scar. The skin dose to the scar without and with bolus were 100-105% and 50-75%. The increased skin dose rates in the build-up region for Pt. 1, Pt. 2. Pt. 3 and Pt. 4 were 23.3%, 35.6%, 34.9%, and 41.7%. The results of measured skin dose using TLD-100 chips in the cases without and with bolus were 209.3 cGy and 161.1 cGy, 200 cGy and 150.2 cGy, 211.4 cGy and 160.5 cGy, 198.6 cGy and 155.5 cGy for Pt. 1, Pt. 2, Pt. 3, and Pt. 4. It was concludes through this analysis that the adequate number of bolus treatments is 50-60% of the treatment program. Further, clinical

  6. Word and Number Reading in the Brain: Evidence from a Voxel-Based Lesion-Symptom Mapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Fabrizio; Marangolo, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The high incidence of number transcoding deficits in aphasic subjects suggests there is a strong similarity between language and number domains. However, recent single case studies of subjects who showed a dissociation between word and number word transcoding led us to hypothesize that the two types of stimuli are represented independently in the…

  7. The Disconnection of Physical Reconstruction and Living Mode Restoration amongst Resettled Rural Households: A Case Study on The 2008 Sichuan Earthquake Recovery Program, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L.; Aitchison, J. C.; Hussey, K.

    2017-12-01

    Population resettlement has been a customary strategy to protect people's lives following natural disasters. While there is plenty research evaluating the consequences of population resettlement programs, evidence of its long-term effects on post-disaster recovery is lacking. Using data from 60 in-depth household interviews, two focus group discussions and field observations, this research examines the recovery among resettled rural households in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake-impacted areas. Results suggest that most households considered themselves worse-off after being resettled, and a large proportion of the resettled population is struggling to meet their basic needs as their living expenses are barely covered by income. This research highlights two original findings: First, the resettled rural households have not recovered from impacts of the earthquake in spite of living in a secure place. Second, the unachieved restoration of familiar living mode amongst the resettled largely contributes to this perception, which is further attributed to the lagging restitution of agricultural assets and the absence of off-job opportunities at the resettled communities. Completing mature recovery is subject to the availability of these resources. Resettlement and reconstruction practice should not be isolated from the consideration of restoring previous livelihood assets and replenishing new income-generating activities. This enables restoration of a familiar living mode for the relocated population in which they are able to recover and develop with their own ability in post-disaster life. Findings in this research can be translated to recovery practice involving rural circumstances in disaster-prone areas. Future work will include the post-earthquake population resettlement programs in Nepal and New Zealand for a comparative study on the effects of these practices in different countries.

  8. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with short fiber composite used as a core material-An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlapati, Tejesh Gupta; Krithikadatta, Jogikalmat; Natanasabapathy, Velmurugan

    2017-10-01

    This in-vitro study tested the fracture resistance of endodontically treated molars with Mesial-Occluso-Distal (MOD) cavities restored with fibre reinforced composite material everX posterior in comparision with hybrid composite and ribbond fiber composite. Fifty intact freshly extracted human mandibular first molars were collected and were randomly divided into five groups (n=10). Group 1: positive control (PC) intact teeth without any endodontic preparation. In groups 2 through 6 after endodontic procedure standard MOD cavities were prepared and restored with their respective core materials as follows: group 2, negative control (NC) left unrestored or temporary flling was applied. Group 3, Hybrid composite (HC) as a core material (Te-Econom Plus Ivoclar Vivadent Asia) group 4, Ribbond (Ribbond; Seattle, WA, USA)+conventional composite resin (RCR) group 5, everX posterior (everX Posterior GC EUROPE)+conventional composite resin (EXP) after thermocycling fracture resistance for the samples were tested using universal testing machine. The results were analysed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc tests. Mean fracture resistance (in Newton, N) was group 1: 1568.4±221.71N, group 2: 891.0±50.107N, group 3: 1418.3±168.71N, group 4:1716.7±199.51N and group 5: 1994.8±254.195N. Among the materials tested, endodontically treated teeth restored with everX posterior fiber reinforced composite showed superior fracture resistance. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of urban growth on landscape-scale restoration for a fire-dependent songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Bradley A.; Marcus, Jeffrey F.; Carpenter, John P.; Anderson, Scott; Taillie, Paul J.; Collazo, Jaime A.

    2017-01-01

    A landscape-scale perspective on restoration ecology has been advocated, but few studies have informed restoration with landscape metrics or addressed broad-scale threats. Threats such as urban growth may affect restoration effectiveness in a landscape context. Here, we studied longleaf pine savanna in the rapidly urbanizing southeastern United States where a habitat-specialist bird, Bachman's sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis), is closely associated with savanna vegetation structure and frequent fire. Our objectives were to construct a species distribution model for Bachman's sparrow, determine the relationship between fire and urbanization, quantify the urban growth effect (2010–2090), identify potential restoration areas, and determine the interaction between restoration potential and urban growth by 2050. Number of patches, patch size, and isolation metrics were used to evaluate scenarios. The species distribution model was 88% accurate and emphasized multiscale canopy cover characteristics, fire, and percent habitat. Fires were less common urban areas, and this fire suppression effect exacerbated urban growth effects. For restoration scenarios, canopy cover reduction by 30% resulted in nearly double the amount of habitat compared to the prescribed fire scenario; canopy cover reduction resulted in larger patch sizes and less patch isolation compared to current conditions. The effect of urban growth on restoration scenarios was unequal. Seventy-four percent of restoration areas from the prescribed fire scenario overlapped with projected urban growth, whereas the canopy cover reduction scenario only overlapped by 9%. We emphasize the benefits of simultaneously considering the effects of urban growth and landscape-scale restoration potential to promote a landscape with greater patch sizes and less isolation.

  10. Using Numbers Creates Value for Health Professionals: A Quantitative Study of Pain Management in Palliative Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Unné

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Improvement methodology is based on processes to achieve quality and safety in health care in order to improve patient care, especially in management. The aim of this study was to identify differences regarding the method of estimating pain within palliative care in north-eastern Sweden. The study comprised three different data collections—questions from 22 staff members who worked in palliative care, data from the Swedish Palliative Registry, and patients’ medical records. Data were analyzed using a quantitative approach to measure the proportion of differences and similarities in everyday pain management. The two categories “Documentation of Pain Management” and “Pain Management Activities” were identified and illustrated how repeated pain management measurements contributed to a clearer view of pain management activities. The use of numbers instead of words contributed to a better, clearer, and more unified documentation of pain ratings. Use of validated rating tools regarding patients last week of life increased from 47%–100%. This study may inspire better routines to estimate pain and quantify no pain in palliative care. Evidence-based measurement tools from the patient’s perspective, can improve pain management.

  11. Bearing restoration by grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  12. Restoration of landfill sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A K; Chamley, M E

    1986-10-01

    Many excavated quarries are subsequently used for waste disposal operations and frequently imported landfill provides the only means of restoring a former quarry to some beneficial afteruse. Concentrating solely on the final surface cover, this paper sets out some of the principles, which should be considered by those involved in landfill operations to ensure the long term success of restoration schemes. With the emphasis on restoration to agriculture, factors such as availability of cover materials and depths necessary are discussed in terms of requirements to support plant growth, protect clay capping layers and prevent damage to agricultural implements. Soil handling and appropriate after care management are considered. 4 refs.

  13. Influence of density and mean atomic number on CT attenuation corrected PET: Phantom studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintas, D.; Houzard, C.; Galy, G.; Maintas, C.; Itti, R.; Cachin, F.; Mognetti, Th.; Slosman

    2007-01-01

    Aim: the aim of this work is to study the influence of medium density on the CT or external source attenuation corrected images, by simulation on a phantom, with various positron emission tomographs. Material and method: a series of experiments on a cylindrical phantom filled with water marked with [18 F]-FDG, containing six vials filled per pair with mediums of different densities or solutions of KI, CaCl 2 and saccharose with various densities, was carried out under comparable conditions on three different tomographs. In only one of the vials of each pair, an identical radioactivity of [18 F]-FDG was added, three to five fold the surrounding activity. The reconstructions and attenuation corrections suggested by the manufacturers, were carried out under the usual conditions of each site. The activity of each structure was estimated by the methods of profiles and regions of interest, on the non attenuation corrected images (N.A.C.), the images corrected by CT (C.T.A.C.), and/or external source (G.P.A.C.). Results: with all three tomographs, the activities estimated on the N.A.C. images present an inverse correlation to the medium density (important absorption by dense material). On C.T.A.C. images, we observed with only two of the three tomographs, an overestimation of the activity in the 'radioactive' vials, depending on the medium mean Z number and density (over correction), and a artifactual 'activity' in the denser 'cold' vial (incorrect attenuation correction. The dense saccharose solutions, with non elevated Z number, do not affect the CT attenuation correction. (authors)

  14. A 7-year randomized prospective study of a one-step self-etching adhesive in non-carious cervical lesions. The effect of curing modes and restorative material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical retention of a one-step self-etching adhesive system (Xeno III) in Class V non-carious cervical lesions and the effect of restorative material and curing techniques on longevity of the restorations. Material and methods: A total of 139...... be evaluated. No post-operative sensitivity was reported by the participants. Overall relative cumulative loss rate frequencies for the adhesive system at 6, 18 and 7 years, independent of curing technique and restorative material, were 0.8%, 6.9% and 23.0%, respectively. The self-etching adhesive fulfilled...... secondary caries was observed. Significance: The single-step self-etching adhesive showed acceptable clinical long-time retention rates to dentin surfaces independent of restorative material and curing technique used....

  15. Restoration and repair of Earth's damaged ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Holly P; Jones, Peter C; Barbier, Edward B; Blackburn, Ryan C; Rey Benayas, Jose M; Holl, Karen D; McCrackin, Michelle; Meli, Paula; Montoya, Daniel; Mateos, David Moreno

    2018-02-28

    Given that few ecosystems on the Earth have been unaffected by humans, restoring them holds great promise for stemming the biodiversity crisis and ensuring ecosystem services are provided to humanity. Nonetheless, few studies have documented the recovery of ecosystems globally or the rates at which ecosystems recover. Even fewer have addressed the added benefit of actively restoring ecosystems versus allowing them to recover without human intervention following the cessation of a disturbance. Our meta-analysis of 400 studies worldwide that document recovery from large-scale disturbances, such as oil spills, agriculture and logging, suggests that though ecosystems are progressing towards recovery following disturbances, they rarely recover completely. This result reinforces conservation of intact ecosystems as a key strategy for protecting biodiversity. Recovery rates slowed down with time since the disturbance ended, suggesting that the final stages of recovery are the most challenging to achieve. Active restoration did not result in faster or more complete recovery than simply ending the disturbances ecosystems face. Our results on the added benefit of restoration must be interpreted cautiously, because few studies directly compared different restoration actions in the same location after the same disturbance. The lack of consistent value added of active restoration following disturbance suggests that passive recovery should be considered as a first option; if recovery is slow, then active restoration actions should be better tailored to overcome specific obstacles to recovery and achieve restoration goals. We call for a more strategic investment of limited restoration resources into innovative collaborative efforts between scientists, local communities and practitioners to develop restoration techniques that are ecologically, economically and socially viable. © 2018 The Author(s).

  16. No post-no core approach to restore severely damaged posterior teeth: An up to 10-year retrospective study of documented endocrown cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleflamme, Marcia M; Geerts, Sabine O; Louwette, Marie M; Grenade, Charlotte F; Vanheusden, Alain J; Mainjot, Amélie K

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to (1) retrospectively evaluate documented cases of ceramic and composite endocrowns performed using immediate dentin sealing (IDS); (2) correlate failures with clinical parameters such as tooth preparation characteristics and occlusal parameters. 99 documented cases of endocrowns were evaluated after a mean observation period of 44.7±34.6months. A classification of restorations was established in function of the level of damage of residual tooth tissues after preparation, from 1 to 3. Evaluation was performed according to FDI criteria and endodontic outcomes were analyzed. Occlusal risk factors were examined and fractographic analysis was performed in case of fracture. 48.4% of patients were shown to present occlusal risk factors. 75.8% of restorations were Class 3 endocrowns. 56.6% were performed on molars, 41.4% on premolars and 2.0% on canines. 84.8% were performed in lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic and 12.1% in Polymer-Infiltrated Ceramic Network (PICN) material. The survival and success rates of endocrowns were 99.0% and 89.9% respectively, while the 10-year Kaplan-Meier estimated survival and success rates were 98.8% and 54.9% respectively. Ten failures were detected: periodontal disease (n=3), endocrown debonding (n=2), minor chipping (n=2), caries recurrence (n=2) and major fractures (n=1). Due to the reduced amount of failures, no statistical correlation could be established with clinical parameters. Endocrowns were shown to constitute a reliable approach to restore severely damaged molars and premolars, even in the presence of extensive coronal tissue loss or occlusal risk factors, such as bruxism or unfavorable occlusal relationships. Practitioners should consider the endocrown instead of the post and core approach to restore severely damaged non-vital posterior teeth. This minimally invasive solution reduces the risk of catastrophic failures and is easily performed. The use of IDS procedure and lithium

  17. Trading volume and the number of trades : a comparative study using high frequency data

    OpenAIRE

    Izzeldin, Marwan

    2007-01-01

    Trading volume and the number of trades are both used as proxies for market activity, with disagreement as to which is the better proxy for market activity. This paper investigates this issue using high frequency data for Cisco and Intel in 1997. A number of econometric methods are used, including GARCH augmented with lagged trading volume and number of trades, tests based on moment restrictions, regression analysis of volatility on volume and trades, normality of returns when standardized by...

  18. Mechanical interactions of cuspal-coverage designs and cement thickness in a cusp-replacing ceramic premolar restoration: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Lin, Wen-Hsueng; Kuo, Wen-Chieh; Chang, Chia-Yu; Lin, Chun-Li

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanical interactions between cuspal preparation designs and cement thickness in a cusp-replacing ceramic premolar restoration. The cavity was designed in a typical MODP (mesial-occlusal-distal- palatal) restoration failure shape when the palatal cusp has been lost. Twelve 3D finite element (FE) models with four cavity preparations (without coverage and with buccal cuspal coverage in 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm reducing in cuspal height) and three cement thicknesses (50, 100 and 150 microm) were constructed to perform the simulations. The results indicated that enamel and cement stresses in designs with no buccal cusp replacement or a 1.0 mm thick buccal cusp replacement were higher than the designs with 1.5 and 2.0 mm thick replacement. No apparent differences were found in the dentin, enamel, and cement stresses based on cement thicknesses of 50, 100, or 150 microm. This study concluded that when cusp replacement is indicated, reduction of the buccal cusp by 1.5 mm at least could reduce stress.

  19. A comparative study of shear bond strength between metal and ceramic brackets and artificially aged composite restorations using different surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Ladan; Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali; Mousavi, Nasim; Ghasemi, Amir

    2012-10-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the shear bond strength (SBS) between ceramic brackets (CBs) and resin composite restorations (RCRs) prepared using different surface treatments. The findings were also compared with a similar study that used stainless steel brackets (SSBs). Forty-five premolars were restored with a nano-hybrid composite resin (Tetric EvoCeram) and randomly assigned to three surface treatment groups: group 1, 5 per cent hydrofluoric acid (HF); group 2, air abrasion (50 μm alumina particles); and group 3, diamond bur. Specimens were bonded with CBs (Fascination) and exposed to thermo-cycling (500 cycles). The shear force at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute was transmitted to brackets. The adhesive remnant index (ARIs) scores were recorded after bracket failure. The analysis of SBS variance (P 0.05) and bond failure occurred mainly in adhesive-bracket base and resin-adhesive interfaces. The diamond bur surface treatment is recommended as a safe and cost-effective method of bonding CBs to RCRs.

  20. Restoration of biogeochemical function in mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Faulkner, P.L.

    2000-01-01

    Forest structure of mangrove restoration sites (6 and 14 years old) at two locations (Henderson Creek [HC] and Windstar [WS]) in southwest Florida differed from that of mixed-basin forests (>50 years old) with which they were once contiguous. However, the younger site (HC) was typical of natural, developing forests, whereas the older site (WS) was less well developed with low structural complexity. More stressful physicochemical conditions resulting from incomplete tidal flushing (elevated salinity) and variable topography (waterlogging) apparently affected plant survival and growth at the WS restoration site. Lower leaf fall and root production rates at the WS restoration site, compared with that at HC were partly attributable to differences in hydroedaphic conditions and structural development. However, leaf and root inputs at each restoration site were not significantly different from that in reference forests within the same physiographic setting. Macrofaunal consumption of tethered leaves also did not differ with site history, but was dramatically higher at HC compared with WS, reflecting local variation in leaf litter processing rates, primarily by snails (Melampus coffeus). Degradation of leaves and roots in mesh bags was slow overall at restoration sites, however, particularly at WS where aerobic decomposition may have been more limited. These findings indicate that local or regional factors such as salinity regime act together with site history to control primary production and turnover rates of organic matter in restoration sites. Species differences in senescent leaf nitrogen content and degradation rates further suggest that restoration sites dominated by Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle should exhibit slower recycling of nutrients compared with natural basin forests where Avicennia germinans is more abundant. Structural development and biogeochemical functioning of restored mangrove forests thus depend on a number of factors, but site

  1. Genome-wide association study identified copy number variants important for appendicular lean mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Shu; Liu, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Lei; Pei, Yufang; Yang, Tie-Lin; Hai, Rong; Han, Ying-Ying; Lin, Yong; Tian, Qing; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a major component of the human body. Age-related loss of muscle mass and function contributes to some public health problems such as sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Skeletal muscle, mainly composed of appendicular lean mass (ALM), is a heritable trait. Copy number variation (CNV) is a common type of human genome variant which may play an important role in the etiology of many human diseases. In this study, we performed genome-wide association analyses of CNV for ALM in 2,286 Caucasian subjects. We then replicated the major findings in 1,627 Chinese subjects. Two CNVs, CNV1191 and CNV2580, were detected to be associated with ALM (p = 2.26×10(-2) and 3.34×10(-3), respectively). In the Chinese replication sample, the two CNVs achieved p-values of 3.26×10(-2) and 0.107, respectively. CNV1191 covers a gene, GTPase of the immunity-associated protein family (GIMAP1), which is important for skeletal muscle cell survival/death in humans. CNV2580 is located in the Serine hydrolase-like protein (SERHL) gene, which plays an important role in normal peroxisome function and skeletal muscle growth in response to mechanical stimuli. In summary, our study suggested two novel CNVs and the related genes that may contribute to variation in ALM.

  2. Genome-wide association study identified copy number variants important for appendicular lean mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Ran

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a major component of the human body. Age-related loss of muscle mass and function contributes to some public health problems such as sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Skeletal muscle, mainly composed of appendicular lean mass (ALM, is a heritable trait. Copy number variation (CNV is a common type of human genome variant which may play an important role in the etiology of many human diseases. In this study, we performed genome-wide association analyses of CNV for ALM in 2,286 Caucasian subjects. We then replicated the major findings in 1,627 Chinese subjects. Two CNVs, CNV1191 and CNV2580, were detected to be associated with ALM (p = 2.26×10(-2 and 3.34×10(-3, respectively. In the Chinese replication sample, the two CNVs achieved p-values of 3.26×10(-2 and 0.107, respectively. CNV1191 covers a gene, GTPase of the immunity-associated protein family (GIMAP1, which is important for skeletal muscle cell survival/death in humans. CNV2580 is located in the Serine hydrolase-like protein (SERHL gene, which plays an important role in normal peroxisome function and skeletal muscle growth in response to mechanical stimuli. In summary, our study suggested two novel CNVs and the related genes that may contribute to variation in ALM.

  3. Assessing floodplain restoration success using soil morphology indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenat, Claire; Fournier, Bertrand; Bullinger-Weber, Géraldine; Grin, Karin; Pfund, Simona; Mitchell, Edward

    2010-05-01

    Floodplains are complex ecological systems that fulfil different ecological, economic and social functions related to physical, chemical, and biological processes. The fluvial dynamics of most rivers in industrialized countries have been altered to such an extent that floodplains are now one of the most threatened ecosystems worldwide. This adverse impact has been widely recognized and, nowadays, extensive attempts are underway to return rivers to more natural conditions and restore their ecological quality and essential ecosystem functions. As a consequence, the number of restoration projects worldwide is rapidly increasing. However, despite an estimated global cost of more than 1 billion dollars annually, there is a crucial lack of monitoring and quantitative evaluations. Indeed, most projects are never monitored post-restoration (NRC 1992). In Switzerland, only 35% of the projects include a monitoring program mainly based on flora and fauna (BAFU). The design, selection and optimization of indicators for project monitoring are of major importance for sustainable management of riverine ecosystems. However, despite the growing body of literature on potential indicators and criteria for assessing the success of restoration projects no standardised or generally applicable method exists. Furthermore, soils are rarely considered among the possible indicators despite their crucial roles in ecosystems such as decomposition, supplying resources (habitats, gene pool, biomass, and raw materials), and environmental interactions (storage, filtering, transformation). We therefore hypothesized that soils may constitute an appropriate synthetic and functional indicator for the evaluation of river restoration success, especially in the framework of river widening aiming to increase the terrestrial biodiversity. In agreement with the current concepts of river restoration, we propose an assessment tool for floodplain restoration based on three soil morphology criteria (soil

  4. [Vegetation restoration in western Liaoning hilly region: a study based on succession theory and degradation degree of ecosystem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaojun; Jiang, Fengqi; Jiao, Zhihua

    2004-09-01

    Analysis with some habitat indexes of different succession stage, this paper quantitatively measured the degradation degree of degraded ecosystems in this region. The results showed that the average dissimilarities between natural Quercus forest, natural Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) forest and Populus-Quercus forest in Nanliuzhangzi forestry centre and Chinese pine plantations in Niuheliang region and Qitian forestry centre were 0.655, 0.665, 2.029 and 3.919, respectively, and as a whole, the dissimilarities represented the places of the forests in the process of ecosystem succession/degradation. It was also showed that most habitats were degraded to the stage between shrubbery and pioneer arbor forest, and closer to the succession stage of pioneer arbor forest. Some suggestions were made for the management of the existing plantation and the construction of mixed forest, e.g., to increase the proportion of shrubbery and pioneer arbor species, especially that of nitrogen fixation tree species. The plant species list of several main vegetation types in western Liaoning we offered could provide scientific reference for the vegetation restoration and the management of pure Chinese pine plantation in this region.

  5. A comparison of the sealing ability of various temporary restorative materials to seal the access cavity: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Markose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In multiple-appointment root canal treatment, a temporary filling material is used to seal the access cavity between visits. The primary function of this material is to prevent the contamination of the root canal system by fluids, organic debris, and bacteria from the oral cavity. Material and Methods: A total of fifty extracted noncarious unrestored human maxillaryanterior teeth with intact crowns and roots were selected The canals were instrumented using stepback technique and sodium hypochlorite (3% and hydrogen peroxide (3% were used as irrigants for each specimen alternatively. The coronal two-thirds of each canal were flared using Gates-Glidden drills up to no. 3 size and obturated with Gutta-percha using zinc oxide-eugenol (ZnOE as sealer. The teeth were then randomly selected and divided into six groups out of which four were experimental groups and two control groups. The teeth were then immersed in 2% methylene blue dye solution for 3 days. All sealing materials and Gutta-percha were gently removed from the walls of the canal, and the entire circumference of the canal wall examined for dye penetration. Results: The lowest mean leakage was in the Fermit-N group followed by Cavit-W, ZnOE, intermediate restorative materials (IRM, and positive control. Conclusion: Fermit-N showed better sealing ability compared to cavit, ZnOE and IRM.

  6. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  7. Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    In 2003 the Skjern River Restoration Project in Denmark was awarded the prestigious Europa Nostra Prize for ‘conserving the European cultural heritage’ (Danish Nature Agency 2005). In this case, however, it seems that the conservation of one cultural heritage came at the expense of another cultural...... this massive reconstruction work, which involved moving more than 2,7 million cubic meters of earth, cause a lot of ‘dissonance’ among the local population, the resulting ‘nature’ and its dynamic processes are also constantly compromising the preferred image of the restored landscape (Clemmensen 2014......). The presentation offers insight into an on-going research and development project - Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual, which question existing trends and logics within nature restoration. The project explores how the Skjern River Delta could have been ‘restored’ with a greater sensibility for its cultural...

  8. based dynamic voltage restorer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    operation due to presence of increased use of nonlinear loads (computers, microcontrollers ... simulations of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) was achieved using MATLAB/Simulink. ..... using Discrete PWM generator, then the IGBT inverter.

  9. Successes, Failures and Suggested Future Directions for Ecosystem Restoration of the Middle Sacramento River, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H. Golet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale ecosystem restoration projects seldom undergo comprehensive evaluation to determine project effectiveness. Consequently, there are missed opportunities for learning and strategy refinement. Before our study, monitoring information from California’s middle Sacramento River had not been synthesized, despite restoration having been ongoing since 1989. Our assessment was based on the development and application of 36 quantitative ecological indicators. These indicators were used to characterize the status of terrestrial and floodplain resources (e.g., flora and fauna, channel dynamics (e.g., planform, geomorphology, and the flow regime. Indicators were also associated with specific goal statements of the CALFED Ecosystem Restoration Program. A collective weight of evidence approach was used to assess restoration success. Our synthesis demonstrates good progress in the restoration of riparian habitats, birds and other wildlife, but not in restoration of streamflows and geomorphic processes. For example, from 1999 to 2007, there was a > 600% increase in forest patch core size, and a 43% increase in the area of the river bordered by natural habitat > 500 m wide. Species richness of landbirds and beetles increased at restoration sites, as did detections of bats. However, degraded post-Shasta Dam streamflow conditions continued. Relative to pre-dam conditions, the average number of years that pass between flows that are sufficient to mobilize the bed, and those that are of sufficient magnitude to inundate the floodplain, increased by over 100%. Trends in geomorphic processes were strongly negative, with increases in the amount of bank hardened with riprap, and decreases in the area of floodplain reworked. Overall the channel simplified, becoming less sinuous with reduced overall channel length. Our progress assessment presents a compelling case for what needs to be done to further advance the ecological restoration of the river. The most

  10. [Experimental Course in Elementary Number Theory, Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Mary Jacqueline

    In the winter of 1965, an experimental course in Elementary Number Theory was presented to a 6th grade class in the Hosmer School, Watertown, Massachusetts. Prior to the introduction of the present material, students had been exposed in class to such topics from the University of Illinois Arithmetic Project as lattices, number lines, frame…

  11. Quantifying the Number of Pregnancies at Risk of Malaria in 2007: A Demographic Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellicour, S.; Tatem, A.J.; Guerra, C.A.; Snow, R.W.; ter Kuile, F.O.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive and contemporary estimates of the number of pregnancies at risk of malaria are not currently available, particularly for endemic areas outside of Africa. We derived global estimates of the number of women who became pregnant in 2007 in areas with Plasmodium falciparum and

  12. Vector-borne diseases and the basic reproduction number: a case study of African horse sickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lord, C.C.; Woolhouse, M.E.J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Mellor, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    The basic reproduction number, R0, can be used to determine factors important in the ability of a disease to invade or persist. We show how this number can be derived or estimated for vector-borne diseases with different complicating factors. African horse sickness is a viral disease transmitted

  13. An empirical study to detect effective factors to increase number of moviegoers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Giyahi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an empirical study to detect important factors, which could increase the number of moviegoers. The study distributes a questionnaire among different people at four age groups including 35.2% (men, and 64.8% (women, most of them are single (between 21 to 30 years living at 3- to 4-member families, holding BA degree with 4 to 7 million Rials monthly salary. Inferential statistics tests, including Kolmogorov–Smirnov, binominal or ratio, Chi Square and Friedman, show that type of story, genre and artists, casts are considered as the most important factors in selection of film while quality of sound, seat comfort, ventilation of cinema hall are regarded as the most important factors in selection of cinema. In addition, cinema is not predominant pastime or hobby of individuals during holidays and existence of more attractive pastimes than cinema is the most important factor, which hinders individuals from going to cinema. Individuals go to cinema fewer than three times a year, primarily during the afternoon of holidays at the weekend. TV teasers and word of mouth advertisements are the most significant publicity tools for those individuals who intend to go to cinema halls. These two factors, i.e. TV teasers and word of mouth advertisements, are the most significant sources of studying individuals for the selection of film. Individuals almost select their favorite movies before going to cinema and if ticket is finished at the box office of cinema, they suspend watching film in another time and finally, they re-plan watching film. It should be noted that satisfaction of individuals from cinema is much more effective than their satisfaction from film.

  14. To Analyse the Erosive Potential of Commercially Available Drinks on Dental Enamel and Various Tooth Coloured Restorative Materials - An In-vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karda, Babita; Jindal, Ritu; Mahajan, Sandeep; Sandhu, Sanam; Sharma, Sunila; Kaur, Rajwinder

    2016-05-01

    With the enormous change in life style pattern of a common man through the past few decades, there has been proportional variation in the amount and frequency of consumption of drinks. An increased consumption of these drinks will concurrently increase enamel surface roughness by demineralization, resulting in hypersensitivity and elevated caries risk. The present study was designed to evaluate the erosive potential of commercially available drinks on tooth enamel and various tooth coloured restorative materials. Extracted human teeth were taken and divided into four groups i.e. tooth enamel, glass ionomer cement, composite and compomer. Four commercially available drinks were chosen these were Coca -Cola, Nimbooz, Frooti and Yakult. The pH of each drink was measured. Each group was immersed in various experimental drinks for a period of 14 days. The erosive potential of each drink was measured by calculating the change in average surface roughness of these groups after the immersion protocol in various drinks. The data analysis was done by One Way Anova, Post-Hoc Bonferroni, and paired t -test. Group II-GIC showed highest values for mean of change in average surface roughness and the values were statistically significant (pCoca-cola showed the highest erosive potential and Yakult showed the lowest, there was no statistical significant difference between the results shown by Yakult and Frooti. Characteristics which may promote erosion of enamel and tooth coloured restorative materials were surface texture of the material and pH of the drinks.

  15. Phonemic restoration in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie N. Del Tufo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of fluent speech in one’s native language requires that listeners integrate the detailed acoustic-phonetic information available in the sound signal with linguistic knowledge. This interplay is especially apparent in the phoneme restoration effect, a phenomenon in which a missing phoneme is ‘restored’ via the influence of top-down information from the lexicon and through bottom-up acoustic processing. Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by an inability to read at the level of one’s peers without any clear failure due to environmental influences. In the current study we utilized the phonemic restoration illusion paradigm, to examine individual differences in phonemic restoration across a range of reading ability, from very good to dyslexic readers. Results demonstrate that restoration occurs less in those who have high scores on measures of phonological processing. Based on these results, we suggest that the processing or representation of acoustic detail may not be as reliable in poor and dyslexic readers, with the result that lexical information is more likely to override acoustic properties of the stimuli. This pattern of increased restoration could result from a failure of perceptual tuning, in which unstable representations of speech sounds result in the acceptance of non-speech sounds as speech. An additional or alternative theory is that degraded or impaired phonological processing at the speech sound level may reflect architecture that is overly plastic and consequently fails to stabilize appropriately for speech sound representations. Therefore the inability to separate speech and noise may result as a deficit in separating noise from the acoustic signal.

  16. System dynamic modelling to assess economic viability and risk trade-offs for ecological restoration in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookes, D J; Blignaut, J N; de Wit, M P; Esler, K J; Le Maitre, D C; Milton, S J; Mitchell, S A; Cloete, J; de Abreu, P; Fourie nee Vlok, H; Gull, K; Marx, D; Mugido, W; Ndhlovu, T; Nowell, M; Pauw, M; Rebelo, A

    2013-05-15

    Can markets assist by providing support for ecological restoration, and if so, under what conditions? The first step in addressing this question is to develop a consistent methodology for economic evaluation of ecological restoration projects. A risk analysis process was followed in which a system dynamics model was constructed for eight diverse case study sites where ecological restoration is currently being pursued. Restoration costs vary across each of these sites, as do the benefits associated with restored ecosystem functioning. The system dynamics model simulates the ecological, hydrological and economic benefits of ecological restoration and informs a portfolio mapping exercise where payoffs are matched against the likelihood of success of a project, as well as a number of other factors (such as project costs and risk measures). This is the first known application that couples ecological restoration with system dynamics and portfolio mapping. The results suggest an approach that is able to move beyond traditional indicators of project success, since the effect of discounting is virtually eliminated. We conclude that systems dynamic modelling with portfolio mapping can guide decisions on when markets for restoration activities may be feasible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Wave number determination of Pc 1-2 mantle waves considering He++ ions: A Cluster study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, B.; Escoubet, C. P.; Santolík, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Khotyaintsev, Y.

    2014-09-01

    The present case study concerns narrowband electromagnetic emission detected in the distant cusp region simultaneously with upgoing plasma flows. The wave properties match the usual properties of the Pc 1-2 mantle waves: small angle between the wave vector and the magnetic field line, left-hand polarization, and propagation toward the ionosphere. We report here the first direct wave vector measurement of these waves (about 1.2 × 10- 2 rad/km) through multi spacecraft analysis using the three magnetic components and, at the same time, through single spacecraft analysis based on the refractive index analysis using the three magnetic components and two electric components. The refractive index analysis offers a simple way to estimate wave numbers in this frequency range. Numerical calculations are performed under the observed plasma conditions. The obtained results show that the ion distribution functions are unstable to ion cyclotron instability at the observed wave vector value, due to the large ion temperature anisotropy. We thus show that these electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are amplified in the distant cusp region. The Poynting flux of the waves is counterstreaming with respect to the plasma flow. This sense of propagation is consistent with the time necessary to amplify the emissions to the observed level. We point out the role of the wave damping at the He++ gyrofrequency to explain that such waves cannot be observed from the ground at the cusp foot print location.

  18. A genome-wide copy number variant study of suicidal behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Gross

    Full Text Available Suicide and suicide attempts are complex behaviors that result from the interaction of different factors, including genetic variants that increase the predisposition to suicidal behaviors. Copy number variations (CNVs are deletions or duplications of a segment of DNA usually larger than one kilobase. These structural genetic changes, although quite rare, have been associated with genetic liability to mental disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. No genome-wide level studies have been published investigating the potential role of CNVs in suicidal behaviors. Based on single-nucleotide polymorphism array data, we followed the Penn-CNV standards to detect CNVs in 1,608 subjects, comprising 475 suicide and suicide attempt cases and 1,133 controls. Although the initial algorithms determined the presence of CNVs on chromosomes 6 and 12 in seven and eight cases, respectively, compared with none of the controls, visual inspection of the raw data did not support this finding. Furthermore we were unable to validate these findings by CNV-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, rare CNV burden analysis did not find an association between the frequency or length of rare CNVs and suicidal behavior in our sample population. Although our findings suggest CNVs do not play an important role in the etiology of suicidal behaviors, they are not inconsistent with the strong evidence from the literature suggesting that other genetic variants account for a portion of the total phenotypic variability in suicidal behavior.

  19. A study of flow patterns for staggered cylinders at low Reynolds number by spectral element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Li-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Lin; Ye, Jian-Zhi [National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-15

    This study investigates the pattern of flow past two staggered array cylinders using the spectral element method by varying the distance between the cylinders and the angle of incidence (α) at low Reynolds numbers (Re = 100-800). Six flow patterns are identified as Shear layer reattachment (SLR), Induced separation (IS), Vortex impingement (VI), Synchronized vortex shedding (SVS), Vortex pairing and enveloping (VPE), and Vortex pairing splitting and enveloping (VPSE). These flow patterns can be transformed from one to another by changing the distance between the cylinders, the angle of incidence, or Re. SLR, IS and VI flow patterns appear in regimes with small angles of incidence (i.e., α ≤ 30° ) and hold only a single von Karman vortex shedding in a wake with one shedding frequency. SVS, VPE and VPSE flow patterns appear in regimes with large angles of incidence (i.e., 30° ≤ α ≤ 50° ) and present two synchronized von Karman vortices. Quantitative analyses and physical interpretation are also conducted to determine the generation mechanisms of the said flow patterns.

  20. A genome-wide association study of copy number variations with umbilical hernia in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yi; Su, Ying; Ai, Huashui; Zhang, Zhiyan; Yang, Bin; Ruan, Guorong; Xiao, Shijun; Liao, Xinjun; Ren, Jun; Huang, Lusheng; Ding, Nengshui

    2016-06-01

    Umbilical hernia (UH) is one of the most common congenital defects in pigs, leading to considerable economic loss and serious animal welfare problems. To test whether copy number variations (CNVs) contribute to pig UH, we performed a case-control genome-wide CNV association study on 905 pigs from the Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire breeds using the Porcine SNP60 BeadChip and penncnv algorithm. We first constructed a genomic map comprising 6193 CNVs that pertain to 737 CNV regions. Then, we identified eight CNVs significantly associated with the risk for UH in the three pig breeds. Six of seven significantly associated CNVs were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. Notably, a rare CNV (CNV14:13030843-13059455) encompassing the NUGGC gene was strongly associated with UH (permutation-corrected P = 0.0015) in Duroc pigs. This CNV occurred exclusively in seven Duroc UH-affected individuals. SNPs surrounding the CNV did not show association signals, indicating that rare CNVs may play an important role in complex pig diseases such as UH. The NUGGC gene has been implicated in human omphalocele and inguinal hernia. Our finding supports that CNVs, including the NUGGC CNV, contribute to the pathogenesis of pig UH. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  1. The cost and feasibility of marine coastal restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Saunders, Megan I; Abdullah, Sabah; Mills, Morena; Beher, Jutta; Possingham, Hugh P; Mumby, Peter J; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2016-06-01

    Land-use change in the coastal zone has led to worldwide degradation of marine coastal ecosystems and a loss of the goods and services they provide. Restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed and is critical for habitats where natural recovery is hindered. Uncertainties about restoration cost and feasibility can impede decisions on whether, what, how, where, and how much to restore. Here, we perform a synthesis of 235 studies with 954 observations from restoration or rehabilitation projects of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, salt-marshes, and oyster reefs worldwide, and evaluate cost, survival of restored organisms, project duration, area, and techniques applied. Findings showed that while the median and average reported costs for restoration of one hectare of marine coastal habitat were around US$80000 (2010) and US$1600000 (2010), respectively, the real total costs (median) are likely to be two to four times higher. Coral reefs and seagrass were among the most expensive ecosystems to restore. Mangrove restoration projects were typically the largest and the least expensive per hectare. Most marine coastal restoration projects were conducted in Australia, Europe, and USA, while total restoration costs were significantly (up to 30 times) cheaper in countries with developing economies. Community- or volunteer-based marine restoration projects usually have lower costs. Median survival of restored marine and coastal organisms, often assessed only within the first one to two years after restoration, was highest for saltmarshes (64.8%) and coral reefs (64.5%) and lowest for seagrass (38.0%). However, success rates reported in the scientific literature could be biased towards publishing successes rather than failures. The majority of restoration projects were short-lived and seldom reported monitoring costs. Restoration success depended primarily on the ecosystem, site selection, and techniques

  2. Investor reaction to strategic emphasis on earnings numbers: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shibley Sadique

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the earnings information and stock prices of S&P500 firms and find that investors following S&P500 stocks (i respond more to pro forma earnings than to GAAP earnings, (ii respond to an emphasis on pro forma earnings, and (iii are fixated on pro forma earnings. We provide the first direct evidence that a strategic emphasis on earnings numbers may affect return volatility. Further, our results do not support the argument that a larger investor response to Street earnings might be driven by large differences between the Street numbers and GAAP numbers.

  3. Copy Number Variation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Tourette Syndrome: A Cross-Disorder Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lauren M.; Yu, Dongmei; Marshall, Christian; Davis, Lea K.; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Li, Bingbin; Cappi, Carolina; Gerber, Gloria; Wolf, Aaron; Schroeder, Frederick A.; Osiecki, Lisa; O’Dushlaine, Colm; Kirby, Andrew; Illmann, Cornelia; Haddad, Stephen; Gallagher, Patience; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Black, Donald W.; Bloch, Michael H.; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Cath, Danielle C.; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Derks, Eske M.; Dion, Yves; Rosário, Maria C.; Eapen, Valsama; Evans, Patrick; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M.J.; Herrera, Luis D.; Hounie, Ana G.; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L; King, Robert A.; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Lyon, Gholson J.; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; McCracken, James T.; McMahon, William; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L; Neale, Benjamin M; Nurmi, Erika; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlos N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark; Robertson, Mary M.; Rosenberg, David; Rouleau, Guy A.; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Tischfield, Jay A.; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Wendland, Jens R.; Shugart, Yin Yao; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Nicolini, Humberto; Oostra, Ben A.; Moessner, Rainald; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Heutink, Peter; Nestadt, Gerald; Freimer, Nelson; Petryshen, Tracey; Posthuma, Danielle; Jenike, Michael A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Hanna, Gregory L.; Brentani, Helena; Scherer, Stephen W.; Arnold, Paul D.; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Mathews, Carol A.; Knowles, James A.; Cook, Edwin H.; Pauls, David L.; Wang, Kai; Scharf, Jeremiah M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable, neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and the largest genome-wide CNV analysis in TS to date. Method The primary analyses utilized a cross-disorder design for 2,699 patients (1,613 ascertained for OCD, 1,086 ascertained for TS) and 1,789 controls. Parental data facilitated a de novo analysis in 348 OCD trios. Results Although no global CNV burden was detected in the cross-disorder analysis or in secondary, disease-specific analyses, there was a 3.3-fold increased burden of large deletions previously associated with other neurodevelopmental disorders (p=.09). Half of these neurodevelopmental deletions were located in a single locus, 16p13.11 (5 patient deletions: 0 control deletions, p=0.08 in current study, p=0.025 compared to published controls). Three 16p13.11 deletions were confirmed de novo, providing further support to the etiological significance of this region. The overall OCD de novo rate was 1.4%, which is intermediate between published rates in controls (0.7%) and in autism or schizophrenia (2–4%). Conclusion Several converging lines of evidence implicate 16p13.11 deletions in OCD, with weaker evidence for a role in TS. The trend toward increased overall neurodevelopmental CNV burden in TS and OCD suggests that deletions previously associated with other neurodevelopmental disorders may also contribute to these phenotypes. PMID:25062598

  4. Modelling chestnut biogeography for American chestnut restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fei, Songlin; Liang, Liang; Paillet, Frederick L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Chestnuts (Castanea spp.) are ecologically and economically important species. We studied the general biology, distribution and climatic limits of seven chestnut species from around the world. We provided climatic matching of Asiatic species to North America to assist the range-wide restoration...... American chestnut appears feasible if a sufficiently diverse array of Chinese chestnut germplasm is used as a source of blight resistance. Our study provided a between-continent climate matching approach to facilitate the range-wide species restoration, which can be readily applied in planning...... the restoration of other threatened or endangered species....

  5. The study of mechanical behavior on the interface between calcar-defect femur and restorations by means of finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, X.H.; Jiang, W.; Chen, H.Z.; Zou, W.; Wang, W.D.; Guo, Z.; Luo, J.M.; Gu, Z.W.; Zhang, X.D.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical behaviors of calcar-defected femur and restorations under physiological load are the key factors that will greatly influence the success of femur calcar defect repairing, especially the stress distribution on the bone-restoration interface. 3D finite elements analysis (FEA) was used to analyze the mechanical characters on the interfaces between femoral calcar defects and bone cement or HA restorations. Under the load of two times of a human weight (1436.03 N) and with the increase of the defect dimension from 6 mm to 12 mm, the maximal stresses on the surface of restorations are from 7.06 MPa to 11.89 MPa for bone cement and 2.97-9 MPa for HA separately. In this condition, HA restoration will probably be broken on the bone-restoration interface when the defect diameter is beyond 8 mm. Furthermore, under the load of 1.5 times of a human weight, HA restoration would not be safe unless the defect dimension is smaller than 10 mm, because the maximal stress (4.62 MPa) on the restoration is only a little lower than compressive strength of HA, otherwise the bone fixation device should be applied to ensure the safety. It is relatively safe for all restorations under all the tested defect sizes when the load is just the weight of a human body

  6. A field-trial of two restorative materials used with atraumatic restorative treatment in rural Turkey: 24-month results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertugrul Ercan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of high-strength glass ionomer cement (HSGIC and resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGIC in single and multiple surface carious cavities in the field conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A split-mouth design, including ninety-one fillings placed on contra lateral molar pairs of 37 children, was used in permanent dentition. As filling materials, a HSGIC (Ketac Molar/3M ESPE and a RMGIC (Vitremer/ 3M ESPE were used with the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART. Baseline and 6, 12 and 24-month evaluations of the fillings were made with standard-ART and USPHS criteria by two examiners with kappa values of 0.92 and 0.87 for both criteria. RESULTS: According to the USPHS criteria, the retention rates of RMGIC and HSGIC restorations were 100% and 80.9% for single surface, and 100% and 41.2% for multiple surface restorations after 24 months, respectively. Irrespective of surface number, RMGIC was significantly superior to HSGIC (p= 0.004, according to both standard-ART and USPHS criteria. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that RMGIC may be an alternative restorative technique in comparison to high-strength GIC applications in ART-field-trials. However, further clinical and field trials are needed to support this conclusion.

  7. Feasibility study on application of bio-accumulation radionuclides as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Teruhisa; Hirano, Shigeki; Nakamura, Ryoichi

    2001-01-01

    Phenomena of bio-accumulation of radionuclides was reviewed in order to know whether or not it was useful and effective to apply as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated area, and to examine the extent of removal of radioactive contaminants from the environment. Special attention was directed to the technique, ''phytoremediation'' in which plants that hyperaccumulated heavy metals were cultivated on the contaminated lands for removing them. Plant species recognized as ''hyperaccumulator'' were searched in the literature and listed for providing a botanical and taxonomical prospect. On the other hand, a screening analysis was carried out for determining the elemental concentrations in sea weeds in order to find species with a high affinity for the specific elements. Of 30 species of sea weeds, the highest concentration of iron, iodine, strontium, and uranium was observed in Ulva sp., Laminaria sp., Corallina sp. and Undaria sp., respectively, although there were no species having the elemental concentration 100 times higher than those for so called ''reference plant''. Brown algae generally showed relatively higher concentrations for almost all elements of interest. It could be concluded that brown algae might be effective to use for phytoremediation because of their high affinity for many elements along with their high biomass in a possible case of radioactive contamination in the marine environment. Phytoremediation would be more advantageous not only from an economical viewpoint, but from the viewpoint of preservation of the environments than other possible remedial procedures, such as acid leaching of contaminants, excavation and storage of the soil, physical separation of the pollutants, and so on. This technique has been put into practical use and would gain much more support of the public in the future, however it needs more detailed information to establish as a sound and reliable methodology. (author)

  8. Feasibility study on application of bio-accumulation radionuclides as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watabe, Teruhisa; Hirano, Shigeki; Nakamura, Ryoichi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan). Lab. for Radioecology] [and others

    2001-12-01

    Phenomena of bio-accumulation of radionuclides was reviewed in order to know whether or not it was useful and effective to apply as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated area, and to examine the extent of removal of radioactive contaminants from the environment. Special attention was directed to the technique, ''phytoremediation'' in which plants that hyperaccumulated heavy metals were cultivated on the contaminated lands for removing them. Plant species recognized as ''hyperaccumulator'' were searched in the literature and listed for providing a botanical and taxonomical prospect. On the other hand, a screening analysis was carried out for determining the elemental concentrations in sea weeds in order to find species with a high affinity for the specific elements. Of 30 species of sea weeds, the highest concentration of iron, iodine, strontium, and uranium was observed in Ulva sp., Laminaria sp., Corallina sp. and Undaria sp., respectively, although there were no species having the elemental concentration 100 times higher than those for so called ''reference plant''. Brown algae generally showed relatively higher concentrations for almost all elements of interest. It could be concluded that brown algae might be effective to use for phytoremediation because of their high affinity for many elements along with their high biomass in a possible case of radioactive contamination in the marine environment. Phytoremediation would be more advantageous not only from an economical viewpoint, but from the viewpoint of preservation of the environments than other possible remedial procedures, such as acid leaching of contaminants, excavation and storage of the soil, physical separation of the pollutants, and so on. This technique has been put into practical use and would gain much more support of the public in the future, however it needs more detailed information to establish as a sound and reliable

  9. Provision of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) restorations to Chinese pre-school children--a 30-month evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, E C; Holmgren, C J

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: to provide restorations using the ART approach to pre-school children in Southern China in a kindergarten environment, using a high-strength glass-ionomer restorative material; to assess the acceptability of this approach and to evaluate on a longitudinal basis the restorations placed. A total of 170 ART restorations were placed in 95 children, aged 5.1 +/- 0.7 years, by seven final-year dental students using standard ART procedures and hand instruments. The restorations were evaluated every six months thereafter by two calibrated independent examiners using explorers and mouth-mirrors. 93% of the children reported that they did not feel pain during treatment and 86% were willing to receive ART restorations again. The cumulative 12- and 30-month survival rates of Class I restorations were 91% and 79%, respectively. The corresponding figures for Class V restorations were 79% and 70%, while those for Class II restorations were 75% and 51%. The failure rates of Class III and IV restorations were high with more than half of them scored as missing within the first year. The ART approach was shown to be acceptable to Chinese pre-school children for providing restorative dental care outside the traditional clinical setting. The success rates were high for Class I and V restorations in primary teeth, modest for Class II, and low for Class III and IV restorations.

  10. A Study to Investigate Whether Consistent Cognitive Functioning Cuts across Number, Space, and Time Conceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittan, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Provides data incongruent with Piaget's idea of a concrete operational stage. Shows no clear-cut termination of preconceptual thinking and no simultaneous conceptual development in the three content areas (number, space, and time). (Author/RL)

  11. Study on recognition algorithm for paper currency numbers based on neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuyan; Liu, Tiegen; Li, Yuanyao; Zhang, Zhongchuan; Deng, Shichao

    2008-12-01

    Based on the unique characteristic, the paper currency numbers can be put into record and the automatic identification equipment for paper currency numbers is supplied to currency circulation market in order to provide convenience for financial sectors to trace the fiduciary circulation socially and provide effective supervision on paper currency. Simultaneously it is favorable for identifying forged notes, blacklisting the forged notes numbers and solving the major social problems, such as armor cash carrier robbery, money laundering. For the purpose of recognizing the paper currency numbers, a recognition algorithm based on neural network is presented in the paper. Number lines in original paper currency images can be draw out through image processing, such as image de-noising, skew correction, segmentation, and image normalization. According to the different characteristics between digits and letters in serial number, two kinds of classifiers are designed. With the characteristics of associative memory, optimization-compute and rapid convergence, the Discrete Hopfield Neural Network (DHNN) is utilized to recognize the letters; with the characteristics of simple structure, quick learning and global optimum, the Radial-Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) is adopted to identify the digits. Then the final recognition results are obtained by combining the two kinds of recognition results in regular sequence. Through the simulation tests, it is confirmed by simulation results that the recognition algorithm of combination of two kinds of recognition methods has such advantages as high recognition rate and faster recognition simultaneously, which is worthy of broad application prospect.

  12. Development of an Agent Based Model to Estimate and Reduce Time to Restoration of Storm Induced Power Outages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T.; Layton, T.; Mellor, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Storm damage to the electric grid impacts 23 million electric utility customers and costs US consumers $119 billion annually. Current restoration techniques rely on the past experiences of emergency managers. There are few analytical simulation and prediction tools available for utility managers to optimize storm recovery and decrease consumer cost, lost revenue and restoration time. We developed an agent based model (ABM) for storm recovery in Connecticut. An ABM is a computer modeling technique comprised of agents who are given certain behavioral rules and operate in a given environment. It allows the user to simulate complex systems by varying user-defined parameters to study emergent, unpredicted behavior. The ABM incorporates the road network and electric utility grid for the state, is validated using actual storm event recoveries and utilizes the Dijkstra routing algorithm to determine the best path for repair crews to travel between outages. The ABM has benefits for both researchers and utility managers. It can simulate complex system dynamics, rank variable importance, find tipping points that could significantly reduce restoration time or costs and test a broad range of scenarios. It is a modular, scalable and adaptable technique that can simulate scenarios in silico to inform emergency managers before and during storm events to optimize restoration strategies and better manage expectations of when power will be restored. Results indicate that total restoration time is strongly dependent on the number of crews. However, there is a threshold whereby more crews will not decrease the restoration time, which depends on the total number of outages. The addition of outside crews is more beneficial for storms with a higher number of outages. The time to restoration increases linearly with increasing repair time, while the travel speed has little overall effect on total restoration time. Crews traveling to the nearest outage reduces the total restoration time

  13. Polyad quantum numbers and multiple resonances in anharmonic vibrational studies of polyatomic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoshchekov, Sergey V; Stepanov, Nikolay F

    2013-11-14

    In the theory of anharmonic vibrations of a polyatomic molecule, mixing the zero-order vibrational states due to cubic, quartic and higher-order terms in the potential energy expansion leads to the appearance of more-or-less isolated blocks of states (also called polyads), connected through multiple resonances. Such polyads of states can be characterized by a common secondary integer quantum number. This polyad quantum number is defined as a linear combination of the zero-order vibrational quantum numbers, attributed to normal modes, multiplied by non-negative integer polyad coefficients, which are subject to definition for any particular molecule. According to Kellman's method [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 6630 (1990)], the corresponding formalism can be conveniently described using vector algebra. In the present work, a systematic consideration of polyad quantum numbers is given in the framework of the canonical Van Vleck perturbation theory (CVPT) and its numerical-analytic operator implementation for reducing the Hamiltonian to the quasi-diagonal form, earlier developed by the authors. It is shown that CVPT provides a convenient method for the systematic identification of essential resonances and the definition of a polyad quantum number. The method presented is generally suitable for molecules of significant size and complexity, as illustrated by several examples of molecules up to six atoms. The polyad quantum number technique is very useful for assembling comprehensive basis sets for the matrix representation of the Hamiltonian after removal of all non-resonance terms by CVPT. In addition, the classification of anharmonic energy levels according to their polyad quantum numbers provides an additional means for the interpretation of observed vibrational spectra.

  14. No postnatal doubling of number of neurons in human Broca's areas (Brodmann areas 44 and 45)? A stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uylings, H B M; Malofeeva, L I; Bogolepova, I N; Jacobsen, A M; Amunts, K; Zilles, K

    2005-01-01

    In this study we explored whether a postnatal doubling of the total number of neurons occurs in the human Brodmann areas 44 and 45 (Broca's area). We describe the most recent error prediction formulae and their application for the modern stereological estimators for volume and number of neurons. We estimated the number of neurons in 3D optical disector probes systematically random sampled throughout the entire Brodmann areas (BA) 44 and 45 in developing and young adult cases. In the relatively small number of male and female cases studied no substantial postnatal increase in total number of neurons occurred in areas 44 and 45; the volume of these areas reached adult values around 7 years. In addition, we did find indications that a shift from a right-over-left to a left-over-right asymmetry may occur in the volume of BA 45 during postnatal development. No major asymmetry in total number of neurons in BA 44 and 45 was detected.

  15. Quality measures in applications of image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriete, A; Naim, M; Schafer, L

    2001-01-01

    We describe a new method for the estimation of image quality in image restoration applications. We demonstrate this technique on a simulated data set of fluorescent beads, in comparison with restoration by three different deconvolution methods. Both the number of iterations and a regularisation factor are varied to enforce changes in the resulting image quality. First, the data sets are directly compared by an accuracy measure. These values serve to validate the image quality descriptor, which is developed on the basis of optical information theory. This most general measure takes into account the spectral energies and the noise, weighted in a logarithmic fashion. It is demonstrated that this method is particularly helpful as a user-oriented method to control the output of iterative image restorations and to eliminate the guesswork in choosing a suitable number of iterations.

  16. Urban gardens: catalysts for restorative commons infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Seitz

    2009-01-01

    One of 18 articles inspired by the Meristem 2007 Forum, "Restorative Commons for Community Health." The articles include interviews, case studies, thought pieces, and interdisciplinary theoretical works that explore the relationship between human health and the urban...

  17. Quantifying the number of pregnancies at risk of malaria in 2007: a demographic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Dellicour

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive and contemporary estimates of the number of pregnancies at risk of malaria are not currently available, particularly for endemic areas outside of Africa. We derived global estimates of the number of women who became pregnant in 2007 in areas with Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax transmission.A recently published map of the global limits of P. falciparum transmission and an updated map of the limits of P. vivax transmission were combined with gridded population data and growth rates to estimate total populations at risk of malaria in 2007. Country-specific demographic data from the United Nations on age, sex, and total fertility rates were used to estimate the number of women of child-bearing age and the annual rate of live births. Subregional estimates of the number of induced abortions and country-specific stillbirths rates were obtained from recently published reviews. The number of miscarriages was estimated from the number of live births and corrected for induced abortion rates. The number of clinically recognised pregnancies at risk was then calculated as the sum of the number of live births, induced abortions, spontaneous miscarriages, and stillbirths among the population at risk in 2007. In 2007, 125.2 million pregnancies occurred in areas with P. falciparum and/or P. vivax transmission resulting in 82.6 million live births. This included 77.4, 30.3, 13.1, and 4.3 million pregnancies in the countries falling under the World Health Organization (WHO regional offices for South-East-Asia (SEARO and the Western-Pacific (WPRO combined, Africa (AFRO, Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean (EURO/EMRO, and the Americas (AMRO, respectively. Of 85.3 million pregnancies in areas with P. falciparum transmission, 54.7 million occurred in areas with stable transmission and 30.6 million in areas with unstable transmission (clinical incidence <1 per 10,000 population/year; 92.9 million occurred in areas with P. vivax transmission, 53

  18. Application of signal detection theory to optics. [image evaluation and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helstrom, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    Basic quantum detection and estimation theory, applications to optics, photon counting, and filtering theory are studied. Recent work on the restoration of degraded optical images received at photoelectrically emissive surfaces is also reported, the data used by the method are the numbers of electrons ejected from various parts of the surface.

  19. Giant cane propagation techniques for use in restoration of riparian forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca L. Sexton; James J. Zaczek; John W. Groninger; Stephen D. Fillmore; Karl W. J. Williard

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated to determine factors important for rhizome cutting propagation of giant cane for use in canebreak restoration. Experiment I showed that greater numbers of culms were produced for rhizomes with more internodes especially when surface planted rather than buried. Experiment II determined that 76 percent of the 435 rhizomes tested produced at least...

  20. Release of Suppressed Red Spruce Using Canopy Gap Creation--Ecological Restoration in the Central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.S. Rentch; W.M. Ford; Thomas Schuler; Jeff Palmer; C.A. Diggins

    2016-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens) and red spruce-northern hardwood mixed stands once covered as much as 300,000 ha in the Central Appalachians, but now comprise no more than 21,000 ha. Recently, interest in restoration of this forest type has increased because red spruce forests provide habitat for a number of rare animal species. Our study reports the...

  1. Restoration Survival: Revisiting Patients' Risk Factors Through a Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, F H; Collares, K; Correa, M B; Cenci, M S; Demarco, F F; Opdam, Njm

    2016-09-01

    A literature review was conducted to investigate the influence of patient-related factors on restoration survival in posterior permanent teeth as well as to report the methods used to collect these factors. The selection of articles on longitudinal clinical studies investigating the survival of posterior restorations (except full crowns and temporary fillings) and including patient-related factors was performed by applying predefined criteria. The review was organized i