WorldWideScience

Sample records for resting sporangium wall

  1. The fern sporangium: an ultrafast natural catapult

    Noblin, Xavier; Argentina, Mederic; Westbrook, Jared; Llorens, Coraline; Rojas, Nicolas; Dumais, Jacques

    2012-02-01

    Plants have developed fascinating mechanisms to create ultra fast movements that often reach the upper limit allowed by physical laws. Inspiration for new technologies is one of the reasons for the strong interest for these mechanisms, along with the deep interest of understanding complex, natural systems. The fern sporangium is a capsule that contains the spores, it is surrounded by a row of cells called the annulus which acts as a beam. Due to the water evaporation from its cells, the annulus bends strongly and induces elastic energy storage during an opening phase. The tension in the cells breaks when cavitation bubbles appear in the cells, leading to a fast release of the elastic energy. The fern sporangium then acts as a catapult which ejects rapidly its spores by closing back to the initial closed shape. We have analyzed the slow opening motion and the fast catapulting mechanism. We found that the catapult motion involves two time scales, showing a very original behavior. In man-made catapults, the recoil motion needs to be arrested by a cross bar so that the projectile is released from the arm. We show here that the fern sporangium replaces the essential cross bar by an elegant poroelastic damping, leading to a completely autonomous, efficient device.

  2. Ontogenetic characterization of sporangium and spore of Huperzia serrata: an anti-aging disease fern.

    Long, Hua; Li, Jing; Li, You-You; Xie, De-Yu; Peng, Qing-Zhong; Li, Li

    2016-12-01

    Huperzia serrata is a medicinal plant used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, which has been used to prevent against aging diseases. It is mainly propagated by spores and grows extremely slowly. Due to severe harvest, it is a highly endangered species. In this report, we characterize ontogenesis of sporangia and spores that are associated with propagation. A wild population of H. serrata plants is localized in western Hunan province, China and protected by Chinese Government to study its development (e.g. sporangia and spores) and ecology. Both field and microscopic observations were conducted for a few of years. The development of sporangia from their initiation to maturation took nearly 1 year. Microscopic observations showed that the sporangial walls were developed from epidermal cells via initiation, cell division, and maturation. The structure of the mature sporangial wall is composed of one layer of epidermis, two middle layers of cells, and one layer of tapetum. Therefore, the sporangium is the eusporangium type. Spore development is characterized into six stages, initiation from epidermal cell and formation of sporogenous cells, primary sporogenous cell, secondary sporogenous cell, spore mother cell, tetrad, and maturation. The sporangial development of H. serrata belongs to the eusporangium type. The development takes approximately 1 year period from the initiation to the maturation. These data are useful for improving propagation of this medicinal plant in the future.

  3. Sporangium Exposure and Spore Release in the Peruvian Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum peruvianum, Pteridaceae.

    Simon Poppinga

    Full Text Available We investigated the different processes involved in spore liberation in the polypod fern Adiantum peruvianum (Pteridaceae. Sporangia are being produced on the undersides of so-called false indusia, which are situated at the abaxial surface of the pinnule margins, and become exposed by a desiccation-induced movement of these pinnule flaps. The complex folding kinematics and functional morphology of false indusia are being described, and we discuss scenarios of movement initiation and passive hydraulic actuation of these structures. High-speed cinematography allowed for analyses of fast sporangium motion and for tracking ejected spores. Separation and liberation of spores from the sporangia are induced by relaxation of the annulus (the 'throwing arm' of the sporangium catapult and conservation of momentum generated during this process, which leads to sporangium bouncing. The ultra-lightweight spores travel through air with a maximum velocity of ~5 m s(-1, and a launch acceleration of ~6300 g is measured. In some cases, the whole sporangium, or parts of it, together with contained spores break away from the false indusium and are shed as a whole. Also, spores can stick together and form spore clumps. Both findings are discussed in the context of wind dispersal.

  4. Vibration analysis of viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotubes resting on a viscoelastic foundation

    Zhang, Da Peng; Lei, Yong Jun; Shen, Zhi Bin; Wang, Cheng Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Vibration responses were investigated for a viscoelastic Single-walled carbon nanotube (visco-SWCNT) resting on a viscoelastic foundation. Based on the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam model, velocity-dependent external damping and Kelvin viscoelastic foundation model, the governing equations were derived. The Transfer function method (TFM) was then used to compute the natural frequencies for general boundary conditions and foundations. In particular, the exact analytical expressions of both complex natural frequencies and critical viscoelastic parameters were obtained for the Kelvin-Voigt visco-SWCNTs with full foundations and certain boundary conditions, and several physically intuitive special cases were discussed. Substantial nonlocal effects, the influence of geometric and physical parameters of the SWCNT and the viscoelastic foundation were observed for the natural frequencies of the supported SWCNTs. The study demonstrates the efficiency and robustness of the developed model for the vibration of the visco-SWCNT-viscoelastic foundation coupling system

  5. Both semiquantitative degree of rest Tl-201 uptake and reversibility at 24 hour-delay were needed to predict wall motion improvement after bypass surgery

    Lee, D. S.; Yoon, S. N.; Kim, K. B.; Jeong, Z. K.; Lee, M. C.; Ko, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Controversy still exists about how to use the uptake at rest and 24 hour delay in rest redistribution Tl-201 SPECT to predict improvement of wall motion abnormality after bypass surgery. To find the best way to combine diagnostic efficacy of Tl-201 SPECT to predict myocardial viability, we studied the predictive values (positive: PPV, negative: NPV) of rest and 24 hour-delay Tl-201 SPECT in 21 patients. Wall motion was assessed comparing preoperative post-stress gated Tc-99m-MIBI SPECT with that of 3 months after surgery. Four point scoring system was used for 17 myocardial segments to asses uptakes ( 0 to 3 for normal to defect) at rest and 24 hour-delay and wall motion ( 0 to 3 for normal to dyskinesia). Ejection fraction improved after surgery (5011% vs 4313%). Intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibility of EF was 7 and 9% respectively when we used 3D Perfusion-Motion Map. Sixty seven segments showed wall motion abnormality before surgery. Predictive values of rest Tl-201 uptake decrease were as follows: 0: 15/15(100%), 1: 30/34(88%), 2: 6/11 (55%), 3: 3/7(43%). So PPV of mild decrease was 88%, and NPV of severe decrease was 50%. Delayed reversibility was evaluated in 37 segments (15 patients). Twenty seven segment had persistence or aggravation, but the other 10 segments improved at 24 hour delay. PPV of reversible 10 segments was 80%, and NPV of reversibility was only 46%. PPV of combination of rest Tl-201 uptake of mild degree and 24 hour reversibility was 86% (38/44) and NPV of neither one was 88%. We concluded that both semi-quantitative degree of Tl-201 uptake at rest and reversibility at 24 hour delay was the best to warrant or abandon postoperative improvement of abnormal wall motion found at preoperative post-stress gated myocardial SPECT

  6. Predictive values of early rest/24 hour delay Tl-201 perfusion SPECT for wall motion improvement in patients with acute myocardial infarction after reperfusion

    Hyun, In Young; Kwan, June

    1998-01-01

    We studied early rest/24 hour delay Tl-201 perfusion SPECT for prediction of wall motion improvement after reperfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Among 17 patients (male/female=11/6, age: 59±13) with acute myocardial infarction, 15 patients were treated with percutaneous transcoronary angioplasty (direct:2, delay:11) and intravenous urokinase (2). Spontaneous resolution occurred in infarct related arteries of 2 patients. We confirmed TIMI 3 flow of infarct-related artery after reperfusion in all patients with coronary angiography. We performed rest Tl-201 perfusion SPECT less then 6 hours after reperfusion and delay Tl-201 perfusion SPECT next day. Tl-201 uptake was visually graded as 4 point score from normal (0) to severe defect (3). Rest Tl-201 uptake ≤2 or combination of rest Tl-201 uptake ≤2 or late reversibility were considered to be viable. Myocardial wall motion was graded as 5 point score from normal (1) to dyskinesia (5). Myocardial wall motion was considered to be improved when a segment showed an improvement ≥1 grade in follow up echo compared with the baseline values. Among 98 segments with wall motion abnormality, the severity of myocardial wall motion decrease was as follow: mild hypokinesia: 18/98 (18%), severe hypokinesia: 28/98 (29%), akinesia: 51/98 (52%), dyskinesia: 1/98 (1%). The wall motion improved in 85%. Redistribution (13%), and reverse redistribution (4%) were observed in 24 hour delay SPECT. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of combination of late reversibility and rest Tl-201uptake were 99%, and 54%.PPV and NPV of rest Tl-201 uptake were 100% and 52% respectively. Predictive values of comibination of rest Tl-201 uptake and late reversibility were not significantly different compared with predictive values of rest Tl-201 uptake only. We conclude that early Tl-201 perfusion SPECT predict myocardial wall motion improvement with excellent positive but relatively low negative

  7. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy reduction of relative resting myocardial blood flow is related to late enhancement, T2-signal and LV wall thickness.

    Katja Hueper

    Full Text Available To quantify resting myocardial blood flow (MBF in the left ventricular (LV wall of HCM patients and to determine the relationship to important parameters of disease: LV wall thickness, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE, T2-signal abnormalities (dark and bright signal, LV outflow tract obstruction and age.Seventy patients with proven HCM underwent cardiac MRI. Absolute and relative resting MBF were calculated from cardiac perfusion MRI by using the Fermi function model. The relationship between relative MBF and LV wall thickness, T2-signal abnormalities (T2 dark and T2 bright signal, LGE, age and LV outflow gradient as determined by echocardiography was determined using simple and multiple linear regression analysis. Categories of reduced and elevated perfusion in relation to non- or mildly affected reference segments were defined, and T2-signal characteristics and extent as well as pattern of LGE were examined. Statistical testing included linear and logistic regression analysis, unpaired t-test, odds ratios, and Fisher's exact test.804 segments in 70 patients were included in the analysis. In a simple linear regression model LV wall thickness (p<0.001, extent of LGE (p<0.001, presence of edema, defined as focal T2 bright signal (p<0.001, T2 dark signal (p<0.001 and age (p = 0.032 correlated inversely with relative resting MBF. The LV outflow gradient did not show any effect on resting perfusion (p = 0.901. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that LGE (p<0.001, edema (p = 0.026 and T2 dark signal (p = 0.019 were independent predictors of relative resting MBF. Segments with reduced resting perfusion demonstrated different LGE patterns compared to segments with elevated resting perfusion.In HCM resting MBF is significantly reduced depending on LV wall thickness, extent of LGE, focal T2 signal abnormalities and age. Furthermore, different patterns of perfusion in HCM patients have been defined, which may represent different stages of

  8. Asymmetrically thickened posterior wall is associated with decline of ejection fraction after stress on adenosine stress/rest thallium-201 gated myocardial SPECT

    Kim, Bom Sahn; Lee, Won Woo; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    LV parameters (LVEF. ESVI and EDVI) on adenosine stress/rest thallium-201 gated myocardial SPECT (gSPECT) are various from stress to rest. We investigated the reason why they were various in patients without coronary artery disease. Seventy-one patients(M:F=32:39, age 58.1{+-}9.7yrs), who underwent gSPECT and coronary angiography (CAG) due to chest pain or preoperative evaluation were included. CAG results were normal or insignificant. Exclusion criteria were atrial fibrillation, thyroid disease, primary cardiomyopathy, myocardial bridge, LBBB, MI, and valvular heart disease. Patients were calssified into 3 groups by EF difference ({delta}EF=rest-stress EF) on gSPECT : group1 ({delta}EF{>=}10), group2 (0 {<=}{delta}EF<10), and group3 ({delta}EF<0). LV parameters on gSPECT and thicknesses of IVS (interventricular septum) and LVPW (left ventricular posterior wall) on echocardiography were compared among the 3 groups. Myocardial perfusion status were normal or mild reversible/persistent perfusion defect in 76.1% (54/71). LVEFs at stress were not different among all 3 groups : 59.3{+-}8.54% in group 1 (61.3{+-}10.22% in group 2 and 64.8{+-}7.58% in group 3 (p>0.05). But LVEF at rest was smaller in group 3 (58.7{+-}8.38%) than the other groups (72.5{+-}8.77% in group1 and 66.7{+-}10.6% in group2) (p<0.01). EDVIs and ESVI at stress were larger than those at rest in all groups (p<0.05) except ESVI in group 3 (16.2{+-}6.21ml at stress and 17.5{+-}6.41ml at rest, p<0.01), and that was attributed to EF<0 in group 3. In echocardiographical analysis, group 3 had significantly increased wall thickness of LVPW (10.7{+-}1.2mm versus 9.4{+-}1.6mm, p=0.01) and decreased wall thickness ratio of IVS/LVPW (0.963{+-}0.102 versus 1.048{+-}0.104, p=0.035) than group 1. In patients without coronary artery disease, LVEF, EDVI and ESVI on gSPECT were various and decline of LVEF from stress to rest was caused by unnormalized ESVI . Asymmetrically thickened LVPW may play a crucial role and

  9. Reversible wall motion abnormality on adenosine stress/rest thallium-201 gated myocardial SPECT is an independent predictor of coronary artery disease

    Park, Eun Kyung; Lee, Won Woo; So, Young; Eo, Jae Seon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun; Kim, Cheol Ho; Lee, Sang Woo

    2004-01-01

    As early as 10 minutes after adenosine stress, immediate post-stress wall motion (ipsWM) can be evaluated on adenosine stress/rest TI-201 gated SPECT (gSPECT). To widen application of TI-201 in gated SPECT, we investigated image quality, LV parameters (EF, EDV, and ESV) reproducibility, and diagnostic competency of gSPECT regarding ipsWM evaluation Myocardial perfusion and wall motion were evaluated by 5-point scoring system in 20-segment model. Image quality was assessed using weighted Kappa (Kw) for inter-and intra-observer agreements of wall motion scores (n=49). Reproducibility was examined through repeated acquisition (n=31). Diagnostic competency was evaluated versus coronary angiography (CAG) and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD) among stress abnormal perfusion (SSSp), stress abnormal wall motion (SSSwm), and reversible abnormal wall motion (SDSwm) (n=60). Kw for ipsWM was significantly better than that for rest regarding inter- (0.717 vs 0.489) and intra-observer agreements (0.792 vs 0.688) (p<0.05). 2SD for ipsWM was smaller than that for rest at EF (8.6% vs 10.7%) and ESV (6.0ml vs 8.4ml). Sensitivities of SSSp, SSSwm, and SDSwm were 63.3% (19/30), 63.3% (19/30), and 43.3% (13/30) and specificities 83.3% (25/30), 83.3% (25/30), and 86.7% (26/30), respectively. By multivariate analysis, SSSp (p=0.013) and SDSwm (p=0.039) remained significant predictors. Additionally, SSSwm or SDSwm could find undetected CAD in 54.5% (6/11) of patients with normal perfusion. TI-201 can be successfully applied to gated SPECT for ipsWM evaluation. Moreover, reversible wall motion abnormality on gSPECT is an independent predictor of significant CAD

  10. Prediction of improvement of myocardial wall motion after coronary artery bypass surgery using rest Tl-201/dipyridamole stress gated Tc-99m-MIBI/24 hour delay Tl-201 SPECT

    Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Won Woo; Yeo, Jeong Yeo; Kim, Seok Ki; Kim, Ki Bong; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    1998-01-01

    Using rest Tl-201/ dipyridamole stress gated Tc-99m-MIBI/24 hour delay Tl-201 SPECT, we investigated the predictive values of the markers of the stress-rest reversibility (Rev), Tl-201 rest perfusion (Rest), Tl-201 24 hour redistribution (Del) and Tc-99m-MIBI gated systolic thickening (Thk) for wall motion improvement after coronary artery bypass surgery. In 39 patients (M:F=34:5, age 58±8), preoperative and postoperative (3 months) SPECT were compared. 24 hour delayed SPECT was done in 16 patients having perfusion defects at rest. Perfusion or wall motion was scored from 0 to 3 (0: normal to 3: defect or dyskinesia). Wall motion was abnormal in 142 segments among 585 segments of 99 artery territories which were surgically revascularized. After bypass surgery, ejection fraction increased from 37.8±9.0% to 45.5±12.3% in 22 patients who had decreased ejectin fraction preoperatively. Wall motion improved in 103 (72.5%) segments among 142 dysfunctional segments. Positive predictive values (PPV) of Rev, Rest, Del, and Thk were 83%, 76%, 43%, and 69% respectively. Negative predictive values (NPV) of Rev, Rest, Del, and Thk were 48%, 44%, 58%, and 21%, respectively. Rest/gated stress/delay SPECT had PPV of 74% and NPV of 46%. Through univariate logistic regression analysis revealed Rev( p=0.0008) and Rest (p=0.024) as significant predictors, stepwise multivariate test found Rev as the only good predictor (p=0.0008). Among independent predictors obtained by rest Tl-201/stress gated Tc-99m-MIBI/delayed Tl-201 myocardial SPECT for wall motion improvement after bypass surgery, stress-rest reversibility was the single most useful predictor

  11. The predictive value of 201Tl rest-redistribution and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose SPECT for wall motion recovery after recent reperfused myocardial infarction.

    González, Patricio; Massardo, Teresa; Coll, Claudia; Humeres, Pamela; Sierralta, Paulina; Jofré, M Josefina; Yovanovich, Jorge; Aramburu, Ivonne; Brugère, Solange; Chamorro, Hernán

    2004-04-01

    201Tl and 18F-FDG are useful for acute myocardial infarction (MI) assessment. The goal of this study was to compare their predictive value for wall motion recovery in the culprit area after a recent reperfused MI using SPECT technique. Forty-one patients (mean age: 56 +/- 12 years) were included, 81% of them male; all were studied within 1-24 days post MI. They underwent angioplasty in 27 cases (12 primary); bypass grafting in 10 cases and successful thrombolysis in 4. SPECT 201Tl injected at rest and redistribution (R-R) and also 18F-FDG, were performed on different days. Processed tomograms were interpreted blinded to clinical or angiographic data. Segmental wall motion assessed with echocardiography at baseline was compared with the 3 month follow up. Sensitivity [Confidence Interval] for 201Tl R-R was 74.6% [60.5-84.5], for FDG it was 82.1% [70.8-90.4]; specificities were 73% [64.3-80.5] and 54.8% [45.6-63.7], respectively. 18F-FDG tended to be more sensitive than 201Tl R-R, but the latter was more specific (p < 0.0004). Both 201Tl RR and 18F-FDG presented high negative predictive value (p: ns). In recent MI, SPECT 201Tl R-R is a valuable and widely available technique for viability detection, with similar sensitivity and significant better specificity than SPECT 18F-FDG.

  12. Unmasking the mechanism of diffuse left ventricular wall motion abnormality in ischemic cardiomyopathy by resting-redistribution thallium-201 single photon computed tomography

    Namura, Hiroyuki; Yamabe, Hiroshi; Kakimoto, Tetsuya; Hashimoto, Yasunori; Yasaka, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Itoh, Kazushi; Yokoyama, Mitsuhiro; Maeda, Kazumi.

    1992-01-01

    The study population comprised patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) who had left ventricular wall motion (LVWM) abnormality in 5 or more segments (n=9), those with extensive myocardial infarction (EMI) having LVWM abnormality in 4 or less segments (n=12), and those with dilated left ventricle (DLV) having LVWM abnormality in all 7 segments (n=9). Defect scores (DS), obtained by initial and delayed Tl-201 myocardial single photon emission computed tomography at rest, were visually assessed to compare perfusion patterns in the three patient groups. The group of ICM patients had greater defect segments (DSeg) and % redistribution (Rd) index than the other two groups, although there was no difference in the number of angiographically proven infarct-related coronary vessels between EMI and ICM. In the group of ICM patients, there was inverse correlation not only between left ventricular ejection fraction and the sum of DS but also between left ventricular enddiastolic volume index and both the sum of DSeg and % Rd index. The group of DLV patients had small sum of DSeg and redistribution, compared with the other two groups. Although diffuse LVWM abnormality, as observed in the group of ICM patients, was considered attributable to potential decrease of coronary perfusion shown as defect on SPECT images, it did not always coincide with findings of coronary angiography. Both DSeg and redistribution phenomenon on SPECT images seemed to have the ability to evaluate the severity of ICM, as well as to differentiate ICM, EMI, and DLV. (N.K.)

  13. Female parthenogenetic apomixis and androsporogenetic parthenogenesis in embryonal cells of Araucaria angustifolia: interpolation of progenesis and asexual heterospory in an artificial sporangium.

    Durzan, Don J

    2012-09-01

    Cell fate, development timing and occurrence of reproductive versus apomictic development in gymnosperms are shown to be influenced by culture conditions in vitro. In this study, female parthenogenetic apomixis (fPA), androsporogenetic parthenogenesis (mAP) and progenesis were demonstrated using embryonal initials of Araucaria angustifolia in scaled-up cell suspensions passing through a single-cell bottleneck in darkness and in an artificial sporangium (AS). Expression was based on defined nutrition, hormones and feedforward-adaptive feedback process controls at 23-25 °C and in darkness. In fPA, the nucleus of an embryonal initial undergoes endomitosis and amitosis, forming a diploid egg-equivalent and an apoptotic ventral canal nucleus in a transdifferentiated archegonial tube. Discharge of egg-equivalent cells as parthenospores and their dispersal into the aqueous culture medium were followed by free-nuclear conifer-type proembryogenesis. This replaced the plesiomorphic and central features of proembryogenesis in Araucariaceae. Protoplasmic fusions of embryonal initials were used to reconstruct heterokaryotic expressions of fPA in multiwell plates. In mAP, restitutional meiosis (automixis) was responsible for androsporogenesis and the discharge of monads, dyads, tetrads and polyads. In a display of progenesis, reproductive development was brought to an earlier ontogenetic stage and expressed by embryonal initials. Colchicine increased polyploidy, but androspore formation became aberrant and fragmented. Aberrant automixis led to the formation of chromosomal bouquets, which contributed to genomic silencing in embryonal initials, cytomixis and the formation of pycnotic micronucleated cells. Dispersal of female and male parthenospores displayed heteromorphic asexual heterospory in an aqueous environment.

  14. RESTful NET

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  15. Torsional Post-Buckling of a Simply Supported Thin-Walled Open-Section Beam Resting on a Two-Parameter Foundation

    Rao, Ch. K.; Rao, L. B.

    2018-01-01

    The problem of the post-buckling response of a simply supported thin-walled beam subjected to an axial compressive load and supported by the Winkler-Pasternak foundation is studied in this paper. The strains are assumed to be small and elastic. The shear deformations and the in-plane cross-sectional deformations are assumed to be negligible. The post-buckling paths of the simply supported beam are determined for different values of the Winkler and Pasternak stiffness parameters. Bifurcation points are found.

  16. REST based mobile applications

    Rambow, Mark; Preuss, Thomas; Berdux, Jörg; Conrad, Marc

    2008-02-01

    Simplicity is the major advantage of REST based webservices. Whereas SOAP is widespread in complex, security sensitive business-to-business aplications, REST is widely used for mashups and end-user centric applicatons. In that context we give an overview of REST and compare it to SOAP. Furthermore we apply the GeoDrawing application as an example for REST based mobile applications and emphasize on pros and cons for the use of REST in mobile application scenarios.

  17. Alternative REST Splicing Underappreciated

    Chen, Guo-Lin; Miller, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    As a major orchestrator of the cellular epigenome, the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) can either repress or activate thousands of genes depending on cellular context, suggesting a highly context-dependent REST function tuned by environmental cues. While REST shows cell-type non-selective active transcription, an N-terminal REST4 isoform caused by alternative splicing - inclusion of an extra exon (N3c) which introduces a pre-mature stop codon - has been implicated in...

  18. Is Rest Really Rest? Resting State Functional Connectivity during Rest and Motor Task Paradigms.

    Jurkiewicz, Michael T; Crawley, Adrian P; Mikulis, David J

    2018-04-18

    Numerous studies have identified the default mode network (DMN) within the brain of healthy individuals, which has been attributed to the ongoing mental activity of the brain during the wakeful resting-state. While engaged during specific resting-state fMRI paradigms, it remains unclear as to whether traditional block-design simple movement fMRI experiments significantly influence the default mode network or other areas. Using blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI we characterized the pattern of functional connectivity in healthy subjects during a resting-state paradigm and compared this to the same resting-state analysis performed on motor task data residual time courses after regressing out the task paradigm. Using seed-voxel analysis to define the DMN, the executive control network (ECN), and sensorimotor, auditory and visual networks, the resting-state analysis of the residual time courses demonstrated reduced functional connectivity in the motor network and reduced connectivity between the insula and the ECN compared to the standard resting-state datasets. Overall, performance of simple self-directed motor tasks does little to change the resting-state functional connectivity across the brain, especially in non-motor areas. This would suggest that previously acquired fMRI studies incorporating simple block-design motor tasks could be mined retrospectively for assessment of the resting-state connectivity.

  19. RESTful Web Services Cookbook

    Allamaraju, Subbu

    2010-01-01

    While the REST design philosophy has captured the imagination of web and enterprise developers alike, using this approach to develop real web services is no picnic. This cookbook includes more than 100 recipes to help you take advantage of REST, HTTP, and the infrastructure of the Web. You'll learn ways to design RESTful web services for client and server applications that meet performance, scalability, reliability, and security goals, no matter what programming language and development framework you use. Each recipe includes one or two problem statements, with easy-to-follow, step-by-step i

  20. REST based service composition

    Grönvall, Erik; Ingstrup, Mads; Pløger, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an ongoing work developing and testing a Service Composition framework based upon the REST architecture named SECREST. A minimalistic approach have been favored instead of a creating a complete infrastructure. One focus has been on the system's interaction model. Indeed, an aim...

  1. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  2. Ambiguous walls

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how wall...

  3. Ambiguous walls

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how walls...... have encouraged architectural thinking of enclosure, materiality, construction and inhabitation in architectural history, the paper’s aim is to define new directions for the integration of LEDs in walls, challenging the thinking of inhabitation and program. This paper introduces the notion...... of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...

  4. Dipoles at rest

    Griffiths, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    In a world populated by magnetic monopoles (as well as ordinary electric charges), there are two kinds of electric dipoles: those due to separated electric charges, and those due to current loops of magnetic charge. Similarly, there are two kinds of magnetic dipoles: those due to separated magnetic monopoles, and those due to electric current loops. This paper derives the potentials and fields of each of the four dipole species, and calculates the force, torque, energy, momentum, and angular momentum of each type, when placed (at rest) in a static external field (which may itself be produced by electric charges and currents, magnetic charges and currents, or all of these). Some implications and applications of the various results are discussed

  5. Wall Turbulence.

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  6. DIRAC RESTful API

    Casajus Ramo, A; Graciani Diaz, R; Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2012-01-01

    The DIRAC framework for distributed computing has been designed as a flexible and modular solution that can be adapted to the requirements of any community. Users interact with DIRAC via command line, using the web portal or accessing resources via the DIRAC python API. The current DIRAC API requires users to use a python version valid for DIRAC. Some communities have developed their own software solutions for handling their specific workload, and would like to use DIRAC as their back-end to access distributed computing resources easily. Many of these solutions are not coded in python or depend on a specific python version. To solve this gap DIRAC provides a new language agnostic API that any software solution can use. This new API has been designed following the RESTful principles. Any language with libraries to issue standard HTTP queries may use it. GSI proxies can still be used to authenticate against the API services. However GSI proxies are not a widely adopted standard. The new DIRAC API also allows clients to use OAuth for delegating the user credentials to a third party solution. These delegated credentials allow the third party software to query to DIRAC on behalf of the users. This new API will further expand the possibilities communities have to integrate DIRAC into their distributed computing models.

  7. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  8. EMF-REST: Generation of RESTful APIs from Models

    Hamza , Ed-Douibi; Cánovas Izquierdo , Javier Luis; Gómez , Abel; Tisi , Massimo; Cabot , Jordi

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, RESTful Web services have become more and more popular as a lightweight solution to connect remote systems in distributed and Cloud-based architectures. However, being an architectural style rather than a specification or standard, the proper design of RESTful Web services is not trivial since developers have to deal with a plethora of recommendations and best practices. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) emphasizes the use of models and model transformations to raise the level...

  9. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  10. Clustering of resting state networks.

    Megan H Lee

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to demonstrate a hierarchical structure of resting state activity in the healthy brain using a data-driven clustering algorithm.The fuzzy-c-means clustering algorithm was applied to resting state fMRI data in cortical and subcortical gray matter from two groups acquired separately, one of 17 healthy individuals and the second of 21 healthy individuals. Different numbers of clusters and different starting conditions were used. A cluster dispersion measure determined the optimal numbers of clusters. An inner product metric provided a measure of similarity between different clusters. The two cluster result found the task-negative and task-positive systems. The cluster dispersion measure was minimized with seven and eleven clusters. Each of the clusters in the seven and eleven cluster result was associated with either the task-negative or task-positive system. Applying the algorithm to find seven clusters recovered previously described resting state networks, including the default mode network, frontoparietal control network, ventral and dorsal attention networks, somatomotor, visual, and language networks. The language and ventral attention networks had significant subcortical involvement. This parcellation was consistently found in a large majority of algorithm runs under different conditions and was robust to different methods of initialization.The clustering of resting state activity using different optimal numbers of clusters identified resting state networks comparable to previously obtained results. This work reinforces the observation that resting state networks are hierarchically organized.

  11. Dynamics of strings between walls

    Eto, Minoru; Fujimori, Toshiaki; Nagashima, Takayuki; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Sakai, Norisuke

    2009-01-01

    Configurations of vortex strings stretched between or ending on domain walls were previously found to be 1/4 Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) states in N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories in 3+1 dimensions. Among zero modes of string positions, the center of mass of strings in each region between two adjacent domain walls is shown to be non-normalizable whereas the rests are normalizable. We study dynamics of vortex strings stretched between separated domain walls by using two methods, the moduli space (geodesic) approximation of full 1/4 BPS states and the charged particle approximation for string end points in the wall effective action. In the first method we explicitly obtain the effective Lagrangian in the strong coupling limit, which is written in terms of hypergeometric functions, and find the 90 deg. scattering for head-on collision. In the second method the domain wall effective action is assumed to be U(1) N gauge theory, and we find a good agreement between two methods for well-separated strings.

  12. RESTful Java web services security

    Enríquez, René

    2014-01-01

    A sequential and easy-to-follow guide which allows you to understand the concepts related to securing web apps/services quickly and efficiently, since each topic is explained and described with the help of an example and in a step-by-step manner, helping you to easily implement the examples in your own projects. This book is intended for web application developers who use RESTful web services to power their websites. Prior knowledge of RESTful is not mandatory, but would be advisable.

  13. The Wall On Gladstone Avenue

    Pina MARCHESE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available "Since the house is on fire, Let us warm ourselves..." (Calabrian Proverb It all began in the village. We would wake up with the sun, we would rest our laboured bodies underneath the moon. Gli vecchi (old folks often told us: "In the end, all that will remain is our story. Nothing else really matters." This article "The Wall On Gladstone Avenue" will take you into a life of duality and how immigrants "press-on" to acquire knowledge and manifest meaning in a new land Canada.

  14. The NASA Bed Rest Project

    Rhodes, Bradley; Meck, Janice

    2005-01-01

    NASA s National Vision for Space Exploration includes human travel beyond low earth orbit and the ultimate safe return of the crews. Crucial to fulfilling the vision is the successful and timely development of countermeasures for the adverse physiological effects on human systems caused by long term exposure to the microgravity environment. Limited access to in-flight resources for the foreseeable future increases NASA s reliance on ground-based analogs to simulate these effects of microgravity. The primary analog for human based research will be head-down bed rest. By this approach NASA will be able to evaluate countermeasures in large sample sizes, perform preliminary evaluations of proposed in-flight protocols and assess the utility of individual or combined strategies before flight resources are requested. In response to this critical need, NASA has created the Bed Rest Project at the Johnson Space Center. The Project establishes the infrastructure and processes to provide a long term capability for standardized domestic bed rest studies and countermeasure development. The Bed Rest Project design takes a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, integrated approach that reduces the resource overhead of one investigator for one campaign. In addition to integrating studies operationally relevant for exploration, the Project addresses other new Vision objectives, namely: 1) interagency cooperation with the NIH allows for Clinical Research Center (CRC) facility sharing to the benefit of both agencies, 2) collaboration with our International Partners expands countermeasure development opportunities for foreign and domestic investigators as well as promotes consistency in approach and results, 3) to the greatest degree possible, the Project also advances research by clinicians and academia alike to encourage return to earth benefits. This paper will describe the Project s top level goals, organization and relationship to other Exploration Vision Projects, implementation

  15. First wall

    Omori, Junji.

    1991-01-01

    Graphite and C/C composite are used recently for the first wall of a thermonuclear device since materials with small atom number have great impurity allowable capacity for plasmas. Among them, those materials having high thermal conduction are generally anisotropic and have an upper limit for the thickness upon production. Then, anisotropic materials are used for a heat receiving plate, such that the surfaces of the heat receiving plate on the side of lower heat conductivity are brought into contact with each other, and the side of higher thermal conductivity is arranged in parallel with small radius direction and the toroidal direction of the thermonuclear device. As a result, the incident heat on an edge portion can be transferred rapidly to the heat receiving plate, which can suppress the temperature elevation at the surface to thereby reduce the amount of abrasion. Since the heat expansion coefficient of the anisotropic materials is great in the direction of the lower heat conductivity and small in the direction of the higher heat conductivity, the gradient of a thermal load distribution in the direction of the higher heat expansion coefficient is small, and occurrence of thermal stresses due to temperature difference is reduced, to improve the reliability. (N.H.)

  16. Falling walls

    It was 20 years ago this week that the Berlin wall was opened for the first time since its construction began in 1961. Although the signs of a thaw had been in the air for some time, few predicted the speed of the change that would ensue. As members of the scientific community, we can take a moment to reflect on the role our field played in bringing East and West together. CERN’s collaboration with the East, primarily through links with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR, in Dubna, Russia, is well documented. Less well known, however, is the role CERN played in bringing the scientists of East and West Germany together. As the Iron curtain was going up, particle physicists on both sides were already creating the conditions that would allow it to be torn down. Cold war historian Thomas Stange tells the story in his 2002 CERN Courier article. It was my privilege to be in Berlin on Monday, the anniversary of the wall’s opening, to take part in a conference entitled &lsquo...

  17. RESTful web services with Dropwizard

    Dallas, Alexandros

    2014-01-01

    A hands-on focused step-by-step tutorial to help you create Web Service applications using Dropwizard. If you are a software engineer or a web developer and want to learn more about building your own Web Service application, then this is the book for you. Basic knowledge of Java and RESTful Web Service concepts is assumed and familiarity with SQL/MySQL and command-line scripting would be helpful.

  18. WEB-SERVICE. RESTFUL ARCHITECTURE

    M. Melnichuk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Network technology for interaction between two applications via the HTTP protocol was considered in article.When client works with REST API - it means it works with "resources", and in SOAP work is performed with operations. To build REST web services, you must follow certain principles: explicit use of HTTP methods, access to resources by URI, stateless, HATEAOS, caching, transfer of objects in JSON or XML representation. But sometimes some principles are ignored to ensure a higher speed of work and to reduce development time.The pros and cons of using JSON and XML representations were considered, and it can be said that using the JSON format reduces the amount of data transfer, and with the use of XML, the readability of data increases.Also, two main ways of data transfer in REST web services were considered: converting the file to Base64 and transferring it as an object field or transferring the file using the usual HTTP multipart. The Base64 standard approach gives a higher speed for multiple files in a single request, because only one HTTP connection is created, but these files are stored in RAM during request processing, which increases chance of the application crashing.In the conclusion, the advantages of using web services and their wide use in other architectural approaches were considered, which increases the popularity of web services.

  19. Dry wall Kras 2011

    Domen Zupančič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the modesty of hiska, they show a simple understanding of corbelling technique. One could say they are all examples of human landscape cultivation. Although there is no evident common line when comparing all types of hiska, the cunning eye may observe one shared feature: the positioning of the entrance. More or less all the documented shelters have south or south-western facing entrances. The burja is a cold northerly wind; from the south (Adriatic Sea the winds are warmer. When resting, the setting sun is taken as a sign of the ending of the working day and a reward for the whole day’s efforts. Entrances are the only openings to these structures, and they should serve as well as possible - to watch over the crops, to wait when hunting, to enjoy the calm of evening light, to breathe the sea wind.The syntax of the architectural language of layering stone and shaping the pattern of the landscape remain an inventive realisation of spatial ideas from the past until today. Not only ideas of shaping space - these ideas are basic interventions in the natural habitat which contribute to survival. Culture and an awareness of its values are the origins of local development and reasonable heritage preservation. The next step are tutorial days with workshops on how to build dry stone structures, walls and other stone architecture, as the DSWA organisation in the UK is doing.

  20. Rest requirements and rest management of personnel in shift work

    Hammell, B.D. [PDG Environmental, Melbourne, FL (United States); Scheuerle, A. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A difficulty-weighted shift assignment scheme is proposed for use in prolonged and strenuous field operations such as emergency response, site testing, and short term hazardous waste remediation projects. The purpose of the work rotation plan is to increase productivity, safety, and moral of workers. Job weighting is accomplished by assigning adjustments to the mental and physical intensity of the task, the protective equipment worn, and the climatic conditions. The plan is based on medical studies of sleep deprivation, the effects of rest adjustments, and programs to reduce sleep deprivation and normalize shift schedules.

  1. Sustainable Rest Area Design and Operations

    2017-10-01

    One way in which State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) can modernize their rest areas while reducing operations and maintenance costs is by incorporating sustainable practices into rest area design and operations. Sustainability practices that D...

  2. Restful API Architecture Based on Laravel Framework

    Chen, Xianjun; Ji, Zhoupeng; Fan, Yu; Zhan, Yongsong

    2017-10-01

    Web service has been an industry standard tech for message communication and integration between heterogeneous systems. RESTFUL API has become mainstream web service development paradigm after SOAP, how to effectively construct RESTFUL API remains a research hotspots. This paper presents a development model of RESTFUL API construction based on PHP language and LARAVEL framework. The key technical problems that need to be solved during the construction of RESTFUL API are discussed, and implementation details based on LARAVEL are given.

  3. Diagnosis of exercise-induced left bundle branch block at rest by scintigraphic phase analysis

    Schultz, D.A.; Wahl, R.L.; Juni, J.E.; Buda, A.J.; McMeekin, J.D.; Struble, L.R.; Tuscan, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of disease of the ventricular conducting system is essential for their appropriate therapy. Some conduction abnormalities, such as exercise-induced left bundle branch block (EX-LBBB), are not apparent on resting electrocardiograms. Phase analysis of rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculograms (RVG's) was used to compare four EX-LBBB patients with six normal controls. All patients had normal resting electrocardiograms, ejection fractions, and visually normal wall motion. First harmonic phase images were generated reflecting the timing of ventricular contraction. Dynamic phase displays were reviewed and graded in a blinded fashion by three independent experienced observers. Phase angle histograms of the right and left ventricle were determined for both resting and exercise images. The mean phase angle and standard deviation were also calculated for each ventricle. Visual grading of the resting phase images failed to show a significant difference between normal patients and patients with EX-LBBB. Quantitative analysis, however, revealed a significant difference in mean phase angle differences (LV-RV) in resting studies: 0.8 0 (+-1.9 0 SEM) in normal versus 9.3 0 (+-2.3 0 SEM) in EX-LBBB patients (P 0 in normals vs. 31.2 0 in EX-LBBB patients (P<0.001). Qualitative phase analysis of resting RVG's permits the diagnosis of cardiac conduction disease that is not apparent on the resting EKG and may result in better monitoring and treatment. (orig.)

  4. Dynamics of plane-symmetric thin walls in general relativity

    Wang, A.

    1992-01-01

    Plane walls (including plane domain walls) without reflection symmetry are studied in the framework of Einstein's general relativity. Using the distribution theory, all the Einstein field equations and Bianchi identities are split into two groups: one holding in the regions outside of the wall and the other holding at the wall. The Einstein field equations at the wall are found to take a very simple form, and given explicitly in terms of the discontinuities of the metric coefficients and their derivatives. The Bianchi identities at the wall are also given explicitly. Using the latter, the interaction of a plane wall with gravitational waves and some specific matter fields is studied. In particular, it is found that, when a gravitational plane wave passes through a wall, if the wall has no reflection symmetry, the phenomena, such as reflection, stimulation, or absorption, in general, occur. It is also found that, unlike for gravitational waves, a massless scalar wave or an electromagnetic wave continuously passes through a wall without any reflection. The repulsion and attraction of a plane wall are also studied. It is found that the acceleration of an observer who is at rest relative to the wall usually consists of three parts: one is due to the force produced by the wall, the second is due to the force produced by the space-time curvature, which is zero if the wall has reflection symmetry, and the last is due to the accelerated motion of the wall. As a result, a repulsive (attractive) plane wall may not be repulsive (attractive) at all. Finally, the collision and interaction among the walls are studied

  5. Intrasellar Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6×5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest.

  6. Pro REST API development with nodejs

    Doglio, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Pro REST API Development with Node.js is your guide to managing and understanding the full capabilities of successful REST development. API design is a hot topic in the programming world, but not many resources exist for developers to really understand how you can leverage the advantages. This book will provide a brief background on REST and the tools it provides (well known and not so well known). Understand how there is more to REST than just JSON and URLs. You will then cover and compare the maintained modules currently available in the npm community, including Express, Restify, Vatican,

  7. Resting state fMRI: A review on methods in resting state connectivity analysis and resting state networks.

    Smitha, K A; Akhil Raja, K; Arun, K M; Rajesh, P G; Thomas, Bejoy; Kapilamoorthy, T R; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

    2017-08-01

    The inquisitiveness about what happens in the brain has been there since the beginning of humankind. Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a prominent tool which helps in the non-invasive examination, localisation as well as lateralisation of brain functions such as language, memory, etc. In recent years, there is an apparent shift in the focus of neuroscience research to studies dealing with a brain at 'resting state'. Here the spotlight is on the intrinsic activity within the brain, in the absence of any sensory or cognitive stimulus. The analyses of functional brain connectivity in the state of rest have revealed different resting state networks, which depict specific functions and varied spatial topology. However, different statistical methods have been introduced to study resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity, yet producing consistent results. In this article, we introduce the concept of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in detail, then discuss three most widely used methods for analysis, describe a few of the resting state networks featuring the brain regions, associated cognitive functions and clinical applications of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. This review aims to highlight the utility and importance of studying resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity, underlining its complementary nature to the task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  8. Velocity and turbulence at a wing-wall abutment

    Experimental investigation of the 3D turbulent flow field around a 45° wing-wall abutment, resting on a rough rigid bed, is reported. The experiment was conducted ... The shear stresses acting on the bed around the abutment are estimated from the Reynolds stresses and velocity gradients. The data presented in this study ...

  9. Cardiorespiratory effects of inelastic chest wall restriction.

    Miller, Jordan D; Beck, Kenneth C; Joyner, Michael J; Brice, A Glenn; Johnson, Bruce D

    2002-06-01

    We examined the effects of chest wall restriction (CWR) on cardiorespiratory function at rest and during exercise in healthy subjects in an attempt to approximate the cardiorespiratory interactions observed in clinical conditions that result in restrictive lung and/or chest wall changes and a reduced intrathoracic space. Canvas straps were applied around the thorax and abdomen so that vital capacity was reduced by >35%. Data were acquired at rest and during cycle ergometry at 25 and 45% of peak workloads. CWR elicited significant increases in the flow-resistive work performed on the lung (160%) and the gastric pressure-time integral (>400%) at the higher workload, but it resulted in a decrease in the elastic work performed on the lung (56%) compared with control conditions. With CWR, heart rate increased and stroke volume (SV) fell, resulting in >10% fall in cardiac output at rest and during exercise at matched workloads (P < 0.05). Blood pressure and catecholamines were significantly elevated during CWR exercise conditions (P < 0.05). We conclude that CWR significantly impairs SV during exercise and that a compensatory increase in heart rate does not prevent a significant reduction in cardiac output. O(2) consumption appears to be maintained via increased extraction and a redistribution of blood flow via sympathetic activation.

  10. Cognitive Rest: An Integrated Literature Review

    Schneider, Kathleen H.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive rest has been suggested as a treatment for school athletes who have sustained a concussion, but the concept has rarely been defined. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive definition of cognitive rest, based on an integrative literature review. The method of synthesis was guided by Avant and Walker's concept analysis…

  11. Resting state EEG correlates of memory consolidation.

    Brokaw, Kate; Tishler, Ward; Manceor, Stephanie; Hamilton, Kelly; Gaulden, Andrew; Parr, Elaine; Wamsley, Erin J

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that post-training sleep benefits human memory. At the same time, emerging data suggest that other resting states may similarly facilitate consolidation. In order to identify the conditions under which non-sleep resting states benefit memory, we conducted an EEG (electroencephalographic) study of verbal memory retention across 15min of eyes-closed rest. Participants (n=26) listened to a short story and then either rested with their eyes closed, or else completed a distractor task for 15min. A delayed recall test was administered immediately following the rest period. We found, first, that quiet rest enhanced memory for the short story. Improved memory was associated with a particular EEG signature of increased slow oscillatory activity (rest can facilitate memory, and that this may occur via an active process of consolidation supported by slow oscillatory EEG activity and characterized by decreased attention to the external environment. Slow oscillatory EEG rhythms are proposed to facilitate memory consolidation during sleep by promoting hippocampal-cortical communication. Our findings suggest that EEG slow oscillations could play a significant role in memory consolidation during other resting states as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimation of bladder wall location in ultrasound images.

    Topper, A K; Jernigan, M E

    1991-05-01

    A method of automatically estimating the location of the bladder wall in ultrasound images is proposed. Obtaining this estimate is intended to be the first stage in the development of an automatic bladder volume calculation system. The first step in the bladder wall estimation scheme involves globally processing the images using standard image processing techniques to highlight the bladder wall. Separate processing sequences are required to highlight the anterior bladder wall and the posterior bladder wall. The sequence to highlight the anterior bladder wall involves Gaussian smoothing and second differencing followed by zero-crossing detection. Median filtering followed by thresholding and gradient detection is used to highlight as much of the rest of the bladder wall as was visible in the original images. Then a 'bladder wall follower'--a line follower with rules based on the characteristics of ultrasound imaging and the anatomy involved--is applied to the processed images to estimate the bladder wall location by following the portions of the bladder wall which are highlighted and filling in the missing segments. The results achieved using this scheme are presented.

  13. Clinical applications of resting state functional connectivity

    Michael D Fox

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During resting conditions the brain remains functionally and metabolically active. One manifestation of this activity that has become an important research tool is spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal of fMRI. The identification of correlation patterns in these spontaneous fluctuations has been termed resting state functional connectivity (fcMRI and has the potential to greatly increase the translation of fMRI into clinical care. In this article we review the advantages of the resting state signal for clinical applications including detailed discussion of signal to noise considerations. We include guidelines for performing resting state research on clinical populations, outline the different areas for clinical application, and identify important barriers to be addressed to facilitate the translation of resting state fcMRI into the clinical realm.

  14. The value of radionuclide phase analysis and parameters of cardial function for diagnosis CAD at rest and during exercise

    Huang Gang

    1990-01-01

    27 patients and 5 normal were studied with ECG-gated cardial blood pool images and radionuclide phase analysis at rest and during exercise. The results showed that the sensitivity of LVEF in CAD at rest and during exercise were 57% and 71% respectively, and the sensitivity of the ventricular phase in CAD were 79% at rest and 90% during exercise, and the sensitivity of phase angle in CAD were higher than of LVEF. This suggested that the ventricular phase angle was important for diagnosing early CAD. In addition, regional EF, phase image and ventricular wall motion were useful to detect the lesion of ischemia in CAD

  15. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... is the most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  16. Liquid Wall Chambers

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  17. Serial thallium-201 imaging at rest in patients with unstable and stable angina pectoris: relationship of myocardial perfusion at rest to presenting clinical syndrome

    Brown, K.A.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.; Phillips, H.R.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine whether there are differences in myocardial perfusion at rest among patients with various unstable and stable angina syndromes, serial thallium-201 imaging was performed at rest in 19 patients presenting with rapidly worsening exertional angina (unstable angina, group A), 12 patients with rest angina alone without exertional symptoms (unstable angina, group B), and 34 patients with chronic stable angina. No patient had an episode of angina within 4 hours of study. Nineteen of 19 (100%) patients in group A demonstrated transient defects compared to only 3 of 12 (25%) patients in group B (p less than 0.0001) and 4 of 34 (12%) stable angina patients (p less than 0.0001). The majority of zones demonstrating transient defects in group A were associated with hypokinesis of the corresponding left ventriculogram segment without associated ECG evidence of previous infarction. There were no significant differences in the frequency of persistent thallium defects, severity of angiographic coronary artery disease, or frequency of regional wall motion abnormalities of myocardial segments supplied by stenotic coronary arteries among the three groups of patients. Transient defects have been shown to reflect reduction in regional coronary blood flow to viable myocardium. Therefore, we conclude that regional resting hypoperfusion of viable myocardium is far more common in patients with exertional unstable angina symptoms than in patients with rest angina alone or chronic stable angina

  18. Preoperative steroid in abdominal wall reconstruction

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim; Brøndum, Tina Lee; Belhage, Bo

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Preoperative administration of high-dose glucocorticoid leads to improved recovery and decreased length of stay after abdominal surgery. Even so, studies on administration of glucocorticoids for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) for giant ventral hernia repair...... defect exceeding 10 cm will be randomised for intravenous administration of either 125 mg methylprednisolone or saline at the induction of anaesthesia. The primary endpoint is pain at rest on the first post-operative day. Patients will be followed until 30 days post-operatively, and secondary outcomes...

  19. RESTful Java patterns and best practices

    Mehta, Bhakti

    2014-01-01

    This book is aimed at novice developers who want to gain insights into building RESTful services and improve productivity, as well as for advanced developers who want to delve into more complicated topics.

  20. Brief wakeful resting can eliminate directed forgetting.

    Schlichting, Andreas; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2017-02-01

    When cued to intentionally forget previously encoded memories, participants typically show reduced recall of the memories on a later recall test. We examined how such directed forgetting is affected by a brief period of wakeful resting between encoding and test. Encoding was followed by a "passive" wakeful resting period in which subjects heard emotionally neutral music or perceived neutral pictures, or it was followed by an "active" distraction period in which subjects were engaged in counting or calculation tasks. Whereas typical directed forgetting was present after active distraction, the forgetting was absent after wakeful resting. The findings indicate that the degree to which people can intentionally forget memories is influenced by the cognitive activity that people engage in shortly after learning takes place. The results provide first evidence on the interplay between wakeful resting and intentional forgetting.

  1. Partnership strategies for safety roadside rest areas.

    2009-01-01

    This project studied the many factors influencing the potential for public private partnerships for Safety : Roadside Rest Areas. It found that Federal and California State laws and regulations represent important : barriers to certain types and loca...

  2. Elegants ja eklektika - Rest Art / Lylian Meister

    Meister, Lylian, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Tallinnas Mustika keskuses asuvas sisustussalongis Rest Art pakutavast. Asjade müümise kõrval pakutakse kodudele ja hotellidele-restoranidele terviklahendusi. Salongi kujundas Kard Männil. 4 värv. vaadet

  3. USAJOBS Job Opportunity Announcements (JOA) REST API

    Office of Personnel Management — This REST-based API is designed to support lightweight Federal Job Opportunity Announcement (JOA) content consumption by consumers. It is anticipated that this API...

  4. The Physiology of Bed Rest. Chapter 39

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Schneider, Victor S.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged rest in bed has been utilized by physicians and other health-care workers to immobilize and confine patients for rehabilitation and restoration of health since time immemorial. The sitting or horizontal position is sought by the body to relieve the strain of the upright or vertical postures, for example during syncopal situations, bone fractures, muscle injuries, fatigue, and probably also to reduce energy expenditure. Most health-care personnel are aware that adaptive responses occurring during bed rest proceed concomitantly with the healing process; signs and symptoms associated with the former should be differentiated from those of the latter. Not all illnesses and infirmities benefit from prolonged bed rest. Considerations in prescribing bed rest for patients-including duration, body position, mode and duration of exercise, light-dark cycles, temperature, and humidity-have not been investigated adequately. More recently, adaptive physiological responses have been measured in normal, healthy subjects in the horizontal or slightly head-down postures during prolonged bed rest as analogs for the adaptive responses of astronauts exposed to the microgravity environment of outer and bed-rest research.

  5. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Mirosław

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Performance of Thallium 201 rest-redistribution spect to predict viability in recent myocardial infarction].

    Coll, Claudia; González, Patricio; Massardo, Teresa; Sierralta, Paulina; Humeres, Pamela; Jofré, Josefina; Yovanovich, Jorge; Aramburú, Ivonne; Brugère, Solange; Chamorro, Hernán; Ramírez, Alfredo; Kunstmann, Sonia; López, Héctor

    2002-03-01

    The detection of viability after acute myocardial infarction is primordial to select the most appropriate therapy, to decrease cardiac events and abnormal remodeling. Thallium201 SPECT is one of the radionuclide techniques used to detect viability. To evaluate the use of Thallium201 rest-redistribution SPECT to detect myocardial viability in reperfused patients after a recent myocardial infarction. Forty one patients with up to of 24 days of evolution of a myocardial infarction were studied. All had angiographically demonstrated coronary artery disease and were subjected to a successful thrombolysis, angioplasty or bypass grafting. SPECT Thallium201 images were acquired at rest and after 4 h of redistribution. These results were compared with variations in wall motion score, studied at baseline and after 3 or 4 months with echocardiography. The sensitivity of rest-redistribution Thallium201 SPECT, to predict recovery of wall motion was 91% when patient analysis was performed and 79% when segmental analysis was done in the culprit region. The figures for specificity were 56 and 73% respectively. Rest-distribution Thallium201 SPECT has an excellent sensitivity to predict myocardial viability in recent myocardial infarction. The data obtained in this study is similar to that reported for chronic coronary artery disease.

  7. Wall Finishes; Carpentry: 901895.

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is designed to provide instruction in selecting, preparing, and installing wall finishing materials. Prerequisites for the course include mastery of building construction plans, foundations and walls, and basic mathematics. Intended for use in grades 11 and 12, the course contains five blocks of study totaling 135 hours of…

  8. Wall Construction; Carpentry: 901892.

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The curriculum guide outlines a course designed to provide instruction in floor and wall layout, and in the diverse methods and construction of walls. Upon completion of this course the students should have acquired a knowledge of construction plans and structural foundations in addition to a basic knowledge of mathematics. The course consists of…

  9. International Divider Walls

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, Lineke

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  10. Supersymmetric domain walls

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Riccioni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We classify the half-supersymmetric "domain walls," i.e., branes of codimension one, in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory and show to which gauged supergravity theory each of these domain walls belong. We use as input the requirement of supersymmetric Wess-Zumino terms, the properties of

  11. Solar Walls in tsbi3

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    tsbi3 is a user-friendly and flexible computer program, which provides support to the design team in the analysis of the indoor climate and the energy performance of buildings. The solar wall module gives tsbi3 the capability of simulating solar walls and their interaction with the building....... This version, C, of tsbi3 is capable of simulating five types of solar walls say: mass-walls, Trombe-walls, double Trombe-walls, internally ventilated walls and solar walls for preheating ventilation air. The user's guide gives a description of the capabilities and how to simulate solar walls in tsbi3....

  12. Resting-state FMRI confounds and cleanup

    Murphy, Kevin; Birn, Rasmus M.; Bandettini, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is to investigate the brain’s functional connections by using the temporal similarity between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals in different regions of the brain “at rest” as an indicator of synchronous neural activity. Since this measure relies on the temporal correlation of FMRI signal changes between different parts of the brain, any non-neural activity-related process that affects the signals will influence the measure of functional connectivity, yielding spurious results. To understand the sources of these resting-state FMRI confounds, this article describes the origins of the BOLD signal in terms of MR physics and cerebral physiology. Potential confounds arising from motion, cardiac and respiratory cycles, arterial CO2 concentration, blood pressure/cerebral autoregulation, and vasomotion are discussed. Two classes of techniques to remove confounds from resting-state BOLD time series are reviewed: 1) those utilising external recordings of physiology and 2) data-based cleanup methods that only use the resting-state FMRI data itself. Further methods that remove noise from functional connectivity measures at a group level are also discussed. For successful interpretation of resting-state FMRI comparisons and results, noise cleanup is an often over-looked but essential step in the analysis pipeline. PMID:23571418

  13. Plasma-wall interactions

    Behrisch, Rainer

    1978-01-01

    The plasma wall interactions for two extreme cases, the 'vacuum model' and the 'cold gas blanket' are outlined. As a first step for understanding the plasma wall interactions the elementary interaction processes at the first wall are identified. These are energetic ion and neutral particle trapping and release, ion and neutral backscattering, ion sputtering, desorption by ions, photons and electrons and evaporation. These processes have only recently been started to be investigated in the parameter range of interest for fusion research. The few measured data and their extrapolation into regions not yet investigated are reviewed

  14. SUITABLE LOCATION OF SHEET PILE UNDER DAM RESTING ON SANDY SOIL WITH CAVITY

    Laith J. Aziz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This research describes the seepage characteristics of experimental model test of dam with cutoff located at different region (at dam heel, at mid floor of dam, and at dam toe. It is resting on sandy soil with cavity at different locations in X and Y directions (such as in Al-Najaf soil city. Thirty three model tests are performed in laboratory by using steel box to estimate the quantity of the seepage and flow lines direction. It was concluded that the best location of the cutoff wall is at the dam toe for model test with cavity ( Xc B = 0 and 0.5, but for model test with cavity ( Xc B ≥1, the best location of the sheet pile wall becomes at the dam heel. For negative location of the cavity, the best location of the sheet pile wall is at the middle of the floor dam.

  15. Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats Authors: Gary E. Hatch, John McKee, James Brown, Bill McDonnell, Elston Seal, Joleen Soukup, Ralph Slade, Kay Crissman and Robert Devlin, National Health and Environmental...

  16. Exercise countermeasures for bed-rest deconditioning

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.

  17. REST in practice Hypermedia and systems architecture

    Webber, Jim; Robinson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Why don't typical enterprise projects go as smoothly as projects you develop for the Web? Does the REST architectural style really present a viable alternative for building distributed systems and enterprise-class applications? In this insightful book, three SOA experts provide a down-to-earth explanation of REST and demonstrate how you can develop simple and elegant distributed hypermedia systems by applying the Web's guiding principles to common enterprise computing problems. You'll learn techniques for implementing specific Web technologies and patterns to solve the needs of a typical com

  18. Advanced walling systems

    De Villiers, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The question addressed by this chapter is: How should advanced walling systems be planned, designed, built, refurbished, and end their useful lives, to classify as smart, sustainable, green or eco-building environments?...

  19. Fusion: first wall problems

    Behrisch, R.

    1976-01-01

    Some of the relevant elementary atomic processes which are expected to be of significance to the first wall of a fusion reactor are reviewed. Up to the present, most investigations have been performed at relatively high ion energies, typically E greater than 5 keV, and even in this range the available data are very poor. If the plasma wall interaction takes place at energies of E greater than 1 keV the impurity introduction and first wall erosion which will take place predominantly by sputtering, will be large and may severely limit the burning time of the plasma. The wall bombardment and surface erosion will presumably not decrease substantially by introducing a divertor. The erosion can only be kept low if the energy of the bombarding ions and neutrals can be kept below the threshold for sputtering of 1 to 10 eV. 93 refs

  20. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition

    B. Alexander eDiaz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non-sensory experiences like mind wandering may arise from ongoing brain activity. However, little is known about the link between ongoing brain activity and cognition, as phenotypes of resting-state cognition—and tools to quantify them—have been lacking. To facilitate rapid and structured measurements of resting-state cognition we developed a 50-item self-report survey, the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ. Based on ARSQ data from 813 participants assessed after five minutes eyes-closed rest in their home, we identified seven dimensions of resting-state cognition using factor analysis: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Further, we showed that the structure of cognition was similar during resting-state fMRI and EEG, and that the test-retest correlations were remarkably high for all dimensions. To explore whether inter-individual variation of resting-state cognition is related to health status, we correlated ARSQ-derived factor scores with psychometric scales measuring depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Mental health correlated positively with Comfort and negatively with Discontinuity of Mind. Finally, we show that sleepiness may partially explain a resting-state EEG profile previously associated with Alzheimer’s disease. These findings indicate that the ARSQ readily provides information about cognitive phenotypes and that it is a promising tool for research on the neural correlates of resting-state cognition in health and disease.

  1. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition

    Diaz, B. Alexander; Van Der Sluis, Sophie; Moens, Sarah; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Migliorati, Filippo; Stoffers, Diederick; Den Braber, Anouk; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Hardstone, Richard; Van't Ent, Dennis; Boomsma, Dorret I.; De Geus, Eco; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non-sensory experiences like mind wandering may arise from ongoing brain activity. However, little is known about the link between ongoing brain activity and cognition, as phenotypes of resting-state cognition—and tools to quantify them—have been lacking. To facilitate rapid and structured measurements of resting-state cognition we developed a 50-item self-report survey, the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ). Based on ARSQ data from 813 participants assessed after 5 min eyes-closed rest in their home, we identified seven dimensions of resting-state cognition using factor analysis: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Further, we showed that the structure of cognition was similar during resting-state fMRI and EEG, and that the test-retest correlations were remarkably high for all dimensions. To explore whether inter-individual variation of resting-state cognition is related to health status, we correlated ARSQ-derived factor scores with psychometric scales measuring depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Mental health correlated positively with Comfort and negatively with Discontinuity of Mind. Finally, we show that sleepiness may partially explain a resting-state EEG profile previously associated with Alzheimer's disease. These findings indicate that the ARSQ readily provides information about cognitive phenotypes and that it is a promising tool for research on the neural correlates of resting-state cognition in health and disease. PMID:23964225

  2. Plasma-wall interaction

    Reichle, R.

    2004-01-01

    This document gathers the 43 slides presented in the framework of the week long lecture 'hot plasmas 2004' and dedicated to plasma-wall interaction in a tokamak. This document is divided into 4 parts: 1) thermal load on the wall, power extraction and particle recovery, 2) basic edge plasma physics, 3) processes that drive the plasma-solid interaction, and 4) material conditioning (surface treatment...) for ITER

  3. Dynamic wall demonstration project

    Nakatsui, L.; Mayhew, W.

    1990-12-01

    The dynamic wall concept is a ventilation strategy that can be applied to a single family dwelling. With suitable construction, outside air can be admitted through the exterior walls of the house to the interior space to function as ventilation air. The construction and performance monitoring of a demonstration house built to test the dynamic wall concept in Sherwood Park, Alberta, is described. The project had the objectives of demonstrating and assessing the construction methods; determining the cost-effectiveness of the concept in Alberta; analyzing the operation of the dynamic wall system; and determining how other components and systems in the house interact with the dynamic wall. The exterior wall construction consisted of vinyl siding, spun-bonded polyolefin-backed (SBPO) rigid fiberglass sheathing, 38 mm by 89 mm framing, fiberglass batt insulation and 12.7 mm drywall. The mechanical system was designed to operate in the dynamic (negative pressure) mode, however flexibility was provided to allow operation in the static (balanced pressure) mode to permit monitoring of the walls as if they were in a conventional house. The house was monitored by an extensive computerized monitoring system. Dynamic wall operation was dependent on pressure and temperature differentials between indoor and outdoor as well as wind speed and direction. The degree of heat gain was found to be ca 74% of the indoor-outdoor temperature differential. Temperature of incoming dynamic air was significantly affected by solar radiation and measurement of indoor air pollutants found no significant levels. 4 refs., 34 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Orbital wall fractures

    Iinuma, Toshitaka; Ishio, Ken-ichirou; Yoshinami, Hiroyoshi; Kuriyama, Jun-ichi; Hirota, Yoshiharu.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 59 cases of mild facial fractures (simple orbital wall fractures, 34 cases, other facial fractures, 25 cases) with the clinical suspects of orbital wall fractures were evaluated both by conventional views (Waters' and Caldwell views) and coronal CT scans. Conventional views were obtained, as an average, after 4 days and CT after 7 days of injuries. Both the medial wall and the floor were evaluated at two sites, i.e., anterior and posterior. The ethmoid-maxillary plate was also included in the study. The degree of fractures was classified as, no fractures, fractures of discontinuity, dislocation and fragmentation. The coronal CT images in bone window condition was used as reference and the findings were compared between conventional views and CT. The correct diagnosis was obtained as follows: orbital floor (anterior, 78%, posterior, 73%), medial orbital wall (anterior, 72%, posterior, 72%) and ethmoid-maxillary plate (64%). The false positive diagnosis was as follows: orbital floor (anterior only, 13%), medial orbital wall (anterior only, 7%) and ethmoid-maxillary plate (11%). The false negative diagnosis was as follows: orbital floor (anterior, 9%, posterior, 10%), medial orbital wall (anterior, 21%, posterior, 28%) and ethmoid-maxillary plate (21%). The results were compared with those of others in the past. (author)

  5. 1 SHORT COMMUNICATION Resting behaviour of Anopheles ...

    2011-10-04

    Oct 4, 2011 ... Resting behaviour of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and its implication on malaria .... nature) were requested to sleep under the double mosquito net trap (one ... designed from the DNA sequences of the intergenic spacer region of ...

  6. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    Costes, D.

    2012-01-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  7. [Creep of amalgam fillings under clasp rests].

    Borchers, L; Jung, T; West, M

    1989-10-01

    A clinically realistic experiment was set up to obtain information on the amount of vertical settling of clasp rests in amalgam restorations under functional loading. Mesioocclusal cavities were prepared in 16 lower molar specimens cast in brass. The cavities were filled with amalgam and provided with a mesial rest seat. A constant load of 100 N was applied via a simplified (experimental) saddle to a cobalt-chromium E-clasp cast to the saddle. The duration of the load corresponded to 160 days of clinical function. The chronological course of vertical displacement was analyzed mathematically. According to this result the process can be divided into three components: settling immediately upon load initiation (mean value 96 microns, transition creep (mean value 25 microns) and creep ata constant rate (mean value 15 microns). The mean overall vertical displacement of the rests was 136 microns, the maximum value 287 microns. These findings suggest that vertical settling of a clasp rest into its seat in an amalgam restoration may eventually result in significant changes in occlusion and may almost completely exhaust gingival resilience.

  8. KETERASINGAN DALAM FILM WALL-E

    Rahmadya Putra Nugraha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern society nowadays technological advances at first create efficiency in human life. Further development of the technology thus drown human in a routine and automation of work created. The State is to be one of the causes of man separated from fellow or the outside world and eventually experiencing alienation. The movie as a mass media function to obtain the movie and entertainment can be informative or educative function is contained, even persuasive. The purpose of this research was conducted to find out the alienation in the movie Wall E. The concepts used to analyze the movie Wall E this is communication, movie, and alienation. The concept of alienation of human alienation from covering its own products of human alienation from its activities, the human alienation from nature of his humanity and human alienation from each other. Paradigm used is a critical paradigm with type a descriptive research with qualitative approach. The method used is the analysis of semiotics Roland Barthes to interpretation the scope of social alienation and fellow humans in the movie.This writing research results found that alienation of humans with other humans influenced the development of the technology and how the human it self represented of technology, not from our fellow human beings. Masyarakat modern saat ini kemajuan teknologi pada awalnya membuat efisiensi dalam kehidupan manusia. Perkembangan selanjutnya teknologi justru menenggelamkan manusia dalam suatu rutinitas dan otomatisasi kerja yang diciptakan. Keadaan itulah yang menjadi salah satu penyebab manusia terpisah dari sesama atau dunia luar dan akhirnya mengalami keterasingan. Film sebagai media massa berfungsi untuk memperoleh hiburan dan dalam film dapat terkandung fungsi informatif maupun edukatif, bahkan persuasif. Tujuan Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui Keterasingan dalam film Wall E. Konsep-konsep yang digunakan untuk menganalisis film Wall E ini adalah komunikasi, film, dan

  9. REST: a toolkit for resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data processing.

    Xiao-Wei Song

    Full Text Available Resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI has been drawing more and more attention in recent years. However, a publicly available, systematically integrated and easy-to-use tool for RS-fMRI data processing is still lacking. We developed a toolkit for the analysis of RS-fMRI data, namely the RESting-state fMRI data analysis Toolkit (REST. REST was developed in MATLAB with graphical user interface (GUI. After data preprocessing with SPM or AFNI, a few analytic methods can be performed in REST, including functional connectivity analysis based on linear correlation, regional homogeneity, amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF, and fractional ALFF. A few additional functions were implemented in REST, including a DICOM sorter, linear trend removal, bandpass filtering, time course extraction, regression of covariates, image calculator, statistical analysis, and slice viewer (for result visualization, multiple comparison correction, etc.. REST is an open-source package and is freely available at http://www.restfmri.net.

  10. Correlation of an abnormal rest /sup 201/Tl myocardial image: Pathological findings in cardiac transplant recipients

    McKillop, J.H.; McDougall, I.R.; Billingham, M.; Schroeder, J.S.

    1982-06-01

    Rest myocardial /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy was undertaken in 15 males mean age 39 years (22-54) who had been accepted for cardiac transplantation. Complete pathological correlation was obtained in 14 after transplantation and in 1 who died before a suitable donor heart became available. The average time from scintigraphy to pathological evaluation was 42 days (9-103). All the /sup 201/Tl images were grossly abnormal and on the basis of these studies it was not possible to differentiate ischemic from idiopathic cardiomyopathy. Each of the three views of the /sup 201/Tl study was divided into three segments, therefore 135 areas were available for comparison (3 x 3 x 15). Eighty-eight of these were abnormal on scan and 78 of these were abnormal pathologically. The right ventricle was seen on all rest images but the degree of uptake bore no relationship to the measured thickness of the right ventricular wall. Structures such as the atrial wall and the enlarged papillary muscle were visualized in some patients. In two patients there was an improvement of the rest /sup 201/Tl image in delayed views and histologically these areas showed a mixture of muscle and fibrous tissue. The sensitivity of /sup 201/Tl imaging in this study was 89% and there was close correlation of the images with gross and microscopic pathological findings.

  11. Kinetic wall from Israel

    Godolphin, D.

    1985-05-01

    An unusual solar mass wall is described. At the turn of a handle it can change from a solar energy collector to a heat-blocker. An appropriate name for it might be the rotating prism wall. An example of the moving wall is at work in an adobe test home in Sede Boqer. Behind a large south-facing window stand four large adobe columns that are triangular in plan. One face of each of them is painted black to absorb sunlight, a second is covered with panels of polystyrene insulation, and a third is painted to match the room decor. These columns can rotate. On winter nights, the insulated side faces the glass, keeping heat losses down. The same scheme works in summer to keep heat out of the house. Small windows provide ventilation.

  12. Timber frame walls

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding....... It was found that the specific damages made to the vapour barrier as part of the test did not have any provable effect on the moisture content. In general elements with an intact vapour barrier did not show a critical moisture content at the wind barrier after four years of exposure....

  13. The significance of resting thallium-201 delayed SPECT for assessing viability of infarcted regions

    Mori, Takao; Yamabe, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Kazumi; Fukuzaki, Hisashi

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-eight patients with old myocardial infarction (OMI) and 35 patients with effort angina pectoris (EAP) underwent resting thallium-201 (Tl) SPECT one week after exercise (Ex) Tl SPECT. On the basis of both resting and Ex Tl SPECT scans, OMI patients were divided into 3 groups: those who had Tl redistribution (RD) on Ex images and the same perfusion defect (PD) on both resting and Ex delayed images (n=12, Group 1); those who had a lower PD on resting delayed images than Ex delayed images (n=15, Group 2); and those who had no Tl RD on Ex images in spite of the same PD on both resting and EX delayed images (n=11, Group 3). EAP patients were divided into Group 1 (n=18) in whom no PD was seen on Ex delayed image and Group 2 (n=17) in whom PD was not seen on Ex delayed images either, but seen on resting delayed images. EX images showed higher pulmonary artery wedge pressure in Group 2 than Group 1 of both OMI and EAP patients (27±7 mmHg vs 15±6 mmHg for OMI patients; 22±6 mmHg vs 12±7 mmHg for EAP patients). For PD, Tl uptake rate on Ex initial images was higher in Group 1 than Gorup 2 of both OMI and EAP patients (63±7% vs 55±9% for OMI patients; 72±7% vs 65±9% for EAP patients). Resting delayed images for OMI patients showed the highest Tl uptake rate in Group 1 (78±7%), followed by Group 2 (74±8%) and then Group 3 (41±10%). In the group of OMI patients, the incidence of akinetic or dyskinetic wall motion on left ventriculography was the highest in Group 3 (85.7%), followed by Group 2 (52.2%) and Group 1 (24.3%). OMI patients, as well as EAP patients, had lower PD on resting delayed images than EX delayed images. Thus, severer ischemia may be associated with stress and infarcted areas may not involve viable muscle when Tl PD is decreased on resting delayed images. (N.K.)

  14. Information Flow Between Resting-State Networks.

    Diez, Ibai; Erramuzpe, Asier; Escudero, Iñaki; Mateos, Beatriz; Cabrera, Alberto; Marinazzo, Daniele; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto J; Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Cortes Diaz, Jesus M

    2015-11-01

    The resting brain dynamics self-organize into a finite number of correlated patterns known as resting-state networks (RSNs). It is well known that techniques such as independent component analysis can separate the brain activity at rest to provide such RSNs, but the specific pattern of interaction between RSNs is not yet fully understood. To this aim, we propose here a novel method to compute the information flow (IF) between different RSNs from resting-state magnetic resonance imaging. After hemodynamic response function blind deconvolution of all voxel signals, and under the hypothesis that RSNs define regions of interest, our method first uses principal component analysis to reduce dimensionality in each RSN to next compute IF (estimated here in terms of transfer entropy) between the different RSNs by systematically increasing k (the number of principal components used in the calculation). When k=1, this method is equivalent to computing IF using the average of all voxel activities in each RSN. For k≥1, our method calculates the k multivariate IF between the different RSNs. We find that the average IF among RSNs is dimension dependent, increasing from k=1 (i.e., the average voxel activity) up to a maximum occurring at k=5 and to finally decay to zero for k≥10. This suggests that a small number of components (close to five) is sufficient to describe the IF pattern between RSNs. Our method--addressing differences in IF between RSNs for any generic data--can be used for group comparison in health or disease. To illustrate this, we have calculated the inter-RSN IF in a data set of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to find that the most significant differences between AD and controls occurred for k=2, in addition to AD showing increased IF w.r.t. The spatial localization of the k=2 component, within RSNs, allows the characterization of IF differences between AD and controls.

  15. Annihilation of antiproton on deuteron at rest

    Grach, I.; Shmatikov, M.

    1982-01-01

    The system of Faddeev equations for amplitudes of anti pD iteraction at rest accounting for higher partial anti NN waves is derived. From its solution the total and elastic anti pD cross sections are calculated. Predictions for the missing-mass spectrum in the anti pD annihilation are made. The P-wave anti NN states give small contribution to the anti pD cross section at rest, the theoretical value of the latter being less than the experimental cross section extrapolated to the threshold. Let us emphasize that the total anti pD cross section depending weakly on the radii of anti NN interactions is sensitive to the values of the anti NN scattering lengths. Experimental data for anti pD cross sections at rest can be obtained only by extrapolation procedure. Henceforth it is very important to investigate the anti pD interactions at low but non-zero momenta where the direct comparison to the experiment is possible [ru

  16. eWALL

    Kyriazakos, Sofoklis; Mihaylov, Mihail; Anggorojati, Bayu

    2016-01-01

    challenge with impact in multiple sectors. In this paper we present an innovative ICT solution, named eWALL, that aims to address these challenges by means of an advanced ICT infrastructure and home sensing environment; thus differentiating from existing eHealth and eCare solutions. The system of e...

  17. Abdominal wall surgery

    ... as liposuction , which is another way to remove fat. But, abdominal wall surgery is sometimes combined with liposuction. ... from the middle and lower sections of your abdomen to make it firmer ... removes excess fat and skin (love handles) from the sides of ...

  18. Occupy Wall Street

    Jensen, Michael J.; Bang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the political form of Occupy Wall Street on Twitter. Drawing on evidence contained within the profiles of over 50,000 Twitter users, political identities of participants are characterized using natural language processing. The results find evidence of a traditional...

  19. Endometriosis Abdominal wall

    Alvarez, M.; Carriquiry, L.

    2003-01-01

    Endometriosis of abdominal wall is a rare entity wi ch frequently appears after gynecological surgery. Case history includes three cases of parietal endometriosis wi ch were treated in Maciel Hospital of Montevideo. The report refers to etiological diagnostic aspects and highlights the importance of total resection in order to achieve definitive healing

  20. Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain.

    Koop, Herbert; Koprdova, Simona; Schürmann, Christine

    2016-01-29

    Chronic abdominal wall pain is a poorly recognized clinical problem despite being an important element in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. This review is based on pertinent articles that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and EMBASE employing the terms "abdominal wall pain" and "cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. In 2% to 3% of patients with chronic abdominal pain, the pain arises from the abdominal wall; in patients with previously diagnosed chronic abdominal pain who have no demonstrable pathological abnormality, this likelihood can rise as high as 30% . There have only been a small number of clinical trials of treatment for this condition. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, with the aid of Carnett's test. The characteristic clinical feature is strictly localized pain in the anterior abdominal wall, which is often mischaracterized as a "functional" complaint. In one study, injection of local anesthesia combined with steroids into the painful area was found to relieve pain for 4 weeks in 95% of patients. The injection of lidocaine alone brought about improvement in 83-91% of patients. Long-term pain relief ensued after a single lidocaine injection in 20-30% of patients, after repeated injections in 40-50% , and after combined lidocaine and steroid injections in up to 80% . Pain that persists despite these treatments can be treated with surgery (neurectomy). Chronic abdominal wall pain is easily diagnosed on physical examination and can often be rapidly treated. Any physician treating patients with abdominal pain should be aware of this condition. Further comparative treatment trials will be needed before a validated treatment algorithm can be established.

  1. Usefulness of rest-redistribution on thallium myocardial scintigraphy in patients with acute myocardial infarction by SPECT; Analysis by bull's eye and unfolded map images

    Tahara, Yorio; Taya, Makoto; Sasaki, Akira; Nishimura, Tooru; Shimoyama, Katsuya; Mizuno, Haruyoshi; Ono, Akifumi; Okada, Michio; Ishikawa, Kyozo (Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of rest-redistribution in myocardial scintigraphy (SPECT) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). 30 patients with AMI within one week after the onset of attack were studied. SPECT images were obtained 10 min and 3hrs after injection of {sup 201}Tl. Bull's eye images and unfolded map images were prepared. A {sup 201}Tl uptake was studied at the infarct and non-infarct sites. Exercise SPECT and radionuclide angiography were performed in all patients one month after the onset of AMI, and the findings were compared with clinical and coronary angiographic (CAG) findings. Redistribution of Tl at rest was observed at the infarct sites in 9 of the 30 patients. Redistribution at rest was observed at the non-infarct sites in 8 patients. Redistribution at rest was observed during exercise SPECT one month after the onset of AMI in patients with redistribution at rest in the acute phase. In patients with redistribution at rest at the infarct site, left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) improved one month after the onset of AMI ({Delta}EF>5%), but it decreased slightly during exercise. Wall motion at the infarct site was not much impaired in patients who showed redistribution at rest at the infarct site. Angina pectoris and recurrence of myocardial infarction were observed more frequently on SPECT, but no characteristic findings were obtained on CAG in those with redistribution at rest. In conclusion, cardiac function and wall motion at the infarct site are better preserved in patients with redistribution of Tl at rest on SPECT in the acute stage of myocardial infarction, as compared with patients having fixed defects, but the EF decrease slightly during exercise and the frequency of post-infarction angina is greater in those patients. Resting SPECT in AMI is considered to provide useful information for predicting cardiac function and the clinical course following myocardial infarction. (author).

  2. Wind tunnels with adapted walls for reducing wall interference

    Ganzer, U.

    1979-01-01

    The basic principle of adaptable wind tunnel walls is explained. First results of an investigation carried out at the Aero-Space Institute of Berlin Technical University are presented for two dimensional flexible walls and a NACA 0012 airfoil. With five examples exhibiting very different flow conditions it is demonstrated that it is possible to reduce wall interference and to avoid blockage at transonic speeds by wall adaptation.

  3. Rising damp in building walls: the wall base ventilation system

    Guimaraes, A.S.; Delgado, J.M.P.Q.; Freitas, V.P. de [Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Laboratorio de Fisica das Construcoes (LFC), Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Porto (Portugal)

    2012-12-15

    This work intends to validate a new system for treating rising damp in historic buildings walls. The results of laboratory experiments show that an efficient way of treating rising damp is by ventilating the wall base, using the HUMIVENT technique. The analytical model presented describes very well the observed features of rising damp in walls, verified by laboratory tests, who contributed for a simple sizing of the wall base ventilation system that will be implemented in historic buildings. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of Arterial Mechanics During Head-down Tilt Bed Rest

    Elliot, Morgan; Martin, David S.; Westby, Christian M.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Arterial health may be affected by microgravity or ground based analogs of spaceflight, as shown by an increase in thoracic aorta stiffness1. Head-down tilt bed rest (HDTBR) is often used as a ground-based simulation of spaceflight because it induces physiological changes similar to those that occur in space2, 3. This abstract details an analysis of arterial stiffness (a subclinical measure of atherosclerosis), the distensibility coefficient (DC), and the pressure-strain elastic modulus (PSE) of the arterial walls during HDTBR. This project may help determine how spaceflight differentially affects arterial function in the upper vs. lower body.

  5. Segmental wall-motion analysis in the right anterior oblique projection: comparison of exercise equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography and exercise contrast ventriculography

    Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.H.; Keyes, J.W. Jr.; Brymer, J.F.; Walton, J.A.; Pitt, B.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease were studied at rest and during supine bicycle exercise with radionuclide and contrast left ventriculography. Analysis of regional wall motion was made by visual evaluation of the five standard 30 0 right anterior oblique (RAO) wall segments in the contrast images and the corresponding 10 0 RAO radionuclide segments. The radionuclide studies were evaluated independently by three observers using a five-point grading system. The interobserver wall-motion grading agreed completely in more than 80% of segments at rest and exercise, and agreed within one wall-motion grade in more than 95% of segments. The comparison of wall-motion grades between radionuclide and contrast ventriculograms showed complete agreement in 86% of segments at rest and in 78% during exercise, and agreement within one wall-motion grade in 97% of rest and 96% of exercise segments. Visual evaluation of 10 0 RAO rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculograms compares favorably with rest and exercise 30 0 RAO contrast ventriculograms and demonstrates satisfactory interobserver agreement

  6. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  7. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  8. Framework for ReSTful Web Services in OSGi

    Shams, Khawaja S.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Mittman, David S.; Fox, Jason M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Wallick, Michael N.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Rabe, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ensemble ReST is a software system that eases the development, deployment, and maintenance of server-side application programs to perform functions that would otherwise be performed by client software. Ensemble ReST takes advantage of the proven disciplines of ReST (Representational State Transfer. ReST leverages the standardized HTTP protocol to enable developers to offer services to a diverse variety of clients: from shell scripts to sophisticated Java application suites

  9. Nephrogenic rests mimicking Wilms' tumor on CT

    Subhas, Naveen; Siegelman, Stanley S.; Argani, Pedram; Gearhart, John P.

    2004-01-01

    Nephrogenic rests (NR) are persistent benign remnants of embryonic renal tissue. A small percentage of these may develop into Wilms' tumor (WT). Radiologic imaging is relied upon to differentiate between these entities, with the hallmark of malignant transformation being growth on serial imaging studies. There is, however, considerable overlap in their imaging characteristics. The authors present a case of two biopsy-proven NR in a 2-year-old girl with sporadic aniridia that were indistinguishable from WT on initial radiologic studies. One of the NR grew on serial imaging studies mimicking a WT, but after resection was confirmed to be a benign hyperplastic NR on pathologic examination. (orig.)

  10. Hypoxic responses in resting hyperthermic humans

    Curtis, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This thesis investigated the interaction between steady state hypoxia and passive hyperthermia on human ventilation and the influence of the PETCO2 on this interaction. On one of two days males twice breathed 12% oxygen for 20 min while either normothermic or hyperthermic with PETCO2 clamped -1 mm Hg above resting (iHVR). On the other day the same tests were performed except P&02 was uncontrolled (pHVR). Hyperthermia increased euoxic ventilation compared to normothermia (plO.OO1). During ...

  11. Proton spin structure in the rest frame

    Zavada, P.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that the quark-parton model in the standard infinite momentum approach overestimates the proton spin structure function g 1 (x) in comparison with the approach taking consistently into account the internal motion of quarks described by a spherical phase space in the proton rest frame. Particularly, it is shown the first moment of the spin structure function in the latter approach, assuming only the valence quarks contribution to the proton spin, does not contradict the experimental data. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Wall insulation system

    Kostek, P.T.

    1987-08-11

    In a channel specially designed to fasten semi-rigid mineral fibre insulation to masonry walls, it is known to be constructed from 20 gauge galvanized steel or other suitable material. The channel is designed to have pre-punched holes along its length for fastening of the channel to the drywall screw. The unique feature of the channel is the teeth running along its length which are pressed into the surface of the butted together sections of the insulation providing a strong grip between the two adjacent pieces of insulation. Of prime importance to the success of this system is the recent technological advancements of the mineral fibre itself which allow the teeth of the channel to engage the insulation fully and hold without mechanical support, rather than be repelled or pushed back by the inherent nature of the insulation material. After the insulation is secured to the masonry wall by concrete nail fastening systems, the drywall is screwed to the channel.

  13. Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality ...

    Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality of sheep without enhancing environmental benefits. ... This experiment was established to compare three intensive rotational grazing strategies (fast rotation [FR], average 57-day rest; slow rotation [SR], average 114-day rest; and flexible grazing [FX], based ...

  14. Shadows on the wall

    Swift, Diana.

    1984-01-01

    Canadian antinuclear groups, because of their shifting stances and fluid overlapping membership, are compared with shadows on a wall. They can be roughly classified as environmental, pacifist, concerned with energy, religious, or dedicated to nuclear responsibility. The author considers that such groups, despite their arguably unrealistic attitudes, have raised public awareness of the ethical, practical and financial aspects of power development in Canada and the world

  15. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    Leigh, Jason; Johnson, Andrew; Renambot, Luc; Peterka, Tom; Jeong, Byungil; Sandin, Daniel J.; Talandis, Jonas; Jagodic, Ratko; Nam, Sungwon; Hur, Hyejung; Sun, Yiwen

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  16. Light shining through walls

    Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    Shining light through walls? At first glance this sounds crazy. However, very feeble gravitational and electroweak effects allow for this exotic possibility. Unfortunately, with present and near future technologies the opportunity to observe light shining through walls via these effects is completely out of question. Nevertheless there are quite a number of experimental collaborations around the globe involved in this quest. Why are they doing it? Are there additional ways of sending photons through opaque matter? Indeed, various extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of new particles called WISPs - extremely weakly interacting slim particles. Photons can convert into these hypothetical particles, which have no problems to penetrate very dense materials, and these can reconvert into photons after their passage - as if light was effectively traversing walls. We review this exciting field of research, describing the most important WISPs, the present and future experiments, the indirect hints from astrophysics and cosmology pointing to the existence of WISPs, and finally outlining the consequences that the discovery of WISPs would have. (orig.)

  17. Light shining through walls

    Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Shining light through walls? At first glance this sounds crazy. However, very feeble gravitational and electroweak effects allow for this exotic possibility. Unfortunately, with present and near future technologies the opportunity to observe light shining through walls via these effects is completely out of question. Nevertheless there are quite a number of experimental collaborations around the globe involved in this quest. Why are they doing it? Are there additional ways of sending photons through opaque matter? Indeed, various extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of new particles called WISPs - extremely weakly interacting slim particles. Photons can convert into these hypothetical particles, which have no problems to penetrate very dense materials, and these can reconvert into photons after their passage - as if light was effectively traversing walls. We review this exciting field of research, describing the most important WISPs, the present and future experiments, the indirect hints from astrophysics and cosmology pointing to the existence of WISPs, and finally outlining the consequences that the discovery of WISPs would have. (orig.)

  18. Microfluidics with fluid walls.

    Walsh, Edmond J; Feuerborn, Alexander; Wheeler, James H R; Tan, Ann Na; Durham, William M; Foster, Kevin R; Cook, Peter R

    2017-10-10

    Microfluidics has great potential, but the complexity of fabricating and operating devices has limited its use. Here we describe a method - Freestyle Fluidics - that overcomes many key limitations. In this method, liquids are confined by fluid (not solid) walls. Aqueous circuits with any 2D shape are printed in seconds on plastic or glass Petri dishes; then, interfacial forces pin liquids to substrates, and overlaying an immiscible liquid prevents evaporation. Confining fluid walls are pliant and resilient; they self-heal when liquids are pipetted through them. We drive flow through a wide range of circuits passively by manipulating surface tension and hydrostatic pressure, and actively using external pumps. Finally, we validate the technology with two challenging applications - triggering an inflammatory response in human cells and chemotaxis in bacterial biofilms. This approach provides a powerful and versatile alternative to traditional microfluidics.The complexity of fabricating and operating microfluidic devices limits their use. Walsh et al. describe a method in which circuits are printed as quickly and simply as writing with a pen, and liquids in them are confined by fluid instead of solid walls.

  19. Wall Street som kreationistisk forkynder

    Ekman, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong......Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong...

  20. A cytochemical and immunocytochemical analysis of the wall labyrinth apparatus in leaf transfer cells in Elodea canadensis.

    Ligrone, Roberto; Vaughn, Kevin C; Rascio, Nicoletta

    2011-04-01

    Transfer cells are plant cells specialized in apoplast/symplast transport and characterized by a distinctive wall labyrinth apparatus. The molecular architecture and biochemistry of the labyrinth apparatus are poorly known. The leaf lamina in the aquatic angiosperm Elodea canadensis consists of only two cell layers, with the abaxial cells developing as transfer cells. The present study investigated biochemical properties of wall ingrowths and associated plasmalemma in these cells. Leaves of Elodea were examined by light and electron microscopy and ATPase activity was localized cytochemically. Immunogold electron microscopy was employed to localize carbohydrate epitopes associated with major cell wall polysaccharides and glycoproteins. The plasmalemma associated with the wall labyrinth is strongly enriched in light-dependent ATPase activity. The wall ingrowths and an underlying wall layer share an LM11 epitope probably associated with glucuronoarabinoxylan and a CCRC-M7 epitope typically associated with rhamnogalacturonan I. No labelling was observed with LM10, an antibody that recognizes low-substituted and unsubstituted xylan, a polysaccharide consistently associated with secondary cell walls. The JIM5 and JIM7 epitopes, associated with homogalacturonan with different degrees of methylation, appear to be absent in the wall labyrinth but present in the rest of cell walls. The wall labyrinth apparatus of leaf transfer cells in Elodea is a specialized structure with distinctive biochemical properties. The high level of light-dependent ATPase activity in the plasmalemma lining the wall labyrinth is consistent with a formerly suggested role of leaf transfer cells in enhancing inorganic carbon inflow. The wall labyrinth is a part of the primary cell wall. The discovery that the wall ingrowths in Elodea have an antibody-binding pattern divergent, in part, from that of the rest of cell wall suggests that their carbohydrate composition is modulated in relation to transfer

  1. Resting ECG findings in elite football players.

    Bohm, Philipp; Ditzel, Roman; Ditzel, Heribert; Urhausen, Axel; Meyer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate ECG abnormalities in a large sample of elite football players. Data from 566 elite male football players (57 of them of African origin) above 16 years of age were screened retrospectively (age: 20.9 ± 5.3 years; BMI: 22.9 ± 1.7 kg · m(-2), training history: 13.8 ± 4.7 years). The resting ECGs were analysed and classified according to the most current ECG categorisation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) (2010) and a classification of Pelliccia et al. (2000) in order to assess the impact of the new ESC-approach. According to the classification of Pelliccia, 52.5% showed mildly abnormal ECG patterns and 12% were classified as distinctly abnormal ECG patterns. According to the classification of the ESC, 33.7% showed 'uncommon ECG patterns'. Short-QT interval was the most frequent ECG pattern in this group (41.9%), followed by a shortened PR-interval (19.9%). When assessed with a QTc cut-off-point of 340 ms (instead of 360 ms), only 22.2% would have had 'uncommon ECG patterns'. Resting ECG changes amongst elite football players are common. Adjustment of the ESC criteria by adapting proposed time limits for the ECG (e.g. QTc, PR) should further reduce the rate of false-positive results.

  2. Resting State Network Estimation in Individual Subjects

    Hacker, Carl D.; Laumann, Timothy O.; Szrama, Nicholas P.; Baldassarre, Antonello; Snyder, Abraham Z.

    2014-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to study brain networks associated with both normal and pathological cognitive function. The objective of this work is to reliably compute resting state network (RSN) topography in single participants. We trained a supervised classifier (multi-layer perceptron; MLP) to associate blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) correlation maps corresponding to pre-defined seeds with specific RSN identities. Hard classification of maps obtained from a priori seeds was highly reliable across new participants. Interestingly, continuous estimates of RSN membership retained substantial residual error. This result is consistent with the view that RSNs are hierarchically organized, and therefore not fully separable into spatially independent components. After training on a priori seed-based maps, we propagated voxel-wise correlation maps through the MLP to produce estimates of RSN membership throughout the brain. The MLP generated RSN topography estimates in individuals consistent with previous studies, even in brain regions not represented in the training data. This method could be used in future studies to relate RSN topography to other measures of functional brain organization (e.g., task-evoked responses, stimulation mapping, and deficits associated with lesions) in individuals. The multi-layer perceptron was directly compared to two alternative voxel classification procedures, specifically, dual regression and linear discriminant analysis; the perceptron generated more spatially specific RSN maps than either alternative. PMID:23735260

  3. Human activity and rest in situ.

    Roenneberg, Till; Keller, Lena K; Fischer, Dorothee; Matera, Joana L; Vetter, Céline; Winnebeck, Eva C

    2015-01-01

    Our lives are structured by the daily alternation of activity and rest, of wake and sleep. Despite significant advances in circadian and sleep research, we still lack answers to many of the most fundamental questions about this conspicuous behavioral pattern. We strongly believe that investigating this pattern in entrained conditions, real-life and daily contexts-in situ-will help the field to elucidate some of these central questions. Here, we present two common approaches for in situ investigation of human activity and rest: the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) and actimetry. In the first half of this chapter, we provide detailed instructions on how to use and interpret the MCTQ. In addition, we give an overview of the main insights gained with this instrument over the past 10 years, including some new findings on the interaction of light and age on sleep timing. In the second half of this chapter, we introduce the reader to the method of actimetry and share our experience in basic analysis techniques, including visualization, smoothing, and cosine model fitting of in situ recorded data. Additionally, we describe our new approach to automatically detect sleep from activity recordings. Our vision is that the broad use of such easy techniques in real-life settings combined with automated analyses will lead to the creation of large databases. The resulting power of big numbers will promote our understanding of such fundamental biological phenomena as sleep. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Build an Interactive Word Wall

    Jackson, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Word walls visually display important vocabulary covered during class. Although teachers have often been encouraged to post word walls in their classrooms, little information is available to guide them. This article describes steps science teachers can follow to transform traditional word walls into interactive teaching tools. It also describes a…

  5. Myocardial sestamibi single-photon emission tomography: variations in reference values with gender, age and rest versus stress?

    Toft, J.; Hesse, B.; Raboel, A.; Carstensen, S.; Ali, S.

    1997-01-01

    Reference data files support the evaluation of myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The aim of this study was to create a large reference data base for technetium-99m sestamibi SPET, age and gender matched to the general patient population. One hundred and twenty-eight healthy volunteers (76 males and 52 females) with a likelihood of coronary artery disease of less than 5% underwent rest and maximal exercise 99m Tc-sestamibi SPET with a 2-day protocol and 180 elliptical rotation. The normalized activity values of 99m Tc-sestamibi in the inferior wall differed significantly between men and women. Age variations were found for men in the anterior wall. Normalized activity values in all four walls were strikingly similar during rest and stress. Our results suggest that the use of reference files in 99m Tc-sestamibi SPET requires a gender- and, for males, possibly an age-matched reference population. Different reference files at rest and during stress might not be necessary. (orig.). With 3 figs., 3 tabs

  6. "Therapeutic" bed rest in pregnancy: unethical and unsupported by data.

    McCall, Christina A; Grimes, David A; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2013-06-01

    "Therapeutic" bed rest continues to be used widely, despite evidence of no benefit and known harms. In this commentary, we summarize the Cochrane reviews of bed rest and propose an ethical argument for discontinuing this practice. Cochrane systematic reviews do not support "therapeutic" bed rest for threatened abortion, hypertension, preeclampsia, preterm birth, multiple gestations, or impaired fetal growth. This assessment has been echoed in other comprehensive reviews. Prescribing bed rest is inconsistent with the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice. Hence, if bed rest is to be used, it should be only within a formal clinical trial.

  7. The Ensembl REST API: Ensembl Data for Any Language.

    Yates, Andrew; Beal, Kathryn; Keenan, Stephen; McLaren, William; Pignatelli, Miguel; Ritchie, Graham R S; Ruffier, Magali; Taylor, Kieron; Vullo, Alessandro; Flicek, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present a Web service to access Ensembl data using Representational State Transfer (REST). The Ensembl REST server enables the easy retrieval of a wide range of Ensembl data by most programming languages, using standard formats such as JSON and FASTA while minimizing client work. We also introduce bindings to the popular Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor tool permitting large-scale programmatic variant analysis independent of any specific programming language. The Ensembl REST API can be accessed at http://rest.ensembl.org and source code is freely available under an Apache 2.0 license from http://github.com/Ensembl/ensembl-rest. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror

    2015-01-01

    in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic...... endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3...

  9. Resting site use of giant pandas in Wanglang Nature Reserve.

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Li, Junqing

    2017-10-23

    Little is known about the resting sites used by the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), which restricts our understanding of their resting habits and limits conservation efforts. To enhance our understanding of resting site requirements and factors affecting the resting time of giant pandas, we investigated the characteristics of resting sites in the Wanglang Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. The results indicated that the resting sites of giant pandas were characterised by a mean slope of 21°, mean nearest tree size of 53.75 cm, mean nearest shrub size of 2.82 cm, and mean nearest bamboo number of 56. We found that the resting sites were closer to bamboo than to trees and shrubs, suggesting that the resting site use of giant pandas is closely related to the presence of bamboo. Considering that giant pandas typically rest near a large-sized tree, protection of large trees in the forests is of considerable importance for the conservation of this species. Furthermore, slope was found to be an important factor affecting the resting time of giant pandas, as they tended to rest for a relatively longer time in sites with a smaller degree of slope.

  10. Receiver operating characteristics of diagnostic efficacy of resting left ventricular performance (evaluating with a non-imaging ECG gated scintillation detector - nuclear stethoscope)

    Kotlyarov, E.V.; Reba, R.C.; Lindsay, J.

    1983-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of left ventricular performance at rest was applied to evaluate diagnostic utility of non-imaging nuclear detector (''Nuclear Stethoscope''), for screening patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Thirty-one patients without CAD and normal rest and stress radionuclide ventriculography (MUGA) were used as a control group. Another 62 patients with abnormal left ventricular reserve and segmental wall motion abnormalities at rest were also studied. All 93 patients were studied with the Nuclear Stethoscope (30 minutes after conventional MUGA testing) both in beat-to-beat and gated equilibrium modes. ROC analysis showed that along with ejection fraction, stroke and end-diastolic volumes, evaluation of the left ventricular filling phase has a great potential for the identification of patients with a segmental wall motion abnormality and, therefore, significant CAD

  11. Regulation of cell wall biosynthesis.

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2007-12-01

    Plant cell walls differ in their amount and composition among various cell types and even in different microdomains of the wall of a given cell. Plants must have evolved regulatory mechanisms controlling biosynthesis, targeted secretion, and assembly of wall components to achieve the heterogeneity in cell walls. A number of factors, including hormones, the cytoskeleton, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, phosphoinositides, and sugar nucleotide supply, have been implicated in the regulation of cell wall biosynthesis or deposition. In the past two years, there have been important discoveries in transcriptional regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis. Several transcription factors in the NAC and MYB families have been shown to be the key switches for activation of secondary wall biosynthesis. These studies suggest a transcriptional network comprised of a hierarchy of transcription factors is involved in regulating secondary wall biosynthesis. Further investigation and integration of the regulatory players participating in the making of cell walls will certainly lead to our understanding of how wall amounts and composition are controlled in a given cell type. This may eventually allow custom design of plant cell walls on the basis of our needs.

  12. Electroweak bubble wall speed limit

    Bödeker, Dietrich [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Moore, Guy D., E-mail: bodeker@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: guymoore@ikp.physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 2, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    In extensions of the Standard Model with extra scalars, the electroweak phase transition can be very strong, and the bubble walls can be highly relativistic. We revisit our previous argument that electroweak bubble walls can 'run away,' that is, achieve extreme ultrarelativistic velocities γ ∼ 10{sup 14}. We show that, when particles cross the bubble wall, they can emit transition radiation. Wall-frame soft processes, though suppressed by a power of the coupling α, have a significance enhanced by the γ-factor of the wall, limiting wall velocities to γ ∼ 1/α. Though the bubble walls can move at almost the speed of light, they carry an infinitesimal share of the plasma's energy.

  13. DEM Analysis of Backfilled Walls Subjected to Active Translation Mode

    Mohammad Hossein Khosravi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of a retaining wall under active translation mode is investigated numerically. To this end, a series of numerical models is conducted using the discrete element code, PFC2D. The backfill soil is simulated by an assembly of separate cohesionless circular particles. Backfill soil was prepared by pouring soil particles from a specific height under gravity force and giving them enough time for appropriate settlement. Different heights of retaining walls are simulated and the lateral earth pressure on the wall is observed under both at-rest and active conditions. Numerical results compared with predictions from some analytical methods and measurements from physical models. The active state of earth pressure is defined as the earth pressure distribution corresponding to the values of wall displacement where the failure zone in the backfill is fully developed. The numerical results showed that the fully active state of earth pressure occurred at a wall displacement corresponding to the strains required for reaching the critical state in biaxial compressive tests.

  14. A comparison of resting images from two myocardial perfusion tracers

    Anagnostopoulos, C.; Laney, R.; Pennell, D.; Proukakis, H.; Underwood, R.

    1995-01-01

    We have compared stress-redistribution and delayed rest thallium-201 with rest technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) tomograms in order to compare the tracers for the assessment of myocardial viability and to validate a rapid protocol combining the two tracers. We studied 30 consecutive patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease [group 1: 16 with normal left ventricular function, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 55%, SD 6%; group 2: 14 with abnormal function, mean LVEF 28%, SD 8%]. 201 Tl was injected during infusion of adenosine followed by acquisition of conventional stress and redistribution tomograms. On a separate day, 201 Tl was injected at rest with imaging 4 h later. 99m Tc-MIBI was then given at rest and imaging was performed. Three images were compared: redistribution 201 Tl, rest 201 Tl, and rest 99m Tc-MIBI. Tracer activity was classified visually and quantitatively in nine segments and segments with>50% activity were defined as containing clinically significant viable myocardium. Mean global tracer uptake as a percentage of maximum was similar in group 1 (rest 201 Tl 69%±12%, redistribution 201 Tl 69%±15%, rest 99m Tc-MIBI 70%±13%), but in group 2 mean tracer uptake was significantly greater in the rest 201 Tl images (59%±16%) than in redistribution 201 Tl images (53%±17%) or rest 99m Tc-MIBI images (53%±19%). Overall agreement for regional uptake score was excellent (κ from 0.79 to 0.84), although there were a significant number of segments with less uptake shown by redistribution 201 Tl and by rest 99m Tc-MIBI than by rest 201 Tl in group 2. The number of segments with significant viable myocardium in group 1 was very similar between the three images but in group 2 rest 201 Tl identified significantly more segments as viable than the other images. (orig./MG) (orig.). With 1 fig., 7 tabs

  15. Enhanced wall pumping in JET

    Ehrenberg, J.; Harbour, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The enhanced wall pumping phenomenon in JET is observed for hydrogen or deuterium plasmas which are moved from the outer (larger major radius) limiter position either to the inner wall or to the top/bottom wall of the vacuum vessel. This phenomenon is analysed by employing a particle recycling model which combines plasma particle transport with particle re-emission from and retention within material surfaces. The model calculates the important experimentally observable quantities, such as particle fluxes, global particle confinement time, plasma density and density profile. Good qualitative agreement is found and, within the uncertainties, the agreement is quantitative if the wall pumping is assumed to be caused by two simultaneously occurring effects: (1) Neutral particle screening at the inner wall and the top/bottom wall is larger than that at the outer limiter because of different magnetic topologies at different poloidal positions; and (2) although most of the particles (≥ 90%) impacting on the wall can be promptly re-emitted, a small fraction (≤ 10%) of them must be retained in the wall for a period of time which is similar to or larger than the global plasma particle confinement time. However, the wall particle retention time need not be different from that of the outer limiter, i.e. pumping can occur when there is no difference between the material properties of the limiter and those of the wall. (author). 45 refs, 18 figs

  16. Characteristics of wall pressure over wall with permeable coating

    Song, Woo Seog; Shin, Seungyeol; Lee, Seungbae [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Fluctuating wall pressures were measured using an array of 16 piezoelectric transducers beneath a turbulent boundary layer. The coating used in this experiment was an open cell, urethane type foam with a porosity of approximately 50 ppi. The ultimate objective of the coating is to provide a mechanical filter to reduce the wall pressure fluctuations. The ultimate objective of the coating is to provide a mechanical filter to reduce the wall pressure fluctuations. The boundary layer on the flat plate was measured by using a hot wire probe, and the CPM method was used to determine the skin friction coefficient. The wall pressure autospectra and streamwise wavenumber frequency spectra were compared to assess the attenuation of the wall pressure field by the coating. The coating is shown to attenuate the convective wall pressure energy. However, the relatively rough surface of the coating in this investigation resulted in a higher mean wall shear stress, thicker boundary layer, and higher low frequency wall pressure spectral levels compared to a smooth wall.

  17. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    Børglum, Jens; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    been introduced with success. Future research should also investigate the effect of specific abdominal wall blocks on neuroendocrine and inflammatory stress response after surgery.  Summary USG abdominal wall blocks in adults are commonplace techniques today. Most abdominal wall blocks are assigned......Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research.......  Recent findings Ultrasound guidance is now considered the golden standard for abdominal wall blocks in adults, even though some landmark-based blocks are still being investigated. The efficiency of USG transversus abdominis plane blocks in relation to many surgical procedures involving the abdominal wall...

  18. Resting eggs in free living marine and estuarine copepods

    Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Kiørboe, Thomas; Brun, Philipp Georg

    2018-01-01

    Marine free living copepods can survive harsh periods and cope with seasonal fluctuations in environmental conditions using resting eggs (embryonic dormancy). Laboratory experiments show that temperature is the common driver for resting egg production. Hence, we hypothesize (i) that seasonal...... temperature variation, rather than variation in food abundance is the main driver for the occurrence of the resting eggs strategy in marine and estuarine copepod species; and (ii) that the thermal boundaries of the distribution determine where resting eggs are produced and whether they are produced to cope...... with warm or cold periods. We compile literature information on the occurrence of resting egg production and relate this to spatio-temporal patterns in sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a concentration obtained from satellite observations. We find that the production of resting eggs has been reported...

  19. Rest but busy: Aberrant resting-state functional connectivity of triple network model in insomnia.

    Dong, Xiaojuan; Qin, Haixia; Wu, Taoyu; Hu, Hua; Liao, Keren; Cheng, Fei; Gao, Dong; Lei, Xu

    2018-02-01

    One classical hypothesis among many models to explain the etiology and maintenance of insomnia disorder (ID) is hyperarousal. Aberrant functional connectivity among resting-state large-scale brain networks may be the underlying neurological mechanisms of this hypothesis. The aim of current study was to investigate the functional network connectivity (FNC) among large-scale brain networks in patients with insomnia disorder (ID) during resting state. In the present study, the resting-state fMRI was used to evaluate whether patients with ID showed aberrant FNC among dorsal attention network (DAN), frontoparietal control network (FPC), anterior default mode network (aDMN), and posterior default mode network (pDMN) compared with healthy good sleepers (HGSs). The Pearson's correlation analysis was employed to explore whether the abnormal FNC observed in patients with ID was associated with sleep parameters, cognitive and emotional scores, and behavioral performance assessed by questionnaires and tasks. Patients with ID had worse subjective thought control ability measured by Thought Control Ability Questionnaire (TCAQ) and more negative affect than HGSs. Intriguingly, relative to HGSs, patients with ID showed a significant increase in FNC between DAN and FPC, but a significant decrease in FNC between aDMN and pDMN. Exploratory analysis in patients with ID revealed a significantly positive correlation between the DAN-FPC FNC and reaction time (RT) of psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). The current study demonstrated that even during the resting state, the task-activated and task-deactivated large-scale brain networks in insomniacs may still maintain a hyperarousal state, looking quite similar to the pattern in a task condition with external stimuli. Those results support the hyperarousal model of insomnia.

  20. From "rest" to language task: Task activation selects and prunes from broader resting-state network.

    Doucet, Gaelle E; He, Xiaosong; Sperling, Michael R; Sharan, Ashwini; Tracy, Joseph I

    2017-05-01

    Resting-state networks (RSNs) show spatial patterns generally consistent with networks revealed during cognitive tasks. However, the exact degree of overlap between these networks has not been clearly quantified. Such an investigation shows promise for decoding altered functional connectivity (FC) related to abnormal language functioning in clinical populations such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this context, we investigated the network configurations during a language task and during resting state using FC. Twenty-four healthy controls, 24 right and 24 left TLE patients completed a verb generation (VG) task and a resting-state fMRI scan. We compared the language network revealed by the VG task with three FC-based networks (seeding the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC)/Broca): two from the task (ON, OFF blocks) and one from the resting state. We found that, for both left TLE patients and controls, the RSN recruited regions bilaterally, whereas both VG-on and VG-off conditions produced more left-lateralized FC networks, matching more closely with the activated language network. TLE brings with it variability in both task-dependent and task-independent networks, reflective of atypical language organization. Overall, our findings suggest that our RSN captured bilateral activity, reflecting a set of prepotent language regions. We propose that this relationship can be best understood by the notion of pruning or winnowing down of the larger language-ready RSN to carry out specific task demands. Our data suggest that multiple types of network analyses may be needed to decode the association between language deficits and the underlying functional mechanisms altered by disease. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2540-2552, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Evaluation of hemodynamic significance of coronary fistulae. Diagnostic integration between coronary angiography and stress/rest myocardial scintigraphy

    Rubini, G.; Sebastiani, M.

    2000-01-01

    It is here reported on the importance of the integration of data obtained from digital coronary angiography and stress/rest 99m Tc sestamibi myocardial perfusion single photon emission tomography in evaluationing the hemodynamic significance of coronary arteriovenous fistulae. Coronary fistulae were detected with coronary angiography in 9 patients. All patients underwent clinical examination, trans thoracic echocardiography, stress electrocardiogram and stress/rest 99m Tc sestamibi myocardial perfusion single photon emission tomography. Stress/rest 99m Tc sestamibi myocardial perfusion single photon tomography and stress electrocardiogram showed stress-induced myocardial ischemia in 2 patients. The first patient with familial predisposition and risk factors for ischemic heart disease presented a mesocardic heart murmur on clinical examination. At stress ECG (125 Watt, 153 b/m max frequency 93%, arterial pressure 230 mmHg, max frequency pressure product 35200) ischemic alterations were recorded at the first minute of the second stage of the Bruce protocol. Coronary angiography detected a circumflex artery fistula in the coronary sinus. Stress/rest 99m Tc sestamibi myocardial perfusion single photon emission tomography for the evaluation of stress/rest perfusion detected a reversible perfusion defect of the proximal portion of the posterolateral and lateral walls, thus confirming the hemodynamic importance of the flow through the fistula during stress cycloergometric testing. In the second patient familial predisposition to ischemic heart disease and previous inferior wall myocardial infarction and non-significant stress ECG, coronary angiography identified a seclusive stenosis of the right coronary artery and anomaly between the anterior interventricular artery and the left pulmonary artery. The presence of the contrast medium in the left pulmonary artery identified a flow from the left ventricle to the left pulmonary artery. Good angiographic results were obtained

  2. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Functional Mobility and Balance: Relationship to Resting State Motor Cortex Connectivity

    Erdeniz, B.; Koppelmans, V.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Kofman, I. S.; DeDios, Y. E.; Riascos-Castaneda, R. F.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA offers researchers from a variety of backgrounds the opportunity to study bed rest as an experimental analog for space flight. Extended exposure to a head-down tilt position during long duration bed rest can resemble many of the effects of a low-gravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The aim of our study is to a) identify changes in brain function that occur with prolonged bed rest and characterize their recovery time course; b) assess whether and how these changes impact behavioral and neurocognitive performance. Thus far, we completed data collection from six participants that include task based and resting state fMRI. The data have been acquired through the bed rest facility located at the University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX). Subjects remained in bed with their heads tilted down 6 degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Behavioral measures and neuroimaging assessments were obtained at seven time points: a) 7 and 12 days before bed rest; b) 7, 30, and 65 days during bed rest; and c) 7 and 12 days after bed rest. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (FcMRI) analysis was performed to assess the connectivity of motor cortex in and out of bed rest. We found a decrease in motor cortex connectivity with vestibular cortex and the cerebellum from pre bed rest to in bed rest. We also used a battery of behavioral measures including the functional mobility test and computerized dynamic posturography collected before and after bed rest. We will report the preliminary results of analyses relating brain and behavior changes. Furthermore, we will also report the preliminary results of a spatial working memory task and vestibular stimulation during in and out of bed rest.

  3. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and left ventricular function at rest in patients with rest angina pectoris

    Hakki, A.H.; Iskandrian, A.S.; Kane, S.A.; Amenta, A.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the rest thallium-201 perfusion pattern during angina-free periods in 40 patients with rest angina pectoris secondary to coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 70% diameter narrowing). Seventeen patients had previous Q wave myocardial infarction. The perfusion defects were considered fixed or reversible, depending on the absence or presence of redistribution in the 4-hour delayed images. There were 40 perfusion defects (26 fixed and 14 reversible) in 27 patients whereas 13 patients had normal scans. Reversible perfusion defects were present in 10 patients (25%). Of the 26 fixed perfusion defects, 17 did not have corresponding Q waves. Occluded vessels (63%) had more perfusion defects than vessels with subtotal occlusion (30%) (p less than 0.01). The perfusion defect size was larger in patients with lower ejection fraction than in patients with higher ejection fraction. We conclude: (1) perfusion defects are common in patients with rest angina and are reversible in 25% of patients indicating reduced regional coronary blood flow; (2) the degree of stenosis affects the presence of perfusion defect; (3) fixed defects may be present without corresponding Q waves; and (4) global left ventricular function is related to the size of perfusion defects

  4. Efficiency at rest: magnetoencephalographic resting-state connectivity and individual differences in verbal working memory.

    del Río, David; Cuesta, Pablo; Bajo, Ricardo; García-Pacios, Javier; López-Higes, Ramón; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando

    2012-11-01

    Inter-individual differences in cognitive performance are based on an efficient use of task-related brain resources. However, little is known yet on how these differences might be reflected on resting-state brain networks. Here we used Magnetoencephalography resting-state recordings to assess the relationship between a behavioral measurement of verbal working memory and functional connectivity as measured through Mutual Information. We studied theta (4-8 Hz), low alpha (8-10 Hz), high alpha (10-13 Hz), low beta (13-18 Hz) and high beta (18-30 Hz) frequency bands. A higher verbal working memory capacity was associated with a lower mutual information in the low alpha band, prominently among right-anterior and left-lateral sensors. The results suggest that an efficient brain organization in the domain of verbal working memory might be related to a lower resting-state functional connectivity across large-scale brain networks possibly involving right prefrontal and left perisylvian areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiation shielding wall structure

    Nishimura, Yoshitaka; Oka, Shinji; Kan, Toshihiko; Misato, Takeshi.

    1990-01-01

    A space between a pair of vertical steel plates laterally disposed in parallel at an optional distance has a structure of a plurality of vertically extending tranks partitioned laterally by vertically placed steel plates. Then, cements are grouted to the tranks. Strip-like steel plates each having a thickness greater than the gap between the each of the vertically placed steel plates and the cement are bonded each at the surface for each of the vertically placed steel plates opposing to the cements. A protrusion of a strip width having radiation shielding performance substantially identical with that by the thickness of the cement is disposed in the strip-like steel plates. With such a constitution, a safety radiation shielding wall structure with no worry of radiation intrusion to gaps, if formed, between the steel plates and the grouted cements due to shrinkage of the cements. (I.N.)

  6. Observations on resistive wall modes

    Gerwin, R.A.; Finn, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Several results on resistive wall modes and their application to tokamaks are presented. First, it is observed that in the presence of collisional parallel dynamics there is an exact cancellation to lowest order of the dissipative and sound wave effects for an ideal Ohm's law. This is easily traced to the fact that the parallel dynamics occurs along the perturbed magnetic field lines for such electromagnetic modes. Such a cancellation does not occur in the resistive layer of a tearing-like mode. The relevance to models for resistive wall modes using an electrostatic Hammett-Perkins type operator to model Landau damping will be discussed. Second, we observe that with an ideal Ohm's law, resistive wall modes can be destabilized by rotation in that part of parameter space in which the ideal MHD modes are stable with the wall at infinity. This effect can easily be explained by interpreting the resistive wall instability in terms of mode coupling between the backward stable MHD mode and a stable mode locked into the wall. Such an effect can occur for very small rotation for tearing-resistive wall modes in which inertia dominates viscosity in the layer, but the mode is stabilized by further rotation. For modes for which viscosity dominates in the layer, rotation is purely stabilizing. For both tearing models, a somewhat higher rotation frequency gives stability essentially whenever the tearing mode is stable with a perfectly conducting wall. These tearing/resistive wall results axe also simply explained in terms of mode coupling. It has been shown that resonant external ideal modes can be stabilized in the presence of resistive wall and resistive plasma with rotation of order the nominal tearing mode growth rate. We show that these modes behave as resistive wall tearing modes in the sense above. This strengthens the suggestion that rotational stabilization of the external kink with a resistive wall is due to the presence of resistive layers, even for ideal modes

  7. Resting states are resting traits--an FMRI study of sex differences and menstrual cycle effects in resting state cognitive control networks.

    Hjelmervik, Helene; Hausmann, Markus; Osnes, Berge; Westerhausen, René; Specht, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    To what degree resting state fMRI is stable or susceptible to internal mind states of the individual is currently an issue of debate. To address this issue, the present study focuses on sex differences and investigates whether resting state fMRI is stable in men and women or changes within relative short-term periods (i.e., across the menstrual cycle). Due to the fact that we recently reported menstrual cycle effects on cognitive control based on data collected during the same sessions, the current study is particularly interested in fronto-parietal resting state networks. Resting state fMRI was measured in sixteen women during three different cycle phases (menstrual, follicular, and luteal). Fifteen men underwent three sessions in corresponding time intervals. We used independent component analysis to identify four fronto-parietal networks. The results showed sex differences in two of these networks with women exhibiting higher functional connectivity in general, including the prefrontal cortex. Menstrual cycle effects on resting states were non-existent. It is concluded that sex differences in resting state fMRI might reflect sexual dimorphisms in the brain rather than transitory activating effects of sex hormones on the functional connectivity in the resting brain.

  8. Developing RESTful web services with Jersey 2.0

    Gulabani, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    The book will follow a standard tutorial approach and will teach readers how to use the Jersey API for creating RESTful web services.This book is intended for Java EE developers who are building applications on the REST architecture. This is a quick, hands-on guide for learning JAX-RS 2.0. Developers should have some knowledge about RESTful web services but it's not essential to know JAX-RS 1.0.

  9. Domain wall networks on solitons

    Sutcliffe, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Domain wall networks on the surface of a soliton are studied in a simple theory. It consists of two complex scalar fields, in 3+1 dimensions, with a global U(1)xZ n symmetry, where n>2. Solutions are computed numerically in which one of the fields forms a Q ball and the other field forms a network of domain walls localized on the surface of the Q ball. Examples are presented in which the domain walls lie along the edges of a spherical polyhedron, forming junctions at its vertices. It is explained why only a small restricted class of polyhedra can arise as domain wall networks

  10. Volunteer Work, Religious Commitment, and Resting Pulse Rates.

    Krause, Neal; Ironson, Gail; Hill, Peter C

    2017-04-01

    Research indicates that greater involvement in volunteer activities is associated with better health. We aim to contribute to this literature in two ways. First, rather than rely on self-reports of health, measured resting pulse rates serve as the dependent variable. Second, an effort is made to see if religious commitment moderates the relationship between volunteering and resting pulse rates. Data that come from a recent nationwide survey (N = 2265) suggest that volunteer work is associated with lower resting pulse rates. The results also reveal that the relationship between engaging in volunteer work and resting pulse rates improves among study participants who are more deeply committed to religion.

  11. Introducing the PRIDE Archive RESTful web services.

    Reisinger, Florian; del-Toro, Noemi; Ternent, Tobias; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The PRIDE (PRoteomics IDEntifications) database is one of the world-leading public repositories of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics data and it is a founding member of the ProteomeXchange Consortium of proteomics resources. In the original PRIDE database system, users could access data programmatically by accessing the web services provided by the PRIDE BioMart interface. New REST (REpresentational State Transfer) web services have been developed to serve the most popular functionality provided by BioMart (now discontinued due to data scalability issues) and address the data access requirements of the newly developed PRIDE Archive. Using the API (Application Programming Interface) it is now possible to programmatically query for and retrieve peptide and protein identifications, project and assay metadata and the originally submitted files. Searching and filtering is also possible by metadata information, such as sample details (e.g. species and tissues), instrumentation (mass spectrometer), keywords and other provided annotations. The PRIDE Archive web services were first made available in April 2014. The API has already been adopted by a few applications and standalone tools such as PeptideShaker, PRIDE Inspector, the Unipept web application and the Python-based BioServices package. This application is free and open to all users with no login requirement and can be accessed at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/ws/archive/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Latent heat of traffic moving from rest

    Farzad Ahmadi, S.; Berrier, Austin S.; Doty, William M.; Greer, Pat G.; Habibi, Mohammad; Morgan, Hunter A.; Waterman, Josam H. C.; Abaid, Nicole; Boreyko, Jonathan B.

    2017-11-01

    Contrary to traditional thinking and driver intuition, here we show that there is no benefit to ground vehicles increasing their packing density at stoppages. By systematically controlling the packing density of vehicles queued at a traffic light on a Smart Road, drone footage revealed that the benefit of an initial increase in displacement for close-packed vehicles is completely offset by the lag time inherent to changing back into a ‘liquid phase’ when flow resumes. This lag is analogous to the thermodynamic concept of the latent heat of fusion, as the ‘temperature’ (kinetic energy) of the vehicles cannot increase until the traffic ‘melts’ into the liquid phase. These findings suggest that in situations where gridlock is not an issue, drivers should not decrease their spacing during stoppages in order to lessen the likelihood of collisions with no loss in flow efficiency. In contrast, motion capture experiments of a line of people walking from rest showed higher flow efficiency with increased packing densities, indicating that the importance of latent heat becomes trivial for slower moving systems.

  13. Rest frame properties of the proton

    Strobel, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The proton is modeled as three quarks of small current quark mass. The three-body Dirac equation is solved with spin-independent central diagonal linear confining potentials with an attractive Coulombic term in a relativistic three-quark model. Hyperspherical coordinates are used, and the bound state is found analytically. After integrating over the hyperangles, the Hamiltonian is an 8 by 8 matrix of coupled first-order differential equations in one variable, the hyperradius. These are analytically solved in hypercentral approximation. For the (1/2 + ) 3 ground-state configuration in the nonrelativistic large-quark-mass limit, there are no nodes in the wave function. However, in the extreme relativistic limit of small current quark masses of a few MeV, the expectation value of the number of nodes is about 1.30 when the potential parameters are chosen to reproduce the proton rms charge radius. The quarks are assumed to possess a Pauli anomalous magnetic moment, like that of the electron and muon of (α/2π)(e/m). Assuming all three quarks have equal mass, one can fit the rest energy, magnetic moment, rms charge radius, and axial charge of the proton with this relativistic three-body Dirac equation model. The solution found shows the necessity of including all components of the composite three-quark wave function, as the upper component contributes only 0.585 to the norm

  14. Hard wall - soft wall - vorticity scattering in shear flow

    Rienstra, S.W.; Singh, D.K.

    2014-01-01

    An analytically exact solution, for the problem of lowMach number incident vorticity scattering at a hard-soft wall transition, is obtained in the form of Fourier integrals by using theWiener-Hopf method. Harmonic vortical perturbations of inviscid linear shear flow are scattered at the wall

  15. Hard wall - soft wall - vorticity scattering in shear flow

    Rienstra, S.W.; Singh, D.K.

    2014-01-01

    An analytically exact solution, for the problem of low Mach number incident vorticity scattering at a hard-soft wall transition, is obtained in the form of Fourier integrals by using the Wiener-Hopf method. Harmonic vortical perturbations of inviscid linear shear flow are scattered at the wall

  16. Comparison of stress-rest and rest-stress one day myocardial perfusion scintigraphies in detecting coronary artery diseases

    Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Jun; Song, Ho Cheon; Kim, Ji Yeul

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that both rest and stress myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium agents can be performed on the same day using two different doses injected within few hours. The purpose of this study was to compare the two protocols (stress-rest and rest-stress) in detecting coronary artery diseases. One hundred and sixty patients (101 males, 59 females, mean age 57±9 years) and 120 patients (79 males, 41 females, mean age 59±10 years) underwent stress-rest myocardial perfusion SPECT and rest-stress myocardial perfusion SPECT, respectively. All of them underwent both myocardial perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography within 1 month. A coronary stenosis was considered significant when it compromised the luminal diameter by ≥50%. The chi square test was used to compare differences in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy between the two groups. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of stress-rest protocol were 99%, 35% and 68%, respectively. Those of rest-stress protocol were 96%, 47% and 78%, respectively. There was no difference between the two protocols in identifying individual diseased coronary artery branches. Therefore, one day stress-rest and rest-stress myocardial SPECT using 99m Tc agents were comparable and were very sensitive tests in detecting coronary artery diseases

  17. Evaluation by means of ECG-gated cardiac blood pool scintigraphy of global and regional left ventricular function at rest and during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease

    Sauer, E.; Sebening, H.; Lutilsky, L.; Dressler, H.; Hoer, G.; Pabst, H.W.; Bloemer, H.; Technische Univ. Muenchen

    1978-01-01

    ECG-gated cardiac blood pool scintigraphy permits a non-invasive determination of the end-diastolic and end-systolic ventricular volumens and of the ejection fraction as well as a qualitative description of regional ventricular wall motion at rest and during exercise. In 6 healthy persons a significant increase of the ejection fraction from 66 +- 7% at rest to 78 +- 3% during exercise (p [de

  18. A novel lunar bed rest analogue.

    Cavanagh, Peter R; Rice, Andrea J; Licata, Angelo A; Kuklis, Matthew M; Novotny, Sara C; Genc, Kerim O; Englehaupt, Ricki K; Hanson, Andrea M

    2013-11-01

    Humans will eventually return to the Moon and thus there is a need for a ground-based analogue to enable the study of physiological adaptations to lunar gravity. An important unanswered question is whether or not living on the lunar surface will provide adequate loading of the musculoskeletal system to prevent or attenuate the bone loss that is seen in microgravity. Previous simulations have involved tilting subjects to an approximately 9.5 degrees angle to achieve a lunar gravity component parallel to the long-axis of the body. However, subjects in these earlier simulations were not weight-bearing, and thus these protocols did not provide an analogue for load on the musculoskeletal system. We present a novel analogue which includes the capability to simulate standing and sitting in a lunar loading environment. A bed oriented at a 9.5 degrees angle was mounted on six linear bearings and was free to travel with one degree of freedom along rails. This allowed approximately 1/6 body weight loading of the feet during standing. "Lunar" sitting was also successfully simulated. A feasibility study demonstrated that the analogue was tolerated by subjects for 6 d of continuous bed rest and that the reaction forces at the feet during periods of standing were a reasonable simulation of lunar standing. During the 6 d, mean change in the volume of the quadriceps muscles was -1.6% +/- 1.7%. The proposed analogue would appear to be an acceptable simulation of lunar gravity and deserves further exploration in studies of longer duration.

  19. Resting state functional connectivity predicts neurofeedback response

    Dustin eScheinost

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tailoring treatments to the specific needs and biology of individual patients – personalized medicine – requires delineation of reliable predictors of response. Unfortunately, these have been slow to emerge, especially in neuropsychiatric disorders. We have recently described a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI neurofeedback protocol that can reduce contamination-related anxiety, a prominent symptom of many cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Individual response to this intervention is variable. Here we used patterns of brain functional connectivity, as measured by baseline resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI, to predict improvements in contamination anxiety after neurofeedback training. Activity of a region of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and anterior prefrontal cortex, Brodmann area (BA 10, associated with contamination anxiety in each subject was measured in real time and presented as a neurofeedback signal, permitting subjects to learn to modulate this target brain region. We have previously reported both enhanced OFC/BA 10 control and improved anxiety in a group of subclinically anxious subjects after neurofeedback. Five individuals with contamination-related OCD who underwent the same protocol also showed improved clinical symptomatology. In both groups, these behavioral improvements were strongly correlated with baseline whole-brain connectivity in the OFC/BA 10, computed from rs-fMRI collected several days prior to neurofeedback training. These pilot data suggest that rs-fMRI can be used to identify individuals likely to benefit from rt-fMRI neurofeedback training to control contamination anxiety.

  20. Aging, resting pulse rate, and longevity.

    Stessman, Jochanan; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Stessman-Lande, Irit; Gilon, Dan; Leibowitz, David

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between resting pulse rate (RPR) and longevity in individuals aged 70 to 90. The Jerusalem Longitudinal Cohort Study (1990-2010) is a prospective longitudinal study of a representative cohort born in 1920-21. Home-based comprehensive assessment in 1990, 1998, and 2005. Individuals aged 70 (n = 453), 78 (n = 856), and 85 (n = 1,044), with follow-up to age 90. Comprehensive assessment included average RPR, beta-blocker usage, and physical activity level. Mortality data were collected from the Ministry of Interior from 1990 to 2010. Cox proportional hazards ratios (HRs) were determined for RPR (continuous variable), adjusting for sex, education, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, hypertension, kidney disease, anemia, physical activity, body mass index, self-rated health, dementia, beta-blocker use, and an interaction term for RPR by beta-blocker use. Mean RPR was 75.1 ± 9.9 at 70, 74.5 ± 10.9 at 78, and 68.5 ± 10.5 at 85 in women and 74.3 ± 10.7 at 70, 73.1 ± 11.2 at 78, and 65.2 ± 10.5 at 85 in men, with a significant decline from 78 to 85 for both sexes. In participants not taking beta-blockers followed up from 70 to 77, 78 to 84, and 85 to 90, mean RPR was lower in survivors than nonsurvivors for women (75.8 ± 9.2 vs 83.5 ± 10.9, P longevity. It may serve as a simple prognostic marker in the oldest old. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. The "Brick Wall" Graphic Organizer

    Matteson, Shirley M.

    2016-01-01

    A brick wall provides a fitting description of what happens when teachers try to teach a concept for which students are unprepared. When students are unsuccessful academically, their foundational knowledge may be missing, incomplete, or incorrect. As a result, students "hit a brick wall," and their academic progress stops because they do…

  2. Control of Wall Mounting Robot

    Sloth, Christoffer; Pedersen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method for designing controllers for trajectory tracking with actuator constraints. In particular, we consider a joystick-controlled wall mounting robot called WallMo. In contrast to previous works, a model-free approach is taken to the control problem, where the path...

  3. Topological domain walls in helimagnets

    Schoenherr, P.; Müller, J.; Köhler, L.; Rosch, A.; Kanazawa, N.; Tokura, Y.; Garst, M.; Meier, D.

    2018-05-01

    Domain walls naturally arise whenever a symmetry is spontaneously broken. They interconnect regions with different realizations of the broken symmetry, promoting structure formation from cosmological length scales to the atomic level1,2. In ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials, domain walls with unique functionalities emerge, holding great promise for nanoelectronics and spintronics applications3-5. These walls are usually of Ising, Bloch or Néel type and separate homogeneously ordered domains. Here we demonstrate that a wide variety of new domain walls occurs in the presence of spatially modulated domain states. Using magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations, we show three fundamental classes of domain walls to arise in the near-room-temperature helimagnet iron germanium. In contrast to conventional ferroics, the domain walls exhibit a well-defined inner structure, which—analogous to cholesteric liquid crystals—consists of topological disclination and dislocation defects. Similar to the magnetic skyrmions that form in the same material6,7, the domain walls can carry a finite topological charge, permitting an efficient coupling to spin currents and contributions to a topological Hall effect. Our study establishes a new family of magnetic nano-objects with non-trivial topology, opening the door to innovative device concepts based on helimagnetic domain walls.

  4. Gas from the wall socket

    Vermeer, B.

    1997-01-01

    A Dutch public utility (Obragas) introduces a new way to supply gas for their household clients in Helmond, Netherlands: the gas wall socket. The use of gas wall sockets must prevent the decrease of the market share for natural gas compared to the market share of electricity for households

  5. Diplopia and Orbital Wall Fractures

    Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Gallesio, C.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Diplopia is a symptom that is frequently associated with orbital wall fractures. The aim of this article was to present the incidence and patterns of diplopia after orbital wall blow-out fractures in 2 European centers, Turin and Amsterdam, and to identify any correlation between this symptom and

  6. Diplopia and orbital wall fractures

    Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Gallesio, C.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Diplopia is a symptom that is frequently associated with orbital wall fractures. The aim of this article was to present the incidence and patterns of diplopia after orbital wall blow-out fractures in 2 European centers, Turin and Amsterdam, and to identify any correlation between this symptom and

  7. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  8. What are we learning from simulating wall turbulence?

    Jiménez, Javier; Moser, Robert D

    2007-03-15

    The study of turbulence near walls has experienced a renaissance in the last decade, largely owing to the availability of high-quality numerical simulations. The viscous and buffer layers over smooth walls are essentially independent of the outer flow, and there is a family of numerically exact nonlinear structures that account for about half of the energy production and dissipation. The rest can be modelled by their unsteady bursting. Many characteristics of the wall layer, such as the dimensions of the dominant structures, are well predicted by those models, which were essentially completed in the 1990s after the increase in computer power made the kinematic simulations of the late 1980s cheap enough to undertake dynamic experiments.Today, we are at the early stages of simulating the logarithmic (or overlap) layer, and a number of details regarding its global properties are becoming clear. For instance, a finite Reynolds number correction to the logarithmic law has been validated in turbulent channels. This has allowed upper and lower limits of the overlap region to be clarified, with both upper and lower bounds occurring at much larger distances from the wall than commonly assumed. A kinematic picture of the various cascades present in this part of the flow is also beginning to emerge. Dynamical understanding can be expected in the next decade.

  9. Anisotropy of domain wall resistance

    Viret; Samson; Warin; Marty; Ott; Sondergard; Klein; Fermon

    2000-10-30

    The resistive effect of domain walls in FePd films with perpendicular anisotropy was studied experimentally as a function of field and temperature. The films were grown directly on MgO substrates, which induces an unusual virgin magnetic configuration composed of 60 nm wide parallel stripe domains. This allowed us to carry out the first measurements of the anisotropy of domain wall resistivity in the two configurations of current perpendicular and parallel to the walls. At 18 K, we find 8.2% and 1.3% for the domain wall magnetoresistance normalized to the wall width (8 nm) in these two respective configurations. These values are consistent with the predictions of Levy and Zhang.

  10. Ultrasonography of chest wall lesion

    Park, Cheol Min; Kim, C. H.; Cha, I. H.; Chung, K. B.; Ser, W. H.; Choi, Y. H. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Thirty-one patients with chest wall diseases were studied with ultrasound to evaluate its role in chest wall lesions. There were eight infectious conditions, 9 benign tumors, 11 malignant lesions and 3 miscellaneous cases. Diffuse chest wall thickening with heterogeneous echogenicity and obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer are findings of acute infection. In cases of tuberculous smpyema necessitates, pleural abnormality extended to the chest wall through intercostal space. Benign tumors were well demarcated, except in 4 cases of lipoma/lipomatosis. Malignant lesions showed irregular soft tissue masses, bone destruction, pleural effusion and subcutaneous invasion. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also shown. Ultrasound can demonstrate te internal structure, extent, depth and associated findings such as pleural effusion, bone destruction and peripheral lung involvement. Ultrasound is not only safe, non-invasive and an effective diagnostic imaging modality for chest wall disease, but can also guide aspiration or biopsy for pathologic diagnosis

  11. Ultrasonography of chest wall lesion

    Park, Cheol Min; Kim, C. H.; Cha, I. H.; Chung, K. B.; Ser, W. H.; Choi, Y. H.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with chest wall diseases were studied with ultrasound to evaluate its role in chest wall lesions. There were eight infectious conditions, 9 benign tumors, 11 malignant lesions and 3 miscellaneous cases. Diffuse chest wall thickening with heterogeneous echogenicity and obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer are findings of acute infection. In cases of tuberculous smpyema necessitates, pleural abnormality extended to the chest wall through intercostal space. Benign tumors were well demarcated, except in 4 cases of lipoma/lipomatosis. Malignant lesions showed irregular soft tissue masses, bone destruction, pleural effusion and subcutaneous invasion. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also shown. Ultrasound can demonstrate te internal structure, extent, depth and associated findings such as pleural effusion, bone destruction and peripheral lung involvement. Ultrasound is not only safe, non-invasive and an effective diagnostic imaging modality for chest wall disease, but can also guide aspiration or biopsy for pathologic diagnosis

  12. Plasma-Wall Interactions

    Li, J; Chen, J L [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Guo, H Y [Tri Alpha Energy (United States); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); McCracken, G M [Culham Science Centre, UKAEA, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-15

    The problem of impurities in fusion plasmas has been recognized since the beginning of the fusion programme. Early experiments in glass vacuum vessels released gas from the wall to such an extent that the radiation from the impurities prevented the plasma from being heated above about 50 eV. The radiative power loss is principally due to line radiation from partially stripped ions, which is particularly a problem during the plasma startup phase. Another problem is fuel dilution, which arises because impurity atoms produce many electrons and, for a given plasma pressure, these electrons take the place of fuel particles. Impurities can also lead to disruptions, as a result of edge cooling and consequent current profile modification. The fractional impurity level which radiates 10% of the total thermonuclear power for a 10 keV plasma is 50% for helium, 7% for carbon, and less than 0.1% for molybdenum. Clearly, impurities of low atomic number are a much less serious problem than those of high atomic number. (author)

  13. Atypical Laterality of Resting Gamma Oscillations in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Maxwell, Christina R.; Villalobos, Michele E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Kohls, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal brain oscillatory activity has been found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and proposed as a potential biomarker. While several studies have investigated gamma oscillations in ASD, none have examined resting gamma power across multiple brain regions. This study investigated resting gamma power using EEG in 15 boys with ASD and 18 age…

  14. Rest tremor in idiopathic adult-onset dystonia.

    Gigante, A F; Berardelli, A; Defazio, G

    2016-05-01

    Tremor in dystonia has been described as a postural or kinetic abnormality. In recent series, however, patients with idiopathic adult-onset dystonia also displayed rest tremor. The frequency and distribution of rest tremor were studied in a cohort of 173 consecutive Italian patients affected by various forms of idiopathic adult-onset dystonia attending our movement disorder clinic over 8 months. Examination revealed tremor in 59/173 patients (34%): 12 patients had head tremor, 34 patients had arm tremor, whilst 13 patients presented tremor in both sites. Head tremor was postural in all patients, whereas arm tremor was postural/kinetic in 28 patients, only at rest in one and both postural/kinetic and at rest in 18 patients. Patients with tremor were more likely to have segmental/multifocal dystonia. Patients who had rest tremor (either alone or associated with action tremor) had a higher age at dystonia onset and a greater frequency of dystonic arm involvement than patients with action tremor alone or without tremor. Both action and rest tremor are part of the tremor spectrum of adult-onset dystonia and are more frequently encountered in segmental/multifocal dystonia. The higher age at dystonia onset and the greater frequency of arm dystonia in patients with rest tremor may have pathophysiological implications and may account, at least in part, for the previous lack of identification of rest tremor as one possible type of tremor present in dystonia. © 2016 EAN.

  15. Identification of Resting State Networks Involved in Executive Function.

    Connolly, Joanna; McNulty, Jonathan P; Boran, Lorraine; Roche, Richard A P; Delany, David; Bokde, Arun L W

    2016-06-01

    The structural networks in the human brain are consistent across subjects, and this is reflected also in that functional networks across subjects are relatively consistent. These findings are not only present during performance of a goal oriented task but there are also consistent functional networks during resting state. It suggests that goal oriented activation patterns may be a function of component networks identified using resting state. The current study examines the relationship between resting state networks measured and patterns of neural activation elicited during a Stroop task. The association between the Stroop-activated networks and the resting state networks was quantified using spatial linear regression. In addition, we investigated if the degree of spatial association of resting state networks with the Stroop task may predict performance on the Stroop task. The results of this investigation demonstrated that the Stroop activated network can be decomposed into a number of resting state networks, which were primarily associated with attention, executive function, visual perception, and the default mode network. The close spatial correspondence between the functional organization of the resting brain and task-evoked patterns supports the relevance of resting state networks in cognitive function.

  16. Restful Implementation of Catalogue Service for Geospatial Data Provenance

    Jiang, L. C.; Yue, P.; Lu, X. C.

    2013-10-01

    Provenance, also known as lineage, is important in understanding the derivation history of data products. Geospatial data provenance helps data consumers to evaluate the quality and reliability of geospatial data. In a service-oriented environment, where data are often consumed or produced by distributed services, provenance could be managed by following the same service-oriented paradigm. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) is used for the registration and query of geospatial data provenance by extending ebXML Registry Information Model (ebRIM). Recent advance of the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) paradigm has shown great promise for the easy integration of distributed resources. RESTful Web Service aims to provide a standard way for Web clients to communicate with servers based on REST principles. The existing approach for provenance catalogue service could be improved by adopting the RESTful design. This paper presents the design and implementation of a catalogue service for geospatial data provenance following RESTful architecture style. A middleware named REST Converter is added on the top of the legacy catalogue service to support a RESTful style interface. The REST Converter is composed of a resource request dispatcher and six resource handlers. A prototype service is developed to demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  17. A REST-ful interpretation for embedded modular systems based on open architecture

    Lyke, James

    2016-05-01

    The much-anticipated revolution of the "Internet of things" (IoT) is expected to generate one trillion internet devices within the next 15 years, mostly in the form of simple wireless sensor devices. While this revolution promises to transform silicon markets and drive a number of disruptive changes in society, it is also the case that the protocols, complexity, and security issues of extremely large dynamic, co-mingled networks is still poorly understood. Furthermore, embedded system developers, to include military and aerospace users, have largely ignored the potential (good and bound) of the cloudlike, possibly intermingling networks having variable structure to how future systems might be engineered. In this paper, we consider a new interpretation of IoT inspired modular architecture strategies involving the representational state transfer (REST) model, in which dynamic networks with variable structure employ stateless application programming interface (API) concepts. The power of the method, which extends concepts originally developed for space plug-and-play avionics, is that it allows for the fluid co-mingling of hardware and software in networks whose structure can overlap and evolve. Paradoxically, these systems may have the most stringent determinism and fault-tolerant needs. In this paper we review how RESTful APIs can potentially be used to design, create, test, and deploy systems rapidly while addressing security and referential integrity even when the nodes of many systems might physically co-mingle. We will also explore ways to take advantage of the RESTful paradigm for fault tolerance and what extensions might be necessary to deal with high-performance and determinism.

  18. Cognitive and default-mode resting state networks: do male and female brains "rest" differently?

    Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Moayedi, Massieh; Taylor, Keri S; Pope, Geoff; Davis, Karen D

    2010-11-01

    Variability in human behavior related to sex is supported by neuroimaging studies showing differences in brain activation patterns during cognitive task performance. An emerging field is examining the human connectome, including networks of brain regions that are not only temporally-correlated during different task conditions, but also networks that show highly correlated spontaneous activity during a task-free state. Both task-related and task-free network activity has been associated with individual task performance and behavior under certain conditions. Therefore, our aim was to determine whether sex differences exist during a task-free resting state for two networks associated with cognitive task performance (executive control network (ECN), salience network (SN)) and the default mode network (DMN). Forty-nine healthy subjects (26 females, 23 males) underwent a 5-min task-free fMRI scan in a 3T MRI. An independent components analysis (ICA) was performed to identify the best-fit IC for each network based on specific spatial nodes defined in previous studies. To determine the consistency of these networks across subjects we performed self-organizing group-level ICA analyses. There were no significant differences between sexes in the functional connectivity of the brain areas within the ECN, SN, or the DMN. These important findings highlight the robustness of intrinsic connectivity of these resting state networks and their similarity between sexes. Furthermore, our findings suggest that resting state fMRI studies do not need to be controlled for sex. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Stress/Rest Tc-99m-MIBI SPECT in Comparison with Rest/Stress Rubidium - 82 PET

    Lee, D. S.; Kamg, K. W.; Lee, K. H.; Jeong, J. M.; Kwark, C. E.; Chung, J. K.; Lee, M.C.; Seo, J. D.; Koh, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    We compared stress/rest myocardial Tc-99m-MIBI tomographic image findings with rest/stress rubidium-82 tomographic images. In 23 patients with coronary artery disease (12 of them received bypass grafts before) and 6 normal subjects, rest rubidium PET study was performed, rubidium-82 and Tc-99m-MIBI were injected simultaneously to each patient after dipyridamole stress for rubidium PET and MIBI SPECT; and rest MIBI SPECT was performed 4 hours thereafter. We scored segmental decrease of rubidium, or MIBI uptakes into 5 grades for 29 segments from 3 short-axis, vertical and horizontal slices. Scores were summed for each major arterial territory. When more score than two grade-2's or one grade-3 was considered as the cue for significant stenosis for major arterial territories, 67% of 46 stenosed arteries were found with MIBI studies and 78% of them by rubidium studies. Fourteen among 28 grafted arterial territories of 12 post-CABG patients were found normal with both rubidium and MIBI. Segmental scores were concordant between rubidium and MIBI in 72% of 709-stress segments and in 80% of 825 rest segments. Stress rubidium segmental scores were less than stress MIBI scores in 9%, so were rest rubidium scores. Stress rubidium scores were more than stress MIBI scores in 20% of segments, and rest rubidium segmental scores were more than rest MIBI scores in 11%. Rank correlations (Spearman's rho's more than 0.7(stress) and 0.5(rest), slopes (MIBI/rubidium) around 0.7(stress) and 0.9(rest) suggested deeper and wider defects in stress with rubidium. Slope over 1 (MIBI/rubidium) with LAD segmental scores at rest and 7 territories which had much larger score with MIBI revealed exaggeration of rest defects with rest MIBI in same-day stress/rest study. Difference scores (stress-rest for each territory) suggesting ischemia were larger with rubidium (slope of MIBI/rubidium around 0.45). As has been implied by animal or separate-day- human studies, these segmental analyses with

  20. Wall Shear Stress, Wall Pressure and Near Wall Velocity Field Relationships in a Whirling Annular Seal

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Winslow, Robert B.; Thames, H. Davis, III

    1996-01-01

    The mean and phase averaged pressure and wall shear stress distributions were measured on the stator wall of a 50% eccentric annular seal which was whirling in a circular orbit at the same speed as the shaft rotation. The shear stresses were measured using flush mounted hot-film probes. Four different operating conditions were considered consisting of Reynolds numbers of 12,000 and 24,000 and Taylor numbers of 3,300 and 6,600. At each of the operating conditions the axial distribution (from Z/L = -0.2 to 1.2) of the mean pressure, shear stress magnitude, and shear stress direction on the stator wall were measured. Also measured were the phase averaged pressure and shear stress. These data were combined to calculate the force distributions along the seal length. Integration of the force distributions result in the net forces and moments generated by the pressure and shear stresses. The flow field inside the seal operating at a Reynolds number of 24,000 and a Taylor number of 6,600 has been measured using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. Phase averaged wall pressure and wall shear stress are presented along with phase averaged mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy distributions located 0.16c from the stator wall where c is the seal clearance. The relationships between the velocity, turbulence, wall pressure and wall shear stress are very complex and do not follow simple bulk flow predictions.

  1. Biomarkers of Dose and Effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    Background: Human controlled exposure studies have generally focused on subjects exposed to ozone (O3) while exercising while exposures in rats have been done at rest. We exposed resting subjects to labeled O3 (18O3, 0.4 ppm, for 2 hr) and compared O3 dose and effects with our...

  2. Building RESTful web services with Go learn how to build powerful RESTful APIs with Golang that scale gracefully

    Yellavula, Naren

    2017-01-01

    REST is an architectural style that tackles the challenges of building scalable web services and in today's connected world, APIs have taken a central role on the web. APIs provide the fabric through which systems interact, and REST has become synonymous with APIs. The depth, breadth, and ease of use of Go, makes it a breeze for developers to ...

  3. Task vs. rest-different network configurations between the coactivation and the resting-state brain networks.

    Di, Xin; Gohel, Suril; Kim, Eun H; Biswal, Bharat B

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in studies of human brain networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, it is unclear whether and how brain networks measured during the resting-state exhibit comparable properties to brain networks during task performance. In the present study, we investigated meta-analytic coactivation patterns among brain regions based upon published neuroimaging studies, and compared the coactivation network configurations with those in the resting-state network. The strength of resting-state functional connectivity between two regions were strongly correlated with the coactivation strength. However, the coactivation network showed greater global efficiency, smaller mean clustering coefficient, and lower modularity compared with the resting-state network, which suggest a more efficient global information transmission and between system integrations during task performing. Hub shifts were also observed within the thalamus and the left inferior temporal cortex. The thalamus and the left inferior temporal cortex exhibited higher and lower degrees, respectively in the coactivation network compared with the resting-state network. These results shed light regarding the reconfiguration of the brain networks between task and resting-state conditions, and highlight the role of the thalamus in change of network configurations in task vs. rest.

  4. First wall of thermonuclear device

    Kizawa, Makoto; Koizumi, Makoto; Nishihara, Yoshihiro.

    1990-01-01

    The first wall of a thermonuclear device is constituted with inner wall tiles, e.g. made of graphite and metal substrates for fixing them. However, since the heat expansion coefficient is different between the metal substrates and intermediate metal members, thermal stresses are caused to deteriorate the endurance of the inner wall tiles. In view of the above, low melting metals are disposed at the portion of contact between the inner wall tiles and the metal substrates and, further, a heat pipe structure is incorporated into the metal substrates. Under the thermal load, for example, during operation of the thermonuclear device, the low melting metals at the portion of contact are melted into liquid metals to enhance the state of contact between the inner wall tiles and the metal substrate to reduce the heat resistance and improve the heat conductivity. Even if there is a difference in the heat expansion coefficient between the inner wall tiles and the metal substrates, neither sharing stresses not thermal stresses are caused. Further, since the heat pipe structure is incorporated into the metal substrates, the lateral unevenness of the temperature in the metal substrates can be eliminated. Thus, the durability of the inner wall tiles can be improved. (N.H.)

  5. Shielding wall for thermonuclear device

    Uchida, Takaho.

    1989-01-01

    This invention concerns shielding walls opposing to plasmas of a thermonuclear device and it is an object thereof to conduct reactor operation with no troubles even if a portion of shielding wall tiles should be damaged. That is, the shielding wall tiles are constituted as a dual layer structure in which the lower base tiles are connected by means of bolts to first walls. Further, the upper surface tiles are bolt-connected to the layer base tiles. In this structure, the plasma thermal loads are directly received by the surface layer tiles and heat is conducted by means of conduction and radiation to the underlying base tiles and the first walls. Even upon occurrence of destruction accidents to the surface layer tiles caused by incident heat or electromagnetic force upon elimination of plasmas, since the underlying base tiles remain as they are, the first walls constituted with stainless steels, etc. are not directly exposed to the plasmas. Accordingly, the integrity of the first walls having cooling channels can be maintained and sputtering intrusion of atoms of high atom number into the plasmas can be prevented. (I.S.)

  6. Implementing Green Walls in Schools.

    McCullough, Michael B; Martin, Michael D; Sajady, Mollika A

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies in applied pedagogical design have shown that, at all educational levels, direct exposure to the natural environment can enhance learning by improving student attention and behaviors. Implementing green walls-a "vertical garden," or "living wall" interior wall that typically includes greenery, a growing medium (soil or substrate) and a water delivery system-provides environmental health benefits, but also provides a practical application within classrooms for minimizing directed attention fatigue in students by connecting them to "outdoor nature" within the indoor environment. Hands-on "project-based" learning is another pedagogical strategy that has proved to be effective across the spectrum of educational levels and across subject areas. Green walls have the potential to inspire critical thinking through a combination of project-based learning strategies and environmental education. The authors have outlined a curriculum involving the implementation of an indoor living wall system within a classroom-learning environment, incorporating project-based learning modules that interact with the wall. In conjunction with the passive health benefits of a green wall, project-based curriculum models can connect students interactively with indoor nature and have the potential to inspire real-world thinking related to science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics fields within the indoor learning environment. Through a combination of these passive and interactive modes, students are connected to nature in the indoor environment regardless of weather conditions outdoors. Future research direction could include post-construction studies of the effectiveness of project-based curricula related to living walls, and the long-term impacts of implementing green walls in classrooms on school achievement and student behaviors.

  7. Radionuclide angiographic evaluation of left ventricular performance at rest and during exercise in patients with aortic regurgitation

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Heo, J.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide angiographic evaluation of LV performance at rest and during exercise in patients with AR have shown that an abnormal EF response to exercise may be observed in asymptomatic patients with normal resting LV function. The EF response to exercise has been correlated with a number of clinical and exercise measurements; important among these are the slope of the systolic pressure-to-end-systolic volume, end-systolic volume, cardiac index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and wall stress. The changes in the regurgitant fraction, EF, and LV volume have shown considerable individual variability; they have also allowed a better understanding of the circulatory responses during exercise. Radionuclide angiography provides a reliable and reproducible method of measuring the rest LVEF that is important in the timing and the outcome of valve replacement. The value of the EF response to exercise in patient management is not yet clear; it is possible that other radionuclide-derived measurements at rest or during exercise, such as the systolic pressure-to-end-systolic volume relationship, and the end-systolic volume may provide complementary information to that provided by the EF

  8. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Double wall steam generator tubing

    Padden, T.R.; Uber, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    Double-walled steam generator tubing for the steam generators of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor prevents sliding between the surfaces due to a mechanical interlock. Forces resulting from differential thermal expansion between the outer tube and the inner tube are insufficient in magnitude to cause shearing of base metal. The interlock is formed by jointly drawing the tubing, with the inside wall of the outer tube being already formed with grooves. The drawing causes the outer wall of the inner tube to form corrugations locking with the grooves. (author)

  10. Do resting brain dynamics predict oddball evoked-potential?

    Lee Tien-Wen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oddball paradigm is widely applied to the investigation of cognitive function in neuroscience and in neuropsychiatry. Whether cortical oscillation in the resting state can predict the elicited oddball event-related potential (ERP is still not clear. This study explored the relationship between resting electroencephalography (EEG and oddball ERPs. The regional powers of 18 electrodes across delta, theta, alpha and beta frequencies were correlated with the amplitude and latency of N1, P2, N2 and P3 components of oddball ERPs. A multivariate analysis based on partial least squares (PLS was applied to further examine the spatial pattern revealed by multiple correlations. Results Higher synchronization in the resting state, especially at the alpha spectrum, is associated with higher neural responsiveness and faster neural propagation, as indicated by the higher amplitude change of N1/N2 and shorter latency of P2. None of the resting quantitative EEG indices predict P3 latency and amplitude. The PLS analysis confirms that the resting cortical dynamics which explains N1/N2 amplitude and P2 latency does not show regional specificity, indicating a global property of the brain. Conclusions This study differs from previous approaches by relating dynamics in the resting state to neural responsiveness in the activation state. Our analyses suggest that the neural characteristics carried by resting brain dynamics modulate the earlier/automatic stage of target detection.

  11. REST-MapReduce: An Integrated Interface but Differentiated Service

    Jong-Hyuk Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the fast deployment of cloud computing, MapReduce architectures are becoming the major technologies for mobile cloud computing. The concept of MapReduce was first introduced as a novel programming model and implementation for a large set of computing devices. In this research, we propose a novel concept of REST-MapReduce, enabling users to use only the REST interface without using the MapReduce architecture. This approach provides a higher level of abstraction by integration of the two types of access interface, REST API and MapReduce. The motivation of this research stems from the slower response time for accessing simple RDBMS on Hadoop than direct access to RDMBS. This is because there is overhead to job scheduling, initiating, starting, tracking, and management during MapReduce-based parallel execution. Therefore, we provide a good performance for REST Open API service and for MapReduce, respectively. This is very useful for constructing REST Open API services on Hadoop hosting services, for example, Amazon AWS (Macdonald, 2005 or IBM Smart Cloud. For evaluating performance of our REST-MapReduce framework, we conducted experiments with Jersey REST web server and Hadoop. Experimental result shows that our approach outperforms conventional approaches.

  12. Detection of cardiac wall motion defects with combined amplitude/phase analysis

    Bacharach, S.L.; Green, M.V.; Bonow, R.O.; Pace, L.; Brunetti, A.; Larson, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Fourier phase images have been used with some success to detect and quantify left ventricular (LV) wall motion defects. In abnormal regions of the LV, wall motion asynchronies often cause the time activity curve (TAC) to be shifted in phase. Such regional shifts are detected by analysis of the distribution function of phase values over the LV. However, not all wall motion defects result in detectable regional phase abnormalities. Such abnormalities may cause a reduction in the magnitude of contraction (and hence TAC amplitude) without any appreciable change in TAC shape(and hence phase). In an attempt to improve the sensitivity of the Fourier phase method for the detection of wall motion defects the authors analyzed the distribution function of Fourier amplitude as well as phase. 26 individuals with normal cardiac function and no history of cardiac disease served as controls. The goal was to detect and quantify wall motion as compared to the consensus of 3 independent observers viewing the scintigraphic cines. 26 subjects with coronary artery disease and mild wall motion defects (22 with normal EF) were studied ate rest. They found that analysis of the skew of thew amplitude distribution function improved the sensitivity for the detection of wall motion abnormalities at rest in the group from 65% to 85% (17/26 detected by phase alone, 22/26 by combined phase and amplitude analysis) while retaining a 0 false positive rate in the normal group. The authors conclude that analysis of Fourier amplitude distribution functions can significantly increase the sensitivity of phase imaging for detection of wall motion abnormalities

  13. RestKit for iOS standard guide

    Kalapun, Taras

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step, example-based guide to learning how you can link your apps and web services using RestKit.This book is for iOS developers of all levels who are interested in boosting their productivity by utilizing third party libraries and who have a willingness to learn how to build RESTful apps using the RestKit framework. A basic knowledge of Objective-C is required as well as a simple understanding of how to use CoreData.

  14. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes generation 2 bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation, and separation. Ultimately, it is desired to combine as man...

  15. Restrained shrinkage of masonry walls

    Zijl, G.P.A.G. van; Rots, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    State of the art computational rnechanics, in combination with experimental programmes have a lot to offer in providing insight, characterization of total behaviour and predictive ability of structural masonry. Here numerical research towards rationalizing masonry wall movement joint positioning and

  16. Gravity and domain wall problem

    Rai, B.; Senjanovic, G.

    1992-11-01

    It is well known that the spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries may lead to conflict with big-bang cosmology. This is due to formation of domain walls which give unacceptable contribution to the energy density of the universe. On the other hand, it is expected that gravity breaks global symmetries explicitly. In this work we propose that this could provide a natural solution to the domain-wall problem. (author). 17 refs

  17. Duct having oscillatory side wall

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2018-04-03

    A pump system includes a particulate consolidator pump that has a pump outlet. A duct is coupled to the pump outlet. The duct has a wall that is coupled with an oscillator. The oscillator is operable to oscillate the wall at a controlled frequency. The controlled frequency is selected with respect to breaking static bridging of particulate in the duct due, at least in part, to consolidation of the particulate from a downstream check valve.

  18. Dressed Domain Walls and holography

    Grisa, Luca; Pujolas, Oriol

    2008-01-01

    The cutoff version of the AdS/CFT correspondence states that the Randall Sundrum scenario is dual to a Conformal Field Theory (CFT) coupled to gravity in four dimensions. The gravitational field produced by relativistic Domain Walls can be exactly solved in both sides of the correspondence, and thus provides one further check of it. We show in the two sides that for the most symmetric case, the wall motion does not lead to particle production of the CFT fields. Still, there are nontrivial effects. Due to the trace anomaly, the CFT effectively renormalizes the Domain Wall tension. On the five dimensional side, the wall is a codimension 2 brane localized on the Randall-Sundrum brane, which pulls the wall in a uniform acceleration. This is perceived from the brane as a Domain Wall with a tension slightly larger than its bare value. In both cases, the deviation from General Relativity appears at nonlinear level in the source, and the leading corrections match to the numerical factors.

  19. Resting technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile cardiac imaging in chronic coronary artery disease: comparison with rest-redistribution thallium-201 scintigraphy

    Cuocolo, A.; Maurea, S.; Pace, L.; Nicolai, E.; Nappi, A.; Imbriaco, M.; Trimarco, B.; Salvatore, M.

    1993-01-01

    We studied 19 patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction 33%±8%) by resting technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI) and rest-redistribution thallium-201 cardiac imaging. Thallium and 99m Tc-MIBI studies were visually analysed. Of 285 segments, 203 (71%) had normal thallium uptake, 48 (17%) showed reversible thallium defects and 34 (12%) showed irreversible thallium defects. Of these 34 irreversible thallium defects, 19 (56%) were moderate and 15 (44%) were severe. Of the corresponding 285 segments, 200 (70%) had normal 99m Tc-MIBI uptake, while 37 (13%) showed moderate and 48 (17%) showed severe reduction of MIBI uptake. Myocardial segmental agreement for regional uptake score between initial thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI images was 90% (κ=0.78). Segmental agreement between delayed thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI images was 77% (κ=0.44). In particular, in 26 (9%) segments 99m Tc-MIBI uptake was severely reduced while delayed thallium uptake was normal or only moderately reduced. These data suggest that although rest-redistribution thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI cardiac imaging provide concordant results in the majority of myocardial segments, some segments with severely reduced resting 99m Tc-MIBI uptake may contain viable but hypoperfused myocardium. Thus, conclusions on myocardial viability based on 99m Tc-MIBI uptake should be made with caution in chronic coronary artery disease. (orig.)

  20. Electron arc therapy: chest wall irradiation of breast cancer patients

    McNeely, L.K.; Jacobson, G.M.; Leavitt, D.D.; Stewart, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    From 1980 to October 1985 we treated 45 breast cancer patients with electron arc therapy. This technique was used in situations where optimal treatment with fixed photon or electron beams was technically difficult: long scars, recurrent tumor extending across midline or to the posterior thorax, or marked variation in depth of target tissue. Forty-four patients were treated following mastectomy: 35 electively because of high risk of local failure, and 9 following local recurrence. One patient with advanced local regional disease was treated primarily. The target volume boundaries on the chest wall were defined by a foam lined cerrobend cast which rested on the patient during treatment, functioning as a tertiary collimator. A variable width secondary collimator was used to account for changes in the radius of the thorax from superior to inferior border. All patients had computerized tomography performed to determine Internal Mammary Chain depth and chest wall thickness. Electron energies were selected based on these thicknesses and often variable energies over different segments of the arc were used. The chest wall and regional node areas were irradiated to 45 Gy-50 Gy in 5-6 weeks by this technique. The supraclavicular and upper axillary nodes were treated by a direct anterior photon field abutted to the superior edge of the electron arc field. Follow-up is from 10-73 months with a median of 50 months. No major complications were observed. Acute and late effects and local control are comparable to standard chest wall irradiation. The disadvantages of this technique are that the preparation of the tertiary field defining cast and CT treatment planning are labor intensive and expensive. The advantage is that for specific clinical situations large areas of chest wall with marked topographical variation can be optimally, homogeneously irradiated while sparing normal uninvolved tissues

  1. AgNOR Count in Resting Cells (Resting NOR Is a New Prognostic Marker in Invasive Bladder Tumor

    Mitsuro Tomobe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that the AgNOR count in proliferating cells is a predictor of tumor recurrence in superficial bladder tumor (J. Urol. 162 (1999, 63–68. In the present study, we evaluate the type of AgNOR associated with cell cycles as a prognostic factor in invasive bladder tumor using a double staining technique employing both AgNOR and MIB-1 labelling. Materials and methods: Forty-four paraffin sections of invasive bladder tumors were stained simultaneously with AgNOR and MIB-1. The number of AgNORs in proliferating (MIB-1 positive or resting (MIB-1 negative cells were counted from a total of 100 nuclei. Correlations between MIB-1 associated AgNOR count and clinicopathological parameters were statistically analyzed. Results: The AgNOR count in proliferating cells (proliferating NOR was significantly higher than that in resting cells (resting NOR (p < 0.01. The resting NOR in tumors with distant metastases was significantly higher than that in tumors without metastases (p < 0.05. Patients with a low resting NOR tumor had a better prognosis than those with a high resting NOR tumor, whereas the proliferating NOR was not associated with survival. Survival analysis revealed that the resting NOR was the most powerful prognostic marker in patients with invasive bladder tumor (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Resting NOR had a predictive value in the prognosis of patients with invasive bladder tumor. Keywords: Transitional cell carcinoma, invasive, resting cell, AgNORs, MIB-1

  2. Resting States Are Resting Traits – An fMRI Study of Sex Differences and Menstrual Cycle Effects in Resting State Cognitive Control Networks

    Hjelmervik, Helene; Hausmann, Markus; Osnes, Berge; Westerhausen, René; Specht, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    To what degree resting state fMRI is stable or susceptible to internal mind states of the individual is currently an issue of debate. To address this issue, the present study focuses on sex differences and investigates whether resting state fMRI is stable in men and women or changes within relative short-term periods (i.e., across the menstrual cycle). Due to the fact that we recently reported menstrual cycle effects on cognitive control based on data collected during the same sessions, the c...

  3. Radionuclide ventriculography during rest and exercise: normal values

    Ludwig, E.B.; Marroni, B.J.; Achutti, A.C.; Anselmi, O.E.; Rabin, M.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty young volunteers of both sexes were examined by radioisotopic techniques to establish the normal range of ventricular function at rest and the response to a stress test (systolic arterious pressure X cardiac frequency > 25000). (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Memory reactivation during rest supports upcoming learning of related content

    Schlichting, Margaret L.; Preston, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of studies have highlighted the importance of offline processes for memory, how these mechanisms influence future learning remains unknown. Participants with established memories for a set of initial face–object associations were scanned during passive rest and during encoding of new related and unrelated pairs of objects. Spontaneous reactivation of established memories and enhanced hippocampal–neocortical functional connectivity during rest was related to better subsequent learning, specifically of related content. Moreover, the degree of functional coupling during rest was predictive of neural engagement during the new learning experience itself. These results suggest that through rest-phase reactivation and hippocampal–neocortical interactions, existing memories may come to facilitate encoding during subsequent related episodes. PMID:25331890

  5. Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss

    ... Risk Factors for Bone Loss Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Like muscle, bone ... complications of pregnancy; and those who are experiencing immobilization of some part of the body because of ...

  6. Myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal ...

    olayemitoyin

    2008-11-26

    Nov 26, 2008 ... ratio were the most important independent parameters in prediction of RPP. The study shows that ... study of various medical, surgical, and physical interventions on .... increase in myocardial activity and thus the MVO2 at rest.

  7. Effects of Interval Training Programme on Resting Heart Rate in ...

    DATONYE ALASIA

    Subjects with Hypertension: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Type of Article: Original ... Resting Heart Rate in Subjects with Hypertension — Lamina S. et al investigate the effect of interval .... changes in VO max) of interest. In the t-test. 2.

  8. Memory reactivation during rest supports upcoming learning of related content.

    Schlichting, Margaret L; Preston, Alison R

    2014-11-04

    Although a number of studies have highlighted the importance of offline processes for memory, how these mechanisms influence future learning remains unknown. Participants with established memories for a set of initial face-object associations were scanned during passive rest and during encoding of new related and unrelated pairs of objects. Spontaneous reactivation of established memories and enhanced hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity during rest was related to better subsequent learning, specifically of related content. Moreover, the degree of functional coupling during rest was predictive of neural engagement during the new learning experience itself. These results suggest that through rest-phase reactivation and hippocampal-neocortical interactions, existing memories may come to facilitate encoding during subsequent related episodes.

  9. RESTful web API design with Node.js

    Bojinov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    If you are a web developer wanting to enrich your development skills to create scalable, server-side, RESTful applications based on the Node.js platform, this book is for you. You also need to be aware of HTTP communication concepts and should have a working knowledge of JavaScript. Knowledge of REST would be an added advantage but is definitely not a necessity.

  10. The Classic: On Rest and Pain: Lecture XIV.

    Hilton, John

    2009-09-01

    This Classic article is a reprint of the original work by John Hilton, On Rest and Pain: Lecture XIV. An accompanying biographical sketch on John Hilton, MD, is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-0927-2 . The Classic Article is reprinted with courtesy from Hilton J. On The Influence of Mechanical and Physiological Rest in the Treatment of Accidents and Surgical Diseases, and the Diagnostic Value of Pain. London, England: Bell and Daldy; 1863.

  11. Genetic variablilities of body temperature and resting behaviour in ...

    This implies that neither progeny nor generation had effect on body temperature. The Alpha strain exhibited more resting behaviour than did the exotic and the pure native types. Majority of the birds rested in the afternoon at 2.00 pm. This could be attributed to the fact that at 2.00 pm the weather is hot and birds search for a ...

  12. Relativistic theory of gravitation and the graviton rest mass

    Logunsov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines a graviton rest mass (m) introduced in the framework of the relativistic theory of gravitation and obtains equations that describe a massive gravitational field. Under the assumption that the entire hidden mass of the matter in the Universe is due to the existence of a massive gravitational field, an upper bound on the rest mass is obtained: m ≤ 0.64 x 10 --65 g

  13. Discovering EEG resting state alterations of semantic dementia.

    Grieder, Matthias; Koenig, Thomas; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Utsunomiya, Keita; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Dierks, Thomas; Nishida, Keiichiro

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis of semantic dementia relies on cost-intensive MRI or PET, although resting EEG markers of other dementias have been reported. Yet the view still holds that resting EEG in patients with semantic dementia is normal. However, studies using increasingly sophisticated EEG analysis methods have demonstrated that slightest alterations of functional brain states can be detected. We analyzed the common four resting EEG microstates (A, B, C, and D) of 8 patients with semantic dementia in comparison with 8 healthy controls and 8 patients with Alzheimer's disease. Topographical differences between the groups were found in microstate classes B and C, while microstate classes A and D were comparable. The data showed that the semantic dementia group had a peculiar microstate E, but the commonly found microstate C was lacking. Furthermore, the presence of microstate E was significantly correlated with lower MMSE and language scores. Alterations in resting EEG can be found in semantic dementia. Topographical shifts in microstate C might be related to semantic memory deficits. This is the first study that discovered resting state EEG abnormality in semantic dementia. The notion that resting EEG in this dementia subtype is normal has to be revised. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterizing Resting-State Brain Function Using Arterial Spin Labeling

    Jann, Kay; Wang, Danny J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an increasingly established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that is finding broader applications in studying the healthy and diseased brain. This review addresses the use of ASL to assess brain function in the resting state. Following a brief technical description, we discuss the use of ASL in the following main categories: (1) resting-state functional connectivity (FC) measurement: the use of ASL-based cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements as an alternative to the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) technique to assess resting-state FC; (2) the link between network CBF and FC measurements: the use of network CBF as a surrogate of the metabolic activity within corresponding networks; and (3) the study of resting-state dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and cerebral metabolism: the use of dynamic CBF information obtained using ASL to assess dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and oxidative metabolism in the resting state. In addition, we summarize some future challenges and interesting research directions for ASL, including slice-accelerated (multiband) imaging as well as the effects of motion and other physiological confounds on perfusion-based FC measurement. In summary, this work reviews the state-of-the-art of ASL and establishes it as an increasingly viable MRI technique with high translational value in studying resting-state brain function. PMID:26106930

  15. Implementing Green Walls in Schools

    Michael B. McCullough

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies in applied pedagogical design have shown that, at all educational levels, direct exposure to the natural environment can enhance learning by improving student attention and behaviors. Implementing green walls—a “vertical garden,” or “living wall” interior wall that typically includes greenery, a growing medium (soil or substrate and a water delivery system—provides environmental health benefits, but also provides a practical application within classrooms for minimizing directed attention fatigue in students by connecting them to “outdoor nature” within the indoor environment. Hands-on “project-based” learning is another pedagogical strategy that has proved to be effective across the spectrum of educational levels and across subject areas. Green walls have the potential to inspire critical thinking through a combination of project-based learning strategies and environmental education. The authors have outlined a curriculum involving the implementation of an indoor living wall system within a classroom-learning environment, incorporating project-based learning modules that interact with the wall. In conjunction with the passive health benefits of a green wall, project-based curriculum models can connect students interactively with indoor nature and have the potential to inspire real-world thinking related to science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics fields within the indoor learning environment. Through a combination of these passive and interactive modes, students are connected to nature in the indoor environment regardless of weather conditions outdoors. Future research direction could include post-construction studies of the effectiveness of project-based curricula related to living walls, and the long-term impacts of implementing green walls in classrooms on school achievement and student behaviors.

  16. Resting behaviour of endophilic anopheline vectors in three ecological zones of southern Ghana and its implications for the use of entomopathogenic fungi

    Osae, M. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the resting behaviour and factors that influence the choice of resting sites by endophilic anopheline mosquitoes in southern Ghana. The study was carried out in six villages across three ecological zones of Southern Ghana, including: the forest ecological zone (FEZ), the coastal savannah ecological zone (CSEZ) and the forest-transition ecological zone (FTEZ). For every mosquito collected, the indoor resting sites was characterised and microclimate at the actual resting site recorded using a data logger. In the laboratory, full diagnostics was carried out on a sub-sample. Resting devices constructed from different materials were tested in a screen house and in village rooms. The dominant anopheline vectors include Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. coluzzii and An.funestus. An gambiae s.s. was the most dominant species in the villages from the FEZ and FTEZ, whereas An. coluzzii was most dominant in the CSEZ. An funestus was present in the FEZ and CSEZ but almost absent from the FTEZ. The two kdr mutations (L1014F and L1014S) were present in all the ecological zones and in both An. gambiae s.s. and An.coluzzii. This is the first report of the L1014S mutation from Ghana. The populations were highly anthropophagic and plasmodium falciparum was present in populations from all the villages studied. Woody materials appeared to be the most preferred resting materials for An. gambiae, accounting for 47% of all the resting sites for that species. They were also found on fabrics (26%), wall materials (12%), and roof materials (10%). Similarly, An. funestus preferred to rest on woody materials (58%), followed by wall materials (21%), fabrics (11%) and roofing materials (7%). For An.coluzzii, fabrics were the most preferred resting materials (38%) followed by roof materials (21%), wooden materials (19%) and wall materials (9%). All the three vector species preferred to rest higher up the room and closer to the walls, with large proportions of An

  17. A multi-component parallel-plate flow chamber system for studying the effect of exercise-induced wall shear stress on endothelial cells.

    Wang, Yan-Xia; Xiang, Cheng; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Yong; Luan, Yong; Liu, Shu-Tian; Qin, Kai-Rong

    2016-12-28

    In vivo studies have demonstrated that reasonable exercise training can improve endothelial function. To confirm the key role of wall shear stress induced by exercise on endothelial cells, and to understand how wall shear stress affects the structure and the function of endothelial cells, it is crucial to design and fabricate an in vitro multi-component parallel-plate flow chamber system which can closely replicate exercise-induced wall shear stress waveforms in artery. The in vivo wall shear stress waveforms from the common carotid artery of a healthy volunteer in resting and immediately after 30 min acute aerobic cycling exercise were first calculated by measuring the inner diameter and the center-line blood flow velocity with a color Doppler ultrasound. According to the above in vivo wall shear stress waveforms, we designed and fabricated a parallel-plate flow chamber system with appropriate components based on a lumped parameter hemodynamics model. To validate the feasibility of this system, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) line were cultured within the parallel-plate flow chamber under abovementioned two types of wall shear stress waveforms and the intracellular actin microfilaments and nitric oxide (NO) production level were evaluated using fluorescence microscope. Our results show that the trends of resting and exercise-induced wall shear stress waveforms, especially the maximal, minimal and mean wall shear stress as well as oscillatory shear index, generated by the parallel-plate flow chamber system are similar to those acquired from the common carotid artery. In addition, the cellular experiments demonstrate that the actin microfilaments and the production of NO within cells exposed to the two different wall shear stress waveforms exhibit different dynamic behaviors; there are larger numbers of actin microfilaments and higher level NO in cells exposed in exercise-induced wall shear stress condition than resting wall shear stress condition

  18. "I am resting but rest less well with you." The moderating effect of anxious attachment style on alpha power during EEG resting state in a social context

    Verbeke, W.J.M.I.; Pozharliev, R.; van Strien, J.W.; Belschak, F.; Bagozzi, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    We took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A) or together (T). We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results indicate

  19. Isolation of the Cell Wall.

    Canut, Hervé; Albenne, Cécile; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes a method allowing the purification of the cell wall for studying both polysaccharides and proteins. The plant primary cell wall is mainly composed of polysaccharides (90-95 % in mass) and of proteins (5-10 %). At the end of growth, specialized cells may synthesize a lignified secondary wall composed of polysaccharides (about 65 %) and lignin (about 35 %). Due to its composition, the cell wall is the cellular compartment having the highest density and this property is used for its purification. It plays critical roles during plant development and in response to environmental constraints. It is largely used in the food and textile industries as well as for the production of bioenergy. All these characteristics and uses explain why its study as a true cell compartment is of high interest. The proposed method of purification can be used for large amount of material but can also be downscaled to 500 mg of fresh material. Tools for checking the quality of the cell wall preparation, such as protein analysis and microscopy observation, are also provided.

  20. Modeling of shear wall buildings

    Gupta, A K [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1984-05-01

    Many nuclear power plant buildings, for example, the auxiliary building, have reinforced concrete shear walls as the primary lateral load resisting system. Typically, these walls have low height to length ratio, often less than unity. Such walls exhibit marked shear lag phenomenon which would affect their bending stiffness and the overall stress distribution in the building. The deformation and the stress distribution in walls have been studied which is applicable to both the short and the tall buildings. The behavior of the wall is divided into two parts: the symmetric flange action and the antisymmetry web action. The latter has two parts: the web shear and the web bending. Appropriate stiffness equations have been derived for all the three actions. These actions can be synthesized to solve any nonlinear cross-section. Two specific problems, that of lateral and torsional loadings of a rectangular box, have been studied. It is found that in short buildings shear lag plays a very important role. Any beam type formulation which either ignores shear lag or includes it in an idealized form is likely to lead to erroneous results. On the other hand a rigidity type approach with some modifications to the standard procedures would yield nearly accurate answers.

  1. Asymmetric driven dynamics of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Sánchez-Tejerina, L. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Alejos, Ó., E-mail: oscaral@ee.uva.es [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Martínez, E. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37011 Salamanca (Spain); Muñoz, J.M. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is studied from both numerical and analytical micromagnetics. The influence of a moderate interfacial Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction associated to a bi-layer strip arrangement has been considered, giving rise to the formation of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls. Such walls possess under equilibrium conditions an inner magnetization structure defined by a certain orientation angle that make them to be considered as intermediate configurations between Bloch and Néel walls. Two different dynamics are considered, a field-driven and a current-driven dynamics, in particular, the one promoted by the spin torque due to the spin-Hall effect. Results show an inherent asymmetry associated with the rotation of the domain wall magnetization orientation before reaching the stationary regime, characterized by a constant terminal speed. For a certain initial DW magnetization orientation at rest, the rotation determines whether the reorientation of the DW magnetization prior to reach stationary motion is smooth or abrupt. This asymmetry affects the DW motion, which can even reverse for a short period of time. Additionally, it is found that the terminal speed in the case of the current-driven dynamics may depend on either the initial DW magnetization orientation at rest or the sign of the longitudinally injected current. - Highlights: • The asymmetric response of domain walls in bilayer strips with PMA is studied. • Out-of-plane fields and SHE longitudinal currents are applied. • The response is associated to the rotation of the domain wall inner magnetization. • Clockwise and counter-clockwise magnetization rotations are not equivalent. • The asymmetry results in different travelled distances and/or terminal speeds.

  2. Asymmetric driven dynamics of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Sánchez-Tejerina, L.; Alejos, Ó.; Martínez, E.; Muñoz, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is studied from both numerical and analytical micromagnetics. The influence of a moderate interfacial Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction associated to a bi-layer strip arrangement has been considered, giving rise to the formation of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls. Such walls possess under equilibrium conditions an inner magnetization structure defined by a certain orientation angle that make them to be considered as intermediate configurations between Bloch and Néel walls. Two different dynamics are considered, a field-driven and a current-driven dynamics, in particular, the one promoted by the spin torque due to the spin-Hall effect. Results show an inherent asymmetry associated with the rotation of the domain wall magnetization orientation before reaching the stationary regime, characterized by a constant terminal speed. For a certain initial DW magnetization orientation at rest, the rotation determines whether the reorientation of the DW magnetization prior to reach stationary motion is smooth or abrupt. This asymmetry affects the DW motion, which can even reverse for a short period of time. Additionally, it is found that the terminal speed in the case of the current-driven dynamics may depend on either the initial DW magnetization orientation at rest or the sign of the longitudinally injected current. - Highlights: • The asymmetric response of domain walls in bilayer strips with PMA is studied. • Out-of-plane fields and SHE longitudinal currents are applied. • The response is associated to the rotation of the domain wall inner magnetization. • Clockwise and counter-clockwise magnetization rotations are not equivalent. • The asymmetry results in different travelled distances and/or terminal speeds.

  3. What goes on in the resting-state? A qualitative glimpse into resting-state experience in the scanner

    Hurlburt, Russell T.; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The brain’s resting-state has attracted considerable interest in recent years, but currently little is known either about typical experience during the resting-state or about whether there are inter-individual differences in resting-state phenomenology. We used descriptive experience sampling (DES) in an attempt to apprehend high fidelity glimpses of the inner experience of five participants in an extended fMRI study. Results showed that the inner experiences and the neural activation patterns (as quantified by amplitude of low frequency fluctuations analysis) of the five participants were largely consistent across time, suggesting that our extended-duration scanner sessions were broadly similar to typical resting-state sessions. However, there were very large individual differences in inner phenomena, suggesting that the resting-state itself may differ substantially from one participant to the next. We describe these individual differences in experiential characteristics and display some typical moments of resting-state experience. We also show that retrospective characterizations of phenomena can often be very different from moment-by-moment reports. We discuss implications for the assessment of inner experience in neuroimaging studies more generally, concluding that it may be possible to use fMRI to investigate neural correlates of phenomena apprehended in high fidelity. PMID:26500590

  4. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  5. Modifications of resting state networks in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2.

    Cocozza, Sirio; Saccà, Francesco; Cervo, Amedeo; Marsili, Angela; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Giorgio, Sara Maria Delle Acque; De Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Brunetti, Arturo; Quarantelli, Mario

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the integrity of the Resting State Networks in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) and the correlations between the modification of these networks and clinical variables. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) data from 19 SCA2 patients and 29 healthy controls were analyzed using an independent component analysis and dual regression, controlling at voxel level for the effect of atrophy by co-varying for gray matter volume. Correlations between the resting state networks alterations and disease duration, age at onset, number of triplets, and clinical score were assessed by Spearman's coefficient, for each cluster which was significantly different in SCA2 patients compared with healthy controls. In SCA2 patients, disruption of the cerebellar components of all major resting state networks was present, with supratentorial involvement only for the default mode network. When controlling at voxel level for gray matter volume, the reduction in functional connectivity in supratentorial regions of the default mode network, and in cerebellar regions within the default mode, executive and right fronto-parietal networks, was still significant. No correlations with clinical variables were found for any of the investigated resting state networks. The SCA2 patients show significant alterations of the resting state networks, only partly explained by the atrophy. The default mode network is the only resting state network that shows also supratentorial changes, which appear unrelated to the cortical gray matter volume. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical significance of these changes. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  6. Abdominal wall hernia and pregnancy

    Jensen, K K; Henriksen, N A; Jorgensen, L N

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is no consensus as to the treatment strategy for abdominal wall hernias in fertile women. This study was undertaken to review the current literature on treatment of abdominal wall hernias in fertile women before or during pregnancy. METHODS: A literature search was undertaken in Pub......Med and Embase in combination with a cross-reference search of eligible papers. RESULTS: We included 31 papers of which 23 were case reports. In fertile women undergoing sutured or mesh repair, pain was described in a few patients during the last trimester of a subsequent pregnancy. Emergency surgery...... of incarcerated hernias in pregnant women, as well as combined hernia repair and cesarean section appears as safe procedures. No major complications were reported following hernia repair before or during pregnancy. The combined procedure of elective cesarean section and abdominal wall hernia repair was reported...

  7. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-01-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function......, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study...... was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery...

  8. Chest Wall tumor: combined management

    Rao Bhaskar, N.

    1997-01-01

    Cancer is relatively rare disease among children and adolescents. The incidence of solid tumors other than CNS is less than 2/100,000. Tumors of the chest wall can arise either from the somatic tissue or ribs. These are rare, so either institutional reviews or multi institutional studies should determine optimal therapeutic management. Of the bony chest wall, Ewing's sarcoma or the family of tumor (peripheral neuro epithelioma, Askin tumor), are the most common. These lesions are lytic and have associated large extra pleural component. This large extra pleural component often necessitates major chest wall resection (3 or more ribs), and when lower ribs are involved, this entails resection of portion of diaphragm. Despite this resection, survival in the early 1970 was 10-20%. Since 1970 multi agent chemotherapy has increased survival rates. of importance, however, is these regimens have caused significant reduction of these extra pleural components so that major chest wall resections have become a rarity. With improved survival and decreased morbidity preoperative chemotherapy followed by surgery is now the accepted modality of treatment. Another major advantage of this regimen is that potential radiation therapy may be obviated. The most common chest wall lesion is rhabdomyosarcoma. In the IRS study of 1620 RMS patients, in 141 (9%) the primary lesion was in the chest wall. these are primarily alveolar histology. when lesions were superficial, wide local excision with supplemental radiation therapy was associated with low morbidity and good overall survival. however, a majority have significant intra- thoracic components. in these circumstances the resectability rate is less than 30% and the survival poor. Other lesions include non rhabdomyosarcomas, eosinophilic granuloma, chondrosarcoma, and osteomyelitis. The management of these lesions varies according to extent, histology, and patient characteristics

  9. Shielding walls against ionizing radiation

    1993-05-01

    Hot-cell shielding walls consist of building blocks made of lead according to DIN 25407 part 1, and of special elements according to DIN 25407 part 2. Alpha-gamma cells can be built using elements for protective contamination boxes according to DIN 25480 part 1. This standards document intends to provide planning engineers, manufacturers, future users and the competent authorities and experts with a basis for the design of hot cells with lead shielding walls and the design of hot-cell equipment. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Feasibility Study of a Lunar Analog Bed Rest Model

    Cromwell, Ronita L.; Platts, Steven H.; Yarbough, Patrice; Buccello-Stout, Regina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a 9.5deg head-up tilt bed rest model to simulate the effects of the 1/6 g load to the human body that exists on the lunar surface. The lunar analog bed rest model utilized a modified hospital bed. The modifications included mounting the mattress on a sled that rolled on bearings to provide freedom of movement. The weight of the sled was off-loaded using a counterweight system to insure that 1/6 body weight was applied along the long axis (z-axis) of the body. Force was verified through use of a force plate mounted at the foot of the bed. A seating assembly was added to the bed to permit periods of sitting. Subjects alternated between standing and sitting positions throughout the day. A total of 35% of the day was spent in the standing position and 65% was spent sitting. In an effort to achieve physiologic fluid shifts expected for a 1/6 G environment, subjects wore compression stockings and performed unloaded foot and ankle exercises. Eight subjects (3 females and 5 males) participated in this study. Subjects spent 13 days in the pre-bed rest phase, 6 days in bed rest and 3 days post bed rest. Subjects consumed a standardized diet throughout the study. To determine feasibility, measures of subject comfort, force and plasma volume were collected. Subject comfort was assessed using a Likert scale. Subjects were asked to assess level of comfort (0-100) for 11 body regions and provide an overall rating. Results indicated minimal to no discomfort as most subjects reported scores of zero. Force measures were performed for each standing position and were validated against subject s calculated 1/6 body weight (r(sup 2) = 0.993). The carbon monoxide rebreathing technique was used to assess plasma volume during pre-bed rest and on the last day of bed rest. Plasma volume results indicated a significant decrease (p = 0.001) from pre to post bed rest values. Subjects lost on average 8.3% (sd = 6.1%) during the

  11. Resting state brain networks in the prairie vole.

    Ortiz, Juan J; Portillo, Wendy; Paredes, Raul G; Young, Larry J; Alcauter, Sarael

    2018-01-19

    Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has shown the hierarchical organization of the human brain into large-scale complex networks, referred as resting state networks. This technique has turned into a promising translational research tool after the finding of similar resting state networks in non-human primates, rodents and other animal models of great value for neuroscience. Here, we demonstrate and characterize the presence of resting states networks in Microtus ochrogaster, the prairie vole, an extraordinary animal model to study complex human-like social behavior, with potential implications for the research of normal social development, addiction and neuropsychiatric disorders. Independent component analysis of rsfMRI data from isoflurane-anestethized prairie voles resulted in cortical and subcortical networks, including primary motor and sensory networks, but also included putative salience and default mode networks. We further discuss how future research could help to close the gap between the properties of the large scale functional organization and the underlying neurobiology of several aspects of social cognition. These results contribute to the evidence of preserved resting state brain networks across species and provide the foundations to explore the use of rsfMRI in the prairie vole for basic and translational research.

  12. Normal left ventricular emptying in coronary artery disease at rest: analysis by radiographic and equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography

    Denenberg, B.S.; Makler, P.T.; Bove, A.A.; Spann, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    The volume ejected early in systole has been proposed as an indicator of abnormal left ventricular function that is present at rest in patients with coronary artery disease with a normal ejection fraction and normal wall motion. The volume ejected in systole was examined by calculating the percent change in ventricular volume using both computer-assisted analysis of biplane radiographic ventriculograms at 60 frames/s and equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculograms. Ventricular emptying was examined with radiographic ventriculography in 33 normal patients and 23 patients with coronary artery disease and normal ejection fraction. Eight normal subjects and six patients with coronary artery disease had both radiographic ventriculography and equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography. In all patients, there was excellent correlation between the radiographic and radionuclide ventricular emptying curves (r . 0.971). There were no difference in the ventricular emptying curves of normal subjects and patients with coronary artery disease whether volumes were measured by radiographic or equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography. It is concluded that the resting ventricular emptying curves are identical in normal subjects and patients with coronary artery disease who have a normal ejection fraction and normal wall motion

  13. Comparison of Nitrate-augmented resting gated 99mTc-Sestamibi imaging with Low Dose Dobutamine SPECT for the detection of Myocardial Viability

    Parameswaran, R.V.; Dash, P.K.; Barooah, B.; Guruprasad, H.P.; Purantharan, N.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Dobutamine Echocardiography and Radionuclide imaging with Tl-201 and Technetium agents are two of the most established techniques available for the detection of viable myocardium. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of Low dose Dobutamine gated Myocardial SPECT in identifying additional areas of dysfunctional, but viable myocardium when compared to nitrate-augmented rest gated SPECT with SestaMIBI. Materials and Methods: 20 patients (19 males and 1 female, with an age range of 40- 65 yrs and a mean of 52.75yrs) all with history of MI or severe LV dysfunction were included in this study. Patients with LBBB, recent revascularisation, arrhythmias etc were excluded from the study. A routine stress-rest study was initially performed on them with 99mTc-SestaMIBI and both the stress as well as resting studies was gated and the resting study was augmented with 10mg of sublingual nitrate. After the resting study was over, the patient was infused with Low dose Dobutamine(5μg/kg/min), at which time the gated acquisition was started and the infusion was continued till the acquisition got completed. In the perfusion study with SestaMIBI, all infarct segments which have uptake less than 50% as compared to the maximally perfused area was deemed non-viable Results: A 17-segment Myocardial model was used for both perfusion as well as quantification of wall motion and wall thickening. 110 akinetic/dyskinetic segments were taken up for analysis. 93 of these segments were non-viable and improvement in wall motion was seen in 17 segments (15.4%) in the nitrate-augmented SPECT. Dobutamine study showed improvement in totally in 27 segments (24.5%), 10 of which were additional segments which were non-viable in Nitrate SPECT study, apart from the 17 segments which showed improvement in the Nitrate study. In Dobutamine study, there was also improvement in wall thickening in 10 (10.7%) out of 93 segments which had showed less than 50% of MIBI uptake. Conclusion

  14. Expression of REST4 in human gliomas in vivo and influence of pioglitazone on REST in vitro

    Ren, Huan [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China); Gao, Zhangfeng [Department of Neurosurgery, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Wu, Nayiyuan; Zeng, Liu; Tang, Xinyue; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Zhaoqian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Liansheng [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China); Li, Zhi, E-mail: lizhi489@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China)

    2015-08-07

    The repressor element-1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) has an irreplaceable role during the differentiation of neurons. REST has multiple splice variants which link to various types of cancer. Previous work had highlighted the role of REST in glioma, where the expression of REST is enhanced. But whether alternative splicing of REST is expressed in glioma has not been described. Here, we show that a specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens, and will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists have a role of antineoplastic in various tumor cells, which including glioma cells. Moreover, study indicated that PPARγ agonist pioglitazone can promote alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. In this study, we selected pioglitazone as a tool drug to explore whether the role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma is mediated by regulating REST expression or promoting alternative splicing of REST in glioma cells. Results show that pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cell in vitro, which may be mediated by down-regulating REST mRNA level but not by inducing alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. Our study firstly reports the expression of REST4 in glioma tissue samples. And we recommend that pioglitazone, which can reduce the expression level of REST, represents a promising drug for therapy of glioma. - Highlights: • A specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens in vivo. • REST4 will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. • Pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cells. • The role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma may be mediated by down-regulating REST.

  15. Expression of REST4 in human gliomas in vivo and influence of pioglitazone on REST in vitro

    Ren, Huan; Gao, Zhangfeng; Wu, Nayiyuan; Zeng, Liu; Tang, Xinyue; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Zhaoqian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Liansheng; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    The repressor element-1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) has an irreplaceable role during the differentiation of neurons. REST has multiple splice variants which link to various types of cancer. Previous work had highlighted the role of REST in glioma, where the expression of REST is enhanced. But whether alternative splicing of REST is expressed in glioma has not been described. Here, we show that a specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens, and will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists have a role of antineoplastic in various tumor cells, which including glioma cells. Moreover, study indicated that PPARγ agonist pioglitazone can promote alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. In this study, we selected pioglitazone as a tool drug to explore whether the role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma is mediated by regulating REST expression or promoting alternative splicing of REST in glioma cells. Results show that pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cell in vitro, which may be mediated by down-regulating REST mRNA level but not by inducing alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. Our study firstly reports the expression of REST4 in glioma tissue samples. And we recommend that pioglitazone, which can reduce the expression level of REST, represents a promising drug for therapy of glioma. - Highlights: • A specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens in vivo. • REST4 will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. • Pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cells. • The role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma may be mediated by down-regulating REST

  16. Solar Walls for concrete renovation

    Gramkow, Lotte; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Olsen, Lars

    1996-01-01

    This repport gives a short presentation of three full-scale testing solar walls, the construction including the architectural design, materials and components, transportation and storage of solar enegy, the effect on the construction behind, statics and practical experience.The results of the mea...

  17. Wave Forces on Crown Walls

    Pedersen, Jan; Burcharth, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents some of the results from a large parametric laboratory study including more than 200 long-duration model tests. The study addresses both the wave forces imposed on the breakwater crown wall as well as the performance of the structure in reducing the wave overtopping. The testing...

  18. Fandom and the fourth wall

    Jenna Kathryn Ballinger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I use the Teen Wolf fandom as an example to examine the ways social media has created a more complicated, nuanced relationship with fans. The collapse of the fourth wall between fans and The Powers That Be can have both positive and negative impacts, depending on the willingness of participants to maintain mutual respect and engage in meaningful dialogue.

  19. Wary Eyes Monitoring Wall Street

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    School business officials kept a close watch on the financial markets this week--and on district investment portfolios and teacher-retirement funds--as stock prices gyrated and once-sound institutions got government bailouts or crumbled into bankruptcy. While financial observers said it was too soon to predict how Wall Street's upheaval might…

  20. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated

  1. Imaging of chest wall infections

    Chelli Bouaziz, Mouna; Jelassi, Helmi; Chaabane, Skander; Ladeb, Mohamed Fethi; Ben Miled-Mrad, Khaoula

    2009-01-01

    A wide variety of infections can affect the chest wall including pyogenic, tuberculous, fungal, and some other unusual infections. These potentially life-threatening disorders are frequent especially among immunocompromised patients but often misdiagnosed by physical examination and radiographs. The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical and imaging features of these different chest wall infections according to the different imaging modalities with emphasis on ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The outcome of chest wall infection depends on early diagnosis, severity of the immunosuppression, offending organism, and extent of infection. Because clinical findings and laboratory tests may be not contributive in immunocompromised patients, imaging plays an important role in the early detection and precise assessment of the disease. US, CT, and MRI are all useful: bone destruction is more accurately detected with CT whereas soft tissue involvement are better visualized with US and MRI. CT and US are also used to guide percutaneous biopsy and drainage procedures. MR images are helpful in pre-operative planning of extensive chest wall infections. (orig.)

  2. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  3. The Influence of Wall Binders

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This report is an analysis of the thermal bridge effects that occur in wall binders in masonry buildings. The effects are analyzed using a numerical calculation programme.The results are compared to the values given in the danish standard, DS418....

  4. Chapter 3 Cell Wall Chemistry

    Roger M. Rowell; Roger Pettersen; Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2012-01-01

    Wood is best defined as a three-dimensional biopolymer composite composed of an interconnected network of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin with minor amounts of extractives, and inorganics. The major chemical component of a living tree is water, but on a dry weight basis, all wood cell walls consist mainly of sugar-based polymers (carbohydrates, 65-75%) that are...

  5. Sparse dictionary learning of resting state fMRI networks.

    Eavani, Harini; Filipovych, Roman; Davatzikos, Christos; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2012-07-02

    Research in resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) has revealed the presence of stable, anti-correlated functional subnetworks in the brain. Task-positive networks are active during a cognitive process and are anti-correlated with task-negative networks, which are active during rest. In this paper, based on the assumption that the structure of the resting state functional brain connectivity is sparse, we utilize sparse dictionary modeling to identify distinct functional sub-networks. We propose two ways of formulating the sparse functional network learning problem that characterize the underlying functional connectivity from different perspectives. Our results show that the whole-brain functional connectivity can be concisely represented with highly modular, overlapping task-positive/negative pairs of sub-networks.

  6. Exclusive channels in bar pp annihilation at rest

    Bluem, P.

    1992-01-01

    Exclusive channels in bar pp annihilation at rest provide a powerful tool for studying the meson spectrum below the bar pp threshold. The mesons can be classified in SU(3) multiplets according to their quantum numbers. The states which do not fit into this classification are candidates for new forms of hadronic matter like glueballs, hybrids, and multi-quark states. Recent results on the search for exotic states in exclusive channels of bar pp annihilation at rest are discussed. No less important is the study of the annihilation mechanism. In particular, high-statistic measurements of bar pp annihilation at rest into two-meson final states are an excellent tool for studying quark dynamics. Examples of two-body reactions are presented. 24 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Phylogenetic placement of two species known only from resting spores

    Hajek, Ann E; Gryganskyi, Andrii; Bittner, Tonya

    2016-01-01

    resting spores, Zoophthora independentia, infecting Tipula (Lunatipula) submaculata in New York State, is now described as a new species and Tarichium porteri, described in 1942, which infects Tipula (Triplicitipula) colei in Tennessee, is transferred to the genus Zoophthora. We have shown that use......Molecular methods were used to determine the generic placement of two species of Entomophthorales known only from resting spores. Historically, these species would belong in the form-genus Tarichium, but this classification provides no information about phylogenetic relationships. Using DNA from...... of molecular methods can assist with determination of the phylogenetic relations of specimens within the form-genus Tarichium for an already described species and a new species for which only resting spores are available....

  8. Multifraction dose response of growing and resting phase hair follicles

    Vegesna, V.; Withers, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    It has been established in both the clinic and the laboratory that there is a differentiation response to changes in dose per fraction in early and late responding tissues. To study one possible biological reason for differences in early and late responses. The authors selected one kind of cellular entity, the hair follicle, in two different phases of mitotic activity. The follicles are usually in a resting phase (7-12 wks), but mitotic activity can be initiated by plucking the club hairs. This was done on one half of the thorax and then exposing mice to doses of radiation (cesium gamma-ray). Dose responses for epilation between growing (early) and resting (late) follicles were compared for the same mouse. The fractionated response was studied by reducing the dose down to 2.5 Gy/fx. As the literature suggests, the total dose tolerated by a resting (late) follicle increased more than that for a growing (early) follicle

  9. Mach's principle and the rest mass of the graviton

    Woodward, J.F.; Crowley, R.J.; Yourgrau, W.

    1975-01-01

    The question of the graviton rest mass is briefly discussed and then it is shown that the Sciama-Dicke formulation of Mach's principle admits, in the linear approximation, the calculation of the graviton rest mass. One finds that the value of the graviton rest mass depends on the cosmological model adopted, the mean matter density in the universe, the speed of light, and the constant of gravitation. The value obtained for an infinite, stationary universe is 7.6 times 10 -67 g. The value for evolutionary cosmological models is found to depend critically on the mass and ''radius'' of the universe, both null and non-null values occurring only for certain values of these parameters. Problems that arise as a consequence of the linear approximation are pointed out

  10. Accuracy of diagnosis of coronary artery disease by radionuclide management of left ventricular function during rest and exercise

    Jones, R.H.; McEwan, P.; Newman, G.E.; Port, S.; Rerych, S.K.; Scholz, P.M.; Upton, M.T.; Peter, C.A.; Austin, E.H.; Leong, K.H.; Gibbons, R.J.; Cobb, F.R.; Coleman, R.E.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide angiocardiographic measurements of left ventricular function were obtained in 496 patients who underwent cardiac catheterization for chest pain. Two hundred forty-eight of these patients also had an exercise treadmill test. An ejection fraction less than 50% was the abnormality of resting left ventricular function that provided the greatest diagnostic information. In patients with normal resting left ventricular function, exercise abnormalities that were optimal for diagnosis of coronary artery disease were an injection fraction at least 6% less than predicted, an increase greater than 20 ml in end-systolic volume and the appearance of an exercise-induced wall motion abnormality. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were lower in patients who were taking propranolol at the time of study and in patients who failed to achieve an adequate exercise end point. In the 387 patients with an optimal study, the test had a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 58%. Radionuclide angiocardiography was more sensitive and less specific than the exercise treadmill test. The high degree of sensitivity of the radionuclide test suggests that it is most appropriately applied to patient groups with a high prevalence of disease, including those considered for cardiac catheterization

  11. Physiological and Functional Alterations after Spaceflight and Bed Rest.

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Miller, Chris A; Kofman, Igor S; Reschke, Millard F; Taylor, Laura C; Lawrence, Emily L; Wood, Scott J; Laurie, Steven S; Lee, Stuart M C; Buxton, Roxanne E; May-Phillips, Tiffany R; Stenger, Michael B; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L; Ryder, Jeffrey W; Feiveson, Alan H; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2018-04-03

    Exposure to microgravity causes alterations in multiple physiological systems, potentially impacting the ability of astronauts to perform critical mission tasks. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of spaceflight on functional task performance and to identify the key physiological factors contributing to their deficits. A test battery comprised of 7 functional tests and 15 physiological measures was used to investigate the sensorimotor, cardiovascular and neuromuscular adaptations to spaceflight. Astronauts were tested before and after 6-month spaceflights. Subjects were also tested before and after 70 days of 6° head-down bed rest, a spaceflight analog, to examine the role of axial body unloading on the spaceflight results. These subjects included Control and Exercise groups to examine the effects of exercise during bed rest. Spaceflight subjects showed the greatest decrement in performance during functional tasks that required the greatest demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium which was paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests that assessed postural and dynamic gait control. Other changes included reduced lower limb muscle performance and increased heart rate to maintain blood pressure. Exercise performed during bed rest prevented detrimental change in neuromuscular and cardiovascular function, however, both bed rest groups experienced functional and balance deficits similar to spaceflight subjects. Bed rest data indicates that body support unloading experienced during spaceflight contributes to postflight postural control dysfunction. Further, the bed rest results in the Exercise group of subjects confirm that resistance and aerobic exercises performed during spaceflight can play an integral role in maintaining neuromuscular and cardiovascular function, which can help in reducing decrements in functional performance. These results indicate that a countermeasure to mitigate postflight postural control dysfunction is

  12. Granular packings with moving side walls

    Landry, James W.; Grest, Gary Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The effects of movement of the side walls of a confined granular packing are studied by discrete element, molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamical evolution of the stress is studied as a function of wall movement both in the direction of gravity as well as opposite to it. For all wall velocities explored, the stress in the final state of the system after wall movement is fundamentally different from the original state obtained by pouring particles into the container and letting them settle under the influence of gravity. The original packing possesses a hydrostaticlike region at the top of the container which crosses over to a depth-independent stress. As the walls are moved in the direction opposite to gravity, the saturation stress first reaches a minimum value independent of the wall velocity, then increases to a steady-state value dependent on the wall velocity. After wall movement ceases and the packing reaches equilibrium, the stress profile fits the classic Janssen form for high wall velocities, while some deviations remain for low wall velocities. The wall movement greatly increases the number of particle-wall and particle-particle forces at the Coulomb criterion. Varying the wall velocity has only small effects on the particle structure of the final packing so long as the walls travel a similar distance.

  13. Resting release of acetylcholine at the motor endplate

    Molenaar, P.C.; Polak, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews recent work on resting release of ACh in frog, rat and mouse skeletal muscle. Because of the effect of Ca 2+ on resting release it was of interest to know whether non-quantal release of ACh is increased under conditions of increased Ca 2+ influx, viz. during depolarization of the nerve terminals. It is shown that depolarization of the motor nerve terminals by K + ions led to an increase of both min.e.p.c. frequency and chemically detectable ACh release

  14. Hemifacial Display of Emotion in the Resting State

    M. K. Mandal

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The human face at rest displays distinguishable asymmetries with some lateralization of emotion or expression. The asymmetrical nature of the resting face was examined by preparing hemifacial composites, left–left, right–right, along with normal facial orientation. The left side and right side composites were constructed by using the lateral half of one side of the face and its mirror-reversal. The left side facial composites were found to be more emotional than the right side or normal facial orientations of neutral expressions.

  15. Skeletal muscle microvascular and interstitial PO2 from rest to contractions.

    Hirai, Daniel M; Craig, Jesse C; Colburn, Trenton D; Eshima, Hiroaki; Kano, Yutaka; Sexton, William L; Musch, Timothy I; Poole, David C

    2018-03-01

    Oxygen pressure gradients across the microvascular walls are essential for oxygen diffusion from blood to tissue cells. At any given flux, the magnitude of these transmural gradients is proportional to the local resistance. The greatest resistance to oxygen transport into skeletal muscle is considered to reside in the short distance between red blood cells and myocytes. Although crucial to oxygen transport, little is known about transmural pressure gradients within skeletal muscle during contractions. We evaluated oxygen pressures within both the skeletal muscle microvascular and interstitial spaces to determine transmural gradients during the rest-contraction transient in anaesthetized rats. The significant transmural gradient observed at rest was sustained during submaximal muscle contractions. Our findings support that the blood-myocyte interface provides substantial resistance to oxygen diffusion at rest and during contractions and suggest that modulations in microvascular haemodynamics and red blood cell distribution constitute primary mechanisms driving increased transmural oxygen flux with contractions. Oxygen pressure (PO2) gradients across the blood-myocyte interface are required for diffusive O 2 transport, thereby supporting oxidative metabolism. The greatest resistance to O 2 flux into skeletal muscle is considered to reside between the erythrocyte surface and adjacent sarcolemma, although this has not been measured during contractions. We tested the hypothesis that O 2 gradients between skeletal muscle microvascular (PO2 mv ) and interstitial (PO2 is ) spaces would be present at rest and maintained or increased during contractions. PO2 mv and PO2 is   were determined via phosphorescence quenching (Oxyphor probes G2 and G4, respectively) in the exposed rat spinotrapezius during the rest-contraction transient (1 Hz, 6 V; n = 8). PO2 mv was higher than PO2 is in all instances from rest (34.9 ± 6.0 versus 15.7 ± 6.4) to contractions (28.4 ± 5

  16. Immobile defects in ferroelastic walls: Wall nucleation at defect sites

    He, X.; Salje, E. K. H.; Ding, X.; Sun, J.

    2018-02-01

    Randomly distributed, static defects are enriched in ferroelastic domain walls. The relative concentration of defects in walls, Nd, follows a power law distribution as a function of the total defect concentration C: N d ˜ C α with α = 0.4 . The enrichment Nd/C ranges from ˜50 times when C = 10 ppm to ˜3 times when C = 1000 ppm. The resulting enrichment is due to nucleation at defect sites as observed in large scale MD simulations. The dynamics of domain nucleation and switching is dependent on the defect concentration. Their energy distribution follows the power law with exponents during yield between ɛ ˜ 1.82 and 2.0 when the defect concentration increases. The power law exponent is ɛ ≈ 2.7 in the plastic regime, independent of the defect concentration.

  17. Association between uncoupling protein 2, adiponectin and resting energy expenditure in obese women with normal and low resting energy expenditure.

    Taghadomi Masoumi, Zahra; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Hedayati, Mahdi; Pishva, Hamideh

    2018-02-01

    Obesity is recognized as the most prevalent metabolic disease worldwide. Decreases in energy expenditure may increase risk of obesity. One of the key regulators of energy balance is uncoupling protein2 (UCP2), a transporter protein presents in mitochondrial inner membrane. Moreover, adiponectin is the most abundant adipocytokine, it may play a role in energy metabolism and gene expression of UCP2. The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between the level of uncoupling protein 2 and adiponectin and their relationship with REE (Resting Energy Expenditure) in obese women with normal and low resting energy expenditure. A total of 49 subjects (women, 25-50 years old), were included in current study, 16 subjects with BMI > 30 and low resting energy expenditure, 17 subjects with BMI > 30 and normal resting energy expenditure and 16 non-obese subjects as a control group. Anthropometric, body composition parameters and resting energy expenditure were measured. Plasma adiponectin, UCP2 protein and total protein in PBMC were determined. Measured resting energy expenditure in obese subjects with low REE was significantly lower than other groups. Plasma adiponectin in the obese subjects with low REE was significantly lower compared to normal weight group. There was a significant relationship between 'UCP2 protein/Total protein' ratio and plasma adiponectin in obese group with low REE and in three groups when we pooled. There was a significant association between REE and plasma adiponectin in three groups when we pooled. There was a significant association between plasma adiponectin and REE. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between UCP2 and REE.

  18. Spatiotemporal psychopathology I: No rest for the brain's resting state activity in depression? Spatiotemporal psychopathology of depressive symptoms.

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-15

    Despite intense neurobiological investigation in psychiatric disorders like major depressive disorder (MDD), the basic disturbance that underlies the psychopathological symptoms of MDD remains, nevertheless, unclear. Neuroimaging has focused mainly on the brain's extrinsic activity, specifically task-evoked or stimulus-induced activity, as related to the various sensorimotor, affective, cognitive, and social functions. Recently, the focus has shifted to the brain's intrinsic activity, otherwise known as its resting state activity. While various abnormalities have been observed during this activity, their meaning and significance for depression, along with its various psychopathological symptoms, are yet to be defined. Based on findings in healthy brain resting state activity and its particular spatial and temporal structure - defined in a functional and physiological sense rather than anatomical and structural - I claim that the various depressive symptoms are spatiotemporal disturbances of the resting state activity and its spatiotemporal structure. This is supported by recent findings that link ruminations and increased self-focus in depression to abnormal spatial organization of resting state activity. Analogously, affective and cognitive symptoms like anhedonia, suicidal ideation, and thought disorder can be traced to an increased focus on the past, increased past-focus as basic temporal disturbance o the resting state. Based on these findings, I conclude that the various depressive symptoms must be conceived as spatiotemporal disturbances of the brain's resting state's activity and its spatiotemporal structure. Importantly, this entails a new form of psychopathology, "Spatiotemporal Psychopathology" that directly links the brain and psyche, therefore having major diagnostic and therapeutic implications for clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The clinical meaning of gastric-wall hyperactivity observed on sestamibi cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography

    Cote, C.; Dumont, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Quebec, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: christian.cote@chuq.qc.ca

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate prospectively the incidence and clinical meaning, if any, of gastric-wall hyperactivity observed on sestamibi cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This phenomenon is completely different from the well-known intraluminal gastric reflux of sestamibi. A group of 819 patients who underwent sestamibi cardiac SPECT was studied from January 2000 to October 2000. Gastric-wall activity was graded qualitatively. Only patients with gastric-wall activity near or equivalent to their heart activity were considered for subsequent analysis. The medical records of patient candidates were reviewed, and their family physicians were asked to respond to a questionnaire by telephone when further information was needed. We identified 13 patients with significant gastric-wall hyperactivity, which was more intense on rest images. Our review of the clinical data shows that all these patients were suffering from dyspepsia and were taking gastric medication. These 13 cases were assigned to 3 groups: gastroesophageal reflux, chronic functional dyspepsia and nonspecific gastritis. Significant gastric-wall hyperactivity is an infrequent observation on sestamibi cardiac SPECT. Our results indicate that the presence of significant gastric-wall hyperactivity is associated with dyspepsia. It is important to realize that this gastric-wall hyperactivity by its proximity to the inferior myocardial wall could in some circumstances lead to either false-negative or false-positive findings, representing a diagnostic problem. Although infrequent, this situation could be avoided by proper quality control, including a systematic review of the raw cine data before reading the images. (author)

  20. Bed rest and increased diuretic treatment in chronic congestive heart failure

    Abildgaard, U; Aldershvile, J; Ring-Larsen, H

    1985-01-01

    To elucidate the effect of bed rest used as an adjunct to increased diuretic treatment, twelve patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) had a 50% increase in loop diuretic dosage and were allocated to either continuous bed rest or bed rest during nights only. The 24-hour bed rest group...... is a reasonable adjunct to diuretic treatment in patients with CHF....

  1. 49 CFR 37.201 - Intermediate and rest stops.

    2010-10-01

    ... wheelchair, shall be permitted to leave and return to the bus on the same basis as other passengers. The... passenger to get on and off the bus at the stop (e.g., operate the lift and provide assistance with... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.201 Intermediate and rest stops. (a) Whenever an OTRB makes...

  2. Effects of Flotation-REST on Muscle Tension Pain

    Anette Kjellgren

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the floating form of the restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST may be applied within the field of pain relief. Flotation-REST consists of a procedure whereby an individual is immersed in a tank filled with water of an extremely high salt concentration. Thirty-seven patients (14 men and 23 women suffering from chronic pain consisting of aching muscles in the neck and back area participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either a control group (17 participants or an experimental group (20 participants. The experimental group received nine opportunities to use the flotation-REST technique in the water tank over a three-week period. The results indicated that the most severe perceived pain intensity was significantly reduced, whereas low perceived pain intensity was not influenced by the floating technique. Further, the results indicated that circulating levels of the noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol were reduced significantly in the experimental group but not in the control group following treatment, whereas endorphin levels were not affected by flotation. Flotation-REST treatment also elevated the participants' optimism and reduced the degree of anxiety or depression; at nighttime, patients who underwent flotation fell asleep more easily. The present findings describe possible changes, for the better, in patients presenting with chronic pain complaints.

  3. Effects of flotation-REST on muscle tension pain.

    Kjellgren, A; Sundequist, U; Norlander, T; Archer, T

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the floating form of the restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST) may be applied within the field of pain relief. Flotation-REST consists of a procedure whereby an individual is immersed in a tank filled with water of an extremely high salt concentration. Thirty-seven patients (14 men and 23 women) suffering from chronic pain consisting of aching muscles in the neck and back area participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either a control group (17 participants) or an experimental group (20 participants). The experimental group received nine opportunities to use the flotation-REST technique in the water tank over a three-week period. The results indicated that the most severe perceived pain intensity was significantly reduced, whereas low perceived pain intensity was not influenced by the floating technique. Further, the results indicated that circulating levels of the noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol were reduced significantly in the experimental group but not in the control group following treatment, whereas endorphin levels were not affected by flotation. Flotation-REST treatment also elevated the participants' optimism and reduced the degree of anxiety or depression; at nighttime, patients who underwent flotation fell asleep more easily. The present findings describe possible changes, for the better, in patients presenting with chronic pain complaints.

  4. A Rwandan spirometry and resting ventilation study | Gahutu ...

    To illustrate spirometric population variation and ventilatory adaptation to moderate altitude, we report the spirometric and resting ventilation values observed in a student population in Butare, Rwanda (altitude: 1 768 m; barometric pressure: 629 mm Hg). Spirometry was carried out with a Mijnhardt Volutest VT-3 ...

  5. Effects of temperature and salinity on resting metabolism in two ...

    This study investigates the resting metabolic rate (RMR; mg O2 g/h) of the resident rock pool fish Caffrogobius caffer and the transient sparid Diplodus sargus capensis at a range of salinities (5, 15, 25, 35 and 45 PSU) and temperatures (14, 20 and 28°C) using closed-vessel respirometry. Both species were temperature ...

  6. JASPAR RESTful API: accessing JASPAR data from any programming language.

    Khan, Aziz; Mathelier, Anthony

    2018-05-01

    JASPAR is a widely used open-access database of curated, non-redundant transcription factor binding profiles. Currently, data from JASPAR can be retrieved as flat files or by using programming language-specific interfaces. Here, we present a programming language-independent application programming interface (API) to access JASPAR data using the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. The REST API enables programmatic access to JASPAR by most programming languages and returns data in eight widely used formats. Several endpoints are available to access the data and an endpoint is available to infer the TF binding profile(s) likely bound by a given DNA binding domain protein sequence. Additionally, it provides an interactive browsable interface for bioinformatics tool developers. This REST API is implemented in Python using the Django REST Framework. It is accessible at http://jaspar.genereg.net/api/ and the source code is freely available at https://bitbucket.org/CBGR/jaspar under GPL v3 license. aziz.khan@ncmm.uio.no or anthony.mathelier@ncmm.uio.no. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. Isospin effects in anti p3He annihilation at rest

    Balestra, F.; Barbieri, R.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Bendiscioli, G.; Breivik, F.O.; Bossolasco, S.; Bussa, M.P.; Busso, L.; Falomkin, I.V.; Ferrero, L.; Guaraldo, C.; Haatuft, A.; Halsteinslid, A.; Jacobsen, T.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Maggiora, A.; Myklebost, K.; Olsen, J.M.; Panzieri, D.; Piragino, G.; Pontecorvo, G.B.; Rozhdestvensky, A.M.; Rotondi, A.; Salvini, P.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Soerensen, S.O.; Tosello, F.; Tretyak, V.I.; Venaglioni, A.; Zenoni, A.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis of anti p 3 He annihilation events at rest (from the PS 179 experiment at LEAR) gives the value 0.467±0.035 for the ratio between the annihilation cross sections on n and on p. This low value indicates a strong isospin dependence of the anti NN amplitude in P wave. (orig.)

  8. Myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal ...

    Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased adiposity on myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal exercise in young adults. The study consisted of 85 young adults (18-22years) grouped into 3 based on ...

  9. Resting cardiointegram: correlation with stress thallium perfusion studies

    Gould, L.A.; Betzu, R.; Judge, D.; Lee, J.; Taddeo, M.; Yang, D.

    1988-01-01

    The cardiointegram is a noninvasive technique for the analysis of the electrical signals of the heart obtained by a transformation of the voltage versus time format by a series of integrations. The stress thallium perfusion study is a widely used test for the detection of coronary artery disease. In order to evaluate the correlation between the resting cardiointegram and the stress thallium 201 perfusion study, 20 patients with normal resting electrocardiograms underwent stress thallium tests and resting cardiointegrams. The cardiointegram was determined on two resting complexes of leads I, II, V4, V5, and V6 and called abnormal if five of ten complexes deviated outside a normalized template. There was concordance of the cardiointegram and the thallium study in 16 of 20 patients (80%). The sensitivity for the detection of coronary artery disease was 71%, and the specificity was 80%. The overall accuracy was 74%. Thus in patients with normal electrocardiograms, the cardiointegram is a useful noninvasive test for the detection of coronary artery disease

  10. Hierarchical Functional Modularity in the Resting-State Human Brain

    Ferrarini, Luca; Veer, Ilya M.; Baerends, Evelinda; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Renken, Remco J.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dirk. J.; Aleman, Andre; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Milles, Julien

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that anatomically distinct brain regions are functionally connected during the resting state. Basic topological properties in the brain functional connectivity (BFC) map have highlighted the BFC's small-world topology. Modularity, a

  11. Hierarchical Functional Modularity in the Resting-State Human Brain

    Ferrarini, L.; Veer, I.M.; Baerends, E.; van Tol, M.J.; Renken, R.J.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Veltman, D.J.; Aleman, A.; Zitman, F.G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; van Buchem, M.A.; Reiber, J.H.C.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Milles, J.

    2009-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that anatomically distinct brain regions are functionally connected during the resting state. Basic topological properties in the brain functional connectivity (BFC) map have highlighted the BFC's small-world topology. Modularity, a

  12. Separation of uranium in bone rest for their dating

    Garcia R, G.; Ordonez R, E.; Tenorio, D.; Cordoba, L.

    2001-01-01

    The uranium (U) and thorium (Th) recovery, as fundamental part of the 'uranium serie' technique is an alternative method for dating of bone rests in Mexico. That so is how it has been possible its application for dating geological material and in this research it has been determined the age of some mammoth samples from the basin of Mexico valley. (Author)

  13. Simplifying cardiovascular risk estimation using resting heart rate.

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-09-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is a known, independent cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, but is not included in risk estimation systems, including Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). We aimed to derive risk estimation systems including RHR as an extra variable and assess the value of this addition.

  14. Metabolic, respiratory, and cardiological measurements during exercise and rest

    1971-01-01

    Low concentration effects of CO2 on metabolic respiration and circulation were measured during work and at rest. The relationship between heart rate and metabolic rate is examined, as well as calibration procedures, and rate measurement during submaximal and standard exercise tests. Alterations in acid base and electrolytes were found during exhaustive exercise, including changes in ECG and metabolic alkalosis effects.

  15. Effects of aging on blood pressure variability in resting conditions

    Veerman, D. P.; Imholz, B. P.; Wieling, W.; Karemaker, J. M.; van Montfrans, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aging on beat-to-beat blood pressure and pulse interval variability in resting conditions and to determine the effect of aging on the sympathetic and vagal influence on the cardiovascular system by power spectral analysis of blood pressure

  16. Altered Resting and Exercise Respiratory Physiology in Obesity

    Sood, Akshay

    2009-01-01

    Obesity, particularly severe obesity, affects both resting and exercise-related respiratory physiology. Severe obesity classically produces a restrictive ventilatory abnormality, characterized by reduced expiratory reserve volume. However, obstructive ventilatory abnormality may also be associated with abdominal obesity. Decreased peak work rates are usually seen among obese subjects in a setting of normal or decreased ventilatory reserve and normal cardiovascular response to exercise. Weight...

  17. Hours of work and rest in the rail industry.

    Anderson, C; Grunstein, R R; Rajaratnam, S M W

    2013-06-01

    Currently, the National Transport Commission is considering four options to form the regulatory framework for rail safety within Australia with respect to fatigue. While the National Transport Commission currently recommends no limitations around hours of work or rest, we provide evidence which suggests regulatory frameworks should incorporate a traditional hours of service regulation over more flexible policies. Our review highlights: Shift durations >12 h are associated with a doubling of risk for accident and injury. Fatigue builds cumulatively with each successive shift where rest in between is inadequate (hours of work and rest, including maximum shift duration and successive number of shifts. Appropriately, validated biomathematical models and technologies may be used as a part of a fatigue management system, to augment the protection afforded by limits on hours of work and rest. A comprehensive sleep disorder screening and management programme should form an essential component of any regulatory framework. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  18. Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer

    Begall, S.; Červený, Jaroslav; Neef, J.; Burda, H.; Vojtěch, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 36 (2008), s. 13451-13455 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : grazing behavior * magnetic alignment * magnetoreception * resting behavior * spatial orientation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 9.380, year: 2008

  19. Resting-State Oscillatory Activity in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Cornew, Lauren; Roberts, Timothy P. L.; Blaskey, Lisa; Edgar, J. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Neural oscillatory anomalies in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggest an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance; however, the nature and clinical relevance of these anomalies are unclear. Whole-cortex magnetoencephalography data were collected while 50 children (27 with ASD, 23 controls) underwent an eyes-closed resting-state exam. A Fast Fourier…

  20. Infraslow Electroencephalographic and Dynamic Resting State Network Activity.

    Grooms, Joshua K; Thompson, Garth J; Pan, Wen-Ju; Billings, Jacob; Schumacher, Eric H; Epstein, Charles M; Keilholz, Shella D

    2017-06-01

    A number of studies have linked the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in traditional frequency bands (δ, θ, α, β, and γ), but the relationship between BOLD and its direct frequency correlates in the infraslow band (resting state magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired simultaneously. The DC EEG signals were correlated with the BOLD signal in patterns that resembled resting state networks. Subsequent dynamic analysis showed that the correlation between DC EEG and the BOLD signal varied substantially over time, even within individual subjects. The variation in DC EEG appears to reflect the time-varying contribution of different resting state networks. Furthermore, some of the patterns of DC EEG and BOLD correlation are consistent with previous work demonstrating quasiperiodic spatiotemporal patterns of large-scale network activity in resting state. These findings demonstrate that infraslow electrical activity is linked to BOLD fluctuations in humans and that it may provide a basis for large-scale organization comparable to that observed in animal studies.

  1. Resting state FMRI research in child psychiatric disorders

    Oldehinkel, Marianne; Francx, Winke; Beckmann, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mennes, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Concurring with the shift from linking functions to specific brain areas towards studying network integration, resting state FMRI (R-FMRI) has become an important tool for delineating the functional network architecture of the brain. Fueled by straightforward data collection, R-FMRI analysis methods

  2. Aerobic exercise deconditioning and countermeasures during bed rest.

    Lee, Stuart M C; Moore, Alan D; Everett, Meghan E; Stenger, Michael B; Platts, Steven H

    2010-01-01

    Bed rest is a well-accepted model for spaceflight in which the physiologic adaptations, particularly in the cardiovascular system, are studied and potential countermeasures can be tested. Bed rest without countermeasures results in reduced aerobic capacity and altered submaximal exercise responses. Aerobic endurance and factors which may impact prolonged exercise, however, have not been well studied. The initial loss of aerobic capacity is rapid, occurring in parallel with the loss of plasma volume. Thereafter, the reduction in maximal aerobic capacity proceeds more slowly and is influenced by central and peripheral adaptation. Exercise capacity can be maintained during bed rest and may be improved during recovery with appropriate countermeasures. Plasma volume restoration, resistive exercise, orthostatic stress, aerobic exercise, and aerobic exercise plus orthostatic stress all have been tested with varying levels of success. However, the optimal combination of elements-exercise modality, intensity, duration, muscle groups exercised and frequency of aerobic exercise, orthostatic stress, and supplementary resistive or anaerobic exercise training-has not been systematically evaluated. Currently, frequent (at least 3 days per week) bouts of intense exercise (interval-style and near maximal) with orthostatic stress appears to be the most efficacious method to protect aerobic capacity during bed rest. Further refinement of protocols and countermeasure hardware may be necessary to insure the success of countermeasures in the unique environment of space.

  3. Production of doubly charmed baryons nearly at rest

    Groote, Stefan; Koshkarev, Sergey [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Tartu (Estonia)

    2017-08-15

    We investigate the production cross sections, momentum distributions and rapidity distributions for doubly charmed baryons which according to the intrinsic heavy quark mechanism are produced nearly at rest. These events should be measurable at fixed-target experiments like STAR rate at RHIC and AFTER rate at LHC. (orig.)

  4. Effects of strict prolonged bed rest on cardiorespiratory fitness

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Aarts, Hugo M; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis [International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) CRD42017055619] was to assess the effects of strict prolonged bed rest (without countermeasures) on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) and to explore sources of variation therein....

  5. Gradient Compression Stockings may Prevent Recovery after Bed Rest Deconditioning

    Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.; Westby, Christian M.; Willig, Michael C.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Astronauts continue to wear a compression garment during and immediately after landing to prevent orthostatic intolerance (OI). We recently developed a custom-fitted, 3-piece garment that consists of thigh-high stockings with biker-style shorts that provides continuous, gradient compression: 55 mmHg at the ankle that decreases to approximately 20 mmHg at the top of the leg and 15 mmHg over the abdomen. This garment has been shown to be effective in preventing symptoms of OI during a short stand test after Space Shuttle missions, but symptoms may persist for several days after a long-duration mission in some astronauts. The purpose of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of wearing these elastic, gradient compression garments during orthostatic testing after 2 weeks of 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest as a model of spaceflight and to determine whether they would impact recovery after bed rest. Methods: Eight (5 treatment, 3 control) of 16 subjects have completed this study to-date. All subjects wore the 3-piece garment from waking until tilt testing (3 h) as a simulation of the timeline for astronauts on landing day (BR+0). Control subjects removed the garment after the tilt test. Treatment subjects wore the garment for the remainder of the day and wore lower compression thigh-high only garments on the day after bed rest (BR+1). Blood pressure, heart rate, and stroke volume responses to a 15-min 80 degree head-up tilt test were determined before 2 weeks of 6 degree head-down tilt, and on BR+0 and BR+1. Plasma volume (PV) was measured before each of these test sessions. Data are mean SE. Results: Compression garments prevented signs of OI on BR+0; all subjects in both groups completed the full 15-min test. Heart rate responses to tilt were lower on BR+0 than all other test days. Control subjects demonstrated a marginal PV decrease after bed rest, but showed typical recovery the day after bed rest (BR+0: 2.32 plus or minus 0.15 L to BR+1: 2

  6. Brick walls on the brane

    Medved, A J M

    2002-01-01

    The so-called 'brick-wall model' is a semiclassical approach that has been used to explain black hole entropy in terms of thermal matter fields. Here, we apply the brick-wall formalism to thermal bulk fields in a Randall-Sundrum brane world scenario. In this case, the black hole entity is really a string-like object in the anti-de Sitter bulk, while appearing as a Schwarzchild black hole to observers living on the brane. In spite of these exotic circumstances, we establish that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy law is preserved. Although a similar calculation was recently considered in the literature, this prior study invoked a simplifying assumption (which we avoid) that cannot be adequately justified

  7. Domain walls at finite temperature

    Carvalho, C.A. de; Marques, G.C.; Silva, A.J. da; Ventura, I.

    1983-08-01

    It is suggested that the phase transition of lambda phi 4 theory as a function of temperature coincides with the spontaneous appearance of domain walls. Based on one-loop calculations, T sub(c) = 4M/√ lambda is estimated as the temperature for these domains to because energetically favored, to be compared with T sub(c) = 4.9M/√ lambda from effective potential calculations (which are performed directly in the broken phase). Domain walls, as well as other Types of fluctuations, disorder the system above T sub(c), leading to =0. The critical exponent for the specific heat above T sub(c) is computed; and α=2/3 + 0 (√ lambda) is obtained. (Author) [pt

  8. Fast wall of thermonuclear device

    Kitamura, Kazunori.

    1990-01-01

    A protruding molten metal reservoir is disposed to a sealing vessel embedded in the armour tile of fast walls, and molten metal of low melting point such as tin, lead or alloy thereof is filled in the sealing vessel. The volume of the molten metal reservoir is determined such that the surface level of the molten metal is kept within the molten metal reservoir even when the sealed low melting point metal is solidified at room temperature. When the temperature is lowered during plasma interruption period and the sealed low melting molten metal is solidified to reduce the volume, most of the molten metal reservoir regioin constitutes a vacuum gap. However, the inner wall of the sealing vessel other than the molten metal reservior region can be kept into contact with the sealed metal. Accordingly, the temperature and the sublimation loss of the armour tile can be kept low even upon plasma heat application. (I.N.)

  9. Thin walls in regions with vacuum energy

    Garfinkle, D [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA). Dept. of Physics; Vuille, C [Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Prescott, AZ (USA). Dept. of Math/Physical Science

    1989-12-01

    The motion of a thin wall is treated in the case where the regions on either side of the wall have vacuum energy. This treatment generalises previous results involving domain walls in vacuum and also previous results involving the properties of false vacuum bubbles. The equation of state for a domain wall is{tau} = {sigma} where {tau} is the tension in the wall and {sigma} is the energy density. We consider the motion of a more general class of walls having equation of state {tau}{Gamma}{sigma} with 0{le}{Gamma}{le}1. Spherically symmetric and planar symmetric walls are examined. We also find the global structure of the wall spacetime. (author).

  10. The DEMO wall load challenge

    Wenninger, R.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Bachmann, C.; Barbato, L.; Barrett, T.; Beckers, M.; Biel, W.; Boccaccini, L.; Carralero, D.; Coster, D.; Eich, T.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Firdaouss, M.; Graves, J.; Horáček, Jan; Kovari, M.; Lanthaler, S.; Loschiavo, V.; Lowry, C.; Lux, H.; Maddaluno, G.; Maviglia, F.; Mitteau, R.; Neu, R.; Pfefferle, D.; Schmid, K.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Snicker, A.; Subba, F.; Varje, J.; Zohm, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 046002. ISSN 0029-5515 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : DEMO * power loads * first wall Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-4326/aa4fb4

  11. Gas target with thin wall

    Korenchenko, A.S.; Korenchenko, S.M.; Kravchuk, N.P.; Filippov, A.I.; Fursov, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    The technology of targets manufacture with thin wall diameter 100 mm and lengthwise 700 mm from composition kevlar + epoxy resin is described. The test's results on pressure and vacuum are reported. The created targets are supposed to be used on the installation ARES for an investigation of muons and pions interactions with light nuclei and rare pions decay 'on flying'. 5 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Physics of resistive wall modes

    Igochine, V.

    2012-01-01

    The advanced tokamak regime is a promising candidate for steady-state tokamak operation which is desirable for a fusion reactor. This regime is characterized by a high bootstrap current fraction and a flat or reversed safety factor profile, which leads to operation close to the pressure limit. At this limit, an external kink mode becomes unstable. This external kink is converted into the slowly growing resistive wall mode (RWM) by the presence of a conducting wall. Reduction of the growth rate allows one to act on the mode and to stabilize it. There are two main factors which determine the stability of the RWM. The first factor comes from external magnetic perturbations (error fields, resistive wall, feedback coils, etc). This part of RWM physics is the same for tokamaks and reversed field pinch configurations. The physics of this interaction is relatively well understood and based on classical electrodynamics. The second ingredient of RWM physics is the interaction of the mode with plasma flow and fast particles. These interactions are particularly important for tokamaks, which have higher plasma flow and stronger trapped particle effects. The influence of the fast particles will also be increasingly more important in ITER and DEMO which will have a large fraction of fusion born alpha particles. These interactions have kinetic origins which make the computations challenging since not only particles influence the mode, but also the mode acts on the particles. Correct prediction of the ‘plasma–RWM’ interaction is an important ingredient which has to be combined with external field's influence (resistive wall, error fields and feedback) to make reliable predictions for RWM behaviour in tokamaks. All these issues are reviewed in this paper. (special topic)

  13. Changes in dynamic resting state network connectivity following aphasia therapy.

    Duncan, E Susan; Small, Steven L

    2017-10-24

    Resting state magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) permits observation of intrinsic neural networks produced by task-independent correlations in low frequency brain activity. Various resting state networks have been described, with each thought to reflect common engagement in some shared function. There has been limited investigation of the plasticity in these network relationships after stroke or induced by therapy. Twelve individuals with language disorders after stroke (aphasia) were imaged at multiple time points before (baseline) and after an imitation-based aphasia therapy. Language assessment using a narrative production task was performed at the same time points. Group independent component analysis (ICA) was performed on the rsfMRI data to identify resting state networks. A sliding window approach was then applied to assess the dynamic nature of the correlations among these networks. Network correlations during each 30-second window were used to cluster the data into ten states for each window at each time point for each subject. Correlation was performed between changes in time spent in each state and therapeutic gains on the narrative task. The amount of time spent in a single one of the (ten overall) dynamic states was positively associated with behavioral improvement on the narrative task at the 6-week post-therapy maintenance interval, when compared with either baseline or assessment immediately following therapy. This particular state was characterized by minimal correlation among the task-independent resting state networks. Increased functional independence and segregation of resting state networks underlies improvement on a narrative production task following imitation-based aphasia treatment. This has important clinical implications for the targeting of noninvasive brain stimulation in post-stroke remediation.

  14. A Nap But Not Rest or Activity Consolidates Language Learning

    Stefan Heim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that a period of sleep after a motor learning task is a relevant factor for memory consolidation. However, it is yet open whether this also holds true for language-related learning. Therefore, the present study compared the short- and long-term effects of a daytime nap, rest, or an activity task after vocabulary learning on learning outcome. Thirty healthy subjects were divided into three treatment groups. Each group received a pseudo-word learning task in which pictures of monsters were associated with unique pseudo-word names. At the end of the learning block a first test was administered. Then, one group went for a 90-min nap, one for a waking rest period, and one for a resting session with interfering activity at the end during which a new set of monster names was to be learned. After this block, all groups performed a first re-test of the names that they initially learned. On the morning of the following day, a second re-test was administered to all groups. The nap group showed significant improvement from test to re-test and a stable performance onto the second re-test. In contrast, the rest and the interference groups showed decline in performance from test to re-test, with persistently low performance at re-test 2. The 3 (GROUP × 3 (TIME ANOVA revealed a significant interaction, indicating that the type of activity (nap/rest/interfering action after initial learning actually had an influence on the memory outcome. These data are discussed with respect to translation to clinical settings with suggestions for improvement of intervention outcome after speech-language therapy if it is followed by a nap rather than interfering activity.

  15. Intensive Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Intensive exercise training during bed rest attenuates deconditioning. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 207-215, 1997. A 30-d 6 deg head-down bed rest project was conducted to evaluate variable high-intensity, short-duration, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent resistive isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regimens designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (adaptive) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Major findings are summarized in this paper. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volumes, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (f) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (g) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40% but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (b) induced positive body water balance, (i) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and 0) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regimens and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  16. Can resting B cells present antigen to T cells

    Ashwell, J.D.; DeFranco, A.L.; Paul, W.E.; Schwartz, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Antigen stimulation of T lymphocytes can occur only in the presence of an antigen-presenting cell (APC). An ever-increasing number of cell types have been found to act as APCs; these include macrophages, splenic and lymph node dendritic cells, and Langerhans cells of the skin. Although activated B lymphocytes and B cell lymphomas are known to serve as APCs, it has been generally believed that resting B cells cannot perform this function. However, in recent studies the authors have found that resting B cells can indeed present soluble antigen to T cell clones as well as to antigen-primed T cells. The previous difficulty in demonstrating this activity can be explained by the finding that, in contrast to macrophages and dendritic cells, the antigen-presenting ability of resting B cells is very radiosensitive. Macrophages are usually irradiated with 2000-3300 rads to prevent them from incorporating [ 3 H]thymidine in the T cell proliferation assay. Resting B cells, however, begin to lose presenting function at 1500 rads and have completely lost this activity at 3300 rads. It was also possible to distinguish two distinct T cell clonal phenotypes when resting B cells were used as APCs on the basis of two different assays (T cell proliferation, and B cell proliferation resulting from T cell activation). The majority of T cell clones tested were capable of both proliferating themselves and inducing the proliferation of B cells. Some T cells clones, however, could not proliferate in the presence of antigen and B cell APCs, although they were very good at inducing the proliferation of B cells

  17. Thermal insulation properties of walls

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat-protective qualities of building structures are determined by the qualities of the used materials, adequate design solutions and construction and installation work of high quality. This rule refers both to the structures made of materials similar in their structure and nature and mixed, combined by a construction system. The necessity to ecaluate thermal conductivity is important for a product and for a construction. Methods for evaluating the thermal protection of walls are based on the methods of calculation, on full-scale tests in a laboratory or on objects. At the same time there is a reason to believe that even deep and detailed calculation may cause deviation of the values from real data. Using finite difference method can improve accuracy of the results, but it doesn’t solve all problems. The article discusses new approaches to evaluating thermal insulation properties of walls. The authors propose technique of accurate measurement of thermal insulation properties in single blocks and fragments of walls and structures.

  18. Alternative to domain wall fermions

    Neuberger, H.

    2002-01-01

    An alternative to commonly used domain wall fermions is presented. Some rigorous bounds on the condition number of the associated linear problem are derived. On the basis of these bounds and some experimentation it is argued that domain wall fermions will in general be associated with a condition number that is of the same order of magnitude as the product of the condition number of the linear problem in the physical dimensions by the inverse bare quark mass. Thus, the computational cost of implementing true domain wall fermions using a single conjugate gradient algorithm is of the same order of magnitude as that of implementing the overlap Dirac operator directly using two nested conjugate gradient algorithms. At a cost of about a factor of two in operation count it is possible to make the memory usage of direct implementations of the overlap Dirac operator independent of the accuracy of the approximation to the sign function and of the same order as that of standard Wilson fermions

  19. Method of constructing shielding wall

    Nagao, Tetsuya.

    1990-01-01

    For instance, surfaces of lead particles each formed into a sphere of about 0.5 to 0.3 mm grain size are coated with a coating material of a synthetic resin comprising a polymeric material such as teflon. Subsequently, the floated lead particle are kneaded with concrete materials and then poured into a molding die by way of a hose. After coagulation, the molding die is removed to complete shielding walls in which lead particles are scattered substantially at an equal distance. In this way, since the lead particles are mixed into the shielding walls, shielding effects can be improved by so much as the lead particles are mixed, thereby enabling to reduce the thickness of the shielding walls. Further, since the lead particles are coated with the coating material, the lead particles are insulated from the concrete materials, thereby enabling to prevent the corrosion of the lead particles. Furthermore, since the lead particles and the concrete materials can be transported with ease, operation labors can be reduced. (T.M.)

  20. Flooding Effect on Earth Walls

    Meysam Banimahd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Earth building is a sustainable, environmentally friendly and economical method of construction that has been used worldwide for many centuries. For the past three decades, earth has seen a revival as a building material for a modern construction method due to its benefits in terms of low carbon content, low cost and energy involved during construction, as well as the fact that it is a sustainable technology of building. Climate change is influencing precipitation levels and patterns around the world, and as a consequence, flood risk is increasing rapidly. When flooding occurs, earth buildings are exposed to water by submersion, causing an increase in the degree of saturation of the earth structures and therefore a decrease of the suction between particles. This study investigated the effect of cycles of flooding (consecutive events of flooding followed by dry periods on earth walls. A series of characterization tests were carried out to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of the studied earth material. In a second stage, Flooding Simulation Tests (FST were performed to explore the earth walls’ response to repeated flooding events. The results obtained for the tested earth wall/samples with reinforced material (straw reveal hydraulic hysteresis when wall/samples are subject to cycles of wetting and drying.

  1. Cerebral Blood Flow during Rest Associates with General Intelligence and Creativity

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Nagase, Tomomi; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-01-01

    Recently, much scientific attention has been focused on resting brain activity and its investigation through such methods as the analysis of functional connectivity during rest (the temporal correlation of brain activities in different regions). However, investigation of the magnitude of brain activity during rest has focused on the relative decrease of brain activity during a task, rather than on the absolute resting brain activity. It is thus necessary to investigate the association between cognitive factors and measures of absolute resting brain activity, such as cerebral blood flow (CBF), during rest (rest-CBF). In this study, we examined this association using multiple regression analyses. Rest-CBF was the dependent variable and the independent variables included two essential components of cognitive functions, psychometric general intelligence and creativity. CBF was measured using arterial spin labeling and there were three analyses for rest-CBF; namely mean gray matter rest-CBF, mean white matter rest-CBF, and regional rest-CBF. The results showed that mean gray and white matter rest-CBF were significantly and positively correlated with individual psychometric intelligence. Furthermore, mean white matter rest-CBF was significantly and positively correlated with creativity. After correcting the effect of mean gray matter rest-CBF the significant and positive correlation between regional rest-CBF in the perisylvian anatomical cluster that includes the left superior temporal gyrus and insula and individual psychometric intelligence was found. Also, regional rest-CBF in the precuneus was significantly and negatively correlated with individual creativity. Significance of these results of regional rest-CBF did not change when the effect of regional gray matter density was corrected. The findings showed mean and regional rest-CBF in healthy young subjects to be correlated with cognitive functions. The findings also suggest that, even in young cognitively intact

  2. Gas Enrichment at Liquid-Wall Interfaces

    Dammer, S.M.; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of Lennard-Jones systems are performed to study the effects of dissolved gas on liquid-wall and liquid-gas interfaces. Gas enrichment at walls, which for hydrophobic walls can exceed more than 2 orders of magnitude when compared to the gas density in the bulk liquid,

  3. Theory of topological edges and domain walls

    Bais, F.A.; Slingerland, J.K.; Haaker, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate domain walls between topologically ordered phases in two spatial dimensions. We present a method which allows for the determination of the superselection sectors of excitations of such walls and which leads to a unified description of the kinematics of a wall and the two phases to

  4. The cell wall of Fusarium oxysporum

    Schoffelmeer, EAM; Klis, FM; Sietsma, JH; Cornelissen, BJC

    1999-01-01

    Sugar analysis of isolated cell walls from three formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum showed that they contained not only glucose and (N-acetyl)-glucosamine, but also mannose, galactose, and uronic acids, presumably originating from cell wall glycoproteins. Cell wall glycoproteins accounted for

  5. To detect anomalies in diaphragm walls

    Spruit, R.

    2015-01-01

    Diaphragm walls are potentially ideal retaining walls for deep excavations in densely built-up areas, as they cause no vibrations during their construction and provide structural elements with high strength and stiffness. In the recent past, however, several projects using diaphragm walls as soil

  6. Making Your Music Word Wall Work

    Leonhardt, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at what a word wall is and its use in the music classroom. The author outlines steps for creation of a word wall within the music classroom as well as the importance of such a resource. The author encourages the creation and consistent use of the word wall as leading to the development of stronger musicians and also independent,…

  7. Predictive value of casual ECG-based resting heart rate compared with resting heart rate obtained from Holter recording

    Carlson, Nicholas; Dixen, Ulrik; Marott, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Assessment of heart rate (HR) from Holter recording may afford a more precise estimate of the effect of RHR on cardiovascular risk, as compared to casual RHR. Comparative analysis was carried ...

  8. Mechanism of bubble detachment from vibrating walls

    Kim, Dongjun; Park, Jun Kwon, E-mail: junkeun@postech.ac.kr; Kang, Kwan Hyoung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, In Seok [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    We discovered a previously unobserved mechanism by which air bubbles detach from vibrating walls in glasses containing water. Chaotic oscillation and subsequent water jets appeared when a wall vibrated at greater than a critical level. Wave forms were developed at water-air interface of the bubble by the wall vibration, and water jets were formed when sufficiently grown wave-curvatures were collapsing. Droplets were pinched off from the tip of jets and fell to the surface of the glass. When the solid-air interface at the bubble-wall attachment point was completely covered with water, the bubble detached from the wall. The water jets were mainly generated by subharmonic waves and were generated most vigorously when the wall vibrated at the volume resonant frequency of the bubble. Bubbles of specific size can be removed by adjusting the frequency of the wall's vibration.

  9. Near-wall serpentine cooled turbine airfoil

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2013-09-17

    A serpentine coolant flow path (54A-54G) formed by inner walls (50, 52) in a cavity (49) between pressure and suction side walls (22, 24) of a turbine airfoil (20A). A coolant flow (58) enters (56) an end of the airfoil, flows into a span-wise channel (54A), then flows forward (54B) over the inner surface of the pressure side wall, then turns behind the leading edge (26), and flows back along a forward part of the suction side wall, then follows a loop (54E) forward and back around an inner wall (52), then flows along an intermediate part of the suction side wall, then flows into an aft channel (54G) between the pressure and suction side walls, then exits the trailing edge (28). This provides cooling matched to the heating topography of the airfoil, minimizes differential thermal expansion, revives the coolant, and minimizes the flow volume needed.

  10. Pharmacological exploration of the resting membrane potential reserve

    van der Heyden, Marcel A G; Jespersen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    as well as by exchangers and pumps. This review will focus on the relative and regulated contribution of IK1, IK,ACh and IK,Ca, and on pharmacological modification of the channels underlying these currents in respect to the resting membrane potential, Na(+) channel availability and atrial......The cardiac action potential arises and spreads throughout the myocardium as a consequence of highly organized spatial and temporal expression of ion channels conducting Na(+), Ca(2+) or K(+) currents. The cardiac Na(+) current is responsible for the initiation and progression of the action...... potential. Altered Na(+) current has been found implicated in a number of different arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation. In the atrium, the resting membrane potential is more depolarized than in the ventricles, and as cardiac Na(+) channels undergo voltage-dependent inactivation close...

  11. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    Wenya eNan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback.

  12. Hydroelastic Oscillations of a Circular Plate, Resting on Winkler Foundation

    Kondratov, D. V.; Mogilevich, L. I.; Popov, V. S.; Popova, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The forced hydroelastic oscillations of a circular plate resting on elastic foundation are investigated. The oscillations are caused by a stamp vibration under interaction with a plate through a thin layer of viscous incompressible liquid. The axis-symmetric problem for the regime of the steady-state harmonic oscillations is considered. On the basis of hydroelasticity problem solution the laws of plate deflection and pressure in the liquid are found. The functions of the amplitudes deflection distribution and liquid pressure along the plate are constructed. The presented mathematical model provides for investigating viscous liquid layer interaction dynamics with a circular plate resting on an elastic foundation. The above-mentioned model makes it possible to define the plate oscillations resonance frequencies and the corresponding amplitudes of deflection and liquid pressure, as well.

  13. Hierarchical functional modularity in the resting-state human brain.

    Ferrarini, Luca; Veer, Ilya M; Baerends, Evelinda; van Tol, Marie-José; Renken, Remco J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Veltman, Dirk J; Aleman, André; Zitman, Frans G; Penninx, Brenda W J H; van Buchem, Mark A; Reiber, Johan H C; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Milles, Julien

    2009-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that anatomically distinct brain regions are functionally connected during the resting state. Basic topological properties in the brain functional connectivity (BFC) map have highlighted the BFC's small-world topology. Modularity, a more advanced topological property, has been hypothesized to be evolutionary advantageous, contributing to adaptive aspects of anatomical and functional brain connectivity. However, current definitions of modularity for complex networks focus on nonoverlapping clusters, and are seriously limited by disregarding inclusive relationships. Therefore, BFC's modularity has been mainly qualitatively investigated. Here, we introduce a new definition of modularity, based on a recently improved clustering measurement, which overcomes limitations of previous definitions, and apply it to the study of BFC in resting state fMRI of 53 healthy subjects. Results show hierarchical functional modularity in the brain. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  14. The resting electrocardiogram of t. cruzi-infected rats

    Reinaldo B. Bestetti

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 125 rats were infected with the Colômbia strain of T. cruzi (2000 parasites/g shortly after weaning. Of these, 58 survived the acute phase and were used in the present experiment. Twenty eight similar but not infected rats served as controls. All rats were submitted to the resting ECG When they were 6 months old. Classic and 3 precordial leads were employed in order to record the ECG as completely as possible. Electrocardiographic changes similar to those found in human chronic Chagas' heart disease and not previously described in this model were found in 44% of the T. cruzi-infected rats: left axis deviation (22%, right axis deviation (7%, lengthened and bizarre QRS complex (14% and abnormal J point elevation (3%. On the basis of these results, we believe that the resting ECG constitutes a valuable tool for studying experimental chronic Chagas' heart disease in rats.

  15. Lactate kinetics in human tissues at rest and during exercise

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    lactate metabolism at rest and during exercise and suggestions are put forward to explain the simultaneous lactate uptake and release; and (2) lactate metabolism in the heart, liver, kidneys, brain, adipose tissue and lungs will be discussed and its potential importance in these tissues.......Lactate production in skeletal muscle has now been studied for nearly two centuries and still its production and functional role at rest and during exercise is much debated. In the early days skeletal muscle was mainly seen as the site of lactate production during contraction and lactate production...... associated with a lack of muscle oxygenation and fatigue. Later it was recognized that skeletal muscle not only played an important role in lactate production but also in lactate clearance and this led to a renewed interest, not the least from the Copenhagen School in the 1930s, in the metabolic role...

  16. Resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia is associated with tonic positive emotionality.

    Oveis, Christopher; Cohen, Adam B; Gruber, June; Shiota, Michelle N; Haidt, Jonathan; Keltner, Dacher

    2009-04-01

    Resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSAREST) indexes important aspects of individual differences in emotionality. In the present investigation, the authors address whether RSAREST is associated with tonic positive or negative emotionality, and whether RSAREST relates to phasic emotional responding to discrete positive emotion-eliciting stimuli. Across an 8-month, multiassessment study of first-year university students (n = 80), individual differences in RSAREST were associated with positive but not negative tonic emotionality, assessed at the level of personality traits, long-term moods, the disposition toward optimism, and baseline reports of current emotional states. RSAREST was not related to increased positive emotion, or stimulus-specific emotion, in response to compassion-, awe-, or pride-inducing stimuli. These findings suggest that resting RSA indexes aspects of a person's tonic positive emotionality. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Treatment of resting tremor by beta-adrenergic blockade.

    Foster, N L; Newman, R P; LeWitt, P A; Gillespie, M M; Chase, T N

    1984-10-01

    The effect of nadolol, a peripherally acting beta-adrenergic blocker, on resting tremor was examined in eight patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. With the use of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of crossover design, patients received 80 to 320 mg of nadolol for 6 weeks while continuing their previous treatment regimen. Accelerometer readings showed a progressive reduction in tremor amplitude, but no change in tremor frequency, with increasing nadolol dosage. Maximum benefit was achieved at 240 mg, when resting tremor improved 50% (p less than 0.01). Physician ratings confirmed these findings. The results suggest that response to beta-adrenergic blockade may not be limited to postural or intention tremor and that such agents may not reliably differentiate between the tremor of Parkinson's disease and essential tremor.

  18. Resting EEG deficits in accused murderers with schizophrenia.

    Schug, Robert A; Yang, Yaling; Raine, Adrian; Han, Chenbo; Liu, Jianghong; Li, Liejia

    2011-10-31

    Empirical evidence continues to suggest a biologically distinct violent subtype of schizophrenia. The present study examined whether murderers with schizophrenia would demonstrate resting EEG deficits distinguishing them from both non-violent schizophrenia patients and murderers without schizophrenia. Resting EEG data were collected from five diagnostic groups (normal controls, non-murderers with schizophrenia, murderers with schizophrenia, murderers without schizophrenia, and murderers with psychiatric conditions other than schizophrenia) at a brain hospital in Nanjing, China. Murderers with schizophrenia were characterized by increased left-hemispheric fast-wave EEG activity relative to non-violent schizophrenia patients, while non-violent schizophrenia patients instead demonstrated increased diffuse slow-wave activity compared to all other groups. Results are discussed within the framework of a proposed left-hemispheric over-processing hypothesis specific to violent individuals with schizophrenia, involving left hemispheric hyperarousal deficits, which may lead to a homicidally violent schizophrenia outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antiproton-neutron annihilations at rest: Search for broad states

    Kalogeropoulos, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The searches so far for meson states produced in p-bar annihilations at rest into π+X have been sensitive to narrow X states. The combinatorial background and the narrow phase space width in missing mass spectra are the main problems. Most of the theoretical models predict broad states. We have measured in a high statistis experiment p-bar(at rest)d→π/sup +- /+Anything inclusive spectra. Using a novel analysis technique the π + π - difference spectra, it is shown that the p-barn annihilation is dominated by two-body cascades. Two new states of opposite G-parity of (mass, width) = (1480, 100) MeV/c 2 are dominant. The G = +1 state has a large decay branching ratio into rho 0 rho 0 . Other features are presented

  20. The origin of 'Great Walls'

    Shandarin, Sergei F.

    2009-01-01

    A new semi-analytical model that explains the formation and sizes of the 'great walls' - the largest structures observed in the universe is suggested. Although the basis of the model is the Zel'dovich approximation it has been used in a new way very different from the previous studies. Instead of traditional approach that evaluates the nonlinear density field it has been utilized for identification of the regions in Lagrangian space that after the mapping to real or redshift space (depending on the kind of structure is studied) end up in the regions where shell-crossing occurs. The set of these regions in Lagrangian space form the progenitor of the structure and after the mapping it determines the pattern of the structure in real or redshift space. The particle trajectories have crossed in such regions and the mapping is no longer unique there. The progenitor after mapping makes only one stream in the multi-stream flow regions therefore it does not comprise all the mass. Nevertheless, it approximately retains the shape of the structure. The progenitor of the structure in real space is determined by the linear density field along with two non-Gaussian fields derived from the initial potential. Its shape in Eulerian space is also affected by the displacement field. The progenitor of the structure in redshift space also depends on these fields but in addition it is strongly affected by two anisotropic fields that determine the pattern of great walls as well as their huge sizes. All the fields used in the mappings are derived from the linear potential smoothed at the current scale of nonlinearity which is R nl = 2.7 h −1 Mpc for the adopted parameters of the ΛCDM universe normalized to σ 8 = 0.8. The model predicts the existence of walls with sizes significantly greater than 500 h −1 Mpc that may be found in sufficiently large redshift surveys

  1. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER

  2. Moving walls and geometric phases

    Facchi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.facchi@ba.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Università di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Garnero, Giancarlo, E-mail: giancarlo.garnero@uniba.it [Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Università di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Marmo, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche and MECENAS, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Samuel, Joseph [Raman Research Institute, 560080 Bangalore (India)

    2016-09-15

    We unveil the existence of a non-trivial Berry phase associated to the dynamics of a quantum particle in a one dimensional box with moving walls. It is shown that a suitable choice of boundary conditions has to be made in order to preserve unitarity. For these boundary conditions we compute explicitly the geometric phase two-form on the parameter space. The unboundedness of the Hamiltonian describing the system leads to a natural prescription of renormalization for divergent contributions arising from the boundary.

  3. Another Concrete In the Wall

    Meric, Asli Duru

    2015-01-01

    concrete has a memory. It stores the construction sequences. It shows what it is made of and how it is made. The texture of the formwork, the color difference of the pours, and the shadows of the metal ties combine to layer the beauty of concrete. The aim of this study is to explore the instruments of a concrete surface in order to enhance this multi-sensory experience. This study began with the design of a concrete wall and evolved into the design of a single-family home. MARCH

  4. Methodology for first wall design

    Galambos, J.D.; Conner, D.L.; Goranson, P.L.; Lousteau, D.C.; Williamson, D.E.; Nelson, B.E.; Davis, F.C.

    1993-01-01

    An analytic parametric scoping tool has been developed for application to first wall (FW) design problems. Both thermal and disruption force effects are considered. For the high heat flux and high disruption load conditions expected in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) device, Vanadium alloy and dispersion-strengthened copper offer the best stress margins using a somewhat flattened plasma-facing configuration. Ferritic steels also appear to have an acceptable stress margin, whereas the conventional stainless steel 316 does not appear feasible. If a full semicircle shape FW is required, only the Vanadium and ferritic steel alloy have acceptable solutions

  5. Reflections on a flat wall

    Stevenson, G.R.; Huhtinen, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation into whether estimates of attenuation in the flat sidewalls of the tunnel for the MC main ring can be based on a simple point-source/line-of-sight model. Having seen the limitations of such a model, an alternative is proposed where the main radiation source is not the initial object struck by the beam but the plane source provided by the first interactions of secondaries from the target in the shield-wall. This is shown to have a closer relation to reality than the point-source/line-of-sight model. (author)

  6. Pion correlations and resonance effects in pbarp annihilation at rest

    Weber, Peter

    1999-01-01

    We study ππ correlations in the exclusive reactions pbarp → 2π + 2π - and pbarp → 2π + 2π - π 0 at rest with complete reconstruction of the kinematics for each event. A new analysis technique has been developed which is model independent. With this new technique, which relies on double-differential distributions, no reference sample is needed to extract the correlation signal. The correlations are studied as a function of the four-pion invariant mass

  7. The effect of different rest intervals between multiple bench press ...

    In order to examine the effects of different rest intervals between sets on the training volume completed during a workout, 15 male bodybuilders served as subjects (Mean SD, age=25.28±2.01; mass=73.06±8.33 kg; height=176.33±6.30 cm). All the subjects performed a minimum of three strength workouts per week for a ...

  8. Resting-state beta and gamma activity in Internet addiction.

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Park, Su Mi; Lee, Jaewon; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Jung, Hee Yeon; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai Jin; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Jun-Young

    2013-09-01

    Internet addiction is the inability to control one's use of the Internet and is related to impulsivity. Although a few studies have examined neurophysiological activity as individuals with Internet addiction engage in cognitive processing, no information on spontaneous EEG activity in the eyes-closed resting-state is available. We investigated resting-state EEG activities in beta and gamma bands and examined their relationships with impulsivity among individuals with Internet addiction and healthy controls. Twenty-one drug-naïve patients with Internet addiction (age: 23.33 ± 3.50 years) and 20 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched healthy controls (age: 22.40 ± 2.33 years) were enrolled in this study. Severity of Internet addiction was identified by the total score on Young's Internet Addiction Test. Impulsivity was measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and a stop-signal task. Resting-state EEG during eyes closed was recorded, and the absolute/relative power of beta and gamma bands was analyzed. The Internet addiction group showed high impulsivity and impaired inhibitory control. The generalized estimating equation showed that the Internet-addiction group showed lower absolute power on the beta band than did the control group (estimate = -3.370, p Internet-addiction group showed higher absolute power on the gamma band than did the control group (estimate = 0.434, p Internet addiction as well as with the extent of impulsivity. The present study suggests that resting-state fast-wave brain activity is related to the impulsivity characterizing Internet addiction. These differences may be neurobiological markers for the pathophysiology of Internet addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The stability of cassette walls in compression

    Voutay, Pierre-Arnaud

    Much research into the behaviour of cold formed steel columns in the last decade has focused on channel sections undergoing local, distortional and overall buckling. Light gauge steel cassette sections are a particular form of channel section which offers an alternative form of load-bearing wall assembly for use in low-rise steel framed construction. Cassette wall sections possess wide and slender flanges so that, by including intermediate stiffeners in these wide flanges, a significant increase in the ultimate load capacity may be achieved. However, the introduction of intermediate stiffeners also increases the number of buckling modes (stiffener buckling) and, therefore complicates the behaviour and increases the risk of interactive buckling between these modes. The work undertaken in this thesis aims to clarify the behaviour of wide flanges in compression with and without intermediate stiffeners. In this research, the distortional mode of web and narrow flange buckling was inhibited by connecting the narrow flanges of the cassettes together at suitable intervals. "Generalised Beam Theory" (GBT), which allows the individual buckling modes to be considered individually and in predetermined combinations, provides a particularly good tool with which to analyse and understand the buckling behaviour of cassette sections with and without intermediate stiffeners. "Generalised Beam Theory" (GBT) is used throughout this work to determine the elastic buckling stress of the sections studied (simply supported stiffened plates, as well as cassette sections). Since the economic design of cold-formed steel sections requires the consideration of post- buckling behaviour, elastic buckling values are not directly comparable with design code values which are usually based on the concept of effective width. Therefore, finite element analysis with both material and geometric nonlinearity has also been carried out in order to obtain the ultimate strength in the critical mode or mode

  10. Seamless Integration of RESTful Services into the Web of Data

    Markus Lanthaler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We live in an era of ever-increasing abundance of data. To cope with the information overload we suffer from every single day, more sophisticated methods are required to access, manipulate, and analyze these humongous amounts of data. By embracing the heterogeneity, which is unavoidable at such a scale, and accepting the fact that the data quality and meaning are fuzzy, more adaptable, flexible, and extensible systems can be built. RESTful services combined with Semantic Web technologies could prove to be a viable path to achieve that. Their combination allows data integration on an unprecedented scale and solves some of the problems Web developers are continuously struggling with. This paper introduces a novel approach to create machine-readable descriptions for RESTful services as a first step towards this ambitious goal. It also shows how these descriptions along with an algorithm to translate SPARQL queries to HTTP requests can be used to integrate RESTful services into a global read-write Web of Data.

  11. Dirac Matrices and Feynman’s Rest of the Universe

    Young S. Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two sets of four-by-four matrices introduced by Dirac. The first set consists of fifteen Majorana matrices derivable from his four γ matrices. These fifteen matrices can also serve as the generators of the group SL(4, r. The second set consists of ten generators of the Sp(4 group which Dirac derived from two coupled harmonic oscillators. It is shown possible to extend the symmetry of Sp(4 to that of SL(4, r if the area of the phase space of one of the oscillators is allowed to become smaller without a lower limit. While there are no restrictions on the size of phase space in classical mechanics, Feynman’s rest of the universe makes this Sp(4-to-SL(4, r transition possible. The ten generators are for the world where quantum mechanics is valid. The remaining five generators belong to the rest of the universe. It is noted that the groups SL(4, r and Sp(4 are locally isomorphic to the Lorentz groups O(3, 3 and O(3, 2 respectively. This allows us to interpret Feynman’s rest of the universe in terms of space-time symmetry.

  12. Neuroaging through the Lens of the Resting State Networks

    Filippo Cieri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI allows studying spontaneous brain activity in absence of task, recording changes of Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD signal. rs-fMRI enables identification of brain networks also called Resting State Networks (RSNs including the most studied Default Mode Network (DMN. The simplicity and speed of execution make rs-fMRI applicable in a variety of normal and pathological conditions. Since it does not require any task, rs-fMRI is particularly useful for protocols on patients, children, and elders, increasing participant’s compliance and reducing intersubjective variability due to the task performance. rs-fMRI has shown high sensitivity in identification of RSNs modifications in several diseases also in absence of structural modifications. In this narrative review, we provide the state of the art of rs-fMRI studies about physiological and pathological aging processes. First, we introduce the background of resting state; then we review clinical findings provided by rs-fMRI in physiological aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, Alzheimer Dementia (AD, and Late Life Depression (LLD. Finally, we suggest future directions in this field of research and its potential clinical applications.

  13. Detecting Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Using Resting State Magnetoencephalographic Connectivity.

    Vasily A Vakorin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate means to detect mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI using objective and quantitative measures remain elusive. Conventional imaging typically detects no abnormalities despite post-concussive symptoms. In the present study, we recorded resting state magnetoencephalograms (MEG from adults with mTBI and controls. Atlas-guided reconstruction of resting state activity was performed for 90 cortical and subcortical regions, and calculation of inter-regional oscillatory phase synchrony at various frequencies was performed. We demonstrate that mTBI is associated with reduced network connectivity in the delta and gamma frequency range (>30 Hz, together with increased connectivity in the slower alpha band (8-12 Hz. A similar temporal pattern was associated with correlations between network connectivity and the length of time between the injury and the MEG scan. Using such resting state MEG network synchrony we were able to detect mTBI with 88% accuracy. Classification confidence was also correlated with clinical symptom severity scores. These results provide the first evidence that imaging of MEG network connectivity, in combination with machine learning, has the potential to accurately detect and determine the severity of mTBI.

  14. BDNF genotype modulates resting functional connectivity in children

    Moriah E Thomason

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A specific polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene is associated with alterations in brain anatomy and memory; its relevance to the functional connectivity of brain networks, however, is unclear. Given that altered hippocampal function and structure has been found in adults who carry the methionine (met allele of the BDNF gene and the molecular studies elucidating the role of BDNF in neurogenesis and synapse formation, we examined in the association between BDNF gene variants and neural resting connectivity in children and adolescents. We observed a reduction in hippocampal and parahippocampal to cortical connectivity in met-allele carriers within each of three resting networks: the default-mode, executive, and paralimbic networks. In contrast, we observed increased connectivity to amygdala, insula and striatal regions in met-carriers, within the paralimbic network. Because the BDNF met-allele has been linked to increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, this latter finding of greater connectivity in circuits important for emotion processing may indicate a new neural mechanism through which these gene-related psychiatric differences are manifest. Here we show that the BDNF gene, known to regulate synaptic plasticity and connectivity in the brain, affects functional connectivity at the neural systems level. Additionally, we provide the first demonstration that the spatial topography of multiple high-level resting state networks in healthy children and adolescents is similar to that observed in adults.

  15. Heart rate variability biofeedback improves cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep.

    Sakakibara, Masahito; Hayano, Junichiro; Oikawa, Leo O; Katsamanis, Maria; Lehrer, Paul

    2013-12-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback on the cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep in daily life. Forty-five healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of three groups: HRV biofeedback, Autogenic Training(AT), and no-treatment control. Participants in the HRV biofeedback were instructed to use a handheld HRV biofeedback device before their habitual bedtime, those in the AT were asked to listen to an audiotaped instruction before bedtime,and those in the control were asked to engage in their habitual activity before bedtime. Pulse wave signal during sleep at their own residences was measured continuously with a wrist watch-type transdermal photoelectric sensor for three time points. Baseline data were collected on the first night of measurements, followed by two successive nights for HRV biofeedback, AT, or control. Cardiorespiratory resting function was assessed quantitatively as the amplitude of high frequency(HF) component of pulse rate variability, a surrogate measure of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. HF component increased during sleep in the HRV biofeedback group,although it remained unchanged in the AT and control groups. These results suggest that HRV biofeedback before sleep may improve cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep.

  16. Understanding and controlling the rest potential of carbon nanotube-based supercapacitors for energy density enhancement

    Yoo, Young-Eun; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Woong

    2018-03-01

    We present a novel method for enhancing the energy density of an electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC). Surface modification of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) electrodes significantly affects the rest potential (E0) of EDLCs; acid treatment and polyethyleneimine (PEI) coating of SWNTs shift E0 toward more positive and more negative values, respectively. Adjusting E0 towards the center of the electrolyte stability window can increase the cell voltage and hence the energy density. PEI coating on SWNTs increases the cell voltage from 0.8 V to 1.7 V in tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (TBAP)/tetrahydrofuran (THF) electrolyte, and from 2.5 V to 3.1 V in tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4)/3-cyanopropionic acid methyl ester (CPAME), respectively. Moreover, PEI-SWNT EDLCs exhibit excellent cycling stability (92% of capacitance retention over 10000 cycles). We attribute the shift in E0 to a change in the Fermi level of SWNTs owing to the surface charge modification. Injection of electrical charge into PEI-SWNTs consistently yielded similar trends and thus validated our hypothesis. Our results may help to push various electrolytes that have been overlooked so far to new frontiers for obtaining high energy-density supercapacitors.

  17. Anterior chest wall examination reviewed

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior chest wall involvement is not infrequently observed within inflammatory arthropaties, particularly if one considers seronegative spondiloarthritides and SAPHO syndrome. Physical examination is unreliable and conventional X-rays analysis is an unsatisfactory tool during diagnostic work-up of this region. Scintigraphic techniques yield informations both on the activity and on the anatomical extent of the disease while computerized tomography visualize the elementary lesions, such as erosions, which characterize the process. Moreover, when available, magnetic resonance imaging couple the ability to finely visualize such lesions with the possibility to show early alterations and to characterize the “activity” of the disease, presenting itself as a powerful tool both for diagnosis and follow-up. This review briefly shows the applications of imaging techniques for the evaluation of the anterior chest wall focusing on what has been done in the SAPHO syndrome which can be considered prototypical for this regional involvement since it is the osteo-articular target mainly affected by the disease.

  18. Reactor wall in thermonuclear device

    Shibui, Masanao.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To always monitor the life of armours in reactor walls and automatically shutdown the reactor if it should be operated in excess of the limit of use. Constitution: Monitoring material of lower melting point than armours (for example beryllium pellets) as one of the reactor wall constituents of a thermonuclear device are embedded in a region leaving the thickness corresponding to the allowable abrasion of the armour. In this structure, if the armours are abrased due to particle loads of a plasma and the abrasion exceeds a predetermined allowable level, the monitoring material is exposed to the plasma and melted and evaporated. Since this can be detected by impurity monitors disposed in the reactor, it is possible to recognize the limit for the working life of the armours. If the thermonuclear reactor should be operated accidentally exceeding the life of the armours, since a great amount of the monitoring materials have been evaporated, they flow into the plasma to increase the plasma radiation loss thereby automatically eliminate the plasma. (K.M.)

  19. Same day injections of Tc-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (hexamibi) for myocardial tomographic imaging: Comparison between rest-stress and stress-rest injection sequences

    Taillefer, R.; Gagnon, A.; Laflamme, L.; Leveille, J.; Phaneuf, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    It has been shown that both rest and stress 99m Tc-hexamibi myocardial perfusion imaging can be performed on the same day using two different doses injected within few h (the first one at rest followed by a second at stress). In order to evaluate and compare 2 sequences (rest-stress and stress-rest) of 99m Tc-hexamibi injections performed the same day, 18 patients with either abnormal 201 Tl myocardial scan or abnormal coronary angiography were studied with 2 99m Tc-hexamibi injections protocols. The rest-stress study was performed as follows: 7 mCi 99m Tc-hexamibi was injected at rest. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed 60 min later. Immediately after the rest study, patients were injected at peak stress with 25 mCi 99m Tc-hexamibi. Tomographic imaging was repeated 1 h later. Patients were submitted to the stress-rest protocol within 3 days. Tomographic imaging was done 1 h after a 7 mCi injection at stress. This study was followed by an injection of 25 mCi 99m Tc-hexamibi at rest, a tomographic study was performed 60 min later. Myocardial sections were reconstructed in horizontal long, vertical long, and short axes. Data analysis also included polar map representation. A total of 324 segments were interpreted blind by 3 observers, there was an agreement in 283/324 (87.3%) segments between the 2 protocols. However, 24 segments (7.4%) judged ischemic on rest-stress were called scars on stress-rest. In three patients, myocardial segments were judged normal on the rest image of the rest-stress protocol while they were found abnormal (false positive images) on the stress-rest sequence. Stress images from both protocols were judged similar in 17 patients. In conclusion, when using a short time interval (less than 2 h) between two 99m Tc-hexamibi injections, it is preferable to do a rest-stress sequence since the rest image performed initially represents a true rest study, which is not necessarily the case with the stress-rest sequence

  20. Value of gated SPECT in the analysis of regional wall motion of the interventricular septum after coronary artery bypass grafting

    Giubbini, Raffaele; Rossini, Pierluigi; Bertagna, Francesco; Bosio, Giovanni; Paghera, Barbara; Pizzocaro, Claudio; Canclini, Silvana; Terzi, Arturo; Germano, Guido

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of septal wall motion, perfusion and wall thickening after CABG in two groups of consecutive patients, one with grafted left anterior coronary artery and no history of myocardial infarction, and the other with previous anteroseptal myocardial infarction and impaired septal motion before surgery. The issue addressed was the ability of gated SPECT to differentiate between true paradoxical septal motion, characterised by paradoxical wall motion, depressed ejection fraction (EF), poor viability and compromised wall thickening, and pseudo-paradoxical motion, characterised by abnormal wall motion and regional EF but preserved perfusion and wall thickening. One hundred and thirty-two patients with previous anterior myocardial infarction, 82 patients with left anterior descending coronary disease and no history of myocardial infarction and 27 normal subjects underwent rest gated SPECT after 99m Tc-sestamibi injection, according to the standard QGS protocol. Quantitative regional EF, regional perfusion, regional wall motion and regional wall thickening were determined using a 20-segment model. Despite the presence of similar regional wall motion impairment in patients with and patients without septal infarction, in terms of regional EF (2.5%±3% vs 1.9%±4.9% p=NS) and inward septal motion (3±4.9 mm vs 2.3±6.1 mm p=NS), significant differences were observed in both perfusion (74.7%±6.2% vs 63.3%±13%, p>0.0001) and regional wall thickening (17.2%±7.4% vs 12.6%±7.2%, p>0.0001). Gated SPECT with perfusion tracers can reliably differentiate pseudo-paradoxical from true paradoxical septal motion in patients with previous CABG, and it may be the method of choice for evaluating left ventricular performance in this patient population. (orig.)

  1. Value of gated SPECT in the analysis of regional wall motion of the interventricular septum after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Giubbini, Raffaele; Rossini, Pierluigi; Bertagna, Francesco; Bosio, Giovanni; Paghera, Barbara; Pizzocaro, Claudio; Canclini, Silvana; Terzi, Arturo; Germano, Guido

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of septal wall motion, perfusion and wall thickening after CABG in two groups of consecutive patients, one with grafted left anterior coronary artery and no history of myocardial infarction, and the other with previous anteroseptal myocardial infarction and impaired septal motion before surgery. The issue addressed was the ability of gated SPECT to differentiate between true paradoxical septal motion, characterised by paradoxical wall motion, depressed ejection fraction (EF), poor viability and compromised wall thickening, and pseudo-paradoxical motion, characterised by abnormal wall motion and regional EF but preserved perfusion and wall thickening. One hundred and thirty-two patients with previous anterior myocardial infarction, 82 patients with left anterior descending coronary disease and no history of myocardial infarction and 27 normal subjects underwent rest gated SPECT after 99mTc-sestamibi injection, according to the standard QGS protocol. Quantitative regional EF, regional perfusion, regional wall motion and regional wall thickening were determined using a 20-segment model. Despite the presence of similar regional wall motion impairment in patients with and patients without septal infarction, in terms of regional EF (2.5%+/-3% vs 1.9%+/-4.9% p=NS) and inward septal motion (3+/-4.9 mm vs 2.3+/-6.1 mm p=NS), significant differences were observed in both perfusion (74.7%+/-6.2% vs 63.3%+/-13%, p>0.0001) and regional wall thickening (17.2%+/-7.4% vs 12.6%+/-7.2%, p>0.0001). Gated SPECT with perfusion tracers can reliably differentiate pseudo-paradoxical from true paradoxical septal motion in patients with previous CABG, and it may be the method of choice for evaluating left ventricular performance in this patient population.

  2. Value of gated SPECT in the analysis of regional wall motion of the interventricular septum after coronary artery bypass grafting

    Giubbini, Raffaele; Rossini, Pierluigi; Bertagna, Francesco; Bosio, Giovanni; Paghera, Barbara; Pizzocaro, Claudio; Canclini, Silvana; Terzi, Arturo [Spedali Civili di Brescia, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brescia (Italy); Germano, Guido [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Artificial Intelligence Program, Department of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of septal wall motion, perfusion and wall thickening after CABG in two groups of consecutive patients, one with grafted left anterior coronary artery and no history of myocardial infarction, and the other with previous anteroseptal myocardial infarction and impaired septal motion before surgery. The issue addressed was the ability of gated SPECT to differentiate between true paradoxical septal motion, characterised by paradoxical wall motion, depressed ejection fraction (EF), poor viability and compromised wall thickening, and pseudo-paradoxical motion, characterised by abnormal wall motion and regional EF but preserved perfusion and wall thickening. One hundred and thirty-two patients with previous anterior myocardial infarction, 82 patients with left anterior descending coronary disease and no history of myocardial infarction and 27 normal subjects underwent rest gated SPECT after {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi injection, according to the standard QGS protocol. Quantitative regional EF, regional perfusion, regional wall motion and regional wall thickening were determined using a 20-segment model. Despite the presence of similar regional wall motion impairment in patients with and patients without septal infarction, in terms of regional EF (2.5%{+-}3% vs 1.9%{+-}4.9% p=NS) and inward septal motion (3{+-}4.9 mm vs 2.3{+-}6.1 mm p=NS), significant differences were observed in both perfusion (74.7%{+-}6.2% vs 63.3%{+-}13%, p>0.0001) and regional wall thickening (17.2%{+-}7.4% vs 12.6%{+-}7.2%, p>0.0001). Gated SPECT with perfusion tracers can reliably differentiate pseudo-paradoxical from true paradoxical septal motion in patients with previous CABG, and it may be the method of choice for evaluating left ventricular performance in this patient population. (orig.)

  3. Immersion Refractometry of Isolated Bacterial Cell Walls

    Marquis, Robert E.

    1973-01-01

    Immersion-refractometric and light-scattering measurements were adapted to determinations of average refractive indices and physical compactness of isolated bacterial cell walls. The structures were immersed in solutions containing various concentrations of polymer molecules that cannot penetrate into wall pores, and then an estimate was made of the polymer concentration or the refractive index of the polymer solution in which light scattering was reduced to zero. Because each wall preparation was heterogeneous, the refractive index of the medium for zero light scattering had to be estimated by extrapolation. Refractive indices for walls suspended in bovine serum albumin solutions ranged from 1.348 for walls of the rod form of Arthrobacter crystallopoietes to 1.382 for walls of the teichoic acid deficient, 52A5 strain of Staphylococcus aureus. These indices were used to calculate approximate values for solids content per milliliter, and the calculated values agreed closely with those estimated from a knowledge of dextran-impermeable volumes per gram, dry weight, of the walls. When large molecules such as dextrans or serum albumin were used for immersion refractometry, the refractive indices obtained were for entire walls, including both wall polymers and wall water. When smaller molecules that can penetrate wall pores to various extents were used with Micrococcus lysodeikticus walls, the average, apparent refractive index of the structures increased as the molecular size of probing molecules was decreased. It was possible to obtain an estimate of 1.45 to 1.46 for the refractive index of wall polymers, predominantly peptidoglycans in this case, by extrapolating the curve for refractive index versus molecular radius to a value of 0.2 nm, the approximate radius of a water molecule. This relatively low value for polymer refractive index was interpreted as evidence in favor of the amorphous, elastic model of peptidoglycan structure and against the crystalline, rigid

  4. Inverse measurement of wall pressure field in flexible-wall wind tunnels using global wall deformation data

    Brown, Kenneth; Brown, Julian; Patil, Mayuresh; Devenport, William

    2018-02-01

    The Kevlar-wall anechoic wind tunnel offers great value to the aeroacoustics research community, affording the capability to make simultaneous aeroacoustic and aerodynamic measurements. While the aeroacoustic potential of the Kevlar-wall test section is already being leveraged, the aerodynamic capability of these test sections is still to be fully realized. The flexibility of the Kevlar walls suggests the possibility that the internal test section flow may be characterized by precisely measuring small deflections of the flexible walls. Treating the Kevlar fabric walls as tensioned membranes with known pre-tension and material properties, an inverse stress problem arises where the pressure distribution over the wall is sought as a function of the measured wall deflection. Experimental wall deformations produced by the wind loading of an airfoil model are measured using digital image correlation and subsequently projected onto polynomial basis functions which have been formulated to mitigate the impact of measurement noise based on a finite-element study. Inserting analytic derivatives of the basis functions into the equilibrium relations for a membrane, full-field pressure distributions across the Kevlar walls are computed. These inversely calculated pressures, after being validated against an independent measurement technique, can then be integrated along the length of the test section to give the sectional lift of the airfoil. Notably, these first-time results are achieved with a non-contact technique and in an anechoic environment.

  5. A method to identify early ventricular dysfunction using resting gated blood pool scans (GBPS) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD)

    Schwarzberg, R.J.; Seldin, D.W.; Johnson, L.L.; Alderson, P.O.

    1984-01-01

    To determine the sensitivity of regional 1st and 2nd time derivative (1DV, 2DV) images to assess ventricular function (VF) in CAD, the resting GBPS of 8 normal patients (pts) and 20 pts with CAD who had coronary angiography and contrast ventriculography (CV) were analyzed. The 1DV and 2DV of the systolic time-activity curve were determined for each left ventricular pixel in the GBPS. These values were displayed as functional images that were reviewed by three readers to determine the presence of regional abnormalities. No regional abnormalities were seen in the conventional GBPS or 1DV or 2DV images of the 8 normal pts. Regional GBPS and DV image abnormalities were seen in all 10 pts with CAD and abnormal wall motion by CV. The DV image abnormalities were in the distribution of 18/22 coronary arteries (CA) with ≥50% stenoses; 2 of these regions showed normal wall motion by CV and conventional GBPS. DV images were abnormal in 2/8 CAs without significant stenoses. In addition, regional DV image abnormalities were present in 9 of 10 pts with CAD who had normal wall motion and global ejection fraction by both CV and resting GBPS. These 10 pts showed regional abnormalities in the distribution of 13/15 CAs with significant stenoses and 2/15 CAs without such stenoses. The results suggest that time derivative functional images derived from resting GBPS provide a more sensitive means for detecting regional left ventricular dysfunction than several other current methods, especially in pts with mild CAD

  6. Hydrodynamics of ultra-relativistic bubble walls

    Leonardo Leitao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In cosmological first-order phase transitions, gravitational waves are generated by the collisions of bubble walls and by the bulk motions caused in the fluid. A sizeable signal may result from fast-moving walls. In this work we study the hydrodynamics associated to the fastest propagation modes, namely, ultra-relativistic detonations and runaway solutions. We compute the energy injected by the phase transition into the fluid and the energy which accumulates in the bubble walls. We provide analytic approximations and fits as functions of the net force acting on the wall, which can be readily evaluated for specific models. We also study the back-reaction of hydrodynamics on the wall motion, and we discuss the extrapolation of the friction force away from the ultra-relativistic limit. We use these results to estimate the gravitational wave signal from detonations and runaway walls.

  7. Hydrodynamics of ultra-relativistic bubble walls

    Leitao, Leonardo, E-mail: lleitao@mdp.edu.ar; Mégevand, Ariel, E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar

    2016-04-15

    In cosmological first-order phase transitions, gravitational waves are generated by the collisions of bubble walls and by the bulk motions caused in the fluid. A sizeable signal may result from fast-moving walls. In this work we study the hydrodynamics associated to the fastest propagation modes, namely, ultra-relativistic detonations and runaway solutions. We compute the energy injected by the phase transition into the fluid and the energy which accumulates in the bubble walls. We provide analytic approximations and fits as functions of the net force acting on the wall, which can be readily evaluated for specific models. We also study the back-reaction of hydrodynamics on the wall motion, and we discuss the extrapolation of the friction force away from the ultra-relativistic limit. We use these results to estimate the gravitational wave signal from detonations and runaway walls.

  8. Sideways wall force produced during tokamak disruptions

    Strauss, H.; Paccagnella, R.; Breslau, J.; Sugiyama, L.; Jardin, S.

    2013-07-01

    A critical issue for ITER is to evaluate the forces produced on the surrounding conducting structures during plasma disruptions. We calculate the non-axisymmetric ‘sideways’ wall force Fx, produced in disruptions. Simulations were carried out of disruptions produced by destabilization of n = 1 modes by a vertical displacement event (VDE). The force depends strongly on γτwall, where γ is the mode growth rate and τwall is the wall penetration time, and is largest for γτwall = constant, which depends on initial conditions. Simulations of disruptions caused by a model of massive gas injection were also performed. It was found that the wall force increases approximately offset linearly with the displacement from the magnetic axis produced by a VDE. These results are also obtained with an analytical model. Disruptions are accompanied by toroidal variation of the plasma current Iφ. This is caused by toroidal variation of the halo current, as verified computationally and analytically.

  9. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  10. First wall of thermonuclear device

    Miki, Nobuharu.

    1992-01-01

    In a first wall of a thermonuclear device, armour tiles are metallurgically bonded to a support substrate only for the narrow area of the central portion thereof, while bonded by metallurgical bonding with cooling tubes of low mechanical toughness, separated from each other in other regions. Since the bonding area with the support substrate of great mechanical rigidity is limited to the narrow region at the central portion of the armour tiles, cracking are scarcely caused at the end portion of the bonding surface. In other regions, since cooling tubes of low mechanical rigidity are bonded metallurgically, they can be sufficiently withstand to high thermal load. That is, even if the armour tiles are deformed while undergoing thermal load from plasmas, since the cooling tubes absorb it, there is no worry of damaging the metallurgically bonded face. Since the cooling tubes are bonded directly to the armour tiles, they absorb the heat of the armour tiles efficiently. (N.H.)

  11. Motional Effect on Wall Shear Stresses

    Kock, Samuel Alberg; Torben Fründ, Ernst; Yong Kim, Won

    Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death and severe disability. Wall Shear Stress (WSS), the stress exerted on vessel walls by the flowing blood is a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widely used for WSS estimations. Most CFD simulations...... are based on static models to ease computational burden leading to inaccurate estimations. The aim of this work was to estimate the effect of vessel wall deformations (expansion and bending) on WSS levels....

  12. Increased heart rate variability but normal resting metabolic rate in hypocretin/orexin-deficient human narcolepsy.

    Fronczek, R.; Overeem, S.; Reijntjes, R.; Lammers, G.J.; Dijk, J.G.M.; Pijl, H.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: We investigated autonomic balance and resting metabolic rate to explore their possible involvement in obesity in hypocretin/orexin-deficient narcoleptic subjects. METHODS: Resting metabolic rate (using indirect calorimetry) and variability in heart rate and blood pressure were

  13. Plasma wall particle balance in Tore Supra

    Grisolia, C.; Ghendrih, P.; Pegourie, B.; Grosman, A.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the particle balance between the carbon wall and the plasma is presented. One finds that the effective particle content of the wall which governs the plasma equilibrium density departs from the deposited number of particles. This effect is dominant for the fully desaturated wall. A scaling law of the plasma density in terms of the wall effective particle content has been obtained. Moreover, the experimental data allows to estimate the plasma particle confinement time. Values ranging from 0.2 s to 0.5 s are found depending on the density. An analytical functional dependence of the particle confinement time is obtained

  14. Hyphal walls of isolated lichen fungi

    Galun, M.; Braun, A.; Frensdorff, A.; Galun, E.

    1976-01-01

    The hyphal walls of three mycobionts, isolated from the lichens Xanthoria parietina, Tornabenia intricata and Sarcogyne sp. were investigated by two techniques: microaudiography of fungal colonies exposed to radioactive carbohydrate precursors; and binding, in vivo, of fluorescein conjugated lectins to hyphal walls of such colonies. N-( 3 H) acetylglucosamine was readily incorporated into tips, young hyphal walls and septa of the three mycobionts and the free-living fungus Trichoderma viride, but not into Phytophthora citrophthora, indicating that chitin is a major component of the mycobionts' hyphal walls. All three mycobionts, but neither of the free-living fungi, incorporated ( 3 H) mannose and ( 3 H) mannitol into their hyphal walls. Fluorescein-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin was bound to the hyphal walls of the three mycobionts and T. viride, but not to the walls of P. citrophthora; the binding pattern was similar to the grain pattern obtained in audiographs after short N-( 3 H) acetylglucosamine labelling. As wheat germ agglutinin binds specifically to chitin oligomers, the lectin binding tests further confirmed that chitin is a mycobiont hyphal wall component. Binding characteristics of several fluorescein-conjugated lectins to the three mycobionts indicated that this technique can yield useful information concerning the chemical composition of hyphal wall surfaces. (orig./AJ) [de

  15. Molecular regulation of plant cell wall extensibility

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Gravity responses in plants often involve spatial and temporal changes in cell growth, which is regulated primarily by controlling the ability of the cell wall to extend. The wall is thought to be a cellulose-hemicellulose network embedded in a hydrated matrix of complex polysaccharides and a small amount of structural protein. The wall extends by a form of polymer creep, which is mediated by expansins, a novel group of wall-loosening proteins. Expansins were discovered during a molecular dissection of the "acid growth" behavior of cell walls. Expansin alters the rheology of plant walls in profound ways, yet its molecular mechanism of action is still uncertain. It lacks detectable hydrolytic activity against the major components of the wall, but it is able to disrupt noncovalent adhesion between wall polysaccharides. The discovery of a second family of expansins (beta-expansins) sheds light on the biological role of a major group of pollen allergens and implies that expansins have evolved for diverse developmental functions. Finally, the contribution of other processes to wall extensibility is briefly summarized.

  16. Hygrothermal behavior for a clay brick wall

    Allam, R.; Issaadi, N.; Belarbi, R.; El-Meligy, M.; Altahrany, A.

    2018-06-01

    In Egypt, the clay brick is the common building materials which are used. By studying clay brick walls behavior for the heat and moisture transfer, the efficient use of the clay brick can be reached. So, this research studies the hygrothermal transfer in this material by measuring the hygrothermal properties and performing experimental tests for a constructed clay brick wall. We present the model for the hygrothermal transfer in the clay brick which takes the temperature and the vapor pressure as driving potentials. In addition, this research compares the presented model with previous models. By constructing the clay brick wall between two climates chambers with different boundary conditions, we can validate the numerical model and analyze the hygrothermal transfer in the wall. The temperature and relative humidity profiles within the material are measured experimentally and determined numerically. The numerical and experimental results have a good convergence with 3.5% difference. The surface boundary conditions, the ground effect, the infiltration from the closed chambers and the material heterogeneity affects the results. Thermal transfer of the clay brick walls reaches the steady state very rapidly than the moisture transfer. That means the effect of using only the external brick wall in the building in hot climate without increase the thermal resistance for the wall, will add more energy losses in the clay brick walls buildings. Also, the behavior of the wall at the heat and mass transfer calls the three-dimensional analysis for the whole building to reach the real behavior.

  17. Hygrothermal behavior for a clay brick wall

    Allam, R.; Issaadi, N.; Belarbi, R.; El-Meligy, M.; Altahrany, A.

    2018-01-01

    In Egypt, the clay brick is the common building materials which are used. By studying clay brick walls behavior for the heat and moisture transfer, the efficient use of the clay brick can be reached. So, this research studies the hygrothermal transfer in this material by measuring the hygrothermal properties and performing experimental tests for a constructed clay brick wall. We present the model for the hygrothermal transfer in the clay brick which takes the temperature and the vapor pressure as driving potentials. In addition, this research compares the presented model with previous models. By constructing the clay brick wall between two climates chambers with different boundary conditions, we can validate the numerical model and analyze the hygrothermal transfer in the wall. The temperature and relative humidity profiles within the material are measured experimentally and determined numerically. The numerical and experimental results have a good convergence with 3.5% difference. The surface boundary conditions, the ground effect, the infiltration from the closed chambers and the material heterogeneity affects the results. Thermal transfer of the clay brick walls reaches the steady state very rapidly than the moisture transfer. That means the effect of using only the external brick wall in the building in hot climate without increase the thermal resistance for the wall, will add more energy losses in the clay brick walls buildings. Also, the behavior of the wall at the heat and mass transfer calls the three-dimensional analysis for the whole building to reach the real behavior.

  18. Low-rise shear wall failure modes

    Farrar, C.R.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Reed, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the data that are available concerning the structural response of low-rise shear walls is presented. This data will be used to address two failure modes associated with the shear wall structures. First, data concerning the seismic capacity of the shear walls with emphasis on excessive deformations that can cause equipment failure are examined. Second, data concerning the dynamic properties of shear walls (stiffness and damping) that are necessary to compute the seismic inputs to attached equipment are summarized. This case addresses the failure of equipment when the structure remains functional. 23 refs

  19. Results obtained during wall breaching research

    Hattingh, S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand the physics of what is happening inside the wall directly after the detonation and the application of this knowledge in the improvement of the charge Measure the shock/stress waves in the masonry material and then in the wall as a whole... to maximise the effect of the charges on the walls and to broaden the knowledge of the physics of shock and stress waves. The thickness and characteristics of walls are not usually known in an operation. The effect of the charges on real buildings is still...

  20. Glycoprotein component of plant cell walls

    Cooper, J.B.; Chen, J.A.; Varner, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The primary wall surrounding most dicotyledonous plant cells contains a hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) component named extensin. A small group of glycopeptides solubilized from isolated cell walls by proteolysis contained a repeated pentapeptide glycosylated by tri- and tetraarabinosides linked to hydroxyproline and, by galactose, linked to serine. Recently, two complementary approaches to this problem have provided results which greatly increase the understanding of wall extensin. In this paper the authors describe what is known about the structure of soluble extensin secreted into the walls of the carrot root cells

  1. Resting metabolic rate and postprandial thermogenesis in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Segal, K R; Dunaif, A

    1990-07-01

    To determine whether the high frequency of obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO) is related to a defect in energy expenditure, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the thermic response to a standard meal were compared in 10 obese PCO women, nine obese but otherwise normal women, and 11 lean women. All groups were matched with respect to age and fat-free mass and the two obese groups were matched for degree of obesity. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry for 3 h on two days: (1) in the postabsorptive state; and (2) after a 720 kcal (3014 kJ) liquid mixed meal. The thermic effect of food, calculated as 3 h postprandial minus fasting RMR, was significantly greater for the lean [52.9 +/- 5.5 kcal/3 h (221 +/- 23 kJ/3 h)] than the obese [17.2 +/- 5.1 kcal/3 h (72 +/- 21 kJ/3 h)] and the PCO women [22.8 +/- 5.2 kcal/3 h (95 +/- 22 kJ/3)], P less than 0.001). The thermic effect of food was negatively related to percent body fat (r = -0.694, P less than 0.001). Resting metabolic rate did not differ significantly among the three groups, and was strongly related to fat-free mass (r = 0.687, P less than 0.001). These results confirm previous reports of blunted thermogenesis in obese individuals, but provide no evidence of altered resting metabolic rate or postprandial thermogenesis in women with PCO compared with normal women of similar degree of obesity.

  2. Cognitive function at rest and during exercise following breakfast omission.

    Komiyama, Takaaki; Sudo, Mizuki; Okuda, Naoki; Yasuno, Tetsuhiko; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Higaki, Yasuki; Ando, Soichi

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that breakfast omission, as opposed to breakfast consumption, has the detrimental effects on cognitive function. However, the effects of acute exercise following breakfast omission on cognitive function are poorly understood, particularly during exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive effects of breakfast and exercise on cognitive function. Ten participants completed cognitive tasks at rest and during exercise in the breakfast consumption or omission conditions. Blood glucose concentration was measured immediately after each cognitive task. We used cognitive tasks to assess working memory [Spatial Delayed Response (DR) task] and executive function [Go/No-Go (GNG) task]. The participants cycled ergometer for 30 min while keeping their heart rate at 140 beats·min(-1). Accuracy of the GNG task was lower at rest in the breakfast omission condition than that in the breakfast consumption condition (Go trial: P=0.012; No-Go trial: P=0.028). However, exercise improved accuracy of the Go trial in the breakfast omission condition (P=0.013). Reaction time in the Go trial decreased during exercise relative to rest in both conditions (P=0.002), and the degree of decreases in reaction time was not different between conditions (P=0.448). Exercise and breakfast did not affect the accuracy of the Spatial DR task. The present results indicate that breakfast omission impairs executive function, but acute exercise improved executive function even after breakfast omission. It appears that beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive function are intact following breakfast omission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A RESTful interface to pseudonymization services in modern web applications.

    Lablans, Martin; Borg, Andreas; Ückert, Frank

    2015-02-07

    Medical research networks rely on record linkage and pseudonymization to determine which records from different sources relate to the same patient. To establish informational separation of powers, the required identifying data are redirected to a trusted third party that has, in turn, no access to medical data. This pseudonymization service receives identifying data, compares them with a list of already reported patient records and replies with a (new or existing) pseudonym. We found existing solutions to be technically outdated, complex to implement or not suitable for internet-based research infrastructures. In this article, we propose a new RESTful pseudonymization interface tailored for use in web applications accessed by modern web browsers. The interface is modelled as a resource-oriented architecture, which is based on the representational state transfer (REST) architectural style. We translated typical use-cases into resources to be manipulated with well-known HTTP verbs. Patients can be re-identified in real-time by authorized users' web browsers using temporary identifiers. We encourage the use of PID strings for pseudonyms and the EpiLink algorithm for record linkage. As a proof of concept, we developed a Java Servlet as reference implementation. The following resources have been identified: Sessions allow data associated with a client to be stored beyond a single request while still maintaining statelessness. Tokens authorize for a specified action and thus allow the delegation of authentication. Patients are identified by one or more pseudonyms and carry identifying fields. Relying on HTTP calls alone, the interface is firewall-friendly. The reference implementation has proven to be production stable. The RESTful pseudonymization interface fits the requirements of web-based scenarios and allows building applications that make pseudonymization transparent to the user using ordinary web technology. The open-source reference implementation implements the

  4. Resting-state brain activity in adult males who stutter.

    Yun Xuan

    Full Text Available Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF, region of interest (ROI-based functional connectivity (FC and independent component analysis (ICA-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN and in the connections between them.

  5. Energy landscapes of resting-state brain networks

    Takamitsu eWatanabe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During rest, the human brain performs essential functions such as memory maintenance, which are associated with resting-state brain networks (RSNs including the default-mode network (DMN and frontoparietal network (FPN. Previous studies based on spiking-neuron network models and their reduced models, as well as those based on imaging data, suggest that resting-state network activity can be captured as attractor dynamics, i.e., dynamics of the brain state toward an attractive state and transitions between different attractors. Here, we analyze the energy landscapes of the RSNs by applying the maximum entropy model, or equivalently the Ising spin model, to human RSN data. We use the previously estimated parameter values to define the energy landscape, and the disconnectivity graph method to estimate the number of local energy minima (equivalent to attractors in attractor dynamics, the basin size, and hierarchical relationships among the different local minima. In both of the DMN and FPN, low-energy local minima tended to have large basins. A majority of the network states belonged to a basin of one of a few local minima. Therefore, a small number of local minima constituted the backbone of each RSN. In the DMN, the energy landscape consisted of two groups of low-energy local minima that are separated by a relatively high energy barrier. Within each group, the activity patterns of the local minima were similar, and different minima were connected by relatively low energy barriers. In the FPN, all dominant energy were separated by relatively low energy barriers such that they formed a single coarse-grained global minimum. Our results indicate that multistable attractor dynamics may underlie the DMN, but not the FPN, and assist memory maintenance with different memory states.

  6. Gender Differences in Baroreflex Sensitivity after Bed Rest

    Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, M. B.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Lee, S. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Two potential contributing factors to post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance are decreases in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and sympathetic nervous system response. The purpose of this study was to examine the shape of the BRS curve and sympathetic response to a wide range of blood pressures (BP) before and during 6 head-down bed rest (BR). METHODS: Normal volunteers were tested one day before BR (20M, 1 0F) and near BR days 30 (20M, 10F), 60 (16M, 8F), and 90 (1 0M, 5F). BP was pharmacologically manipulated by 10-min infusions of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at 3 increasing concentrations with a 20-min rest between PE and SNP. Electrocardiogram and continuous finger blood pressure were recorded. A blood sample was drawn at the end of each infusion to measure plasma norepinephrine levels. The spontaneous baroreflex slope (SBS), a measure of BRS, was calculated as the slope of a sequence of 3 or more beats in which the systolic BP (SBP) and following R-R interval (RR) both increased or decreased. The data included saturated responses at the upper but not the lower end of the BP range. Mean response curves were constructed using second-order mixed model analysis. Results are based on term significance in the models. RESULTS RR: RR was lower during BR than pre BR (pgenders were modeled by a linear response; compared to males, females had an attenuated (lower slope) RR response to changes in SBP (p=0.031). SBS: SBS vs SBP analysis showed a lower SBS during BR (pgender and BR. Not only do gender and BR baseline differences exist, but gender and BR also influence the slope and saturation of the BRS curves. Attenuated and saturating RR and SBS responses, as well as differences in baseline values, may contribute to the higher rates of orthostatic intolerance in women and after bed rest.

  7. Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter

    Zhu, Chaozhe; Wang, Liang; Yan, Qian; Lin, Chunlan; Yu, Chunshui

    2012-01-01

    Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN) in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN) and in the connections between them. PMID:22276215

  8. Reinforcement mechanism of multi-anchor wall with double wall facing

    Suzuki, Kouta; Kobayashi, Makoto; Miura, Kinya; Konami, Takeharu; Hayashi, Taketo

    2017-10-01

    The reinforced soil wall has high seismic performance as generally known. However, the seismic behavior has not been clarified accurately yet, especially on multi-anchor wall with double wall facing. Indefinite behavior of reinforced soil wall during earthquake make us complicated in case with adopting to the abutment, because of arrangement of anchor plate as reinforcement often different according to the width of roads. In this study, a series of centrifuge model tests were carried out to investigate the reinforcement mechanism of multi anchor wall with double wall facing from the perspective of the vertical earth pressure. Several types of reinforce arrangement and rigid wall were applied in order to verify the arch function in the reinforced regions. The test results show unique behavior of vertical earth pressure, which was affected by arch action. All the vertical earth pressure placed behind facing panel, are larger than that of middle part between facing panel despite of friction between backfill and facing panel. Similar results were obtained in case using rigid wall. On the other hands, the vertical earth pressure, which were measured at the 3cm high from bottom of model container, shows larger than that of bottom. This results show the existence of arch action between double walls. In addition, it implies that the wall facing of such soil structure confined the backfill as pseudo wall, which is very reason that the multi anchor wall with double wall facing has high seismic performance.

  9. Low-dose dobutamine stress gated SPET for identification of viable myocardium: comparison with stress-rest perfusion SPET and PET

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Tamaki, Nagara; Katoh, Chietsugu; Kuge, Yuji; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Satoshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Kohya, Tetsuro; Kitabatake, Akira; Kawai, Yuko

    2002-01-01

    The detection of viable myocardium is important for the prediction of functional recovery after revascularisation. However, a fixed perfusion defect often includes viable myocardium, and perfusion imaging then underestimates myocardial viability. We previously reported that low-dose dobutamine stress gated single-photon emission tomography (SPET) provides similar findings to dobutamine stress echocardiography in the assessment of myocardial viability. The present study investigated whether low-dose dobutamine stress gated SPET is of additional value as compared with stress-rest technetium-99m tetrofosmin SPET for the detection of myocardial viability. Standard stress-rest perfusion SPET, low-dose dobutamine stress gated SPET and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) were studied in 23 patients (mean age 67±7.6 years) with previous myocardial infarction. Twenty-one of them were successfully studied with each technique. FDG PET viability (FDG uptake ≥50%) was employed as the gold standard. One-day stress-rest 99m Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial SPET was performed. After the resting study, gated SPET was acquired following infusion of 7.5 μg kg -1 min -1 of dobutamine. Left ventricular wall motion in 16 segments was assessed by cine mode display using a four-point scale. Myocardial viability was considered present when there was improvement by one point. Of a total of 336 segments analysed, 53 had persistent defects on stress-rest perfusion SPET. FDG viability was seen in 16 of 17 dobutamine-responsive segments, but in only 11 of 36 dobutamine non-responsive segments (P<0.01). Thus, in the segments with persistent defects, viability findings on low-dose dobutamine stress gated SPET were concordant with those on FDG PET in 77% of segments (kappa value =0.55). For the detection of FDG-viable myocardium, the combination of stress-rest perfusion SPET and low-dose dobutamine stress gated SPET achieved a better sensitivity than stress-rest

  10. Lorentzian Type Force on a Charge at Rest

    Zelsacher R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable achievement of theoretical physics is the explanation of magnetic effects, described by the Lorentz force, to be corollaries of charge i nvariance, Coulombs Law and the Lorentz transformation. The relativistic explanation of magnetism is based essentially on the calculation of Coulomb forces between mo ving charges in the labo- ratory reference system. We will show presently that the ideas used for the relativistic explanation of magnetism also lead to a force on a charge at rest by moving charges, which we dub “Lorentzian type force on a charge at rest”.

  11. Nephrogenic rests mimicking Wilms' tumor on CT

    Subhas, Naveen; Siegelman, Stanley S. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe St., 21287, Baltimore, MD (United States); Argani, Pedram [Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine, 21287, Baltimore, MD (United States); Gearhart, John P. [Department of Pediatric Urology, Brady Urologic Institute, The Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine, 21287, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Nephrogenic rests (NR) are persistent benign remnants of embryonic renal tissue. A small percentage of these may develop into Wilms' tumor (WT). Radiologic imaging is relied upon to differentiate between these entities, with the hallmark of malignant transformation being growth on serial imaging studies. There is, however, considerable overlap in their imaging characteristics. The authors present a case of two biopsy-proven NR in a 2-year-old girl with sporadic aniridia that were indistinguishable from WT on initial radiologic studies. One of the NR grew on serial imaging studies mimicking a WT, but after resection was confirmed to be a benign hyperplastic NR on pathologic examination. (orig.)

  12. Recommended rest frequencies for observed interstellar molecular transitions

    Lovas, F.J.; Snyder, I.E.; Johnson, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    The most accurate values presently available for the rest frequencies of all known interstellar molecular transitions are presented and recommended for reference in future astronomical observations in the radio and microwave regions. The recommended values have been carefully selected after critical evaluation of the spectroscopic literature. Probable error limits along with the proper molecular and quantum mechanical labels are presented for each observed transition. Representative line antenna temperatures are also presented for a typical source as a convenience to users. References are cited to both the astronomical and the laboratory literature

  13. Rest frames and relativistic effects on de Sitter spacetimes

    Cotaescu, Ion I. [West University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    2017-07-15

    It is shown that the Nachtmann boosting method of introducing coordinates on de Sitter manifolds can be completed with suitable gauge transformations able to keep under control the transformation under isometries of the conserved quantities. With this method, the rest local charts (or natural frames) are defined pointing out the role of the conserved quantities in investigating the relative geodesic motion. The advantages of this approach can be seen from the applications presented here. For the first time, the simple kinematic effects, the electromagnetic field of a free falling charge and the binary fission are solved in terms of conserved quantities on the expanding portion of the de Sitter spacetime. (orig.)

  14. A respiratory mask for resting and exercising dogs.

    Stavert, D M; Reischl, P; O'Loughlin, B J

    1982-02-01

    A respiratory face mask has been developed for use with unsedated beagles trained to run on a treadmill. The latex rubber mask, shaped to fit the animal's muzzle, incorporates two modified, commercially available, pulmonary valves for separating inspiratory and expiratory flows. The mask has a dead space of 30 cm3 and a flow resistance below 1 cmH2O . 1(-1) . s. The flexible mask is used to measure breath-by-breath respiratory variables over extended periods of time during rest and exercise.

  15. Hypervolemia from Drinking Hyperhydration Solutions at Rest and Exercise

    Greenleaf, John E.; Looft-Wilson, Robin; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Geelen, Ghislaine; Barnes, Paul R.; Jensen, Christopher D.; Whittam, James H.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of muscular fatigue from physical work and exercise (high metabolism) is not clear, but involves disturbances of muscle surface membrane excitation-contraction coupling from changes in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release, cell H+ and Pi responses, and carbohydrate metabolism. Fatigue in people at rest (low metabolism) involves both psychological and physiological factors, probably in different proportions. One common factor appears to be the level and distribution of water and electrolytes within muscle cells and other vascular, interstitial, body fluid compartments. The vascular fluid volume, composed of plasma and red blood cells, is a primary regulatory factor for cardiovascular function; reduction of vascular volume (hypovolemia) and total body water (hypohydration) adversely affect exercise performance. Plasma volume and plasma ionic-osmotic constituent concentrations are also regulatory factors for body thermoregulation, which is often compromised from exercise induced hypovolemia and hypohydration. Rehydration of dehydrated people on earth is relatively easy with appropriate food (osmols), fluid, and a restful environment. But ad libitum drinking under stressful conditions; e.g., heat, exercise, or prior dehydration, results in involuntary dehydration defined as the delay in full fluid replacement (euhydration) during and following loss of body fluid. Astronauts, with their reduced total body water are euhydrated while in weightlessness, but become "dehydrated" during reentry and landing. Thus, people subjected to acute or chronic stress are probably somewhat "dehydrated" as well as fatigued. Many rehydration drinks are more concentrated (hypertonic-hyperosmotic) with respect to the normal plasma osmolality of 285 mOsm/kg H2O and more of the drink osmols are contributed by carbohydrates than by ionized substances. There have been few studies on the efficacy of various drink formulations for increasing body fluid compartment volumes, especially

  16. Veil: A Wall of Segregation

    Tayebeh Nowrouzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Moving behind the confines of the race has been the continuous efforts of African-Americans so as to reveal and confirm their true humanity and abilities to white race as well as their own race. African-Americans, Dubois posited, are shut out of the white America, inhabiting behind a vast veil which creates a deep division between the races. Veil is made of the fabric of racism interwoven thread by thread and imposed by white world. It is thrown discourteously and forcibly to the African-Americans whom their distorted images are imposed on them and their true humanity and identity are hidden behind the veil. This study overtakes to present how Loraine Hansberry, in her first and the most outstanding drama, A Raisin in the Sun examines the world within the veil. She demonstrated that Duboisian metaphoric veil is operating in the racist American society so that not only African-Americans are segregated physically and psychologically from the rest of the world but also are inflicted with obscurity of vision that are neither able to see themselves clearly nor be seen truly. On the other hand, it presents how the veil provides blacks with the second sight to observe and comprehend the racist nature of whites which is hidden and incomprehensible for them.

  17. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest as a Spaceflight Analogue on Resting State Sensorimotor Network Functional Connectivity and Neurocognitive Performance

    Cassady, K.; Koppelmans, V.; Yuan, P.; Cooke, K.; De Dios, Y.; Stepanyan, V.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S.; Reuter-Lorenz, P.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight has been associated with detrimental alterations in human sensorimotor systems and neurocognitive performance. Prolonged exposure to a head-down tilt position during long duration bed rest can resemble several effects of the microgravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The question of whether microgravity affects other central nervous system functions such as brain functional connectivity and its relationship with neurocognitive performance is largely unknown, but of potential importance to the health and performance of astronauts both during and post-flight. The aims of the present study are 1) to identify changes in sensorimotor resting state functional connectivity that occur with extended bed rest exposure, and to characterize their recovery time course; 2) to evaluate how these neural changes correlate with neurocognitive performance. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data were collected from 17 male participants. The data were acquired through the NASA bed rest facility, located at the University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX). Participants remained in bed with their heads tilted down six degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. RsfMRI data were obtained at seven time points: 7 and 12 days before bed rest; 7, 50, and 65 days during bed rest; and 7 and 12 days after bed rest. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) analysis was performed to measure the connectivity of sensorimotor networks in the brain before, during, and post-bed rest. We found a decrease in left putamen connectivity with the pre- and post-central gyri from pre bed rest to the last day in bed rest. In addition, vestibular cortex connectivity with the posterior cingulate cortex decreased from pre to post bed rest. Furthermore, connectivity between cerebellar right superior posterior fissure and other cerebellar regions decreased from

  18. Changes in the structural and functional characteristics of fisher (Pekania pennanti) rest structures over time

    Bill Zielinski; Fredrick V. Schlexer

    2015-01-01

    Resting habitat used by fishers (Pekania pennanti) has been relatively well studied but information on the persistence of their resting structures over time is unknown. We selected for reexamination 73 of 195 resting structures used by by fishers in northwestern California and compared their condition on the date they were found with their...

  19. The Rest-Activity Rhythm and Physical Activity in Early-Onset Dementia

    Hooghiemstra, A.M.; Eggermont, L.H.P.; Scheltens, P.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A substantial part of elderly persons with dementia show rest-activity rhythm disturbances. The rest-activity rhythm is important to study in people with early-onset dementia (EOD) for rest-activity rhythm disturbances are predictive of institutionalization, and caregivers of young

  20. Rest and action tremor in Parkinson's disease: effects of Deep Brain Stimulation

    Heida, Tjitske; Wentink, E.C.

    2010-01-01

    One of the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson’s disease is rest tremor. While rest tremor generally disappears during sleep and voluntary movement, action tremor may be triggered by voluntary movement, and may even be more disabling than rest tremor. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic

  1. Cancellous bone structure of iliac crest biopsies following 370 days of head-down bed rest

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Morukov, Boris V.; Vico, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Static bone histomorphometry was applied to existing iliac bone sections originating from a 370-d 5 degrees head-down bed rest experiment. This bed rest experiment is the longest ever to have been conducted. We hypothesized that bed rest would decrease cancellous bone volume fractio...

  2. 14 CFR 91.1059 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: One or two pilot crews.

    2010-01-01

    ... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1059 Flight time... Rest 10 Hours 12 Hours. (6) Minimum After Duty Rest Period for Multi-Time Zone Flights 14 Hours 18... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest...

  3. Expanded functional coupling of subcortical nuclei with the motor resting-state network in multiple sclerosis

    Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Siebner, Hartwig R; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2013-01-01

    controls underwent a 20-minute resting-state fMRI session at 3 Tesla. Independent component analysis was applied to the fMRI data to identify disease-related changes in motor resting-state connectivity. RESULTS: Patients with MS showed a spatial expansion of motor resting-state connectivity in deep...

  4. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1" to 1 1/2"), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  5. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1” to 1 ½”), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  6. Increased interhemispheric resting-state functional connectivity after sleep deprivation: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Zhu, Yuanqiang; Feng, Zhiyan; Xu, Junling; Fu, Chang; Sun, Jinbo; Yang, Xuejuan; Shi, Dapeng; Qin, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Several functional imaging studies have investigated the regional effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on impaired brain function; however, potential changes in the functional interactions between the cerebral hemispheres after SD are not well understood. In this study, we used a recently validated approach, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC), to directly examine the changes in interhemispheric homotopic resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) after SD. Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) was performed in 28 participants both after rest wakefulness (RW) and a total night of SD. An interhemispheric RSFC map was obtained by calculating the Pearson correlation (Fisher Z transformed) between each pair of homotopic voxel time series for each subject in each condition. The between-condition differences in interhemispheric RSFC were then examined at global and voxelwise levels separately. Significantly increased global VMHC was found after sleep deprivation; specifically, a significant increase in VMHC was found in specific brain regions, including the thalamus, paracentral lobule, supplementary motor area, postcentral gyrus and lingual gyrus. No regions showed significantly reduced VMHC after sleep deprivation. Further analysis indicates that these findings did not depend on the various sizes of smoothing kernels that were adopted in the preprocessing steps and that the differences in these regions were still significant with or without global signal regression. Our data suggest that the increased VMHC might reflect the compensatory involvement of bilateral brain areas, especially the bilateral thalamus, to prevent cognitive performance deterioration when sleep pressure is elevated after sleep deprivation. Our findings provide preliminary evidence of interhemispheric correlation changes after SD and contribute to a better understanding of the neural mechanisms of SD.

  7. Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate

    Linneberg, Allan; Jacobsen, Rikke K; Skaaby, Tea

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Smoking is an important cardiovascular disease risk factor, but the mechanisms linking smoking to blood pressure are poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Data on 141,317 participants (62,666 never, 40,669 former, 37,982 current smokers) from 23 population-based studies were...... for smoking heaviness in current smokers. In observational analyses, current as compared with never smoking was associated with lower SBP, DBP, and lower hypertension risk, but with higher resting heart rate. In observational analyses amongst current smokers, one cigarette/day higher level of smoking...... heaviness was associated with higher (0.21 beats/minute; 95% CI 0.19; 0.24) resting heart rate, and slightly higher DBP (0.05 mmHg; 95% CI 0.02; 0.08) and SBP (0.08 mmHg; 95% CI 0.03; 0.13). However, in MR analyses amongst current smokers, while each smoking increasing allele of rs16969968/rs1051730...

  8. Resting-state functional connectivity differences in premature children

    Eswar Damaraju

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the coherence in the spontaneous brain activity of sleeping children as measured by the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI signals. The results are described in terms of resting-state networks (RSN and their properties. More specifically, in this study we examine the effect of severe prematurity on the spatial location of the visual, temporal, motor, basal ganglia, and the default mode networks, the temporal response properties of each of these networks, and the functional connectivity between them. Our results suggest that the anatomical locations of the RSNs are well developed by 18 months of age and their spatial locations are not distinguishable between premature and term born infants at 18 months or at 36 months, with the exception of small spatial differences noted in the basal ganglia area and the visual cortex. The two major differences between term and preterm children were present at 36 but not 18 months and include: 1 increased spectral energy in the low frequency range (0.01 – 0.06 Hz for pre-term children in the basal ganglia component, and 2 stronger connectivity between RSNs in term children. We speculate that children born very prematurely are vulnerable to injury resulting in weaker connectivity between resting state networks by 36 months of age. Further work is required to determine whether this could be a clinically useful tool to identify children at risk of developmental delay related to premature birth.

  9. A baseline for the multivariate comparison of resting state networks

    Elena A Allen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As the size of functional and structural MRI datasets expands, it becomes increasingly important to establish a baseline from which diagnostic relevance may be determined, a processing strategy that efficiently prepares data for analysis, and a statistical approach that identifies important effects in a manner that is both robust and reproducible. In this paper, we introduce a multivariate analytic approach that optimizes sensitivity and reduces unnecessary testing. We demonstrate the utility of this mega-analytic approach by identifying the effects of age and gender on the resting state networks of 603 healthy adolescents and adults (mean age: 23.4 years, range: 12 to 71 years. Data were collected on the same scanner, preprocessed using an automated analysis pipeline based in SPM, and studied using group independent component analysis. Resting state networks were identified and evaluated in terms of three primary outcome measures: time course spectral power, spatial map intensity, and functional network connectivity. Results revealed robust effects of age on all three outcome measures, largely indicating decreases in network coherence and connectivity with increasing age. Gender effects were of smaller magnitude but suggested stronger intra-network connectivity in females and more inter-network connectivity in males, particularly with regard to sensorimotor networks. These findings, along with the analysis approach and statistical framework described here, provide a useful baseline for future investigations of brain networks in health and disease.

  10. Habenula functional resting-state connectivity in pediatric CRPS.

    Erpelding, Nathalie; Sava, Simona; Simons, Laura E; Lebel, Alyssa; Serrano, Paul; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    The habenula (Hb) is a small brain structure located in the posterior end of the medial dorsal thalamus and through medial (MHb) and lateral (LHb) Hb connections, it acts as a conduit of information between forebrain and brainstem structures. The role of the Hb in pain processing is well documented in animals and recently also in acute experimental pain in humans. However, its function remains unknown in chronic pain disorders. Here, we investigated Hb resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) compared with healthy controls. Twelve pediatric patients with unilateral lower-extremity CRPS (9 females; 10-17 yr) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls provided informed consent to participate in the study. In healthy controls, Hb functional connections largely overlapped with previously described anatomical connections in cortical, subcortical, and brainstem structures. Compared with controls, patients exhibited an overall Hb rsFC reduction with the rest of the brain and, specifically, with the anterior midcingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor cortex, primary motor cortex, and premotor cortex. Our results suggest that Hb rsFC parallels anatomical Hb connections in the healthy state and that overall Hb rsFC is reduced in patients, particularly connections with forebrain areas. Patients' decreased Hb rsFC to brain regions implicated in motor, affective, cognitive, and pain inhibitory/modulatory processes may contribute to their symptomatology.

  11. Exercise to rest ratios in RSA training in women's soccer.

    Ruscello, Bruno; Esposito, Mario; Partipilo, Filippo; DI Cicco, Dalila; Filetti, Cristoforo; Pantanella, Laura; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2017-10-27

    To investigate the applicability of three different exercise to rest ratios in RSA training in women's soccer players, applying those ones already adopted in male adult and young players, when performing three different sprinting modes (straight, shuttle and sprinting with changing of direction). 15 trained female soccer players (height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m; weight: 59.3 ± 9.0 kg; BMI 21.6 ± 2.7 kg·m-2; age: 23.3±5.9 years) participated to the study. In order to compare the different values of the time recorded, an Index of Fatigue was used. Recovery times among trials in the sets were administered according to the 1:5, 1:3; 1:2 exercise to rest ratio, respectively. Blood lactate concentrations at the end of each set (3') were analyzed. Significant differences among trials within each set (Repeated Measures Anova; p0.05). Significant differences were found in blood lactate concentrations (pRSA in women's soccer players, keeping the performances in the speed domain (IF% < ⊕7-8%) but inducing the fatigue processes sought with this kind of training method.

  12. Does intra-abdominal fluid increase the resting energy expenditure?

    Zarling, E J; Grande, A; Hano, J

    1997-10-01

    In patients with intra-abdominal fluid collection, caloric needs are based on an estimated dry weight. This is done because intra-abdominal fluid has been assumed to be metabolically inactive. One recent study of patients with slowly resolving ascites suggested otherwise. In our study, the effect of intra-abdominal fluid on the resting energy expenditure (REE) and apparent lean body mass was determined in 10 stable patients requiring peritoneal dialysis. For each subject, in both the empty and full state, we measured REE by indirect calorimetry, and body composition by the bioelectric impedance method. In the full state, the VCO2 was significantly increased (210 +/- 11 versus 197 +/- 9 mL/min, P empty state. This caused an increase in the calculated resting energy expenditure (1531 +/- 88 kcal/d empty versus 1593 +/- 94 kcal/d full, P calories derived from glucose absorbed out of the dialysate. Estimates of body fat, lean body mass, and total water also were not affected by the intra-abdominal fluid. We conclude that intra-abdominal fluid will not affect the measured REE and hence may be considered to be metabolically inactive.

  13. Changes of resting cerebral activities in subacute ischemic stroke patients

    Ping Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to detect the difference in resting cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants, define the abnormal site, and provide new evidence for pathological mechanisms, clinical diagnosis, prognosis prediction and efficacy evaluation of ischemic stroke. At present, the majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies focus on the motor dysfunction and the acute stage of ischemic stroke. This study recruited 15 right-handed ischemic stroke patients at subacute stage (15 days to 11.5 weeks and 15 age-matched healthy participants. A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed on each subject to detect cerebral activity. Regional homogeneity analysis was used to investigate the difference in cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants. The results showed that the ischemic stroke patients had lower regional homogeneity in anterior cingulate and left cerebrum and higher regional homogeneity in cerebellum, left precuneus and left frontal lobe, compared with healthy participants. The experimental findings demonstrate that the areas in which regional homogeneity was different between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants are in the cerebellum, left precuneus, left triangle inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate. These locations, related to the motor, sensory and emotion areas, are likely potential targets for the neural regeneration of subacute ischemic stroke patients.

  14. Resting State Functional Connectivity in Early Blind Humans

    Harold eBurton

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Task-based neuroimaging studies in early blind humans (EB have demonstrated heightened visual cortex responses to non-visual paradigms. Several prior functional connectivity studies in EB have shown altered connections consistent with these task-based results. But these studies generally did not consider behavioral adaptations to lifelong blindness typically observed in EB. Enhanced cognitive abilities shown in EB include greater serial recall and attention to memory. Here, we address the question of the extent to which brain intrinsic activity in EB reflects such adaptations. We performed a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study contrasting 14 EB with 14 age/gender matched normally sighted controls (NS. A principal finding was markedly greater functional connectivity in EB between visual cortex and regions typically associated with memory and cognitive control of attention. In contrast, correlations between visual cortex and non-deprived sensory cortices were significantly lower in EB. Thus, the available data, including that obtained in prior task-based and resting state fMRI studies, as well as the present results, indicate that visual cortex in EB becomes more heavily incorporated into functional systems instantiating episodic recall and attention to non-visual events. Moreover, EB appear to show a reduction in interactions between visual and non-deprived sensory cortices, possibly reflecting suppression of inter-sensory distracting activity.

  15. Altered resting brain function and structure in professional badminton players.

    Di, Xin; Zhu, Senhua; Jin, Hua; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuoer; Zhou, Ke; Zhuo, Yan; Rao, Hengyi

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of professional athletic or musical training have demonstrated considerable practice-dependent plasticity in various brain structures, which may reflect distinct training demands. In the present study, structural and functional brain alterations were examined in professional badminton players and compared with healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI. Gray matter concentration (GMC) was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and resting-brain functions were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity. Results showed that the athlete group had greater GMC and ALFF in the right and medial cerebellar regions, respectively. The athlete group also demonstrated smaller ALFF in the left superior parietal lobule and altered functional connectivity between the left superior parietal and frontal regions. These findings indicate that badminton expertise is associated with not only plastic structural changes in terms of enlarged gray matter density in the cerebellum, but also functional alterations in fronto-parietal connectivity. Such structural and functional alterations may reflect specific experiences of badminton training and practice, including high-capacity visuo-spatial processing and hand-eye coordination in addition to refined motor skills.

  16. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain at rest--exploring EEG microstates as electrophysiological signatures of BOLD resting state networks.

    Yuan, Han; Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2012-05-01

    Neuroimaging research suggests that the resting cerebral physiology is characterized by complex patterns of neuronal activity in widely distributed functional networks. As studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal, the resting brain activity is associated with slowly fluctuating hemodynamic signals (~10s). More recently, multimodal functional imaging studies involving simultaneous acquisition of BOLD-fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG) data have suggested that the relatively slow hemodynamic fluctuations of some resting state networks (RSNs) evinced in the BOLD data are related to much faster (~100 ms) transient brain states reflected in EEG signals, that are referred to as "microstates". To further elucidate the relationship between microstates and RSNs, we developed a fully data-driven approach that combines information from simultaneously recorded, high-density EEG and BOLD-fMRI data. Using independent component analysis (ICA) of the combined EEG and fMRI data, we identified thirteen microstates and ten RSNs that are organized independently in their temporal and spatial characteristics, respectively. We hypothesized that the intrinsic brain networks that are active at rest would be reflected in both the EEG data and the fMRI data. To test this hypothesis, the rapid fluctuations associated with each microstate were correlated with the BOLD-fMRI signal associated with each RSN. We found that each RSN was characterized further by a specific electrophysiological signature involving from one to a combination of several microstates. Moreover, by comparing the time course of EEG microstates to that of the whole-brain BOLD signal, on a multi-subject group level, we unraveled for the first time a set of microstate-associated networks that correspond to a range of previously described RSNs, including visual, sensorimotor, auditory, attention, frontal, visceromotor and default mode networks. These

  17. Rest/stress myocardial perfusion imaging: A means to prevent missed acute ischemic coronary syndrome diagnoses

    Fink-Bennett, D.; Pattekar, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The sensitivity and specificity of rest/stress (R/S) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in detecting an acute ischemic coronary syndrome (AICS) was determined in 100 consecutive patients (pts) admitted to the Chest Pain Clinic-Observation Unit (CPC-OU) with chest pain (CP) of suspected cardiac etiology and a negative (neg) or non diagnostic (dx) EKG. There were 57 females and 43 males, 30-83 years of age. 50 studies were performed from 1/15/98 to 4/2/98; 50 from 11/19/99 to 1/10/00. Material and Methods: An AICS was deemed present if a reversible perfusion defect was demonstrated scintigraphically; a ?50% luminal narrow angiographically. No AICS if the pt had a normal R/S MPI, a fixed defect with normal wall motion and thickening, a neg cardiac catheterization, or was free of cardiac symptoms and had no history of a vascular event for 2-3 years post CPC-OU admission. 13 pts with a positive MPI had a cardiac catheterization, none with a neg MPI. SPECT rest MPI's were performed 30-90 minutes (mins) post 10.0 mCi of technetium 99m Sestamibi. SPECT stress MPI's were performed following a 6-8 hour acute myocardial infarction enzyme (CP-MB/Troponin 1) rule out and 30-90 mins post 30.0 mCi of technetium 99m Sestamibi. Results: 29 pts were lost to follow-up. There were 12 true positive, 5 false positive, 54 true negative and 0 false negative studies. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of a R/S MPI in detecting an AICS is 100%, 91%, 70% and 100%, respectively. An AICS was detected in 12% of pts admitted to the CPC-OU; a finding that correlates with its reported incidence of 2-12%. 6 were managed medically, 3 required emergent bypass surgery, 3 were stented. Conclusion: R/S MPI should be included in the CPC-OU dx work-up of pts with CP of suspected cardiac etiology to prevent missed AICS diagnoses. Patient care will be optimized and health care and medical malpractice awards for failure to diagnosis an acute myocardial infarction

  18. Safety Aspects for Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, H. F.; Christiani, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this appendix some safety aspects in relation to vertical wall breakwaters are discussed. Breakwater structures such as vertical wall breakwaters are used under quite different conditions. The expected lifetime can be from 5 years (interim structure) to 100 years (permanent structure) and the ...

  19. Ballistic Limit Equation for Single Wall Titanium

    Ratliff, J. M.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Bryant, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact tests and hydrocode simulations were used to determine the ballistic limit equation (BLE) for perforation of a titanium wall, as a function of wall thickness. Two titanium alloys were considered, and separate BLEs were derived for each. Tested wall thicknesses ranged from 0.5mm to 2.0mm. The single-wall damage equation of Cour-Palais [ref. 1] was used to analyze the Ti wall's shielding effectiveness. It was concluded that the Cour-Palais single-wall equation produced a non-conservative prediction of the ballistic limit for the Ti shield. The inaccurate prediction was not a particularly surprising result; the Cour-Palais single-wall BLE contains shield material properties as parameters, but it was formulated only from tests of different aluminum alloys. Single-wall Ti shield tests were run (thicknesses of 2.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 0.5 mm) on Ti 15-3-3-3 material custom cut from rod stock. Hypervelocity impact (HVI) tests were used to establish the failure threshold empirically, using the additional constraint that the damage scales with impact energy, as was indicated by hydrocode simulations. The criterion for shield failure was defined as no detached spall from the shield back surface during HVI. Based on the test results, which confirmed an approximately energy-dependent shield effectiveness, the Cour-Palais equation was modified.

  20. THz reflectometric imaging of medieval wall paintings

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain reflectometry has been applied to the investigation of a medieval Danish wall painting. The technique has been able to detect the presence of carbonblack layer on the surface of the wall painting and a buried insertion characterized by high reflectivity values has been found...

  1. Detection of Anomalies in Diaphragm Walls

    Spruit, R.; Van Tol, F.; Broere, W.

    2015-01-01

    If a calamity with a retaining wall occurs, the impact on surrounding buildings and infrastructure is at least an order of magnitude more severe than without the calamity. In 2005 and 2006 major leaks in the retaining walls of underground stations in Amsterdam and Rotterdam occurred. After these

  2. Post caesarean section anterior abdominal wall endometriosis ...

    Abdominal wall endometriosis is a likely sequelae of caesarean section as viable endometrial tissue are deposited in the peritoneal cavity or anterior abdominal wall. One such case to sensitize clinicians of this rare presentation of the disease is presented. The patient was a 48 year old woman who presented with a lesion ...

  3. Full size testing of sheet pile walls

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Katsma, H.; Stolle, P.

    1996-01-01

    Azobé (Lophira alata) is widely used in timber sheet pile walls in the Netherlands. The boards in these walls are coupled and therefore load-sharing can be expected. A simulation model based on the finite element method DIANA (DIANA, 1992) was developed and load-sharing could be calculated. To check

  4. Limb body wall complex: A rare anomaly

    Panduranga Chikkannaiah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present autopsy findings of a case of limb body wall complex (LBWC. The fetus had encephalocele, genitourinary agenesis, skeletal anomalies and body wall defects. The rare finding in our case is the occurrence of both cranial and urogenital anomalies. The presence of complex anomalies in this fetus, supports embryonal dysplasia theory of pathogenesis for LBWC.

  5. Mechanics of the Toxoplasma gondii oocyst wall

    The ability of microorganisms to survive under extreme conditions is closely related to the physicochemical properties of their wall. In the ubiquitous protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, the oocyst stage possesses a bilayered wall that protects the dormant but potentially infective parasites from...

  6. Synovial sarcoma of the abdominal wall

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    A case report of synovial sarcoma arising in the abdominal wall is presented. A brief review of the clinical and radiological features of synovial sarcoma is made. Pre-operative diagnosis of an abdominal wall synovial sarcoma is virtually impossible, but should be considered when a soft tissue swelling is found to show amorphous stippled calcification X-ray. (author) [pt

  7. Domain wall engineering through exchange bias

    Albisetti, E.; Petti, D.

    2016-01-01

    The control of the structure and position of magnetic domain walls is at the basis of the development of different magnetic devices and architectures. Several nanofabrication techniques have been proposed to geometrically confine and shape domain wall structures; however, a fine tuning of the position and micromagnetic configuration is hardly achieved, especially in continuous films. This work shows that, by controlling the unidirectional anisotropy of a continuous ferromagnetic film through exchange bias, domain walls whose spin arrangement is generally not favored by dipolar and exchange interactions can be created. Micromagnetic simulations reveal that the domain wall width, position and profile can be tuned by establishing an abrupt change in the direction and magnitude of the exchange bias field set in the system. - Highlights: • Micromagnetic simulations study domain walls in exchange biased thin films. • Novel domain wall configurations can be stabilized via exchange bias. • Domain walls nucleate at the boundary of regions with different exchange bias. • Domain wall width and spin profile are controlled by tuning the exchange bias.

  8. Cartan frames for heart wall fiber motion

    Samari, Babak; Aumentado-Armstrong, Tristan; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Froeling, Martijn; Siddiqi, Kaleem

    2017-01-01

    Current understanding of heart wall fiber geometry is based on ex vivo static data obtained through diffusion imaging or histology. Thus, little is known about the manner in which fibers rotate as the heart beats. Yet, the geometric organization of moving fibers in the heart wall is key to its

  9. Transcriptional regulatory network controlling secondary cell wall ...

    Secondary wall is an abundant component of plant biomass and has a potential to be a renewable resource of bioenergy and biomaterials. It is important to unravel the molecular mechanism underlying secondary wall formation and how it contributes to plant biomass production. In this review, we summarized the potential ...

  10. Wall roughness induces asymptotic ultimate turbulence

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Verschoof, Ruben Adriaan; Bakhuis, Dennis; Huisman, Sander Gerard; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2018-01-01

    Turbulence governs the transport of heat, mass and momentum on multiple scales. In real-world applications, wall-bounded turbulence typically involves surfaces that are rough; however, characterizing and understanding the effects of wall roughness on turbulence remains a challenge. Here, by

  11. Seismic Performance of Precast Polystyrene RC Walls

    Wibowo Ari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Precast concrete structure such as precast wall is a concept that is growing rapidly these days. However, the earthquake resistance is believed to be one of its drawbacks. Additionally, the large weight of solid elements also increase the building weight significantly which consequently increase the earthquake base shear force as well. Therefore, investigation on the seismic performance of precast concrete wall has been carried out. Three RC wall specimens using wire mesh reinforcement and EPS (Extended Polystyrene System panel have been tested. This wall was designed as a structural wall that was capable in sustaining lateral loads (in-plane yet were lightweight to reduce the total weight of the building. Parameter observed was the ratio of height to width (aspect ratio of wall of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 respectively with the aim to study the behaviour of brittle to ductile transition of the wall. Incremental static load tests were conducted until reaching peak load and then followed by displacement control until failure. Several data were measured at every stage of loading comprising lateral load-displacement behaviour, ultimate strength and collapse mechanism. The outcomes showed that precast concrete walls with a steel wire and EPS panel filler provided considerably good resistance against lateral load.

  12. Spalling of concrete walls under blast load

    Kot, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    A common effect of the detonation of explosives in close proximity of concrete shield walls is the spalling (scabbing) of the back face of the wall. Spalling is caused by the free surface reflection of the shock wave induced in the wall by high pressure air blast and occurs whenever the dynamic tensile rupture strength is exceeded. While a complex process, reasonable analytical spall estimates can be obtained for brittle materials with low tensile strengths, such as concrete, by assuming elastic material behavior and instantaneous spall formation. Specifically, the spall thicknesses and velocities for both normal and oblique incidence of the shock wave on the back face of the wall are calculated. The complex exponential decay wave forms of the air blast are locally approximated by simple power law expressions. Variations of blast wave strength with distance to the wall, charge weight and angle of incidence are taken into consideration. The shock wave decay in the wall is also accounted for by assuming elastic wave propagation. For explosions close-in to the wall, where the reflected blast wave pressures are sufficiently high, multiple spall layers are formed. Successive spall layers are of increasing thickness, at the same time the spall velocities decrease. The spall predictions based on elastic theory are in overall agreement with experimntal results and provide a rapid means of estimating spalling trends of concrete walls subjected to air blast. (Auth.)

  13. Building Walls Instead of Building Friendships

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2008-01-01

    An editorial about the perspectives and proportions in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and the Israeli claim that a wall prevents "evil".......An editorial about the perspectives and proportions in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and the Israeli claim that a wall prevents "evil"....

  14. Drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts. The importance of cyst wall biopsy in the recent era

    Rabie, M. Ezzedien; Al-Ghamdi, Mosaed A.; Al-Shehri, Mohammad Y.; Al-Qahtani, Mohammad S.; Malatani, Tarek S.; Al-Malki, Talal A.; Abu-Eshy, Saeed; Hosni, Mohammad H.; Ghaleb, Ashraf H.

    2005-01-01

    While open drainage has been the standard treatment for pancreatic pseudocysts, less invasive technique which pay little attention to cyst wall biopsy are becoming popular. The aim of this study is to report on our experience in draining pancreatic pseudocysts and probe the necessity or otherwise of obtaining a wall biopsy at drainage. Operation theatre registry, operation log books and medical records at Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were reviewed to retrieve clinical details of the patients with pancreatic pseudocyst who required a drainage procedure in 13 years old period from August 1989 to November 2002. Sixteen patients were identified. Cyst wall biopsy was obtained in ten cases, in 8 of them the diagnosis was confirmed, while a true cyst was found in the remaining 2 excluding them further analysis. In the remaining 14 cases (8 males, 6 females, mean age 38 years, range 4-60), pain was the main presenting feature. Open internal damage was offered to 12 cases while one patient received external drainage under ultrasound guidance and the other received open external drainage. The type of operation was cystogastromy in 9 patients and cystojejunostomy in 3 patients. The recurrance rate after internal drainage was 16.7% while after external drainage was 100%. a procedure related complication occurred in 3 (21.4%) patients. The mortality, morbidity and recurrence rates in this series are compared favorably with other reports. The final diagnosis of a presumed pancreatic pseudocyst should rest on the histopathologic examination of the cyst wall. (author)

  15. 2003 Plant Cell Walls Gordon Conference

    Daniel J. Cosgrove

    2004-09-21

    This conference will address recent progress in many aspects of cell wall biology. Molecular, genetic, and genomic approaches are yielding major advances in our understanding of the composition, synthesis, and architecture of plant cell walls and their dynamics during growth, and are identifying the genes that encode the machinery needed to make their biogenesis possible. This meeting will bring together international scientists from academia, industry and government labs to share the latest breakthroughs and perspectives on polysaccharide biosynthesis, wood formation, wall modification, expansion and interaction with other organisms, and genomic & evolutionary analyses of wall-related genes, as well as to discuss recent ''nanotechnological'' advances that take wall analysis to the level of a single cell.

  16. From Soft Walls to Infrared Branes

    von Gersdorff, Gero

    2010-01-01

    Five dimensional warped spaces with soft walls are generalizations of the standard Randall-Sundrum compactifications, where instead of an infrared brane one has a curvature singularity (with vanishing warp factor) at finite proper distance in the bulk. We project the physics near the singularity onto a hypersurface located a small distance away from it in the bulk. This results in a completely equivalent description of the soft wall in terms of an effective infrared brane, hiding any singular point. We perform explicitly this calculation for two classes of soft wall backgrounds used in the literature. The procedure has several advantages. It separates in a clean way the physics of the soft wall from the physics of the five dimensional bulk, facilitating a more direct comparison with standard two-brane warped compactifications. Moreover, consistent soft walls show a sort of universal behavior near the singularity which is reflected in the effective brane Lagrangian. Thirdly, for many purposes, a good approxima...

  17. Statistical analysis of silo wall pressures

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Berntsen, Kasper Nikolaj

    1998-01-01

    Previously published silo wall pressure measurements during plug flow of barley in alarge concrete silo are re-analysed under the hypothesis that the wall pressures are gamma-distributed.The fits of the gamma distribution type to the local pressure data from each measuring cell are satisfactory.......However, the estimated parameters of the gamma distributions turn out to be significantly inhomogeneous overthe silo wall surface. This inhomogeneity is attributed to the geometrical imperfections of the silo wall.Motivated by the engineering importance of the problem a mathematical model for constructing astochastic...... gamma-type continuous pressure field is given. The model obeys the necessary equilibrium conditionsof the wall pressure field and reflects the spatial correlation properties as estimated from simultaneouslymeasured pressures at different locations along a horizontal perimeter....

  18. An NPARC Turbulence Module with Wall Functions

    Zhu, J.; Shih, T.-H.

    1997-01-01

    The turbulence module recently developed for the NPARC code has been extended to include wall functions. The Van Driest transformation is used so that the wall functions can be applied to both incompressible and compressible flows. The module is equipped with three two-equation K-epsilon turbulence models: Chien, Shih-Lumley and CMOTR models. Details of the wall functions as well as their numerical implementation are reported. It is shown that the inappropriate artificial viscosity in the near-wall region has a big influence on the solution of the wall function approach. A simple way to eliminate this influence is proposed, which gives satisfactory results during the code validation. The module can be easily linked to the NPARC code for practical applications.

  19. Aging near the wall in colloidal glasses

    Cao, Cong; Huang, Xinru; Weeks, Eric

    In a colloidal glass system, particles move slower as sample ages. In addition, their motions may be affected by their local structure, and this structure will be different near a wall. We examine how the aging process near a wall differs from that in the bulk of the sample. In particular, we use a confocal microscope to observe 3D motion in a bidisperse colloidal glass sample. We find that flat walls induce the particles to organize into layers. The aging process behaves differently near the boundary, especially within the first three layers. Particle motion near the wall is noticeably slower but also changes less dramatically with age. We compare and contrast aging seen in samples with flat and rough walls.

  20. Diaphragm walling for Sizewell B sets records

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The first phase of construction of the Sizewell-B nuclear reactor has been completed. This was the building of a diaphragm wall around the site. It is one of the largest and deepest diaphragm walls to be installed in Europe. The site can be pumped dry of groundwater and the foundations constructed in the dry. The specifications of the wall and its construction, using two Hydrofraise excavation rigs, are described. The excavated material is brought up as a slurry and the (bentonite) slurry is cleaned and desanded. Most of the wall has been formed using a plastic concrete but reinforced concrete has been used for some stretches. The diaphragm wall, which is 1258m long and 55m deep on average, was built in 19 weeks. (U.K.)

  1. Structure of thermonuclear reactor wall

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro.

    1991-01-01

    In a thermonuclear reactor wall, there has been a worry that the brazing material is melted by high temperature heat and particle load, to peel off the joined portion and the protecting material is destroyed by temperature elevation, to expose the heat sink material. Then, in the reactor core structures of a thermonuclear reactor, such as a divertor plate comprising a protecting material made of carbon material and the heat sink material joined by brazing, a plate material made of a so-called refractory metal having a high atomic number such as tungsten, molybdenum or the alloy thereof is embedded or attached to an accurate position of the protecting material. This can prevent the brazing portion from destruction by escaping electrons generated upon occurrence of abnormality in the thermonuclear reactor, and peeling or destroy of the protecting material and the heat sink material. Sufficient characteristics of plasmas can always be maintained by disposing a material having a small atomic number, for example, carbon material, to the position facing to the plasmas. (N.H.)

  2. Mirror, mirror on the wall

    2005-01-01

    RICH 2, one of the two Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment, is being prepared to join the other detector elements ready for the first proton-proton collisions at LHC. The mirrors of the RICH2 detector are meticulously assembled in a clean room.In a large dark room, men in white move around an immense structure some 7 metres high, 10 metres wide and nearly 2.5 metres deep. Apparently effortlessly, they are installing the two large high-precision spherical mirrors. These mirrors will focus Cherenkov light, created by the charged particles that will traverse this detector, onto the photon detectors. Each spherical mirror wall is made up of facets like a fly's eye. Twenty-eight individual thin glass mirrors will all point to the same point in space to within a few micro-radians. The development of these mirrors has been technically demanding : Ideally they should be massless, sturdy, precise and have high reflectivity. In practice, though not massless, they are made from a mere 6 mm thin gl...

  3. First wall for thermonuclear device

    Shibuya, Yoji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the thermal stresses resulted to tiles and suppress the temperature rise for mounting jigs in first walls for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A support mounting rod as a tile mounting and fixing jig and a fixing support connected therewith are disposed to the inside of an armour tile composed of high melting material and, further, a spring is disposed between the lower portion of the tile and the base plate. The armour tile can easily be fixed to the base plate by means of the resilient member by rotating the support member and abutting the support member against the support member abutting portion of the base plate. Further, since the contact and fixing surface of the armour tile and the fixing jig is situated below the tile inside the cooled base plate, the temperature rise can be suppressed as compared with the usual case. Since screw or like other clamping portion is not used for fixing the tile, heat resistant ceramics can be used with no restriction only to metal members, to thereby moderate the restriction in view of the temperature. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. A Structurally Specialized Uniform Wall Layer is Essential for Constructing Wall Ingrowth Papillae in Transfer Cells

    Xia, Xue; Zhang, Hui-Ming; Offler, Christina E.; Patrick, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Transfer cells are characterized by wall labyrinths with either a flange or reticulate architecture. A literature survey established that reticulate wall ingrowth papillae ubiquitously arise from a modified component of their wall labyrinth, termed the uniform wall layer; a structure absent from flange transfer cells. This finding sparked an investigation of the deposition characteristics and role of the uniform wall layer using a Vicia faba cotyledon culture system. On transfer of cotyledons to culture, their adaxial epidermal cells spontaneously trans-differentiate to a reticulate architecture comparable to their abaxial epidermal transfer cell counterparts formed in planta. Uniform wall layer construction commenced once adaxial epidermal cell expansion had ceased to overlay the original outer periclinal wall on its inner surface. In contrast to the dense ring-like lattice of cellulose microfibrils in the original primary wall, the uniform wall layer was characterized by a sparsely dispersed array of linear cellulose microfibrils. A re-modeled cortical microtubule array exerted no influence on uniform wall layer formation or on its cellulose microfibril organization. Surprisingly, formation of the uniform wall layer was not dependent upon depositing a cellulose scaffold. In contrast, uniform wall cellulose microfibrils were essential precursors for constructing wall ingrowth papillae. On converging to form wall ingrowth papillae, the cellulose microfibril diameters increased 3-fold. This event correlated with up-regulated differential, and transfer-cell specific, expression of VfCesA3B while transcript levels of other cellulose biosynthetic-related genes linked with primary wall construction were substantially down-regulated. PMID:29259611

  5. Bloch walls and the non-ideal bose gas spectrum

    Vitiello, S.A.S.

    1986-05-01

    The quasi-particle spectrum of non-ideal Bose gas with domain walls in the condensate is investigated. The existence of such a system is determined from solutions of Gross-Pitaevskii equation which represent many-soliton systems. The walls which make the condensate non-uniform are responsible for density and velocity fields ρ(x) and υ(x) repectively. In the laboratory, the Bogoliubov spectrum, supposed to be true for an uniform condensate at rest, is changed due to the velocity field to which the quasi-particles are submited. The spectrum in the laboratory frame is obtained by considering the Galileu invariance principle and the interaction energy between the quasi-particle and its medium. The importance in considering the last two facts is illustrated by the analyse of a constant density condensate which moves uniformly in the laboratory. The many-soliton spectrum configuration and structure function are studied by the Monte Carlo method. In an approximation that assumes the quasi-particle to be point like, the condensate can be treated as locally uniform. For each event the position x of a quasi-particle and its momentum in a frame with velocity υ(x) are determined. Thus, by a convenient Galileu transformation the energy spectrum in the laboratory an be obtained. The results show a phonon spectrum which splits in two branches in the high momenta region. In this region the lower energy branch exibiths a point of minimum. Analogies with the He II are explored. (author) [pt

  6. Nonsingular walls in plane cholesteric layers

    Belyakov, V A; Osipov, M A; Stewart, I W

    2006-01-01

    The structure of a straight interface (wall) between regions with differing values of the pitch in planar cholesteric layers with finite strength of the surface anchoring is investigated theoretically. It is found that the shape and strength of the anchoring potential influences essentially the structure of the wall and a motionless wall between thermodynamically stable regions without a singularity in the director distribution in the layer can exist for sufficiently weak anchoring only. More specifically, for the existence of such a wall the dimensionless parameter S d = K 22 /Wd (where W is the depth of the anchoring potential, K 22 is the elastic twist modulus and d is the layer thickness) should exceed its critical value, which is dependent on the shape of the anchoring potential. General equations describing the director distribution in the wall are presented. Detailed analysis of these equations is carried out for the case of infinitely strong anchoring at one surface and finite anchoring strength at the second layer surface. It is shown that the wall width L is directly dependent upon the shape and strength of the anchoring potential and that its estimate ranges from d to (dL p ) 1/2 (where L p = K 22 /W is the penetration length), corresponding to different anchoring strengths and shape potentials. The dependence of the director distribution in the wall upon all three Frank elastic moduli is analytically found for some specific limiting cases of the model anchoring potentials. Motion of the wall is briefly investigated and the corresponding calculations performed under the assumption that the shape of a moving wall is the same as a motionless one. It is noted that experimental investigation of the walls in planar cholesteric layers can be used for the determination of the actual shape of surface anchoring potentials

  7. Sunspot Light Walls Suppressed by Nearby Brightenings

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Hou, Yijun; Li, Xiaohong [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Erdélyi, Robertus [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Yan, Limei, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Light walls, as ensembles of oscillating bright structures rooted in sunspot light bridges, have not been well studied, although they are important for understanding sunspot properties. Using the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and Solar Dynamics Observatory observations, here we study the evolution of two oscillating light walls each within its own active region (AR). The emission of each light wall decays greatly after the appearance of adjacent brightenings. For the first light wall, rooted within AR 12565, the average height, amplitude, and oscillation period significantly decrease from 3.5 Mm, 1.7 Mm, and 8.5 minutes to 1.6 Mm, 0.4 Mm, and 3.0 minutes, respectively. For the second light wall, rooted within AR 12597, the mean height, amplitude, and oscillation period of the light wall decrease from 2.1 Mm, 0.5 Mm, and 3.0 minutes to 1.5 Mm, 0.2 Mm, and 2.1 minutes, respectively. Particularly, a part of the second light wall even becomes invisible after the influence of a nearby brightening. These results reveal that the light walls are suppressed by nearby brightenings. Considering the complex magnetic topology in light bridges, we conjecture that the fading of light walls may be caused by a drop in the magnetic pressure, where the flux is canceled by magnetic reconnection at the site of the nearby brightening. Another hypothesis is that the wall fading is due to the suppression of driver source ( p -mode oscillation), resulting from the nearby avalanche of downward particles along reconnected brightening loops.

  8. Mechanisms for decreased exercise capacity after bed rest in normal middle-aged men

    Hung, J.; Goldwater, D.; Convertino, V.A.; McKillop, J.H.; Goris, M.L.; DeBusk, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the decrease in exercise capacity after bed rest were assessed in 12 apparently healthy men aged 50 +/- 4 years who underwent equilibrium gated blood pool scintigraphy during supine and upright multistage bicycle ergometry before and after 10 days of bed rest. After bed rest, echocardiographically measured supine resting left ventricular end-diastolic volume decreased by 16% (p less than 0.05). Peak oxygen uptake during supine effort after bed rest was diminished by 6% (p . not significant [NS]), whereas peak oxygen uptake during upright effort declined by 15% (p less than 0.05). After bed rest, increases in heart rate were also greater during exercise in the upright than in the supine position (p less than 0.05). Values of left ventricular ejection fraction increased normally during both supine and upright effort after bed rest and were higher than corresponding values before bed rest (p less than 0.05). After bed rest, increased left ventricular ejection fraction and heart rate largely compensated for the reduced cardiac volume during supine effort, but these mechanisms were insufficient to maintain oxygen transport capacity at levels during upright effort before bed rest. These results indicate that orthostatically induced cardiac underfilling, not physical deconditioning or left ventricular dysfunction, is the major cause of reduced effort tolerance after 10 days of bed rest in normal middle-aged men

  9. Myocardial imaging with 201Tl at rest and during exercise. Comparison with coronary arteriography and resting and stress electrocardiography

    Ritchie, J.L.; Trobaugh, G.B.; Hamilton, G.W.; Gould, K.L.; Narahara, K.A.; Murray, J.A.; Williams, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    Myocardial imaging with intravenous thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) was performed at rest and following maximal treadmill exercise in 101 patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Results were interpreted from Polaroid scintiphotos by three independent observers with complete interobserver agreement in 79%. Of 25 patients with no or insignificant coronary artery disease ( 201 Tl image defect, one (4%) had an exercise 201 Tl defect, none had an ECG Q wave, and four (16%) had exercise ST-segment depression. Among 76 patients with coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 50% diameter stenosis), 58 (76%) had a defect on either the rest or exercise 201 Tl image. The proportion of patients with an exercise image defect (50/76, 66%) was greater than the proportion with exercise ST depression alone (34/76, 45%; P 201 Tl is easily accomplished with readily available imaging equipment. The image data enhanced the diagnostic sensitivity of stress electrocardiography, and provided spatial identification of the abnormal segment(s) of myocardium

  10. Spontaneous and controlled-diameter synthesis of single-walled and few-walled carbon nanotubes

    Inoue, Shuhei; Lojindarat, Supanat; Kawamoto, Takahiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we explored the spontaneous and controlled-diameter growth of carbon nanotubes. We evaluated the effects of catalyst density, reduction time, and a number of catalyst coating on the substrate (for multi-walled carbon nanotubes) on the diameter of single-walled carbon nanotubes and the number of layers in few-walled carbon nanotubes. Increasing the catalyst density and reduction time increased the diameters of the carbon nanotubes, with the average diameter increasing from 1.05 nm to 1.86 nm for single-walled carbon nanotubes. Finally, we succeeded in synthesizing a significant double-walled carbon nanotube population of 24%.

  11. Genome-wide association studies and resting heart rate

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revolutionized the search for genetic variants regulating resting heart rate. In the last 10 years, GWASs have led to the identification of at least 21 novel heart rate loci. These discoveries have provided valuable insights into the mechanisms...... and pathways that regulate heart rate and link heart rate to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. GWASs capture majority of genetic variation in a population sample by utilizing high-throughput genotyping chips measuring genotypes for up to several millions of SNPs across the genome in thousands...... of individuals. This allows the identification of the strongest heart rate associated signals at genome-wide level. While GWASs provide robust statistical evidence of the association of a given genetic locus with heart rate, they are only the starting point for detailed follow-up studies to locate the causal...

  12. An embedding for general relativity with variable rest mass

    Wesson, P.S.

    1984-01-01

    There is considerable interest currently in theories of gravity where rest masses vary slowly with time. A new theory of this type is proposed which is believed to be superior to others, and which contains Einstein's theory embedded within it. The theory is five dimensional, where the extra coordinate is x 4 is equivalent to Gm/c 2 (G is the Newtonian gravitational parameter, c the velocity of light, and m the mass). The theory reduces to Einstein's if w is equivalent to (G/c 3 ) dm/dt = O and the fifth dimension is absent. The theory agrees with observation provided w << 1, but the size of w in the real world can only be determined by experiment. (author)

  13. Highly charged ions at rest: The HITRAP project at GSI

    Herfurth, F.; Beier, T.; Dahl, L.; Eliseev, S.; Heinz, S.; Kester, O.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kozhuharov, C.; Maero, G.; Quint, W.

    2005-01-01

    A decelerator will be installed at GSI in order to provide and study bare heavy nuclei or heavy nuclei with only few electrons at very low energies or even at rest. Highly-charged ions will be produced by stripping at relativistic energies. After electron cooling and deceleration in the Experimental Storage Ring the ions are ejected out of the storage ring at 4 MeV/u and further decelerated in a combination of an IH and RFQ structure. Finally, they are injected into a Penning trap where the ions are cooled to 4 K. From here, the ions can be transferred in a quasi dc or in a pulsed mode to different experimental setups. This article describes the technical concepts of this project as well as planned key experiments

  14. Vascular Uptake of Six Rehydration Drinks at Rest and Exercise

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Geelen, G.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Saumet, J.-L.; Juhos, L. T.; Keil, L. C.; Fegan-Meyer, D.; Dearborn, A.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Whittam, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    A report presents data on the effectiveness of each of six rehydration fluids in restoring total body water and plasma volume in human subjects during rest and exercise. One of the six fluids was water sweetened with aspartame: the others were water containing various amounts of sodium chloride and/or sodium citrate, plus various amounts of aspartame and/or other carbohydrates. In one experiment, five men who had previously dehydrated themselves for 24 hours drank one of the rehydration fluids, then sat for 70 minutes. Pretest plasma volumes were measured and changes in plasma volumes were calculated. This procedure was repeated at weekly intervals until all six rehydration fluids had been tested. Another similar experiment involved four men who exercised on a cycle ergometer for 70 minutes in the supine position after drinking the fluids.

  15. Radiotelemetry recording of electroencephalogram in piglets during rest.

    Saito, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Yasuko; Nemoto, Tetsu; Kasuya, Etsuko; Sakumoto, Ryosuke

    2005-04-13

    A wireless recording system was developed to study the electroencephalogram (EEG) in unrestrained, male Landrace piglets. Under general anesthesia, ball-tipped silver/silver chloride electrodes for EEG recording were implanted onto the dura matter of the parietal and frontal cortex of the piglets. A pair of miniature preamplifiers and transmitters was then mounted on the surface of the skull. To examine whether other bioelectrical activities interfere with the EEG measurements, an electrocardiogram (ECG) or electromyogram (EMG) of the neck was simultaneously recorded with the EEG. Next, wire electrodes for recording movement of the eyelid were implanted with EEG electrodes, and EEG and eyelid movements were simultaneously measured. Power spectral analysis using a Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) algorithm indicates that EEG was successfully recorded in unrestrained piglets, at rest, during the daytime in the absence of interference from ECG, EMG or eyelid movements. These data indicate the feasibility of using our radiotelemetry system for measurement of EEG under these conditions.

  16. A RESTful Web service interface to the ATLAS COOL database

    Roe, S A

    2010-01-01

    The COOL database in ATLAS is primarily used for storing detector conditions data, but also status flags which are uploaded summaries of information to indicate the detector reliability during a run. This paper introduces the use of CherryPy, a Python application server which acts as an intermediate layer between a web interface and the database, providing a simple means of storing to and retrieving from the COOL database which has found use in many web applications. The software layer is designed to be RESTful, implementing the common CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) database methods by means of interpreting the HTTP method (POST, GET, PUT, DELETE) on the server along with a URL identifying the database resource to be operated on. The format of the data (text, xml etc) is also determined by the HTTP protocol. The details of this layer are described along with a popular application demonstrating its use, the ATLAS run list web page.

  17. Initial angular momentum state in pp annihilation at rest

    Bizzarri, R

    1972-01-01

    The author shows that no quantitative statement on the relative importance of initial P-states in pp annihilation can be made. Annihilations in flight indicate that P-wave annihilation into K/sub 1 //sup 0/K/sub 1//sup 0/ is inhibited while annihilation into pi pi is enhanced and might suggest a P-wave contamination approximately 10%. The observatory of the final state K/sub 1//sup 0/K/sub 1//sup 0/n from annihilations at rest indicates that the depression of the K/sub 1//sup 0/K/sub 1//sup 0/ final state is not so important and suggests a P-wave contamination smaller than 4%. Furthermore the successes obtained in the analysis of various final states on the assumption of S-wave annihilation are hard to reconcile with a P-wave contribution bigger than approximately 5%. (20 refs).

  18. Practical Implementation of 10 Rules for Writing REST APIs

    Jiri Hradil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a practical implementation of “10 Rules for Writing REST APIs introduced in the article” (Hradil, 2016. The application is done in Invoice Home (Wikilane, 2016, an invoicing web application for small business and entrepreneurs available world-wide. The API is implemented in JSON hypermedia format (ECMA International, 2016 and with Ruby on Rails framework (Hansson, 2016. The main purpose of the API is to allow connection of Invoice Home with external systems and offer Invoice Home data in simpler format compared to the current HTML format of the full-stack web application. The paper could be also used as a basic template or pattern for any other implementation of the JSON API in any web-based application.

  19. [Electromechanical registration of the resting behavior of fattening pigs].

    Heuser, H; Plonait, H

    1977-10-05

    The resting behaviour of four weanling pigs has been continuously recorded by an electromechanical apparatus for 8 weeks. The duration of different postures: standing, ventral recumbency, lateral recumbency and frequency of standing periods were recorded as influenced by different environmental factors. 1. Floor with and without bedding at 21 degrees C. 2. Floor without bedding at 27 degrees C environmental temperature. 3. Feeding once daily versus twice. Duration of recumbency periods was increases at 21 degrees C if bedding was provided. This also improved daily gain. At elevated environmental temperatures the animals preferred the lying posture on concrete floor. Feeding twice increased the duration of recumbency. The same was the case as the animals grew older. Disturbance by caretaking activities in neighbouring dens increased the duration of standing.

  20. The geospatial data quality REST API for primary biodiversity data.

    Otegui, Javier; Guralnick, Robert P

    2016-06-01

    We present a REST web service to assess the geospatial quality of primary biodiversity data. It enables access to basic and advanced functions to detect completeness and consistency issues as well as general errors in the provided record or set of records. The API uses JSON for data interchange and efficient parallelization techniques for fast assessments of large datasets. The Geospatial Data Quality API is part of the VertNet set of APIs. It can be accessed at http://api-geospatial.vertnet-portal.appspot.com/geospatial and is already implemented in the VertNet data portal for quality reporting. Source code is freely available under GPL license from http://www.github.com/vertnet/api-geospatial javier.otegui@gmail.com or rguralnick@flmnh.ufl.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Resting Heart Rate Is Not Associated with Cognitive Function

    Wod, M; Jensen, M T; Galatius, S

    2018-01-01

    Aims: In order to examine the hypothesis that elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with impaired cognitive score, we investigated the relationship between RHR and cognitive score in middle-aged, elderly and old Danish subjects from the general population. Methods: Composite cognitive s...... cognitive score (1,049 pairs of 2,049 pairs [51% (95% CI 49–53), p relation to cognitive function in the general population....... and hypertension, RHR was not associated with cognitive function. Furthermore, the intrapair analyses showed that RHR was not associated with cognitive score testing within twin pairs, as measured by the proportion of twin pairs in which the twin with higher RHR also was the twin with the lowest composite...

  2. Resting and postexercise heart rate variability in professional handball players.

    Kayacan, Yildirim; Yildiz, Sedat

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate heart rate variability (HRV) in professional handball players during rest and following a 5 min mild jogging exercise. For that purpose, electrocardiogram (ECG) of male handball players (N.=12, mean age 25±3.95 years) and sedentary controls (N.=14, mean age 23.5±2.95 years) were recorded for 5 min at rest and just after 5 min of mild jogging. ECGs were recorded and following HRV parameters were calculated: time-domain variables such as heart rate (HR), average normal-to-normal RR intervals, standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals, square root of the mean of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals, percentage of differences between adjacent NN intervals that are greater than 50 milliseconds (pNN50), and frequency-domain variables such as very low frequency, low (LF) and high frequency (HF) of the power and LF/HF ratio. Unpaired t-test was used to find out differences among groups while paired t-test was used for comparison of each group for pre- and postjogging HRV. Pearson correlations were carried out to find out the relationships between the parameters. Blood pressures were not different between handball players and sedentary controls but exercise increased systolic blood pressure (Phandball players (Phandball players (Phandball players in response to a mild, short-time (5 min) jogging exercise. However, in sedentary subjects, either the sympathetic regulation of the autonomous nervous system increased or vagal withdrawal occurred.

  3. Resting brain activity varies with dream recall frequency between subjects.

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Nicolas, Alain; Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-06-01

    Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5 ± 0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2 ± 1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory.

  4. Your resting brain CAREs about your risky behavior.

    Christine L Cox

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on the neural correlates of risk-related behaviors and personality traits has provided insight into mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological decision-making. Task-based neuroimaging studies implicate a distributed network of brain regions in risky decision-making. What remains to be understood are the interactions between these regions and their relation to individual differences in personality variables associated with real-world risk-taking.We employed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC methods to investigate differences in the brain's intrinsic functional architecture associated with beliefs about the consequences of risky behavior. We obtained an individual measure of expected benefit from engaging in risky behavior, indicating a risk seeking or risk-averse personality, for each of 21 participants from whom we also collected a series of R-fMRI scans. The expected benefit scores were entered in statistical models assessing the RSFC of brain regions consistently implicated in both the evaluation of risk and reward, and cognitive control (i.e., orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, lateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate. We specifically focused on significant brain-behavior relationships that were stable across R-fMRI scans collected one year apart. Two stable expected benefit-RSFC relationships were observed: decreased expected benefit (increased risk-aversion was associated with 1 stronger positive functional connectivity between right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and right insula, and 2 weaker negative functional connectivity between left nucleus accumbens and right parieto-occipital cortex.Task-based activation in the IFG and insula has been associated with risk-aversion, while activation in the nucleus accumbens and parietal cortex has been associated with both risk seeking and risk-averse tendencies. Our results suggest that

  5. Resting state networks' corticotopy: the dual intertwined rings architecture.

    Salma Mesmoudi

    Full Text Available How does the brain integrate multiple sources of information to support normal sensorimotor and cognitive functions? To investigate this question we present an overall brain architecture (called "the dual intertwined rings architecture" that relates the functional specialization of cortical networks to their spatial distribution over the cerebral cortex (or "corticotopy". Recent results suggest that the resting state networks (RSNs are organized into two large families: 1 a sensorimotor family that includes visual, somatic, and auditory areas and 2 a large association family that comprises parietal, temporal, and frontal regions and also includes the default mode network. We used two large databases of resting state fMRI data, from which we extracted 32 robust RSNs. We estimated: (1 the RSN functional roles by using a projection of the results on task based networks (TBNs as referenced in large databases of fMRI activation studies; and (2 relationship of the RSNs with the Brodmann Areas. In both classifications, the 32 RSNs are organized into a remarkable architecture of two intertwined rings per hemisphere and so four rings linked by homotopic connections. The first ring forms a continuous ensemble and includes visual, somatic, and auditory cortices, with interspersed bimodal cortices (auditory-visual, visual-somatic and auditory-somatic, abbreviated as VSA ring. The second ring integrates distant parietal, temporal and frontal regions (PTF ring through a network of association fiber tracts which closes the ring anatomically and ensures a functional continuity within the ring. The PTF ring relates association cortices specialized in attention, language and working memory, to the networks involved in motivation and biological regulation and rhythms. This "dual intertwined architecture" suggests a dual integrative process: the VSA ring performs fast real-time multimodal integration of sensorimotor information whereas the PTF ring performs multi

  6. Resting State Networks' Corticotopy: The Dual Intertwined Rings Architecture

    Mesmoudi, Salma; Perlbarg, Vincent; Rudrauf, David; Messe, Arnaud; Pinsard, Basile; Hasboun, Dominique; Cioli, Claudia; Marrelec, Guillaume; Toro, Roberto; Benali, Habib; Burnod, Yves

    2013-01-01

    How does the brain integrate multiple sources of information to support normal sensorimotor and cognitive functions? To investigate this question we present an overall brain architecture (called “the dual intertwined rings architecture”) that relates the functional specialization of cortical networks to their spatial distribution over the cerebral cortex (or “corticotopy”). Recent results suggest that the resting state networks (RSNs) are organized into two large families: 1) a sensorimotor family that includes visual, somatic, and auditory areas and 2) a large association family that comprises parietal, temporal, and frontal regions and also includes the default mode network. We used two large databases of resting state fMRI data, from which we extracted 32 robust RSNs. We estimated: (1) the RSN functional roles by using a projection of the results on task based networks (TBNs) as referenced in large databases of fMRI activation studies; and (2) relationship of the RSNs with the Brodmann Areas. In both classifications, the 32 RSNs are organized into a remarkable architecture of two intertwined rings per hemisphere and so four rings linked by homotopic connections. The first ring forms a continuous ensemble and includes visual, somatic, and auditory cortices, with interspersed bimodal cortices (auditory-visual, visual-somatic and auditory-somatic, abbreviated as VSA ring). The second ring integrates distant parietal, temporal and frontal regions (PTF ring) through a network of association fiber tracts which closes the ring anatomically and ensures a functional continuity within the ring. The PTF ring relates association cortices specialized in attention, language and working memory, to the networks involved in motivation and biological regulation and rhythms. This “dual intertwined architecture” suggests a dual integrative process: the VSA ring performs fast real-time multimodal integration of sensorimotor information whereas the PTF ring performs multi

  7. Graph theoretical analysis of resting magnetoencephalographic functional connectivity networks

    Lindsay eRutter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex networks have been observed to comprise small-world properties, believed to represent an optimal organization of local specialization and global integration of information processing at reduced wiring cost. Here, we applied magnitude squared coherence to resting magnetoencephalographic time series in reconstructed source space, acquired from controls and patients with schizophrenia, and generated frequency-dependent adjacency matrices modeling functional connectivity between virtual channels. After configuring undirected binary and weighted graphs, we found that all human networks demonstrated highly localized clustering and short characteristic path lengths. The most conservatively thresholded networks showed efficient wiring, with topographical distance between connected vertices amounting to one-third as observed in surrogate randomized topologies. Nodal degrees of the human networks conformed to a heavy-tailed exponentially truncated power-law, compatible with the existence of hubs, which included theta and alpha bilateral cerebellar tonsil, beta and gamma bilateral posterior cingulate, and bilateral thalamus across all frequencies. We conclude that all networks showed small-worldness, minimal physical connection distance, and skewed degree distributions characteristic of physically-embedded networks, and that these calculations derived from graph theoretical mathematics did not quantifiably distinguish between subject populations, independent of bandwidth. However, post-hoc measurements of edge computations at the scale of the individual vertex revealed trends of reduced gamma connectivity across the posterior medial parietal cortex in patients, an observation consistent with our prior resting activation study that found significant reduction of synthetic aperture magnetometry gamma power across similar regions. The basis of these small differences remains unclear.

  8. Resting energy expenditure of rats acclimated to hypergravity

    Wade, Charles E.; Moran, Megan M.; Oyama, Jiro

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of centrifugation at 1 G has been advocated as a control condition during spaceflight and as a countermeasure to compensate for the adverse effects of spaceflight. Rodents are the primary animal model for the study of the effects of spaceflight and will be used in the evaluation of centrifugation as a countermeasure and means of control at 1 G during flight. HYPOTHESIS: The present study was designed to assess whether resting energy expenditure (EER) of male rats was increased in relation to the magnitude of the level of gravity to which the animals were exposed. The influence of body mass and age on resting energy expenditure (EER) of male rats (n = 42, age 40-400 d) was determined following 2 wk of acclimation to 1, 2.3, or 4.1 G. Hypergravity environments were created by centrifugation. Measurements were made at the gravity level to which the animal was acclimated and during the lights-on period. RESULTS: In rats matched for body mass (approximately 400 g), mean O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher (18% and 27%, respectively) in the 2.3- and 4.1 -G groups than controls. Mean respiratory exchange ratio (RER) increased from 0.80 to 0.87. EER was increased from 47 +/- 0.1 kcal x d(-1) at 1 G, to 57 +/- 1.5 and 58 +/- 2.2 kcal x d(-1) at 2.3 and 4.1 G, respectively. There was no difference in EER between the hypergravity groups. When age differences were considered, EER (kcal x kg(-1) x d(-1)) with increased gravity was 40% higher than at 1 G. The increase in EER was not proportional over gravity levels. CONCLUSION: Acclimation of rats to hypergravity increases their EER, dependent on body mass and age, and may alter substrate metabolism. The increase in EER was not related to the level of gravity increase.

  9. Comparison between Medgem and Deltatrac resting metabolic rate measurements.

    Compher, C; Hise, M; Sternberg, A; Kinosian, B P

    2005-10-01

    The primary aims of this trial were to evaluate the reproducibility of a portable handheld calorimeter (Medgem) in a clinical population, and to compare its measures with a calorimeter in typical use with these patients. Cross-sectional clinical validation study. Outpatient Clinical Research Center. A total of 24 stable home nutrition support patients. In random order three measures of resting metabolic rate (RMR) were taken after a 4-h fast, 15 min rest and 2-h abstention from exercise. Two measures were taken with the same Medgem (MG) and one with the traditional calorimeter (Deltatrac). Reproducibility of MG measures and their comparability to a Deltatrac measure were assessed by Bland-Altman analysis, with >+/-250 kcal/day established a priori as a clinically unacceptable error. In addition, disagreement between the two types of measures was defined as greater than 10% difference. The mean difference between two MG measures was -6.8 kcal/day, with limits of agreement between 233 and -247 kcal/day and clinically acceptable. The mean difference between the Deltatrac and mean of two MG measures was -162 kcal/day, with limits of agreement between 577 and -253 kcal/day and clinically unacceptable. In all, 80% of the repeated MG RMR measures agreed within 10%, and the mean MG reading agreed with the Deltatrac in 60% of cases. RMR obtained using the MG calorimeter has an acceptable degree of reproducibility, and is acceptable to patients. The MG measures, however, are frequently lower than traditional measures and require further validation prior to application to practice in this vulnerable patient group.

  10. Cell Wall Remodeling Enzymes Modulate Fungal Cell Wall Elasticity and Osmotic Stress Resistance.

    Ene, Iuliana V; Walker, Louise A; Schiavone, Marion; Lee, Keunsook K; Martin-Yken, Hélène; Dague, Etienne; Gow, Neil A R; Munro, Carol A; Brown, Alistair J P

    2015-07-28

    The fungal cell wall confers cell morphology and protection against environmental insults. For fungal pathogens, the cell wall is a key immunological modulator and an ideal therapeutic target. Yeast cell walls possess an inner matrix of interlinked β-glucan and chitin that is thought to provide tensile strength and rigidity. Yeast cells remodel their walls over time in response to environmental change, a process controlled by evolutionarily conserved stress (Hog1) and cell integrity (Mkc1, Cek1) signaling pathways. These mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways modulate cell wall gene expression, leading to the construction of a new, modified cell wall. We show that the cell wall is not rigid but elastic, displaying rapid structural realignments that impact survival following osmotic shock. Lactate-grown Candida albicans cells are more resistant to hyperosmotic shock than glucose-grown cells. We show that this elevated resistance is not dependent on Hog1 or Mkc1 signaling and that most cell death occurs within 10 min of osmotic shock. Sudden decreases in cell volume drive rapid increases in cell wall thickness. The elevated stress resistance of lactate-grown cells correlates with reduced cell wall elasticity, reflected in slower changes in cell volume following hyperosmotic shock. The cell wall elasticity of lactate-grown cells is increased by a triple mutation that inactivates the Crh family of cell wall cross-linking enzymes, leading to increased sensitivity to hyperosmotic shock. Overexpressing Crh family members in glucose-grown cells reduces cell wall elasticity, providing partial protection against hyperosmotic shock. These changes correlate with structural realignment of the cell wall and with the ability of cells to withstand osmotic shock. The C. albicans cell wall is the first line of defense against external insults, the site of immune recognition by the host, and an attractive target for antifungal therapy. Its tensile strength is conferred by

  11. Dictionary-driven Ischemia Detection from Cardiac Phase-Resolved Myocardial BOLD MRI at Rest

    Bevilacqua, Marco; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac Phase-resolved Blood-Oxygen-Level Dependent (CP–BOLD) MRI provides a unique opportunity to image an ongoing ischemia at rest. However, it requires post-processing to evaluate the extent of ischemia. To address this, here we propose an unsupervised ischemia detection (UID) method which relies on the inherent spatio-temporal correlation between oxygenation and wall motion to formalize a joint learning and detection problem based on dictionary decomposition. Considering input data of a single subject, it treats ischemia as an anomaly and iteratively learns dictionaries to represent only normal observations (corresponding to myocardial territories remote to ischemia). Anomaly detection is based on a modified version of One-class Support Vector Machines (OCSVM) to regulate directly the margins by incorporating the dictionary-based representation errors. A measure of ischemic extent (IE) is estimated, reflecting the relative portion of the myocardium affected by ischemia. For visualization purposes an ischemia likelihood map is created by estimating posterior probabilities from the OCSVM outputs, thus obtaining how likely the classification is correct. UID is evaluated on synthetic data and in a 2D CP–BOLD data set from a canine experimental model emulating acute coronary syndromes. Comparing early ischemic territories identified with UID against infarct territories (after several hours of ischemia), we find that IE, as measured by UID, is highly correlated (Pearson’s r = 0.84) w.r.t. infarct size. When advances in automated registration and segmentation of CP–BOLD images and full coverage 3D acquisitions become available, we hope that this method can enable pixel-level assessment of ischemia with this truly non-invasive imaging technique. PMID:26292338

  12. Active compliant wall for skin friction reduction

    Pätzold, A.; Peltzer, I.; Nitsche, W.; Goldin, N.; King, R.; Haller, D.; Woias, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Objective: Delay of laminar-turbulent transition on a wing by active wall actuation. • Natural, convective TS-instabilities are damped by travelling counter waves. • Piezo driven active wall and model predictive controller were developed. • TS amplitudes were damped by 83.6% (equals 15.7 dB within instability band). • Significant effect on skin friction distribution. -- Abstract: In order to reduce skin friction drag, an active laminarisation method is developed. Laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition caused by Tollmien–Schlichting (TS) waves is delayed by attenuation of these convective instabilities. An actively driven compliant wall is integrated as part of a wing’s surface. Different configurations of piezo-based actuators are combined with an array of sensitive surface flow sensors. Wall-normal actuation as well as inclined wall displacement are investigated. Together with a realtime-control strategy, transition onset is shifted downstream by six average TS-wave lengths. Using the example of flow velocity, the influence of variable flow conditions on TS-damping rates was investigated. Besides, the boundary layer flow downstream of the active wall area as well as required wall deflections and the global damping effect on skin friction are presented in this paper

  13. Wall roughness induces asymptotic ultimate turbulence

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Verschoof, Ruben A.; Bakhuis, Dennis; Huisman, Sander G.; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2018-04-01

    Turbulence governs the transport of heat, mass and momentum on multiple scales. In real-world applications, wall-bounded turbulence typically involves surfaces that are rough; however, characterizing and understanding the effects of wall roughness on turbulence remains a challenge. Here, by combining extensive experiments and numerical simulations, we examine the paradigmatic Taylor-Couette system, which describes the closed flow between two independently rotating coaxial cylinders. We show how wall roughness greatly enhances the overall transport properties and the corresponding scaling exponents associated with wall-bounded turbulence. We reveal that if only one of the walls is rough, the bulk velocity is slaved to the rough side, due to the much stronger coupling to that wall by the detaching flow structures. If both walls are rough, the viscosity dependence is eliminated, giving rise to asymptotic ultimate turbulence—the upper limit of transport—the existence of which was predicted more than 50 years ago. In this limit, the scaling laws can be extrapolated to arbitrarily large Reynolds numbers.

  14. Regeneration of near-wall turbulence structures

    Hamilton, James M.; Kim, John J.; Waleffe, Fabian A.

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the regeneration mechanisms of near-wall turbulence and an attempt to investigate the critical Reynolds number conjecture of Waleffe & Kim is presented. The basis is an extension of the 'minimal channel' approach of Jimenez and Moin which emphasizes the near-wall region and further reduces the complexity of the turbulent flow. Reduction of the flow Reynolds number to the minimum value which will allow turbulence to be sustained has the effect of reducing the ratio of the largest scales to the smallest scales or, equivalently, of causing the near-wall region to fill more of the area between the channel walls. In addition, since each wall may have an active near-wall region, half of the channel is always somewhat redundant. If a plane Couette flow is instead chosen as the base flow, this redundancy is eliminated: the mean shear of a plane Couette flow has a single sign, and at low Reynolds numbers, the two wall regions share a single set of structures. A minimal flow with these modifications possesses, by construction, the strongest constraints which allow sustained turbulence, producing a greatly simplified flow in which the regeneration process can be examined.

  15. 30 years of battling the cell wall.

    Latgé, J P

    2017-01-01

    In Aspergillus fumigatus, like in other pathogenic fungi, the cell wall is essential for fungal growth as well as for resisting environmental stresses such as phagocytic killing. Most of the chemical analyses undertaken on the cell wall of A. fumigatus are focused on the mycelial cell wall because it is the vegetative stage of the fungus. However, the cell walls of the mycelium and conidium (which is the infective propagule) are different especially at the level of the surface layer, which plays a significant role in the interaction between A. fumigatus conidia and phagocytic cells of the immune system. In spite of the essential function of the cell wall in fungal life, progresses have been extremely slow in the understanding of biosynthesis as well in the identification of the key host responses against the cell wall components. A major difficulty is the fact that the composition and structural organization of the cell wall is not immutably set and is constantly reshuffled depending on the environmental conditions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Intraventricular filling under increasing left ventricular wall stiffness and heart rates

    Samaee, Milad; Lai, Hong Kuan; Schovanec, Joseph; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Nagueh, Sherif

    2015-11-01

    Heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) is a clinical syndrome that is prevalent in over 50% of heart failure patients. HFNEF patients show increased left ventricle (LV) wall stiffness and clinical diagnosis is difficult using ejection fraction (EF) measurements. We hypothesized that filling vortex circulation strength would decrease with increasing LV stiffness irrespective of heart rate (HR). 2D PIV and hemodynamic measurements were acquired on LV physical models of varying wall stiffness under resting and exercise HRs. The LV models were comparatively tested in an in vitro flow circuit consisting of a two-element Windkessel model driven by a piston pump. The stiffer LV models were tested in comparison with the least stiff baseline model without changing pump amplitude, circuit compliance and resistance. Increasing stiffness at resting HR resulted in diminishing cardiac output without lowering EF below 50% as in HFNEF. Increasing HR to 110 bpm in addition to stiffness resulted in lowering EF to less than 50%. The circulation strength of the intraventricular filling vortex diminished with increasing stiffness and HR. The results suggest that filling vortex circulation strength could be potentially used as a surrogate measure of LV stiffness. This research was supported by the Oklahoma Center for Advancement of Science and Technology (HR14-022).

  17. Wall motion abnormality of myocardial infarction

    Hayashi, Senji; Tsuda, Takashi; Ojima, Kenji

    1984-01-01

    By use of the gated blood pool scan, we divided the left ventricular LAO 45 image into 8 sections with the center of the volume as the basal point, and devised a method of quantitative evaluation of the regional wall motion from 2 aspects: 1) wall movement and 2) phase abnormality. To evaluate the wall movement, we obtained the following indeces from count curves of each section: 1) EF1=(end-diastolic count-end-systolic count)/ end-diastolic count, 2) EF2=(maximum count-minimum count)/maximum count, and 3) the difference of the two (EF2-EF1). As indeces of the phase abnormality, the mean value of phases of the pixels (phase characteristics) and the standard deviation (variation) of each section were calculated. Furthermore, the phase delay of each section was calculated as the difference from the earliest phase value of the 8 sections. Control values and standard deviation were obtained from 8 healthy controls. By this method, we analyzed 20 patients with old myocardial infarction. And following results were obtained: 1. Applying this method, we could evaluate the regional wall motion of the left ventricle more precisely, and we considered it would be useful clinically. 2. The abnormal regional wall motion of old myocardial infarction were classified into 4 typical forms as follows: 1) the wall movement decreased extremely. 2) the wall movement decreased, but no phase delay recognized. 3) the wall movement did not decrease, but phase delay was recognized. 4) the wall movement decreased, and phase delay was recognized. (author)

  18. Fire resistance of a steel plate reinforced concrete bearing wall

    Kodaira, Akio; Kanchi, Masaki; Fujinaka, Hideo; Akita, Shodo; Ozaki, Masahiko

    2003-01-01

    Samples from a steel plate reinforced concrete bearing wall composed of concrete slab sandwiched between studded steel plates, were subjected to loaded fire resistance tests. There were two types of specimens: some were 1800 mm high while the rest were 3000 mm high ; thickness and width were the same for all specimens, at 200 mm and 800 mm, respectively. Under constant load conditions, one side of each specimen was heated along the standard fire-temperature curve. The results enabled us to approximate the relationship between the ratio of working load to concrete strength N/(Ac x c σ b) and the fire resistance time (t: minutes), as equation (1) for the 1800 mm - high specimen, and equation (2) for the 3000 mm - high specimen. N/(Ac x c σ b) = 2.21 x (1/t) 0.323 (1), .N/(Ac x c σ b) 2.30 x (1/t) 0.378 (2) In addition, the temperature of the unheated side of the specimens was 100degC at 240 minutes of continuous heating, clearly indicating that there was sufficient heat insulation. (author)

  19. Development of wall ranging radiation inspection robot

    Lee, B. J.; Yoon, J. S.; Park, Y. S.; Hong, D. H.; Oh, S. C.; Jung, J. H.; Chae, K. S.

    1999-03-01

    With the aging of nation's nuclear facilities, the target of this project is to develop an under water wall ranging robotic vehicle which inspects the contamination level of the research reactor (TRIGA MARK III) as a preliminary process to dismantling. The developed vehicle is driven by five thrusters and consists of small sized control boards, and absolute position detector, and a radiation detector. Also, the algorithm for autonomous navigation is developed and its performance is tested through under water experiments. Also, the test result at the research reactor shows that the vehicle firmly attached the wall while measuring the contamination level of the wall

  20. Seismic behavior of reinforced concrete shear walls

    Wang, F.; Gantenbein, F.

    1989-01-01

    Reinforced concrete shear walls have an important contribution to building stiffness. So, it is necessary to know their behavior under seismic loads. The ultimate behavior study of shear walls subjected to dynamic loadings includes: - a description of the nonlinear global model based on cyclic static tests, - nonlinear time history calculations for various forcing functions. The comparison of linear and nonlinear results shows important margins related to the ductility when the bandwidth of the forcing function is narrow and centred on the wall natural frequency

  1. Development of wall ranging radiation inspection robot

    Lee, B. J.; Yoon, J. S.; Park, Y. S.; Hong, D. H.; Oh, S. C.; Jung, J. H.; Chae, K. S

    1999-03-01

    With the aging of nation's nuclear facilities, the target of this project is to develop an under water wall ranging robotic vehicle which inspects the contamination level of the research reactor (TRIGA MARK III) as a preliminary process to dismantling. The developed vehicle is driven by five thrusters and consists of small sized control boards, and absolute position detector, and a radiation detector. Also, the algorithm for autonomous navigation is developed and its performance is tested through under water experiments. Also, the test result at the research reactor shows that the vehicle firmly attached the wall while measuring the contamination level of the wall.

  2. Connection of thin-walled casings

    Druyan, V.M.; Grinev, A.F.; Gruzdev, V.D.; Perchanik, V.V.; Syplenko, V.T.

    1981-08-28

    A connection is suggested for castings which contains a nipple and coupling part with conical triangular threading. in order to improve the strength of the connection of thin-walled casings with ratio D/S>22, where D is the outer diameter of the casing, S is the thickness of the wall of the casing, the end of the pipe on the length from the end to the main plane of the thread is conical with constant thickness of the wall and conicity eqal to the conicity of the thread.

  3. Seismic proof test of shielding block walls

    Ohte, Yukio; Watanabe, Takahide; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Kazuhide

    1989-01-01

    Most of the shielding block walls used for building nuclear facilities are built by dry process. When a nuclear facility is designed, seismic waves specific at each site are set as input seismic motions and they are adopted in the design. Therefore, it is necessary to assure safety of the shielding block walls for earthquake by performing anti-seismic experiments under the conditions at each site. In order to establish the normal form that can be applied to various seismic conditions in various areas, Shimizu Corp. made an actual-size test samples for the shielding block wall and confirmed the safety for earthquake and validity of normalization. (author)

  4. Correlation of resting and exercising endoscopic findings for horses with dynamic laryngeal collapse and palatal dysfunction.

    Barakzai, S Z; Dixon, P M

    2011-01-01

    To correlate resting and exercising endoscopic grades of laryngeal function in horses undergoing high-speed treadmill endoscopy (HSTE) using the Havemeyer grading system. To correlate dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP) seen at rest with palatal function during exercise. Records of horses that underwent HSTE examination (1999-2009) were reviewed. Resting laryngeal function score and other abnormalities noted on resting endoscopy were recorded as were results of HSTE. Results of resting and exercising endoscopic findings were correlated. 281 horses underwent HSTE. There was significant correlation between grade of laryngeal function at rest (grades 1-4) and exercise (ρ=0.53, Pexercising grades of laryngeal function (ρ=0.43, P=0.0017). DDSP was observed at rest significantly more often in horses that developed DDSP during HSTE than those without DDSP during HSTE (RR=4.1, Pexercise were 25.5 and 95.1% respectively (positive predictive value 0.57, negative predictive value 0.83). The results of the current study support the use of the Havemeyer system for grading laryngeal function in the resting horse, and corroborate findings of previous studies correlating resting and exercising palatal abnormalities. Studies that use the presence of spontaneous DDSP during resting endoscopic examination as an inclusion criterion for investigating efficacy of treatments for DDSP are likely to have a low proportion of horses with false positive diagnoses. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  5. The effect of inter-set rest intervals on resistance exercise-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Henselmans, Menno; Schoenfeld, Brad J

    2014-12-01

    Due to a scarcity of longitudinal trials directly measuring changes in muscle girth, previous recommendations for inter-set rest intervals in resistance training programs designed to stimulate muscular hypertrophy were primarily based on the post-exercise endocrinological response and other mechanisms theoretically related to muscle growth. New research regarding the effects of inter-set rest interval manipulation on resistance training-induced muscular hypertrophy is reviewed here to evaluate current practices and provide directions for future research. Of the studies measuring long-term muscle hypertrophy in groups employing different rest intervals, none have found superior muscle growth in the shorter compared with the longer rest interval group and one study has found the opposite. Rest intervals less than 1 minute can result in acute increases in serum growth hormone levels and these rest intervals also decrease the serum testosterone to cortisol ratio. Long-term adaptations may abate the post-exercise endocrinological response and the relationship between the transient change in hormonal production and chronic muscular hypertrophy is highly contentious and appears to be weak. The relationship between the rest interval-mediated effect on immune system response, muscle damage, metabolic stress, or energy production capacity and muscle hypertrophy is still ambiguous and largely theoretical. In conclusion, the literature does not support the hypothesis that training for muscle hypertrophy requires shorter rest intervals than training for strength development or that predetermined rest intervals are preferable to auto-regulated rest periods in this regard.

  6. Effects of Different Types of 3D Rest Frames on Reducing Cybersickness in a Virtual Environment

    KyungHun Han

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A virtual environment (VE presents several kinds of sensory stimuli for creating a virtual reality. Some sensory stimuli presented in the VE have been reported to provoke cybersickness, which is caused by conflicts between sensory stimuli, especially conflicts between visual and vestibular sensations. Application of a rest frame has been known to be effective on reducing cybersickness by alleviating sensory conflict. The form and the way rest frames are presented in 3D VEs have different effects on reducing cybersickness. In this study, two different types of 3D rest frames were created. For verifying the rest frames' effects in reducing cybersickness, twenty subjects were exposed to two different rest frame conditions and a non-rest frame condition after an interval of three days in 3D VE. We observed the characteristic changes in the physiology of cybersickness in terms of autonomic regulation. Psychophysiological signals including EEG, EGG, and HRV were recorded and a simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ was used for measuring the intensity of the sickness before and after the exposure to the different conditions. In the results, the SSQ was reduced significantly in the rest frame conditions. Psychophysiological responses changed significantly in the rest frame conditions compared to the non-rest frame condition. The results suggest that the rest frame conditions have condition-specific effects on reducing cybersickness by differentially alleviating aspects of visual and vestibular sensory conflicts in 3D VE.

  7. Influence of ROI selection on Resting Functional Connectivity: An Individualized Approach for Resting fMRI Analysis

    William Seunghyun Sohn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The differences in how our brain is connected are often thought to reflect the differences in our individual personalities and cognitive abilities. Individual differences in brain connectivity has long been recognized in the neuroscience community however it has yet to manifest itself in the methodology of resting state analysis. This is evident as previous studies use the same region of interest (ROIs for all subjects. In this paper we demonstrate that the use of ROIs which are standardized across individuals leads to inaccurate calculations of functional connectivity. We also show that this problem can be addressed by taking an individualized approach by using subject-specific ROIs. Finally we show that ROI selection can affect the way we interpret our data by showing different changes in functional connectivity with ageing.

  8. The effect of partial poloidal wall sections on the wall stabilization of external kink modes

    Ward, D.J.

    1996-02-01

    An analysis of the effect on the wall stabilization of external kink modes due to toroidally continuous gaps in the resistive wall is performed. The effects with and without toroidal rotation are studied. For a high-β equilibrium, the mode structure is localized on the outboard side. Therefore, outboard gaps greatly increase the growth rate when there is no rotation. For resistive wall stabilization by toroidal rotation, the presence of gaps has the same effect as moving the wall farther away, i.e. destabilizing for the ideal plasma mode, and stabilizing for the resistive wall mode. The region of stability, in terms of wall position, is reduced in size and moved closer to the plasma. However, complete stabilization becomes possible at considerably reduced rotation frequencies. For a high-β, reverse-shear equilibrium both the resistive wall mode and the ideal plasma mode can be stabilized by close fitting discrete passive plates on the outboard side. The necessary toroidal rotation frequency to stabilize the resistive wall mode using these plates is reduced by a factor of three compared to that for a poloidally continuous and complete wall at the same plasma-wall separation. (author) 15 figs., 24 refs

  9. A unified wall function for compressible turbulence modelling

    Ong, K. C.; Chan, A.

    2018-05-01

    Turbulence modelling near the wall often requires a high mesh density clustered around the wall and the first cells adjacent to the wall to be placed in the viscous sublayer. As a result, the numerical stability is constrained by the smallest cell size and hence requires high computational overhead. In the present study, a unified wall function is developed which is valid for viscous sublayer, buffer sublayer and inertial sublayer, as well as including effects of compressibility, heat transfer and pressure gradient. The resulting wall function applies to compressible turbulence modelling for both isothermal and adiabatic wall boundary conditions with the non-zero pressure gradient. Two simple wall function algorithms are implemented for practical computation of isothermal and adiabatic wall boundary conditions. The numerical results show that the wall function evaluates the wall shear stress and turbulent quantities of wall adjacent cells at wide range of non-dimensional wall distance and alleviate the number and size of cells required.

  10. Booted domain wall and charged Kaigorodov space

    Cai Ronggen

    2003-01-01

    The Kaigorodov space is a homogeneous Einstein space and it describes a pp-wave propagating in anti-de Sitter space. It is conjectured in the literature that M-theory or string theory on the Kaigorodov space times a compact manifold is dual to a conformal field theory in an infinitely-boosted frame with constant momentum density. In this Letter we present a charged generalization of the Kaigorodov space by boosting a non-extremal charged domain wall to the ultrarelativity limit where the boost velocity approaches the speed of light. The finite boost of the domain wall solution gives the charged generalization of the Carter-Novotny-Horsky metric. We study the thermodynamics associated with the charged Carter-Novotny-Horsky space and discuss its relation to that of the static black domain walls and its implications in the domain wall/QFT (quantum field theory) correspondence

  11. Turbulent flow velocity distribution at rough walls

    Baumann, W.

    1978-08-01

    Following extensive measurements of the velocity profile in a plate channel with artificial roughness geometries specific investigations were carried out to verify the results obtained. The wall geometry used was formed by high transverse square ribs having a large pitch. The measuring position relative to the ribs was varied as a parameter thus providing a statement on the local influence of roughness ribs on the values measured. As a fundamental result it was found that the gradient of the logarithmic rough wall velocity profiles, which differs widely from the value 2.5, depends but slightly on the measuring position relative to the ribs. The gradients of the smooth wall velocity profiles deviate from 2.5 near the ribs, only. This fact can be explained by the smooth wall shear stress varying with the pitch of the ribs. (orig.) 891 GL [de

  12. Plant Wall Degradative Compounds and Systems

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The present invention relates to cell wall degradative systems, in particular to systems containing enzymes that bind to and/or depolymerize cellulose. These systems...

  13. NEW RSW & Wall Coarse Tet Only Grid

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the RSW Coarse Tet Only grid with the root viscous tunnel wall. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Quad Surface Faces= 0 Tria Surface Faces=...

  14. Cell Wall Diversity in Forage Maize

    Torres, A.F.; Noordam-Boot, C.M.M.; Dolstra, Oene; Weijde, van der Tim; Combes, Eliette; Dufour, Philippe; Vlaswinkel, Louis; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies are ideal platforms for assessing the extent of genetic diversity, inferring the genetic architecture, and evaluating complex trait interrelations for cell wall compositional and bioconversion traits relevant to bioenergy applications. Through the characterization of a forage

  15. NEW RSW & Wall Coarse Mixed Element Grid

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Coarse Mixed Element Grid for the RSW with a viscous wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Quad Surface Faces= 9728 Tria...

  16. Preliminary Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Waffle Walls

    Shugar, Theodore

    1997-01-01

    A preliminary analytical method based upon modified plate bending theory is offered for structural analysis of a promising new construction method for walls of small buildings and residential housing...

  17. Seismic evaluation of reinforced masonry walls

    Kelly, T.E.; Button, M.R.; Mayes, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Masonry walls in operating nuclear plants are in many cases found to be overstressed in terms of allowable stresses when evaluated using current seismic design criteria. However, experimental evidence exists indicating that reinforced masonry walls have a considerable margin between the load levels at which allowable stresses are exceeded and the load levels at which structural distress and loss of function occurs. This paper presents a methodology which allows the actual capacity of reinforced masonry walls under seismic loading to be quantified. The methodology is based on the use of non-linear dynamic analyses and incorporates observed hysteretic behavior for both in-plane and out-of-plane response. Experimental data is used to develop response parameters and to validate the results predicted by the models. Criteria have been concurrently developed to evaluate the deformations and material performance in the walls to ensure adequate margins of safety for the required function. An example of the application of these procedures is provided

  18. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    ... are two main types of abdominal wall defects: omphalocele and gastroschisis . Omphalocele is an opening in the center of the ... covering the exposed organs in gastroschisis. Fetuses with omphalocele may grow slowly before birth (intrauterine growth retardation) ...

  19. Green noise wall construction and evaluation.

    2011-09-01

    This report details the research performed under Phase I of a research study titled Green Noise Wall Construction and Evaluation that looks into the feasibility of using green noise barriers as a noise mitigation option in Ohio. This phase incl...

  20. Functional duality of the cell wall.

    Latgé, Jean-Paul; Beauvais, Anne

    2014-08-01

    The polysaccharide cell wall is the extracellular armour of the fungal cell. Although essential in the protection of the fungal cell against aggressive external stresses, the biosynthesis of the polysaccharide core is poorly understood. For a long time it was considered that this cell wall skeleton was a fixed structure whose role was only to be sensed as non-self by the host and consequently trigger the defence response. It is now known that the cell wall polysaccharide composition and localization continuously change to adapt to their environment and that these modifications help the fungus to escape from the immune system. Moreover, cell wall polysaccharides could function as true virulence factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On thick domain walls in general relativity

    Goetz, Guenter; Noetzold, Dirk

    1989-01-01

    Planar scalar field configurations in general relativity differ considerably from those in flat space. It is shown that static domain walls of finite thickness in curved space-time do not possess a reflection symmetry. At infinity, the space-time tends to the Taub vacuum on one side of the wall and to the Minkowski vacuum (Rindler space-time) on the other. Massive test particles are always accelerated towards the Minkowski side, i.e., domain walls are attractive on the Taub side, but repulsive on the Minkowski side (Taub-vacuum cleaner). It is also proved that the pressure in all directions is always negative. Finally, a brief comment is made concerning the possibility of infinite, i.e., bigger than horizon size, domain walls in our universe. All of the results are independent of the form of the potential V(phi) greater than or equal to 0 of the scalar field phi.

  2. Inspector's manual for mechanically stabilized earth walls.

    2010-06-01

    The scope of the project is to develop a condition rating system, creation of an inspector's manual to reference during : inspection or address any training for inspectors at the district level. The research project will develop a MSE wall : conditio...

  3. Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 in Bed Rest and Spaceflight

    Bokhari, R.; Zwart, S. R; Fields, E.; Heer, M.; Sibonga, J.; Smith, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Many nutritional factors influence bone, from the basics of calcium and vitamin D, to factors which influence bone through acid/base balance, including protein, sodium, and more. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified factor, secreted from osteocytes, which is involved in classic (albeit complex) feedback loops controlling phosphorus homeostasis through both vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1, 2). As osteocytes are gravity sensing cells, it is important to determine if there are changes in FGF23 during spaceflight. In extreme cases, such as chronic kidney disease, FGF23 levels are highly elevated. FGF23 imbalances, secondary to dietary influences, may contribute to skeletal demineralization and kidney stone risk during spaceflight. Presented with an imbalanced dietary phosphorus to calcium ratio, increased secretion of FGF23 will inhibit renal phosphorus reabsorption, resulting in increased excretion and reduced circulating phosphorus. Increased intake and excretion of phosphorus is associated with increased kidney stone risk in both the terrestrial and microgravity environments. Highly processed foods and carbonated beverages are associated with higher phosphorus content. Ideally, the dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio should be at minimum 1:1. Nutritional requirements for spaceflight suggest that this ratio not be less than 0.67 (3), while the International Space Station (ISS) menu provides 1020 mg Ca and 1856 mg P, for a ratio of 0.55 (3). Subjects in NASA's bed rest studies, by design, have consumed intake ratios much closer to 1.0 (4). FGF23 also has an inhibitory influence on PTH secretion and 1(alpha)-hydroxylase, both of which are required for activating vitamin D with the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Decreased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D will result in decreased intestinal phosphorus absorption, and increased urinary phosphorus excretion (via decreased renal reabsorption). Should a decrease in 1

  4. Bloch walls in a nickel single crystal

    Peters, J.; Treimer, W.

    2001-01-01

    We present a consistent theory for the dependence of the magnetic structure in bulk samples on external static magnetic fields and corresponding experimental results. We applied the theory of micromagnetism to this crystal and calculated the Bloch wall thickness as a function of external magnetic fields. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental data, so that the Bloch wall thickness of a 71 deg. nickel single crystal was definitely determined with some hundred of nanometer

  5. Flavor changing strings and domain walls

    Dvali, G.; Senjanovic, G.

    1993-04-01

    We consider the cosmological consequences of a spontaneous breaking of non-abelian discrete symmetries, which may appear as a natural remnant of a continuous symmetry, such as a family symmetry. The result may be a stable domain wall across which an electron would turn into a muon (orν e into ν μ ) or a flavor analogue of an Alice string-domain wall structure with the same property. (author). 16 refs

  6. INTOR impurity control and first wall system

    Abdou, M.A.

    1983-04-01

    The highlights of the recent INTOR effort on examining the key issues of the impurity control/first wall system are summarized. The emphasis of the work was an integrated study of the edge-region physics, plasma-wall interaction, materials, engineering and magnetic considerations associated with the poloidal divertor and pump limiter. The development of limiter and divertor collector plate designs with an acceptable lifetime was a major part of the work

  7. Thermal Bridge Effects in Walls Separating Rowhouses

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report the thermal bridge effects at internal wall/roof junctions in rowhouses are evaluated. The analysis is performed using a numerical calculation programme, and different solutions are evaluated with respect to extra heat loss and internal surface temperatures.......In this report the thermal bridge effects at internal wall/roof junctions in rowhouses are evaluated. The analysis is performed using a numerical calculation programme, and different solutions are evaluated with respect to extra heat loss and internal surface temperatures....

  8. Lateral resistance of plybamboo wall-panels

    Gonzalez Beltran, G.E.; Herwijnen, van, F.; Janssen, J.J.A.; Moonen, S.P.G.; Gutierrez, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental and theoretical behavior of plybamboo (kind of plywood made out of bamboo) wall-panels subjected to lateral load. The wall-panels are part of a house design method proposed in the author's PhD thesis for prefabricated social housing in developing countries. Sixteen fullscaled wallpanels with or without window and door openings were tested and their theoretical capacities estimated. Design wind and seismic loads were determined according to the Internatio...

  9. Erosion of the first wall of Tokamaks

    Guseva, M.I.; Ionova, E.S.; Martynenko, Yu.V.

    1980-01-01

    An estimate of the rate of erosion of the wall due to sputtering and blistering requires knowledge of the fluxes and energies of the particles which go from the plasma to the wall, of the sputtering coefficients S, and of the erosion coefficients S* for blistering. The overall erosion coefficient is equal to the sum of the sputtering coefficient and the erosion coefficient for blistering. Here the T-20 Tokamak is examined as an example of a large-scale Tokamak. 18 refs

  10. Analysis of particle-wall interaction

    Raszillier, H.; Durst, F.

    1988-01-01

    The vertical motion of a rigid sphere in a quiescent viscous fluid towards a horizontal plane wall is analized by a simplified equation of motion, which takes into account as the only wall correction that to the Stokes drag force. The phase space analysis for this equation is sketched; it has been motivated by measurements performed at the LSTM-Erlangen. A more detailed exposition is given in the Erlangen report LSTM 222/T/87. (orig.)

  11. Seismic fragility evaluation of unreinforced masonry walls

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Reich, M.; Lee, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    A practical analysis scheme to evaluate the seismic fragility of unreinforced masonry walls which are used at various places in older reactor facilities is presented. Among the several failure modes for such walls, the out-of-plane bending failure is considered to be a major risk contributor in seismic PRA studies. In order to evaluate this failure mode, the use of an equivalent linear approximation method is examined based on comparisons with available test data and nonlinear time history analyses. (author)

  12. Clustering Of Left Ventricular Wall Motion Patterns

    Bjelogrlic, Z.; Jakopin, J.; Gyergyek, L.

    1982-11-01

    A method for detection of wall regions with similar motion was presented. A model based on local direction information was used to measure the left ventricular wall motion from cineangiographic sequence. Three time functions were used to define segmental motion patterns: distance of a ventricular contour segment from the mean contour, the velocity of a segment and its acceleration. Motion patterns were clustered by the UPGMA algorithm and by an algorithm based on K-nearest neighboor classification rule.

  13. Abdominal wall hernias: computed tomography findings

    D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Rosas, George de Queiroz; Mota, Marcos Alexandre; Akisue, Sandra R. Tsukada; Galvao Filho, Mario de Melo.

    2005-01-01

    Abdominal hernias are a common clinical problem Clinical diagnosis of abdominal hernias can sometimes be challenging, particularly in obese patients or patients with previous abdominal surgery. CT scan of the abdomen allows visualization of hernias and their contents and the differentiation from other masses of the abdominal wall such as tumors, hematomas and abscesses. Moreover, CT may identify complications such as incarceration, bowel obstruction, volvulus and strangulation. This study illustrates the CT scan findings observed in different types of abdominal wall hernias. (author)

  14. Altered resting brain connectivity in persistent cancer related fatigue

    Johnson P. Hampson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an estimated 3 million women in the US living as breast cancer survivors and persistent cancer related fatigue (PCRF disrupts the lives of an estimated 30% of these women. PCRF is associated with decreased quality of life, decreased sleep quality, impaired cognition and depression. The mechanisms of cancer related fatigue are not well understood; however, preliminary findings indicate dysfunctional activity in the brain as a potential factor. Here we investigate the relationship between PCRF on intrinsic resting state connectivity in this population. Twenty-three age matched breast cancer survivors (15 fatigued and 8 non-fatigued who completed all cancer-related treatments at least 12 weeks prior to the study, were recruited to undergo functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI. Intrinsic resting state networks were examined with both seed based and independent component analysis methods. Comparisons of brain connectivity patterns between groups as well as correlations with self-reported fatigue symptoms were performed. Fatigued patients displayed greater left inferior parietal lobule to superior frontal gyrus connectivity as compared to non-fatigued patients (P < 0.05 FDR corrected. This enhanced connectivity was associated with increased physical fatigue (P = 0.04, r = 0.52 and poor sleep quality (P = 0.04, r = 0.52 in the fatigued group. In contrast greater connectivity in the non-fatigued group was found between the right precuneus to the periaqueductal gray as well as the left IPL to subgenual cortex (P < 0.05 FDR corrected. Mental fatigue scores were associated with greater default mode network (DMN connectivity to the superior frontal gyrus (P = 0.05 FDR corrected among fatigued subjects (r = 0.82 and less connectivity in the non-fatigued group (r = −0.88. These findings indicate that there is enhanced intrinsic DMN connectivity to the frontal gyrus in breast cancer survivors with persistent

  15. Permeable treatment wall design and cost analysis

    Manz, C.; Quinn, K.

    1997-01-01

    A permeable treatment wall utilizing the funnel and gate technology has been chosen as the final remedial solution for one industrial site, and is being considered at other contaminated sites, such as a closed municipal landfill. Reactive iron gates will be utilized for treatment of chlorinated VOCs identified in the groundwater. Alternatives for the final remedial solution at each site were evaluated to achieve site closure in the most cost effective manner. This paper presents the remedial alternatives and cost analyses for each site. Several options are available at most sites for the design of a permeable treatment wall. Our analysis demonstrates that the major cost factor's for this technology are the design concept, length, thickness, location and construction methods for the reactive wall. Minimizing the amount of iron by placement in the most effective area and construction by the lowest cost method is critical to achieving a low cost alternative. These costs dictate the design of a permeable treatment wall, including selection of a variety of alternatives (e.g., a continuous wall versus a funnel and gate system, fully penetrating gates versus partially penetrating gates, etc.). Selection of the appropriate construction methods and materials for the site can reduce the overall cost of the wall

  16. Condensation on a cooled plane upright wall

    Fortier, Andre.

    1975-01-01

    The vapor condensation along a cooled upright plane wall was studied. The theoretical and experimental results obtained in the simple case, give the essential characteristics of the phenomenon of condensation along a cold wall that keeps the vapor apart from the coolant inside a surface condenser. The phenomenon presents two different appearances according as the wall is wetted or not by the liquid. In the first case a continuous liquid film runs down the wall and a conventional Nusselt calculation gives the film thickness and the heat exchange coefficient between a pure saturated vapor and the cold wall. The calculation is developed in detail and the effect of a vapor flow along the film is discussed as well as that of the presence of a noncondensable gas inside the vapor. In the second case, separated liquid drops are formed on the wall, the phenomenon is called ''dropwise condensation'' and the heat exchange coefficients obtained are much higher than with film condensation. The theoretical aspects of the problem are discussed with some experimental results [fr

  17. Internal erosion under spillway rested on an embankment dam

    Mohammad Sedghi-Asl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the mechanism of internal erosion caused in the right abutment of the Shahghasem dam’s spillway. Shahghasem dam is an earthen dam located in Yasouj, in southwest of Iran. A significant hole and pipe have been observed in the corner of the right abutment from upstream view. The foundation is Marlstone, which has low cohesion and susceptible for internal erosion and piping in some conditions. Going through details of the design maps has shown that Lane’s criteria for selecting safe dimensions of the seepage control measures have not been considered properly. A series of the supportive walls are designed to attach to the right part of the spillway in order to increase the length of seepage. The pipe route of the erosion should also be grouted with high quality concrete.

  18. Boosting long-term memory via wakeful rest: intentional rehearsal is not necessary, consolidation is sufficient.

    Dewar, Michaela; Alber, Jessica; Cowan, Nelson; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    People perform better on tests of delayed free recall if learning is followed immediately by a short wakeful rest than by a short period of sensory stimulation. Animal and human work suggests that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for the consolidation of recently acquired memories. However, an alternative account cannot be ruled out, namely that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for intentional rehearsal of recently acquired memories, thus driving superior memory. Here we utilised non-recallable words to examine whether wakeful rest boosts long-term memory, even when new memories could not be rehearsed intentionally during the wakeful rest delay. The probing of non-recallable words requires a recognition paradigm. Therefore, we first established, via Experiment 1, that the rest-induced boost in memory observed via free recall can be replicated in a recognition paradigm, using concrete nouns. In Experiment 2, participants heard 30 non-recallable non-words, presented as 'foreign names in a bridge club abroad' and then either rested wakefully or played a visual spot-the-difference game for 10 minutes. Retention was probed via recognition at two time points, 15 minutes and 7 days after presentation. As in Experiment 1, wakeful rest boosted recognition significantly, and this boost was maintained for at least 7 days. Our results indicate that the enhancement of memory via wakeful rest is not dependent upon intentional rehearsal of learned material during the rest period. We thus conclude that consolidation is sufficient for this rest-induced memory boost to emerge. We propose that wakeful resting allows for superior memory consolidation, resulting in stronger and/or more veridical representations of experienced events which can be detected via tests of free recall and recognition.

  19. Boosting long-term memory via wakeful rest: intentional rehearsal is not necessary, consolidation is sufficient.

    Michaela Dewar

    Full Text Available People perform better on tests of delayed free recall if learning is followed immediately by a short wakeful rest than by a short period of sensory stimulation. Animal and human work suggests that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for the consolidation of recently acquired memories. However, an alternative account cannot be ruled out, namely that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for intentional rehearsal of recently acquired memories, thus driving superior memory. Here we utilised non-recallable words to examine whether wakeful rest boosts long-term memory, even when new memories could not be rehearsed intentionally during the wakeful rest delay. The probing of non-recallable words requires a recognition paradigm. Therefore, we first established, via Experiment 1, that the rest-induced boost in memory observed via free recall can be replicated in a recognition paradigm, using concrete nouns. In Experiment 2, participants heard 30 non-recallable non-words, presented as 'foreign names in a bridge club abroad' and then either rested wakefully or played a visual spot-the-difference game for 10 minutes. Retention was probed via recognition at two time points, 15 minutes and 7 days after presentation. As in Experiment 1, wakeful rest boosted recognition significantly, and this boost was maintained for at least 7 days. Our results indicate that the enhancement of memory via wakeful rest is not dependent upon intentional rehearsal of learned material during the rest period. We thus conclude that consolidation is sufficient for this rest-induced memory boost to emerge. We propose that wakeful resting allows for superior memory consolidation, resulting in stronger and/or more veridical representations of experienced events which can be detected via tests of free recall and recognition.

  20. Effect of rest interval on strength recovery in young and old women.

    Theou, Olga; Gareth, Jones R; Brown, Lee E

    2008-11-01

    This study compares the effects of rest intervals on isokinetic muscle torque recovery between sets of a knee extensor and flexor exercise protocol in physically active younger and older women. Twenty young (22.4 +/- 1.7 years) and 16 older (70.7 +/- 4.3 years) women performed three sets of eight maximum repetitions of knee extension/flexion at 60 degrees x s(-1). The rest interval between sets was 15, 30, and 60 seconds and was randomly assigned across three testing days. No significant interaction of rest by set by age group was observed. There was a significant decline in mean knee extensor torque when 15- and 30-second rest intervals were used between sets, but not when a 60-second rest interval was applied for both the young and the old women. No significant decline for mean knee flexor torque was observed in the older women when a 30-second rest interval was used, whereas a longer 60-second rest interval was required in younger women. Active younger and older women require similar rest intervals between sets of a knee extensor exercise (60 seconds) for complete recovery. However, older women recovered faster (30 seconds) than younger women (60 seconds) between sets of a knee flexor exercise. The exercise-to-rest ratio for knee extensors was similar for young and old women (1:2). Old women required only a 1:1 exercise-to-rest ratio for knee flexor recovery, whereas younger women required a longer 1:2 exercise-to-rest ratio. The results of the present study are specific to isokinetic testing and training and are more applicable in rehabilitation and research settings. Practitioners should consider age and gender when prescribing rest intervals between sets.