WorldWideScience

Sample records for resting density pattern

  1. RESTful Java patterns and best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Bhakti

    2014-01-01

    This book is aimed at novice developers who want to gain insights into building RESTful services and improve productivity, as well as for advanced developers who want to delve into more complicated topics.

  2. Statistical density modification using local pattern matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    Statistical density modification can make use of local patterns of density found in protein structures to improve crystallographic phases. A method for improving crystallographic phases is presented that is based on the preferential occurrence of certain local patterns of electron density in macromolecular electron-density maps. The method focuses on the relationship between the value of electron density at a point in the map and the pattern of density surrounding this point. Patterns of density that can be superimposed by rotation about the central point are considered equivalent. Standard templates are created from experimental or model electron-density maps by clustering and averaging local patterns of electron density. The clustering is based on correlation coefficients after rotation to maximize the correlation. Experimental or model maps are also used to create histograms relating the value of electron density at the central point to the correlation coefficient of the density surrounding this point with each member of the set of standard patterns. These histograms are then used to estimate the electron density at each point in a new experimental electron-density map using the pattern of electron density at points surrounding that point and the correlation coefficient of this density to each of the set of standard templates, again after rotation to maximize the correlation. The method is strengthened by excluding any information from the point in question from both the templates and the local pattern of density in the calculation. A function based on the origin of the Patterson function is used to remove information about the electron density at the point in question from nearby electron density. This allows an estimation of the electron density at each point in a map, using only information from other points in the process. The resulting estimates of electron density are shown to have errors that are nearly independent of the errors in the original map using

  3. Histomorphological patterns in osseous rests exposed at fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, C.; Tiesler, V.; Oliva, A.I.; Quintana, P.

    2005-01-01

    Histomorphology as part of morphological research studies bony structure on the tissue level. Its methods are applied in this investigation to evaluate histomorphological impact patterns in heat-exposed bony material, particularly color changes, fissure patterns, volumetric reduction, and changes in the size of Haversian canals. These variables were evaluated in exposed thin sections of porcine long bones, obtained during two experimental series. The first one was conducted under stable thermal conditions in a furnace by measuring heat impact in stepped time (I to S hours) and temperature intervals (200 to 800 C). During a second experimental phase, bony samples were exposed to direct fire in defined time and heat intervals. The treated specimens were then sectioned and microscopically scrutinized. The results presented here were designed to offer new analytical, measurable standards in the investigation of forms of heat exposition of the human body, applicable in forensics and the study of ancient Maya posthumous body treatments. (Author)

  4. Estimating repetitive spatiotemporal patterns from resting-state brain activity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yusuke; Hiroe, Nobuo; Yamashita, Okito; Sato, Masa-Aki

    2016-06-01

    Repetitive spatiotemporal patterns in spontaneous brain activities have been widely examined in non-human studies. These studies have reported that such patterns reflect past experiences embedded in neural circuits. In human magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) studies, however, spatiotemporal patterns in resting-state brain activities have not been extensively examined. This is because estimating spatiotemporal patterns from resting-state MEG/EEG data is difficult due to their unknown onsets. Here, we propose a method to estimate repetitive spatiotemporal patterns from resting-state brain activity data, including MEG/EEG. Without the information of onsets, the proposed method can estimate several spatiotemporal patterns, even if they are overlapping. We verified the performance of the method by detailed simulation tests. Furthermore, we examined whether the proposed method could estimate the visual evoked magnetic fields (VEFs) without using stimulus onset information. The proposed method successfully detected the stimulus onsets and estimated the VEFs, implying the applicability of this method to real MEG data. The proposed method was applied to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and MEG data. The results revealed informative spatiotemporal patterns representing consecutive brain activities that dynamically change with time. Using this method, it is possible to reveal discrete events spontaneously occurring in our brains, such as memory retrieval. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased power spectral density in resting-state pain-related brain networks in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Seong-Ho; Seo, Jeehye; Kim, Sang-Hyon; Han, Seung Woo; Nam, Eon Jeong; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Hui Joong; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Yang-Tae; Chang, Yongmin

    2013-09-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM), characterized by chronic widespread pain, is known to be associated with heightened responses to painful stimuli and atypical resting-state functional connectivity among pain-related regions of the brain. Previous studies of FM using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have focused on intrinsic functional connectivity, which maps the spatial distribution of temporal correlations among spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation in functional MRI (fMRI) resting-state data. In the current study, using rs-fMRI data in the frequency domain, we investigated the possible alteration of power spectral density (PSD) of low-frequency fluctuation in brain regions associated with central pain processing in patients with FM. rsfMRI data were obtained from 19 patients with FM and 20 age-matched healthy female control subjects. For each subject, the PSDs for each brain region identified from functional connectivity maps were computed for the frequency band of 0.01 to 0.25 Hz. For each group, the average PSD was determined for each brain region and a 2-sample t test was performed to determine the difference in power between the 2 groups. According to the results, patients with FM exhibited significantly increased frequency power in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. In patients with FM, the increase in PSD did not show an association with depression or anxiety. Therefore, our findings of atypical increased frequency power during the resting state in pain-related brain regions may implicate the enhanced resting-state baseline neural activity in several brain regions associated with pain processing in FM. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tremor pattern differentiates drug-induced resting tremor from Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisticò, R; Fratto, A; Vescio, B; Arabia, G; Sciacca, G; Morelli, M; Labate, A; Salsone, M; Novellino, F; Nicoletti, A; Petralia, A; Gambardella, A; Zappia, M; Quattrone, A

    2016-04-01

    DAT-SPECT, is a well-established procedure for distinguishing drug-induced parkinsonism from Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the usefulness of blink reflex recovery cycle (BRrc) and of electromyographic parameters of resting tremor for the differentiation of patients with drug-induced parkinsonism with resting tremor (rDIP) from those with resting tremor due to PD. This was a cross-sectional study. In 16 patients with rDIP and 18 patients with PD we analysed electrophysiological parameters (amplitude, duration, burst and pattern) of resting tremor. BRrc at interstimulus intervals (ISI) of 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 750 msec was also analysed in patients with rDIP, patients with PD and healthy controls. All patients and controls underwent DAT-SPECT. Rest tremor amplitude was higher in PD patients than in rDIP patients (p tremor showed a synchronous pattern in all patients with rDIP, whereas it had an alternating pattern in all PD patients (p tremor can be considered a useful investigation for differentiating rDIP from PD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Petechiae: reproducible pattern of distribution and increased appearance after bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganse, Bergita; Limper, Ulrich; Bühlmeier, Judith; Rittweger, Jörn

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to acceleration can cause petechial hemorrhages, called G measles. Petechiae usually start to develop between 5 and 9 G with a high interindividual variance. Centrifuge training delays the onset to higher G levels. One might expect onset at lower G levels after bed rest; however, there is no evidence in the literature. A case of petechiae formation after bed rest is presented here. Orthostatic tolerance was tested using a tilt table and lower body negative pressure before and after bed rest in both campaigns of a 2 x 21-d bed rest study with 6 degrees head-down tilt. A 42-yr-old male Caucasian without any history of thrombosis, venous disease, hemorrhage, or petechiae, and with a negative thrombophilia screening, took part in the bed rest study as 1 out of 10 subjects. He was the only one to develop petechiae during the orthostatic tests after, but not before, bed rest in both campaigns. Petechiae were distributed throughout the lower legs and most pronounced at the shin in a stocking-like fashion, surprisingly reoccurring in an identical pattern of distribution. Petechiae appeared slowly over minutes during hyperemia. This case indicates that prolonged bed rest decreases the threshold for petechiae formation. A reproducible distribution pattern suggests that factors predisposing to petechiae formation keep their local distribution over time (possibly due to local vessel structures). Mechanisms of adaptation and interindividual variance are unclear. Findings are of clinical relevance as such cases might occur after prolonged bed rest in patients without need of expensive testing.

  8. Generation of activity-rest patterns by dual circadian pacemaker systems : a model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Domien G.M.; Daan, Serge

    1992-01-01

    Activity-rest patterns displayed by an animal under various circumstances are suggested to result from the combined influences of two virtually identical circadian pacemaker components. Increased output of each component proportionally increases the probability of activity of the animal. Such a dual

  9. Rest-activity circadian rhythms and bone mineral density in elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara S. Rogers

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: The data demonstrate modest associations between overall circadian rhythmicity of rest and activity (measured by pseudo F-statistic, as well as daytime to nighttime activity ratio (measured by alpha statistic, aBMD and ΔaBMD, but adjustment for covariates related to lifestyle, BMI and comorbidities attenuated most of these associations. These results suggest that RAR patterns are not independently associated with aBMD or four-year ΔaBMD at the total hip or femoral neck in older men, but additional research is needed.

  10. Patterns of resting state connectivity in human primary visual cortical areas: a 7T fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemaekers, Mathijs; Schellekens, Wouter; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; Petridou, Natalia; Kristo, Gert; Ramsey, Nick F.

    2014-01-01

    The nature and origin of fMRI resting state fluctuations and connectivity are still not fully known. More detailed knowledge on the relationship between resting state patterns and brain function may help to elucidate this matter. We therefore performed an in depth study of how resting state

  11. Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Chronic Pain Display Enhanced Alpha Power Density at Rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Francisco M; Queirós, Fernanda C; Montoya, Pedro; Miranda, José G V; Dubois-Mendes, Selena M; Sá, Katia N; Luz-Santos, Cleber; Baptista, Abrahão F

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain due to neuropathy or musculoskeletal injury frequently exhibit reduced alpha and increased theta power densities. However, little is known about electrical brain activity and chronic pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). For this purpose, we evaluated power densities of spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) band frequencies (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) in females with persistent pain due to RA. This was a cross-sectional study of 21 participants with RA and 21 healthy controls (mean age = 47.20; SD = 10.40). EEG was recorded at rest over 5 min with participant's eyes closed. Twenty electrodes were placed over five brain regions (frontal, central, parietal, temporal, and occipital). Significant differences were observed in depression and anxiety with higher scores in RA participants than healthy controls (p = 0.002). Participants with RA exhibited increased average absolute alpha power density in all brain regions when compared to controls [F (1.39) = 6.39, p = 0.016], as well as increased average relative alpha power density [F (1.39) = 5.82, p = 0.021] in all regions, except the frontal region, controlling for depression/anxiety. Absolute theta power density also increased in the frontal, central, and parietal regions for participants with RA when compared to controls [F (1, 39) = 4.51, p = 0.040], controlling for depression/anxiety. Differences were not exhibited on beta and delta absolute and relative power densities. The diffuse increased alpha may suggest a possible neurogenic mechanism for chronic pain in individuals with RA.

  12. Understanding and controlling the rest potential of carbon nanotube-based supercapacitors for energy density enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young-Eun; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Woong

    2018-03-01

    We present a novel method for enhancing the energy density of an electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC). Surface modification of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) electrodes significantly affects the rest potential (E0) of EDLCs; acid treatment and polyethyleneimine (PEI) coating of SWNTs shift E0 toward more positive and more negative values, respectively. Adjusting E0 towards the center of the electrolyte stability window can increase the cell voltage and hence the energy density. PEI coating on SWNTs increases the cell voltage from 0.8 V to 1.7 V in tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (TBAP)/tetrahydrofuran (THF) electrolyte, and from 2.5 V to 3.1 V in tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4)/3-cyanopropionic acid methyl ester (CPAME), respectively. Moreover, PEI-SWNT EDLCs exhibit excellent cycling stability (92% of capacitance retention over 10000 cycles). We attribute the shift in E0 to a change in the Fermi level of SWNTs owing to the surface charge modification. Injection of electrical charge into PEI-SWNTs consistently yielded similar trends and thus validated our hypothesis. Our results may help to push various electrolytes that have been overlooked so far to new frontiers for obtaining high energy-density supercapacitors.

  13. Mammographic breast density patterns among a group of women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Mammographic breast density is a measure of parenchymal breast patterns on film and in part a marker of cumulative exposure to oestrogen. The risk of breast cancer for women with increased density is up to six fold more than in women with less dense tissues. The pattern of mammographic breast density ...

  14. Visual Learning Induces Changes in Resting-State fMRI Multivariate Pattern of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Roberto; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Baldassarre, Antonello; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-07-08

    When measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state (R-fMRI), spontaneous activity is correlated between brain regions that are anatomically and functionally related. Learning and/or task performance can induce modulation of the resting synchronization between brain regions. Moreover, at the neuronal level spontaneous brain activity can replay patterns evoked by a previously presented stimulus. Here we test whether visual learning/task performance can induce a change in the patterns of coded information in R-fMRI signals consistent with a role of spontaneous activity in representing task-relevant information. Human subjects underwent R-fMRI before and after perceptual learning on a novel visual shape orientation discrimination task. Task-evoked fMRI patterns to trained versus novel stimuli were recorded after learning was completed, and before the second R-fMRI session. Using multivariate pattern analysis on task-evoked signals, we found patterns in several cortical regions, as follows: visual cortex, V3/V3A/V7; within the default mode network, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule; and, within the dorsal attention network, intraparietal sulcus, which discriminated between trained and novel visual stimuli. The accuracy of classification was strongly correlated with behavioral performance. Next, we measured multivariate patterns in R-fMRI signals before and after learning. The frequency and similarity of resting states representing the task/visual stimuli states increased post-learning in the same cortical regions recruited by the task. These findings support a representational role of spontaneous brain activity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359786-13$15.00/0.

  15. Frequency specific patterns of resting-state networks development from childhood to adolescence: A magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lu; Xiang, Jing

    2016-11-01

    The present study investigated frequency dependent developmental patterns of the brain resting-state networks from childhood to adolescence. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were recorded from 20 healthy subjects at resting-state with eyes-open. The resting-state networks (RSNs) was analyzed at source-level. Brain network organization was characterized by mean clustering coefficient and average path length. The correlations between brain network measures and subjects' age during development from childhood to adolescence were statistically analyzed in delta (1-4Hz), theta (4-8Hz), alpha (8-12Hz), and beta (12-30Hz) frequency bands. A significant positive correlation between functional connectivity with age was found in alpha and beta frequency bands. A significant negative correlation between average path lengths with age was found in beta frequency band. The results suggest that there are significant developmental changes of resting-state networks from childhood to adolescence, which matures from a lattice network to a small-world network. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential resting-state EEG patterns associated with comorbid depression in Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaewon; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Park, Su Mi; Jung, Hee Yeon; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2014-04-03

    Many researchers have reported a relationship between Internet addiction and depression. In the present study, we compared the resting-state quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) activity of treatment-seeking patients with comorbid Internet addiction and depression with those of treatment-seeking patients with Internet addiction without depression, and healthy controls to investigate the neurobiological markers that differentiate pure Internet addiction from Internet addiction with comorbid depression. Thirty-five patients diagnosed with Internet addiction and 34 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Patients with Internet addiction were divided into two groups according to the presence (N=18) or absence (N=17) of depression. Resting-state, eye-closed QEEG was recorded, and the absolute and relative power of the brain were analyzed. The Internet addiction group without depression had decreased absolute delta and beta powers in all brain regions, whereas the Internet addiction group with depression had increased relative theta and decreased relative alpha power in all regions. These neurophysiological changes were not related to clinical variables. The current findings reflect differential resting-state QEEG patterns between both groups of participants with Internet addiction and healthy controls and also suggest that decreased absolute delta and beta powers are neurobiological markers of Internet addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Resting-state brain activity in the motor cortex reflects task-induced activity: A multi-voxel pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Toshiki; Kurashige, Hiroki; Nambu, Isao; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Hanakawa, Takashi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Osu, Rieko

    2015-08-01

    It has been suggested that resting-state brain activity reflects task-induced brain activity patterns. In this study, we examined whether neural representations of specific movements can be observed in the resting-state brain activity patterns of motor areas. First, we defined two regions of interest (ROIs) to examine brain activity associated with two different behavioral tasks. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis with regularized logistic regression, we designed a decoder to detect voxel-level neural representations corresponding to the tasks in each ROI. Next, we applied the decoder to resting-state brain activity. We found that the decoder discriminated resting-state neural activity with accuracy comparable to that associated with task-induced neural activity. The distribution of learned weighted parameters for each ROI was similar for resting-state and task-induced activities. Large weighted parameters were mainly located on conjunctive areas. Moreover, the accuracy of detection was higher than that for a decoder whose weights were randomly shuffled, indicating that the resting-state brain activity includes multi-voxel patterns similar to the neural representation for the tasks. Therefore, these results suggest that the neural representation of resting-state brain activity is more finely organized and more complex than conventionally considered.

  18. Sonographic mammary gland density pattern in women in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... are known to affect the mammary gland density. This study aims to determine mammary gland density pattern in selected population of women in Sothern Nigeria using the American College of Radiology Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR-BI-RADS) lexicon and to promote the use of ultrasound as a breast cancer ...

  19. Replicability of time-varying connectivity patterns in large resting state fMRI samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrol, Anees; Damaraju, Eswar; Miller, Robyn L; Stephen, Julia M; Claus, Eric D; Mayer, Andrew R; Calhoun, Vince D

    2017-12-01

    The past few years have seen an emergence of approaches that leverage temporal changes in whole-brain patterns of functional connectivity (the chronnectome). In this chronnectome study, we investigate the replicability of the human brain's inter-regional coupling dynamics during rest by evaluating two different dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) analysis frameworks using 7 500 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) datasets. To quantify the extent to which the emergent functional connectivity (FC) patterns are reproducible, we characterize the temporal dynamics by deriving several summary measures across multiple large, independent age-matched samples. Reproducibility was demonstrated through the existence of basic connectivity patterns (FC states) amidst an ensemble of inter-regional connections. Furthermore, application of the methods to conservatively configured (statistically stationary, linear and Gaussian) surrogate datasets revealed that some of the studied state summary measures were indeed statistically significant and also suggested that this class of null model did not explain the fMRI data fully. This extensive testing of reproducibility of similarity statistics also suggests that the estimated FC states are robust against variation in data quality, analysis, grouping, and decomposition methods. We conclude that future investigations probing the functional and neurophysiological relevance of time-varying connectivity assume critical importance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Actigraphy-Derived Daily Rest-Activity Patterns and Body Mass Index in Community-Dwelling Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Quante, Mirja; Weng, Jia; Mitchell, Jonathan A; James, Peter; Marinac, Catherine R; Mariani, Sara; Redline, Susan; Kerr, Jacqueline; Godbole, Suneeta; Manteiga, Alicia; Wang, Daniel; Hipp, J Aaron

    2017-12-01

    To examine associations between 24-hour rest-activity patterns and body mass index (BMI) among community-dwelling US adults. Rest-activity patterns provide a field method to study exposures related to circadian rhythms. Adults (N = 578) wore an actigraph on their nondominant wrist for 7 days. Intradaily variability and interdaily stability (IS), M10 (most active 10-hours), L5 (least active 5-hours), and relative amplitude (RA) were derived using nonparametric rhythm analysis. Mesor, acrophase, and amplitude were calculated from log-transformed count data using the parametric cosinor approach. Participants were 80% female and mean (standard deviation) age was 52 (15) years. Participants with higher BMI had lower values for magnitude, RA, IS, total sleep time (TST), and sleep efficiency. In multivariable analyses, less robust 24-hour rest-activity patterns as represented by lower RA were consistently associated with higher BMI: comparing the bottom quintile (least robust) to the top quintile (most robust 24-hour rest-activity pattern) of RA, BMI was 3-kg/m2 higher (p = .02). Associations were similar in magnitude to an hour less of TST (1-kg/m2 higher BMI) or a 10% decrease in sleep efficiency (2-kg/m2 higher BMI), and independent of age, sex, race, education, and the duration of rest and/or activity. Lower RA, reflecting both higher night activity and lower daytime activity, was associated with higher BMI. Independent of the duration of rest or activity during the day or night, 24-hour rest, and activity patterns from actigraphy provide aggregated measures of activity that associate with BMI in community-dwelling adults. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Mammographic breast density patterns in asymptomatic mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Sanabria-Mondragón, Mónica; Hernández-Beltrán, Lourdes; López-Amador, Noé; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M

    2012-01-01

    Breast density (BD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate (χ(2)) and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170), fibroglandular 29% (87), heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17), and dense pattern 8.6% (26). Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117) and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183). Patterns of high breast density (BD) (dense + heterogeneously dense) were observed in 25.6% (30/117) of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183) of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300). Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300) of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300) of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%), and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%). Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns.

  2. Mammographic Breast Density Patterns in Asymptomatic Mexican Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Sanabria-Mondragón, Mónica; Hernández-Beltrán, Lourdes; López-Amador, Noé; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast density (BD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate (χ 2 ) and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170), fibroglandular 29% (87), heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17), and dense pattern 8.6% (26). Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117) and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183). Patterns of high breast density (BD) (dense + heterogeneously dense) were observed in 25.6% (30/117) of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183) of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300). Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300) of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300) of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%), and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%). Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns

  3. Mammographic Breast Density Patterns in Asymptomatic Mexican Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garciduenas, A.L.C.; Amador, N.; Mondragon, M.S.; Hernaan, L.; Cerda-Flores, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast density (BD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate (X 2 ) and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170), fibroglandular 29% (87), heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17), and dense pattern 8.6% (26). Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117) and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183). Patterns of high breast density (BD) (dense + heterogeneously dense) were observed in 25.6% (30/117) of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183) of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300). Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300) of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300) of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%), and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%). Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns

  4. Patterned magnetic thin films for ultra high density recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haast, M.A.M.

    This thesis describes the results of a research project in the field of high bit-density data-storage media. More specifically, the material aspects of the novel recording technique using patterned media have been studied. The aim of the work was the design, realization and characterization of such

  5. Resting-State Neurophysiological Activity Patterns in Young People with ASD, ADHD, and ASD + ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Tye, Charlotte; Ashwood, Karen L.; Azadi, Bahar; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick F.; McLoughlin, Grainne

    2018-01-01

    Altered power of resting-state neurophysiological activity has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which commonly co-occur. We compared resting-state neurophysiological power in children with ASD, ADHD, co-occurring ASD + ADHD, and typically developing controls. Children with ASD…

  6. Controlling growth density and patterning of single crystalline silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tung-Hao; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Fu-Ken; Chu, Tieh-Chi

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the usage of well-patterned Au nanoparticles (NPs) as a catalyst for one-dimensional growth of single crystalline Si nanowires (NWs) through the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. The study reports the fabrication of monolayer Au NPs through the self-assembly of Au NPs on a 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS)-modified silicon substrate. Results indicate that the spin coating time of Au NPs plays a crucial role in determining the density of Au NPs on the surface of the silicon substrate and the later catalysis growth of Si NWs. The experiments in this study employed optical lithography to pattern Au NPs, treating them as a catalyst for Si NW growth. The patterned Si NW structures easily produced and controlled Si NW density. This approach may be useful for further studies on single crystalline Si NW-based nanodevices and their properties.

  7. Evaluation of mammographic density patterns: reproducibility and concordance among scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido-Estepa Macarena

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased mammographic breast density is a moderate risk factor for breast cancer. Different scales have been proposed for classifying mammographic density. This study sought to assess intra-rater agreement for the most widely used scales (Wolfe, Tabár, BI-RADS and Boyd and compare them in terms of classifying mammograms as high- or low-density. Methods The study covered 3572 mammograms drawn from women included in the DDM-Spain study, carried-out in seven Spanish Autonomous Regions. Each mammogram was read by an expert radiologist and classified using the Wolfe, Tabár, BI-RADS and Boyd scales. In addition, 375 mammograms randomly selected were read a second time to estimate intra-rater agreement for each scale using the kappa statistic. Owing to the ordinal nature of the scales, weighted kappa was computed. The entire set of mammograms (3572 was used to calculate agreement among the different scales in classifying high/low-density patterns, with the kappa statistic being computed on a pair-wise basis. High density was defined as follows: percentage of dense tissue greater than 50% for the Boyd, "heterogeneously dense and extremely dense" categories for the BI-RADS, categories P2 and DY for the Wolfe, and categories IV and V for the Tabár scales. Results There was good agreement between the first and second reading, with weighted kappa values of 0.84 for Wolfe, 0.71 for Tabár, 0.90 for BI-RADS, and 0.92 for Boyd scale. Furthermore, there was substantial agreement among the different scales in classifying high- versus low-density patterns. Agreement was almost perfect between the quantitative scales, Boyd and BI-RADS, and good for those based on the observed pattern, i.e., Tabár and Wolfe (kappa 0.81. Agreement was lower when comparing a pattern-based (Wolfe or Tabár versus a quantitative-based (BI-RADS or Boyd scale. Moreover, the Wolfe and Tabár scales classified more mammograms in the high-risk group, 46.61 and 37

  8. Patterns of resting state connectivity in human primary visual cortical areas: a 7T fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raemaekers, Mathijs; Schellekens, Wouter; van Wezel, Richard J A; Petridou, Natalia; Kristo, Gert; Ramsey, Nick F

    2014-01-01

    The nature and origin of fMRI resting state fluctuations and connectivity are still not fully known. More detailed knowledge on the relationship between resting state patterns and brain function may help to elucidate this matter. We therefore performed an in depth study of how resting state fluctuations map to the well known architecture of the visual system. We investigated resting state connectivity at both a fine and large scale within and across visual areas V1, V2 and V3 in ten human subjects using a 7Tesla scanner. We found evidence for several coexisting and overlapping connectivity structures at different spatial scales. At the fine-scale level we found enhanced connectivity between the same topographic locations in the fieldmaps of V1, V2 and V3, enhanced connectivity to the contralateral functional homologue, and to a lesser extent enhanced connectivity between iso-eccentric locations within the same visual area. However, by far the largest proportion of the resting state fluctuations occurred within large-scale bilateral networks. These large-scale networks mapped to some extent onto the architecture of the visual system and could thereby obscure fine-scale connectivity. In fact, most of the fine-scale connectivity only became apparent after the large-scale network fluctuations were filtered from the timeseries. We conclude that fMRI resting state fluctuations in the visual cortex may in fact be a composite signal of different overlapping sources. Isolating the different sources could enhance correlations between BOLD and electrophysiological correlates of resting state activity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dispersal patterns of red foxes relative to population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Stephen H.; Sargeant, Alan B.

    1993-01-01

    Factors affecting red fox (Vulpes vulpes) dispersal patterns are poorly understood but warranted investigation because of the role of dispersal in rebuilding depleted populations and transmission of diseases. We examined dispersal patterns of red foxes in North Dakota based on recoveries of 363 of 854 foxes tagged as pups and relative to fox density. Foxes were recovered up to 8.6 years after tagging; 79% were trapped or shot. Straight-line distances between tagging and recovery locations ranged from 0 to 302 km. Mean recovery distances increased with age and were greater for males than females, but longest individual recovery distances were by females. Dispersal distances were not related to population density for males (P = 0.36) or females (P = 0.96). The proportion of males recovered that dispersed was inversely related to population density (r = -0.94; n = 5; P = 0.02), but not the proportion of females (r = -0.49; n = 5; P = 0.40). Dispersal directions were not uniform for either males (P = 0.003) or females (P = 0.006); littermates tended to disperse in similar directions (P = 0.09). A 4-lane interstate highway altered dispersal directions (P = 0.001). Dispersal is a strong innate behavior of red foxes (especially males) that results in many individuals of both sexes traveling far from natal areas. Because dispersal distance was unaffected by fox density, populations can be rebuilt and diseases transmitted long distances regardless of fox abundance.

  10. Correlation of BOLD Signal with Linear and Nonlinear Patterns of EEG in Resting State EEG-Informed fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Portnova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent EEG and fMRI acquisitions in resting state showed a correlation between EEG power in various bands and spontaneous BOLD fluctuations. However, there is a lack of data on how changes in the complexity of brain dynamics derived from EEG reflect variations in the BOLD signal. The purpose of our study was to correlate both spectral patterns, as linear features of EEG rhythms, and nonlinear EEG dynamic complexity with neuronal activity obtained by fMRI. We examined the relationships between EEG patterns and brain activation obtained by simultaneous EEG-fMRI during the resting state condition in 25 healthy right-handed adult volunteers. Using EEG-derived regressors, we demonstrated a substantial correlation of BOLD signal changes with linear and nonlinear features of EEG. We found the most significant positive correlation of fMRI signal with delta spectral power. Beta and alpha spectral features had no reliable effect on BOLD fluctuation. However, dynamic changes of alpha peak frequency exhibited a significant association with BOLD signal increase in right-hemisphere areas. Additionally, EEG dynamic complexity as measured by the HFD of the 2–20 Hz EEG frequency range significantly correlated with the activation of cortical and subcortical limbic system areas. Our results indicate that both spectral features of EEG frequency bands and nonlinear dynamic properties of spontaneous EEG are strongly associated with fluctuations of the BOLD signal during the resting state condition.

  11. Deriving frequency-dependent spatial patterns in MEG-derived resting state sensorimotor network: A novel multiband ICA technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Allison C; Luber, Bruce; Carver, Frederick W; Robinson, Stephen E; Coppola, Richard; Zarate, Carlos A

    2017-02-01

    Recently, independent components analysis (ICA) of resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings has revealed resting state networks (RSNs) that exhibit fluctuations of band-limited power envelopes. Most of the work in this area has concentrated on networks derived from the power envelope of beta bandpass-filtered data. Although research has demonstrated that most networks show maximal correlation in the beta band, little is known about how spatial patterns of correlations may differ across frequencies. This study analyzed MEG data from 18 healthy subjects to determine if the spatial patterns of RSNs differed between delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma, and high gamma frequency bands. To validate our method, we focused on the sensorimotor network, which is well-characterized and robust in both MEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting state data. Synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) was used to project signals into anatomical source space separately in each band before a group temporal ICA was performed over all subjects and bands. This method preserved the inherent correlation structure of the data and reflected connectivity derived from single-band ICA, but also allowed identification of spatial spectral modes that are consistent across subjects. The implications of these results on our understanding of sensorimotor function are discussed, as are the potential applications of this technique. Hum Brain Mapp 38:779-791, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Schizophrenia patients and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome adolescents at risk express the same deviant patterns of resting state EEG microstates: A candidate endophenotype of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miralena I. Tomescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder and many of the factors contributing to its pathogenesis are poorly understood. In addition, identifying reliable neurophysiological markers would improve diagnosis and early identification of this disease. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS is one major risk factor for schizophrenia. Here, we show further evidence that deviant temporal dynamics of EEG microstates are a potential neurophysiological marker by showing that the resting state patterns of 22q11DS are similar to those found in schizophrenia patients. The EEG microstates are recurrent topographic distributions of the ongoing scalp potential fields with temporal stability of around 80 ms that are mapping the fast reconfiguration of resting state networks. Five minutes of high-density EEG recordings was analysed from 27 adult chronic schizophrenia patients, 27 adult controls, 30 adolescents with 22q11DS, and 28 adolescent controls. In both patient groups we found increased class C, but decreased class D presence and high transition probabilities towards the class C microstates. Moreover, these aberrant temporal dynamics in the two patient groups were also expressed by perturbations of the long-range dependency of the EEG microstates. These findings point to a deficient function of the salience and attention resting state networks in schizophrenia and 22q11DS as class C and class D microstates were previously associated with these networks, respectively. These findings elucidate similarities between individuals at risk and schizophrenia patients and support the notion that abnormal temporal patterns of EEG microstates might constitute a marker for developing schizophrenia.

  13. Multivariate pattern analysis strategies in detection of remitted major depressive disorder using resting state functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runa Bhaumik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding abnormal resting-state functional connectivity of distributed brain networks may aid in probing and targeting mechanisms involved in major depressive disorder (MDD. To date, few studies have used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI to attempt to discriminate individuals with MDD from individuals without MDD, and to our knowledge no investigations have examined a remitted (r population. In this study, we examined the efficiency of support vector machine (SVM classifier to successfully discriminate rMDD individuals from healthy controls (HCs in a narrow early-adult age range. We empirically evaluated four feature selection methods including multivariate Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO and Elastic Net feature selection algorithms. Our results showed that SVM classification with Elastic Net feature selection achieved the highest classification accuracy of 76.1% (sensitivity of 81.5% and specificity of 68.9% by leave-one-out cross-validation across subjects from a dataset consisting of 38 rMDD individuals and 29 healthy controls. The highest discriminating functional connections were between the left amygdala, left posterior cingulate cortex, bilateral dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex, and right ventral striatum. These appear to be key nodes in the etiopathophysiology of MDD, within and between default mode, salience and cognitive control networks. This technique demonstrates early promise for using rs-fMRI connectivity as a putative neurobiological marker capable of distinguishing between individuals with and without rMDD. These methods may be extended to periods of risk prior to illness onset, thereby allowing for earlier diagnosis, prevention, and intervention.

  14. Multivariate pattern analysis strategies in detection of remitted major depressive disorder using resting state functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Runa; Jenkins, Lisanne M; Gowins, Jennifer R; Jacobs, Rachel H; Barba, Alyssa; Bhaumik, Dulal K; Langenecker, Scott A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding abnormal resting-state functional connectivity of distributed brain networks may aid in probing and targeting mechanisms involved in major depressive disorder (MDD). To date, few studies have used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to attempt to discriminate individuals with MDD from individuals without MDD, and to our knowledge no investigations have examined a remitted (r) population. In this study, we examined the efficiency of support vector machine (SVM) classifier to successfully discriminate rMDD individuals from healthy controls (HCs) in a narrow early-adult age range. We empirically evaluated four feature selection methods including multivariate Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) and Elastic Net feature selection algorithms. Our results showed that SVM classification with Elastic Net feature selection achieved the highest classification accuracy of 76.1% (sensitivity of 81.5% and specificity of 68.9%) by leave-one-out cross-validation across subjects from a dataset consisting of 38 rMDD individuals and 29 healthy controls. The highest discriminating functional connections were between the left amygdala, left posterior cingulate cortex, bilateral dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex, and right ventral striatum. These appear to be key nodes in the etiopathophysiology of MDD, within and between default mode, salience and cognitive control networks. This technique demonstrates early promise for using rs-fMRI connectivity as a putative neurobiological marker capable of distinguishing between individuals with and without rMDD. These methods may be extended to periods of risk prior to illness onset, thereby allowing for earlier diagnosis, prevention, and intervention.

  15. Differential Resting-State Connectivity Patterns of the Right Anterior and Posterior Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortices (DLPFC in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Chechko

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In schizophrenia (SCZ, dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC has been linked to the deficits in executive functions and attention. It has been suggested that, instead of considering the right DLPFC as a cohesive functional entity, it can be divided into two parts (anterior and posterior based on its whole-brain connectivity patterns. Given these two subregions' differential association with cognitive processes, we investigated the functional connectivity (FC profile of both subregions through resting-state data to determine whether they are differentially affected in SCZ. Resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans were obtained from 120 patients and 172 healthy controls (HC at 6 different MRI sites. The results showed differential FC patterns for the anterior and posterior parts of the right executive control-related DLPFC in SCZ with the parietal, the temporal and the cerebellar regions, along with a convergent reduction of connectivity with the striatum and the occipital cortex. An increased psychopathology level was linked to a higher difference in posterior vs. anterior FC for the left IFG/anterior insula, regions involved in higher-order cognitive processes. In sum, the current analysis demonstrated that even between two neighboring clusters connectivity could be differentially disrupted in SCZ. Lacking the necessary anatomical specificity, such notions may in fact be detrimental to a proper understanding of SCZ pathophysiology.

  16. Histomorphological patterns in osseous rests exposed at fire; Patrones histomorfologicos en restos oseos expuestos al fuego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, C.; Tiesler, V. [Facultad de Ciencias Antropologicas, UADY, 97000 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Oliva, A.I.; Quintana, P. [CINVESTAV, IPN Unidad Merida, Depto. Fisica Aplicada, 97310 Merida (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Histomorphology as part of morphological research studies bony structure on the tissue level. Its methods are applied in this investigation to evaluate histomorphological impact patterns in heat-exposed bony material, particularly color changes, fissure patterns, volumetric reduction, and changes in the size of Haversian canals. These variables were evaluated in exposed thin sections of porcine long bones, obtained during two experimental series. The first one was conducted under stable thermal conditions in a furnace by measuring heat impact in stepped time (I to S hours) and temperature intervals (200 to 800 C). During a second experimental phase, bony samples were exposed to direct fire in defined time and heat intervals. The treated specimens were then sectioned and microscopically scrutinized. The results presented here were designed to offer new analytical, measurable standards in the investigation of forms of heat exposition of the human body, applicable in forensics and the study of ancient Maya posthumous body treatments. (Author)

  17. Functional connectivity pattern during rest within the episodic memory network in association with episodic memory performance in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Reinke, Britta; Matura, Silke; Prvulovic, David; Linden, David E J; van de Ven, Vincent

    2015-02-28

    In this study, we sought to examine the intrinsic functional organization of the episodic memory network during rest in bipolar disorder (BD). The previous work suggests that deficits in intrinsic functional connectivity may account for impaired memory performance. We hypothesized that regions involved in episodic memory processing would reveal aberrant functional connectivity in patients with bipolar disorder. We examined 21 patients with BD and 21 healthy matched controls who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a resting condition. We did a seed-based functional connectivity analysis (SBA), using the regions of the episodic memory network that showed a significantly different activation pattern during task-related fMRI as seeds. The functional connectivity scores (FC) were further correlated with episodic memory task performance. Our results revealed decreased FC scores within frontal areas and between frontal and temporal/hippocampal/limbic regions in BD patients in comparison with controls. We observed higher FC in BD patients compared with controls between frontal and limbic regions. The decrease in fronto-frontal functional connectivity in BD patients showed a significant positive association with episodic memory performance. The association between task-independent dysfunctional frontal-limbic FC and episodic memory performance may be relevant for current pathophysiological models of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. FDG F18/Rest Tl 201 SPECT patterns in recent myocardial infarction. Predictive value for regional function recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massardo, Teresa [Universidad de Chile, Hospital Clinico. Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Gonzalez, Patricio; Coll, Claudia; Yovanovich, Jorge; Jofre, M Josefina; Humeres, Pamela; Sierralta, Paulina; Chamorro, Hernan; Ramirez, Alfredo; Kunstmann, Sonia; Lopez, Hector; Aramburu, Ivonne; Bru, Solange [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Hospital Clinico. Centros de Medicina Nuclear e Cardiovascular; Clinica Santa Maria, Santiago [Chile

    2003-04-01

    Background: detecting viability is important after recent myocardial infarction (MI). SPECT FDG/Tl flow-metabolism patterns for predicting functional recovery were analyzed in this setting. Method: forty-one patients were studied (56+-12 years; 80% males) with Tl 201 at rest and FDG F 18 SPECT at a mean of 8.9 days post MI (range:1-24). All had baseline and 3 month follow-up echocardiography (Echo) and initial coronary angiography. They were submitted to primary PTCA in 12 cases, late PTCA in 15 and bypass surgery in 10 and thrombolysis was performed in 4 patients as only procedure. A total of 345 culprit artery territory segments were interpreted by 3 nuclear independent observers. Analysis included segments with or without abnormal motion. Results: FDG/Tl 201 on patient basis, had: sensitivity 91%; specificity 56%; positive predictive value 88 %; negative predictive value (NPV) 63% and accuracy 83%. The analysis of segments with abnormal contractility showed values of 67%, 69%, 44%, 85% and 68%, respectively. Reverse mismatch with FDG/Tl appears to predict viability similarly to classical mismatch; severe or moderate match was highly associated with no functional recovery (NPV 85%). Conclusion: flow-perfusion patterns are variable in recent MI. FDG/Tl 201 SPECT has acceptable accuracy for predicting functional recovery and excellent NPV to further exclude viability (author)

  19. FDG F18/Rest Tl 201 SPECT patterns in recent myocardial infarction. Predictive value for regional function recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massardo, Teresa; Gonzalez, Patricio; Coll, Claudia; Yovanovich, Jorge; Jofre, M. Josefina; Humeres, Pamela; Sierralta, Paulina; Chamorro, Hernan; Ramirez, Alfredo; Kunstmann, Sonia; Lopez, Hector; Aramburu, Ivonne; Bru, Solange; Clinica Santa Maria, Santiago

    2003-01-01

    Background: detecting viability is important after recent myocardial infarction (MI). SPECT FDG/Tl flow-metabolism patterns for predicting functional recovery were analyzed in this setting. Method: forty-one patients were studied (56+-12 years; 80% males) with Tl 201 at rest and FDG F 18 SPECT at a mean of 8.9 days post MI (range:1-24). All had baseline and 3 month follow-up echocardiography (Echo) and initial coronary angiography. They were submitted to primary PTCA in 12 cases, late PTCA in 15 and bypass surgery in 10 and thrombolysis was performed in 4 patients as only procedure. A total of 345 culprit artery territory segments were interpreted by 3 nuclear independent observers. Analysis included segments with or without abnormal motion. Results: FDG/Tl 201 on patient basis, had: sensitivity 91%; specificity 56%; positive predictive value 88 %; negative predictive value (NPV) 63% and accuracy 83%. The analysis of segments with abnormal contractility showed values of 67%, 69%, 44%, 85% and 68%, respectively. Reverse mismatch with FDG/Tl appears to predict viability similarly to classical mismatch; severe or moderate match was highly associated with no functional recovery (NPV 85%). Conclusion: flow-perfusion patterns are variable in recent MI. FDG/Tl 201 SPECT has acceptable accuracy for predicting functional recovery and excellent NPV to further exclude viability (author)

  20. [Dietary patterns in college freshmen and its relation to bone mineral density].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sufang; Mu, Min; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xiaoqin; Shu, Long; Li, Qingyan; Li, Yingchun

    2012-07-01

    In order to investigate the bone density of freshmen, and to analyze the association between dietary pattern and bone mineral density (BMD). A questionnaire survey on the situation of dietary pattern was conducted in 1414 freshmen. Effective dietary survey questionnaires and bone mineral density measurements were completed for 1319 participants. Bone mass was assessed by using an Ultrasound Bone Densitometer on the right calcaneus (CM-200, Furuno Electric Corporation, Japan), and the speed of sound (SOS, m/s) was used as an indicator for bone density. Factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to identify the dietary patterns. After adjusting for confounders, covariance with Bonferroni's was used to further examine the associations between dietary patterns and bone mineral density (BMD). (1) Four major dietary patterns were noticed. Western food pattern (high consumption in hamburger, fried food, nuts, biscuit, chocolate, cola, coffee, sugars). Animal protein pattern (high consumption in pork, mutton, beef, poultry meat, animal liver). Calcium pattern (high consumption in fresh fruits, eggs, fish and shrimps, kelp laver and sea fish, milk and dairy products, beans and bean products). Traditional Chinese pattern (high consumption in rice and grain, fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, pork). (2) No association was observed between the western food pattern and bone mineral density. High animal protein pattern showed lower SOS value compared with low animal protein pattern. High calcium pattern showed higher SOS value compared with low calcium pattern. High traditional Chinese pattern showed higher SOS value compared with the low traditional Chinese pattern. Dietary patterns are closely related with bone mineral density (BMD) of freshmen.

  1. Directional patterns of cross frequency phase and amplitude coupling within the resting state mimic patterns of fMRI functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kurt E.; Wander, Jeremiah D.; Ko, Andrew L.; Casimo, Kaitlyn; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Darvas, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging investigations into the brain's resting state interactions have yielded a wealth of insight into the intrinsic and dynamic neural architecture supporting cognition and behavior. Electrophysiological studies however have highlighted the fact that synchrony across large-scale cortical systems is composed of spontaneous interactions occurring at timescales beyond the traditional resolution of fMRI, a feature that limits the capacity of fMRI to draw inference on the true directional relationship between network nodes. To approach the question of directionality in resting state signals, we recorded resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI) and electrocorticography (ECoG) from four human subjects undergoing invasive epilepsy monitoring. Using a seed-point based approach, we employed phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) and biPhase Locking Values (bPLV), two measures of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) to explore both outgoing and incoming connections between the seed and all non-seed, site electrodes. We observed robust PAC between a wide range of low-frequency phase and high frequency amplitude estimates. However, significant bPLV, a CFC measure of phase-phase synchrony, was only observed at specific narrow low and high frequency bandwidths. Furthermore, the spatial patterns of outgoing PAC connectivity were most closely associated with the rsfMRI connectivity maps. Our results support the hypothesis that PAC is relatively ubiquitous phenomenon serving as a mechanism for coordinating high-frequency amplitudes across distant neuronal assemblies even in absence of overt task structure. Additionally, we demonstrate that the spatial distribution of a seed-point rsfMRI sensorimotor network is strikingly similar to specific patterns of directional PAC. Specifically, the high frequency activities of distal patches of cortex owning membership in a rsfMRI sensorimotor network were most likely to be entrained to the phase of a low frequency rhythm engendered from the

  2. Breast density pattern characterization by histogram features and texture descriptors

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro,Pedro Cunha; Franco,Marcelo Lemos Nunes; Thomaz,Ricardo de Lima; Patrocinio,Ana Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is the first leading cause of death for women in Brazil as well as in most countries in the world. Due to the relation between the breast density and the risk of breast cancer, in medical practice, the breast density classification is merely visual and dependent on professional experience, making this task very subjective. The purpose of this paper is to investigate image features based on histograms and Haralick texture descriptors so as to separate mammo...

  3. Driving down defect density in composite EUV patterning film stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Luciana; Petrillo, Karen; De Silva, Anuja; Arnold, John; Felix, Nelson; Johnson, Richard; Murray, Cody; Hubbard, Alex; Durrant, Danielle; Hontake, Koichi; Huli, Lior; Lemley, Corey; Hetzer, Dave; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Matsunaga, Koichi

    2017-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology is one of the leading candidates for enabling the next generation devices, for 7nm node and beyond. As the technology matures, further improvement is required in the area of blanket film defectivity, pattern defectivity, CD uniformity, and LWR/LER. As EUV pitch scaling approaches sub 20 nm, new techniques and methods must be developed to reduce the overall defectivity, mitigate pattern collapse and eliminate film related defect. IBM Corporation and Tokyo Electron Limited (TELTM) are continuously collaborating to develop manufacturing quality processes for EUVL. In this paper, we review key defectivity learning required to enable 7nm node and beyond technology. We will describe ongoing progress in addressing these challenges through track-based processes (coating, developer, baking), highlighting the limitations of common defect detection strategies and outlining methodologies necessary for accurate characterization and mitigation of blanket defectivity in EUV patterning stacks. We will further discuss defects related to pattern collapse and thinning of underlayer films.

  4. Breast density pattern characterization by histogram features and texture descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cunha Carneiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is the first leading cause of death for women in Brazil as well as in most countries in the world. Due to the relation between the breast density and the risk of breast cancer, in medical practice, the breast density classification is merely visual and dependent on professional experience, making this task very subjective. The purpose of this paper is to investigate image features based on histograms and Haralick texture descriptors so as to separate mammographic images into categories of breast density using an Artificial Neural Network. Methods We used 307 mammographic images from the INbreast digital database, extracting histogram features and texture descriptors of all mammograms and selecting them with the K-means technique. Then, these groups of selected features were used as inputs of an Artificial Neural Network to classify the images automatically into the four categories reported by radiologists. Results An average accuracy of 92.9% was obtained in a few tests using only some of the Haralick texture descriptors. Also, the accuracy rate increased to 98.95% when texture descriptors were mixed with some features based on a histogram. Conclusion Texture descriptors have proven to be better than gray levels features at differentiating the breast densities in mammographic images. From this paper, it was possible to automate the feature selection and the classification with acceptable error rates since the extraction of the features is suitable to the characteristics of the images involving the problem.

  5. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Pdietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  6. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (P<0.05). The ratio of dietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  7. The study on the effect of pattern density distribution on the STI CMP process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sub, Yoon Myung; Hian, Bernard Yap Tzen; Fong, Lee It; Anak, Philip Menit; Minhar, Ariffin Bin; Wui, Tan Kim; Kim, Melvin Phua Twang; Jin, Looi Hui; Min, Foo Thai

    2017-08-01

    The effects of pattern density on CMP characteristics were investigated using specially designed wafer for the characterization of pattern-dependencies in STI CMP [1]. The purpose of this study is to investigate the planarization behavior based on a direct STI CMP used in cerium (CeO2) based slurry system in terms of pattern density variation. The minimal design rule (DR) of 180nm generation technology node was adopted for the mask layout. The mask was successfully applied for evaluation of a cerium (CeO2) abrasive based direct STI CMP process. In this study, we described a planarization behavior of the loading-effects of pattern density variation which were characterized with layout pattern density and pitch variations using masks mentioned above. Furthermore, the characterizing pattern dependent on the variations of the dimensions and spacing features, in thickness remaining after CMP, were analyzed and evaluated. The goal was to establish a concept of library method which will be used to generate design rules reducing the probability of CMP-related failures. Details of the characterization were measured in various layouts showing different pattern density ranges and the effects of pattern density on STI CMP has been discussed in this paper.

  8. Color Mixing Correction for Post-printed Patterns on Colored Background Using Modified Particle Density Model

    OpenAIRE

    Suwa , Misako; Fujimoto , Katsuhito

    2006-01-01

    http://www.suvisoft.com; Color mixing occurs between background and foreground colors when a pattern is post-printed on a colored area because ink is not completely opaque. This paper proposes a new method for the correction of color mixing in line pattern such as characters and stamps, by using a modified particle density model. Parameters of the color correction can be calculated from two sets of foreground and background colors. By employing this method, the colors of foreground patterns o...

  9. OCCIPITAL SOURCES OF RESTING STATE ALPHA RHYTHMS ARE RELATED TO LOCAL GRAY MATTER DENSITY IN SUBJECTS WITH AMNESIC MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT AND ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Babiloni; Claudio, Del Percio; Marina, Boccardi; Roberta, Lizio; Susanna, Lopez; Filippo, Carducci; Nicola, Marzano; Andrea, Soricelli; Raffaele, Ferri; Ivano, Triggiani Antonio; Annapaola, Prestia; Serenella, Salinari; Rasser Paul, E; Erol, Basar; Francesco, Famà; Flavio, Nobili; Görsev, Yener; Durusu, Emek-Savaş Derya; Gesualdo, Loreto; Ciro, Mundi; Thompson Paul, M; Rossini Paolo, M.; Frisoni Giovanni, B

    2014-01-01

    Occipital sources of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha rhythms are abnormal, at the group level, in patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we evaluated the hypothesis that amplitude of these occipital sources is related to neurodegeneration in occipital lobe as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Resting-state eyes-closed EEG rhythms were recorded in 45 healthy elderly (Nold), 100 MCI, and 90 AD subjects. Neurodegeneration of occipital lobe was indexed by weighted averages of gray matter density (GMD), estimated from structural MRIs. EEG rhythms of interest were alpha 1 (8–10.5 Hz) and alpha 2 (10.5–13 Hz). EEG cortical sources were estimated by low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Results showed a positive correlation between occipital GMD and amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources in Nold, MCI and AD subjects as a whole group (r=0.3, p=0.000004, N=235). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources and cognitive status as revealed by Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) score across all subjects (r=0.38, p=0.000001, N=235). Finally, amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources allowed a moderate classification of individual Nold and AD subjects (sensitivity: 87.8%; specificity: 66.7%; area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve: 0.81). These results suggest that the amplitude of occipital sources of resting state alpha rhythms is related to AD neurodegeneration in occipital lobe along pathological aging. PMID:25442118

  10. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Pdiet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  11. Resting-State Neurophysiological Activity Patterns in Young People with ASD, ADHD, and ASD + ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Tye, Charlotte; Ashwood, Karen L; Azadi, Bahar; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick F; McLoughlin, Grainne

    2018-01-01

    Altered power of resting-state neurophysiological activity has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which commonly co-occur. We compared resting-state neurophysiological power in children with ASD, ADHD, co-occurring ASD + ADHD, and typically developing controls. Children with ASD (ASD/ASD + ADHD) showed reduced theta and alpha power compared to children without ASD (controls/ADHD). Children with ADHD (ADHD/ASD + ADHD) displayed decreased delta power compared to children without ADHD (ASD/controls). Children with ASD + ADHD largely presented as an additive co-occurrence with deficits of both disorders, although reduced theta compared to ADHD-only and reduced delta compared to controls suggested some unique markers. Identifying specific neurophysiological profiles in ASD and ADHD may assist in characterising more homogeneous subgroups to inform treatment approaches and aetiological investigations.

  12. Nutritional Status and Daytime Pattern of Protein Intake on Match, Post-Match, Rest and Training Days in Senior Professional and Youth Elite Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettonviel A, E O; Brinkmans N, Y J; Russcher, Kris; Wardenaar, Floris C; Witard, Oliver C

    2016-06-01

    The nutritional status of elite soccer players across match, postmatch, training and rest days has not been defined. Recent evidence suggests the pattern of dietary protein intake impacts the daytime turnover of muscle proteins and, as such, influences muscle recovery. We assessed the nutritional status and daytime pattern of protein intake in senior professional and elite youth soccer players and compared findings against published recommendations. Fourteen senior professional (SP) and 15 youth elite (YP) soccer players from the Dutch premier division completed nutritional assessments using a 24-hr web-based recall method. Recall days consisted of a match, postmatch, rest, and training day. Daily energy intake over the 4-day period was similar between SP (2988 ± 583 kcal/day) and YP (2938 ± 465 kcal/day; p = .800). Carbohydrate intake over the combined 4-day period was lower in SP (4.7 ± 0.7 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) vs. YP (6.0 ± 1.5 g·kg-1 BM·day-1, p = .006) and SP failed to meet recommended carbohydrate intakes on match and training days. Conversely, recommended protein intakes were met for SP (1.9 ± 0.3 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) and YP (1.7 ± 0.4 g·kg-1 BM·day-1), with no differences between groups (p = .286). Accordingly, both groups met or exceeded recommended daily protein intakes on individual match, postmatch, rest and training days. A similar "balanced" daytime pattern of protein intake was observed in SP and YP. To conclude, SP increased protein intake on match and training days to a greater extent than YP, however at the expense of carbohydrate intake. The daytime distribution of protein intake for YP and SP aligned with current recommendations of a balanced protein meal pattern.

  13. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  14. Recumbence Behavior in Zoo Elephants: Determination of Patterns and Frequency of Recumbent Rest and Associated Environmental and Social Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Holdgate

    Full Text Available Resting behaviors are an essential component of animal welfare but have received little attention in zoological research. African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus rest includes recumbent postures, but no large-scale investigation of African and Asian zoo elephant recumbence has been previously conducted. We used anklets equipped with accelerometers to measure recumbence in 72 adult female African (n = 44 and Asian (n = 28 elephants housed in 40 North American zoos. We collected 344 days of data and determined associations between recumbence and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. African elephants were recumbent less (2.1 hours/day, S.D. = 1.1 than Asian elephants (3.2 hours/day, S.D. = 1.5; P < 0.001. Nearly one-third of elephants were non-recumbent on at least one night, suggesting this is a common behavior. Multi-variable regression models for each species showed that substrate, space, and social variables had the strongest associations with recumbence. In the African model, elephants who spent any amount of time housed on all-hard substrate were recumbent 0.6 hours less per day than those who were never on all-hard substrate, and elephants who experienced an additional acre of outdoor space at night increased their recumbence by 0.48 hours per day. In the Asian model, elephants who spent any amount of time housed on all-soft substrate were recumbent 1.1 hours more per day more than those who were never on all-soft substrate, and elephants who spent any amount of time housed alone were recumbent 0.77 hours more per day than elephants who were never housed alone. Our results draw attention to the significant interspecific difference in the amount of recumbent rest and in the factors affecting recumbence; however, in both species, the influence of flooring substrate is notably important to recumbent rest, and by extension, zoo elephant welfare.

  15. From swing to cane: Sex differences of EEG resting-state temporal patterns during maturation and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Tomescu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available While many insights on brain development and aging have been gained by studying resting-state networks with fMRI, relating these changes to cognitive functions is limited by the temporal resolution of fMRI. In order to better grasp short-lasting and dynamically changing mental activities, an increasing number of studies utilize EEG to define resting-state networks, thereby often using the concept of EEG microstates. These are brief (around 100 ms periods of stable scalp potential fields that are influenced by cognitive states and are sensitive to neuropsychiatric diseases. Despite the rising popularity of the EEG microstate approach, information about age changes is sparse and nothing is known about sex differences. Here we investigated age and sex related changes of the temporal dynamics of EEG microstates in 179 healthy individuals (6–87 years old, 90 females, 204-channel EEG. We show strong sex-specific changes in microstate dynamics during adolescence as well as at older age. In addition, males and females differ in the duration and occurrence of specific microstates. These results are of relevance for the comparison of studies in populations of different age and sex and for the understanding of the changes in neuropsychiatric diseases.

  16. Density and white shrimp growth pattern (penaeus merguiensis) in kampung nipah waters of perbaungan north sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalia Silaen, Sri; Budi Mulya, Miswar

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the density and pattern of growth of white shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis)of the village Nipah waters. The data collection was conducted by sampling using nets and fishing gear “Langge” (a tool) to determine the density of the three observation stations. The result showed that the distribution of white shrimp in the waters of the estuary and surrounding degraded over the past ten years. The highest density at station II is 0.56 and 5/m2 and at least at the third station as much as 0.42 and 6/m2 The correlation between the density of shrimp with depth as well as the fraction of the base substrate showed that only the depth of the waters who has any significant correlation with the density of shrimp, although the closeness of the relationship is small.

  17. The role of resting duration in the kinematic pattern of two consecutive bench press sets to failure in elite sprint kayakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, D; Herrero, J A; Abadía, O; García-Isla, F J; Ualí, I; Izquierdo, M

    2008-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of rest period duration (RP) on the time course of the acceleration portion (AP) and mean velocity of the concentric phase across two bench press sets to failure with a submaximal load (60% of the 1RM) using different RP. Ten elite junior kayakers performed, on four different days, two consecutive bench press sets to failure, allowing randomly 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-min RP between sets. AP reached a maximal value of 66% of the concentric movement time. This maximal AP was observed in repetition number 2 or 3, and then AP declined during the set, with a significant decrease when the number of repetitions was over 80% of the total number of repetitions performed. AP and lifting velocity patterns of the concentric phase were not altered during a second set to failure, regardless of RP. However, when velocity was expressed in absolute terms, 1-min RP was insufficient to maintain the average lifting velocity during the second set, compared to the first one. These results may be of use in selecting number of repetitions and resting duration in order to ensure optimal maintenance of the accelerative portion of concentric movement time with different resting-period durations.

  18. Evidence of a dissociation pattern in resting-state default mode network connectivity in first-episode, treatment-naive major depression patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xueling; Wang, Xiang; Xiao, Jin; Liao, Jian; Zhong, Mingtian; Wang, Wei; Yao, Shuqiao

    2012-04-01

    Imaging studies have shown that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with altered activity patterns of the default mode network (DMN). However, the neural correlates of the resting-state DMN and MDD-related pathopsychological characteristics, such as depressive rumination and overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) phenomena, still remain unclear. Using independent component analysis, we analyzed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from 35 first-episode, treatment-naive young adults with MDD and from 35 matched healthy control subjects. Patients with MDD exhibited higher levels of rumination and OGM than did the control subjects. We observed increased functional connectivity in the anterior medial cortex regions (especially the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) and decreased functional connectivity in the posterior medial cortex regions (especially the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus) in MDD patients compared with control subjects. In the depressed group, the increased functional connectivity in the anterior medial cortex correlated positively with rumination score, while the decreased functional connectivity in the posterior medial cortex correlated negatively with OGM score. We report dissociation between anterior and posterior functional connectivity in resting-state DMNs of first-episode, treatment-naive young adults with MDD. Increased functional connectivity in anterior medial regions of the resting-state DMN was associated with rumination, whereas decreased functional connectivity in posterior medial regions was associated with OGM. These results provide new evidence for the importance of the DMN in the pathophysiology of MDD and suggest that abnormal DMN activity may be an MDD trait. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapidity-density patterns for events in a stochastic-field multiparticle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.C.

    1976-02-01

    Typical-event rapidity distributions expected at energies of a few TeV are calculated in a stochastic-field multiparticle production theory. Short range rapidity correlations with characteristics of a Van der Waals fluid give rise to ''domain'' patterns in rapidity density, which have the appearance of clusters separated by rapidity gaps

  20. Density of founder cells affects spatial pattern formation and cooperation in Bacillus subtilis biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Weissing, Franz J; Kuipers, Oscar P; Kovács, Akos T

    2014-10-01

    In nature, most bacteria live in surface-attached sedentary communities known as biofilms. Biofilms are often studied with respect to bacterial interactions. Many cells inhabiting biofilms are assumed to express 'cooperative traits', like the secretion of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS). These traits can enhance biofilm-related properties, such as stress resilience or colony expansion, while being costly to the cells that express them. In well-mixed populations cooperation is difficult to achieve, because non-cooperative individuals can reap the benefits of cooperation without having to pay the costs. The physical process of biofilm growth can, however, result in the spatial segregation of cooperative from non-cooperative individuals. This segregation can prevent non-cooperative cells from exploiting cooperative neighbors. Here we examine the interaction between spatial pattern formation and cooperation in Bacillus subtilis biofilms. We show, experimentally and by mathematical modeling, that the density of cells at the onset of biofilm growth affects pattern formation during biofilm growth. At low initial cell densities, co-cultured strains strongly segregate in space, whereas spatial segregation does not occur at high initial cell densities. As a consequence, EPS-producing cells have a competitive advantage over non-cooperative mutants when biofilms are initiated at a low density of founder cells, whereas EPS-deficient cells have an advantage at high cell densities. These results underline the importance of spatial pattern formation for competition among bacterial strains and the evolution of microbial cooperation.

  1. Evaluating the impact of a wide range of vegetation densities on river channel pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Ian; Roucou, Ron

    2016-04-01

    Braided rivers are very dynamic systems which have complex controls over their planform and flow dynamics. Vegetation is one variable which influences channel geometry and pattern, through its effect on local flow hydraulics and the process continuum of sediment erosion-transport-deposition. Furthermore, where in the braided floodplain stable vegetation develops depends on the temporal sequencing of the river discharge i.e. floods. Understanding the effect of vegetation in these highly dynamic systems has multiple consequences for human activity and floodplain management. This paper focusses on the specific role of vegetation density in controlling braided river form and processes. Previous research in this field has been contradictory; with Gran and Paola (2001) finding that increasing vegetation density decreased the number of active channels. In contrast, Coulthard (2005] observed that as vegetation become denser there was an increase in the number of channels. This was hypothesized to be caused by flow separation around vegetation and the development of bars immediately downstream of the plant. This paper reports the results from a set of experiments in a 4m by 1m flume, where discharge, slope and sediment size were kept constant. Artificial grass was used to represent vegetation with a density ranging from 50 plants/m2 to 400 plants/m2. Digital photographs, using a GoPro camera with a fish eye lens, were taken from ~1m above the flume at an interval of 30 seconds during the 3 hour experiment. The experiments showed that as the vegetation density increased from 50 to 150 plants/m2, the number of channel bars developing doubled from 12 to 24. At vegetation densities greater than 150 plants/m2 there was a decline in the number of bars created to a minimum of 8 bars for a density of 400 plants/m2. We attribute these patterns to the effect that the vegetation has on flow hydraulics, sediment transport processes and the spatial patterns of erosion and deposition. We

  2. Is Rest Really Rest? Resting State Functional Connectivity during Rest and Motor Task Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkiewicz, Michael T; Crawley, Adrian P; Mikulis, David J

    2018-04-18

    Numerous studies have identified the default mode network (DMN) within the brain of healthy individuals, which has been attributed to the ongoing mental activity of the brain during the wakeful resting-state. While engaged during specific resting-state fMRI paradigms, it remains unclear as to whether traditional block-design simple movement fMRI experiments significantly influence the default mode network or other areas. Using blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI we characterized the pattern of functional connectivity in healthy subjects during a resting-state paradigm and compared this to the same resting-state analysis performed on motor task data residual time courses after regressing out the task paradigm. Using seed-voxel analysis to define the DMN, the executive control network (ECN), and sensorimotor, auditory and visual networks, the resting-state analysis of the residual time courses demonstrated reduced functional connectivity in the motor network and reduced connectivity between the insula and the ECN compared to the standard resting-state datasets. Overall, performance of simple self-directed motor tasks does little to change the resting-state functional connectivity across the brain, especially in non-motor areas. This would suggest that previously acquired fMRI studies incorporating simple block-design motor tasks could be mined retrospectively for assessment of the resting-state connectivity.

  3. Quantitative assessment of breast density from digitized mammograms into Tabar's patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamal, N [Medical Technology Division, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Ng, K-H [Department of Radiology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Looi, L-M [Department of Pathology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); McLean, D [Medical Physics Department, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2145 (Australia); Zulfiqar, A [Department of Radiology, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 56000 Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Malaysia); Tan, S-P [Department of Radiology, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 56000 Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Malaysia); Liew, W-F [Department of Radiology, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 56000 Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Malaysia); Shantini, A [Department of Radiology, Kuala Lumpur Hospital, 50586 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ranganathan, S [Department of Radiology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2006-11-21

    We describe a semi-automated technique for the quantitative assessment of breast density from digitized mammograms in comparison with patterns suggested by Tabar. It was developed using the MATLAB-based graphical user interface applications. It is based on an interactive thresholding method, after a short automated method that shows the fibroglandular tissue area, breast area and breast density each time new thresholds are placed on the image. The breast density is taken as a percentage of the fibroglandular tissue to the breast tissue areas. It was tested in four different ways, namely by examining: (i) correlation of the quantitative assessment results with subjective classification, (ii) classification performance using the quantitative assessment technique, (iii) interobserver agreement and (iv) intraobserver agreement. The results of the quantitative assessment correlated well (r{sup 2} = 0.92) with the subjective Tabar patterns classified by the radiologist (correctly classified 83% of digitized mammograms). The average kappa coefficient for the agreement between the readers was 0.63. This indicated moderate agreement between the three observers in classifying breast density using the quantitative assessment technique. The kappa coefficient of 0.75 for intraobserver agreement reflected good agreement between two sets of readings. The technique may be useful as a supplement to the radiologist's assessment in classifying mammograms into Tabar's pattern associated with breast cancer risk.

  4. Quantitative assessment of breast density from digitized mammograms into Tabar's patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, N; Ng, K-H; Looi, L-M; McLean, D; Zulfiqar, A; Tan, S-P; Liew, W-F; Shantini, A; Ranganathan, S

    2006-01-01

    We describe a semi-automated technique for the quantitative assessment of breast density from digitized mammograms in comparison with patterns suggested by Tabar. It was developed using the MATLAB-based graphical user interface applications. It is based on an interactive thresholding method, after a short automated method that shows the fibroglandular tissue area, breast area and breast density each time new thresholds are placed on the image. The breast density is taken as a percentage of the fibroglandular tissue to the breast tissue areas. It was tested in four different ways, namely by examining: (i) correlation of the quantitative assessment results with subjective classification, (ii) classification performance using the quantitative assessment technique, (iii) interobserver agreement and (iv) intraobserver agreement. The results of the quantitative assessment correlated well (r 2 = 0.92) with the subjective Tabar patterns classified by the radiologist (correctly classified 83% of digitized mammograms). The average kappa coefficient for the agreement between the readers was 0.63. This indicated moderate agreement between the three observers in classifying breast density using the quantitative assessment technique. The kappa coefficient of 0.75 for intraobserver agreement reflected good agreement between two sets of readings. The technique may be useful as a supplement to the radiologist's assessment in classifying mammograms into Tabar's pattern associated with breast cancer risk

  5. Dietary patterns and longitudinal change in hip bone mineral density among older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, T S; Harrison, S; Judd, S; Orwoll, E S; Marshall, L M; Shannon, J; Langsetmo, L; Lane, N E; Shikany, J M

    2018-05-01

    Studying dietary patterns is often more informative than individual nutrients or foods. We found that a Prudent dietary pattern (rich in vegetables and fish) was associated with reduced loss of total hip BMD in older men. A Prudent dietary pattern may be a potential lifestyle strategy for minimizing bone loss. This study aimed to identify baseline dietary patterns using factor analysis in a cohort of older men and to evaluate whether the dietary patterns were associated with bone mineral density change (%ΔBMD) at the total hip and femoral neck over time. Participants (n = 4379; mean age 72.9 ± 5.5 years) were from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) prospective cohort study and had dietary data collected at baseline (March 2000-April 2002) and BMD measured at baseline and Visit 2 (March 2005-May 2006). Dietary intake was assessed with a brief Block food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); %ΔBMD was calculated from baseline to Visit 2. We used generalized linear regression to estimate least square (LS) means of %ΔBMD in quartiles of the dietary pattern scores adjusted for potential confounding factors. Two major dietary patterns were derived: Prudent (abundant in vegetables, salad, and non-fried fish) and Western (rich in hamburger, fries, processed meats, cheese, and sweets/desserts). There was an inverse association between adherence to the Prudent pattern and total hip %ΔBMD (p-trend = 0.028 after adjusting for age and clinical site; p-trend = 0.033 after further adjustment for smoking, calcium supplement use, diabetes, hypertension, and total energy intake). No other consistent associations between dietary patterns and %ΔBMD were observed. Greater adherence to a Prudent dietary pattern may attenuate total hip BMD loss (%ΔBMD) in older men.

  6. Phase separation driven by density-dependent movement: A novel mechanism for ecological patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan-Xing; Rietkerk, Max; Herman, Peter M J; Piersma, Theunis; Fryxell, John M; van de Koppel, Johan

    2016-12-01

    Many ecosystems develop strikingly regular spatial patterns because of small-scale interactions between organisms, a process generally referred to as spatial self-organization. Self-organized spatial patterns are important determinants of the functioning of ecosystems, promoting the growth and survival of the involved organisms, and affecting the capacity of the organisms to cope with changing environmental conditions. The predominant explanation for self-organized pattern formation is spatial heterogeneity in establishment, growth and mortality, resulting from the self-organization processes. A number of recent studies, however, have revealed that movement of organisms can be an important driving process creating extensive spatial patterning in many ecosystems. Here, we review studies that detail movement-based pattern formation in contrasting ecological settings. Our review highlights that a common principle, where movement of organisms is density-dependent, explains observed spatial regular patterns in all of these studies. This principle, well known to physics as the Cahn-Hilliard principle of phase separation, has so-far remained unrecognized as a general mechanism for self-organized complexity in ecology. Using the examples presented in this paper, we explain how this movement principle can be discerned in ecological settings, and clarify how to test this mechanism experimentally. Our study highlights that animal movement, both in isolation and in unison with other processes, is an important mechanism for regular pattern formation in ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Movement of foraging Tundra Swans explained by spatial pattern in cryptic food densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Raymond H G; Nolet, Bart A; Bankert, Daniëlle

    2006-09-01

    We tested whether Tundra Swans use information on the spatial distribution of cryptic food items (below ground Sago pondweed tubers) to shape their movement paths. In a continuous environment, swans create their own food patches by digging craters, which they exploit in several feeding bouts. Series of short (1 m). Tuber biomass densities showed a positive spatial auto-correlation at a short distance (25 g/m2) and to a more distant patch (at 7-8 m) if the food density in the current patch had been low (3 m) from a low-density patch and a short distance (<3 m) from a high-density patch. The quantitative agreement between prediction and observation was greater for swans feeding in pairs than for solitary swans. The result of this movement strategy is that swans visit high-density patches at a higher frequency than on offer and, consequently, achieve a 38% higher long-term gain rate. Swans also take advantage of spatial variance in food abundance by regulating the time in patches, staying longer and consuming more food from rich than from poor patches. We can conclude that the shape of the foraging path is a reflection of the spatial pattern in the distribution of tuber densities and can be understood from an optimal foraging perspective.

  8. Helical patterns of magnetization and magnetic charge density in iron whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Terry L.; Hanham, Scott D.; Arrott, Anthony S.

    2018-05-01

    Studies with the (1 1 1) axis along the long axis of an iron whisker, 40 years ago, showed two phenomena that have remained unexplained: 1) In low fields, there are six peaks in the ac susceptibility, separated by 0.2 mT; 2) Bitter patterns showed striped domain patterns. Multipole columns of magnetic charge density distort to form helical patterns of the magnetization, accounting for the peaks in the susceptibility from the propagation of edge solitons along the intersections of the six sides of a (1 1 1) whisker. The stripes follow the helices. We report micromagnetic simulations in cylinders with various geometries for the cross-sections from rectangular, to hexagonal, to circular, with wide ranges of sizes and lengths, and different anisotropies, including (0 0 1) whiskers and the hypothetical case of no anisotropy. The helical patterns have been there in previous studies, but overlooked. The surface swirls and body helices are connected, but have their own individual behaviors. The magnetization patterns are more easily understood when viewed observing the scalar divergences of the magnetization as isosurfaces of magnetic charge density. The plus and minus charge densities form columns that interact with unlike charges attracting, but not annihilating as they are paid for by a decrease in exchange energy. Just as they start to form the helix, the columns are multipoles. If one could stretch the columns, the self-energy of the charges in a column would be diminished while making the attractive interactions of the unlike charges larger. The columns elongate by becoming helical. The visualization of 3-D magnetic charge distributions aids in the understanding of magnetization in soft magnetic materials.

  9. The characteristic patterns of neuronal avalanches in mice under anesthesia and at rest: An investigation using constrained artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöpfel, Thomas; Leech, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Local perturbations within complex dynamical systems can trigger cascade-like events that spread across significant portions of the system. Cascades of this type have been observed across a broad range of scales in the brain. Studies of these cascades, known as neuronal avalanches, usually report the statistics of large numbers of avalanches, without probing the characteristic patterns produced by the avalanches themselves. This is partly due to limitations in the extent or spatiotemporal resolution of commonly used neuroimaging techniques. In this study, we overcome these limitations by using optical voltage (genetically encoded voltage indicators) imaging. This allows us to record cortical activity in vivo across an entire cortical hemisphere, at both high spatial (~30um) and temporal (~20ms) resolution in mice that are either in an anesthetized or awake state. We then use artificial neural networks to identify the characteristic patterns created by neuronal avalanches in our data. The avalanches in the anesthetized cortex are most accurately classified by an artificial neural network architecture that simultaneously connects spatial and temporal information. This is in contrast with the awake cortex, in which avalanches are most accurately classified by an architecture that treats spatial and temporal information separately, due to the increased levels of spatiotemporal complexity. This is in keeping with reports of higher levels of spatiotemporal complexity in the awake brain coinciding with features of a dynamical system operating close to criticality. PMID:29795654

  10. Stability of Non-Neutral Plasma Cylinder Consisting of Magnetized Cold Electrons and of Small Density Fraction of Ions Born at Rest: Non-Local Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeliseyev, Y. N.

    2009-01-01

    The non-local stability problem of the plasma cylinder, filled with 'cold' magnetized rigidly rotating electrons, and a small density fraction of ions, is solved. The ions are supposed to be born at rest by ionization of background gas. The study is based on the kinetic description of ions. The equilibrium distribution function, taking into account the peculiarity of ions birth, is used. The radial electric field is caused by space charge of non-neutral plasma. The dispersion equation for plasma eigen frequencies is obtained analytically. It is valid within the total admissible range of values of electric and magnetic fields. Normalized eigen frequencies ω'/Ω i are calculated for the basic azimuth mode m = 1(ω' ω-mω i + , ω + = (-ω ci +Ω i )/2, Ω i (ω ci 2 -4eE r /m i r) 1/2 is called the 'modified' ion cyclotron (MIC) frequency), for the density fraction of ions of atomic nitrogen f N i /n e = 0,01 and are presented in graphic form versus parameter 2ω pe 2 /ω ce 2 . The spectra of oscillations ω'/Ω i consist of the family of electron Trivel-piece--Gould (TG) modes and of the families of MIC modes. The frequencies of MIC modes are located in a small vicinity of harmonics of the MIC frequency Ω i above and below the harmonic. The TG modes in non-neutral plasma fall in the region of MIC frequencies Ω i and interact strongly with MIC modes. The slow TG modes become unstable near the crossings with non-negative harmonics of MIC frequencies. The instabilities have a resonant character. The lowest radial TG mode has a maximum growth rate at crossing with a zero harmonic of Ω i ((Im ω'/Ω i ) max ≅0,074). The growth rates of MIC modes are much lower ((Im ω'/Ω i ) max pe 2 /ω ce 2 , corresponding to strong radial electric fields (ω ci 2 r /m i r|), in which the ions are unmagnetized. The oscillations of small amplitude are seen on some frequency dependencies of MIC modes. They are similar to oscillations on dispersion curves of electron waves in

  11. Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes obtained by high density plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousinho, A. P.; Mansano, R. D.

    2015-03-01

    Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition represents an assembly approach to place and orient nanotubes at a stage as early as when they are synthesized. In this work, the carbon nanotubes were obtained at room temperature by High Density Plasmas Chemical Vapor Deposition (HDPCVD) system. This CVD system uses a new concept of plasma generation, where a planar coil coupled to an RF system for plasma generation was used with an electrostatic shield for plasma densification. In this mode, high density plasmas are obtained. We also report the patterned growth of carbon nanotubes on full 4-in Si wafers, using pure methane plasmas and iron as precursor material (seed). Photolithography processes were used to pattern the regions on the silicon wafers. The carbon nanotubes were characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy, the spectra showed very single-walled carbon nanotubes axial vibration modes around 1590 cm-1 and radial breathing modes (RBM) around 120-400 cm-1, confirming that high quality of the carbon nanotubes obtained in this work. The carbon nanotubes were analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy too. The results showed that is possible obtain high-aligned carbon nanotubes with patterned growth on a silicon wafer with high reproducibility and control.

  12. Density-body mass relationships: Inconsistent intercontinental patterns among termite feeding-groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlsjö, Cecilia A. L.; Parr, Catherine L.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Meir, Patrick; Rahman, Homathevi; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Allometric relationships are useful for estimating and understanding resource distribution in assemblages with species of different masses. Damuth's law states that body mass scales with population density as M-0.75, where M is body mass and -0.75 is the slope. In this study we used Damuth's law (M-0.75) as a null hypothesis to examine the relationship between body mass and population density for termite feeding-groups in three different countries and regions (Cameroon, West Africa; Peru South America; and Malaysia SE Asia). We found that none of the feeding-groups had a relationship where M-0.75 while the data suggested that population density-body mass relationships for true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon (M2.7) and wood-feeding termites in Peru (M1.5) were significantly different from the expected values given by Damuth's law. The dominance of large-bodied true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon and the absence of fungus-growing termites from Peru suggest that these allometric patterns are due to heterogeneities in termite biogeographical evolution. Additionally, as these feeding-groups have higher population density than expected by their body masses it may be suggested that they also have a higher energy throughput than expected. The results presented here may be used to gain further understanding of resource distribution among termite feeding-groups across regions and an insight into the importance of evolutionary history and biogeography on allometric patterns. Further understanding of population density-body mass relationships in termite feeding-groups may also improve understanding of the role these feeding-groups play in ecosystem processes in different regions.

  13. Effect of landscape pattern on insect species density within urban green spaces in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhimin; Li, Xiaoma; Zhou, Weiqi; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Urban green space is an important refuge of biodiversity in urban areas. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the relationship between the landscape pattern of green spaces and biodiversity to mitigate the negative effects of urbanization. In this study, we collected insects from 45 green patches in Beijing during July 2012 using suction sampling. The green patches were dominated by managed lawns, mixed with scattered trees and shrubs. We examined the effects of landscape pattern on insect species density using hierarchical partitioning analysis and partial least squares regression. The results of the hierarchical partitioning analysis indicated that five explanatory variables, i.e., patch area (with 19.9% independent effects), connectivity (13.9%), distance to nearest patch (13.8%), diversity for patch types (11.0%), and patch shape (8.3%), significantly contributed to insect species density. With the partial least squares regression model, we found species density was negatively related to patch area, shape, connectivity, diversity for patch types and proportion of impervious surface at the significance level of p landscape composition did have the expected effect. Therefore, it is recommended that the composition of the surrounding landscape should be considered simultaneously with planned improvements in local habitat quality.

  14. Numerical versus analytical Ic(H) patterns in Josephson junctions with periodically alternating critical current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarides, N

    2004-01-01

    An analytical expression for the magnetic-field-dependent critical current I c (H) of Josephson junctions with periodically alternating critical current density J c (x) is derived within the uniform field approximation. Comparison with numerically calculated I c (H) patterns for junctions with identical, thick, periodically arranged defects with the corresponding analytical expression reveals fair agreement for a wide range of parameters, due to increased characteristic length. Based on qualitative arguments, we give the dependence of the new characteristic length on the geometrical parameters of the junction, which is in agreement with self-consistent calculations with the static sine-Gordon equation. The analytical expression captures the observed qualitative features of the I c (H) patterns, while it is practically exact for short junctions or high fields. It also produces the shift of the major peak from the zero-field position of the standard Fraunhofer pattern to another position related to the periodicity of the critical current density in φ-junctions

  15. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder from Brain Resting-State Functional Connectivity Patterns Using a Deep Neural Network with a Novel Feature Selection Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinyu; Dominick, Kelli C; Minai, Ali A; Li, Hailong; Erickson, Craig A; Lu, Long J

    2017-01-01

    The whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) pattern obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data are commonly applied to study neuropsychiatric conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by using different machine learning models. Recent studies indicate that both hyper- and hypo- aberrant ASD-associated FCs were widely distributed throughout the entire brain rather than only in some specific brain regions. Deep neural networks (DNN) with multiple hidden layers have shown the ability to systematically extract lower-to-higher level information from high dimensional data across a series of neural hidden layers, significantly improving classification accuracy for such data. In this study, a DNN with a novel feature selection method (DNN-FS) is developed for the high dimensional whole-brain resting-state FC pattern classification of ASD patients vs. typical development (TD) controls. The feature selection method is able to help the DNN generate low dimensional high-quality representations of the whole-brain FC patterns by selecting features with high discriminating power from multiple trained sparse auto-encoders. For the comparison, a DNN without the feature selection method (DNN-woFS) is developed, and both of them are tested with different architectures (i.e., with different numbers of hidden layers/nodes). Results show that the best classification accuracy of 86.36% is generated by the DNN-FS approach with 3 hidden layers and 150 hidden nodes (3/150). Remarkably, DNN-FS outperforms DNN-woFS for all architectures studied. The most significant accuracy improvement was 9.09% with the 3/150 architecture. The method also outperforms other feature selection methods, e.g., two sample t -test and elastic net. In addition to improving the classification accuracy, a Fisher's score-based biomarker identification method based on the DNN is also developed, and used to identify 32 FCs related to ASD. These FCs come from or cross different pre

  16. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder from Brain Resting-State Functional Connectivity Patterns Using a Deep Neural Network with a Novel Feature Selection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Guo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The whole-brain functional connectivity (FC pattern obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data are commonly applied to study neuropsychiatric conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD by using different machine learning models. Recent studies indicate that both hyper- and hypo- aberrant ASD-associated FCs were widely distributed throughout the entire brain rather than only in some specific brain regions. Deep neural networks (DNN with multiple hidden layers have shown the ability to systematically extract lower-to-higher level information from high dimensional data across a series of neural hidden layers, significantly improving classification accuracy for such data. In this study, a DNN with a novel feature selection method (DNN-FS is developed for the high dimensional whole-brain resting-state FC pattern classification of ASD patients vs. typical development (TD controls. The feature selection method is able to help the DNN generate low dimensional high-quality representations of the whole-brain FC patterns by selecting features with high discriminating power from multiple trained sparse auto-encoders. For the comparison, a DNN without the feature selection method (DNN-woFS is developed, and both of them are tested with different architectures (i.e., with different numbers of hidden layers/nodes. Results show that the best classification accuracy of 86.36% is generated by the DNN-FS approach with 3 hidden layers and 150 hidden nodes (3/150. Remarkably, DNN-FS outperforms DNN-woFS for all architectures studied. The most significant accuracy improvement was 9.09% with the 3/150 architecture. The method also outperforms other feature selection methods, e.g., two sample t-test and elastic net. In addition to improving the classification accuracy, a Fisher's score-based biomarker identification method based on the DNN is also developed, and used to identify 32 FCs related to ASD. These FCs come from or cross

  17. Fish species composition, density-distribution patterns, and impingement during upwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Sharma, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of cooling system intakes and discharges on Lake Michigan fishes are highly dependent on inshore species composition and spatial distribution which, in turn, are affected by natural hydrological conditions. Significant (5 to 10 C) short-term decreases in water temperature (due to upwelling) could cause cold shock in fish equilibrated to either ambient or plume temperatures; substantial changes in distribution due to avoidance or attraction responses; and resultant changes in susceptibility to impingement. The objectives of this study are to characterize the changes in fish species composition, density, and thermal distribution as a result of natural upwellings, and to relate these factors to intake and discharge effects. Day and night sampling was conducted in ambient (reference) and thermal plume waters near the Zion Nuclear Plant on four occasions between 17 July and 11 September 1975. Density-distribution patterns and species composition of fish were determined by means of gill nets, bottom trawls, seines, and a sonic fish locater

  18. Stability of Non-Neutral Plasma Cylinder Consisting of Magnetized Cold Electrons and of Small Density Fraction of Ions Born at Rest: Non-Local Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeliseyev, Y. N.

    2009-03-01

    The non-local stability problem of the plasma cylinder, filled with "cold" magnetized rigidly rotating electrons, and a small density fraction of ions, is solved. The ions are supposed to be born at rest by ionization of background gas. The study is based on the kinetic description of ions. The equilibrium distribution function, taking into account the peculiarity of ions birth, is used. The radial electric field is caused by space charge of non-neutral plasma. The dispersion equation for plasma eigen frequencies is obtained analytically. It is valid within the total admissible range of values of electric and magnetic fields. Normalized eigen frequencies ω'/Ωi are calculated for the basic azimuth mode m = 1 (ω' = ω-mωi+, ω+ = (-ωci+Ωi)/2, Ωi = (ωci2-4eEr/mir)1/2 is called the "modified" ion cyclotron (MIC) frequency), for the density fraction of ions of atomic nitrogen f = Ni/ne = 0,01 and are presented in graphic form versus parameter 2ωpe2/ωce2. The spectra of oscillations ω'/Ωi consist of the family of electron Trivel-piece—Gould (TG) modes and of the families of MIC modes. The frequencies of MIC modes are located in a small vicinity of harmonics of the MIC frequency Ωi above and below the harmonic. The TG modes in non-neutral plasma fall in the region of MIC frequencies Ωi and interact strongly with MIC modes. The slow TG modes become unstable near the crossings with non-negative harmonics of MIC frequencies. The instabilities have a resonant character. The lowest radial TG mode has a maximum growth rate at crossing with a zero harmonic of Ωi ((Im ω'/Ωi)max≈0,074). The growth rates of MIC modes are much lower ((Im ω'/Ωi)max≲0,002). Their instability has a threshold character. The instabilities of TG and MIC modes take place mainly at the values of parameter 2ωpe2/ωce2, corresponding to strong radial electric fields (ωci2≪|eEr/mir|), in which the ions are unmagnetized. The oscillations of small amplitude are seen on some frequency

  19. Aberrant patterns of local and long-range functional connectivity densities in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanxin; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Guangdong; Tian, Hongjun; Li, Jie; Qu, Hongru; Cheng, Langlang; Zhu, Jingjing; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2017-07-18

    Schizophrenia is a disorder of brain dysconnectivity, and both the connection strength and connection number are disrupted in patients with schizophrenia. The functional connectivity density (FCD) can reflect alterations in the connection number. Alterations in the global FCD (gFCD) in schizophrenia were previously demonstrated; however, alterations in two other indices of the pathological characteristics of the brain, local FCD (lFCD) and long-range FCD (lrFCD), have not been revealed. To investigate lFCD and lrFCD alterations in patients with schizophrenia, 95 patients and 93 matched healthy controls were examined using structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. lFCD and lrFCD were measured using FCD mapping, and differences were identified using a two-sample t-test in a voxel-wise manner, with age and gender considered to increase variability. Multiple comparisons were performed using a false discovery rate method with a corrected threshold of Pschizophrenia is a disorder of brain dysconnectivity, particularly affecting the local functional connectivity network, and support the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with a widespread cortical functional connectivity/activity deficit, with hyper- and/or hypo-connectivity/activity coexisting in some cortical or subcortical regions.

  20. Power spectral density analysis of physiological, rest and action tremor in Parkinson’s disease patients treated with deep brain stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Tjitske; Wentink, E.C.; Marani, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Background: Observation of the signals recorded from the extremities of Parkinson’s disease patients showing rest and/or action tremor reveal a distinct high power resonance peak in the frequency band corresponding to tremor. The aim of the study was to investigate, using quantitative measures, how

  1. Deviant dynamics of EEG resting state pattern in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome adolescents: A vulnerability marker of schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomescu, Miralena I; Rihs, Tonia A; Becker, Robert; Britz, Juliane; Custo, Anna; Grouiller, Frédéric; Schneider, Maude; Debbané, Martin; Eliez, Stephan; Michel, Christoph M

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have repeatedly found altered temporal characteristics of EEG microstates in schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether adolescents affected by the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), known to have a 30 fold increased risk to develop schizophrenia, already show deviant EEG microstates. If this is the case, temporal alterations of EEG microstates in 22q11DS individuals could be considered as potential biomarkers for schizophrenia. We used high-density (204 channel) EEG to explore between-group microstate differences in 30 adolescents with 22q11DS and 28 age-matched controls. We found an increased presence of one microstate class (class C) in the 22q11DS adolescents with respect to controls that was associated with positive prodromal symptoms (hallucinations). A previous across-age study showed that the class C microstate was more present during adolescence and a combined EEG-fMRI study associated the class C microstate with the salience resting state network, a network known to be dysfunctional in schizophrenia. Therefore, the increased class C microstates could be indexing the increased risk of 22q11DS individuals to develop schizophrenia if confirmed by our ongoing longitudinal study comparing both the adult 22q11DS individuals with and without schizophrenia, as well as schizophrenic individuals with and without 22q11DS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inter-observer agreement according to three methods of evaluating mammographic density and parenchymal pattern in a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Rikke Rass; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Nielsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    , Tabár's PIV and PV and the upper two quartiles (within density range) of PMD. The relative risk of breast cancer was estimated using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, which were compared between the two readers. RESULTS: Substantial inter-observer agreement was seen......, respectively. Inter-reader variability showed different impact on the relative risk of breast cancer estimated by the two readers on a multiple-category scale, however, not on a high/low-risk scale. Tabár's pattern IV demonstrated the highest ORs of all density patterns investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Our study......BACKGROUND: Mammographic breast density and parenchymal patterns are well-established risk factors for breast cancer. We aimed to report inter-observer agreement on three different subjective ways of assessing mammographic density and parenchymal pattern, and secondarily to examine what potential...

  3. Density, Spatial Pattern and Relief Features of Sacred Sites in Northern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Jäckle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sacred sites are of conservation value because of their spiritual meaning, as cultural heritage and as remnants of near-natural biotopes in landscapes strongly transformed by man. The vegetation of sacred sites in Morocco was studied recently. Information about their number, spatial pattern or relief position is fragmentary. However, these parameters are important to evaluate their role as refuge for organisms and their representativeness of potential natural vegetation. Therefore, density and spatial pattern of sacred sites on the Tangier Peninsula in NW Morocco were studied based on records on topographic maps and by ground check. Their relief position was examined calculating a logistic regression model based on site-presences and random pseudo-absences. A ground check showed that around 67% of the existing sacred sites are documented in the topographic maps. They occur in the whole study area but are agglomerated around settlements. Although sacred sites occur with preference at elevated sites they can be found in almost all relief positions, thus offering the potential of supporting different types of climax vegetation (climatic climax and pedoclimax. Because of their abundance (around 29 sacred sites / 100 km² and their distribution pattern they could serve as elements of a biotope network in degraded landscapes.

  4. Different patterns of spontaneous brain activity between tremor-dominant and postural instability/gait difficulty subtypes of Parkinson's disease: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Min; Wang, Zhi-Jiang; Fang, Jin-Ping; Gao, Li-Yan; Ma, Ling-Yan; Wu, Tao; Hou, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Jia-Rong; Feng, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD) and tremor-dominant (TD) subtypes of Parkinson's disease (PD) show different clinical manifestations; however, their underlying neural substrates remain incompletely understood. This study aimed at investigating the subtype-specific patterns of spontaneous brain activity in PD. Thirty-one patients with PD (12 TD/19 PIGD) and 22 healthy gender- and age-matched controls were recruited. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected, and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) was measured. Voxelwise one-way analysis of covariance and post hoc analyses of ALFF were performed among the three groups, with age and gender as covariates (levodopa daily dosage and gray matter volume as additional covariates for validation analysis). Correlations of clinical variables (e.g., disease duration and PIGD/tremor subscale score) with ALFF values were examined. Compared with controls, patients with TD exhibited higher ALFF in the right cerebellar posterior lobe and patients with PIGD exhibited lower ALFF in the bilateral putamen and cerebellar posterior lobe, and higher values primarily in several cortical areas including the inferior and superior temporal gyrus, superior frontal, and parietal gyrus. Compared with patients with PIGD, patients with TD had higher ALFF in the bilateral putamen and the cerebellar posterior lobe, as well as lower ALFF in the bilateral temporal gyrus and the left superior parietal lobule. In all patients, ALFF in the bilateral cerebellar posterior lobe positively correlated with tremor score and ALFF in the bilateral putamen negatively correlated with PIGD score. Different patterns of spontaneous neural activity in the cerebellum and putamen may underlie the neural substrate of PD motor subtypes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. General filtering method for electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringe images with various densities based on variational image decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biyuan; Tang, Chen; Gao, Guannan; Chen, Mingming; Tang, Shuwei; Lei, Zhenkun

    2017-06-01

    Filtering off speckle noise from a fringe image is one of the key tasks in electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). In general, ESPI fringe images can be divided into three categories: low-density fringe images, high-density fringe images, and variable-density fringe images. In this paper, we first present a general filtering method based on variational image decomposition that can filter speckle noise for ESPI fringe images with various densities. In our method, a variable-density ESPI fringe image is decomposed into low-density fringes, high-density fringes, and noise. A low-density fringe image is decomposed into low-density fringes and noise. A high-density fringe image is decomposed into high-density fringes and noise. We give some suitable function spaces to describe low-density fringes, high-density fringes, and noise, respectively. Then we construct several models and numerical algorithms for ESPI fringe images with various densities. And we investigate the performance of these models via our extensive experiments. Finally, we compare our proposed models with the windowed Fourier transform method and coherence enhancing diffusion partial differential equation filter. These two methods may be the most effective filtering methods at present. Furthermore, we use the proposed method to filter a collection of the experimentally obtained ESPI fringe images with poor quality. The experimental results demonstrate the performance of our proposed method.

  6. Elevated serum cytokines correlated with altered behavior, serum cortisol rhythm, and dampened 24-hour rest-activity patterns in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Tyvin; Innominato, Pasquale F; Boerner, Julie; Mormont, M Christine; Iacobelli, Stefano; Baron, Benoit; Jasmin, Claude; Lévi, Francis

    2005-03-01

    Incapacitating symptom burden in cancer patients contributes to poor quality of life (QOL) and can influence treatment outcomes because of poor tolerance to therapy. In this study, the role of circulating cytokines in the production symptoms in cancer patients is evaluated. Eighty patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with either normal (group I, n = 40) or dampened (group II, n = 40) 24-hour rest/activity patterns measured by actigraphy were identified. Actigraphy patterns were correlated with QOL indices, serum cortisol obtained at 8:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. and with serum levels of transforming growth factor-alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) obtained at 8:00 a.m. and analyzed in duplicate by ELISA. Cytokine levels and survival were also correlated. Group II patients had significantly higher pre treatment levels of all three cytokines, displayed significantly poorer emotional and social functioning, had higher fatigue, more appetite loss, and poorer performance status compared with group I patients. Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) and IL-6 were significantly increased in the patients with WHO performance status >1 and in those with appetite loss. Fatigue was significantly associated with elevated TGF-alpha only. IL-6 was increased in those patients with extensive liver involvement and multiple organ replacement, and it was significantly correlated with dampened cortisol rhythm. In a multivariate analysis, IL-6 was correlated with poor treatment outcome. Significant correlations were found between serum levels of TGF-alpha and IL-6, circadian patterns in wrist activity and serum cortisol and tumor-related symptoms in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. These data support the hypothesis that some cancer patient's symptoms of fatigue, poor QOL, and treatment outcome are related to tumor or host generated cytokines and could reflect cytokine effects on the circadian timing system. This interplay between cytokine

  7. Long-term total sleep deprivation decreases the default spontaneous activity and connectivity pattern in healthy male subjects: a resting-state fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai XJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Xi-Jian Dai,1,2* Chun-Lei Liu,3,4* Ren-Lai Zhou,3 Hong-Han Gong,1 Bin Wu,5 Lei Gao,1 Yi-Xiang J Wang2 1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China; 3Beijing Key Lab of Applied Experimental Psychology, School of Psychology, and National Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4School of Education, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 5National Key Laboratory of Human Factors Engineering, China Astronaut Research and Training Center, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors have contributed equally to this work Objective: The aim of this study is to use resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF methods to explore intrinsic default-mode network (DMN impairment after sleep deprivation (SD and its relationships with clinical features. Methods: Twelve healthy male subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging twice: once following rested wakefulness (RW and the other following 72 hours of total SD. Before the scans, all subjects underwent the attention network test (ANT. The independent component analysis (ICA, rsFC, and ALFF methods were used to examine intrinsic DMN impairment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to distinguish SD status from RW status. Results: Compared with RW subjects, SD subjects showed a lower accuracy rate (RW =96.83%, SD =77.67%; P<0.001, a slower reaction time (RW =695.92 ms; SD =799.18 ms; P=0.003, a higher lapse rate (RW =0.69%, SD =19.29%; P<0.001, and a higher intraindividual coefficient of variability in reaction time (RW =0.26, SD =0

  8. Measurement of instantaneous rotational speed using double-sine-varying-density fringe pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianfeng; Zhong, Shuncong; Zhang, Qiukun; Peng, Zhike

    2018-03-01

    Fast and accurate rotational speed measurement is required both for condition monitoring and faults diagnose of rotating machineries. A vision- and fringe pattern-based rotational speed measurement system was proposed to measure the instantaneous rotational speed (IRS) with high accuracy and reliability. A special double-sine-varying-density fringe pattern (DSVD-FP) was designed and pasted around the shaft surface completely and worked as primary angular sensor. The rotational angle could be correctly obtained from the left and right fringe period densities (FPDs) of the DSVD-FP image sequence recorded by a high-speed camera. The instantaneous angular speed (IAS) between two adjacent frames could be calculated from the real-time rotational angle curves, thus, the IRS also could be obtained accurately and efficiently. Both the measurement principle and system design of the novel method have been presented. The influence factors on the sensing characteristics and measurement accuracy of the novel system, including the spectral centrobaric correction method (SCCM) on the FPD calculation, the noise sources introduce by the image sensor, the exposure time and the vibration of the shaft, were investigated through simulations and experiments. The sampling rate of the high speed camera could be up to 5000 Hz, thus, the measurement becomes very fast and the change in rotational speed was sensed within 0.2 ms. The experimental results for different IRS measurements and characterization of the response property of a servo motor demonstrated the high accuracy and fast measurement of the proposed technique, making it attractive for condition monitoring and faults diagnosis of rotating machineries.

  9. Holographic memory for high-density data storage and high-speed pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Claire

    2002-09-01

    As computers and the internet become faster and faster, more and more information is transmitted, received, and stored everyday. The demand for high density and fast access time data storage is pushing scientists and engineers to explore all possible approaches including magnetic, mechanical, optical, etc. Optical data storage has already demonstrated its potential in the competition against other storage technologies. CD and DVD are showing their advantages in the computer and entertainment market. What motivated the use of optical waves to store and access information is the same as the motivation for optical communication. Light or an optical wave has an enormous capacity (or bandwidth) to carry information because of its short wavelength and parallel nature. In optical storage, there are two types of mechanism, namely localized and holographic memories. What gives the holographic data storage an advantage over localized bit storage is the natural ability to read the stored information in parallel, therefore, meeting the demand for fast access. Another unique feature that makes the holographic data storage attractive is that it is capable of performing associative recall at an incomparable speed. Therefore, volume holographic memory is particularly suitable for high-density data storage and high-speed pattern recognition. In this paper, we review previous works on volume holographic memories and discuss the challenges for this technology to become a reality.

  10. Scalable Sub-micron Patterning of Organic Materials Toward High Density Soft Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaekyun; Kim, Myung-Gil; Kim, Jaehyun; Jo, Sangho; Kang, Jingu; Jo, Jeong-Wan; Lee, Woobin; Hwang, Chahwan; Moon, Juhyuk; Yang, Lin; Kim, Yun-Hi; Noh, Yong-Young; Jaung, Jae Yun; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Park, Sung Kyu

    2015-09-28

    The success of silicon based high density integrated circuits ignited explosive expansion of microelectronics. Although the inorganic semiconductors have shown superior carrier mobilities for conventional high speed switching devices, the emergence of unconventional applications, such as flexible electronics, highly sensitive photosensors, large area sensor array, and tailored optoelectronics, brought intensive research on next generation electronic materials. The rationally designed multifunctional soft electronic materials, organic and carbon-based semiconductors, are demonstrated with low-cost solution process, exceptional mechanical stability, and on-demand optoelectronic properties. Unfortunately, the industrial implementation of the soft electronic materials has been hindered due to lack of scalable fine-patterning methods. In this report, we demonstrated facile general route for high throughput sub-micron patterning of soft materials, using spatially selective deep-ultraviolet irradiation. For organic and carbon-based materials, the highly energetic photons (e.g. deep-ultraviolet rays) enable direct photo-conversion from conducting/semiconducting to insulating state through molecular dissociation and disordering with spatial resolution down to a sub-μm-scale. The successful demonstration of organic semiconductor circuitry promise our result proliferate industrial adoption of soft materials for next generation electronics.

  11. Understanding Referral Patterns for Bone Mineral Density Testing among Family Physicians: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. P. Munce

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Evidence of inappropriate bone mineral density (BMD testing has been identified in terms of overtesting in low risk women and undertesting among patients at high risk. In light of these phenomena, the objective of this study was to understand the referral patterns for BMD testing among Ontario’s family physicians (FPs. Methods. A qualitative descriptive approach was adopted. Twenty-two FPs took part in a semi-structured interview lasting approximately 30 minutes. An inductive thematic analysis was performed on the transcribed data in order to understand the referral patterns for BMD testing. Results. We identified a lack of clarity about screening for osteoporosis with a tendency for baseline BMD testing in healthy, postmenopausal women and a lack of clarity on the appropriate age for screening for men in particular. A lack of clarity on appropriate intervals for follow-up testing was also described. Conclusions. These findings lend support to what has been documented at the population level suggesting a tendency among FPs to refer menopausal women (at low risk. Emphasis on referral of high-risk groups as well as men and further clarification and education on the appropriate intervals for follow-up testing is warranted.

  12. Density-lag anomaly patterns in backshore sands along a paraglacial barrier spit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupienis, Donatas; Buynevich, Ilya; Jarmalavičius, Darius; Fedorovič, Julija; Žilinskas, Gintautas; Ryabchuk, Daria; Kovaleva, Olga; Sergeev, Alexander; Cichon-Pupienis, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The Curonian Spit, located along the southeast Baltic Sea coast, is one of the longest paraglacial mega-barriers in the world (~100 km) and is characteried by microtidal sandy beaches and unbroken foredune ridge emplaced by human activities in historical times. Both are dominated by quartzo-feldpathic sand, with various fractions of heavy minerals that may be concentrated as density lag. Such heavy-mineral concentrations (HMCs) may be distributed weither randomly or regularly along the coast, depending on the geological framework, hydro-aeolian processes, and human activities (e.g., steel elements of coastal engineering structures, military installations, etc.). In this study, we focus on the longshore patterns in HMC distribution and relative magnitude (mainly the concentration of ferrimagnetic components). Along the entire Curonian Spit coast (Russia-Lithuania), a total of 184 surface sand samples were collected at 1 km interval from the berm and foredune toe (seaward base). HMCs were characterized in the laboratory using bulk low-field magnetic susceptibility (MS). The Wavelength and Lomb spectral analysis were used to assess the spatial rhythmicity of their longshore distribution. Generally, quartz sand is characterised by low MS values of ĸ150 μSI are typical for heavy mineral-rich sand. MS values on the berm and foredune toe range from 11.2-4977.9 μSI and from 9.2-3153.0 μSI, respectively. Density lag anomalies had MS values exceeding an average value by ≥3 times. Wavelength and Lomb spectral analysis allowed to identify several clusters of periodicities with wavelength varying from 2-12 km, with power spectra having statistically significant values (>95 % CI). Along the modern Curonian Spit coast, two scales of rhythmic pattern variation are evident: macroscale (≤12 km) and mesoscale (2-3 km). The former can be attributed to localized expressions of geological framework (iron-rich components) and engineering structures (especially within the southern

  13. Computational Analysis of G-Quadruplex Forming Sequences across Chromosomes Reveals High Density Patterns Near the Terminal Ends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia H Chariker

    Full Text Available G-quadruplex structures (G4 are found throughout the human genome and are known to play a regulatory role in a variety of molecular processes. Structurally, they have many configurations and can form from one or more DNA strands. At the gene level, they regulate gene expression and protein synthesis. In this paper, chromosomal-level patterns of distribution are analyzed on the human genome to identify high-level distribution patterns potentially related to global functional processes. Here we show unique high density banding patterns on individual chromosomes that are highly correlated, appearing in a mirror pattern, across forward and reverse DNA strands. The highest density of G4 sequences occurs within four megabases of one end of most chromosomes and contains G4 motifs that bind with zinc finger proteins. These findings suggest that G4 may play a role in global chromosomal processes such as those found in meiosis.

  14. Chemical mechanical polishing of BTO thin film for vertical sidewall patterning of high-density memory capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nam-Hoon; Ko, Pil-Ju; Seo, Yong-Jin; Lee, Woo-Sun

    2006-01-01

    Most high-k materials cannot to be etched easily. Problems such as low etch rate, poor sidewall angle, plasma damage, and process complexity have emerged in high-density DRAM fabrication. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) by the damascene process has been used to pattern high-k materials for high-density capacitor. Barium titanate (BTO) thin film, a typical high-k material, was polished with three types of silica slurry having different pH values. Sufficient removal rate with adequate selectivity to realize the pattern mask of tetra-ethyl ortho-silicate (TEOS) film for the vertical sidewall angle was obtained. The changes of X-ray diffraction pattern and dielectric constant by CMP process were negligible. Planarization was also achieved for the subsequent multilevel processes. Our new CMP approach will provide a guideline for effective patterning of high-k materials by CMP

  15. Altered pattern of spontaneous brain activity in the patients with end-stage renal disease: a resting-state functional MRI study with regional homogeneity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Liang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the pattern of spontaneous neural activity in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD with and without neurocognitive dysfunction using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI with a regional homogeneity (ReHo algorithm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: rs-fMRI data were acquired in 36 ESRD patients (minimal nephro-encephalopathy [MNE], n = 19, 13 male, 37±12.07 years; non-nephro-encephalopathy [non-NE], n = 17, 11 male, 38±12.13 years and 20 healthy controls (13 male, 7 female, 36±10.27 years. Neuropsychological (number connection test type A [NCT-A], digit symbol test [DST] and laboratory tests were performed in all patients. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC was used to measure the regional homogeneity for each subject. The regional homogeneity maps were compared using ANOVA tests among MNE, non-NE, and healthy control groups and post hoc t -tests between each pair in a voxel-wise way. A multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between ReHo index and NCT-A, DST scores, serum creatinine and urea levels, disease and dialysis duration. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, both MNE and non-NE patients showed decreased ReHo in the multiple areas of bilateral frontal, parietal and temporal lobes. Compared with the non-NE, MNE patients showed decreased ReHo in the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL, medial frontal cortex (MFC and left precuneus (PCu. The NCT-A scores and serum urea levels of ESRD patients negatively correlated with ReHo values in the frontal and parietal lobes, while DST scores positively correlated with ReHo values in the bilateral PCC/precuneus, MFC and inferior parietal lobe (IPL (all P0.05, AlphaSim corrected. CONCLUSION: Diffused decreased ReHo values were found in both MNE and non-NE patients. The progressively decreased ReHo in the default mode network (DMN, frontal and parietal lobes might be trait-related in MNE. The Re

  16. Activity pattern of medium and large sized mammals and density estimates of Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae in the Brazilian Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leuchtenberger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Between July 2014 and April 2015, we conducted weekly inventories of the circadian activity patterns of mammals in Passo Novo locality, municipality of Alegrete, southern Brazil. The vegetation is comprised by a grassy-woody steppe (grassland. We used two camera traps alternately located on one of four 1 km transects, each separated by 1 km. We classified the activity pattern of species by the percentage of photographic records taken in each daily period. We identify Cuniculus paca individuals by differences in the patterns of flank spots. We then estimate the density 1 considering the area of riparian forest present in the sampling area, and 2 through capture/recapture analysis. Cuniculus paca, Conepatus chinga and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris were nocturnal, Cerdocyon thous had a crepuscular/nocturnal pattern, while Mazama gouazoubira was cathemeral. The patterns of circadian activity observed for medium and large mammals in this Pampa region (southern grasslands may reflect not only evolutionary, biological and ecological affects, but also human impacts not assessed in this study. We identified ten individuals of C. paca through skin spot patterns during the study period, which were recorded in different transects and months. The minimum population density of C. paca was 3.5 individuals per km2 (resident animals only and the total density estimates varied from 7.1 to 11.8 individuals per km2, when considering all individuals recorded or the result of the capture/recapture analysis, respectively.

  17. Activity pattern of medium and large sized mammals and density estimates of Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae) in the Brazilian Pampa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchtenberger, C; de Oliveira, Ê S; Cariolatto, L P; Kasper, C B

    2018-02-22

    Between July 2014 and April 2015, we conducted weekly inventories of the circadian activity patterns of mammals in Passo Novo locality, municipality of Alegrete, southern Brazil. The vegetation is comprised by a grassy-woody steppe (grassland). We used two camera traps alternately located on one of four 1 km transects, each separated by 1 km. We classified the activity pattern of species by the percentage of photographic records taken in each daily period. We identify Cuniculus paca individuals by differences in the patterns of flank spots. We then estimate the density 1) considering the area of riparian forest present in the sampling area, and 2) through capture/recapture analysis. Cuniculus paca, Conepatus chinga and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris were nocturnal, Cerdocyon thous had a crepuscular/nocturnal pattern, while Mazama gouazoubira was cathemeral. The patterns of circadian activity observed for medium and large mammals in this Pampa region (southern grasslands) may reflect not only evolutionary, biological and ecological affects, but also human impacts not assessed in this study. We identified ten individuals of C. paca through skin spot patterns during the study period, which were recorded in different transects and months. The minimum population density of C. paca was 3.5 individuals per km2 (resident animals only) and the total density estimates varied from 7.1 to 11.8 individuals per km2, when considering all individuals recorded or the result of the capture/recapture analysis, respectively.

  18. Spatial pattern corrections and sample sizes for forest density estimates of historical tree surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice B. Hanberry; Shawn Fraver; Hong S. He; Jian Yang; Dan C. Dey; Brian J. Palik

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. General Land Office land surveys document trees present during European settlement. However, use of these surveys for calculating historical forest density and other derived metrics is limited by uncertainty about the performance of plotless density estimators under a range of conditions. Therefore, we tested two plotless density estimators, developed by...

  19. Low Bone Mineral Density Risk Factors and Testing Patterns in Institutionalized Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Mailee; Campagna, Elizabeth J.; Jensen, Kristin M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Adults with intellectual or developmental disability (ID/DD) have multiple risks for low bone mineral density (BMD) without formal guidelines to guide testing. We sought to identify risk factors and patterns of BMD testing among institutionalized adults with ID/DD. Methods: We evaluated risk factors for low BMD (Z-/T-score < -1) and…

  20. Dietary energy density and obesity: how consumption patterns differ by body weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernarelli, Jacqueline A; Mitchell, Diane C; Rolls, Barbara J; Hartman, Terryl J

    2018-02-01

    Recent public health messages have advised consumers to lower dietary energy density (ED) for weight management, but it is not known whether the proportion of the diet from low-ED foods is related to weight status. In a nationally representative sample of US adults, we evaluated whether the proportions of dietary energy intake contributed by low- and high-ED foods are associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Data were from a cross-sectional sample of 9551 adults ≥18 years in the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). ED (kcal/g) was calculated for each food item reported during a 24-h dietary recall; individual foods were divided into five ED categories: very low ED (4.0 kcal/g). The percentages of total energy and the food weight from each category were evaluated by BMI and WC after controlling for total energy intake and other covariates. Men classified as lean (BMI  30 kg/m 2 ); 5.2 % very low and 20.1 low  %; p-trends <0.001 very low , 0.002 low ). Similarly, women classified as lean reported intakes of very low-ED foods of 7.8 % (vs. 6.4 % for women with obesity) of total energy and low-ED foods of 24.7 % (vs. 21.5 % for women with obesity) of total energy (p-trends 0.007 very low , 0.004 low ). Men and women with obesity reported greater proportions of energy from high-ED foods (45.9 % men with obesity vs. 42.4 % lean men , 44.2 % women with obesity vs. 39.9 % lean women ) with significant statistical trends (men = 0.008, women = 0.0005). Similar patterns were observed for intakes of proportions of very low-, low-, and high-ED foods and WC. Higher proportions of energy intake and food weight contributed by very low- and low-ED foods are associated with lower BMI (and WC).

  1. Effect of Integrated Cognitive Therapy on Hippocampal Functional Connectivity Patterns in Stroke Patients with Cognitive Dysfunction: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanli Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to identify abnormal hippocampal functional connectivity (FC following ischemic stroke using resting-state fMRI. We also explored whether abnormal hippocampal FC could be modulated by integrated cognitive therapy and tested whether these alterations were associated with cognitive performance. Methods. 18 right-handed cognitively impaired ischemic stroke patients and 18 healty control (HC subjects were included in this study. Stroke subjects were scanned at baseline and after integrated cognitive therapy, while HCs were only scanned at baseline, to identify regions that show significant correlations with the seed region. Behavioral and cognitive assessments were obtained before each scan. Results. During the resting state, we found abnormal hippocampal FC associated with temporal regions, insular cortex, cerebellum, and prefrontal cortex in stroke patients compared to HCs. After integrated cognitive therapy, however, the stroke group showed increased hippocampal FC mainly located in the prefrontal gyrus and the default mode network (DMN. Altered hippocampal FC was associated with cognitive improvement. Conclusion. Resting-state fMRI may provide novel insight into the study of functional networks in the brain after stroke. Furthermore, altered hippocampal FC may be a compensatory mechanism for cognitive recovery after ischemic stroke.

  2. The Effect of Planting Pattern and Density on Yield and Yield Components of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Crop density enhancement is a method to increase yield per unit area. The spatial distribution of plants is related to radiation absorption. Therefore, it could play an effective role in photosynthesis and yield, since Crop Growth Rate (CGR is a function of used radiation energy in photosynthesis. Totally, increasing radiation absorption efficiency and yield need sufficient leaf area and suitable distribution of leaves in canopy. Ahmad et al., (2002 planted sesame with different inter row- spacing (30, 45 and 60 cm, they reported that the maximum plant height and economic yield were obtained from inter row- spacing of 45 cm. Rahnama and Bakhshandeh (2006 planted sesame with different inter row- spacing (37.5, 50 and 60 cm and the results showed that the number of capsules per plant, seed weight as well as seed oil per plant, increased with increasing inter row- spacing. Karasan et al., (2007 reported that decreasing inter row- spacing resulted in seed yield enhancement and reduction in number of capsules per plant. Material and Methods An experiment using split-plot based on randomized complete blocks design was performed. The experiment was carried with three replications in two years (2012 and 2013 at the agricultural research station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. For this purpose, the main plot was the density per square meter with three levels (30, 40 and 50 plants per square meter and the sub main plot was planting pattern (rectangle, square and rhombic. The size of each plot was 2×3 meters. The distance between plots and blocks were 0.5 and 1 meter, respectively. Intra row- spacing for rectangle planting pattern for densities of 30, 40 and 50 plants per square meter was 6, 5 and 4 cm, respectively. In square and rhombic planting patterns, 2 lines was planted in each row and inter row- spacing for densities of 30, 40 and 50 plants per square meter were 18, 16 and 14 cm. economic yield measured at the end of growth season

  3. Association between Dietary Patterns of Meat and Fish Consumption with Bone Mineral Density or Fracture Risk: A Systematic Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Perna, Simone; Avanzato, Ilaria; Nichetti, Mara; D’Antona, Giuseppe; Negro, Massimo; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to investigate the association of fish and sea fish dietary patterns (FishDiet) and meat or processed meat dietary patterns (MeatDiet) with bone mineral density (BMD) and/or risk of fractures (RF). This review includes 37 studies with a total of 432,924 subjects. The results suggest that MeatDiet and FishDiet did not affect BMD or RF in 48.2% of the subjects with MeatDiet and in 86.5% of the subjects with FishDiet. Positive effects on bone were found in 3% of subj...

  4. REST based mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambow, Mark; Preuss, Thomas; Berdux, Jörg; Conrad, Marc

    2008-02-01

    Simplicity is the major advantage of REST based webservices. Whereas SOAP is widespread in complex, security sensitive business-to-business aplications, REST is widely used for mashups and end-user centric applicatons. In that context we give an overview of REST and compare it to SOAP. Furthermore we apply the GeoDrawing application as an example for REST based mobile applications and emphasize on pros and cons for the use of REST in mobile application scenarios.

  5. Characterizing Bonding Patterns in Diradicals and Triradicals by Density-Based Wave Function Analysis: A Uniform Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orms, Natalie; Rehn, Dirk R; Dreuw, Andreas; Krylov, Anna I

    2018-02-13

    Density-based wave function analysis enables unambiguous comparisons of the electronic structure computed by different methods and removes ambiguity of orbital choices. We use this tool to investigate the performance of different spin-flip methods for several prototypical diradicals and triradicals. In contrast to previous calibration studies that focused on energy gaps between high- and low spin-states, we focus on the properties of the underlying wave functions, such as the number of effectively unpaired electrons. Comparison of different density functional and wave function theory results provides insight into the performance of the different methods when applied to strongly correlated systems such as polyradicals. We show that canonical molecular orbitals for species like large copper-containing diradicals fail to correctly represent the underlying electronic structure due to highly non-Koopmans character, while density-based analysis of the same wave function delivers a clear picture of the bonding pattern.

  6. Network Efficiency and Posterior Alpha Patterns Are Markers of Recovery from General Anesthesia: A High-Density Electroencephalography Study in Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Blain-Moraes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have investigated local oscillations, long-range connectivity, and global network patterns to identify neural changes associated with anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. These studies typically employ anesthetic protocols that either just cross the threshold of unconsciousness, or induce deep unconsciousness for a brief period of time—neither of which models general anesthesia for major surgery. To study neural patterns of unconsciousness and recovery in a clinically-relevant context, we used a realistic anesthetic regimen to induce and maintain unconsciousness in eight healthy participants for 3 h. High-density electroencephalogram (EEG was acquired throughout and for another 3 h after emergence. Seven epochs of 5-min eyes-closed resting states were extracted from the data at baseline as well as 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180-min post-emergence. Additionally, 5-min epochs were extracted during induction, unconsciousness, and immediately prior to recovery of consciousness, for a total of 10 analysis epochs. The EEG data in each epoch were analyzed using source-localized spectral analysis, phase-lag index, and graph theoretical techniques. Posterior alpha power was significantly depressed during unconsciousness, and gradually approached baseline levels over the 3 h recovery period. Phase-lag index did not distinguish between states of consciousness or stages of recovery. Network efficiency was significantly depressed and network clustering coefficient was significantly increased during unconsciousness; these graph theoretical measures returned to baseline during the 3 h recovery period. Posterior alpha power may be a potential biomarker for normal recovery of functional brain networks after general anesthesia.

  7. Deep neural network with weight sparsity control and pre-training extracts hierarchical features and enhances classification performance: Evidence from whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity patterns of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghoe; Calhoun, Vince D; Shim, Eunsoo; Lee, Jong-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Functional connectivity (FC) patterns obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data are commonly employed to study neuropsychiatric conditions by using pattern classifiers such as the support vector machine (SVM). Meanwhile, a deep neural network (DNN) with multiple hidden layers has shown its ability to systematically extract lower-to-higher level information of image and speech data from lower-to-higher hidden layers, markedly enhancing classification accuracy. The objective of this study was to adopt the DNN for whole-brain resting-state FC pattern classification of schizophrenia (SZ) patients vs. healthy controls (HCs) and identification of aberrant FC patterns associated with SZ. We hypothesized that the lower-to-higher level features learned via the DNN would significantly enhance the classification accuracy, and proposed an adaptive learning algorithm to explicitly control the weight sparsity in each hidden layer via L1-norm regularization. Furthermore, the weights were initialized via stacked autoencoder based pre-training to further improve the classification performance. Classification accuracy was systematically evaluated as a function of (1) the number of hidden layers/nodes, (2) the use of L1-norm regularization, (3) the use of the pre-training, (4) the use of framewise displacement (FD) removal, and (5) the use of anatomical/functional parcellation. Using FC patterns from anatomically parcellated regions without FD removal, an error rate of 14.2% was achieved by employing three hidden layers and 50 hidden nodes with both L1-norm regularization and pre-training, which was substantially lower than the error rate from the SVM (22.3%). Moreover, the trained DNN weights (i.e., the learned features) were found to represent the hierarchical organization of aberrant FC patterns in SZ compared with HC. Specifically, pairs of nodes extracted from the lower hidden layer represented sparse FC patterns implicated in SZ, which was

  8. The non-linear, interactive effects of population density and climate drive the geographical patterns of waterfowl survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; Boomer, G. Scott; Kendall, William L.

    2018-01-01

    On-going climate change has major impacts on ecological processes and patterns. Understanding the impacts of climate on the geographical patterns of survival can provide insights to how population dynamics respond to climate change and provide important information for the development of appropriate conservation strategies at regional scales. It is challenging to understand the impacts of climate on survival, however, due to the fact that the non-linear relationship between survival and climate can be modified by density-dependent processes. In this study we extended the Brownie model to partition hunting and non-hunting mortalities and linked non-hunting survival to covariates. We applied this model to four decades (1972–2014) of waterfowl band-recovery, breeding population survey, and precipitation and temperature data covering multiple ecological regions to examine the non-linear, interactive effects of population density and climate on waterfowl non-hunting survival at a regional scale. Our results showed that the non-linear effect of temperature on waterfowl non-hunting survival was modified by breeding population density. The concave relationship between non-hunting survival and temperature suggested that the effects of warming on waterfowl survival might be multifaceted. Furthermore, the relationship between non-hunting survival and temperature was stronger when population density was higher, suggesting that high-density populations may be less buffered against warming than low-density populations. Our study revealed distinct relationships between waterfowl non-hunting survival and climate across and within ecological regions, highlighting the importance of considering different conservation strategies according to region-specific population and climate conditions. Our findings and associated novel modelling approach have wide implications in conservation practice.

  9. Population density shapes patterns of survival and reproduction in Eleutheria dichotoma (Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dańko, Aleksandra; Schaible, Ralf; Pijanowska, Joanna; Dańko, Maciej J

    2018-01-01

    Budding hydromedusae have high reproductive rates due to asexual reproduction and can occur in high population densities along the coasts, specifically in tidal pools. In laboratory experiments, we investigated the effects of population density on the survival and reproductive strategies of a single clone of Eleutheria dichotoma . We found that sexual reproduction occurs with the highest rate at medium population densities. Increased sexual reproduction was associated with lower budding (asexual reproduction) and survival probability. Sexual reproduction results in the production of motile larvae that can, in contrast to medusae, seek to escape unfavorable conditions by actively looking for better environments. The successful settlement of a larva results in starting the polyp stage, which is probably more resistant to environmental conditions. This is the first study that has examined the life-history strategies of the budding hydromedusa E. dichotoma by conducting a long-term experiment with a relatively large sample size that allowed for the examination of age-specific mortality and reproductive rates. We found that most sexual and asexual reproduction occurred at the beginning of life following a very rapid process of maturation. The parametric models fitted to the mortality data showed that population density was associated with an increase in the rate of aging, an increase in the level of late-life mortality plateau, and a decrease in the hidden heterogeneity in individual mortality rates. The effects of population density on life-history traits are discussed in the context of resource allocation and the r/K-strategies' continuum concept.

  10. Altered spontaneous brain activity pattern in patients with high myopia using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation: a resting-state fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang X

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Xin Huang,1,2,* Fu-Qing Zhou,3,* Yu-Xiang Hu,1 Xiao-Xuan Xu,1 Xiong Zhou,4 Yu-Lin Zhong,1 Jun Wang,4 Xiao-Rong Wu1 1Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 2Department of Ophthalmology, The First People’s Hospital of Jiujiang City, Jiujiang, 3Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi Province Medical Imaging Research Institute, 4Second Department of Respiratory Disease, Jiangxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Many previous reports have demonstrated significant neural anatomy changes in the brain of high myopic (HM patients, whereas the spontaneous brain activity changes in the HM patients at rest are not well studied. Our objective was to use amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF method to investigate the changes in spontaneous brain activity in HM patients and their relationships with clinical features. Methods: A total of 38 patients with HM (17 males and 21 females and 38 healthy controls (HCs (17 males and 21 females closely matched in age, sex, and education underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. The ALFF method was used to assess local features of spontaneous brain activity. The relationship between the mean ALFF signal values in many brain regions and the clinical features in HM patients was calculated by correlation analysis. Results: Compared with HCs, the HM patients had significantly lower ALFF in the right inferior and middle temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus/putamen, right inferior frontal gyrus/putamen/insula, right middle frontal gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule and higher ALFF values in the bilateral midcingulate cortex, left postcentral gyrus, and left precuneus/inferior parietal lobule. However, no relationship was found between the mean ALFF

  11. Connectivity pattern differences bilaterally in the cerebellum posterior lobe in healthy subjects after normal sleep and sleep deprivation: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu XM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xuming Liu,1 Zhihan Yan,2 Tingyu Wang,1 Xiaokai Yang,1 Feng Feng,3 Luping Fan,1 Jian Jiang4 1Department of Radiology, The Third Clinical Institute Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 2Department of Radiology, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 3Peking Union Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 4Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI technique to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC differences of the bilaterial cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL after normal sleep (NS and after sleep deprivation (SD. Methods: A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight males, eight females underwent an fMRI scan twice at random: once following NS and the other following 24 hours’ SD, with an interval of 1 month between the two scans. The fMRI scanning included resting state and acupuncture stimulation. The special activated regions located during the acupuncture stimulation were selected as regions of interest for rsFC analysis. Results: Bilateral CPLs were positively activated by acupuncture stimulation. In the NS group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral CPL, bilateral frontal lobe (BFL, left precuneus and right inferior parietal lobule, while the right CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral temporal lobe, right cerebellum anterior lobe, right CPL, left frontal lobe, left anterior cingulate, right posterior cingulate, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule. In the SD group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the left posterior cingulate gyrus bilateral CPL, left precuneus, left precentral gyrus, BFL, and the left parietal lobe, while the right CPL showed rsFC with bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, bilateral CPL, left frontal lobe and left temporal lobe. Compared with the NS group, the

  12. A fruit, milk and whole grain dietary pattern is positively associated with bone mineral density in Korean healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S; Sung, J; Joung, H

    2015-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem that will grow in burden with ageing of the global population. Modifiable risk factors for osteoporosis, including diet, have significant implications for disease prevention. We examined associations between dietary patterns and bone mineral density (BMD) in a Korean adult population. In total, 1828 individuals from the Healthy Twin Cohort were included as subjects. Information on general characteristics, lifestyles and health status was obtained through a health examination, and BMD was assessed using DEXA. Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record, and dietary patterns were examined by factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and BMD were examined using mixed linear regression, adjusting for family and twin structure as well as other potential risk factors for bone health. Four dietary patterns were identified (Rice and kimchi; eggs, meat and flour; Fruit, milk and whole grains; and Fast food and soda). The 'Fruit, milk and whole grains' pattern was associated with a reduced risk of having low BMD in men (odds ratio (OR)=0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.22-0.67) and women (OR=0.45; 95% CI=0.28-0.72) and was positively associated with BMD at multiple sites. The 'rice and kimchi' pattern had a positive association with only whole-arm BMD in men and women. Our results suggest that a dietary pattern with high intake of dairy products, fruits and whole grains may contribute positively to bone health in a Korean adult population, and dietary pattern-based strategies could have potential in promoting bone health.

  13. Diffuse optical tomography with structured-light patterns to quantify breast density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Jessica; Nouizi, Farouk; Cho, Jaedu; Zheng, Jie; Li, Yifan; Chen, Jeon-hor; Su, Min-Ying; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2016-02-01

    Breast density is an independent risk factor for breast cancer, where women with denser breasts are more likely to develop cancer. By identifying women at higher risk, healthcare providers can suggest screening at a younger age to effectively diagnose and treat breast cancer in its earlier stages. Clinical risk assessment models currently do not incorporate breast density, despite its strong correlation with breast cancer. Current methods to measure breast density rely on mammography and MRI, both of which may be difficult to use as a routine risk assessment tool. We propose to use diffuse optical tomography with structured-light to measure the dense, fibroglandular (FGT) tissue volume, which has a different chromophore signature than the surrounding adipose tissue. To test the ability of this technique, we performed simulations by creating numerical breast phantoms from segmented breast MR images. We looked at two different cases, one with a centralized FGT distribution and one with a dispersed distribution. As expected, the water and lipid volumes segmented at half-maximum were overestimated for the dispersed case. However, it was noticed that the recovered water and lipid concentrations were lower and higher, respectively, than the centralized case. This information may provide insight into the morphological distribution of the FGT and can be a correction in estimating the breast density.

  14. Internal wave patterns in enclosed density-stratified and rotating fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, A.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Stratified fluids support internal waves, which propagate obliquely through the fluid. The angle with respectto the stratification direction is contrained: it is purely determined by the wave frequency and the strength of the density stratification (internal gravity waves) or the rotation rate

  15. Unsupervised Learning and Pattern Recognition of Biological Data Structures with Density Functional Theory and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Juan, Hung-Hui; Tsai, Meng-Yuan; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing

    2018-01-11

    By introducing the methods of machine learning into the density functional theory, we made a detour for the construction of the most probable density function, which can be estimated by learning relevant features from the system of interest. Using the properties of universal functional, the vital core of density functional theory, the most probable cluster numbers and the corresponding cluster boundaries in a studying system can be simultaneously and automatically determined and the plausibility is erected on the Hohenberg-Kohn theorems. For the method validation and pragmatic applications, interdisciplinary problems from physical to biological systems were enumerated. The amalgamation of uncharged atomic clusters validated the unsupervised searching process of the cluster numbers and the corresponding cluster boundaries were exhibited likewise. High accurate clustering results of the Fisher's iris dataset showed the feasibility and the flexibility of the proposed scheme. Brain tumor detections from low-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging datasets and segmentations of high-dimensional neural network imageries in the Brainbow system were also used to inspect the method practicality. The experimental results exhibit the successful connection between the physical theory and the machine learning methods and will benefit the clinical diagnoses.

  16. Cross-sex pattern of bone mineral density in early onset gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsen, I R; Haug, E; Falch, J; Egeland, T; Opjordsmoen, S

    2007-09-01

    Hormonally controlled differences in bone mineral density (BMD) between males and females are well studied. The effects of cross-sex hormones on bone metabolism in patients with early onset gender identity disorder (EO-GID), however, are unclear. We examined BMD, total body fat (TBF) and total lean body mass (TLBM) in patients prior to initiation of sex hormone treatment and during treatment at months 3 and 12. The study included 33 EO-GID patients who were approved for sex reassignment and a control group of 122 healthy Norwegians (males, n=77; females, n=45). Male patients (n=12) received an oral dose of 50 mug ethinylestradiol daily for the first 3 months and 100 mug daily thereafter. Female patients (n=21) received 250 mg testosterone enantate intramuscularly every third week. BMD, TBF and TLBM were estimated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In male patients, the DXA measurements except TBF were significantly lower compared to their same-sex control group at baseline and did not change during treatment. In female patients, the DXA measurements were slightly higher than in same-sex controls at baseline and also remained unchanged during treatment. In conclusion, this study reports that body composition and bone density of EO-GID patients show less pronounced sex differences compared to controls and that bone density was unaffected by cross-sex hormone treatment.

  17. Alternative REST Splicing Underappreciated

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guo-Lin; Miller, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    As a major orchestrator of the cellular epigenome, the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) can either repress or activate thousands of genes depending on cellular context, suggesting a highly context-dependent REST function tuned by environmental cues. While REST shows cell-type non-selective active transcription, an N-terminal REST4 isoform caused by alternative splicing - inclusion of an extra exon (N3c) which introduces a pre-mature stop codon - has been implicated in...

  18. Browsing Patterns of White-Tailed Deer Following Increased Timber Harvest and a Decline in Population Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn M. Crimmins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined browsing patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus on a site in the central Appalachians that experienced a substantial (>50% reduction in deer population density and an increase in the amount of timber harvest since 2001. We sampled woody browse in and immediately adjacent to 12 clearcuts ranging in age from 0–5 years postharvest in summer 2007. Clearcut-interior areas had higher woody browse abundance and browsing rates than clearcut-edge or mature forest areas. Woody browse abundance was slightly higher within individual clearcuts than in 2001 at higher population densities and lower timber harvest rates. Overall browsing rates declined from approximately 17% in 2001 to less than 5% during our study, suggesting that the combination of deer population control, and increasing the amount of timber harvest across the landscape can reduce herbivory to levels that may not impede growth and survival of forest vegetation.

  19. Recognize PM2.5 sources and emission patterns via high-density sensor network: An application case in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Yu tao; xian Liu, Bao; Sun, Feng; Wang, Li hua; Zhang, Da wei; Yin, Wen jun

    2017-04-01

    Beijing suffered severe air pollution during wintertime, 2016, with the unprecedented high level pollutants monitored. As the most dominant pollutant, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was measured via high-density sensor network (>1000 fixed monitors across 16000 km2 area). This campaign provided precise observations (spatial resolution ≈ 3 km, temporal resolution = 10 min, error of measure Chemistry) were analyzed to elucidate the effects of atmospheric transportations across regions, both horizontal and vertical, on emission patterns during this haze period. The results quantified the main cause of regional transport and local emission, and highlighted the importance of cross-region cooperation in anti-pollution campaigns.

  20. Sleep patterns, sleep disorders and mammographic density in spanish women: The DDM-Spain/Var-DDM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Flechas, Ana María; Lope, Virginia; Moreo, Pilar; Ascunce, Nieves; Miranda-García, Josefa; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Llobet, Rafael; Aragonés, Nuria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz

    2017-05-01

    We explored the relationship between sleep patterns and sleep disorders and mammographic density (MD), a marker of breast cancer risk. Participants in the DDM-Spain/var-DDM study, which included 2878 middle-aged Spanish women, were interviewed via telephone and asked questions on sleep characteristics. Two radiologists assessed MD in their left craneo-caudal mammogram, assisted by a validated semiautomatic-computer tool (DM-scan). We used log-transformed percentage MD as the dependent variable and fitted mixed linear regression models, including known confounding variables. Our results showed that neither sleeping patterns nor sleep disorders were associated with MD. However, women with frequent changes in their bedtime due to anxiety or depression had higher MD (e β :1.53;95%CI:1.04-2.26). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hidden keys to survival: the type, density, pattern and functional role of emperor penguin body feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cassondra L; Hagelin, Julie C; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2015-10-22

    Antarctic penguins survive some of the harshest conditions on the planet. Emperor penguins breed on the sea ice where temperatures drop below -40°C and forage in -1.8°C waters. Their ability to maintain 38°C body temperature in these conditions is due in large part to their feathered coat. Penguins have been reported to have the highest contour feather density of any bird, and both filoplumes and plumules (downy feathers) are reported absent in penguins. In studies modelling the heat transfer properties and the potential biomimetic applications of penguin plumage design, the insulative properties of penguin plumage have been attributed to the single afterfeather attached to contour feathers. This attribution of the afterfeather as the sole insulation component has been repeated in subsequent studies. Our results demonstrate the presence of both plumules and filoplumes in the penguin body plumage. The downy plumules are four times denser than afterfeathers and play a key, previously overlooked role in penguin survival. Our study also does not support the report that emperor penguins have the highest contour feather density. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Orange Recognition on Tree Using Image Processing Method Based on Lighting Density Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R Ahmadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the last few years, a new tendency has been created towards robotic harvesting of oranges and some of citrus fruits. The first step in robotic harvesting is accurate recognition and positioning of fruits. Detection through image processing by color cameras and computer is currently the most common method. Obviously, a harvesting robot faces with natural conditions and, therefore, detection must be done in various light conditions and environments. In this study, it was attempted to provide a suitable algorithm for recognizing the orange fruits on tree. In order to evaluate the proposed algorithm, 500 images were taken in different conditions of canopy, lighting and the distance to the tree. The algorithm included sub-routines for optimization, segmentation, size filtering, separation of fruits based on lighting density method and coordinates determination. In this study, MLP neural network (with 3 hidden layers was used for segmentation that was found to be successful with an accuracy of 88.2% in correct detection. As there exist a high percentage of the clustered oranges in images, any algorithm aiming to detect oranges on the trees successfully should offer a solution to separate these oranges first. A new method based on the light and shade density method was applied and evaluated in this research. Finally, the accuracies for differentiation and recognition were obtained to be 89.5% and 88.2%, respectively.

  3. The spectral density of the QCD Dirac operator and patterns of chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toublan, D.; Verbaarschot, J.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    We study the spectrum of the QCD Dirac operator for two colors with fermions in the fundamental representation and for two or more colors with adjoint fermions. For N f flavors, the chiral flavor symmetry of these theories is spontaneously broken according to SU (2N f → Sp (2N f ) and SU (N f → O (N f ), respectively, rather than the symmetry breaking pattern SU (N f ) x SU (N f ) → SU (N f ) for QCD with three or more colors and fundamental fermions. In this paper we study the Dirac spectrum for the first two symmetry breaking patterns. Following previous work for the third case we find the Dirac spectrum in the domain λ QCD by means of partially quenched chiral perturbation theory. In particular, this result allows us to calculate the slope of the Dirac spectrum at λ = 0. We also show that for λ 2 Λ QCD (wing L the linear size of the system) the Dirac spectrum is given by a chiral Random Matrix Theory with the symmetries of the Dirac operator

  4. Parietal scalp is another affected area in female pattern hair loss: an analysis of hair density and hair diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojhirunsakool S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinee Rojhirunsakool, Poonkiat Suchonwanit Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common hair disease. However, studies of the quantitative measurement of FPHL are still limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of hair density and hair diameter in normal women and FPHL patients, and further correlate the quantitative measurement with the clinical presentation of FPHL.Patients and methods: An evaluation of 471 FPHL patients and 236 normal women was carried out according to the Ludwig classification, and analysis was performed by using a computerized handheld USB camera with computer-assisted software. Various areas of the scalp, including frontal, parietal, midscalp, and occipital, were analyzed for hair density, non-vellus hair diameter, and percentage of miniaturized hair.Results: The hair density in normal women was the highest and the lowest in the midscalp and parietal areas, respectively. The FPHL group revealed the lowest hair density in the parietal area. Significant differences in hair density, non-vellus hair diameter, and percentage of miniaturized hair between the normal and FPHL groups were observed, especially in the midscalp and parietal areas.Conclusion: The parietal area is another important affected area in FPHL in addition to the midscalp area. This finding provides novel important information of FPHL and will be useful for hair transplant surgeons choosing the optimal donor sites for hair transplantation in women. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, alopecia, phototrichogram, miniaturization

  5. Density and spatial distribution of Parkia biglobosa pattern in Benin under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fafunkè Titilayo Dotchamou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkia biglobosa is an indigenous species which, traditionally contributes to the resilience of the agricultural production system in terms of food security, source of income, poverty reduction and ecosystem stability. Therefore, it is important to improve knowledge on its density, current and future spatial distribution. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the tree density, the climate change effects on the spatial distribution of the species in the future for better conservation. The modeling of the current and future geographical distribution of the species is based on the principle of Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt on a total of 286 occurrence points from field work and Global Biodiversity Information Facility GBIF-Data Portal-(www.gbif.org. Two climatic models (HadGEM2_ES and Csiro_mk3_6_0 have been used under two scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 for the projection of the species distribution at the horizon 2050. The correlation analyses and Jackknife test have helped to identify seven variables which are less correlated (r < 0.80 with highest modeling participation. The soil, annual precipitation (BIO12 and temperature (diurnal average Deviation are the variables which have mostly contributed to performance of the models. Currently, 53% of national territory, spread from north to south is very suitable to the cultivation of P. biglobosa. The scenarios have predicted at the horizon 2050, a loss of the habitats which are currently very suitable for the cultivation and conservation of P. biglobosa, to the benefit of moderate and weak habitats. 51% and 57% are the highest proportion of this lost which will be registered with HadGEM2_ES model under two scenarios. These results revealed that the suitable habitat of the species is threatened by climate change in Benin. In order to limit damage such as decreased productivity, extinction of species, some appropriate solutions must be found.

  6. Pattern and density of vascularization in mammalian testes, ovaries, and ovotestes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupiáñez, Darío G; Real, Francisca M; Dadhich, Rajesh K; Carmona, Francisco D; Burgos, Miguel; Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Jiménez, Rafael

    2012-05-01

    According to the classical paradigm, the vasculature of the embryonic testis is more dense and complex than that of the ovary, but recent studies based on whole-mount detection of Caveolin-1 (CAV1) as an endothelial cell marker, have suggested that the level of ovarian vascularization is higher than previously assumed. However, this new hypothesis has been neither tested using alternative methodology nor investigated in other mammalian species. In this paper, we have studied the vascularization process in the gonads of males and females of two mammalian species, the mouse (Mus musculus) and the Iberian mole (Talpa occidentalis). Our results show that the pattern of testis vascularization is very well conserved among mammals, including both pre- and postnatal stages of development and, at least in the mole, it is conserved irrespectively of whether the testicular tissue is XY or XX. We have shown that CAV1 is present not only in endothelial cells but also in prefollicular oocytes and in an ovarian population of somatic cortical cells. These data clearly establish that: (1) according to the classical hypothesis, the degree of vascularization of the developing ovary is lower than that of the testis, (2) ovarian vascularization is also evolutionarily conserved as it occurs similarly both in moles and in mice, and (3) that the degree of vascular development of the mammalian ovary is age-dependent increasing significatively at puberty. The expression of CAV1 in the ovary of most animal taxa, from nematodes to mammals, strongly suggests a role for this gene in the female meiosis. © 2012 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  7. AIDEN: A Density Conscious Artificial Immune System for Automatic Discovery of Arbitrary Shape Clusters in Spatial Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwambhar Pathak

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent efforts in modeling of dynamics of the natural immune cells leading to artificial immune systems (AIS have ignited contemporary research interest in finding out its analogies to real world problems. The AIS models have been vastly exploited to develop dependable robust
    solutions to clustering. Most of the traditional clustering methods bear limitations in their capability to detect clusters of arbitrary shapes in a fully unsupervised manner. In this paper the recognition and communication dynamics of T Cell Receptors, the recognizing elements in innate immune
    system, has been modeled with a kernel density estimation method. The model has been shown to successfully discover non spherical clusters in spatial patterns. Modeling the cohesion of the antibodies and pathogens with ‘local influence’ measure inducts comprehensive extension of the
    antibody representation ball (ARB, which in turn corresponds to controlled expansion of clusters and prevents overfitting.

  8. Clinical applications of resting state functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Fox

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During resting conditions the brain remains functionally and metabolically active. One manifestation of this activity that has become an important research tool is spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal of fMRI. The identification of correlation patterns in these spontaneous fluctuations has been termed resting state functional connectivity (fcMRI and has the potential to greatly increase the translation of fMRI into clinical care. In this article we review the advantages of the resting state signal for clinical applications including detailed discussion of signal to noise considerations. We include guidelines for performing resting state research on clinical populations, outline the different areas for clinical application, and identify important barriers to be addressed to facilitate the translation of resting state fcMRI into the clinical realm.

  9. Food Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient Density of Complementary Foods Consumed by Infants Fed Commercially Prepared Baby Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Kathleen C; Bailey, Regan Lucas; Deming, Denise M; O'Neill, Lynda; Carr, B Thomas; Lesniauskas, Ruta; Johnson, Wendy

    2018-03-01

    Nutrition is critically important in the first 1000 days, and while most American babies are fed commercial baby foods, there is little or no evidence from nationally representative data to understand the implications of such consumption. We used 24-hour dietary recall data for 505 infants from The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study to describe food consumption patterns and micronutrient density of complementary foods consumed by infants fed commercially prepared baby food fruit, vegetables, and dinners and compared with those eaten by nonconsumers of these products. Results show that consumers were significantly more likely to report eating all vegetables (excluding white potatoes, 71% vs 51%), deep yellow vegetables (42% vs 18%), and fruits (79% vs 65%) and were less likely to report eating white potatoes (10% vs 24%), dark green vegetables (4% vs 20%), and sweets (23% vs 47%) than were nonconsumers. Nutrient density of the complementary foods of consumers was greater for fiber, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and magnesium, but lower in sodium and vitamin D. We conclude that infants fed commercially prepared baby foods were more likely to eat vegetables and fruits, and their diets were higher in several micronutrients. These findings provide important insights on complementary feeding and are useful to support the development of evidence-based infant-feeding guidelines.

  10. Food Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient Density of Complementary Foods Consumed by Infants Fed Commercially Prepared Baby Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Kathleen C.; Bailey, Regan Lucas; Deming, Denise M.; O’Neill, Lynda; Carr, B. Thomas; Lesniauskas, Ruta; Johnson, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition is critically important in the first 1000 days, and while most American babies are fed commercial baby foods, there is little or no evidence from nationally representative data to understand the implications of such consumption. We used 24-hour dietary recall data for 505 infants from The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study to describe food consumption patterns and micronutrient density of complementary foods consumed by infants fed commercially prepared baby food fruit, vegetables, and dinners and compared with those eaten by nonconsumers of these products. Results show that consumers were significantly more likely to report eating all vegetables (excluding white potatoes, 71% vs 51%), deep yellow vegetables (42% vs 18%), and fruits (79% vs 65%) and were less likely to report eating white potatoes (10% vs 24%), dark green vegetables (4% vs 20%), and sweets (23% vs 47%) than were nonconsumers. Nutrient density of the complementary foods of consumers was greater for fiber, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and magnesium, but lower in sodium and vitamin D. We conclude that infants fed commercially prepared baby foods were more likely to eat vegetables and fruits, and their diets were higher in several micronutrients. These findings provide important insights on complementary feeding and are useful to support the development of evidence-based infant-feeding guidelines. PMID:29706668

  11. Effects of planting pattern and density on growth indices, yield and yield component of corn (Zea mays in competition with redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retrofelexus(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza barkhi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in 2002-2003 using split-split plot arrangement based on Rondomised Compelete Block Design with three replications at Feiz Abad Agricultural Research Station of Qazvin, in order to study of planting patterns and corn densitis effect in competition with redroot pigweed. Main plots inclouded two planting pattern of corn (P1: single row and P2: double row, sub plots inclouded two corn densities (D1:7 and D2:10 plant/m2 and sub sub plots inclouded 4 weed densities (C1:0, C2:2, C3:6, C4:12 plant/m2. Sampling conducted in 2-weekly intervals and growth indices evaluated. Results indicated that with increasing of weed density CGR, TDW, LAI, number of seeds in row, grain and ear yield decreased but plant height increased. Also LAI, CGR, TDW, number of weed seed and seed,s weight of weed increased. By increasing in corn density LAI, CGR, TDW, ear and grain yield increased, but length and diameter of ear and number of seeds in row decreased. Also LAI and CGR of weed increased, but TDW was decreased. In double row planting pattern just CGR, LAI, TDW of corn were higher significantly than single row planting pattern. But single row planting of weed caused higher LAI, NAR, RGR, CGR and TDW of weed in comparison with double row planting pattern. In 2-way interaction, double row planting pattern and zero densities and 2 weeds/m2 had highest grain yield respectively. There were no significant differences for 3-way interactions but double row planting pattern 10 plant density of corn/m2 zero weed/ m2 had highest grain yield.

  12. Altitudinal patterns in breeding bird species richness and density in relation to climate, habitat heterogeneity, and migration influence in a temperate montane forest (South Korea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Yong; Lee, Sanghun; Shin, Man-Seok; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Seo, Changwan; Eo, Soo Hyung

    2018-01-01

    Altitudinal patterns in the population ecology of mountain bird species are useful for predicting species occurrence and behavior. Numerous hypotheses about the complex interactions among environmental factors have been proposed; however, these still remain controversial. This study aimed to identify the altitudinal patterns in breeding bird species richness or density and to test the hypotheses that climate, habitat heterogeneity (horizontal and vertical), and heterospecific attraction in a temperate forest, South Korea. We conducted a field survey of 142 plots at altitudes between 200 and 1,400 m a.s.l in the breeding season. A total of 2,771 individuals from 53 breeding bird species were recorded. Altitudinal patterns of species richness and density showed a hump-shaped pattern, indicating that the highest richness and density could be observed at moderate altitudes. Models constructed with 13 combinations of six variables demonstrated that species richness was positively correlated with vertical and horizontal habitat heterogeneity. Density was positively correlated with vertical, but not horizontal habitat heterogeneity, and negatively correlated with migratory bird ratio. No significant relationships were found between spring temperature and species richness or density. Therefore, the observed patterns in species richness support the hypothesis that habitat heterogeneity, rather than climate, is the main driver of species richness. Also, neither habitat heterogeneity nor climate hypotheses fully explains the observed patterns in density. However, vertical habitat heterogeneity does likely help explain observed patterns in density. The heterospecific attraction hypothesis did not apply to the distribution of birds along the altitudinal gradient. Appropriate management of vertical habitat heterogeneity, such as vegetation cover, should be maintained for the conservation of bird diversity in this area.

  13. Head and bit patterned media optimization at areal densities of 2.5 Tbit/in2 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.A.; Schrefl, T.; Dean, J.; Goncharov, A.; Hrkac, G.; Allwood, D.A.; Suess, D.

    2012-01-01

    Global optimization of writing head is performed using micromagnetics and surrogate optimization. The shape of the pole tip is optimized for bit patterned, exchange spring recording media. The media characteristics define the effective write field and the threshold values for the head field that acts at islands in the adjacent track. Once the required head field characteristics are defined, the pole tip geometry is optimized in order to achieve a high gradient of the effective write field while keeping the write field at the adjacent track below a given value. We computed the write error rate and the adjacent track erasure for different maximum anisotropy in the multilayer, graded media. The results show a linear trade off between the error rate and the number of passes before erasure. For optimal head media combinations we found a bit error rate of 10 -6 with 10 8 pass lines before erasure at 2.5 Tbit/in 2 . - Research Highlights: → Global optimization of writing head is performed using micromagnetics and surrogate optimization. → A method is provided to optimize the pole tip shape while maintaining the head field that acts in the adjacent tracks. → Patterned media structures providing an area density of 2.5 Tbit/in 2 are discussed as a case study. → Media reliability is studied, while taking into account, the magnetostatic field interactions from neighbouring islands and adjacent track erasure under the influence of head field.

  14. RESTful Web Services Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Allamaraju, Subbu

    2010-01-01

    While the REST design philosophy has captured the imagination of web and enterprise developers alike, using this approach to develop real web services is no picnic. This cookbook includes more than 100 recipes to help you take advantage of REST, HTTP, and the infrastructure of the Web. You'll learn ways to design RESTful web services for client and server applications that meet performance, scalability, reliability, and security goals, no matter what programming language and development framework you use. Each recipe includes one or two problem statements, with easy-to-follow, step-by-step i

  15. High cell density suppresses BMP4-induced differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to produce macroscopic spatial patterning in a unidirectional perfusion culture chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Shota; Le, Minh Nguyen Tuyet; Kusama, Yuta; Nakatani, Eri; Suga, Mika; Furue, Miho K; Satoh, Taku; Sugiura, Shinji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi

    2018-04-19

    Spatial pattern formation is a critical step in embryogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and its inhibitors are major factors for the formation of spatial patterns during embryogenesis. However, spatial patterning of the human embryo is unclear because of ethical issues and isotropic culture environments resulting from conventional culture dishes. Here, we utilized human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and a simple anisotropic (unidirectional perfusion) culture chamber, which creates unidirectional conditions, to measure the cell community effect. The influence of cell density on BMP4-induced differentiation was explored during static culture using a conventional culture dish. Immunostaining of the early differentiation marker SSEA-1 and the mesendoderm marker BRACHYURY revealed that high cell density suppressed differentiation, with small clusters of differentiated and undifferentiated cells formed. Addition of five-fold higher concentration of BMP4 showed similar results, suggesting that suppression was not caused by depletion of BMP4 but rather by high cell density. Quantitative RT-PCR array analysis showed that BMP4 induced multi-lineage differentiation, which was also suppressed under high-density conditions. We fabricated an elongated perfusion culture chamber, in which proteins were transported unidirectionally, and hiPSCs were cultured with BMP4. At low density, the expression was the same throughout the chamber. However, at high density, SSEA-1 and BRACHYURY were expressed only in upstream cells, suggesting that some autocrine/paracrine factors inhibited the action of BMP4 in downstream cells to form the spatial pattern. Human iPSCs cultured in a perfusion culture chamber might be useful for studying in vitro macroscopic pattern formation in human embryogenesis. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Computer x-ray powder diffraction patterns and densities for corundum, aluminium, zirconium, delta-UZr2 and the zirconium hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, I.F.

    1976-11-01

    The computer-calculated X-ray powder diffraction patterns and theoretical densities of α-Al 2 O 3 ; Al; α-Zr; β-Zr; delta-UZr 2 ; γ, delta - and epsilon-zirconium hydrides are presented. Brief comments are given on some of the published X-ray powder diffraction data on these phases. (author)

  17. High-density SNP genotyping of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. reveals patterns of genetic variation due to breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chur Sim

    Full Text Available The effects of selection on genome variation were investigated and visualized in tomato using a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array. 7,720 SNPs were genotyped on a collection of 426 tomato accessions (410 inbreds and 16 hybrids and over 97% of the markers were polymorphic in the entire collection. Principal component analysis (PCA and pairwise estimates of F(st supported that the inbred accessions represented seven sub-populations including processing, large-fruited fresh market, large-fruited vintage, cultivated cherry, landrace, wild cherry, and S. pimpinellifolium. Further divisions were found within both the contemporary processing and fresh market sub-populations. These sub-populations showed higher levels of genetic diversity relative to the vintage sub-population. The array provided a large number of polymorphic SNP markers across each sub-population, ranging from 3,159 in the vintage accessions to 6,234 in the cultivated cherry accessions. Visualization of minor allele frequency revealed regions of the genome that distinguished three representative sub-populations of cultivated tomato (processing, fresh market, and vintage, particularly on chromosomes 2, 4, 5, 6, and 11. The PCA loadings and F(st outlier analysis between these three sub-populations identified a large number of candidate loci under positive selection on chromosomes 4, 5, and 11. The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD was examined within each chromosome for these sub-populations. LD decay varied between chromosomes and sub-populations, with large differences reflective of breeding history. For example, on chromosome 11, decay occurred over 0.8 cM for processing accessions and over 19.7 cM for fresh market accessions. The observed SNP variation and LD decay suggest that different patterns of genetic variation in cultivated tomato are due to introgression from wild species and selection for market specialization.

  18. Changes in Breast Density Reporting Patterns of Radiologists After Publication of the 5th Edition BI-RADS Guidelines: A Single Institution Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Abid; Leddy, Rebecca; Lewis, Madelene; Cluver, Abbie; Ackerman, Susan; Pavic, Dag; Collins, Heather

    2017-10-01

    The objective of our study was to determine the impact of 5th edition BI-RADS breast density assessment guidelines on density reporting patterns in our clinical practice. PenRad reporting system was used to collect mammographic breast density data reported by five radiologists: 16,907 density assignments using 5th edition BI-RADS guidelines were compared with 19,066 density assessments using 4th edition guidelines. Changes in the density assessment pattern were noted between the 4th and 5th edition guidelines, and agreement in density distribution was compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient. A chi-square analysis was conducted for each reader to examine the change in the proportion of dense versus nondense assignments and on each category type to examine specific changes in proportion of density assignments from the 4th to the 5th edition. All reported p values are two-sided, and statistical significance was considered at the p densities (p < 0.001), 2.6% increase in heterogeneously dense (p < 0.001), and 0.4% decrease in extremely dense assessments (p = 0.15). Comparing the dense with nondense categories, there was a 2.3% overall increase in the dense assessments (p < 0.001) using 5th edition guidelines, mainly in the heterogeneously dense category. Two radiologists showed increased dense assessments (p < 0.001) using the 5th edition, and three radiologists showed no change (p = 0.39, 0.67, and 0.76). There was an overall increase in the dense assessments using the 5th edition, but individual radiologists in our clinical practice showed a variable adaptation to new guidelines.

  19. REST based service composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönvall, Erik; Ingstrup, Mads; Pløger, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an ongoing work developing and testing a Service Composition framework based upon the REST architecture named SECREST. A minimalistic approach have been favored instead of a creating a complete infrastructure. One focus has been on the system's interaction model. Indeed, an aim...

  20. Pattern of peripapillary capillary density loss in ischemic optic neuropathy compared to that in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Aghsaei Fard

    Full Text Available Both non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG damage retinal ganglion cell axons, which are perfused by the radial peripapillary capillaries. To evaluate the pattern of ischemia, we compared peripapillary capillary density (PCD in NAION eyes to POAG eyes matched for visual field mean deviation and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness.31 chronic NAION (>6 months after the acute event and unaffected fellow eyes (31 subjects, 42 moderate and severe POAG eyes (27 subjects, and 77 control eyes (46 healthy subjects were imaged with a commercial optical coherence tomography angiography system (AngioVue, Avanti RTVue-XR, Optovue, CA at two academic institutions. Two concentric circles of diameters 1.95mm (inner and 3.45mm (outer were manually placed on images centered on the optic nerve head, producing an annular region-of-interest. Image analysis with major vessel removal was performed using a custom program. Whole-image, whole-annulus, and sectoral PCDs were measured.Whole-image and whole-annulus PCDs in NAION and moderate and severe POAG eyes were significantly decreased compared to unaffected fellow eyes and control eyes (all P<0.001. Superior and temporal PCD values were affected more than other sectors in both NAION and POAG groups compared to control group. Whole-image and whole-annulus PCDs were not statistically different between NAION and POAG eyes (both P = 0.99. However, of all peripapillary sectors, the inferior sector PCD value was less affected in POAG eyes compared to NAION eyes (P = 0.001. Univariate analysis results also revealed a significant positive correlation between superior and inferior PCDs and corresponding RNFL thicknesses. The inferior sector correlation was greater in POAG than NAION eyes.While the whole PCD values were not different in chronic NAION and POAG, the greater correlation of inferior PCD with corresponding RNFL sectors in POAG compared to NAION suggests greater

  1. Directed Self-Assembly of Block Copolymer for Bit Patterned Media with Areal Density of 1.5 Teradot/Inch2 and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiaoMin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Directed self-assembly (DSA of block copolymer (BCP holds great promise for many applications in nanolithography, including the next generation magnetic recording. In this work, directed self-assembly of block copolymer technique has been combined with rotary stage electron beam mastering to fabricate a circular full track nanoimprint template for bit patterned media (BPM fabrication. In order to meet specific requirements in pattern structure and format between the data and the servo zone in a servo-integrated template, three types of lithographically defined prepatterns, (1 two-dimensional chemical pre-pattern, (2 two-dimensional low-topographic pre-pattern, and (3 one-dimensional high-topographic pre-pattern, have been explored for DSA process with two types of commercially available BCP thin film materials: cylinder-forming poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate (PS-b-PMMA and sphere-forming poly(styrene-b-dimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS. All guided BCP patterns exhibit highly ordered hexagonal close-packed (hcp structures with high pattern quality. Using these BCP patterns, two polarities of dots-array templates (hole-tone and pillar-tone with integrated servo patterns have been fabricated on a fused silica substrate at a density greater than 1.0 Td/in2. Furthermore, the fabricated master template has been used for UV-cure nanoimprint lithography process development on 2.5 inch disk size media. Good pattern uniformity in imprint resist has been achieved over an entire 2.4 mm wide band area. The imprint resist patterns have been further transferred into underlying CoCrPt media by ion beam etching. Evidently, for the first time, the patterned CoCrPt alloy dots (hcp pattern have successfully been demonstrated at a high density of  1.5 Td/in2 (pitch=22.3 nm for a guided media (Hc≅7 kOe and 3.2 Td/in2 (pitch=15.2 nm for an unguided media (Hc≅5 kOe.

  2. REST in practice Hypermedia and systems architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, Jim; Robinson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Why don't typical enterprise projects go as smoothly as projects you develop for the Web? Does the REST architectural style really present a viable alternative for building distributed systems and enterprise-class applications? In this insightful book, three SOA experts provide a down-to-earth explanation of REST and demonstrate how you can develop simple and elegant distributed hypermedia systems by applying the Web's guiding principles to common enterprise computing problems. You'll learn techniques for implementing specific Web technologies and patterns to solve the needs of a typical com

  3. The changes of densities and patterns of roads and rural buildings: a case study on Dongzhi Yuan of the Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaoli; Wang, Hui; Ge, Jianping

    2010-05-01

    Roads and buildings are considered as primary causes of rural landscape changes. In this study, linear regression models were used to analyze the dynamic influences of environmental factors and variables on roads and rural buildings from 1979 to 2005 in Dongzhi Yuan (tableland) of the Loess Plateau, China. The relationship between roads and rural buildings and their effects on Dongzhi Yuan are discussed also. The results showed that three environmental factors (topography, land cover, and development level) explained roads better than rural buildings referring densities and patterns. The environmental variables significantly related to roads have decreased, whereas those related to rural buildings have increased over time. Among these significant variables, percent of farmland mostly determined the densities and patterns of both roads and rural buildings. There was significant correlation between roads and rural buildings in terms of density and pattern. In addition, roads and rural buildings have increased greatly in gully areas of this region. Therefore, more attention should be paid to planning of roads and rural buildings in Dongzhi Yuan.

  4. Variability in radial sap flux density patterns and sapwood area among seven co-occurring temperate broad-leaved tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Tobias; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2008-12-01

    Forest transpiration estimates are frequently based on xylem sap flux measurements in the outer sections of the hydro-active stem sapwood. We used Granier's constant-heating technique with heating probes at various xylem depths to analyze radial patterns of sap flux density in the sapwood of seven broad-leaved tree species differing in wood density and xylem structure. Study aims were to (1) compare radial sap flux density profiles between diffuse- and ring-porous trees and (2) analyze the relationship between hydro-active sapwood area and stem diameter. In all investigated species except the diffuse-porous beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and ring-porous ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), sap flux density peaked at a depth of 1 to 4 cm beneath the cambium, revealing a hump-shaped curve with species-specific slopes. Beech and ash reached maximum sap flux densities immediately beneath the cambium in the youngest annual growth rings. Experiments with dyes showed that the hydro-active sapwood occupied 70 to 90% of the stem cross-sectional area in mature trees of diffuse-porous species, whereas it occupied only about 21% in ring-porous ash. Dendrochronological analyses indicated that vessels in the older sapwood may remain functional for 100 years or more in diffuse-porous species and for up to 27 years in ring-porous ash. We conclude that radial sap flux density patterns are largely dependent on tree species, which may introduce serious bias in sap-flux-derived forest transpiration estimates, if non-specific sap flux profiles are assumed.

  5. Developmental Patterns of Doublecortin Expression and White Matter Neuron Density in the Postnatal Primate Prefrontal Cortex and Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Samantha J.; Joshi, Dipesh; Allen, Katherine M.; Sivagnanasundaram, Sinthuja; Rothmond, Debora A.; Saunders, Richard; Noble, Pamela L.; Webster, Maree J.; Shannon Weickert, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Postnatal neurogenesis occurs in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus, and evidence suggests that new neurons may be present in additional regions of the mature primate brain, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Addition of new neurons to the PFC implies local generation of neurons or migration from areas such as the subventricular zone. We examined the putative contribution of new, migrating neurons to postnatal cortical development by determining the density of neurons in white matter subjacent to the cortex and measuring expression of doublecortin (DCX), a microtubule-associated protein involved in neuronal migration, in humans and rhesus macaques. We found a striking decline in DCX expression (human and macaque) and density of white matter neurons (humans) during infancy, consistent with the arrival of new neurons in the early postnatal cortex. Considering the expansion of the brain during this time, the decline in white matter neuron density does not necessarily indicate reduced total numbers of white matter neurons in early postnatal life. Furthermore, numerous cells in the white matter and deep grey matter were positive for the migration-associated glycoprotein polysialiated-neuronal cell adhesion molecule and GAD65/67, suggesting that immature migrating neurons in the adult may be GABAergic. We also examined DCX mRNA in the PFC of adult schizophrenia patients (n = 37) and matched controls (n = 37) and did not find any difference in DCX mRNA expression. However, we report a negative correlation between DCX mRNA expression and white matter neuron density in adult schizophrenia patients, in contrast to a positive correlation in human development where DCX mRNA and white matter neuron density are higher earlier in life. Accumulation of neurons in the white matter in schizophrenia would be congruent with a negative correlation between DCX mRNA and white matter neuron density and support the hypothesis of a migration deficit in schizophrenia. PMID

  6. Developmental patterns of doublecortin expression and white matter neuron density in the postnatal primate prefrontal cortex and schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Fung

    Full Text Available Postnatal neurogenesis occurs in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus, and evidence suggests that new neurons may be present in additional regions of the mature primate brain, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Addition of new neurons to the PFC implies local generation of neurons or migration from areas such as the subventricular zone. We examined the putative contribution of new, migrating neurons to postnatal cortical development by determining the density of neurons in white matter subjacent to the cortex and measuring expression of doublecortin (DCX, a microtubule-associated protein involved in neuronal migration, in humans and rhesus macaques. We found a striking decline in DCX expression (human and macaque and density of white matter neurons (humans during infancy, consistent with the arrival of new neurons in the early postnatal cortex. Considering the expansion of the brain during this time, the decline in white matter neuron density does not necessarily indicate reduced total numbers of white matter neurons in early postnatal life. Furthermore, numerous cells in the white matter and deep grey matter were positive for the migration-associated glycoprotein polysialiated-neuronal cell adhesion molecule and GAD65/67, suggesting that immature migrating neurons in the adult may be GABAergic. We also examined DCX mRNA in the PFC of adult schizophrenia patients (n = 37 and matched controls (n = 37 and did not find any difference in DCX mRNA expression. However, we report a negative correlation between DCX mRNA expression and white matter neuron density in adult schizophrenia patients, in contrast to a positive correlation in human development where DCX mRNA and white matter neuron density are higher earlier in life. Accumulation of neurons in the white matter in schizophrenia would be congruent with a negative correlation between DCX mRNA and white matter neuron density and support the hypothesis of a migration deficit in

  7. Identification of Resting State Networks Involved in Executive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Joanna; McNulty, Jonathan P; Boran, Lorraine; Roche, Richard A P; Delany, David; Bokde, Arun L W

    2016-06-01

    The structural networks in the human brain are consistent across subjects, and this is reflected also in that functional networks across subjects are relatively consistent. These findings are not only present during performance of a goal oriented task but there are also consistent functional networks during resting state. It suggests that goal oriented activation patterns may be a function of component networks identified using resting state. The current study examines the relationship between resting state networks measured and patterns of neural activation elicited during a Stroop task. The association between the Stroop-activated networks and the resting state networks was quantified using spatial linear regression. In addition, we investigated if the degree of spatial association of resting state networks with the Stroop task may predict performance on the Stroop task. The results of this investigation demonstrated that the Stroop activated network can be decomposed into a number of resting state networks, which were primarily associated with attention, executive function, visual perception, and the default mode network. The close spatial correspondence between the functional organization of the resting brain and task-evoked patterns supports the relevance of resting state networks in cognitive function.

  8. Resting eggs in free living marine and estuarine copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Kiørboe, Thomas; Brun, Philipp Georg

    2018-01-01

    Marine free living copepods can survive harsh periods and cope with seasonal fluctuations in environmental conditions using resting eggs (embryonic dormancy). Laboratory experiments show that temperature is the common driver for resting egg production. Hence, we hypothesize (i) that seasonal...... temperature variation, rather than variation in food abundance is the main driver for the occurrence of the resting eggs strategy in marine and estuarine copepod species; and (ii) that the thermal boundaries of the distribution determine where resting eggs are produced and whether they are produced to cope...... with warm or cold periods. We compile literature information on the occurrence of resting egg production and relate this to spatio-temporal patterns in sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a concentration obtained from satellite observations. We find that the production of resting eggs has been reported...

  9. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Malgorzata Kotowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing towards the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density. We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia; three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, wood density showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and wood density. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation

  10. Migration Patterns, Densities, and Growth of Neritina punctulata Snails in Rio Espiritu Santo and Rio Mameyes, Northeastern Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARK PYRON; ALAN P. COVICH

    2003-01-01

    Snail size-frequency distributions in Rios Espiritu Santo and Mameyes, which drain the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, showed that Neritina punctulata with shell lengths greater than 30 mm were the most abundant size class at upstream sites. The highest densities for all size classes were at the downstream sites. Growth rates were 0.015 mm/day for a large...

  11. Dipoles at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    In a world populated by magnetic monopoles (as well as ordinary electric charges), there are two kinds of electric dipoles: those due to separated electric charges, and those due to current loops of magnetic charge. Similarly, there are two kinds of magnetic dipoles: those due to separated magnetic monopoles, and those due to electric current loops. This paper derives the potentials and fields of each of the four dipole species, and calculates the force, torque, energy, momentum, and angular momentum of each type, when placed (at rest) in a static external field (which may itself be produced by electric charges and currents, magnetic charges and currents, or all of these). Some implications and applications of the various results are discussed

  12. Exercise countermeasures for bed-rest deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.

  13. Suppressed carrier density for the patterned high mobility two-dimensional electron gas at γ-Al2O3/SrTiO3 heterointerfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Wei; Gan, Yulin; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn

    2017-01-01

    The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the non-isostructural interface between spinel γ-Al2O3 and perovskite SrTiO3 is featured by a record electron mobility among complex oxide interfaces in addition to a high carrier density up to the order of 1015 cm-2. Herein, we report on the patterning...... is found to be approximately 3×1013 cm-2, much lower than that of the unpatterned sample (~1015 cm-2). Remarkably, a high electron mobility of approximately 3,600 cm2V-1s-1 was obtained at low temperatures for the patterned 2DEG at a carrier density of ~ 7×1012 cm-2, which exhibits clear Shubnikov-de Hass...... quantum oscillations. The patterned high-mobility 2DEG at the γ-Al2O3/SrTiO3 interface paves the way for the design and application of spinel/perovskite interfaces for high-mobility all-oxide electronic devic...

  14. Survey on aedes mosquito density and pattern distribution of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in high and low incidence districts in north sumatera province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, Fazidah A.; Makmur, Tri

    2018-03-01

    Transmission and control of dengue hemorrhagic fever are related to its vectors. This study investigated vector density and distribution patterns of Aedes aegypty and Aedes albopictus in Medan and Langkat as high and low incidence district, respectively. An entomological survey was carried out in 304 households both in Medan and Langkat. The results showed that adult Ae. aegypti were predominantly in Medan, while adult Ae. albopictus was only in Langkat. Larvae indices (HI, CI, BI) for Aedes in Medan ( 35,13 and 43) were higher than langkat ( 22,8 and 30). Adult indices (AHI, AD, RR) for Ae. aegypti in Medan and for Ae. albopictus in Langkat were 20,38,24 and 3,5, and 5, respectively. Pattern distribution of Aedes larvae and adult mosquitoes in both district had similar pattern. Aedes larval indices and adult indices both in HIDs and LIDs were above the critical level, indicating potential high risk for DHF transmission. By multiple regression analysis, HI is predictor for DHF transmission in North Sumatera. Thus, in designing an effective control measures for dengue hemorrhagic fever, monitoring distribution and vector density is crucial.

  15. Nekton density patterns and hurricane recovery in submerged aquatic vegetation, and along non-vegetated natural and created edge habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Peyre, M.K.; Gordon, J.

    2012-01-01

    We compared nekton habitat value of submerged aquatic vegetation, flooded non-vegetated natural and man-made edge habitats in mesohaline interior marsh areas in southwest Louisiana using a 1-m 2 throw trap and 3-mm bag seine. When present, SAV habitats supported close to 4 times greater densities and higher species richness of nekton as compared to either natural or man-made edge habitats, which supported similar densities to one another. Three species of concern (bayou killifish, diamond killifish, chain pipefish) were targeted in the analysis, and two of the three were collected almost entirely in SAV habitat. During the course of the study, Hurricanes Ike and Gustav passed directly over the study sites in September 2008. Subsequent analyses indicated significant reductions in resident nekton density 1-mo post hurricanes, and only limited recovery 13-mo post-hurricane. Possible alteration of environmental characteristics such as scouring of SAV habitat, deposition of sediment over SAV, edge erosion and marsh loss, and extended high salinities may explain these lasting impacts. ?? 2011.

  16. Circulating and intraprostatic sex steroid hormonal profiles in relation to male pattern baldness and chest hair density among men diagnosed with localized prostate cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Hafi, Muhannad; Veneroso, Carmela C; Lynch, Barlow; Falk, Roni T; Niwa, Shelley; Emanuel, Eric; Gao, Yu-Tang; Hemstreet, George P; Zolfghari, Ladan; Carroll, Peter R; Manyak, Michael J; Sesterhenn, Isabell A; Levine, Paul H; Hsing, Ann W; Cook, Michael B

    2017-12-01

    Prospective cohort studies of circulating sex steroid hormones and prostate cancer risk have not provided a consistent association, despite evidence from animal and clinical studies. However, studies using male pattern baldness as a proxy of early-life or cumulative androgen exposure have reported significant associations with aggressive and fatal prostate cancer risk. Given that androgens underlie the development of patterned hair loss and chest hair, we assessed whether these two dermatological characteristics were associated with circulating and intraprostatic concentrations of sex steroid hormones among men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. We included 248 prostate cancer patients from the NCI Prostate Tissue Study, who answered surveys and provided a pre-treatment blood sample as well as fresh frozen adjacent normal prostate tissue. Male pattern baldness and chest hair density were assessed by trained nurses before surgery. General linear models estimated geometric means and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) of each hormone variable by dermatological phenotype with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were performed by Gleason score (balding status with serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and a weak association with elevated intraprostatic testosterone. Conversely, neither circulating nor intraprostatic sex hormones were statistically significantly associated with chest hair density. Age-adjusted correlation between binary balding status and three-level chest hair density was weak (r = 0.05). There was little evidence to suggest that Gleason score or race modified these associations. This study provides evidence that balding status assessed at a mean age of 60 years may serve as a clinical marker for circulating sex hormone concentrations. The weak-to-null associations between balding status and intraprostatic sex hormones reaffirm differences in organ

  17. Resting ECG findings in elite football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Philipp; Ditzel, Roman; Ditzel, Heribert; Urhausen, Axel; Meyer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate ECG abnormalities in a large sample of elite football players. Data from 566 elite male football players (57 of them of African origin) above 16 years of age were screened retrospectively (age: 20.9 ± 5.3 years; BMI: 22.9 ± 1.7 kg · m(-2), training history: 13.8 ± 4.7 years). The resting ECGs were analysed and classified according to the most current ECG categorisation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) (2010) and a classification of Pelliccia et al. (2000) in order to assess the impact of the new ESC-approach. According to the classification of Pelliccia, 52.5% showed mildly abnormal ECG patterns and 12% were classified as distinctly abnormal ECG patterns. According to the classification of the ESC, 33.7% showed 'uncommon ECG patterns'. Short-QT interval was the most frequent ECG pattern in this group (41.9%), followed by a shortened PR-interval (19.9%). When assessed with a QTc cut-off-point of 340 ms (instead of 360 ms), only 22.2% would have had 'uncommon ECG patterns'. Resting ECG changes amongst elite football players are common. Adjustment of the ESC criteria by adapting proposed time limits for the ECG (e.g. QTc, PR) should further reduce the rate of false-positive results.

  18. Information Flow Between Resting-State Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Ibai; Erramuzpe, Asier; Escudero, Iñaki; Mateos, Beatriz; Cabrera, Alberto; Marinazzo, Daniele; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto J; Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Cortes Diaz, Jesus M

    2015-11-01

    The resting brain dynamics self-organize into a finite number of correlated patterns known as resting-state networks (RSNs). It is well known that techniques such as independent component analysis can separate the brain activity at rest to provide such RSNs, but the specific pattern of interaction between RSNs is not yet fully understood. To this aim, we propose here a novel method to compute the information flow (IF) between different RSNs from resting-state magnetic resonance imaging. After hemodynamic response function blind deconvolution of all voxel signals, and under the hypothesis that RSNs define regions of interest, our method first uses principal component analysis to reduce dimensionality in each RSN to next compute IF (estimated here in terms of transfer entropy) between the different RSNs by systematically increasing k (the number of principal components used in the calculation). When k=1, this method is equivalent to computing IF using the average of all voxel activities in each RSN. For k≥1, our method calculates the k multivariate IF between the different RSNs. We find that the average IF among RSNs is dimension dependent, increasing from k=1 (i.e., the average voxel activity) up to a maximum occurring at k=5 and to finally decay to zero for k≥10. This suggests that a small number of components (close to five) is sufficient to describe the IF pattern between RSNs. Our method--addressing differences in IF between RSNs for any generic data--can be used for group comparison in health or disease. To illustrate this, we have calculated the inter-RSN IF in a data set of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to find that the most significant differences between AD and controls occurred for k=2, in addition to AD showing increased IF w.r.t. The spatial localization of the k=2 component, within RSNs, allows the characterization of IF differences between AD and controls.

  19. DIRAC RESTful API

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casajus Ramo, A; Graciani Diaz, R; Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2012-01-01

    The DIRAC framework for distributed computing has been designed as a flexible and modular solution that can be adapted to the requirements of any community. Users interact with DIRAC via command line, using the web portal or accessing resources via the DIRAC python API. The current DIRAC API requires users to use a python version valid for DIRAC. Some communities have developed their own software solutions for handling their specific workload, and would like to use DIRAC as their back-end to access distributed computing resources easily. Many of these solutions are not coded in python or depend on a specific python version. To solve this gap DIRAC provides a new language agnostic API that any software solution can use. This new API has been designed following the RESTful principles. Any language with libraries to issue standard HTTP queries may use it. GSI proxies can still be used to authenticate against the API services. However GSI proxies are not a widely adopted standard. The new DIRAC API also allows clients to use OAuth for delegating the user credentials to a third party solution. These delegated credentials allow the third party software to query to DIRAC on behalf of the users. This new API will further expand the possibilities communities have to integrate DIRAC into their distributed computing models.

  20. Current density and polarization curves for radial flow field patterns applied to PEMFCs (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano-Andrade, S.; Hernandez-Guerrero, A.; Spakovsky, M.R. von; Damian-Ascencio, C.E.; Rubio-Arana, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical solution of the current density and velocity fields of a 3-D PEM radial configuration fuel cell is presented. The energy, momentum and electrochemical equations are solved using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code based on a finite volume scheme. There are three cases of principal interest for this radial model: four channels, eight channels and twelve channels placed in a symmetrical path over the flow field plate. The figures for the current-voltage curves for the three models proposed are presented, and the main factors that affect the behavior of each of the curves are discussed. Velocity contours are presented for the three different models, showing how the fuel cell behavior is affected by the velocity variations in the radial configuration. All these results are presented for the case of high relative humidity. The favorable results obtained for this unconventional geometry seems to indicate that this geometry could replace the conventional commercial geometries currently in use.

  1. Photoreactive polymer brushes for high-density patterned surface derivatization using a Diels-Alder photoclick reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Selvanathan; Orski, Sara V; Locklin, Jason; Popik, Vladimir V

    2012-01-11

    Reactive polymer brushes grown on silicon oxide surfaces were derivatized with photoreactive 3-(hydroxymethyl)naphthalene-2-ol (NQMP) moieties. Upon 300 or 350 nm irradiation, NQMP efficiently produces o-naphthoquinone methide (oNQM), which in turn undergoes very rapid Diels-Alder addition to vinyl ether groups attached to a substrate, resulting in the covalent immobilization of the latter. Any unreacted oNQM groups rapidly add water to regenerate NQMP. High-resolution surface patterning is achieved by irradiating NQMP-derivatized surfaces using photolithographic methods. The Diels-Alder photoclick reaction is orthogonal to azide-alkyne click chemistry, enabling sequential photoclick/azide-click derivatizations to generate complex surface functionalities. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Resting spore formation of aphid-pathogenic fungus Pandora nouryi depends on the concentration of infective inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Hong; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2008-07-01

    Resting spore formation of some aphid-pathogenic Entomophthorales is important for the seasonal pattern of their prevalence and survival but this process is poorly understood. To explore the possible mechanism involved in the process, Pandora nouryi (obligate aphid pathogen) interacted with green peach aphid Myzus persicae on cabbage leaves under favourable conditions. Host nymphs showered with primary conidia of an isolate (LC(50): 0.9-6.7 conidia mm(-2) 4-7 days post shower) from air captures in the low-latitude plateau of China produced resting spores (azygospores), primary conidia or both spore types. Surprisingly, the proportion of mycosed cadavers forming resting spores (P(CFRS)) increased sharply within the concentrations (C) of 28-240 conidia mm(-2), retained high levels at 240-1760, but was zero or extremely low at 0.3-16. The P(CFRS)-C relationship fit well the logistic equation P(CFRS) = 0.6774/[1 + exp(3.1229-0.0270C)] (r(2) = 0.975). This clarified for the first time the dependence of in vivo resting spore formation of P. nouryi upon the concentration of infective inoculum. A hypothesis is thus proposed that some sort of biochemical signals may exist in the host-pathogen interaction so that the fungal pathogen perceives the signals for prompt response to forthcoming host-density changes by either producing conidia for infecting available hosts or forming resting spores for surviving host absence in situ.

  3. Associations of Bone Mineral Density with Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Dietary Patterns in Postmenopausal Chinese Women: A 2-Year Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Chen

    Full Text Available To assess factors associated with bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women in a longitudinal study, and to examine the relative contribution of lean mass, fat mass, dietary patterns, and years since menopause to BMD.Two hundred and eighty-two postmenopausal women were randomly selected from Hongqi Community Health Center, in Harbin City, China. All participants were followed up from 2009 to 2011. Dietary data were collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMD of the left hip, the lumbar spine, and the total body, and the body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and follow-up.Lean mass and fat mass were positively associated with BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body at both baseline and follow-up. The association between fat mass and BMD at the spine at baseline (P = 0.210 and at the spine (P = 0.116 and hip (P = 0.073 in the second year was not statistically significant when height was adjusted. Six dietary patterns were identified but only cereal grains-fruits pattern (P = 0.001 in the spine, P = 0.037 in hip and milk-root vegetables pattern (P = 0.010 in hip were associated with BMD of the spine and hip. The linear mixed model of follow-up data showed that lean mass, years since menopause, and age of menophania were the significant determinants of BMD of all sites. Moreover, lean mass was the best determinant of BMD (VIP = 1.936.Lean mass, years since menopause, age of menophania and dietary patterns are the important determinants of BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body. Lean mass is the best determinant of BMD.

  4. A milk and cereal dietary pattern is associated with a reduced likelihood of having a low bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangah; Hong, Kyungeui; Kang, Seung Wan; Joung, Hyojee

    2013-01-01

    The traditional rice-based Korean diet has been changing toward a Western-style diet. This change has been especially rapid among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between dietary patterns and bone health among Korean adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 196 adolescents aged 12 to 15 years. Information on the general characteristics of the subjects was obtained through a questionnaire, and dietary intake was assessed with 6-day food records. Bone mineral densities (BMDs) of the lumbar spine and femur were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary patterns were derived from 24 food groups using factor analysis. Four distinct dietary patterns-traditional Korean, fast food, milk and cereal, and snacks-were identified and accounted for 28.4% of the total variance. After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index percentiles, weight loss attempts, pubertal status, and regular exercise, the adolescents in the highest tertile of the "milk and cereal" dietary pattern score had significantly a reduced likelihood of having low BMD compared with those in the lowest tertile of this diet at the lumbar spine (odds ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.93; P = .0461). The other dietary patterns were not associated with the BMD of Korean adolescents. These results indicate that the intake of milk and cereal is important for the bone health of Korean adolescents, whose diets are composed mainly of grains and vegetables. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment patterns and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment among patients receiving high- or moderate-intensity statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathleen M; Tai, Ming-Hui; Kostev, Karel; Hatz, Maximilian; Qian, Yi; Laufs, Ulrich

    2018-05-01

    European clinical guidelines recommend a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal of C goal attainment among atherosclerotic CV disease (ASCVD) patients with various utilization patterns of moderate- or high-intensity statins in routine care. This retrospective cohort study used electronic medical records data from the QuintilesIMS® Disease Analyzer (> 2 million individuals annually) to identify ASCVD (coronary atherosclerosis, stable/unstable angina, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, aneurysm, peripheral artery disease) patients on moderate-/high-intensity statin in Germany. Proportion of patients with LDL-C C value for each patient (index) in 2012, 2013, and 2014, while on statin. Treatment patterns were assessed for patients with at least 1 year of post-index follow-up. Results were stratified by year and treatment pattern [no change, switch, dose up-/down-titration, discontinuation (≥ 90 day gap)]. In > 14,000 patients assessed in each year (mean age 71 years, 35% female, 8-12% taking high-intensity statins), approximately 80% had LDL-C ≥ 70 mg/dL. Treatment patterns were assessed for most (88-93%) patients. Approximately 79-81% of patients made no change to statin regimens, 1% switched statins, 14-16% discontinued; 1% of moderate-intensity patients up-titrated, and 3% of all patients down-titrated. LDL-C goal attainment in these treatment pattern groups was 20, 16-24, 17, 11-14, and 17-19%, respectively. Majority of ASCVD patients had LDL-C ≥ 70 mg/dL while on moderate-/high-intensity statins. Despite low LDL-C goal attainment, few patients changed their treatment regimens.

  6. Design and Micromagnetic Simulation of Fe/L10-FePt/Fe Trilayer for Exchange Coupled Composite Bit Patterned Media at Ultrahigh Areal Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warunee Tipcharoen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exchange coupled composite bit patterned media (ECC-BPM are one candidate to solve the trilemma issues, overcome superparamagnetic limitations, and obtain ultrahigh areal density. In this work, the ECC continuous media and ECC-BPM of Fe/L10-FePt/Fe trilayer schemes are proposed and investigated based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The switching field, Hsw, of the hard phase in the proposed continuous ECC trilayer media structure is reduced below the maximum write head field at interlayer exchange coupling between hard and soft phases, Aex, higher than 20 pJ/m and its value is lower than that for continuous L10-FePt single layer media and L10-FePt/Fe bilayer. Furthermore, the Hsw of the proposed ECC-BPM is lower than the maximum write head field with exchange coupling coefficient between neighboring dots of 5 pJ/m and Aex over 10 pJ/m. Therefore, the proposed ECC-BPM trilayer has the highest potential and is suitable for ultrahigh areal density magnetic recording technology at ultrahigh areal density. The results of this work may be gainful idea for nanopatterning in magnetic media nanotechnology.

  7. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  8. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment.

  9. Cerebral Blood Flow during Rest Associates with General Intelligence and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Nagase, Tomomi; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-01-01

    Recently, much scientific attention has been focused on resting brain activity and its investigation through such methods as the analysis of functional connectivity during rest (the temporal correlation of brain activities in different regions). However, investigation of the magnitude of brain activity during rest has focused on the relative decrease of brain activity during a task, rather than on the absolute resting brain activity. It is thus necessary to investigate the association between cognitive factors and measures of absolute resting brain activity, such as cerebral blood flow (CBF), during rest (rest-CBF). In this study, we examined this association using multiple regression analyses. Rest-CBF was the dependent variable and the independent variables included two essential components of cognitive functions, psychometric general intelligence and creativity. CBF was measured using arterial spin labeling and there were three analyses for rest-CBF; namely mean gray matter rest-CBF, mean white matter rest-CBF, and regional rest-CBF. The results showed that mean gray and white matter rest-CBF were significantly and positively correlated with individual psychometric intelligence. Furthermore, mean white matter rest-CBF was significantly and positively correlated with creativity. After correcting the effect of mean gray matter rest-CBF the significant and positive correlation between regional rest-CBF in the perisylvian anatomical cluster that includes the left superior temporal gyrus and insula and individual psychometric intelligence was found. Also, regional rest-CBF in the precuneus was significantly and negatively correlated with individual creativity. Significance of these results of regional rest-CBF did not change when the effect of regional gray matter density was corrected. The findings showed mean and regional rest-CBF in healthy young subjects to be correlated with cognitive functions. The findings also suggest that, even in young cognitively intact

  10. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain at rest--exploring EEG microstates as electrophysiological signatures of BOLD resting state networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Han; Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2012-05-01

    Neuroimaging research suggests that the resting cerebral physiology is characterized by complex patterns of neuronal activity in widely distributed functional networks. As studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal, the resting brain activity is associated with slowly fluctuating hemodynamic signals (~10s). More recently, multimodal functional imaging studies involving simultaneous acquisition of BOLD-fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG) data have suggested that the relatively slow hemodynamic fluctuations of some resting state networks (RSNs) evinced in the BOLD data are related to much faster (~100 ms) transient brain states reflected in EEG signals, that are referred to as "microstates". To further elucidate the relationship between microstates and RSNs, we developed a fully data-driven approach that combines information from simultaneously recorded, high-density EEG and BOLD-fMRI data. Using independent component analysis (ICA) of the combined EEG and fMRI data, we identified thirteen microstates and ten RSNs that are organized independently in their temporal and spatial characteristics, respectively. We hypothesized that the intrinsic brain networks that are active at rest would be reflected in both the EEG data and the fMRI data. To test this hypothesis, the rapid fluctuations associated with each microstate were correlated with the BOLD-fMRI signal associated with each RSN. We found that each RSN was characterized further by a specific electrophysiological signature involving from one to a combination of several microstates. Moreover, by comparing the time course of EEG microstates to that of the whole-brain BOLD signal, on a multi-subject group level, we unraveled for the first time a set of microstate-associated networks that correspond to a range of previously described RSNs, including visual, sensorimotor, auditory, attention, frontal, visceromotor and default mode networks. These

  11. Discrimination of relationships with the same degree of kinship using chromosomal sharing patterns estimated from high-density SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Chie; Manabe, Sho; Fujimoto, Shuntaro; Hamano, Yuya; Tamaki, Keiji

    2018-03-01

    Distinguishing relationships with the same degree of kinship (e.g., uncle-nephew and grandfather-grandson) is generally difficult in forensic genetics by using the commonly employed short tandem repeat loci. In this study, we developed a new method for discerning such relationships between two individuals by examining the number of chromosomal shared segments estimated from high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We computationally generated second-degree kinships (i.e., uncle-nephew and grandfather-grandson) and third-degree kinships (i.e., first cousins and great-grandfather-great-grandson) for 174,254 autosomal SNPs considering the effect of linkage disequilibrium and recombination for each SNP. We investigated shared chromosomal segments between two individuals that were estimated based on identity by state regions. We then counted the number of segments in each pair. Based on our results, the number of shared chromosomal segments in collateral relationships was larger than that in lineal relationships with both the second-degree and third-degree kinships. This was probably caused by differences involving chromosomal transitions and recombination between relationships. As we probabilistically evaluated the relationships between simulated pairs based on the number of shared segments using logistic regression, we could determine accurate relationships in >90% of second-degree relatives and >70% of third-degree relatives, using a probability criterion for the relationship ≥0.9. Furthermore, we could judge the true relationships of actual sample pairs from volunteers, as well as simulated data. Therefore, this method can be useful for discerning relationships between two individuals with the same degree of kinship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. EMF-REST: Generation of RESTful APIs from Models

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza , Ed-Douibi; Cánovas Izquierdo , Javier Luis; Gómez , Abel; Tisi , Massimo; Cabot , Jordi

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, RESTful Web services have become more and more popular as a lightweight solution to connect remote systems in distributed and Cloud-based architectures. However, being an architectural style rather than a specification or standard, the proper design of RESTful Web services is not trivial since developers have to deal with a plethora of recommendations and best practices. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) emphasizes the use of models and model transformations to raise the level...

  13. Dietary patterns in Canadian men and women ages 25 and older: relationship to demographics, body mass index, and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towheed Tanveer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that underlying dietary patterns are related to the risk of many different adverse health outcomes, but the relationship of these underlying patterns to skeletal fragility is not well understood. The objective of the study was to determine whether dietary patterns in men (ages 25-49, 50+ and women (pre-menopause, post-menopause are related to femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD independently of other lifestyle variables, and whether this relationship is mediated by body mass index. Methods We performed an analysis of 1928 men and 4611 women participants in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, a randomly selected population-based longitudinal cohort. We determined dietary patterns based on the self-administered food frequency questionnaires in year 2 of the study (1997-99. Our primary outcome was BMD as measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry in year 5 of the study (2000-02. Results We identified two underlying dietary patterns using factor analysis and then derived factor scores. The first factor (nutrient dense was most strongly associated with intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The second factor (energy dense was most strongly associated with intake of soft drinks, potato chips and French fries, certain meats (hamburger, hot dog, lunch meat, bacon, and sausage, and certain desserts (doughnuts, chocolate, ice cream. The energy dense factor was associated with higher body mass index independent of other demographic and lifestyle factors, and body mass index was a strong independent predictor of BMD. Surprisingly, we did not find a similar positive association between diet and BMD. In fact, when adjusted for body mass index, each standard deviation increase in the energy dense score was associated with a BMD decrease of 0.009 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.016 g/cm2 for men 50+ years old and 0.004 (95% CI: 0.000, 0.008 g/cm2 for postmenopausal women. In contrast, for men 25-49 years old

  14. Task vs. rest-different network configurations between the coactivation and the resting-state brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xin; Gohel, Suril; Kim, Eun H; Biswal, Bharat B

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in studies of human brain networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, it is unclear whether and how brain networks measured during the resting-state exhibit comparable properties to brain networks during task performance. In the present study, we investigated meta-analytic coactivation patterns among brain regions based upon published neuroimaging studies, and compared the coactivation network configurations with those in the resting-state network. The strength of resting-state functional connectivity between two regions were strongly correlated with the coactivation strength. However, the coactivation network showed greater global efficiency, smaller mean clustering coefficient, and lower modularity compared with the resting-state network, which suggest a more efficient global information transmission and between system integrations during task performing. Hub shifts were also observed within the thalamus and the left inferior temporal cortex. The thalamus and the left inferior temporal cortex exhibited higher and lower degrees, respectively in the coactivation network compared with the resting-state network. These results shed light regarding the reconfiguration of the brain networks between task and resting-state conditions, and highlight the role of the thalamus in change of network configurations in task vs. rest.

  15. Patterns of lymph node sampling and the impact of lymph node density in favorable histology Wilms tumor: An analysis of the national cancer database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, A F; Carrasco, A; Amini, A; Aldrink, J H; Dasgupta, R; Gow, K W; Glick, R D; Ehrlich, P F; Cost, N G

    2018-04-01

    There is controversy about the role of lymph node (LN) sampling or dissection in the management of favorable histology (FH) Wilms tumor (WT), specifically how it performed and how it may impact survival. The objective of this study was to analyze factors affecting LN sampling patterns and the impact of LN yield and density (number of positive LNs/LNs examined) on overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced-stage favorable histology Wilms tumor (FHWT). The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was queried for patients with FHWT during 2004-2013. Demographic, clinical and OS data were abstracted for those who underwent surgical resection. Poisson regression was performed to analyze how factors influenced LN yield. Patients with positive LNs had LN density calculated and were further analyzed. A total of 2340 patients met criteria, with a median age at diagnosis of 3 years (range 0-78 years). The median number of LNs examined was three (range 0-87). Lymph node yield was affected by age, race, insurance, tumor size, laterality, advanced stage, LN positivity, and institutional volume. A total of 390 (16.6%) patients had LN-positive disease. Median LN density for these LN-positive patients was 0.38 (range 0.02-1) (Summary Figure). Estimated 5-year OS was significantly improved for those with LN density ≤0.38 vs. >0.38 (94% vs. 84.6%, P = 0.012). In this population, on multivariate analysis, age and LN density were significant predictors of OS. It is difficult to compile large numbers of cases in rare diseases like WT, and fortunately a large administrative database such as the NCDB can serve as a great resource. However, administrative data come with inherent limitations such as missing data and inability to account for a variety of factors that may influence LN yield and/or OS (specimen designation, pathologist experience, surgeon experience/volume, institutional Children's Oncology Group (COG) association, etc.). In this specific disease, the American Joint Committee

  16. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  17. Clustering of resting state networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan H Lee

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to demonstrate a hierarchical structure of resting state activity in the healthy brain using a data-driven clustering algorithm.The fuzzy-c-means clustering algorithm was applied to resting state fMRI data in cortical and subcortical gray matter from two groups acquired separately, one of 17 healthy individuals and the second of 21 healthy individuals. Different numbers of clusters and different starting conditions were used. A cluster dispersion measure determined the optimal numbers of clusters. An inner product metric provided a measure of similarity between different clusters. The two cluster result found the task-negative and task-positive systems. The cluster dispersion measure was minimized with seven and eleven clusters. Each of the clusters in the seven and eleven cluster result was associated with either the task-negative or task-positive system. Applying the algorithm to find seven clusters recovered previously described resting state networks, including the default mode network, frontoparietal control network, ventral and dorsal attention networks, somatomotor, visual, and language networks. The language and ventral attention networks had significant subcortical involvement. This parcellation was consistently found in a large majority of algorithm runs under different conditions and was robust to different methods of initialization.The clustering of resting state activity using different optimal numbers of clusters identified resting state networks comparable to previously obtained results. This work reinforces the observation that resting state networks are hierarchically organized.

  18. Do resting brain dynamics predict oddball evoked-potential?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Tien-Wen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oddball paradigm is widely applied to the investigation of cognitive function in neuroscience and in neuropsychiatry. Whether cortical oscillation in the resting state can predict the elicited oddball event-related potential (ERP is still not clear. This study explored the relationship between resting electroencephalography (EEG and oddball ERPs. The regional powers of 18 electrodes across delta, theta, alpha and beta frequencies were correlated with the amplitude and latency of N1, P2, N2 and P3 components of oddball ERPs. A multivariate analysis based on partial least squares (PLS was applied to further examine the spatial pattern revealed by multiple correlations. Results Higher synchronization in the resting state, especially at the alpha spectrum, is associated with higher neural responsiveness and faster neural propagation, as indicated by the higher amplitude change of N1/N2 and shorter latency of P2. None of the resting quantitative EEG indices predict P3 latency and amplitude. The PLS analysis confirms that the resting cortical dynamics which explains N1/N2 amplitude and P2 latency does not show regional specificity, indicating a global property of the brain. Conclusions This study differs from previous approaches by relating dynamics in the resting state to neural responsiveness in the activation state. Our analyses suggest that the neural characteristics carried by resting brain dynamics modulate the earlier/automatic stage of target detection.

  19. Human activity and rest in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roenneberg, Till; Keller, Lena K; Fischer, Dorothee; Matera, Joana L; Vetter, Céline; Winnebeck, Eva C

    2015-01-01

    Our lives are structured by the daily alternation of activity and rest, of wake and sleep. Despite significant advances in circadian and sleep research, we still lack answers to many of the most fundamental questions about this conspicuous behavioral pattern. We strongly believe that investigating this pattern in entrained conditions, real-life and daily contexts-in situ-will help the field to elucidate some of these central questions. Here, we present two common approaches for in situ investigation of human activity and rest: the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) and actimetry. In the first half of this chapter, we provide detailed instructions on how to use and interpret the MCTQ. In addition, we give an overview of the main insights gained with this instrument over the past 10 years, including some new findings on the interaction of light and age on sleep timing. In the second half of this chapter, we introduce the reader to the method of actimetry and share our experience in basic analysis techniques, including visualization, smoothing, and cosine model fitting of in situ recorded data. Additionally, we describe our new approach to automatically detect sleep from activity recordings. Our vision is that the broad use of such easy techniques in real-life settings combined with automated analyses will lead to the creation of large databases. The resulting power of big numbers will promote our understanding of such fundamental biological phenomena as sleep. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Is it safe to nest near conspicuous neighbours? Spatial patterns in predation risk associated with the density of American Golden-Plover nests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Andrée Giroux

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Predation is one of the main factors explaining nesting mortality in most bird species. Birds can avoid nest predation or reduce predation pressure by breeding at higher latitude, showing anti-predator behaviour, selecting nest sites protected from predators, and nesting in association with protective species. American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica defend their territory by using various warning and distraction behaviours displayed at varying levels of intensity (hereafter “conspicuous behaviour”, as well as more aggressive behaviours such as aerial attacks, but only in some populations. Such antipredator behaviour has the potential to repel predators and thus benefit the neighbouring nests by decreasing their predation risk. Yet, conspicuous behaviour could also attract predators by signalling the presence of a nest. To test for the existence of a protective effect associated with the conspicuous antipredator behaviour of American Golden-Plovers, we studied the influence of proximity to plover nests on predation risk of artificial nests on Igloolik Island (Nunavut, Canada in July 2014. We predicted that the predation risk of artificial nests would decrease with proximity to and density of plover nests. We monitored 18 plover nests and set 35 artificial nests at 30, 50, 100, 200, and 500 m from seven of those plover nests. We found that the predation risk of artificial nests increases with the density of active plover nests. We also found a significant negative effect of the distance to the nearest active protector nest on predation risk of artificial nests. Understanding how the composition and structure of shorebird communities generate spatial patterns in predation risks represents a key step to better understand the importance of these species of conservation concern in tundra food webs.

  1. Is it safe to nest near conspicuous neighbours? Spatial patterns in predation risk associated with the density of American Golden-Plover nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Trottier-Paquet, Myriam; Bêty, Joël; Lamarre, Vincent; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is one of the main factors explaining nesting mortality in most bird species. Birds can avoid nest predation or reduce predation pressure by breeding at higher latitude, showing anti-predator behaviour, selecting nest sites protected from predators, and nesting in association with protective species. American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) defend their territory by using various warning and distraction behaviours displayed at varying levels of intensity (hereafter "conspicuous behaviour"), as well as more aggressive behaviours such as aerial attacks, but only in some populations. Such antipredator behaviour has the potential to repel predators and thus benefit the neighbouring nests by decreasing their predation risk. Yet, conspicuous behaviour could also attract predators by signalling the presence of a nest. To test for the existence of a protective effect associated with the conspicuous antipredator behaviour of American Golden-Plovers, we studied the influence of proximity to plover nests on predation risk of artificial nests on Igloolik Island (Nunavut, Canada) in July 2014. We predicted that the predation risk of artificial nests would decrease with proximity to and density of plover nests. We monitored 18 plover nests and set 35 artificial nests at 30, 50, 100, 200, and 500 m from seven of those plover nests. We found that the predation risk of artificial nests increases with the density of active plover nests. We also found a significant negative effect of the distance to the nearest active protector nest on predation risk of artificial nests. Understanding how the composition and structure of shorebird communities generate spatial patterns in predation risks represents a key step to better understand the importance of these species of conservation concern in tundra food webs.

  2. RESTful Java web services security

    CERN Document Server

    Enríquez, René

    2014-01-01

    A sequential and easy-to-follow guide which allows you to understand the concepts related to securing web apps/services quickly and efficiently, since each topic is explained and described with the help of an example and in a step-by-step manner, helping you to easily implement the examples in your own projects. This book is intended for web application developers who use RESTful web services to power their websites. Prior knowledge of RESTful is not mandatory, but would be advisable.

  3. Resting-state network disruption and APOE genotype in Alzheimer's disease: a lagged functional connectivity study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonides Canuet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (APOE-4 is associated with a genetic vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease (AD and with AD-related abnormalities in cortical rhythms. However, it is unclear whether APOE-4 is linked to a specific pattern of intrinsic functional disintegration of the brain after the development of the disease or during its different stages. This study aimed at identifying spatial patterns and effects of APOE genotype on resting-state oscillations and functional connectivity in patients with AD, using a physiological connectivity index called "lagged phase synchronization". METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Resting EEG was recorded during awake, eyes-closed state in 125 patients with AD and 60 elderly controls. Source current density and functional connectivity were determined using eLORETA. Patients with AD exhibited reduced parieto-occipital alpha oscillations compared with controls, and those carrying the APOE-4 allele had reduced alpha activity in the left inferior parietal and temporo-occipital cortex relative to noncarriers. There was a decreased alpha2 connectivity pattern in AD, involving the left temporal and bilateral parietal cortex. Several brain regions exhibited increased lagged phase synchronization in low frequencies, specifically in the theta band, across and within hemispheres, where temporal lobe connections were particularly compromised. Areas with abnormal theta connectivity correlated with cognitive scores. In patients with early AD, we found an APOE-4-related decrease in interhemispheric alpha connectivity in frontal and parieto-temporal regions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In addition to regional cortical dysfunction, as indicated by abnormal alpha oscillations, there are patterns of functional network disruption affecting theta and alpha bands in AD that associate with the level of cognitive disturbance or with the APOE genotype. These functional patterns of nonlinear connectivity may potentially

  4. The NASA Bed Rest Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Bradley; Meck, Janice

    2005-01-01

    NASA s National Vision for Space Exploration includes human travel beyond low earth orbit and the ultimate safe return of the crews. Crucial to fulfilling the vision is the successful and timely development of countermeasures for the adverse physiological effects on human systems caused by long term exposure to the microgravity environment. Limited access to in-flight resources for the foreseeable future increases NASA s reliance on ground-based analogs to simulate these effects of microgravity. The primary analog for human based research will be head-down bed rest. By this approach NASA will be able to evaluate countermeasures in large sample sizes, perform preliminary evaluations of proposed in-flight protocols and assess the utility of individual or combined strategies before flight resources are requested. In response to this critical need, NASA has created the Bed Rest Project at the Johnson Space Center. The Project establishes the infrastructure and processes to provide a long term capability for standardized domestic bed rest studies and countermeasure development. The Bed Rest Project design takes a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, integrated approach that reduces the resource overhead of one investigator for one campaign. In addition to integrating studies operationally relevant for exploration, the Project addresses other new Vision objectives, namely: 1) interagency cooperation with the NIH allows for Clinical Research Center (CRC) facility sharing to the benefit of both agencies, 2) collaboration with our International Partners expands countermeasure development opportunities for foreign and domestic investigators as well as promotes consistency in approach and results, 3) to the greatest degree possible, the Project also advances research by clinicians and academia alike to encourage return to earth benefits. This paper will describe the Project s top level goals, organization and relationship to other Exploration Vision Projects, implementation

  5. Latent heat of traffic moving from rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzad Ahmadi, S.; Berrier, Austin S.; Doty, William M.; Greer, Pat G.; Habibi, Mohammad; Morgan, Hunter A.; Waterman, Josam H. C.; Abaid, Nicole; Boreyko, Jonathan B.

    2017-11-01

    Contrary to traditional thinking and driver intuition, here we show that there is no benefit to ground vehicles increasing their packing density at stoppages. By systematically controlling the packing density of vehicles queued at a traffic light on a Smart Road, drone footage revealed that the benefit of an initial increase in displacement for close-packed vehicles is completely offset by the lag time inherent to changing back into a ‘liquid phase’ when flow resumes. This lag is analogous to the thermodynamic concept of the latent heat of fusion, as the ‘temperature’ (kinetic energy) of the vehicles cannot increase until the traffic ‘melts’ into the liquid phase. These findings suggest that in situations where gridlock is not an issue, drivers should not decrease their spacing during stoppages in order to lessen the likelihood of collisions with no loss in flow efficiency. In contrast, motion capture experiments of a line of people walking from rest showed higher flow efficiency with increased packing densities, indicating that the importance of latent heat becomes trivial for slower moving systems.

  6. What goes on in the resting-state? A qualitative glimpse into resting-state experience in the scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlburt, Russell T.; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The brain’s resting-state has attracted considerable interest in recent years, but currently little is known either about typical experience during the resting-state or about whether there are inter-individual differences in resting-state phenomenology. We used descriptive experience sampling (DES) in an attempt to apprehend high fidelity glimpses of the inner experience of five participants in an extended fMRI study. Results showed that the inner experiences and the neural activation patterns (as quantified by amplitude of low frequency fluctuations analysis) of the five participants were largely consistent across time, suggesting that our extended-duration scanner sessions were broadly similar to typical resting-state sessions. However, there were very large individual differences in inner phenomena, suggesting that the resting-state itself may differ substantially from one participant to the next. We describe these individual differences in experiential characteristics and display some typical moments of resting-state experience. We also show that retrospective characterizations of phenomena can often be very different from moment-by-moment reports. We discuss implications for the assessment of inner experience in neuroimaging studies more generally, concluding that it may be possible to use fMRI to investigate neural correlates of phenomena apprehended in high fidelity. PMID:26500590

  7. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and left ventricular function at rest in patients with rest angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakki, A.H.; Iskandrian, A.S.; Kane, S.A.; Amenta, A.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the rest thallium-201 perfusion pattern during angina-free periods in 40 patients with rest angina pectoris secondary to coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 70% diameter narrowing). Seventeen patients had previous Q wave myocardial infarction. The perfusion defects were considered fixed or reversible, depending on the absence or presence of redistribution in the 4-hour delayed images. There were 40 perfusion defects (26 fixed and 14 reversible) in 27 patients whereas 13 patients had normal scans. Reversible perfusion defects were present in 10 patients (25%). Of the 26 fixed perfusion defects, 17 did not have corresponding Q waves. Occluded vessels (63%) had more perfusion defects than vessels with subtotal occlusion (30%) (p less than 0.01). The perfusion defect size was larger in patients with lower ejection fraction than in patients with higher ejection fraction. We conclude: (1) perfusion defects are common in patients with rest angina and are reversible in 25% of patients indicating reduced regional coronary blood flow; (2) the degree of stenosis affects the presence of perfusion defect; (3) fixed defects may be present without corresponding Q waves; and (4) global left ventricular function is related to the size of perfusion defects

  8. RESTful web services with Dropwizard

    CERN Document Server

    Dallas, Alexandros

    2014-01-01

    A hands-on focused step-by-step tutorial to help you create Web Service applications using Dropwizard. If you are a software engineer or a web developer and want to learn more about building your own Web Service application, then this is the book for you. Basic knowledge of Java and RESTful Web Service concepts is assumed and familiarity with SQL/MySQL and command-line scripting would be helpful.

  9. Infraslow Electroencephalographic and Dynamic Resting State Network Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, Joshua K; Thompson, Garth J; Pan, Wen-Ju; Billings, Jacob; Schumacher, Eric H; Epstein, Charles M; Keilholz, Shella D

    2017-06-01

    A number of studies have linked the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in traditional frequency bands (δ, θ, α, β, and γ), but the relationship between BOLD and its direct frequency correlates in the infraslow band (resting state magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired simultaneously. The DC EEG signals were correlated with the BOLD signal in patterns that resembled resting state networks. Subsequent dynamic analysis showed that the correlation between DC EEG and the BOLD signal varied substantially over time, even within individual subjects. The variation in DC EEG appears to reflect the time-varying contribution of different resting state networks. Furthermore, some of the patterns of DC EEG and BOLD correlation are consistent with previous work demonstrating quasiperiodic spatiotemporal patterns of large-scale network activity in resting state. These findings demonstrate that infraslow electrical activity is linked to BOLD fluctuations in humans and that it may provide a basis for large-scale organization comparable to that observed in animal studies.

  10. WEB-SERVICE. RESTFUL ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Melnichuk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Network technology for interaction between two applications via the HTTP protocol was considered in article.When client works with REST API - it means it works with "resources", and in SOAP work is performed with operations. To build REST web services, you must follow certain principles: explicit use of HTTP methods, access to resources by URI, stateless, HATEAOS, caching, transfer of objects in JSON or XML representation. But sometimes some principles are ignored to ensure a higher speed of work and to reduce development time.The pros and cons of using JSON and XML representations were considered, and it can be said that using the JSON format reduces the amount of data transfer, and with the use of XML, the readability of data increases.Also, two main ways of data transfer in REST web services were considered: converting the file to Base64 and transferring it as an object field or transferring the file using the usual HTTP multipart. The Base64 standard approach gives a higher speed for multiple files in a single request, because only one HTTP connection is created, but these files are stored in RAM during request processing, which increases chance of the application crashing.In the conclusion, the advantages of using web services and their wide use in other architectural approaches were considered, which increases the popularity of web services.

  11. Mach's principle and the rest mass of the graviton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, J.F.; Crowley, R.J.; Yourgrau, W.

    1975-01-01

    The question of the graviton rest mass is briefly discussed and then it is shown that the Sciama-Dicke formulation of Mach's principle admits, in the linear approximation, the calculation of the graviton rest mass. One finds that the value of the graviton rest mass depends on the cosmological model adopted, the mean matter density in the universe, the speed of light, and the constant of gravitation. The value obtained for an infinite, stationary universe is 7.6 times 10 -67 g. The value for evolutionary cosmological models is found to depend critically on the mass and ''radius'' of the universe, both null and non-null values occurring only for certain values of these parameters. Problems that arise as a consequence of the linear approximation are pointed out

  12. Rest but busy: Aberrant resting-state functional connectivity of triple network model in insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaojuan; Qin, Haixia; Wu, Taoyu; Hu, Hua; Liao, Keren; Cheng, Fei; Gao, Dong; Lei, Xu

    2018-02-01

    One classical hypothesis among many models to explain the etiology and maintenance of insomnia disorder (ID) is hyperarousal. Aberrant functional connectivity among resting-state large-scale brain networks may be the underlying neurological mechanisms of this hypothesis. The aim of current study was to investigate the functional network connectivity (FNC) among large-scale brain networks in patients with insomnia disorder (ID) during resting state. In the present study, the resting-state fMRI was used to evaluate whether patients with ID showed aberrant FNC among dorsal attention network (DAN), frontoparietal control network (FPC), anterior default mode network (aDMN), and posterior default mode network (pDMN) compared with healthy good sleepers (HGSs). The Pearson's correlation analysis was employed to explore whether the abnormal FNC observed in patients with ID was associated with sleep parameters, cognitive and emotional scores, and behavioral performance assessed by questionnaires and tasks. Patients with ID had worse subjective thought control ability measured by Thought Control Ability Questionnaire (TCAQ) and more negative affect than HGSs. Intriguingly, relative to HGSs, patients with ID showed a significant increase in FNC between DAN and FPC, but a significant decrease in FNC between aDMN and pDMN. Exploratory analysis in patients with ID revealed a significantly positive correlation between the DAN-FPC FNC and reaction time (RT) of psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). The current study demonstrated that even during the resting state, the task-activated and task-deactivated large-scale brain networks in insomniacs may still maintain a hyperarousal state, looking quite similar to the pattern in a task condition with external stimuli. Those results support the hyperarousal model of insomnia.

  13. From "rest" to language task: Task activation selects and prunes from broader resting-state network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Gaelle E; He, Xiaosong; Sperling, Michael R; Sharan, Ashwini; Tracy, Joseph I

    2017-05-01

    Resting-state networks (RSNs) show spatial patterns generally consistent with networks revealed during cognitive tasks. However, the exact degree of overlap between these networks has not been clearly quantified. Such an investigation shows promise for decoding altered functional connectivity (FC) related to abnormal language functioning in clinical populations such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this context, we investigated the network configurations during a language task and during resting state using FC. Twenty-four healthy controls, 24 right and 24 left TLE patients completed a verb generation (VG) task and a resting-state fMRI scan. We compared the language network revealed by the VG task with three FC-based networks (seeding the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC)/Broca): two from the task (ON, OFF blocks) and one from the resting state. We found that, for both left TLE patients and controls, the RSN recruited regions bilaterally, whereas both VG-on and VG-off conditions produced more left-lateralized FC networks, matching more closely with the activated language network. TLE brings with it variability in both task-dependent and task-independent networks, reflective of atypical language organization. Overall, our findings suggest that our RSN captured bilateral activity, reflecting a set of prepotent language regions. We propose that this relationship can be best understood by the notion of pruning or winnowing down of the larger language-ready RSN to carry out specific task demands. Our data suggest that multiple types of network analyses may be needed to decode the association between language deficits and the underlying functional mechanisms altered by disease. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2540-2552, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Selection and spatial arrangement of rest sites within northern tamandua home ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, D. D.; Montgomery, R. A.; Millspaugh, J. J.; Jansen, P. A.; Garzon-Lopez, C. X.; Kays, R.

    The distribution of suitable rest sites is considered to be a key determinant of spatial patterns in animal activity. However, it is not immediately evident which landscape features satisfy rest site requirements or how these sites are configured within the home range. We used Global Positioning

  15. Selection and spatial Arrangement of rest sites within Northern tamandua (Tamandua mexicana) home ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, D.D.; Montgomery, R.A.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Jansen, P.A.; Garzon-Lopez, C.X.; Kays, R.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of suitable rest sites is considered to be a key determinant of spatial patterns in animal activity. However, it is not immediately evident which landscape features satisfy rest site requirements or how these sites are configured within the home range. We used Global Positioning

  16. Rest requirements and rest management of personnel in shift work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammell, B.D. [PDG Environmental, Melbourne, FL (United States); Scheuerle, A. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A difficulty-weighted shift assignment scheme is proposed for use in prolonged and strenuous field operations such as emergency response, site testing, and short term hazardous waste remediation projects. The purpose of the work rotation plan is to increase productivity, safety, and moral of workers. Job weighting is accomplished by assigning adjustments to the mental and physical intensity of the task, the protective equipment worn, and the climatic conditions. The plan is based on medical studies of sleep deprivation, the effects of rest adjustments, and programs to reduce sleep deprivation and normalize shift schedules.

  17. Sustainable Rest Area Design and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    One way in which State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) can modernize their rest areas while reducing operations and maintenance costs is by incorporating sustainable practices into rest area design and operations. Sustainability practices that D...

  18. Combinations of resting RSA and RSA reactivity impact maladaptive mood repair and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Bylsma, Lauren M; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Kovacs, Maria

    2013-10-01

    We examined whether the combined indices of respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest (resting RSA) and in response to a sad film (RSA reactivity) predict effective and ineffective responses to reduce sadness (adaptive vs. maladaptive mood repair) in women with histories of juvenile-onset depression (n=74) and no history of major mental disorders (n=75). Structural equation models were used to estimate latent resting RSA, depression, and adaptive and maladaptive mood repair and to test the study hypotheses. Results indicated that combinations of resting RSA+RSA reactivity (RSA patterns) predicted maladaptive mood repair, which in turn, mediated the effects of RSA pattern on depression. Further, RSA patterns moderated the depressogenic effects of maladaptive mood repair. RSA patterns were unrelated to adaptive mood repair. Our findings suggest that mood repair is one mechanism through which physiological vulnerabilities adversely affect mental health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Restful API Architecture Based on Laravel Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianjun; Ji, Zhoupeng; Fan, Yu; Zhan, Yongsong

    2017-10-01

    Web service has been an industry standard tech for message communication and integration between heterogeneous systems. RESTFUL API has become mainstream web service development paradigm after SOAP, how to effectively construct RESTFUL API remains a research hotspots. This paper presents a development model of RESTFUL API construction based on PHP language and LARAVEL framework. The key technical problems that need to be solved during the construction of RESTFUL API are discussed, and implementation details based on LARAVEL are given.

  20. Extraversion modulates functional connectivity hubs of resting-state brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yajing; Cui, Qian; Duan, Xujun; Chen, Heng; Zeng, Ling; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Huafu

    2017-09-01

    Personality dimension extraversion describes individual differences in social behaviour and socio-emotional functioning. The intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of the brain are reportedly associated with extraversion. However, whether or not extraversion is associated with functional hubs warrants clarification. Functional hubs are involved in the rapid integration of neural processing, and their dysfunction contributes to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we employed the functional connectivity density (FCD) method for the first time to distinguish the energy-efficient hubs associated with extraversion. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 71 healthy subjects were used in the analysis. Short-range FCD was positively correlated with extraversion in the left cuneus, revealing a link between the local functional activity of this region and extraversion in risk-taking. Long-range FCD was negatively correlated with extraversion in the right superior frontal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus. Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analyses revealed that a decreased long-range FCD in individuals with high extraversion scores showed a low long-range functional connectivity pattern between the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, middle temporal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex. This result suggests that decreased RSFC patterns are responsible for self-esteem, self-evaluation, and inhibitory behaviour system that account for the modulation and shaping of extraversion. Overall, our results emphasize specific brain hubs, and reveal long-range functional connections in relation to extraversion, thereby providing a neurobiological basis of extraversion. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Exercise Effects on the Brain and Sensorimotor Function in Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelmans, V.; Cassady, K.; De Dios, Y. E.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, R. A.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight microgravity results in cephalad fluid shifts and deficits in posture control and locomotion. Effects of microgravity on sensorimotor function have been investigated on Earth using head down tilt bed rest (HDBR). HDBR serves as a spaceflight analogue because it mimics microgravity in body unloading and bodily fluid shifts. Preliminary results from our prior 70 days HDBR studies showed that HDBR is associated with focal gray matter (GM) changes and gait and balance deficits, as well as changes in brain functional connectivity. In consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers we investigated whether exercise reduces the effects of HDBR on GM, functional connectivity, and motor performance. Numerous studies have shown beneficial effects of exercise on brain health. We therefore hypothesized that an exercise intervention during HDBR could potentially mitigate the effects of HDBR on the central nervous system. Eighteen subjects were assessed before (12 and 7 days), during (7, 30, and 70 days) and after (8 and 12 days) 70 days of 6-degrees HDBR at the NASA HDBR facility in UTMB, Galveston, TX, US. Each subject was randomly assigned to a control group or one of two exercise groups. Exercise consisted of daily supine exercise which started 20 days before the start of HDBR. The exercise subjects participated either in regular aerobic and resistance exercise (e.g. squat, heel raise, leg press, cycling and treadmill running), or aerobic and resistance exercise using a flywheel apparatus (rowing). Aerobic and resistance exercise intensity in both groups was similar, which is why we collapsed the two exercise groups for the current experiment. During each time point T1-weighted MRI scans and resting state functional connectivity scans were obtained using a 3T Siemens scanner. Focal changes over time in GM density were assessed using voxel based morphometry (VBM8) under SPM. Changes in resting state functional connectivity was assessed

  2. Alterations in Resting-State Activity Relate to Performance in a Verbal Recognition Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Zunini, Rocío A.; Thivierge, Jean-Philippe; Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Taler, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    In the brain, resting-state activity refers to non-random patterns of intrinsic activity occurring when participants are not actively engaged in a task. We monitored resting-state activity using electroencephalogram (EEG) both before and after a verbal recognition task. We show a strong positive correlation between accuracy in verbal recognition and pre-task resting-state alpha power at posterior sites. We further characterized this effect by examining resting-state post-task activity. We found marked alterations in resting-state alpha power when comparing pre- and post-task periods, with more pronounced alterations in participants that attained higher task accuracy. These findings support a dynamical view of cognitive processes where patterns of ongoing brain activity can facilitate –or interfere– with optimal task performance. PMID:23785436

  3. Intrasellar Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6×5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest.

  4. Cognitive and default-mode resting state networks: do male and female brains "rest" differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Moayedi, Massieh; Taylor, Keri S; Pope, Geoff; Davis, Karen D

    2010-11-01

    Variability in human behavior related to sex is supported by neuroimaging studies showing differences in brain activation patterns during cognitive task performance. An emerging field is examining the human connectome, including networks of brain regions that are not only temporally-correlated during different task conditions, but also networks that show highly correlated spontaneous activity during a task-free state. Both task-related and task-free network activity has been associated with individual task performance and behavior under certain conditions. Therefore, our aim was to determine whether sex differences exist during a task-free resting state for two networks associated with cognitive task performance (executive control network (ECN), salience network (SN)) and the default mode network (DMN). Forty-nine healthy subjects (26 females, 23 males) underwent a 5-min task-free fMRI scan in a 3T MRI. An independent components analysis (ICA) was performed to identify the best-fit IC for each network based on specific spatial nodes defined in previous studies. To determine the consistency of these networks across subjects we performed self-organizing group-level ICA analyses. There were no significant differences between sexes in the functional connectivity of the brain areas within the ECN, SN, or the DMN. These important findings highlight the robustness of intrinsic connectivity of these resting state networks and their similarity between sexes. Furthermore, our findings suggest that resting state fMRI studies do not need to be controlled for sex. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Rapid eye movements during sleep in mice: High trait-like stability qualifies rapid eye movement density for characterization of phenotypic variation in sleep patterns of rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulda Stephany

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, rapid eye movements (REM density during REM sleep plays a prominent role in psychiatric diseases. Especially in depression, an increased REM density is a vulnerability marker for depression. In clinical practice and research measurement of REM density is highly standardized. In basic animal research, almost no tools are available to obtain and systematically evaluate eye movement data, although, this would create increased comparability between human and animal sleep studies. Methods We obtained standardized electroencephalographic (EEG, electromyographic (EMG and electrooculographic (EOG signals from freely behaving mice. EOG electrodes were bilaterally and chronically implanted with placement of the electrodes directly between the musculus rectus superior and musculus rectus lateralis. After recovery, EEG, EMG and EOG signals were obtained for four days. Subsequent to the implantation process, we developed and validated an Eye Movement scoring in Mice Algorithm (EMMA to detect REM as singularities of the EOG signal, based on wavelet methodology. Results The distribution of wakefulness, non-REM (NREM sleep and rapid eye movement (REM sleep was typical of nocturnal rodents with small amounts of wakefulness and large amounts of NREM sleep during the light period and reversed proportions during the dark period. REM sleep was distributed correspondingly. REM density was significantly higher during REM sleep than NREM sleep. REM bursts were detected more often at the end of the dark period than the beginning of the light period. During REM sleep REM density showed an ultradian course, and during NREM sleep REM density peaked at the beginning of the dark period. Concerning individual eye movements, REM duration was longer and amplitude was lower during REM sleep than NREM sleep. The majority of single REM and REM bursts were associated with micro-arousals during NREM sleep, but not during REM sleep. Conclusions Sleep

  6. Transdiagnostic differences in the resting-state functional connectivity of the prefrontal cortex in depression and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Chang; He, Hui; Chang, Xin; Jiang, Yuchao; Li, Yingjia; Duan, Mingjun; Li, Jianfu; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-08-01

    Depression and schizophrenia are two of the most serious psychiatric disorders. They share similar symptoms but the pathology-specific commonalities and differences remain unknown. This study was conducted to acquire a full picture of the functional alterations in schizophrenia and depression patients. The resting-state fMRI data from 20 patients with schizophrenia, 20 patients with depression and 20 healthy control subjects were collected. A data-driven approach that included local functional connectivity density (FCD) analysis combined with multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) was used to compare the three groups. Based on the results of the MVPA, the local FCD value in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) can differentiate depression patients from schizophrenia patients. The patients with depression had a higher local FCD value in the medial and anterior parts of the OFC than the subjects in the other two groups, which suggested altered abstract and reward reinforces processing in depression patients. Subsequent functional connectivity analysis indicated that the connection in the prefrontal cortex was significantly lower in people with schizophrenia compared to people with depression and healthy controls. The systematically different medications for schizophrenia and depression may have different effects on functional connectivity. These results suggested that the resting-state functional connectivity pattern in the prefrontal cortex may be a transdiagnostic difference between depression and schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pro REST API development with nodejs

    CERN Document Server

    Doglio, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Pro REST API Development with Node.js is your guide to managing and understanding the full capabilities of successful REST development. API design is a hot topic in the programming world, but not many resources exist for developers to really understand how you can leverage the advantages. This book will provide a brief background on REST and the tools it provides (well known and not so well known). Understand how there is more to REST than just JSON and URLs. You will then cover and compare the maintained modules currently available in the npm community, including Express, Restify, Vatican,

  8. Resting state fMRI: A review on methods in resting state connectivity analysis and resting state networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, K A; Akhil Raja, K; Arun, K M; Rajesh, P G; Thomas, Bejoy; Kapilamoorthy, T R; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

    2017-08-01

    The inquisitiveness about what happens in the brain has been there since the beginning of humankind. Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a prominent tool which helps in the non-invasive examination, localisation as well as lateralisation of brain functions such as language, memory, etc. In recent years, there is an apparent shift in the focus of neuroscience research to studies dealing with a brain at 'resting state'. Here the spotlight is on the intrinsic activity within the brain, in the absence of any sensory or cognitive stimulus. The analyses of functional brain connectivity in the state of rest have revealed different resting state networks, which depict specific functions and varied spatial topology. However, different statistical methods have been introduced to study resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity, yet producing consistent results. In this article, we introduce the concept of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in detail, then discuss three most widely used methods for analysis, describe a few of the resting state networks featuring the brain regions, associated cognitive functions and clinical applications of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. This review aims to highlight the utility and importance of studying resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity, underlining its complementary nature to the task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  9. Ethnicity, Soybean Consumption, and Mammographic Densities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maskarinec, Gertraud

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether mammographic density patterns differ by ethnic background and to explore the possible association of a soy rich diet with mammographic density patterns...

  10. Cognitive Rest: An Integrated Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kathleen H.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive rest has been suggested as a treatment for school athletes who have sustained a concussion, but the concept has rarely been defined. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive definition of cognitive rest, based on an integrative literature review. The method of synthesis was guided by Avant and Walker's concept analysis…

  11. Resting state EEG correlates of memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Kate; Tishler, Ward; Manceor, Stephanie; Hamilton, Kelly; Gaulden, Andrew; Parr, Elaine; Wamsley, Erin J

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that post-training sleep benefits human memory. At the same time, emerging data suggest that other resting states may similarly facilitate consolidation. In order to identify the conditions under which non-sleep resting states benefit memory, we conducted an EEG (electroencephalographic) study of verbal memory retention across 15min of eyes-closed rest. Participants (n=26) listened to a short story and then either rested with their eyes closed, or else completed a distractor task for 15min. A delayed recall test was administered immediately following the rest period. We found, first, that quiet rest enhanced memory for the short story. Improved memory was associated with a particular EEG signature of increased slow oscillatory activity (rest can facilitate memory, and that this may occur via an active process of consolidation supported by slow oscillatory EEG activity and characterized by decreased attention to the external environment. Slow oscillatory EEG rhythms are proposed to facilitate memory consolidation during sleep by promoting hippocampal-cortical communication. Our findings suggest that EEG slow oscillations could play a significant role in memory consolidation during other resting states as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural connectivity allows for multi-threading during rest: the structure of the cortex leads to efficient alternation between resting state exploratory behavior and default mode processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senden, Mario; Goebel, Rainer; Deco, Gustavo

    2012-05-01

    Despite the absence of stimulation or task conditions the cortex exhibits highly structured spatio-temporal activity patterns. These patterns are known as resting state networks (RSNs) and emerge as low-frequency fluctuations (rest. We are interested in the relationship between structural connectivity of the cortex and the fluctuations exhibited during resting conditions. We are especially interested in the effect of degree of connectivity on resting state dynamics as the default mode network (DMN) is highly connected. We find in experimental resting fMRI data that the DMN is the functional network that is most frequently active and for the longest time. In large-scale computational simulations of the cortex based on the corresponding underlying DTI/DSI based neuroanatomical connectivity matrix, we additionally find a strong correlation between the mean degree of functional networks and the proportion of time they are active. By artificially modifying different types of neuroanatomical connectivity matrices in the model, we were able to demonstrate that only models based on structural connectivity containing hubs give rise to this relationship. We conclude that, during rest, the cortex alternates efficiently between explorations of its externally oriented functional repertoire and internally oriented processing as a consequence of the DMN's high degree of connectivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Altered amygdalar resting-state connectivity in depression is explained by both genes and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Palomera, Aldo; Tornador, Cristian; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Nuria; Nenadic, Igor; Deco, Gustavo; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2015-10-01

    Recent findings indicate that alterations of the amygdalar resting-state fMRI connectivity play an important role in the etiology of depression. While both depression and resting-state brain activity are shaped by genes and environment, the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors mediating the relationship between amygdalar resting-state connectivity and depression remain largely unexplored. Likewise, novel neuroimaging research indicates that different mathematical representations of resting-state fMRI activity patterns are able to embed distinct information relevant to brain health and disease. The present study analyzed the influence of genes and environment on amygdalar resting-state fMRI connectivity, in relation to depression risk. High-resolution resting-state fMRI scans were analyzed to estimate functional connectivity patterns in a sample of 48 twins (24 monozygotic pairs) informative for depressive psychopathology (6 concordant, 8 discordant and 10 healthy control pairs). A graph-theoretical framework was employed to construct brain networks using two methods: (i) the conventional approach of filtered BOLD fMRI time-series and (ii) analytic components of this fMRI activity. Results using both methods indicate that depression risk is increased by environmental factors altering amygdalar connectivity. When analyzing the analytic components of the BOLD fMRI time-series, genetic factors altering the amygdala neural activity at rest show an important contribution to depression risk. Overall, these findings show that both genes and environment modify different patterns the amygdala resting-state connectivity to increase depression risk. The genetic relationship between amygdalar connectivity and depression may be better elicited by examining analytic components of the brain resting-state BOLD fMRI signals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Variation in maternal and anxiety-like behavior associated with discrete patterns of oxytocin and vasopressin 1a receptor density in the lateral septum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curley, JP; Jensen, CL; Franks, B; Champagne, FA

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between anxiety and maternal behavior has been explored across species using a variety of approaches, yet there is no clear consensus on the nature or direction of this relationship. In the current study, we have assessed stable individual differences in anxiety-like behavior in a large cohort (n=57) of female F2 hybrid mice. Using open-field behavior as a continuous and categorical (high vs. low) measure we examined the relationship between the anxiety-like behavior of virgin F2 females and the subsequent maternal behavior of these females. In addition, we quantified oxytocin (OTR) and vasopressin (V1a) receptor density within the lateral septum to determine the possible correlation with anxiety-like and maternal behavior. We find that, though activity levels within the open-field do predict latency to engage in pup retrieval, anxiety-like measures on this test are otherwise not associated with subsequent maternal behavior. OTR density in the dorsal lateral septum was found to be negatively correlated with activity levels in the open-field and positively correlated with frequency of nursing behavior. V1a receptor density was significantly correlated with postpartum licking/grooming of pups. Though we do not find support for the hypothesis that individual differences in trait anxiety predict variation in maternal behavior, we do find evidence for the role of OTR and V1a receptors in predicting maternal behavior in mice and suggest possible methodological issues (such as distinguishing between trait and state anxiety) that will be a critical consideration for subsequent studies of the anxiety-maternal behavior relationship. PMID:22300676

  15. Sub-15 nm nano-pattern generation by spacer width control for high density precisely positioned self-assembled device nanomanufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    We present a conventional micro-fabrication based thin film vertical sidewall (spacer) width controlled nano-gap fabrication process to create arrays of nanopatterns for high density precisely positioned self-assembled nanoelectronics device integration. We have used conventional optical lithography to create base structures and then silicon nitride (Si 3N4) based spacer formation via reactive ion etching. Control of Si3N4 thickness provides accurate control of vertical sidewall (spacer) besides the base structures. Nano-gaps are fabricated between two adjacent spacers whereas the width of the gap depends on the gap between two adjacent base structures minus width of adjacent spacers. We demonstrate the process using a 32 nm node complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) platform to show its compatibility for very large scale heterogeneous integration of top-down and bottom-up fabrication as well as conventional and selfassembled nanodevices. This process opens up clear opportunity to overcome the decade long challenge of high density integration of self-assembled devices with precise position control. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Sub-15 nm nano-pattern generation by spacer width control for high density precisely positioned self-assembled device nanomanufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2012-08-01

    We present a conventional micro-fabrication based thin film vertical sidewall (spacer) width controlled nano-gap fabrication process to create arrays of nanopatterns for high density precisely positioned self-assembled nanoelectronics device integration. We have used conventional optical lithography to create base structures and then silicon nitride (Si 3N4) based spacer formation via reactive ion etching. Control of Si3N4 thickness provides accurate control of vertical sidewall (spacer) besides the base structures. Nano-gaps are fabricated between two adjacent spacers whereas the width of the gap depends on the gap between two adjacent base structures minus width of adjacent spacers. We demonstrate the process using a 32 nm node complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) platform to show its compatibility for very large scale heterogeneous integration of top-down and bottom-up fabrication as well as conventional and selfassembled nanodevices. This process opens up clear opportunity to overcome the decade long challenge of high density integration of self-assembled devices with precise position control. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. On gravity's role in the genesis of rest masses of classical fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabados, László B.

    2018-03-01

    It is shown that in the Einstein-conformally coupled Higgs-Maxwell system with Friedman-Robertson-Walker symmetries the energy density of the Higgs field has stable local minimum only if the mean curvature of the t=const hypersurfaces is less than a finite critical value χ _c, while for greater mean curvature the energy density is not bounded from below. Therefore, there are extreme gravitational situations in which even quasi-locally defined instantaneous vacuum states of the Higgs sector cannot exist, and hence one cannot at all define the rest mass of all the classical fields. On hypersurfaces with mean curvature less than χ _c the energy density has the `wine bottle' (rather than the familiar `Mexican hat') shape, and the gauge field can get rest mass via the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism. The spacelike hypersurface with the critical mean curvature represents the moment of `genesis' of rest masses.

  18. Phase-synchronization-based parcellation of resting state fMRI signals reveals topographically organized clusters in early visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gravel, Nicolás G; Harvey, Ben M; Renken, Remco K; Dumoulin, Serge O; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2018-01-01

    Resting-state fMRI is widely used to study brain function and connectivity. However, interpreting patterns of resting state (RS) fMRI activity remains challenging as they may arise from different neuronal mechanisms than those triggered by exogenous events. Currently, this limits the use of RS-fMRI

  19. Predictive Modeling of Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Resting Habitat in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Lesley H.; Johnston, David W.; Urban, Dean L.; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W.; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H.; Deakos, Mark H.; Mobley, Joseph R.; Pack, Adam A.; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

  20. Resting state cerebral blood flow with arterial spin labeling MRI in developing human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Duan, Yunsuo; Peterson, Bradley S; Asllani, Iris; Zelaya, Fernando; Lythgoe, David; Kangarlu, Alayar

    2018-07-01

    The development of brain circuits is coupled with changes in neurovascular coupling, which refers to the close relationship between neural activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF). Studying the characteristics of CBF during resting state in developing brain can be a complementary way to understand the functional connectivity of the developing brain. Arterial spin labeling (ASL), as a noninvasive MR technique, is particularly attractive for studying cerebral perfusion in children and even newborns. We have collected pulsed ASL data in resting state for 47 healthy subjects from young children to adolescence (aged from 6 to 20 years old). In addition to studying the developmental change of static CBF maps during resting state, we also analyzed the CBF time series to reveal the dynamic characteristics of CBF in differing age groups. We used the seed-based correlation analysis to examine the temporal relationship of CBF time series between the selected ROIs and other brain regions. We have shown the developmental patterns in both static CBF maps and dynamic characteristics of CBF. While higher CBF of default mode network (DMN) in all age groups supports that DMN is the prominent active network during the resting state, the CBF connectivity patterns of some typical resting state networks show distinct patterns of metabolic activity during the resting state in the developing brains. Copyright © 2018 European Paediatric Neurology Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Resting state functional connectivity predicts neurofeedback response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin eScheinost

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tailoring treatments to the specific needs and biology of individual patients – personalized medicine – requires delineation of reliable predictors of response. Unfortunately, these have been slow to emerge, especially in neuropsychiatric disorders. We have recently described a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI neurofeedback protocol that can reduce contamination-related anxiety, a prominent symptom of many cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Individual response to this intervention is variable. Here we used patterns of brain functional connectivity, as measured by baseline resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI, to predict improvements in contamination anxiety after neurofeedback training. Activity of a region of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and anterior prefrontal cortex, Brodmann area (BA 10, associated with contamination anxiety in each subject was measured in real time and presented as a neurofeedback signal, permitting subjects to learn to modulate this target brain region. We have previously reported both enhanced OFC/BA 10 control and improved anxiety in a group of subclinically anxious subjects after neurofeedback. Five individuals with contamination-related OCD who underwent the same protocol also showed improved clinical symptomatology. In both groups, these behavioral improvements were strongly correlated with baseline whole-brain connectivity in the OFC/BA 10, computed from rs-fMRI collected several days prior to neurofeedback training. These pilot data suggest that rs-fMRI can be used to identify individuals likely to benefit from rt-fMRI neurofeedback training to control contamination anxiety.

  2. Effects of autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation on beta-adrenoceptor density and electrical activation pattern in a rabbit model of non-ischemic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullmann Cris

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since only little is known on stem cell therapy in non-ischemic heart failure we wanted to know whether a long-term improvement of cardiac function in non-ischemic heart failure can be achieved by stem cell transplantation. Methods White male New Zealand rabbits were treated with doxorubicine (3 mg/kg/week; 6 weeks to induce dilative non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Thereafter, we obtained autologous bone marrow stem cells (BMSC and injected 1.5–2.0 Mio cells in 1 ml medium by infiltrating the myocardium via a left anterolateral thoracotomy in comparison to sham-operated rabbits. 4 weeks later intracardiac contractility was determined in-vivo using a Millar catheter. Thereafter, the heart was excised and processed for radioligand binding assays to detect β1- and β2-adrenoceptor density. In addition, catecholamine plasma levels were determined via HPLC. In a subgroup we investigated cardiac electrophysiology by use of 256 channel mapping. Results In doxorubicine-treated animals β-adrenoceptor density was significantly down-regulated in left ventricle and septum, but not in right ventricle, thereby indicating a typical left ventricular heart failure. Sham-operated rabbits exhibited the same down-regulation. In contrast, BMSC transplantation led to significantly less β-adrenoceptor down-regulation in septum and left ventricle. Cardiac contractility was significantly decreased in heart failure and sham-operated rabbits, but was significantly higher in BMSC-transplanted hearts. Norepinephrine and epinephrine plasma levels were enhanced in heart failure and sham-operated animals, while these were not different from normal in BMSC-transplanted animals. Electrophysiological mapping revealed unaltered electrophysiology and did not show signs of arrhythmogeneity. Conclusion BMSC transplantation improves sympathoadrenal dysregualtion in non-ischemic heart failure.

  3. Resting-state hemodynamics are spatiotemporally coupled to synchronized and symmetric neural activity in excitatory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Shaik, Mohammed A.; Kozberg, Mariel G.; Portes, Jacob P.; Timerman, Dmitriy

    2016-01-01

    Brain hemodynamics serve as a proxy for neural activity in a range of noninvasive neuroimaging techniques including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In resting-state fMRI, hemodynamic fluctuations have been found to exhibit patterns of bilateral synchrony, with correlated regions inferred to have functional connectivity. However, the relationship between resting-state hemodynamics and underlying neural activity has not been well established, making the neural underpinnings of functional connectivity networks unclear. In this study, neural activity and hemodynamics were recorded simultaneously over the bilateral cortex of awake and anesthetized Thy1-GCaMP mice using wide-field optical mapping. Neural activity was visualized via selective expression of the calcium-sensitive fluorophore GCaMP in layer 2/3 and 5 excitatory neurons. Characteristic patterns of resting-state hemodynamics were accompanied by more rapidly changing bilateral patterns of resting-state neural activity. Spatiotemporal hemodynamics could be modeled by convolving this neural activity with hemodynamic response functions derived through both deconvolution and gamma-variate fitting. Simultaneous imaging and electrophysiology confirmed that Thy1-GCaMP signals are well-predicted by multiunit activity. Neurovascular coupling between resting-state neural activity and hemodynamics was robust and fast in awake animals, whereas coupling in urethane-anesthetized animals was slower, and in some cases included lower-frequency (resting-state hemodynamics in the awake and anesthetized brain are coupled to underlying patterns of excitatory neural activity. The patterns of bilaterally-symmetric spontaneous neural activity revealed by wide-field Thy1-GCaMP imaging may depict the neural foundation of functional connectivity networks detected in resting-state fMRI. PMID:27974609

  4. Brief wakeful resting can eliminate directed forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Andreas; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2017-02-01

    When cued to intentionally forget previously encoded memories, participants typically show reduced recall of the memories on a later recall test. We examined how such directed forgetting is affected by a brief period of wakeful resting between encoding and test. Encoding was followed by a "passive" wakeful resting period in which subjects heard emotionally neutral music or perceived neutral pictures, or it was followed by an "active" distraction period in which subjects were engaged in counting or calculation tasks. Whereas typical directed forgetting was present after active distraction, the forgetting was absent after wakeful resting. The findings indicate that the degree to which people can intentionally forget memories is influenced by the cognitive activity that people engage in shortly after learning takes place. The results provide first evidence on the interplay between wakeful resting and intentional forgetting.

  5. Partnership strategies for safety roadside rest areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This project studied the many factors influencing the potential for public private partnerships for Safety : Roadside Rest Areas. It found that Federal and California State laws and regulations represent important : barriers to certain types and loca...

  6. Elegants ja eklektika - Rest Art / Lylian Meister

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meister, Lylian, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Tallinnas Mustika keskuses asuvas sisustussalongis Rest Art pakutavast. Asjade müümise kõrval pakutakse kodudele ja hotellidele-restoranidele terviklahendusi. Salongi kujundas Kard Männil. 4 värv. vaadet

  7. USAJOBS Job Opportunity Announcements (JOA) REST API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — This REST-based API is designed to support lightweight Federal Job Opportunity Announcement (JOA) content consumption by consumers. It is anticipated that this API...

  8. Dynamic reorganization of human resting-state networks during visuospatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadone, Sara; Della Penna, Stefania; Sestieri, Carlo; Betti, Viviana; Tosoni, Annalisa; Perrucci, Mauro Gianni; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-06-30

    Fundamental problems in neuroscience today are understanding how patterns of ongoing spontaneous activity are modified by task performance and whether/how these intrinsic patterns influence task-evoked activation and behavior. We examined these questions by comparing instantaneous functional connectivity (IFC) and directed functional connectivity (DFC) changes in two networks that are strongly correlated and segregated at rest: the visual (VIS) network and the dorsal attention network (DAN). We measured how IFC and DFC during a visuospatial attention task, which requires dynamic selective rerouting of visual information across hemispheres, changed with respect to rest. During the attention task, the two networks remained relatively segregated, and their general pattern of within-network correlation was maintained. However, attention induced a decrease of correlation in the VIS network and an increase of the DAN→VIS IFC and DFC, especially in a top-down direction. In contrast, within the DAN, IFC was not modified by attention, whereas DFC was enhanced. Importantly, IFC modulations were behaviorally relevant. We conclude that a stable backbone of within-network functional connectivity topography remains in place when transitioning between resting wakefulness and attention selection. However, relative decrease of correlation of ongoing "idling" activity in visual cortex and synchronization between frontoparietal and visual cortex were behaviorally relevant, indicating that modulations of resting activity patterns are important for task performance. Higher order resting connectivity in the DAN was relatively unaffected during attention, potentially indicating a role for simultaneous ongoing activity as a "prior" for attention selection.

  9. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  10. Detecting Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Using Resting State Magnetoencephalographic Connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily A Vakorin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate means to detect mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI using objective and quantitative measures remain elusive. Conventional imaging typically detects no abnormalities despite post-concussive symptoms. In the present study, we recorded resting state magnetoencephalograms (MEG from adults with mTBI and controls. Atlas-guided reconstruction of resting state activity was performed for 90 cortical and subcortical regions, and calculation of inter-regional oscillatory phase synchrony at various frequencies was performed. We demonstrate that mTBI is associated with reduced network connectivity in the delta and gamma frequency range (>30 Hz, together with increased connectivity in the slower alpha band (8-12 Hz. A similar temporal pattern was associated with correlations between network connectivity and the length of time between the injury and the MEG scan. Using such resting state MEG network synchrony we were able to detect mTBI with 88% accuracy. Classification confidence was also correlated with clinical symptom severity scores. These results provide the first evidence that imaging of MEG network connectivity, in combination with machine learning, has the potential to accurately detect and determine the severity of mTBI.

  11. The Physiology of Bed Rest. Chapter 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Schneider, Victor S.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged rest in bed has been utilized by physicians and other health-care workers to immobilize and confine patients for rehabilitation and restoration of health since time immemorial. The sitting or horizontal position is sought by the body to relieve the strain of the upright or vertical postures, for example during syncopal situations, bone fractures, muscle injuries, fatigue, and probably also to reduce energy expenditure. Most health-care personnel are aware that adaptive responses occurring during bed rest proceed concomitantly with the healing process; signs and symptoms associated with the former should be differentiated from those of the latter. Not all illnesses and infirmities benefit from prolonged bed rest. Considerations in prescribing bed rest for patients-including duration, body position, mode and duration of exercise, light-dark cycles, temperature, and humidity-have not been investigated adequately. More recently, adaptive physiological responses have been measured in normal, healthy subjects in the horizontal or slightly head-down postures during prolonged bed rest as analogs for the adaptive responses of astronauts exposed to the microgravity environment of outer and bed-rest research.

  12. Characteristic vibration patterns of odor compounds from bread-baking volatiles upon protein binding: density functional and ONIOM study and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treesuwan, Witcha; Hirao, Hajime; Morokuma, Keiji; Hannongbua, Supa

    2012-05-01

    As the mechanism underlying the sense of smell is unclear, different models have been used to rationalize structure-odor relationships. To gain insight into odorant molecules from bread baking, binding energies and vibration spectra in the gas phase and in the protein environment [7-transmembrane helices (7TMHs) of rhodopsin] were calculated using density functional theory [B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)] and ONIOM [B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p):PM3] methods. It was found that acetaldehyde ("acid" category) binds strongly in the large cavity inside the receptor, whereas 2-ethyl-3-methylpyrazine ("roasted") binds weakly. Lys296, Tyr268, Thr118 and Ala117 were identified as key residues in the binding site. More emphasis was placed on how vibrational frequencies are shifted and intensities modified in the receptor protein environment. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that the frequency shifts of C-C stretching, CH(3) umbrella, C = O stretching and CH(3) stretching modes have a significant effect on odor quality. In fact, the frequency shifts of the C-C stretching and C = O stretching modes, as well as CH(3) umbrella and CH(3) symmetric stretching modes, exhibit different behaviors in the PCA loadings plot. A large frequency shift in the CH(3) symmetric stretching mode is associated with the sweet-roasted odor category and separates this from the acid odor category. A large frequency shift of the C-C stretching mode describes the roasted and oily-popcorn odor categories, and separates these from the buttery and acid odor categories.

  13. Consistency of genetic inheritance mode and heritability patterns of triglyceride vs. high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in two Taiwanese family samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chi-Yu

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C is considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular events. Genetic components were important in controlling the variation in western countries. But the mode of inheritance and family aggregation patterns were still unknown among Asian-Pacific countries. This study, based on families recruited from community and hospital, is aimed to investigate the mode of inheritance, heritability and shared environmental factors in controlling TG/HDL-C. Results Two populations, one from community-based families (n = 988, 894 parent-offspring and 453 sibling pairs and the other from hospital-based families (n = 1313, 76 parent-offspring and 52 sibling pairs were sampled. The population in hospital-based families had higher mean age values than community-based families (54.7 vs. 34.0. Logarithmic transformed TG/ HDL-C values, after adjusted by age, gender and body mass index, were for genetic analyses. Significant parent-offspring and sibling correlations were also found in both samples. The parent-offspring correlation coefficient was higher in the hospital-based families than in the community-based families. Genetic heritability was higher in community-based families (0.338 ± 0.114, p = 0.002, but the common shared environmental factor was higher in hospital-based families (0.203 ± 0.042, p Conclusion Variations of TG/HDL-C in the normal ranges were likely to be influenced by multiple factors, including environmental and genetic components. Higher genetic factors were proved in younger community-based families than in older hospital-based families.

  14. Effects of exercise on fluid exchange and body composition in man during 14-day bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.; Morse, J. T.; Staley, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of an investigation in which body composition, fluid intake, and fluid and electrolyte losses were measured in seven normal, healthy men during three 2-wk bed-rest periods, separated by two 3-wk recovery periods. During bed rest the subjects remained in the horizontal position continuously. During the dietary control periods, body mass decreased significantly with all three regimens, including no exercise, isometric exercise, and isotonic excercise. During bed rest, body mass was essentially unchanged with no exercise, but decreased significantly with isotonic and isometric exercise. With one exception, there were no statistically significant changes in body density, lean body mass, or body fat content by the end of each of the three bed-rest periods.

  15. Activity flow over resting-state networks shapes cognitive task activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael W; Ito, Takuya; Bassett, Danielle S; Schultz, Douglas H

    2016-12-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) has helped reveal the intrinsic network organization of the human brain, yet its relevance to cognitive task activations has been unclear. Uncertainty remains despite evidence that resting-state FC patterns are highly similar to cognitive task activation patterns. Identifying the distributed processes that shape localized cognitive task activations may help reveal why resting-state FC is so strongly related to cognitive task activations. We found that estimating task-evoked activity flow (the spread of activation amplitudes) over resting-state FC networks allowed prediction of cognitive task activations in a large-scale neural network model. Applying this insight to empirical functional MRI data, we found that cognitive task activations can be predicted in held-out brain regions (and held-out individuals) via estimated activity flow over resting-state FC networks. This suggests that task-evoked activity flow over intrinsic networks is a large-scale mechanism explaining the relevance of resting-state FC to cognitive task activations.

  16. Regional homogeneity and resting state functional connectivity: associations with exposure to early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Noah S; Kuras, Yuliya I; Valentine, Thomas R; Sweet, Lawrence H; Tyrka, Audrey R; Price, Lawrence H; Carpenter, Linda L

    2013-12-30

    Early life stress (ELS) confers risk for psychiatric illness. Previous literature suggests ELS is associated with decreased resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in adulthood, but there are no studies of resting-state neuronal activity in this population. This study investigated whether ELS-exposed individuals demonstrate resting-state activity patterns similar to those found in PTSD. Twenty-seven adults (14 with at least moderate ELS), who were medication-free and without psychiatric or medical illness, underwent MRI scans during two 4-minute rest periods. Resting-state activity was examined using regional homogeneity (ReHo), which estimates regional activation patterns through indices of localized concordance. ReHo values were compared between groups, followed by rs-FC analyses utilizing ReHo-localized areas as seeds to identify other involved regions. Relative to controls, ELS subjects demonstrated diminished ReHo in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and superior temporal gyrus (STG). ReHo values were inversely correlated with ELS severity. Secondary analyses revealed decreased rs-FC between the IPL and right precuneus/posterior cingulate, left fusiform gyrus, cerebellum and caudate in ELS subjects. These findings indicate that ELS is associated with altered resting-state activity and connectivity in brain regions involved in trauma-related psychiatric disorders. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether these associations represent potential imaging biomarkers of stress exposure. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Thallium-201 peripheral perfusion scans: feasibility of single-dose, single-day, rest and stress study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.E.; Stewart, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and redistribution kinetics of thallium-201 in the lower extremities were investigated to determine the relationships among the rest, stress, and delayed-stress perfusion studies. The distribution of perfusion when the tracer was administered at rest was compared with that when administered during stress, and the distribution 5 to 6 h after the stress injection. In nine of 10 subjects without peripheral vascular disease, the 5 to 6 h poststress redistribution pattern was unchanged from the stress pattern and was different from the rest pattern. However, in all patients with peripheral vascular disease, the delayed poststress perfusion distribution had greater similarity to the rest pattern and was substantially different from that noted immediately after stress. Using the time frame of this study, the stress and delayed-stress 201 Tl perfusion study of the lower extremities cannot be used to represent true rest perfusion. However, because of the similarity of the delayed-stress to the true rest distribution in abnormals, it may be clinically useful in defining rest and stress alterations

  18. Thallium-201 peripheral perfusion scans: feasibility of single-dose, single-day, rest and stress study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.E.; Stewart, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and redistribution kinetics of thallium-201 in the lower extremities were investigated to determine the relationships among the rest, stress, and delayed-stress perfusion studies. The distribution of perfusion when the tracer was administered at rest was compared with that when administered during stress, and the distribution 5--6 hr after the stress injection. The distribution was evaluated qualitatively by scanning and quantitatively by point counting. In nine of 10 subjects without peripheral vascular disease, the 5--6 poststress redistribution pattern was unchanged from the stress pattern and was different from the rest pattern. However, in all patients with peripheral vascular disease, the delayed poststress perfusion distribution had greater similarity to the rest pattern and was substantially different from that noted immediately after stress. Using the time frame of this study, the stress and delayed-stress 201 Tl perfusion study of the lower extremities cannot be used to represent true rest perfusion. However, because of the similarity of the delayed-stress to the true rest distribution in abnormals, it may be clinically useful in defining rest and stress alterations

  19. Resting-state FMRI confounds and cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin; Birn, Rasmus M.; Bandettini, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is to investigate the brain’s functional connections by using the temporal similarity between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals in different regions of the brain “at rest” as an indicator of synchronous neural activity. Since this measure relies on the temporal correlation of FMRI signal changes between different parts of the brain, any non-neural activity-related process that affects the signals will influence the measure of functional connectivity, yielding spurious results. To understand the sources of these resting-state FMRI confounds, this article describes the origins of the BOLD signal in terms of MR physics and cerebral physiology. Potential confounds arising from motion, cardiac and respiratory cycles, arterial CO2 concentration, blood pressure/cerebral autoregulation, and vasomotion are discussed. Two classes of techniques to remove confounds from resting-state BOLD time series are reviewed: 1) those utilising external recordings of physiology and 2) data-based cleanup methods that only use the resting-state FMRI data itself. Further methods that remove noise from functional connectivity measures at a group level are also discussed. For successful interpretation of resting-state FMRI comparisons and results, noise cleanup is an often over-looked but essential step in the analysis pipeline. PMID:23571418

  20. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...... breathing in the sitting position ranged from 0.25 to 0.37 g.cm-3. Subnormal values were found in patients with emphsema. In patients with pulmonary congestion and edema, lung density values ranged from 0.33 to 0.93 g.cm-3. The lung density measurement correlated well with the findings in chest radiographs...... but the lung density values were more sensitive indices. This was particularly evident in serial observations of individual patients....

  1. Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats Authors: Gary E. Hatch, John McKee, James Brown, Bill McDonnell, Elston Seal, Joleen Soukup, Ralph Slade, Kay Crissman and Robert Devlin, National Health and Environmental...

  2. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  3. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Vas

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period. The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  4. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e. distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g. resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation. PMID:26657240

  5. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alexander eDiaz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non-sensory experiences like mind wandering may arise from ongoing brain activity. However, little is known about the link between ongoing brain activity and cognition, as phenotypes of resting-state cognition—and tools to quantify them—have been lacking. To facilitate rapid and structured measurements of resting-state cognition we developed a 50-item self-report survey, the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ. Based on ARSQ data from 813 participants assessed after five minutes eyes-closed rest in their home, we identified seven dimensions of resting-state cognition using factor analysis: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Further, we showed that the structure of cognition was similar during resting-state fMRI and EEG, and that the test-retest correlations were remarkably high for all dimensions. To explore whether inter-individual variation of resting-state cognition is related to health status, we correlated ARSQ-derived factor scores with psychometric scales measuring depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Mental health correlated positively with Comfort and negatively with Discontinuity of Mind. Finally, we show that sleepiness may partially explain a resting-state EEG profile previously associated with Alzheimer’s disease. These findings indicate that the ARSQ readily provides information about cognitive phenotypes and that it is a promising tool for research on the neural correlates of resting-state cognition in health and disease.

  6. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, B. Alexander; Van Der Sluis, Sophie; Moens, Sarah; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Migliorati, Filippo; Stoffers, Diederick; Den Braber, Anouk; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Hardstone, Richard; Van't Ent, Dennis; Boomsma, Dorret I.; De Geus, Eco; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non-sensory experiences like mind wandering may arise from ongoing brain activity. However, little is known about the link between ongoing brain activity and cognition, as phenotypes of resting-state cognition—and tools to quantify them—have been lacking. To facilitate rapid and structured measurements of resting-state cognition we developed a 50-item self-report survey, the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ). Based on ARSQ data from 813 participants assessed after 5 min eyes-closed rest in their home, we identified seven dimensions of resting-state cognition using factor analysis: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Further, we showed that the structure of cognition was similar during resting-state fMRI and EEG, and that the test-retest correlations were remarkably high for all dimensions. To explore whether inter-individual variation of resting-state cognition is related to health status, we correlated ARSQ-derived factor scores with psychometric scales measuring depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Mental health correlated positively with Comfort and negatively with Discontinuity of Mind. Finally, we show that sleepiness may partially explain a resting-state EEG profile previously associated with Alzheimer's disease. These findings indicate that the ARSQ readily provides information about cognitive phenotypes and that it is a promising tool for research on the neural correlates of resting-state cognition in health and disease. PMID:23964225

  7. Synchronized Bilateral Synaptic Inputs to Drosophila melanogaster Neuropeptidergic Rest/Arousal Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, E. V.; Wu, Y.; deCarvalho, T.

    2011-01-01

    Neuropeptide PDF (pigment-dispersing factor)-secreting large ventrolateral neurons (lLN(v)s) in the Drosophila brain regulate daily patterns of rest and arousal. These bilateral wake-promoting neurons are light responsive and integrate information from the circadian system, sleep circuits...

  8. Time of acquisition and network stability in pediatric resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J.H. White (Tonya); R.L. Muetzel (Ryan); M. Schmidt (Marcus); S.J.E. Langeslag (Sandra); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractResting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has been shown to elucidate reliable patterns of brain networks in both children and adults. Studies in adults have shown that rs-fMRI acquisition times of ∼5 to 6 min provide adequate sampling to produce stable spatial maps

  9. 1 SHORT COMMUNICATION Resting behaviour of Anopheles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-04

    Oct 4, 2011 ... Resting behaviour of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and its implication on malaria .... nature) were requested to sleep under the double mosquito net trap (one ... designed from the DNA sequences of the intergenic spacer region of ...

  10. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.

    2012-01-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  11. [Creep of amalgam fillings under clasp rests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, L; Jung, T; West, M

    1989-10-01

    A clinically realistic experiment was set up to obtain information on the amount of vertical settling of clasp rests in amalgam restorations under functional loading. Mesioocclusal cavities were prepared in 16 lower molar specimens cast in brass. The cavities were filled with amalgam and provided with a mesial rest seat. A constant load of 100 N was applied via a simplified (experimental) saddle to a cobalt-chromium E-clasp cast to the saddle. The duration of the load corresponded to 160 days of clinical function. The chronological course of vertical displacement was analyzed mathematically. According to this result the process can be divided into three components: settling immediately upon load initiation (mean value 96 microns, transition creep (mean value 25 microns) and creep ata constant rate (mean value 15 microns). The mean overall vertical displacement of the rests was 136 microns, the maximum value 287 microns. These findings suggest that vertical settling of a clasp rest into its seat in an amalgam restoration may eventually result in significant changes in occlusion and may almost completely exhaust gingival resilience.

  12. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  13. REST: a toolkit for resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Song

    Full Text Available Resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI has been drawing more and more attention in recent years. However, a publicly available, systematically integrated and easy-to-use tool for RS-fMRI data processing is still lacking. We developed a toolkit for the analysis of RS-fMRI data, namely the RESting-state fMRI data analysis Toolkit (REST. REST was developed in MATLAB with graphical user interface (GUI. After data preprocessing with SPM or AFNI, a few analytic methods can be performed in REST, including functional connectivity analysis based on linear correlation, regional homogeneity, amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF, and fractional ALFF. A few additional functions were implemented in REST, including a DICOM sorter, linear trend removal, bandpass filtering, time course extraction, regression of covariates, image calculator, statistical analysis, and slice viewer (for result visualization, multiple comparison correction, etc.. REST is an open-source package and is freely available at http://www.restfmri.net.

  14. Altered resting brain function and structure in professional badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xin; Zhu, Senhua; Jin, Hua; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuoer; Zhou, Ke; Zhuo, Yan; Rao, Hengyi

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of professional athletic or musical training have demonstrated considerable practice-dependent plasticity in various brain structures, which may reflect distinct training demands. In the present study, structural and functional brain alterations were examined in professional badminton players and compared with healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI. Gray matter concentration (GMC) was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and resting-brain functions were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity. Results showed that the athlete group had greater GMC and ALFF in the right and medial cerebellar regions, respectively. The athlete group also demonstrated smaller ALFF in the left superior parietal lobule and altered functional connectivity between the left superior parietal and frontal regions. These findings indicate that badminton expertise is associated with not only plastic structural changes in terms of enlarged gray matter density in the cerebellum, but also functional alterations in fronto-parietal connectivity. Such structural and functional alterations may reflect specific experiences of badminton training and practice, including high-capacity visuo-spatial processing and hand-eye coordination in addition to refined motor skills.

  15. Energy landscapes of resting-state brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu eWatanabe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During rest, the human brain performs essential functions such as memory maintenance, which are associated with resting-state brain networks (RSNs including the default-mode network (DMN and frontoparietal network (FPN. Previous studies based on spiking-neuron network models and their reduced models, as well as those based on imaging data, suggest that resting-state network activity can be captured as attractor dynamics, i.e., dynamics of the brain state toward an attractive state and transitions between different attractors. Here, we analyze the energy landscapes of the RSNs by applying the maximum entropy model, or equivalently the Ising spin model, to human RSN data. We use the previously estimated parameter values to define the energy landscape, and the disconnectivity graph method to estimate the number of local energy minima (equivalent to attractors in attractor dynamics, the basin size, and hierarchical relationships among the different local minima. In both of the DMN and FPN, low-energy local minima tended to have large basins. A majority of the network states belonged to a basin of one of a few local minima. Therefore, a small number of local minima constituted the backbone of each RSN. In the DMN, the energy landscape consisted of two groups of low-energy local minima that are separated by a relatively high energy barrier. Within each group, the activity patterns of the local minima were similar, and different minima were connected by relatively low energy barriers. In the FPN, all dominant energy were separated by relatively low energy barriers such that they formed a single coarse-grained global minimum. Our results indicate that multistable attractor dynamics may underlie the DMN, but not the FPN, and assist memory maintenance with different memory states.

  16. Trading shallow safety for deep sleep: Juvenile green turtles select deeper resting sites as they grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; White, Connor F.; Iverson, Autumn R.; Whitney, Nick

    2016-01-01

    To better protect endangered green sea turtles Chelonia mydas, a more thorough understanding of the behaviors of each life stage is needed. Although dive profile analyses obtained using time-depth loggers have provided some insights into habitat use, recent work has shown that more fine-scale monitoring of body movements is needed to elucidate physical activity patterns. We monitored 11 juvenile green sea turtles with tri-axial acceleration data loggers in their foraging grounds in Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, USA, for periods ranging from 43 to 118 h (mean ± SD: 72.8 ± 27.3 h). Approximately half of the individuals (n = 5) remained in shallow (overall mean depth less than 2 m) water throughout the experiment, whereas the remaining individuals (n = 6) made excursions to deeper (4 to 27 m) waters, often at night. Despite these differences in depth use, acceleration data revealed a consistent pattern of diurnal activity and nocturnal resting in most individuals. Nocturnal depth differences thus do not appear to represent differences in behavior, but rather different strategies to achieve the same behavior: rest. We calculated overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) to assess the relative energetic cost of each behavioral strategy in an attempt to explain the differences between them. Animals in deeper water experienced longer resting dives, more time resting per hour, and lower mean hourly ODBA. These results suggest that resting in deeper water provides energetic benefits that outweigh the costs of transiting to deep water and a potential increased risk of predation.

  17. Functional connectivity analysis of the brain network using resting-state fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Spatial patterns of spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals reflect the underlying neural architecture. The study of the brain network based on these self-organized patterns is termed resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). This review article aims at briefly reviewing a basic concept of this technology and discussing its implications for neuropsychological studies. First, the technical aspects of resting-state fMRI, including signal sources, physiological artifacts, image acquisition, and analytical methods such as seed-based correlation analysis and independent component analysis, are explained, followed by a discussion on the major resting-state networks, including the default mode network. In addition, the structure-function correlation studied using diffuse tensor imaging and resting-state fMRI is briefly discussed. Second, I have discussed the reservations and potential pitfalls of 2 major imaging methods: voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and task fMRI. Problems encountered with voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping can be overcome by using resting-state fMRI and evaluating undamaged brain networks in patients. Regarding task fMRI in patients, I have also emphasized the importance of evaluating the baseline brain activity because the amplitude of activation in BOLD fMRI is hard to interpret as the same baseline cannot be assumed for both patient and normal groups. (author)

  18. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  19. Diet and bone mineral density study in postmenopausal women from the TwinsUK registry shows a negative association with a traditional English dietary pattern and a positive association with wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Skinner, Jane; Guile, Geoffrey R; Cassidy, Aedín; Spector, Tim D; MacGregor, Alex J

    2011-11-01

    The effect of diet on bone mineral density (BMD) remains controversial, mainly because of difficulties in isolating dietary factors from the confounding influences of age, lifestyle, and genetic factors. The aim of this study was to use a novel method to examine the relation between BMD and diet. A co-twin control study design with linear regression modeling was used to test for associations between BMD and habitual intakes of calcium, vitamin D, protein, and alcohol plus 5 previously identified dietary patterns in postmenopausal women from the TwinsUK registry. This approach exploited the unique matching of twins to provide an estimate of an association that was not confounded by age, genetic background, or shared lifestyle. In >2000 postmenopausal women (BMD data on 1019, 1218, and 1232 twin pairs at the hip neck, hip, and spine, respectively), we observed a positive association between alcohol intake (from wine but not from beer or spirits) and spine BMD (P = 0.01) and a negative association with a traditional 20th-century English diet at the hip neck (P = 0.01). Both associations remained borderline significant after adjustment for mean twin-pair intakes (P = 0.04 and P = 0.055, respectively). Other dietary patterns and intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and protein were unrelated to BMD. Our results showed that diet has an independent but subtle effect on BMD; wine intake was positively associated with spine BMD, whereas a traditional (20th-century) English diet had a negative association with hip BMD.

  20. Practical Implementation of 10 Rules for Writing REST APIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Hradil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a practical implementation of “10 Rules for Writing REST APIs introduced in the article” (Hradil, 2016. The application is done in Invoice Home (Wikilane, 2016, an invoicing web application for small business and entrepreneurs available world-wide. The API is implemented in JSON hypermedia format (ECMA International, 2016 and with Ruby on Rails framework (Hansson, 2016. The main purpose of the API is to allow connection of Invoice Home with external systems and offer Invoice Home data in simpler format compared to the current HTML format of the full-stack web application. The paper could be also used as a basic template or pattern for any other implementation of the JSON API in any web-based application.

  1. Annihilation of antiproton on deuteron at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.; Shmatikov, M.

    1982-01-01

    The system of Faddeev equations for amplitudes of anti pD iteraction at rest accounting for higher partial anti NN waves is derived. From its solution the total and elastic anti pD cross sections are calculated. Predictions for the missing-mass spectrum in the anti pD annihilation are made. The P-wave anti NN states give small contribution to the anti pD cross section at rest, the theoretical value of the latter being less than the experimental cross section extrapolated to the threshold. Let us emphasize that the total anti pD cross section depending weakly on the radii of anti NN interactions is sensitive to the values of the anti NN scattering lengths. Experimental data for anti pD cross sections at rest can be obtained only by extrapolation procedure. Henceforth it is very important to investigate the anti pD interactions at low but non-zero momenta where the direct comparison to the experiment is possible [ru

  2. Level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatyuk, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    For any applications of the statistical theory of nuclear reactions it is very important to obtain the parameters of the level density description from the reliable experimental data. The cumulative numbers of low-lying levels and the average spacings between neutron resonances are usually used as such data. The level density parameters fitted to such data are compiled in the RIPL Starter File for the tree models most frequently used in practical calculations: i) For the Gilber-Cameron model the parameters of the Beijing group, based on a rather recent compilations of the neutron resonance and low-lying level densities and included into the beijing-gc.dat file, are chosen as recommended. As alternative versions the parameters provided by other groups are given into the files: jaeri-gc.dat, bombay-gc.dat, obninsk-gc.dat. Additionally the iljinov-gc.dat, and mengoni-gc.dat files include sets of the level density parameters that take into account the damping of shell effects at high energies. ii) For the backed-shifted Fermi gas model the beijing-bs.dat file is selected as the recommended one. Alternative parameters of the Obninsk group are given in the obninsk-bs.dat file and those of Bombay in bombay-bs.dat. iii) For the generalized superfluid model the Obninsk group parameters included into the obninsk-bcs.dat file are chosen as recommended ones and the beijing-bcs.dat file is included as an alternative set of parameters. iv) For the microscopic approach to the level densities the files are: obninsk-micro.for -FORTRAN 77 source for the microscopical statistical level density code developed in Obninsk by Ignatyuk and coworkers, moller-levels.gz - Moeller single-particle level and ground state deformation data base, moller-levels.for -retrieval code for Moeller single-particle level scheme. (author)

  3. Task vs. rest—different network configurations between the coactivation and the resting-state brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xin; Gohel, Suril; Kim, Eun H.; Biswal, Bharat B.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in studies of human brain networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, it is unclear whether and how brain networks measured during the resting-state exhibit comparable properties to brain networks during task performance. In the present study, we investigated meta-analytic coactivation patterns among brain regions based upon published neuroimaging studies, and compared the coactivation network configurations with those in the resting-state network. The strength of resting-state functional connectivity between two regions were strongly correlated with the coactivation strength. However, the coactivation network showed greater global efficiency, smaller mean clustering coefficient, and lower modularity compared with the resting-state network, which suggest a more efficient global information transmission and between system integrations during task performing. Hub shifts were also observed within the thalamus and the left inferior temporal cortex. The thalamus and the left inferior temporal cortex exhibited higher and lower degrees, respectively in the coactivation network compared with the resting-state network. These results shed light regarding the reconfiguration of the brain networks between task and resting-state conditions, and highlight the role of the thalamus in change of network configurations in task vs. rest. PMID:24062654

  4. Physical actions and work-rest time in men's beach volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Palao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the ball contacts, jumps, hits, work time, and rest ratio in male beach volleyball players in relation to their tactical roles. The sample of this study included 6970 rallies played by 91 beach volleyball players, which corresponded to 179 sets of the 2008 Men's Beach Volleyball World Tour (FIVB. We analyzed: ball contacts, jumps, hits, work time, rest time, set (first, second or third, and player's tactical role (e.g., defense specialist, blocker, or no specialization. A significantly higher number of jumps were executed by blockers. No differences were found in the third set for any of the physical variables studied. This paper provides references about the physical demands (e.g., contacts, jumps, and hits for blockers and defense specialists and temporal patterns of the beach volleyball game (i.e., work and rest time for two-set matches and three-set matches.

  5. Sex-related differences in amygdala functional connectivity during resting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, L A; Zald, D H; Pardo, J V; Cahill, L F

    2006-04-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have established a sex-related hemispheric lateralization of amygdala involvement in memory for emotionally arousing material. Here, we examine the possibility that sex-related differences in amygdala involvement in memory for emotional material develop from differential patterns of amygdala functional connectivity evident in the resting brain. Seed voxel partial least square analyses of regional cerebral blood flow data revealed significant sex-related differences in amygdala functional connectivity during resting conditions. The right amygdala was associated with greater functional connectivity in men than in women. In contrast, the left amygdala was associated with greater functional connectivity in women than in men. Furthermore, the regions displaying stronger functional connectivity with the right amygdala in males (sensorimotor cortex, striatum, pulvinar) differed from those displaying stronger functional connectivity with the left amygdala in females (subgenual cortex, hypothalamus). These differences in functional connectivity at rest may link to sex-related differences in medical and psychiatric disorders.

  6. Patterns of natural mortality in stream-living brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobon-Cervia, J.; Budy, P.; Mortensen, E.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that lifetime mortality patterns and their corresponding rates and causal factors differ among populations of stream-living salmonids. To this end, we examined the lifetime mortality patterns of several successive cohorts of two stream-living brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in Spain and Denmark. In the southern population, we observed a consistent two-phase pattern, in which mortality was negligible during the first half of the lifetime and severe during the rest of the lifetime. In contrast, the northern population demonstrated a three-phase pattern with an earlier phase varying from negligible to severe, followed by a second stage of weak mortality, and lastly by a third life stage of severe mortality. Despite substantial differences in the mortality patterns between the two populations, the combined effect of recruitment (as a proxy of the density-dependent processes occurring during the lifetime) and mean body mass (as a proxy of growth experienced by individuals in a given cohort) explained c. 89% of the total lifetime mortality rates across cohorts and populations. A comparison with other published data on populations of stream-living brown trout within its native range highlighted lifetime mortality patterns of one, two, three and four phases, but also suggested that common patterns may occur in populations that experience similar individual growth and population density. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Tremor frequency characteristics in Parkinson's disease under resting-state and stress-state conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Ji; Lee, Woong Woo; Kim, Sang Kyong; Park, Hyeyoung; Jeon, Hyo Seon; Kim, Han Byul; Jeon, Beom S; Park, Kwang Suk

    2016-03-15

    Tremor characteristics-amplitude and frequency components-are primary quantitative clinical factors for diagnosis and monitoring of tremors. Few studies have investigated how different patient's conditions affect tremor frequency characteristics in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we analyzed tremor characteristics under resting-state and stress-state conditions. Tremor was recorded using an accelerometer on the finger, under resting-state and stress-state (calculation task) conditions, during rest tremor and postural tremor. The changes of peak power, peak frequency, mean frequency, and distribution of power spectral density (PSD) of tremor were evaluated across conditions. Patients whose tremors were considered more than "mild" were selected, for both rest (n=67) and postural (n=25) tremor. Stress resulted in both greater peak powers and higher peak frequencies for rest tremor (pstate condition. The distributions of PSD of tremor were symmetrical, regardless of conditions. Tremor is more evident and typical tremor characteristics, namely a lower frequency as amplitude increases, are different in stressful condition. Patient's conditions directly affect neural oscillations related to tremor frequencies. Therefore, tremor characteristics in PD should be systematically standardized across patient's conditions such as attention and stress levels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Patterns - "A crime solver".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasupriya, A; Dhanapal, Raghu; Reena, K; Saraswathi, Tr; Ramachandran, Cr

    2011-01-01

    This study is intended to analyze the predominant pattern of lip and finger prints in males and females and to correlate lip print and finger print for gender identity. The study sample comprised of 200 students of Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, 100 males and 100 females aged between 18 to 27 years. Brown/pink colored lip stick was applied on the lips and the subject was asked to spread it uniformly over the lips. Lip prints were traced in the normal rest position of the lips with the help of cellophane tape. The imprint of the left thumb was taken on a white chart sheet and visualized using magnifying lens. While three main types of finger prints are identified, the classification of lip prints is simplified into branched, reticular, and vertical types. Association between lip prints and finger prints was statistically tested using Chi-square test. This study showed that lip and finger patterns did not reveal statistically significant results within the gender. The correlation between lip and finger patterns for gender identification, was statistically significant. In males, branched type of lip pattern associated with arch, loop, and whorl type of finger pattern was most significant. In females, vertical lip pattern associated with arch finger pattern and reticular lip pattern associated with whorl finger patterns were most significant. We conclude that a correlative study between the lip print and finger print will be very useful in forensic science for gender identification.

  9. Task-rest modulation of basal ganglia connectivity in mild to moderate Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Huang, Neng C; Poston, Kathleen L; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M; Schulte, Tilman

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with abnormal synchronization in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. We tested whether early PD patients without demonstrable cognitive impairment exhibit abnormal modulation of functional connectivity at rest, while engaged in a task, or both. PD and healthy controls underwent two functional MRI scans: a resting-state scan and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task scan. Rest-task modulation of basal ganglia (BG) connectivity was tested using seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis with task and rest time series as conditions. Despite substantial overlap of BG-cortical connectivity patterns in both groups, connectivity differences between groups had clinical and behavioral correlates. During rest, stronger putamen-medial parietal and pallidum-occipital connectivity in PD than controls was associated with worse task performance and more severe PD symptoms suggesting that abnormalities in resting-state connectivity denote neural network dedifferentiation. During the executive task, PD patients showed weaker BG-cortical connectivity than controls, i.e., between caudate-supramarginal gyrus and pallidum-inferior prefrontal regions, that was related to more severe PD symptoms and worse task performance. Yet, task processing also evoked stronger striatal-cortical connectivity, specifically between caudate-prefrontal, caudate-precuneus, and putamen-motor/premotor regions in PD relative to controls, which was related to less severe PD symptoms and better performance on the Stroop task. Thus, stronger task-evoked striatal connectivity in PD demonstrated compensatory neural network enhancement to meet task demands and improve performance levels. fMRI-based network analysis revealed that despite resting-state BG network compromise in PD, BG connectivity to prefrontal, premotor, and precuneus regions can be adequately invoked during executive control demands enabling near normal task performance.

  10. Task-Rest Modulation of Basal Ganglia Connectivity in Mild to Moderate Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Sullivan, Edith V.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Huang, Neng C.; Poston, Kathleen L.; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M.; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with abnormal synchronization in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. We tested whether early PD patients without demonstrable cognitive impairment exhibit abnormal modulation of functional connectivity at rest, while engaged in a task, or both. PD and healthy controls underwent two functional MRI scans: a resting-state scan and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task scan. Rest-task modulation of basal ganglia (BG) connectivity was tested using seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis with task and rest time series as conditions. Despite substantial overlap of BG–cortical connectivity patterns in both groups, connectivity differences between groups had clinical and behavioral correlates. During rest, stronger putamen–medial parietal and pallidum–occipital connectivity in PD than controls was associated with worse task performance and more severe PD symptoms suggesting that abnormalities in resting-state connectivity denote neural network dedifferentiation. During the executive task, PD patients showed weaker BG-cortical connectivity than controls, i.e., between caudate–supramarginal gyrus and pallidum–inferior prefrontal regions, that was related to more severe PD symptoms and worse task performance. Yet, task processing also evoked stronger striatal–cortical connectivity, specifically between caudate–prefrontal, caudate–precuneus, and putamen–motor/premotor regions in PD relative to controls, which was related to less severe PD symptoms and better performance on the Stroop task. Thus, stronger task-evoked striatal connectivity in PD demonstrated compensatory neural network enhancement to meet task demands and improve performance levels. fMRI-based network analysis revealed that despite resting-state BG network compromise in PD, BG connectivity to prefrontal, premotor, and precuneus regions can be adequately invoked during executive control demands enabling near normal task performance. PMID:25280970

  11. A resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study of concussion in collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak, Suzanne M; Sikoglu, Elif M; Liso Navarro, Ana A; McCafferty, Joseph; Eisenstock, Jordan; Stevenson, J Herbert; King, Jean A; Moore, Constance M

    2015-06-01

    Sports-related concussions are currently diagnosed through multi-domain assessment by a medical professional and may utilize neurocognitive testing as an aid. However, these tests have only been able to detect differences in the days to week post-concussion. Here, we investigate a measure of brain function, namely resting state functional connectivity, which may detect residual brain differences in the weeks to months after concussion. Twenty-one student athletes (9 concussed within 6 months of enrollment; 12 non-concussed; between ages 18 and 22 years) were recruited for this study. All participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task and the Color-Word Interference Test. Neuroimaging data, specifically resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging data, were acquired to examine resting state functional connectivity. Two sample t-tests were used to compare the neurocognitive scores and resting state functional connectivity patterns among concussed and non-concussed participants. Correlations between neurocognitive scores and resting state functional connectivity measures were also determined across all subjects. There were no significant differences in neurocognitive performance between concussed and non-concussed groups. Concussed subjects had significantly increased connections between areas of the brain that underlie executive function. Across all subjects, better neurocognitive performance corresponded to stronger brain connectivity. Even at rest, brains of concussed athletes may have to 'work harder' than their healthy peers to achieve similar neurocognitive results. Resting state brain connectivity may be able to detect prolonged brain differences in concussed athletes in a more quantitative manner than neurocognitive test scores.

  12. Broadband Electrophysiological Dynamics Contribute to Global Resting-State fMRI Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Haiguang; Liu, Zhongming

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous activity observed with resting-state fMRI is used widely to uncover the brain's intrinsic functional networks in health and disease. Although many networks appear modular and specific, global and nonspecific fMRI fluctuations also exist and both pose a challenge and present an opportunity for characterizing and understanding brain networks. Here, we used a multimodal approach to investigate the neural correlates to the global fMRI signal in the resting state. Like fMRI, resting-state power fluctuations of broadband and arrhythmic, or scale-free, macaque electrocorticography and human magnetoencephalography activity were correlated globally. The power fluctuations of scale-free human electroencephalography (EEG) were coupled with the global component of simultaneously acquired resting-state fMRI, with the global hemodynamic change lagging the broadband spectral change of EEG by ∼5 s. The levels of global and nonspecific fluctuation and synchronization in scale-free population activity also varied across and depended on arousal states. Together, these results suggest that the neural origin of global resting-state fMRI activity is the broadband power fluctuation in scale-free population activity observable with macroscopic electrical or magnetic recordings. Moreover, the global fluctuation in neurophysiological and hemodynamic activity is likely modulated through diffuse neuromodulation pathways that govern arousal states and vigilance levels. This study provides new insights into the neural origin of resting-state fMRI. Results demonstrate that the broadband power fluctuation of scale-free electrophysiology is globally synchronized and directly coupled with the global component of spontaneous fMRI signals, in contrast to modularly synchronized fluctuations in oscillatory neural activity. These findings lead to a new hypothesis that scale-free and oscillatory neural processes account for global and modular patterns of functional connectivity observed

  13. Functional Connectivity of Resting Hemodynamic Signals in Submillimeter Orientation Columns of the Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasireddi, Anil K; Vazquez, Alberto L; Whitney, David E; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kim, Seong-Gi

    2016-09-07

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has been increasingly used for examining connectivity across brain regions. The spatial scale by which hemodynamic imaging can resolve functional connections at rest remains unknown. To examine this issue, deoxyhemoglobin-weighted intrinsic optical imaging data were acquired from the visual cortex of lightly anesthetized ferrets. The neural activity of orientation domains, which span a distance of 0.7-0.8 mm, has been shown to be correlated during evoked activity and at rest. We performed separate analyses to assess the degree to which the spatial and temporal characteristics of spontaneous hemodynamic signals depend on the known functional organization of orientation columns. As a control, artificial orientation column maps were generated. Spatially, resting hemodynamic patterns showed a higher spatial resemblance to iso-orientation maps than artificially generated maps. Temporally, a correlation analysis was used to establish whether iso-orientation domains are more correlated than orthogonal orientation domains. After accounting for a significant decrease in correlation as a function of distance, a small but significant temporal correlation between iso-orientation domains was found, which decreased with increasing difference in orientation preference. This dependence was abolished when using artificially synthetized orientation maps. Finally, the temporal correlation coefficient as a function of orientation difference at rest showed a correspondence with that calculated during visual stimulation suggesting that the strength of resting connectivity is related to the strength of the visual stimulation response. Our results suggest that temporal coherence of hemodynamic signals measured by optical imaging of intrinsic signals exists at a submillimeter columnar scale in resting state.

  14. Framework for ReSTful Web Services in OSGi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Khawaja S.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Mittman, David S.; Fox, Jason M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Wallick, Michael N.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Rabe, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ensemble ReST is a software system that eases the development, deployment, and maintenance of server-side application programs to perform functions that would otherwise be performed by client software. Ensemble ReST takes advantage of the proven disciplines of ReST (Representational State Transfer. ReST leverages the standardized HTTP protocol to enable developers to offer services to a diverse variety of clients: from shell scripts to sophisticated Java application suites

  15. Nephrogenic rests mimicking Wilms' tumor on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhas, Naveen; Siegelman, Stanley S.; Argani, Pedram; Gearhart, John P.

    2004-01-01

    Nephrogenic rests (NR) are persistent benign remnants of embryonic renal tissue. A small percentage of these may develop into Wilms' tumor (WT). Radiologic imaging is relied upon to differentiate between these entities, with the hallmark of malignant transformation being growth on serial imaging studies. There is, however, considerable overlap in their imaging characteristics. The authors present a case of two biopsy-proven NR in a 2-year-old girl with sporadic aniridia that were indistinguishable from WT on initial radiologic studies. One of the NR grew on serial imaging studies mimicking a WT, but after resection was confirmed to be a benign hyperplastic NR on pathologic examination. (orig.)

  16. Hypoxic responses in resting hyperthermic humans

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This thesis investigated the interaction between steady state hypoxia and passive hyperthermia on human ventilation and the influence of the PETCO2 on this interaction. On one of two days males twice breathed 12% oxygen for 20 min while either normothermic or hyperthermic with PETCO2 clamped -1 mm Hg above resting (iHVR). On the other day the same tests were performed except P&02 was uncontrolled (pHVR). Hyperthermia increased euoxic ventilation compared to normothermia (plO.OO1). During ...

  17. Proton spin structure in the rest frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavada, P.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that the quark-parton model in the standard infinite momentum approach overestimates the proton spin structure function g 1 (x) in comparison with the approach taking consistently into account the internal motion of quarks described by a spherical phase space in the proton rest frame. Particularly, it is shown the first moment of the spin structure function in the latter approach, assuming only the valence quarks contribution to the proton spin, does not contradict the experimental data. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Resting-state functional connectivity remains unaffected by preceding exposure to aversive visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissmann, Léonie; Gschwind, Leo; Schicktanz, Nathalie; Deuring, Gunnar; Rosburg, Timm; Schwegler, Kyrill; Gerhards, Christiane; Milnik, Annette; Pflueger, Marlon O; Mager, Ralph; de Quervain, Dominique J F; Coynel, David

    2018-02-15

    While much is known about immediate brain activity changes induced by the confrontation with emotional stimuli, the subsequent temporal unfolding of emotions has yet to be explored. To investigate whether exposure to emotionally aversive pictures affects subsequent resting-state networks differently from exposure to neutral pictures, a resting-state fMRI study implementing a two-group repeated-measures design in healthy young adults (N = 34) was conducted. We focused on investigating (i) patterns of amygdala whole-brain and hippocampus connectivity in both a seed-to-voxel and seed-to-seed approach, (ii) whole-brain resting-state networks with an independent component analysis coupled with dual regression, and (iii) the amygdala's fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations, all while EEG recording potential fluctuations in vigilance. In spite of the successful emotion induction, as demonstrated by stimuli rating and a memory-facilitating effect of negative emotionality, none of the resting-state measures was differentially affected by picture valence. In conclusion, resting-state networks connectivity as well as the amygdala's low frequency oscillations appear to be unaffected by preceding exposure to widely used emotionally aversive visual stimuli in healthy young adults. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Detecting brain dynamics during resting state: a tensor based evolutionary clustering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-sharoa, Esraa; Al-khassaweneh, Mahmood; Aviyente, Selin

    2017-08-01

    Human brain is a complex network with connections across different regions. Understanding the functional connectivity (FC) of the brain is important both during resting state and task; as disruptions in connectivity patterns are indicators of different psychopathological and neurological diseases. In this work, we study the resting state functional connectivity networks (FCNs) of the brain from fMRI BOLD signals. Recent studies have shown that FCNs are dynamic even during resting state and understanding the temporal dynamics of FCNs is important for differentiating between different conditions. Therefore, it is important to develop algorithms to track the dynamic formation and dissociation of FCNs of the brain during resting state. In this paper, we propose a two step tensor based community detection algorithm to identify and track the brain network community structure across time. First, we introduce an information-theoretic function to reduce the dynamic FCN and identify the time points that are similar topologically to combine them into a tensor. These time points will be used to identify the different FC states. Second, a tensor based spectral clustering approach is developed to identify the community structure of the constructed tensors. The proposed algorithm applies Tucker decomposition to the constructed tensors and extract the orthogonal factor matrices along the connectivity mode to determine the common subspace within each FC state. The detected community structure is summarized and described as FC states. The results illustrate the dynamic structure of resting state networks (RSNs), including the default mode network, somatomotor network, subcortical network and visual network.

  20. Transition into daylight saving time influences the fragmentation of the rest-activity cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulio-Henriksson Annamari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daylight saving time is widely adopted. Little is known about its influence on the daily rest-activity cycles. We decided to explore the effects of transition into daylight saving time on the circadian rhythm of activity. Methods We monitored the rest-activity cycles with the use of wrist-worn accelerometer on a sample of ten healthy adults for ten days around the transition into summer time. Identical protocols were carried out on the same individuals in two consecutive years, yielding data on 200 person-days for analysis in this study. Results There was no significant effect on the rest-activity cycle in the sample as a whole. Fragmentation of the rest-activity cycle was enhanced in a subgroup of persons having sleep for eight hours or less (P = 0.04 but reduced in those who preferred to sleep for more than eight hours per night (P = 0.05. The average level of motor activity was increased in persons having the morning preference for daily activity patterns (P = 0.01. Conclusion Transition into daylight saving time may have a disruptive effect on the rest-activity cycle in those healthy adults who are short-sleepers or more of the evening type.

  1. Does resting-state connectivity reflect depressive rumination? A tale of two analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marc G; Misic, Bratislav; Buschkuehl, Martin; Kross, Ethan; Deldin, Patricia J; Peltier, Scott; Churchill, Nathan W; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Vakorin, Vasily; McIntosh, Anthony R; Jonides, John

    2014-12-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is characterized by rumination. Prior research suggests that resting-state brain activation reflects rumination when depressed individuals are not task engaged. However, no study has directly tested this. Here we investigated whether resting-state epochs differ from induced ruminative states for healthy and depressed individuals. Most previous research on resting-state networks comes from seed-based analyses with the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). By contrast, we examined resting state connectivity by using the complete multivariate connectivity profile (i.e., connections across all brain nodes) and by comparing these results to seeded analyses. We find that unconstrained resting-state intervals differ from active rumination states in strength of connectivity and that overall connectivity was higher for healthy vs. depressed individuals. Relationships between connectivity and subjective mood (i.e., behavior) were strongly observed during induced rumination epochs. Furthermore, connectivity patterns that related to subjective mood were strikingly different for MDD and healthy control (HC) groups suggesting different mood regulation mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of furosemide on pulmonary blood flow distribution in resting and exercising horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, H. H.; Bernard, S. L.; Glenny, R. W.; Fedde, M. R.; Polissar, N. L.; Basaraba, R. J.; Walther, S. M.; Gaughan, E. M.; McMurphy, R.; Hlastala, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    We determined the spatial distribution of pulmonary blood flow (PBF) with 15-micron fluorescent-labeled microspheres during rest and exercise in five Thoroughbred horses before and 4 h after furosemide administration (0.5 mg/kg iv). The primary finding of this study was that PBF redistribution occurred from rest to exercise, both with and without furosemide. However, there was less blood flow to the dorsal portion of the lung during exercise postfurosemide compared with prefurosemide. Furosemide did alter the resting perfusion distribution by increasing the flow to the ventral regions of the lung; however, that increase in flow was abated with exercise. Other findings included 1) unchanged gas exchange and cardiac output during rest and exercise after vs. before furosemide, 2) a decrease in pulmonary arterial pressure after furosemide, 3) an increase in the slope of the relationship of PBF vs. vertical height up the lung during exercise, both with and without furosemide, and 4) a decrease in blood flow to the dorsal region of the lung at rest after furosemide. Pulmonary perfusion variability within the lung may be a function of the anatomy of the pulmonary vessels that results in a predominantly fixed spatial pattern of flow distribution.

  3. Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality of sheep without enhancing environmental benefits. ... This experiment was established to compare three intensive rotational grazing strategies (fast rotation [FR], average 57-day rest; slow rotation [SR], average 114-day rest; and flexible grazing [FX], based ...

  4. Ambiguities in the deduction of rest frame fluctuation spectrums from spectrums computed in moving frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredericks, R.W.; Coroniti, F.V.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of interpretation of power spectrums computed by Fourier analysis of data time series taken in frames moving with respect to the medium containing the fluctuations is examined. It is found that no unique connection exists between the rest frame power spectrum as a function of scale length and the derived power spectrum as a function 'frequency' computed from the time series data taken in the moving frame. This caused by a complex Doppler-shifting phenomenon that leads to a basically aliased frequency spectrum in the moving frame. Examples of nonuniqueness are given for various types of rest frame density or wave turbulence that lead to the same frequency dependence of the power spectrum computed in the moving frame. This has implications for the past interpretations of power spectrums of density or magnetic field fluctuations from satellites or interplanetary probes

  5. Altered functional connectivity architecture of the brain in medication overuse headache using resting state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiye; Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Mengqi; Dong, Zhao; Ma, Lin; Yu, Shengyuan

    2017-12-01

    Functional connectivity density (FCD) could identify the abnormal intrinsic and spontaneous activity over the whole brain, and a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) could further reveal the altered functional network with the identified brain regions. This may be an effective assessment strategy for headache research. This study is to investigate the RSFC architecture changes of the brain in the patients with medication overuse headache (MOH) using FCD and RSFC methods. 3D structure images and resting-state functional MRI data were obtained from 37 MOH patients, 18 episodic migraine (EM) patients and 32 normal controls (NCs). FCD was calculated to detect the brain regions with abnormal functional activity over the whole brain, and the seed-based RSFC was performed to explore the functional network changes in MOH and EM. The decreased FCD located in right parahippocampal gyrus, and the increased FCD located in left inferior parietal gyrus and right supramarginal gyrus in MOH compared with NC, and in right caudate and left insula in MOH compared with EM. RSFC revealed that decreased functional connectivity of the brain regions with decreased FCD anchored in the right dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex, right frontopolar cortex in MOH, and in left temporopolar cortex and bilateral visual cortices in EM compared with NC, and in frontal-temporal-parietal pattern in MOH compared with EM. These results provided evidence that MOH and EM suffered from altered intrinsic functional connectivity architecture, and the current study presented a new perspective for understanding the neuromechanism of MOH and EM pathogenesis.

  6. High density fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zezza, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    High storage density for spent nuclear fuel assemblies in a pool achieved by positioning fuel storage cells of high thermal neutron absorption materials in an upright configuration in a rack. The rack holds the cells at required pitch. Each cell carries an internal fuel assembly support, and most cells are vertically movable in the rack so that they rest on the pool bottom. Pool water circulation through the cells and around the fuel assemblies is permitted by circulation openings at the top and bottom of the cells above and below the fuel assemblies

  7. Altered thalamo-cortical resting state functional connectivity in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoyan; Bai, Jie; Wang, Caihong; von Deneen, Karen M; Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Jingliang

    2017-07-13

    The thalamus has widespread connections with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and modulates communication between the striatum and PFC, which is crucial to the neural mechanisms of smoking. However, relatively few studies focused on the thalamic resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns and their association with smoking behaviors in smokers. 24 young male smokers and 24 non-smokers were enrolled in our study. Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used to assess the nicotine dependence level. The bilateral thalamic RSFC patterns were compared between smokers and non-smokers. The relationship between neuroimaging findings and smoking behaviors (FTND and pack-years) were also investigated in smokers. Relative to nonsmokers, smokers showed reduced RSFC strength between the left thalamus and several brain regions, i.e. the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the bilateral caudate. In addition, the right thalamus showed reduced RSFC with the right dlPFC as well as the bilateral insula in smokers. Therefore, the findings in the current study revealed the reduced RSFC of the thalamus with the dlPFC, the ACC, the insula and the caudate in smokers, which provided new insights into the roles of the thalamus in nicotine addiction from a function integration perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Resting State Network Estimation in Individual Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Carl D.; Laumann, Timothy O.; Szrama, Nicholas P.; Baldassarre, Antonello; Snyder, Abraham Z.

    2014-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to study brain networks associated with both normal and pathological cognitive function. The objective of this work is to reliably compute resting state network (RSN) topography in single participants. We trained a supervised classifier (multi-layer perceptron; MLP) to associate blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) correlation maps corresponding to pre-defined seeds with specific RSN identities. Hard classification of maps obtained from a priori seeds was highly reliable across new participants. Interestingly, continuous estimates of RSN membership retained substantial residual error. This result is consistent with the view that RSNs are hierarchically organized, and therefore not fully separable into spatially independent components. After training on a priori seed-based maps, we propagated voxel-wise correlation maps through the MLP to produce estimates of RSN membership throughout the brain. The MLP generated RSN topography estimates in individuals consistent with previous studies, even in brain regions not represented in the training data. This method could be used in future studies to relate RSN topography to other measures of functional brain organization (e.g., task-evoked responses, stimulation mapping, and deficits associated with lesions) in individuals. The multi-layer perceptron was directly compared to two alternative voxel classification procedures, specifically, dual regression and linear discriminant analysis; the perceptron generated more spatially specific RSN maps than either alternative. PMID:23735260

  9. "Therapeutic" bed rest in pregnancy: unethical and unsupported by data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Christina A; Grimes, David A; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2013-06-01

    "Therapeutic" bed rest continues to be used widely, despite evidence of no benefit and known harms. In this commentary, we summarize the Cochrane reviews of bed rest and propose an ethical argument for discontinuing this practice. Cochrane systematic reviews do not support "therapeutic" bed rest for threatened abortion, hypertension, preeclampsia, preterm birth, multiple gestations, or impaired fetal growth. This assessment has been echoed in other comprehensive reviews. Prescribing bed rest is inconsistent with the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice. Hence, if bed rest is to be used, it should be only within a formal clinical trial.

  10. The Ensembl REST API: Ensembl Data for Any Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Andrew; Beal, Kathryn; Keenan, Stephen; McLaren, William; Pignatelli, Miguel; Ritchie, Graham R S; Ruffier, Magali; Taylor, Kieron; Vullo, Alessandro; Flicek, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present a Web service to access Ensembl data using Representational State Transfer (REST). The Ensembl REST server enables the easy retrieval of a wide range of Ensembl data by most programming languages, using standard formats such as JSON and FASTA while minimizing client work. We also introduce bindings to the popular Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor tool permitting large-scale programmatic variant analysis independent of any specific programming language. The Ensembl REST API can be accessed at http://rest.ensembl.org and source code is freely available under an Apache 2.0 license from http://github.com/Ensembl/ensembl-rest. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror

    2015-01-01

    in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic...... endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3...

  12. PARCELLATION OF THE CINGULATE CORTEX AT REST AND DURING TASKS: A META-ANALYTIC CLUSTERING AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M.E. Torta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical, morphological and histological data have consistently shown that the cingulate cortex can be divided into four main regions. However, less is known about parcellations of the cingulate cortex when involved in active tasks. Here, we aimed at comparing how the pattern of clusterization of the cingulate cortex changes across different levels of task complexity. We parcellated the cingulate cortex using the results of a meta-analytic study and of three experimental studies. The experimental studies, which included two active tasks and a resting state protocol, were used to control the results obtained with the meta-analytic parcellation. We explored the meta-analytic parcellation by applying a meta-analytic clustering (MaC to papers retrieved from the BrainMap database. The MaC is a meta-analytic connectivity driven parcellation technique recently developed by our group which allowed us to parcellate the cingulate cortex on the basis of its pattern of co-activations during active tasks. The MaC results indicated that the cingulate cortex can be parcellated into three clusters. These clusters covered different percentages of the cingulate parenchyma and had a different density of foci, with the first cluster being more densely connected. The control experiments showed different clusterization results, suggesting that the co-activations of the cingulate cortex are highly dependent on the task that is tested. Our results highlight the importance of the cingulate cortex as a hub, which modifies its pattern of co-activations depending on the task requests and on the level of task complexity. The neurobiological meaning of these results is discussed.

  13. Resting site use of giant pandas in Wanglang Nature Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Li, Junqing

    2017-10-23

    Little is known about the resting sites used by the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), which restricts our understanding of their resting habits and limits conservation efforts. To enhance our understanding of resting site requirements and factors affecting the resting time of giant pandas, we investigated the characteristics of resting sites in the Wanglang Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. The results indicated that the resting sites of giant pandas were characterised by a mean slope of 21°, mean nearest tree size of 53.75 cm, mean nearest shrub size of 2.82 cm, and mean nearest bamboo number of 56. We found that the resting sites were closer to bamboo than to trees and shrubs, suggesting that the resting site use of giant pandas is closely related to the presence of bamboo. Considering that giant pandas typically rest near a large-sized tree, protection of large trees in the forests is of considerable importance for the conservation of this species. Furthermore, slope was found to be an important factor affecting the resting time of giant pandas, as they tended to rest for a relatively longer time in sites with a smaller degree of slope.

  14. Contribution from S and P waves in pp annihilation at rest

    CERN Document Server

    Bendiscioli, G; Fontana, A; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Salvini, P; Bertin, A; Bruschi, M; Capponi, M; De Castro, S; Donà, R; Galli, D; Giacobbe, B; Marconi, U; Massa, I; Piccinini, M; Cesari, N S; Spighi, R; Vecchi, S; Vagnoni, V M; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Zoccoli, A; Bianconi, A; Bonomi, G; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Venturelli, L; Zenoni, A; Cicalò, C; De Falco, A; Masoni, A; Puddu, G; Serci, S; Usai, G L; Gorchakov, O E; Prakhov, S N; Rozhdestvensky, A M; Tretyak, V I; Poli, M; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lanaro, A; Lucherini, V; Petrascu, C; Kudryavtsev, A E; Balestra, F; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; Cerello, P G; Denisov, O Yu; Ferrero, L; Grasso, A; Maggiora, A; Panzarasa, A; Panzieri, D; Tosello, F; Botta, E; Bressani, Tullio; Calvo, D; Costa, S; D'Isep, D; Feliciello, A; Filippi, A; Marcello, S; Mirfakhraee, N; Agnello, M; Iazzi, F; Minetti, B; Tessaro, S

    2001-01-01

    The annihilation frequencies of 19 pp annihilation reactions at rest obtained in different target densities are analysed in order to determine the values of the P-wave annihilation percentage at each target density and the average hadronic branching ratios from P- and S-states. Both the assumptions of linear dependence of the annihilation frequencies on the P-wave annihilation percentage of the protonium state and the approach with the enhancement factors of Batty (1989) are considered. Furthermore the cases of incompatible measurements are discussed. (55 refs).

  15. Quantifying agreement between anatomical and functional interhemispheric correspondences in the resting brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Joon Jo

    Full Text Available The human brain is composed of two broadly symmetric cerebral hemispheres, with an abundance of reciprocal anatomical connections between homotopic locations. However, to date, studies of hemispheric symmetries have not identified correspondency precisely due to variable cortical folding patterns. Here we present a method to establish accurate correspondency using position on the unfolded cortical surface relative to gyral and sulcal landmarks. The landmark method is shown to outperform the method of reversing standard volume coordinates, and it is used to quantify the functional symmetry in resting fMRI data throughout the cortex. Resting brain activity was found to be maximally correlated with locations less than 1 cm away on the cortical surface from the corresponding anatomical location in nearly half of the cortex. While select locations exhibited asymmetric patterns, precise symmetric relationships were found to be the norm, with fine-grained symmetric functional maps demonstrated in motor, occipital, and inferior frontal cortex.

  16. Asymmetrical frontal resting-state beta oscillations predict trait aggressive tendencies and behavioral inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Hofman, Dennis; Schutter, Dennis J. L. G.

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetrical patterns of frontal cortical activity have been implicated in the development and expression of aggressive behavior. Along with individual motivational tendencies, the ability to restrain one's impulses might be a factor in aggressive behavior. Recently, a role for the inhibitory cortical beta rhythm was suggested. The present study investigated whether individual differences in resting state asymmetries in the beta frequency band were associated with trait aggression and behavio...

  17. Role of mitochondrial calcium uptake homeostasis in resting state fMRI brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannurpatti, Sridhar S; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Herman, Peter; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake influences both brain energy metabolism and neural signaling. Given that brain mitochondrial organelles are distributed in relation to vascular density, which varies considerably across brain regions, we hypothesized different physiological impacts of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake across brain regions. We tested the hypothesis by monitoring brain "intrinsic activity" derived from the resting state functional MRI (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fluctuations in different functional networks spanning the somatosensory cortex, caudate putamen, hippocampus and thalamus, in normal and perturbed mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake states. In anesthetized rats at 11.7 T, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake was inhibited or enhanced respectively by treatments with Ru360 or kaempferol. Surprisingly, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake inhibition by Ru360 and enhancement by kaempferol led to similar dose-dependent decreases in brain-wide intrinsic activities in both the frequency domain (spectral amplitude) and temporal domain (resting state functional connectivity; RSFC). The fact that there were similar dose-dependent decreases in the frequency and temporal domains of the resting state fMRI-BOLD fluctuations during mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake inhibition or enhancement indicated that mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and its homeostasis may strongly influence the brain's functional organization at rest. Interestingly, the resting state fMRI-derived intrinsic activities in the caudate putamen and thalamic regions saturated much faster with increasing dosage of either drug treatment than the drug-induced trends observed in cortical and hippocampal regions. Regional differences in how the spectral amplitude and RSFC changed with treatment indicate distinct mitochondrion-mediated spontaneous neuronal activity coupling within the various RSFC networks determined by resting state fMRI. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MODULATED LUMINANCE PATTERNS AND RANDOM-DOT PATTERNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CORNELISSEN, FW; KOOIJMAN, AC

    1994-01-01

    It has been suggested that density modulated random-dot patterns can be used to study higher order pattern vision [Van Meeteren and Barlow (1981) Vision Research, 21, 765-777]. The high contrast dots of which the pattern is composed, are assumed to be reliably transduced-and transmitted by the lower

  19. Resting-State Network Topology Differentiates Task Signals across the Adult Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Micaela Y; Alhazmi, Fahd H; Park, Denise C; Savalia, Neil K; Wig, Gagan S

    2017-03-08

    Brain network connectivity differs across individuals. For example, older adults exhibit less segregated resting-state subnetworks relative to younger adults (Chan et al., 2014). It has been hypothesized that individual differences in network connectivity impact the recruitment of brain areas during task execution. While recent studies have described the spatial overlap between resting-state functional correlation (RSFC) subnetworks and task-evoked activity, it is unclear whether individual variations in the connectivity pattern of a brain area (topology) relates to its activity during task execution. We report data from 238 cognitively normal participants (humans), sampled across the adult life span (20-89 years), to reveal that RSFC-based network organization systematically relates to the recruitment of brain areas across two functionally distinct tasks (visual and semantic). The functional activity of brain areas (network nodes) were characterized according to their patterns of RSFC: nodes with relatively greater connections to nodes in their own functional system ("non-connector" nodes) exhibited greater activity than nodes with relatively greater connections to nodes in other systems ("connector" nodes). This "activation selectivity" was specific to those brain systems that were central to each of the tasks. Increasing age was accompanied by less differentiated network topology and a corresponding reduction in activation selectivity (or differentiation) across relevant network nodes. The results provide evidence that connectional topology of brain areas quantified at rest relates to the functional activity of those areas during task. Based on these findings, we propose a novel network-based theory for previous reports of the "dedifferentiation" in brain activity observed in aging. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Similar to other real-world networks, the organization of brain networks impacts their function. As brain network connectivity patterns differ across

  20. The influence of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate for malaria risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Matthew B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of the mosquito and parasite life-history traits that combine to determine malaria transmission intensity are temperature sensitive. In most cases, the process-based models used to estimate malaria risk and inform control and prevention strategies utilize measures of mean outdoor temperature. Evidence suggests, however, that certain malaria vectors can spend large parts of their adult life resting indoors. Presentation of hypothesis If significant proportions of mosquitoes are resting indoors and indoor conditions differ markedly from ambient conditions, simple use of outdoor temperatures will not provide reliable estimates of malaria transmission intensity. To date, few studies have quantified the differential effects of indoor vs outdoor temperatures explicitly, reflecting a lack of proper understanding of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate. Testing the hypothesis Published records from 8 village sites in East Africa revealed temperatures to be warmer indoors than outdoors and to generally show less daily variation. Exploring the effects of these temperatures on malaria parasite development rate suggested indoor-resting mosquitoes could transmit malaria between 0.3 and 22.5 days earlier than outdoor-resting mosquitoes. These differences translate to increases in transmission risk ranging from 5 to approaching 3,000%, relative to predictions based on outdoor temperatures. The pattern appears robust for low- and highland areas, with differences increasing with altitude. Implications of the hypothesis Differences in indoor vs outdoor environments lead to large differences in the limits and the intensity of malaria transmission. This finding highlights a need to better understand mosquito resting behaviour and the associated microclimate, and to broaden assessments of transmission ecology and risk to consider the potentially important role of endophily.

  1. Sleep and alertness during alternating monophasic and polyphasic rest-activity cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcú, S; Casagrande, M; Ferrara, M; Bellatreccia, A

    1998-07-01

    People involved in shift work often have to face altered patterns of sleep and wakefulness. This is particularly true for schedules involving night shifts and/or fragmentation of duty periods throughout the 24-hr day. In such conditions, it can be difficult to obtain satisfactory periods of sleep, and sleepiness on duty is a frequent and dangerous occurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep and wakefulness periods of subjects whose work schedule was characterized by an alternation of 2 hours of activity and 4 hours of rest (sleep allowed), repeated 4 times throughout the 24-hr day. This schedule was alternated with 24 hours off duty. Nine healthy male volunteers were monitored by means of ambulatory polysomnography while attending their 24-hr rest-activity schedule. Sleep periods were visually scored according to standard criteria. Wake periods were visually scored using both 30 s and 5 s epochs in order to reveal episodes of drowsiness and/or microsleep. Results showed that total sleep time was substantially reduced as compared to the usual 7-8 hour monophasic nocturnal sleep. Subjects did not sleep during the first rest period (11.00-15.00). Time in sleep linearly increased in the course of the 3 remaining rest periods. Normal sleep stage distribution was substantially spared only in the last rest period (3.00-7.00 a.m.). With regard to duty periods, only a few microsleeps were detected and their number did not significantly vary across the four 2-hr activity periods. In conclusion, this rest-activity schedule, despite the considerable sleep reduction, allowed maintaining good levels of vigilance as shown by the virtual absence of EEG microsleeps. Whether future research will prove that this regimen does not cause an impairment of performance, it should be a suitable strategy for the management of continuous operations.

  2. Differential structural and resting state connectivity between insular subdivisions and other pain-related brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiech, K; Jbabdi, S; Lin, C S; Andersson, J; Tracey, I

    2014-10-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that the anterior, mid, and posterior division of the insula subserve different functions in the perception of pain. The anterior insula (AI) has predominantly been associated with cognitive-affective aspects of pain, while the mid and posterior divisions have been implicated in sensory-discriminative processing. We examined whether this functional segregation is paralleled by differences in (1) structural and (2) resting state connectivity and (3) in correlations with pain-relevant psychological traits. Analyses were restricted to the 3 insular subdivisions and other pain-related brain regions. Both type of analyses revealed largely overlapping results. The AI division was predominantly connected to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (structural and resting state connectivity) and orbitofrontal cortex (structural connectivity). In contrast, the posterior insula showed strong connections to the primary somatosensory cortex (SI; structural connectivity) and secondary somatosensory cortex (SII; structural and resting state connectivity). The mid insula displayed a hybrid connectivity pattern with strong connections with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, SII (structural and resting state connectivity) and SI (structural connectivity). Moreover, resting state connectivity revealed strong connectivity of all 3 subdivisions with the thalamus. On the behavioural level, AI structural connectivity was related to the individual degree of pain vigilance and awareness that showed a positive correlation with AI-amygdala connectivity and a negative correlation with AI-rostral anterior cingulate cortex connectivity. In sum, our findings show a differential structural and resting state connectivity for the anterior, mid, and posterior insula with other pain-relevant brain regions, which might at least partly explain their different functional profiles in pain processing. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  3. A comparison of resting images from two myocardial perfusion tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, C.; Laney, R.; Pennell, D.; Proukakis, H.; Underwood, R.

    1995-01-01

    We have compared stress-redistribution and delayed rest thallium-201 with rest technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) tomograms in order to compare the tracers for the assessment of myocardial viability and to validate a rapid protocol combining the two tracers. We studied 30 consecutive patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease [group 1: 16 with normal left ventricular function, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 55%, SD 6%; group 2: 14 with abnormal function, mean LVEF 28%, SD 8%]. 201 Tl was injected during infusion of adenosine followed by acquisition of conventional stress and redistribution tomograms. On a separate day, 201 Tl was injected at rest with imaging 4 h later. 99m Tc-MIBI was then given at rest and imaging was performed. Three images were compared: redistribution 201 Tl, rest 201 Tl, and rest 99m Tc-MIBI. Tracer activity was classified visually and quantitatively in nine segments and segments with>50% activity were defined as containing clinically significant viable myocardium. Mean global tracer uptake as a percentage of maximum was similar in group 1 (rest 201 Tl 69%±12%, redistribution 201 Tl 69%±15%, rest 99m Tc-MIBI 70%±13%), but in group 2 mean tracer uptake was significantly greater in the rest 201 Tl images (59%±16%) than in redistribution 201 Tl images (53%±17%) or rest 99m Tc-MIBI images (53%±19%). Overall agreement for regional uptake score was excellent (κ from 0.79 to 0.84), although there were a significant number of segments with less uptake shown by redistribution 201 Tl and by rest 99m Tc-MIBI than by rest 201 Tl in group 2. The number of segments with significant viable myocardium in group 1 was very similar between the three images but in group 2 rest 201 Tl identified significantly more segments as viable than the other images. (orig./MG) (orig.). With 1 fig., 7 tabs

  4. Principal States of Dynamic Functional Connectivity Reveal the Link Between Resting-State and Task-State Brain: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lin; Zhu, Yang; Sun, Junfeng; Deng, Lifu; He, Naying; Yang, Yang; Ling, Huawei; Ayaz, Hasan; Fu, Yi; Tong, Shanbao

    2018-01-25

    Task-related reorganization of functional connectivity (FC) has been widely investigated. Under classic static FC analysis, brain networks under task and rest have been demonstrated a general similarity. However, brain activity and cognitive process are believed to be dynamic and adaptive. Since static FC inherently ignores the distinct temporal patterns between rest and task, dynamic FC may be more a suitable technique to characterize the brain's dynamic and adaptive activities. In this study, we adopted [Formula: see text]-means clustering to investigate task-related spatiotemporal reorganization of dynamic brain networks and hypothesized that dynamic FC would be able to reveal the link between resting-state and task-state brain organization, including broadly similar spatial patterns but distinct temporal patterns. In order to test this hypothesis, this study examined the dynamic FC in default-mode network (DMN) and motor-related network (MN) using Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD)-fMRI data from 26 healthy subjects during rest (REST) and a hand closing-and-opening (HCO) task. Two principal FC states in REST and one principal FC state in HCO were identified. The first principal FC state in REST was found similar to that in HCO, which appeared to represent intrinsic network architecture and validated the broadly similar spatial patterns between REST and HCO. However, the second FC principal state in REST with much shorter "dwell time" implied the transient functional relationship between DMN and MN during REST. In addition, a more frequent shifting between two principal FC states indicated that brain network dynamically maintained a "default mode" in the motor system during REST, whereas the presence of a single principal FC state and reduced FC variability implied a more temporally stable connectivity during HCO, validating the distinct temporal patterns between REST and HCO. Our results further demonstrated that dynamic FC analysis could offer unique

  5. A random walk description of individual animal movement accounting for periods of rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles, Paulo F. C.; Petrovskii, Sergei V.; Natti, Paulo L.

    2016-11-01

    Animals do not move all the time but alternate the period of actual movement (foraging) with periods of rest (e.g. eating or sleeping). Although the existence of rest times is widely acknowledged in the literature and has even become a focus of increased attention recently, the theoretical approaches to describe animal movement by calculating the dispersal kernel and/or the mean squared displacement (MSD) rarely take rests into account. In this study, we aim to bridge this gap. We consider a composite stochastic process where the periods of active dispersal or `bouts' (described by a certain baseline probability density function (pdf) of animal dispersal) alternate with periods of immobility. For this process, we derive a general equation that determines the pdf of this composite movement. The equation is analysed in detail in two special but important cases such as the standard Brownian motion described by a Gaussian kernel and the Levy flight described by a Cauchy distribution. For the Brownian motion, we show that in the large-time asymptotics the effect of rests results in a rescaling of the diffusion coefficient. The movement occurs as a subdiffusive transition between the two diffusive asymptotics. Interestingly, the Levy flight case shows similar properties, which indicates a certain universality of our findings.

  6. Bone Loss in Space: Shuttle/MIR Experience and Bed Rest Countermeasure Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, L. C.; LeBlanc, A.; Feiveson, A.; Oganov, V.

    1999-01-01

    Loss of bone mineral during space flight was documented in the 1970's Skylab missions. The USSR space program made similar observations in the 1980's. The Institute of Biomedical Problems in Moscow and NASA JSC in 1989 began to collect pre- and post-flight bone mineral density (BMD) using Hologic QDR 1000 DEXA scanners transferred from JSC to Moscow and Star City. DEXA whole body, hip, and lumbar spine scans were performed prior to and during the first week after return from 4- to 6-month missions (plus one 8-month mission and one 14- month mission) on the Mir space station. These data documented the extent and regional nature of bone loss during long duration space flight. Of the 18 cosmonauts participating in this study between 1990 and 1995, seven flew two missions. BMD scans prior to the second flight compared to the first mission preflight scans indicated that recovery was possibly delayed or incomplete. Because of these findings, NASA and IBMP initiated the study "Bone Mineral Loss and Recovery After Shuttle/Mir Flights" in 1995 to evaluate bone recovery during a 3-year post-flight period. All of the 14 participants thus far evaluated lost bone in at least one region of the spine and lower extremities during flight. Of the 14, only one to date has exhibited full return to baseline BNM values in all regions. The current study will continue until the last participant has reached full bone recovery in all regions, has reached a plateau, or until three years after the flight (2001 for the last mission of the program). Bone mineral density losses in space and difficulty in returning to baseline indicate a need for countermeasure development. In late 1996 NASA JSC and Baylor College of Medicine were approved to conduct two countermeasure studies during 17 weeks of bed rest. In 1997 the studies were begun in the bed rest facility established by NASA, Baylor College of Medicine, and The Methodist Hospital in Houston. To date, three bed rest controls, five resistive

  7. The density of cement phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonis, M.; Glasser, F.P.

    2009-01-01

    The densities of principal crystalline phases occurring in Portland cement are critically assessed and tabulated, in some cases with addition of new data. A reliable and self-consistent density set for crystalline phases was obtained by calculating densities from crystallographic data and unit cell contents. Independent laboratory work was undertaken to synthesize major AFm and AFt cement phases, determine their unit cell parameters and compare the results with those recorded in the literature. Parameters were refined from powder diffraction patterns using CELREF 2 software. A density value is presented for each phase, showing literature sources, in some cases describing limitations on the data, and the weighting attached to numerical values where an averaging process was used for accepted data. A brief discussion is made of the consequences of the packing of water to density changes in AFm and AFt structures.

  8. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Functional Mobility and Balance: Relationship to Resting State Motor Cortex Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdeniz, B.; Koppelmans, V.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Kofman, I. S.; DeDios, Y. E.; Riascos-Castaneda, R. F.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA offers researchers from a variety of backgrounds the opportunity to study bed rest as an experimental analog for space flight. Extended exposure to a head-down tilt position during long duration bed rest can resemble many of the effects of a low-gravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The aim of our study is to a) identify changes in brain function that occur with prolonged bed rest and characterize their recovery time course; b) assess whether and how these changes impact behavioral and neurocognitive performance. Thus far, we completed data collection from six participants that include task based and resting state fMRI. The data have been acquired through the bed rest facility located at the University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX). Subjects remained in bed with their heads tilted down 6 degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Behavioral measures and neuroimaging assessments were obtained at seven time points: a) 7 and 12 days before bed rest; b) 7, 30, and 65 days during bed rest; and c) 7 and 12 days after bed rest. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (FcMRI) analysis was performed to assess the connectivity of motor cortex in and out of bed rest. We found a decrease in motor cortex connectivity with vestibular cortex and the cerebellum from pre bed rest to in bed rest. We also used a battery of behavioral measures including the functional mobility test and computerized dynamic posturography collected before and after bed rest. We will report the preliminary results of analyses relating brain and behavior changes. Furthermore, we will also report the preliminary results of a spatial working memory task and vestibular stimulation during in and out of bed rest.

  9. Efficiency at rest: magnetoencephalographic resting-state connectivity and individual differences in verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, David; Cuesta, Pablo; Bajo, Ricardo; García-Pacios, Javier; López-Higes, Ramón; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando

    2012-11-01

    Inter-individual differences in cognitive performance are based on an efficient use of task-related brain resources. However, little is known yet on how these differences might be reflected on resting-state brain networks. Here we used Magnetoencephalography resting-state recordings to assess the relationship between a behavioral measurement of verbal working memory and functional connectivity as measured through Mutual Information. We studied theta (4-8 Hz), low alpha (8-10 Hz), high alpha (10-13 Hz), low beta (13-18 Hz) and high beta (18-30 Hz) frequency bands. A higher verbal working memory capacity was associated with a lower mutual information in the low alpha band, prominently among right-anterior and left-lateral sensors. The results suggest that an efficient brain organization in the domain of verbal working memory might be related to a lower resting-state functional connectivity across large-scale brain networks possibly involving right prefrontal and left perisylvian areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Resting states are resting traits--an FMRI study of sex differences and menstrual cycle effects in resting state cognitive control networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmervik, Helene; Hausmann, Markus; Osnes, Berge; Westerhausen, René; Specht, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    To what degree resting state fMRI is stable or susceptible to internal mind states of the individual is currently an issue of debate. To address this issue, the present study focuses on sex differences and investigates whether resting state fMRI is stable in men and women or changes within relative short-term periods (i.e., across the menstrual cycle). Due to the fact that we recently reported menstrual cycle effects on cognitive control based on data collected during the same sessions, the current study is particularly interested in fronto-parietal resting state networks. Resting state fMRI was measured in sixteen women during three different cycle phases (menstrual, follicular, and luteal). Fifteen men underwent three sessions in corresponding time intervals. We used independent component analysis to identify four fronto-parietal networks. The results showed sex differences in two of these networks with women exhibiting higher functional connectivity in general, including the prefrontal cortex. Menstrual cycle effects on resting states were non-existent. It is concluded that sex differences in resting state fMRI might reflect sexual dimorphisms in the brain rather than transitory activating effects of sex hormones on the functional connectivity in the resting brain.

  11. Reconfiguration of Brain Network Architectures between Resting-State and Complexity-Dependent Cognitive Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearne, Luke J; Cocchi, Luca; Zalesky, Andrew; Mattingley, Jason B

    2017-08-30

    Our capacity for higher cognitive reasoning has a measurable limit. This limit is thought to arise from the brain's capacity to flexibly reconfigure interactions between spatially distributed networks. Recent work, however, has suggested that reconfigurations of task-related networks are modest when compared with intrinsic "resting-state" network architecture. Here we combined resting-state and task-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine how flexible, task-specific reconfigurations associated with increasing reasoning demands are integrated within a stable intrinsic brain topology. Human participants (21 males and 28 females) underwent an initial resting-state scan, followed by a cognitive reasoning task involving different levels of complexity, followed by a second resting-state scan. The reasoning task required participants to deduce the identity of a missing element in a 4 × 4 matrix, and item difficulty was scaled parametrically as determined by relational complexity theory. Analyses revealed that external task engagement was characterized by a significant change in functional brain modules. Specifically, resting-state and null-task demand conditions were associated with more segregated brain-network topology, whereas increases in reasoning complexity resulted in merging of resting-state modules. Further increments in task complexity did not change the established modular architecture, but affected selective patterns of connectivity between frontoparietal, subcortical, cingulo-opercular, and default-mode networks. Larger increases in network efficiency within the newly established task modules were associated with higher reasoning accuracy. Our results shed light on the network architectures that underlie external task engagement, and highlight selective changes in brain connectivity supporting increases in task complexity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans have clear limits in their ability to solve complex reasoning problems. It is thought that

  12. GPi oscillatory activity differentiates tics from the resting state, voluntary movements, and the unmedicated parkinsonian state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joohi Jimenez-Shahed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS is an emerging treatment strategy for severe, medication-refractory Tourette syndrome (TS. Thalamic (Cm-Pf and pallidal (including globus pallidus interna, GPi targets have been the most investigated. While the neurophysiological correlates of Parkinson’s disease (PD in the GPi and subthalamic nucleus (STN are increasingly recognized, these patterns are not well characterized in other disease states. Recent findings indicate that the cross-frequency coupling (CFC between beta band and high frequency oscillations (HFOs within the STN in PD patients is pathologic. Methods: We recorded intraoperative local field potentials (LFPs from the postero-ventrolateral GPi in three adult patients with TS at rest, during voluntary movements, and during tic activity and compared them to the intraoperative GPi-LFP activity recorded from four unmedicated PD patients at rest. Results: In all PD patients, we noted excessive beta band activity (13-30Hz at rest which consistently modulated the amplitude of the co-existent HFOs observed between 200-400Hz, indicating the presence of beta-HFO CFC. In all 3 TS patients at rest, we observed theta band activity (4-7Hz and HFOs. Two patients had beta band activity, though at lower power than theta oscillations. Tic activity was associated with increased high frequency (200-400Hz and gamma band (35-200Hz activity. There was no beta-HFO CFC in TS patients at rest. However, CFC between the phase of 5-10Hz band activity and the amplitude of HFOs was found in two TS patients. During tics, this shifted to CFC between the phase of beta band activity and the amplitude of HFOs in all subjects. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first study that shows that beta-HFO CFC exists in the GPi of TS patients during tics and at rest in PD patients, and suggests that this pattern might be specific to pathologic/involuntary movements. Furthermore, our findings suggest that during tics, resting

  13. Developing RESTful web services with Jersey 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Gulabani, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    The book will follow a standard tutorial approach and will teach readers how to use the Jersey API for creating RESTful web services.This book is intended for Java EE developers who are building applications on the REST architecture. This is a quick, hands-on guide for learning JAX-RS 2.0. Developers should have some knowledge about RESTful web services but it's not essential to know JAX-RS 1.0.

  14. Age-related changes of the dental aesthetic zone at rest and during spontaneous smiling and speech.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geld, P.A.A.M. van der; Oosterveld, P.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse lip line heights and age effects in an adult male population during spontaneous smiling, speech, and tooth display in the natural rest position and to determine whether lip line height follows a consistent pattern during these different functions. The sample

  15. Reduced brain resting-state network specificity in infants compared with adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Korey P; Rojas, Donald C; Ross, Randal G; Hunter, Sharon K; Maharajh, Keeran; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Tregellas, Jason R

    2014-01-01

    Infant resting-state networks do not exhibit the same connectivity patterns as those of young children and adults. Current theories of brain development emphasize developmental progression in regional and network specialization. We compared infant and adult functional connectivity, predicting that infants would exhibit less regional specificity and greater internetwork communication compared with adults. Functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest was acquired in 12 healthy, term infants and 17 adults. Resting-state networks were extracted, using independent components analysis, and the resulting components were then compared between the adult and infant groups. Adults exhibited stronger connectivity in the posterior cingulate cortex node of the default mode network, but infants had higher connectivity in medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex than adults. Adult connectivity was typically higher than infant connectivity within structures previously associated with the various networks, whereas infant connectivity was frequently higher outside of these structures. Internetwork communication was significantly higher in infants than in adults. We interpret these findings as consistent with evidence suggesting that resting-state network development is associated with increasing spatial specificity, possibly reflecting the corresponding functional specialization of regions and their interconnections through experience.

  16. Intrinsic Resting-State Functional Connectivity in the Human Spinal Cord at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Emeterio Nateras, Oscar; Yu, Fang; Muir, Eric R; Bazan, Carlos; Franklin, Crystal G; Li, Wei; Li, Jinqi; Lancaster, Jack L; Duong, Timothy Q

    2016-04-01

    To apply resting-state functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to map functional connectivity of the human spinal cord. Studies were performed in nine self-declared healthy volunteers with informed consent and institutional review board approval. Resting-state functional MR imaging was performed to map functional connectivity of the human cervical spinal cord from C1 to C4 at 1 × 1 × 3-mm resolution with a 3.0-T clinical MR imaging unit. Independent component analysis (ICA) was performed to derive resting-state functional MR imaging z-score maps rendered on two-dimensional and three-dimensional images. Seed-based analysis was performed for cross validation with ICA networks by using Pearson correlation. Reproducibility analysis of resting-state functional MR imaging maps from four repeated trials in a single participant yielded a mean z score of 6 ± 1 (P 3, P 3.0-T clinical MR imaging unit and standard MR imaging protocols and hardware reveals prominent functional connectivity patterns within the spinal cord gray matter, consistent with known functional and anatomic layouts of the spinal cord.

  17. Changes in resting neural connectivity during propofol sedation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A Stamatakis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The default mode network consists of a set of functionally connected brain regions (posterior cingulate, medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral parietal cortex maximally active in functional imaging studies under "no task" conditions. It has been argued that the posterior cingulate is important in consciousness/awareness, but previous investigations of resting interactions between the posterior cingulate cortex and other brain regions during sedation and anesthesia have produced inconsistent results.We examined the connectivity of the posterior cingulate at different levels of consciousness. "No task" fMRI (BOLD data were collected from healthy volunteers while awake and at low and moderate levels of sedation, induced by the anesthetic agent propofol. Our data show that connectivity of the posterior cingulate changes during sedation to include areas that are not traditionally considered to be part of the default mode network, such as the motor/somatosensory cortices, the anterior thalamic nuclei, and the reticular activating system.This neuroanatomical signature resembles that of non-REM sleep, and may be evidence for a system that reduces its discriminable states and switches into more stereotypic patterns of firing under sedation.

  18. Volunteer Work, Religious Commitment, and Resting Pulse Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Ironson, Gail; Hill, Peter C

    2017-04-01

    Research indicates that greater involvement in volunteer activities is associated with better health. We aim to contribute to this literature in two ways. First, rather than rely on self-reports of health, measured resting pulse rates serve as the dependent variable. Second, an effort is made to see if religious commitment moderates the relationship between volunteering and resting pulse rates. Data that come from a recent nationwide survey (N = 2265) suggest that volunteer work is associated with lower resting pulse rates. The results also reveal that the relationship between engaging in volunteer work and resting pulse rates improves among study participants who are more deeply committed to religion.

  19. Introducing the PRIDE Archive RESTful web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Florian; del-Toro, Noemi; Ternent, Tobias; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The PRIDE (PRoteomics IDEntifications) database is one of the world-leading public repositories of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics data and it is a founding member of the ProteomeXchange Consortium of proteomics resources. In the original PRIDE database system, users could access data programmatically by accessing the web services provided by the PRIDE BioMart interface. New REST (REpresentational State Transfer) web services have been developed to serve the most popular functionality provided by BioMart (now discontinued due to data scalability issues) and address the data access requirements of the newly developed PRIDE Archive. Using the API (Application Programming Interface) it is now possible to programmatically query for and retrieve peptide and protein identifications, project and assay metadata and the originally submitted files. Searching and filtering is also possible by metadata information, such as sample details (e.g. species and tissues), instrumentation (mass spectrometer), keywords and other provided annotations. The PRIDE Archive web services were first made available in April 2014. The API has already been adopted by a few applications and standalone tools such as PeptideShaker, PRIDE Inspector, the Unipept web application and the Python-based BioServices package. This application is free and open to all users with no login requirement and can be accessed at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/ws/archive/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Rest frame properties of the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The proton is modeled as three quarks of small current quark mass. The three-body Dirac equation is solved with spin-independent central diagonal linear confining potentials with an attractive Coulombic term in a relativistic three-quark model. Hyperspherical coordinates are used, and the bound state is found analytically. After integrating over the hyperangles, the Hamiltonian is an 8 by 8 matrix of coupled first-order differential equations in one variable, the hyperradius. These are analytically solved in hypercentral approximation. For the (1/2 + ) 3 ground-state configuration in the nonrelativistic large-quark-mass limit, there are no nodes in the wave function. However, in the extreme relativistic limit of small current quark masses of a few MeV, the expectation value of the number of nodes is about 1.30 when the potential parameters are chosen to reproduce the proton rms charge radius. The quarks are assumed to possess a Pauli anomalous magnetic moment, like that of the electron and muon of (α/2π)(e/m). Assuming all three quarks have equal mass, one can fit the rest energy, magnetic moment, rms charge radius, and axial charge of the proton with this relativistic three-body Dirac equation model. The solution found shows the necessity of including all components of the composite three-quark wave function, as the upper component contributes only 0.585 to the norm

  1. A resting box for outdoor sampling of adult Anopheles arabiensis in rice irrigation schemes of lower Moshi, northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Msangi Shandala

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector sampling is the best method for understanding the vector dynamics and infectivity; thus, disease transmission seasonality can be established. There is a need to protecting humans involved in the sampling of disease vectors during surveillance or in control programmes. In this study, human landing catch, two cow odour baited resting boxes and an unbaited resting box were evaluated as vector sampling tools in an area with a high proportion of Anopheles arabiensis, as the major malaria vector. Methods Three resting boxes were evaluated against human landing catch. Two were baited with cow odour, while the third was unbaited. The inner parts of the boxes were covered with black cloth materials. Experiments were arranged in latin-square design. Boxes were set in the evening and left undisturbed; mosquitoes were collected at 06:00 am the next morning, while human landing catch was done overnight. Results A total of 9,558 An. arabiensis mosquitoes were collected. 17.5% (N = 1668 were collected in resting box baited with cow body odour, 42.5% (N = 4060 in resting box baited with cow urine, 15.1% (N = 1444 in unbaited resting box and 24.9% (N = 2386 were collected by human landing catch technique. In analysis, the house positions had no effect on the density of mosquitoes caught (DF = 3, F = 0.753, P = 0.387; the sampling technique had significant impact on the caught mosquitoes densities (DF = 3, F 37. 944, P Conclusion Odour-baited resting boxes have shown the possibility of replacing the existing traditional method (human landing catch for sampling malaria vectors in areas with a high proportion of An. arabiensis as malaria vectors. Further evaluations of fermented urine and longevity of the urine odour still need to be investigated.

  2. Correspondent Functional Topography of the Human Left Inferior Parietal Lobule at Rest and Under Task Revealed Using Resting-State fMRI and Coactivation Based Parcellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaojian; Xie, Sangma; Guo, Xin; Becker, Benjamin; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jiang, Tianzi

    2017-03-01

    The human left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) plays a pivotal role in many cognitive functions and is an important node in the default mode network (DMN). Although many previous studies have proposed different parcellation schemes for the LIPL, the detailed functional organization of the LIPL and the exact correspondence between the DMN and LIPL subregions remain unclear. Mounting evidence indicates that spontaneous fluctuations in the brain are strongly associated with cognitive performance at the behavioral level. However, whether a consistent functional topographic organization of the LIPL during rest and under task can be revealed remains unknown. Here, they used resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and task-related coactivation patterns separately to parcellate the LIPL and identified seven subregions. Four subregions were located in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and three subregions were located in the angular gyrus (AG). The subregion-specific networks and functional characterization revealed that the four anterior subregions were found to be primarily involved in sensorimotor processing, movement imagination and inhibitory control, audition perception and speech processing, and social cognition, whereas the three posterior subregions were mainly involved in episodic memory, semantic processing, and spatial cognition. The results revealed a detailed functional organization of the LIPL and suggested that the LIPL is a functionally heterogeneous area. In addition, the present study demonstrated that the functional architecture of the LIPL during rest corresponds with that found in task processing. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1659-1675, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Information density converges in dialogue: Towards an information-theoretic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Reitter, David

    2018-01-01

    The principle of entropy rate constancy (ERC) states that language users distribute information such that words tend to be equally predictable given previous contexts. We examine the applicability of this principle to spoken dialogue, as previous findings primarily rest on written text. The study takes into account the joint-activity nature of dialogue and the topic shift mechanisms that are different from monologue. It examines how the information contributions from the two dialogue partners interactively evolve as the discourse develops. The increase of local sentence-level information density (predicted by ERC) is shown to apply to dialogue overall. However, when the different roles of interlocutors in introducing new topics are identified, their contribution in information content displays a new converging pattern. We draw explanations to this pattern from multiple perspectives: Casting dialogue as an information exchange system would mean that the pattern is the result of two interlocutors maintaining their own context rather than sharing one. Second, we present some empirical evidence that a model of Interactive Alignment may include information density to explain the effect. Third, we argue that building common ground is a process analogous to information convergence. Thus, we put forward an information-theoretic view of dialogue, under which some existing theories of human dialogue may eventually be unified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  5. Resting Stage of Plankton Diversity from Singapore Coastal Water: Implications for Harmful Algae Blooms and Coastal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottet, Aurore; Wilson, Bryan; Sew Wei Xin, Genevieve; George, Christaline; Casten, Lemuel; Schmoker, Claire; Rawi, Nurul Syazana Binte Modh; Chew Siew, Moon; Larsen, Ole; Eikaas, Hans S.; Tun, Karenne; Drillet, Guillaume

    2018-02-01

    Resting strategies of planktonic organisms are important for the ecological processes of coastal waters and their impacts should be taken into consideration in management of water bodies used by multiple industries. We combined different approaches to evaluate the importance of resting stages in Singapore coastal waters. We used molecular approaches to improve the knowledge on Singapore biodiversity, we sampled and extracted cysts from sediments to evaluate the density of resting stages in Johor Strait, and we compared systematically information on Singapore planktonic biodiversity to existing published information on resting stages from these reported organisms. This is the first study evaluating the importance of resting stages in Singapore waters. Above 120 species reported in Singapore are known to produce resting stages though no previous work has ever been done to evaluate the importance of these strategies in these waters. The results from the resting stage survey confirmed 0.66 to 5.34 cyst g-1 dry weight sediment were present in the Johor Strait suggesting that cysts may be flushed by tidal currents into and out of the strait regularly. This also suggest that the blooms occurring in Singapore are likely due to secondary growth of Harmful Algae Bloom species in the water rather than from direct germination of cysts from sediment. Finally, we discuss the importance of these resting eggs for three main national industries in Singapore (shipping, marine aquaculture and provision of drinking water through seawater desalination). We argue that this study will serve as a baseline for some of the future management of Singapore waters.

  6. Comparison of stress-rest and rest-stress one day myocardial perfusion scintigraphies in detecting coronary artery diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Jun; Song, Ho Cheon; Kim, Ji Yeul

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that both rest and stress myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium agents can be performed on the same day using two different doses injected within few hours. The purpose of this study was to compare the two protocols (stress-rest and rest-stress) in detecting coronary artery diseases. One hundred and sixty patients (101 males, 59 females, mean age 57±9 years) and 120 patients (79 males, 41 females, mean age 59±10 years) underwent stress-rest myocardial perfusion SPECT and rest-stress myocardial perfusion SPECT, respectively. All of them underwent both myocardial perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography within 1 month. A coronary stenosis was considered significant when it compromised the luminal diameter by ≥50%. The chi square test was used to compare differences in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy between the two groups. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of stress-rest protocol were 99%, 35% and 68%, respectively. Those of rest-stress protocol were 96%, 47% and 78%, respectively. There was no difference between the two protocols in identifying individual diseased coronary artery branches. Therefore, one day stress-rest and rest-stress myocardial SPECT using 99m Tc agents were comparable and were very sensitive tests in detecting coronary artery diseases

  7. Is Love Right? Prefrontal Resting Brain Asymmetry is Related to the Affiliation Motive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eQuirin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on relationships between affective-motivational traits and hemispheric asymmetries in resting frontal alpha band power as measured by electroencephalography (EEG has focused on individual differences in motivational direction (approach vs. withdrawal or behavioral activation. The present study investigated resting frontal alpha asymmetries in 72 participants as a function of individual differences in the implicit affiliation motive as measured with the operant motive test (OMT and explored the brain source thereof. As predicted, relative right frontal activity as indexed by increased alpha band suppression was related to the implicit affiliation motive. No relationships were found for explicit personality measures. Intracranial current density distributions of alpha based on Variable Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (VARETA source estimations suggests that the source of cortical alpha distribution is located within the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC. The present results are discussed with respect to differential roles of the two hemispheres in social motivation.

  8. Can Sleep and Resting Behaviours Be Used as Indicators of Welfare in Shelter Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C Owczarczak-Garstecka

    Full Text Available Previous research on humans and animals suggests that the analysis of sleep patterns may reliably inform us about welfare status, but little research of this kind has been carried out for non-human animals in an applied context. This study explored the use of sleep and resting behaviour as indicators of welfare by describing the activity patterns of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris housed in rescue shelters, and comparing their sleep patterns to other behavioural and cognitive measures of welfare. Sleep and activity patterns were observed over five non-consecutive days in a population of 15 dogs. Subsequently, the characteristics of sleep and resting behaviour were described and the impact of activity on patterns of sleep and resting behaviour analysed. Shelter dogs slept for 2.8% of the day, 14.3% less than previously reported and experienced less sleep fragmentation at night (32 sleep bouts. There were no statistically significant relationships between behaviours exhibited during the day and sleep behaviour. A higher proportion of daytime resting behaviour was significantly associated with a positive judgement bias, less repetitive behaviour and increased time spent coded as 'relaxed' across days by shelter staff. These results suggest that, in the context of a busy shelter environment, the ability to rest more during the day could be a sign of improved welfare. Considering the non-linear relationship between sleep and welfare in humans, the relationship between sleep and behavioural indicators of welfare, including judgement bias, in shelter dogs may be more complex than this study could detect.

  9. Altered resting brain connectivity in persistent cancer related fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson P. Hampson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an estimated 3 million women in the US living as breast cancer survivors and persistent cancer related fatigue (PCRF disrupts the lives of an estimated 30% of these women. PCRF is associated with decreased quality of life, decreased sleep quality, impaired cognition and depression. The mechanisms of cancer related fatigue are not well understood; however, preliminary findings indicate dysfunctional activity in the brain as a potential factor. Here we investigate the relationship between PCRF on intrinsic resting state connectivity in this population. Twenty-three age matched breast cancer survivors (15 fatigued and 8 non-fatigued who completed all cancer-related treatments at least 12 weeks prior to the study, were recruited to undergo functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI. Intrinsic resting state networks were examined with both seed based and independent component analysis methods. Comparisons of brain connectivity patterns between groups as well as correlations with self-reported fatigue symptoms were performed. Fatigued patients displayed greater left inferior parietal lobule to superior frontal gyrus connectivity as compared to non-fatigued patients (P < 0.05 FDR corrected. This enhanced connectivity was associated with increased physical fatigue (P = 0.04, r = 0.52 and poor sleep quality (P = 0.04, r = 0.52 in the fatigued group. In contrast greater connectivity in the non-fatigued group was found between the right precuneus to the periaqueductal gray as well as the left IPL to subgenual cortex (P < 0.05 FDR corrected. Mental fatigue scores were associated with greater default mode network (DMN connectivity to the superior frontal gyrus (P = 0.05 FDR corrected among fatigued subjects (r = 0.82 and less connectivity in the non-fatigued group (r = −0.88. These findings indicate that there is enhanced intrinsic DMN connectivity to the frontal gyrus in breast cancer survivors with persistent

  10. A novel lunar bed rest analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R; Rice, Andrea J; Licata, Angelo A; Kuklis, Matthew M; Novotny, Sara C; Genc, Kerim O; Englehaupt, Ricki K; Hanson, Andrea M

    2013-11-01

    Humans will eventually return to the Moon and thus there is a need for a ground-based analogue to enable the study of physiological adaptations to lunar gravity. An important unanswered question is whether or not living on the lunar surface will provide adequate loading of the musculoskeletal system to prevent or attenuate the bone loss that is seen in microgravity. Previous simulations have involved tilting subjects to an approximately 9.5 degrees angle to achieve a lunar gravity component parallel to the long-axis of the body. However, subjects in these earlier simulations were not weight-bearing, and thus these protocols did not provide an analogue for load on the musculoskeletal system. We present a novel analogue which includes the capability to simulate standing and sitting in a lunar loading environment. A bed oriented at a 9.5 degrees angle was mounted on six linear bearings and was free to travel with one degree of freedom along rails. This allowed approximately 1/6 body weight loading of the feet during standing. "Lunar" sitting was also successfully simulated. A feasibility study demonstrated that the analogue was tolerated by subjects for 6 d of continuous bed rest and that the reaction forces at the feet during periods of standing were a reasonable simulation of lunar standing. During the 6 d, mean change in the volume of the quadriceps muscles was -1.6% +/- 1.7%. The proposed analogue would appear to be an acceptable simulation of lunar gravity and deserves further exploration in studies of longer duration.

  11. Aging, resting pulse rate, and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stessman, Jochanan; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Stessman-Lande, Irit; Gilon, Dan; Leibowitz, David

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between resting pulse rate (RPR) and longevity in individuals aged 70 to 90. The Jerusalem Longitudinal Cohort Study (1990-2010) is a prospective longitudinal study of a representative cohort born in 1920-21. Home-based comprehensive assessment in 1990, 1998, and 2005. Individuals aged 70 (n = 453), 78 (n = 856), and 85 (n = 1,044), with follow-up to age 90. Comprehensive assessment included average RPR, beta-blocker usage, and physical activity level. Mortality data were collected from the Ministry of Interior from 1990 to 2010. Cox proportional hazards ratios (HRs) were determined for RPR (continuous variable), adjusting for sex, education, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, hypertension, kidney disease, anemia, physical activity, body mass index, self-rated health, dementia, beta-blocker use, and an interaction term for RPR by beta-blocker use. Mean RPR was 75.1 ± 9.9 at 70, 74.5 ± 10.9 at 78, and 68.5 ± 10.5 at 85 in women and 74.3 ± 10.7 at 70, 73.1 ± 11.2 at 78, and 65.2 ± 10.5 at 85 in men, with a significant decline from 78 to 85 for both sexes. In participants not taking beta-blockers followed up from 70 to 77, 78 to 84, and 85 to 90, mean RPR was lower in survivors than nonsurvivors for women (75.8 ± 9.2 vs 83.5 ± 10.9, P longevity. It may serve as a simple prognostic marker in the oldest old. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui; Tang, Chengcheng; Vaxman, Amir; Wonka, Peter; Pottmann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical

  13. Camouflage through an active choice of a resting spot and body orientation in moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, C-K; Moon, J-Y; Lee, S-I; Jablonski, P G

    2012-09-01

    Cryptic colour patterns in prey are classical examples of adaptations to avoid predation, but we still know little about behaviours that reinforce the match between animal body and the background. For example, moths avoid predators by matching their colour patterns with the background. Active choice of a species-specific body orientation has been suggested as an important function of body positioning behaviour performed by moths after landing on the bark. However, the contribution of this behaviour to moths' crypticity has not been directly measured. From observations of geometrid moths, Hypomecis roboraria and Jankowskia fuscaria, we determined that the positioning behaviour, which consists of walking and turning the body while repeatedly lifting and lowering the wings, resulted in new resting spots and body orientations in J. fuscaria and in new resting spots in H. roboraria. The body positioning behaviour of the two species significantly decreased the probability of visual detection by humans, who viewed photographs of the moths taken before and after the positioning behaviour. This implies that body positioning significantly increases the camouflage effect provided by moth's cryptic colour pattern regardless of whether the behaviour involves a new body orientation or not. Our study demonstrates that the evolution of morphological adaptations, such as colour pattern of moths, cannot be fully understood without taking into account a behavioural phenotype that coevolved with the morphology for increasing the adaptive value of the morphological trait. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Atypical Laterality of Resting Gamma Oscillations in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Christina R.; Villalobos, Michele E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Kohls, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal brain oscillatory activity has been found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and proposed as a potential biomarker. While several studies have investigated gamma oscillations in ASD, none have examined resting gamma power across multiple brain regions. This study investigated resting gamma power using EEG in 15 boys with ASD and 18 age…

  15. Rest tremor in idiopathic adult-onset dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, A F; Berardelli, A; Defazio, G

    2016-05-01

    Tremor in dystonia has been described as a postural or kinetic abnormality. In recent series, however, patients with idiopathic adult-onset dystonia also displayed rest tremor. The frequency and distribution of rest tremor were studied in a cohort of 173 consecutive Italian patients affected by various forms of idiopathic adult-onset dystonia attending our movement disorder clinic over 8 months. Examination revealed tremor in 59/173 patients (34%): 12 patients had head tremor, 34 patients had arm tremor, whilst 13 patients presented tremor in both sites. Head tremor was postural in all patients, whereas arm tremor was postural/kinetic in 28 patients, only at rest in one and both postural/kinetic and at rest in 18 patients. Patients with tremor were more likely to have segmental/multifocal dystonia. Patients who had rest tremor (either alone or associated with action tremor) had a higher age at dystonia onset and a greater frequency of dystonic arm involvement than patients with action tremor alone or without tremor. Both action and rest tremor are part of the tremor spectrum of adult-onset dystonia and are more frequently encountered in segmental/multifocal dystonia. The higher age at dystonia onset and the greater frequency of arm dystonia in patients with rest tremor may have pathophysiological implications and may account, at least in part, for the previous lack of identification of rest tremor as one possible type of tremor present in dystonia. © 2016 EAN.

  16. Restful Implementation of Catalogue Service for Geospatial Data Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L. C.; Yue, P.; Lu, X. C.

    2013-10-01

    Provenance, also known as lineage, is important in understanding the derivation history of data products. Geospatial data provenance helps data consumers to evaluate the quality and reliability of geospatial data. In a service-oriented environment, where data are often consumed or produced by distributed services, provenance could be managed by following the same service-oriented paradigm. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) is used for the registration and query of geospatial data provenance by extending ebXML Registry Information Model (ebRIM). Recent advance of the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) paradigm has shown great promise for the easy integration of distributed resources. RESTful Web Service aims to provide a standard way for Web clients to communicate with servers based on REST principles. The existing approach for provenance catalogue service could be improved by adopting the RESTful design. This paper presents the design and implementation of a catalogue service for geospatial data provenance following RESTful architecture style. A middleware named REST Converter is added on the top of the legacy catalogue service to support a RESTful style interface. The REST Converter is composed of a resource request dispatcher and six resource handlers. A prototype service is developed to demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  17. A REST-ful interpretation for embedded modular systems based on open architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyke, James

    2016-05-01

    The much-anticipated revolution of the "Internet of things" (IoT) is expected to generate one trillion internet devices within the next 15 years, mostly in the form of simple wireless sensor devices. While this revolution promises to transform silicon markets and drive a number of disruptive changes in society, it is also the case that the protocols, complexity, and security issues of extremely large dynamic, co-mingled networks is still poorly understood. Furthermore, embedded system developers, to include military and aerospace users, have largely ignored the potential (good and bound) of the cloudlike, possibly intermingling networks having variable structure to how future systems might be engineered. In this paper, we consider a new interpretation of IoT inspired modular architecture strategies involving the representational state transfer (REST) model, in which dynamic networks with variable structure employ stateless application programming interface (API) concepts. The power of the method, which extends concepts originally developed for space plug-and-play avionics, is that it allows for the fluid co-mingling of hardware and software in networks whose structure can overlap and evolve. Paradoxically, these systems may have the most stringent determinism and fault-tolerant needs. In this paper we review how RESTful APIs can potentially be used to design, create, test, and deploy systems rapidly while addressing security and referential integrity even when the nodes of many systems might physically co-mingle. We will also explore ways to take advantage of the RESTful paradigm for fault tolerance and what extensions might be necessary to deal with high-performance and determinism.

  18. Stimulus-Elicited Connectivity Influences Resting-State Connectivity Years Later in Human Development: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabard-Durnam, Laurel Joy; Gee, Dylan Grace; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Telzer, Eva; Humphreys, Kathryn Leigh; Lumian, Daniel Stephen; Fareri, Dominic Stephen; Caldera, Christina; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-04-27

    Although the functional architecture of the brain is indexed by resting-state connectivity networks, little is currently known about the mechanisms through which these networks assemble into stable mature patterns. The current study posits and tests the long-term phasic molding hypothesis that resting-state networks are gradually shaped by recurring stimulus-elicited connectivity across development by examining how both stimulus-elicited and resting-state functional connections of the human brain emerge over development at the systems level. Using a sequential design following 4- to 18-year-olds over a 2 year period, we examined the predictive associations between stimulus-elicited and resting-state connectivity in amygdala-cortical circuitry as an exemplar case (given this network's protracted development across these ages). Age-related changes in amygdala functional connectivity converged on the same regions of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and inferior frontal gyrus when elicited by emotional stimuli and when measured at rest. Consistent with the long-term phasic molding hypothesis, prospective analyses for both connections showed that the magnitude of an individual's stimulus-elicited connectivity unidirectionally predicted resting-state functional connectivity 2 years later. For the amygdala-mPFC connection, only stimulus-elicited connectivity during childhood and the transition to adolescence shaped future resting-state connectivity, consistent with a sensitive period ending with adolescence for the amygdala-mPFC circuit. Together, these findings suggest that resting-state functional architecture may arise from phasic patterns of functional connectivity elicited by environmental stimuli over the course of development on the order of years. A fundamental issue in understanding the ontogeny of brain function is how resting-state (intrinsic) functional networks emerge and relate to stimulus-elicited functional connectivity. Here, we posit and test the long

  19. Stress/Rest Tc-99m-MIBI SPECT in Comparison with Rest/Stress Rubidium - 82 PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Kamg, K. W.; Lee, K. H.; Jeong, J. M.; Kwark, C. E.; Chung, J. K.; Lee, M.C.; Seo, J. D.; Koh, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    We compared stress/rest myocardial Tc-99m-MIBI tomographic image findings with rest/stress rubidium-82 tomographic images. In 23 patients with coronary artery disease (12 of them received bypass grafts before) and 6 normal subjects, rest rubidium PET study was performed, rubidium-82 and Tc-99m-MIBI were injected simultaneously to each patient after dipyridamole stress for rubidium PET and MIBI SPECT; and rest MIBI SPECT was performed 4 hours thereafter. We scored segmental decrease of rubidium, or MIBI uptakes into 5 grades for 29 segments from 3 short-axis, vertical and horizontal slices. Scores were summed for each major arterial territory. When more score than two grade-2's or one grade-3 was considered as the cue for significant stenosis for major arterial territories, 67% of 46 stenosed arteries were found with MIBI studies and 78% of them by rubidium studies. Fourteen among 28 grafted arterial territories of 12 post-CABG patients were found normal with both rubidium and MIBI. Segmental scores were concordant between rubidium and MIBI in 72% of 709-stress segments and in 80% of 825 rest segments. Stress rubidium segmental scores were less than stress MIBI scores in 9%, so were rest rubidium scores. Stress rubidium scores were more than stress MIBI scores in 20% of segments, and rest rubidium segmental scores were more than rest MIBI scores in 11%. Rank correlations (Spearman's rho's more than 0.7(stress) and 0.5(rest), slopes (MIBI/rubidium) around 0.7(stress) and 0.9(rest) suggested deeper and wider defects in stress with rubidium. Slope over 1 (MIBI/rubidium) with LAD segmental scores at rest and 7 territories which had much larger score with MIBI revealed exaggeration of rest defects with rest MIBI in same-day stress/rest study. Difference scores (stress-rest for each territory) suggesting ischemia were larger with rubidium (slope of MIBI/rubidium around 0.45). As has been implied by animal or separate-day- human studies, these segmental analyses with

  20. High peripheral temperatures in king penguins while resting at sea: thermoregulation versus fat deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewden, Agnès; Enstipp, Manfred R; Picard, Baptiste; van Walsum, Tessa; Handrich, Yves

    2017-09-01

    Marine endotherms living in cold water face an energetically challenging situation. Unless properly insulated, these animals will lose heat rapidly. The field metabolic rate of king penguins at sea is about twice that on land. However, when at sea, their metabolic rate is higher during extended resting periods at the surface than during foraging, when birds descend to great depth in pursuit of their prey. This is most likely explained by differences in thermal status. During foraging, peripheral vasoconstriction leads to a hypothermic shell, which is rewarmed during extended resting bouts at the surface. Maintaining peripheral perfusion during rest in cold water, however, will greatly increase heat loss and, therefore, thermoregulatory costs. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the maintenance of a normothermic shell during surface rest: (1) to help the unloading of N 2 accumulated during diving; and (2) to allow the storage of fat in subcutaneous tissue, following the digestion of food. We tested the latter hypothesis by maintaining king penguins within a shallow seawater tank, while we recorded tissue temperature at four distinct sites. When king penguins were released into the tank during the day, their body temperature immediately declined. However, during the night, periodic rewarming of abdominal and peripheral tissues occurred, mimicking temperature patterns observed in the wild. Body temperatures, particularly in the flank, also depended on body condition and were higher in 'lean' birds (after 10 days of fasting) than in 'fat' birds. While not explicitly tested, our observation that nocturnal rewarming persists in the absence of diving activity during the day does not support the N 2 unloading hypothesis. Rather, differences in temperature changes throughout the day and night, and the effect of body condition/mass supports the hypothesis that tissue perfusion during rest is required for nutritional needs. © 2017. Published by The Company of

  1. Female thermal sensitivity to hot and cold during rest and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrett, Nicola; Ouzzahra, Yacine; Redortier, Bernard; Voelcker, Thomas; Havenith, George

    2015-12-01

    Regional differences in thermal sensation to a hot or cold stimulus are often limited to male participants, in a rested state and cover minimal locations. Therefore, magnitude sensation to both a hot and cold stimulus were investigated during rest and exercise in 8 females (age: 20.4 ± 1.4 years, mass: 61.7 ± 4.0 kg, height: 166.9 ± 5.4 cm, VO2max: 36.8 ± 4.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Using a repeated measures cross over design, participants rested in a stable environment (22.3 ± 0.9°C, 37.7 ± 5.5% RH) whilst a thermal probe (25 cm(2)), set at either 40°C or 20°C, was applied in a balanced order to 29 locations across the body. Participants reported their thermal sensation after 10s of application. Following this, participants cycled at 50% VO2max for 20 min and then 30% VO2max whilst the sensitivity test was repeated. Females experienced significantly stronger magnitude sensations to the cold than the hot stimulus (5.5 ± 1.7 and 4.3 ± 1.3, pcold stimulation (psensation was greatest at the head then the torso and declined towards the extremities. No significant effect of location was found in response to the hot stimulation and the pattern across the body was more homogenous. In comparison to rest, exercise caused a significant overall reduction in thermal sensation (5.2 ± 1.5 and 4.6 ± 1.7, respectively, p<0.05). Body maps were produced for both stimuli during rest and exercise, which highlight sensitive areas across the body. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reduced brain resting-state network specificity in infants compared with adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wylie KP

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Korey P Wylie,1,* Donald C Rojas,1,* Randal G Ross,1 Sharon K Hunter,1 Keeran Maharajh,1 Marc-Andre Cornier,2 Jason R Tregellas1,3 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA; 3Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver, CO, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Infant resting-state networks do not exhibit the same connectivity patterns as those of young children and adults. Current theories of brain development emphasize developmental progression in regional and network specialization. We compared infant and adult functional connectivity, predicting that infants would exhibit less regional specificity and greater internetwork communication compared with adults.Patients and methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest was acquired in 12 healthy, term infants and 17 adults. Resting-state networks were extracted, using independent components analysis, and the resulting components were then compared between the adult and infant groups.Results: Adults exhibited stronger connectivity in the posterior cingulate cortex node of the default mode network, but infants had higher connectivity in medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex than adults. Adult connectivity was typically higher than infant connectivity within structures previously associated with the various networks, whereas infant connectivity was frequently higher outside of these structures. Internetwork communication was significantly higher in infants than in adults.Conclusion: We interpret these findings as consistent with evidence suggesting that resting-state network development is associated with increasing spatial specificity, possibly reflecting the corresponding functional specialization of regions and their interconnections through experience. Keywords: functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging

  3. Resting State EEG-based biometrics for individual identification using convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan Ma; Minett, James W; Blu, Thierry; Wang, William S-Y

    2015-08-01

    Biometrics is a growing field, which permits identification of individuals by means of unique physical features. Electroencephalography (EEG)-based biometrics utilizes the small intra-personal differences and large inter-personal differences between individuals' brainwave patterns. In the past, such methods have used features derived from manually-designed procedures for this purpose. Another possibility is to use convolutional neural networks (CNN) to automatically extract an individual's best and most unique neural features and conduct classification, using EEG data derived from both Resting State with Open Eyes (REO) and Resting State with Closed Eyes (REC). Results indicate that this CNN-based joint-optimized EEG-based Biometric System yields a high degree of accuracy of identification (88%) for 10-class classification. Furthermore, rich inter-personal difference can be found using a very low frequency band (0-2Hz). Additionally, results suggest that the temporal portions over which subjects can be individualized is less than 200 ms.

  4. Imaging the Where and When of Tic Generation and Resting State Networks in Adult Tourette Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eNeuner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tourette syndrome (TS is a neuropsychiatric disorder with the core phenomenon of tics, whose origin and temporal pattern are unclear. We investigated the When and Where of tic generation and resting state networks (RSNs via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI.Methods: Tic-related activity and the underlying resting state networks in adult TS were studied within one fMRI session. Participants were instructed to lie in the scanner and to let tics occur freely. Tic onset times, as determined by video-observance were used as regressors and added to preceding time-bins of one second duration each to detect prior activation. RSN were identified by independent component analysis (ICA and correlated to disease severity by the means of dual regression.Results: Two seconds before a tic, the supplementary motor area (SMA, ventral primary motor cortex, primary sensorimotor cortex and parietal operculum exhibited activation; one second before a tic, the anterior cingulate, putamen, insula, amygdala, cerebellum and the extrastriatal-visual cortex exhibited activation; with tic-onset, the thalamus, central operculum, primary motor and somatosensory cortices exhibited activation. Analysis of resting state data resulted in 21 components including the so-called default-mode network. Network strength in those regions in SMA of two premotor ICA maps that were also active prior to tic occurrence, correlated significantly with disease severity according to the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTTS scores.Discussion: We demonstrate that the temporal pattern of tic generation follows the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit, and that cortical structures precede subcortical activation. The analysis of spontaneous fluctuations highlights the role of cortical premotor structures. Our study corroborates the notion of TS as a network disorder in which abnormal resting state network activity might contribute to the generation of tics in SMA.

  5. Successful group psychotherapy of depression in adolescents alters fronto-limbic resting-state connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, J; Metzger, C D; Plener, P L; Koelch, M G; Groen, G; Abler, B

    2017-02-01

    Current resting state imaging findings support suggestions that the neural signature of depression and therefore also its therapy should be conceptualized as a network disorder rather than a dysfunction of specific brain regions. In this study, we compared neural connectivity of adolescent patients with depression (PAT) and matched healthy controls (HC) and analysed pre-to-post changes of seed-based network connectivities in PAT after participation in a cognitive behavioral group psychotherapy (CBT). 38 adolescents (30 female; 19 patients; 13-18 years) underwent an eyes-closed resting-state scan. PAT were scanned before (pre) and after (post) five sessions of CBT. Resting-state functional connectivity was analysed in a seed-based approach for right-sided amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). Symptom severity was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory Revision (BDI-II). Prior to group CBT, between groups amygdala and sgACC connectivity with regions of the default mode network was stronger in the patients group relative to controls. Within the PAT group, a similar pattern significantly decreased after successful CBT. Conversely, seed-based connectivity with affective regions and regions processing cognition and salient stimuli was stronger in HC relative to PAT before CBT. Within the PAT group, a similar pattern changed with CBT. Changes in connectivity correlated with the significant pre-to-post symptom improvement, and pre-treatment amygdala connectivity predicted treatment response in depressed adolescents. Sample size and missing long-term follow-up limit the interpretability. Successful group psychotherapy of depression in adolescents involved connectivity changes in resting state networks to that of healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying patients with Alzheimer's disease using resting-state fMRI and graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaee, Ali; Ebrahimzadeh, Ata; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2015-11-01

    Study of brain network on the basis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has provided promising results to investigate changes in connectivity among different brain regions because of diseases. Graph theory can efficiently characterize different aspects of the brain network by calculating measures of integration and segregation. In this study, we combine graph theoretical approaches with advanced machine learning methods to study functional brain network alteration in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Support vector machine (SVM) was used to explore the ability of graph measures in diagnosis of AD. We applied our method on the resting-state fMRI data of twenty patients with AD and twenty age and gender matched healthy subjects. The data were preprocessed and each subject's graph was constructed by parcellation of the whole brain into 90 distinct regions using the automated anatomical labeling (AAL) atlas. The graph measures were then calculated and used as the discriminating features. Extracted network-based features were fed to different feature selection algorithms to choose most significant features. In addition to the machine learning approach, statistical analysis was performed on connectivity matrices to find altered connectivity patterns in patients with AD. Using the selected features, we were able to accurately classify patients with AD from healthy subjects with accuracy of 100%. Results of this study show that pattern recognition and graph of brain network, on the basis of the resting state fMRI data, can efficiently assist in the diagnosis of AD. Classification based on the resting-state fMRI can be used as a non-invasive and automatic tool to diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. All rights reserved.

  7. Biomarkers of Dose and Effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Human controlled exposure studies have generally focused on subjects exposed to ozone (O3) while exercising while exposures in rats have been done at rest. We exposed resting subjects to labeled O3 (18O3, 0.4 ppm, for 2 hr) and compared O3 dose and effects with our...

  8. Building RESTful web services with Go learn how to build powerful RESTful APIs with Golang that scale gracefully

    CERN Document Server

    Yellavula, Naren

    2017-01-01

    REST is an architectural style that tackles the challenges of building scalable web services and in today's connected world, APIs have taken a central role on the web. APIs provide the fabric through which systems interact, and REST has become synonymous with APIs. The depth, breadth, and ease of use of Go, makes it a breeze for developers to ...

  9. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ku Kang

    Full Text Available Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature. We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual. This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  10. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Ku; Moon, Jong-Yeol; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G

    2013-01-01

    Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  11. Attractor comparisons based on density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, T. L.

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing a chaotic attractor can be seen as a problem in pattern recognition. Some feature vector must be extracted from the attractor and used to compare to other attractors. The field of machine learning has many methods for extracting feature vectors, including clustering methods, decision trees, support vector machines, and many others. In this work, feature vectors are created by representing the attractor as a density in phase space and creating polynomials based on this density. Density is useful in itself because it is a one dimensional function of phase space position, but representing an attractor as a density is also a way to reduce the size of a large data set before analyzing it with graph theory methods, which can be computationally intensive. The density computation in this paper is also fast to execute. In this paper, as a demonstration of the usefulness of density, the density is used directly to construct phase space polynomials for comparing attractors. Comparisons between attractors could be useful for tracking changes in an experiment when the underlying equations are too complicated for vector field modeling

  12. REST-MapReduce: An Integrated Interface but Differentiated Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hyuk Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the fast deployment of cloud computing, MapReduce architectures are becoming the major technologies for mobile cloud computing. The concept of MapReduce was first introduced as a novel programming model and implementation for a large set of computing devices. In this research, we propose a novel concept of REST-MapReduce, enabling users to use only the REST interface without using the MapReduce architecture. This approach provides a higher level of abstraction by integration of the two types of access interface, REST API and MapReduce. The motivation of this research stems from the slower response time for accessing simple RDBMS on Hadoop than direct access to RDMBS. This is because there is overhead to job scheduling, initiating, starting, tracking, and management during MapReduce-based parallel execution. Therefore, we provide a good performance for REST Open API service and for MapReduce, respectively. This is very useful for constructing REST Open API services on Hadoop hosting services, for example, Amazon AWS (Macdonald, 2005 or IBM Smart Cloud. For evaluating performance of our REST-MapReduce framework, we conducted experiments with Jersey REST web server and Hadoop. Experimental result shows that our approach outperforms conventional approaches.

  13. Cytokines in chronically critically ill patients after activity and rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Chris; Higgins, Patricia A; Chen, Yea Jyh Kathy; Levine, Alan D

    2007-04-01

    Inflammation, a common problem for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), frequently is associated with serious and prolonged critical illnesses. To date, no study has examined whether physical activity influences inflammatory factors in critically ill adults. The objectives of this study were to (a) examine the relationships between type and duration of physical activity and serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine; IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine; and their ratio and (b) determine if there are associations between cytokines or their ratio and activity or outcomes. This descriptive feasibility study investigated the approaches to measuring levels of physical activity and its relationship to serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 and the ratio between them in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation during periods of activity and rest. Measurements included serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels, direct observation and actigraphy, and prospective chart review. Ten critically ill patients who were mechanically ventilated for an average of 10 days in a large, urban, teaching hospital were enrolled. The average ratio of IL-6 to IL-10 improved after an average of 14.7 min of passive physical activity, typically multiple in-bed turns associated with hygiene. IL-6, IL-10, and their ratio were not associated with patient outcomes of weaning success or length of stay. High levels of IL-6 were associated with mortality. Cytokine balance may be improved by low levels of activity among patients with prolonged critical illness. The pattern of cytokines produced after activity may improve patients' recovery from prolonged critical illness and mechanical ventilation.

  14. Diverse Kir expression contributes to distinct bimodal distribution of resting potentials and vasotone responses of arterioles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqin Yang

    Full Text Available The resting membrane potential (RP of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs is a major determinant of cytosolic calcium concentration and vascular tone. The heterogeneity of RPs and its underlying mechanism among different vascular beds remain poorly understood. We compared the RPs and vasomotion properties between the guinea pig spiral modiolar artery (SMA, brain arterioles (BA and mesenteric arteries (MA. We found: 1 RPs showed a robust bimodal distribution peaked at -76 and -40 mV evenly in the SMA, unevenly at -77 and -51 mV in the BA and ~-71 and -52 mV in the MA. Ba(2+ 0.1 mM eliminated their high RP peaks ~-75 mV. 2 Cells with low RP (~-45 mV hyperpolarized in response to 10 mM extracellular K(+, while cells with a high RP depolarized, and cells with intermediate RP (~-58 mV displayed an initial hyperpolarization followed by prolonged depolarization. Moderate high K(+ typically induced dilation, constriction and a dilation followed by constriction in the SMA, MA and BA, respectively. 3 Boltzmann-fit analysis of the Ba(2+-sensitive inward rectifier K(+ (Kir whole-cell current showed that the maximum Kir conductance density significantly differed among the vessels, and the half-activation voltage was significantly more negative in the MA. 4 Corresponding to the whole-cell data, computational modeling simulated the three RP distribution patterns and the dynamics of RP changes obtained experimentally, including the regenerative swift shifts between the two RP levels after reaching a threshold. 5 Molecular works revealed strong Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 transcripts and Kir2.1 immunolabeling in all 3 vessels, while Kir2.3 and Kir2.4 transcript levels varied. We conclude that a dense expression of functional Kir2.X channels underlies the more negative RPs in endothelial cells and a subset of VSMC in these arterioles, and the heterogeneous Kir function is primarily responsible for the distinct bimodal RPs among these arterioles. The fast Kir

  15. RestKit for iOS standard guide

    CERN Document Server

    Kalapun, Taras

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step, example-based guide to learning how you can link your apps and web services using RestKit.This book is for iOS developers of all levels who are interested in boosting their productivity by utilizing third party libraries and who have a willingness to learn how to build RESTful apps using the RestKit framework. A basic knowledge of Objective-C is required as well as a simple understanding of how to use CoreData.

  16. How restful is it with all that noise? Comparison of Interleaved silent steady state (ISSS) and conventional imaging in resting-state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, J; Ferreira, M; Leppert, I R; Matsushita, R; Pike, B; Zatorre, R J

    2017-02-15

    Resting-state fMRI studies have become very important in cognitive neuroscience because they are able to identify BOLD fluctuations in brain circuits involved in motor, cognitive, or perceptual processes without the use of an explicit task. Such approaches have been fruitful when applied to various disordered populations, or to children or the elderly. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the consequences of the loud acoustic scanner noise associated with conventional fMRI acquisition, which could be an important confounding factor affecting auditory and/or cognitive networks in resting-state fMRI. Several approaches have been developed to mitigate the effects of acoustic noise on fMRI signals, including sparse sampling protocols and interleaved silent steady state (ISSS) acquisition methods, the latter being used only for task-based fMRI. Here, we developed an ISSS protocol for resting-state fMRI (rs-ISSS) consisting of rapid acquisition of a set of echo planar imaging volumes following each silent period, during which the steady state longitudinal magnetization was maintained with a train of relatively silent slice-selective excitation pulses. We evaluated the test-retest reliability of intensity and spatial extent of connectivity networks of fMRI BOLD signal across three different days for rs-ISSS and compared it with a standard resting-state fMRI (rs-STD). We also compared the strength and distribution of connectivity networks between rs-ISSS and rs-STD. We found that both rs-ISSS and rs-STD showed high reproducibility of fMRI signal across days. In addition, rs-ISSS showed a more robust pattern of functional connectivity within the somatosensory and motor networks, as well as an auditory network compared with rs-STD. An increased connectivity between the default mode network and the language network and with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) network was also found for rs-ISSS compared with rs-STD. Finally, region of interest analysis showed

  17. Recovery from an acute relapse is associated with changes in motor resting-state connectivity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Blinkenberg, Morten; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) of the brain has been successfully used to identify altered functional connectivity in the motor network in multiple sclerosis (MS).1 In clinically stable patients with MS, we recently demonstrated increased coupling between the basal ganglia and the motor...... network.1 Accordingly, rs-fMRI in MS is particularly suited to investigate functional reorganisation of the motor network in the remission phase after a relapse because the resting-state connectivity pattern is not influenced by interindividual differences in motor ability and task performance....... In this prospective rs-fMRI study, we mapped acute changes in resting-state motor connectivity in 12 patients with relapsing forms of MS presenting with an acute relapse involving an upper limb paresis. Previous functional MRI (fMRI) studies have shown that the activation of sensorimotor areas was stronger and more...

  18. Characteristics of Loads of Cattle Stopping for Feed, Water and Rest during Long-Distance Transport in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E. Flint

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first comprehensive examination of long-haul cattle being transported across Canada and off-loaded for feed, water and rest. A total of 129 truckloads were observed at one of two commercial rest stations near Thunder Bay, Ontario. Data collected included information regarding the truck driver, the trailer, the trip, the animals and animal handling. The majority of the loads stopping were feeder calves (60.94% while 21.09% were weaned calves, and the remaining 14.84% were market weight cattle. The truck loads surveyed were in transit for, on average, 28.2 ± 5.0 hours before stopping and cattle were rested for an average of 11.2 ± 2.8 hours. These data suggest that loads stopping at the rest station were adhering to the regulations stated in the Health of Animals Act, which outline a maximum of 48 hours in transit before a mandatory stop of at least 5 hours for feed, water and rest. There was a large amount of variability around how well recommendations, such as stocking density were followed. Further research is required to assess how well cattle are coping with long-distance transport under current regulations and industry practices.

  19. Multivariate pattern dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Anzellotti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available When we perform a cognitive task, multiple brain regions are engaged. Understanding how these regions interact is a fundamental step to uncover the neural bases of behavior. Most research on the interactions between brain regions has focused on the univariate responses in the regions. However, fine grained patterns of response encode important information, as shown by multivariate pattern analysis. In the present article, we introduce and apply multivariate pattern dependence (MVPD: a technique to study the statistical dependence between brain regions in humans in terms of the multivariate relations between their patterns of responses. MVPD characterizes the responses in each brain region as trajectories in region-specific multidimensional spaces, and models the multivariate relationship between these trajectories. We applied MVPD to the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS and to the fusiform face area (FFA, using a searchlight approach to reveal interactions between these seed regions and the rest of the brain. Across two different experiments, MVPD identified significant statistical dependence not detected by standard functional connectivity. Additionally, MVPD outperformed univariate connectivity in its ability to explain independent variance in the responses of individual voxels. In the end, MVPD uncovered different connectivity profiles associated with different representational subspaces of FFA: the first principal component of FFA shows differential connectivity with occipital and parietal regions implicated in the processing of low-level properties of faces, while the second and third components show differential connectivity with anterior temporal regions implicated in the processing of invariant representations of face identity.

  20. Altered cerebral blood flow velocity features in fibromyalgia patients in resting-state conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Tembl, José; Mesa-Gresa, Patricia; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Montoya, Pedro; Rey, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize in resting-state conditions the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) signals of fibromyalgia patients. The anterior and middle cerebral arteries of both hemispheres from 15 women with fibromyalgia and 15 healthy women were monitored using Transcranial Doppler (TCD) during a 5-minute eyes-closed resting period. Several signal processing methods based on time, information theory, frequency and time-frequency analyses were used in order to extract different features to characterize the CBFV signals in the different vessels. Main results indicated that, in comparison with control subjects, fibromyalgia patients showed a higher complexity of the envelope CBFV and a different distribution of the power spectral density. In addition, it has been observed that complexity and spectral features show correlations with clinical pain parameters and emotional factors. The characterization features were used in a lineal model to discriminate between fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls, providing a high accuracy. These findings indicate that CBFV signals, specifically their complexity and spectral characteristics, contain information that may be relevant for the assessment of fibromyalgia patients in resting-state conditions.

  1. Resting technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile cardiac imaging in chronic coronary artery disease: comparison with rest-redistribution thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuocolo, A.; Maurea, S.; Pace, L.; Nicolai, E.; Nappi, A.; Imbriaco, M.; Trimarco, B.; Salvatore, M.

    1993-01-01

    We studied 19 patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction 33%±8%) by resting technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI) and rest-redistribution thallium-201 cardiac imaging. Thallium and 99m Tc-MIBI studies were visually analysed. Of 285 segments, 203 (71%) had normal thallium uptake, 48 (17%) showed reversible thallium defects and 34 (12%) showed irreversible thallium defects. Of these 34 irreversible thallium defects, 19 (56%) were moderate and 15 (44%) were severe. Of the corresponding 285 segments, 200 (70%) had normal 99m Tc-MIBI uptake, while 37 (13%) showed moderate and 48 (17%) showed severe reduction of MIBI uptake. Myocardial segmental agreement for regional uptake score between initial thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI images was 90% (κ=0.78). Segmental agreement between delayed thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI images was 77% (κ=0.44). In particular, in 26 (9%) segments 99m Tc-MIBI uptake was severely reduced while delayed thallium uptake was normal or only moderately reduced. These data suggest that although rest-redistribution thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI cardiac imaging provide concordant results in the majority of myocardial segments, some segments with severely reduced resting 99m Tc-MIBI uptake may contain viable but hypoperfused myocardium. Thus, conclusions on myocardial viability based on 99m Tc-MIBI uptake should be made with caution in chronic coronary artery disease. (orig.)

  2. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2015-10-27

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical tiling patterns on the plane must take on various shapes in order to faithfully and feasibly approximate curved surfaces. We define and analyze the deformations these tiles must undertake to account for curvature, and discover the symmetries that remain invariant under such deformations. We propose a novel method to regularize polyhedral patterns while maintaining these symmetries into a plethora of aesthetic and feasible patterns.

  3. AgNOR Count in Resting Cells (Resting NOR Is a New Prognostic Marker in Invasive Bladder Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuro Tomobe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that the AgNOR count in proliferating cells is a predictor of tumor recurrence in superficial bladder tumor (J. Urol. 162 (1999, 63–68. In the present study, we evaluate the type of AgNOR associated with cell cycles as a prognostic factor in invasive bladder tumor using a double staining technique employing both AgNOR and MIB-1 labelling. Materials and methods: Forty-four paraffin sections of invasive bladder tumors were stained simultaneously with AgNOR and MIB-1. The number of AgNORs in proliferating (MIB-1 positive or resting (MIB-1 negative cells were counted from a total of 100 nuclei. Correlations between MIB-1 associated AgNOR count and clinicopathological parameters were statistically analyzed. Results: The AgNOR count in proliferating cells (proliferating NOR was significantly higher than that in resting cells (resting NOR (p < 0.01. The resting NOR in tumors with distant metastases was significantly higher than that in tumors without metastases (p < 0.05. Patients with a low resting NOR tumor had a better prognosis than those with a high resting NOR tumor, whereas the proliferating NOR was not associated with survival. Survival analysis revealed that the resting NOR was the most powerful prognostic marker in patients with invasive bladder tumor (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Resting NOR had a predictive value in the prognosis of patients with invasive bladder tumor. Keywords: Transitional cell carcinoma, invasive, resting cell, AgNORs, MIB-1

  4. Resting States Are Resting Traits – An fMRI Study of Sex Differences and Menstrual Cycle Effects in Resting State Cognitive Control Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelmervik, Helene; Hausmann, Markus; Osnes, Berge; Westerhausen, René; Specht, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    To what degree resting state fMRI is stable or susceptible to internal mind states of the individual is currently an issue of debate. To address this issue, the present study focuses on sex differences and investigates whether resting state fMRI is stable in men and women or changes within relative short-term periods (i.e., across the menstrual cycle). Due to the fact that we recently reported menstrual cycle effects on cognitive control based on data collected during the same sessions, the c...

  5. Effects of irritant chemicals on Aedes aegypti resting behavior: is there a simple shift to untreated "safe sites"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortance Manda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti to irritant and repellent chemicals that can be exploited to reduce man-vector contact. Maximum efficacy of interventions based on irritant chemical actions will, however, require full knowledge of variables that influence vector resting behavior and how untreated "safe sites" contribute to overall impact. METHODS: Using a laboratory box assay, resting patterns of two population strains of female Ae. aegypti (THAI and PERU were evaluated against two material types (cotton and polyester at various dark:light surface area coverage (SAC ratio and contrast configuration (horizontal and vertical under chemical-free and treated conditions. Chemicals evaluated were alphacypermethrin and DDT at varying concentrations. RESULTS: Under chemical-free conditions, dark material had significantly higher resting counts compared to light material at all SAC, and significantly increased when material was in horizontal configuration. Cotton elicited stronger response than polyester. Within the treatment assays, significantly higher resting counts were observed on chemical-treated dark material compared to untreated light fabric. However, compared to matched controls, significantly less resting observations were made on chemical-treated dark material overall. Most importantly, resting observations on untreated light material (or "safe sites" in the treatment assay did not significantly increase for many of the tests, even at 25% SAC. Knockdown rates were ≤5% for all assays. Significantly more observations of flying mosquitoes were made in test assays under chemical-treatment conditions as compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: When preferred Ae. aegypti resting sites are treated with chemicals, even at reduced treatment coverage area, mosquitoes do not simply move to safe sites (untreated areas following contact with the treated material. Instead, they become agitated

  6. Orbits of two electrons released from rest in a uniform transverse magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2018-03-01

    Two identical charged particles released from rest repel each other radially. A uniform perpendicular magnetic field will then cause their trajectories to curve into a flower petal pattern. The orbit of each particle is approximately circular with a long period for a strong magnetic field, whereas it becomes a figure-eight for a weak magnetic field with each lobe completed in a cyclotron period. For example, such radially bound motions arise for two-dimensional electron gases. The level of treatment is appropriate for an undergraduate calculus-based electromagnetism course.

  7. Findings in resting-state fMRI by differences from K-means clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyzhyk, Darya; Graña, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Resting state fMRI has growing number of studies with diverse aims, always centered on some kind of functional connectivity biomarker obtained from correlation regarding seed regions, or by analytical decomposition of the signal towards the localization of the spatial distribution of functional connectivity patterns. In general, studies are computationally costly and very sensitive to noise and preprocessing of data. In this paper we consider clustering by K-means as a exploratory procedure which can provide some results with little computational effort, due to efficient implementations that are readily available. We demonstrate the approach on a dataset of schizophrenia patients, finding differences between patients with and without auditory hallucinations.

  8. Radionuclide ventriculography during rest and exercise: normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, E.B.; Marroni, B.J.; Achutti, A.C.; Anselmi, O.E.; Rabin, M.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty young volunteers of both sexes were examined by radioisotopic techniques to establish the normal range of ventricular function at rest and the response to a stress test (systolic arterious pressure X cardiac frequency > 25000). (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. Memory reactivation during rest supports upcoming learning of related content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Margaret L.; Preston, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of studies have highlighted the importance of offline processes for memory, how these mechanisms influence future learning remains unknown. Participants with established memories for a set of initial face–object associations were scanned during passive rest and during encoding of new related and unrelated pairs of objects. Spontaneous reactivation of established memories and enhanced hippocampal–neocortical functional connectivity during rest was related to better subsequent learning, specifically of related content. Moreover, the degree of functional coupling during rest was predictive of neural engagement during the new learning experience itself. These results suggest that through rest-phase reactivation and hippocampal–neocortical interactions, existing memories may come to facilitate encoding during subsequent related episodes. PMID:25331890

  10. Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk Factors for Bone Loss Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Like muscle, bone ... complications of pregnancy; and those who are experiencing immobilization of some part of the body because of ...

  11. Myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    2008-11-26

    Nov 26, 2008 ... ratio were the most important independent parameters in prediction of RPP. The study shows that ... study of various medical, surgical, and physical interventions on .... increase in myocardial activity and thus the MVO2 at rest.

  12. Effects of Interval Training Programme on Resting Heart Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    Subjects with Hypertension: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Type of Article: Original ... Resting Heart Rate in Subjects with Hypertension — Lamina S. et al investigate the effect of interval .... changes in VO max) of interest. In the t-test. 2.

  13. Memory reactivation during rest supports upcoming learning of related content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Margaret L; Preston, Alison R

    2014-11-04

    Although a number of studies have highlighted the importance of offline processes for memory, how these mechanisms influence future learning remains unknown. Participants with established memories for a set of initial face-object associations were scanned during passive rest and during encoding of new related and unrelated pairs of objects. Spontaneous reactivation of established memories and enhanced hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity during rest was related to better subsequent learning, specifically of related content. Moreover, the degree of functional coupling during rest was predictive of neural engagement during the new learning experience itself. These results suggest that through rest-phase reactivation and hippocampal-neocortical interactions, existing memories may come to facilitate encoding during subsequent related episodes.

  14. Adaptation of maize to temperate climates: mid-density genome-wide association genetics and diversity patterns reveal key genomic regions, with a major contribution of the Vgt2 (ZCN8 locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bouchet

    Full Text Available The migration of maize from tropical to temperate climates was accompanied by a dramatic evolution in flowering time. To gain insight into the genetic architecture of this adaptive trait, we conducted a 50K SNP-based genome-wide association and diversity investigation on a panel of tropical and temperate American and European representatives. Eighteen genomic regions were associated with flowering time. The number of early alleles cumulated along these regions was highly correlated with flowering time. Polymorphism in the vicinity of the ZCN8 gene, which is the closest maize homologue to Arabidopsis major flowering time (FT gene, had the strongest effect. This polymorphism is in the vicinity of the causal factor of Vgt2 QTL. Diversity was lower, whereas differentiation and LD were higher for associated loci compared to the rest of the genome, which is consistent with selection acting on flowering time during maize migration. Selection tests also revealed supplementary loci that were highly differentiated among groups and not associated with flowering time in our panel, whereas they were in other linkage-based studies. This suggests that allele fixation led to a lack of statistical power when structure and relatedness were taken into account in a linear mixed model. Complementary designs and analysis methods are necessary to unravel the architecture of complex traits. Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD estimates corrected for population structure, we concluded that the number of SNPs genotyped should be at least doubled to capture all QTLs contributing to the genetic architecture of polygenic traits in this panel. These results show that maize flowering time is controlled by numerous QTLs of small additive effect and that strong polygenic selection occurred under cool climatic conditions. They should contribute to more efficient genomic predictions of flowering time and facilitate the dissemination of diverse maize genetic resources under a wide

  15. Inspiratory flow pattern in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortuna, C L; Minetti, A E; Mognoni, P

    1984-10-01

    The theoretical estimation of the mechanical work of breathing during inspiration at rest is based on the common assumption that the inspiratory airflow wave is a sine function of time. Different analytical studies have pointed out that from an energetic point of view a rectangular wave is more economical than a sine wave. Visual inspection of inspiratory flow waves recorded during exercise in humans and various animals suggests that a trend toward a rectangular flow wave may be a possible systematic response of the respiratory system. To test this hypothesis, the harmonic content of inspiratory flow waves that were recorded in six healthy subjects at rest, during exercise hyperventilation, and during a maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) maneuver were evaluated by a Fourier analysis, and the results were compared with those obtained on sinusoidal and rectangular models. The dynamic work inherent in the experimental waves and in the sine-wave model was practically the same at rest; during exercise hyperventilation and MVV, the experimental wave was approximately 16-20% more economical than the sinusoidal one. It was concluded that even though at rest the sinusoidal model is a reasonably good approximation of inspiratory flow, during exercise and MVV, a physiological controller is probably operating in humans that can select a more economical inspiratory pattern. Other peculiarities of airflow wave during hyperventilation and some optimization criteria are also discussed.

  16. RESTful web API design with Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Bojinov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    If you are a web developer wanting to enrich your development skills to create scalable, server-side, RESTful applications based on the Node.js platform, this book is for you. You also need to be aware of HTTP communication concepts and should have a working knowledge of JavaScript. Knowledge of REST would be an added advantage but is definitely not a necessity.

  17. The Classic: On Rest and Pain: Lecture XIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John

    2009-09-01

    This Classic article is a reprint of the original work by John Hilton, On Rest and Pain: Lecture XIV. An accompanying biographical sketch on John Hilton, MD, is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-0927-2 . The Classic Article is reprinted with courtesy from Hilton J. On The Influence of Mechanical and Physiological Rest in the Treatment of Accidents and Surgical Diseases, and the Diagnostic Value of Pain. London, England: Bell and Daldy; 1863.

  18. Genetic variablilities of body temperature and resting behaviour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that neither progeny nor generation had effect on body temperature. The Alpha strain exhibited more resting behaviour than did the exotic and the pure native types. Majority of the birds rested in the afternoon at 2.00 pm. This could be attributed to the fact that at 2.00 pm the weather is hot and birds search for a ...

  19. Relativistic theory of gravitation and the graviton rest mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunsov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines a graviton rest mass (m) introduced in the framework of the relativistic theory of gravitation and obtains equations that describe a massive gravitational field. Under the assumption that the entire hidden mass of the matter in the Universe is due to the existence of a massive gravitational field, an upper bound on the rest mass is obtained: m ≤ 0.64 x 10 --65 g

  20. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  1. When frequencies never synchronize: the golden mean and the resting EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Belinda; Kerschbaum, Hubert; Klimesch, Wolfgang

    2010-06-04

    The classical frequency bands of the EEG can be described as a geometric series with a ratio (between neighbouring frequencies) of 1.618, which is the golden mean. Here we show that a synchronization of the excitatory phases of two oscillations with frequencies f1 and f2 is impossible (in a mathematical sense) when their ratio equals the golden mean, because their excitatory phases never meet. Thus, in a mathematical sense, the golden mean provides a totally uncoupled ('desynchronized') processing state which most likely reflects a 'resting' brain, which is not involved in selective information processing. However, excitatory phases of the f1- and f2-oscillations occasionally come close enough to coincide in a physiological sense. These coincidences are more frequent, the higher the frequencies f1 and f2. We demonstrate that the pattern of excitatory phase meetings provided by the golden mean as the 'most irrational' number is least frequent and most irregular. Thus, in a physiological sense, the golden mean provides (i) the highest physiologically possible desynchronized state in the resting brain, (ii) the possibility for spontaneous and most irregular (!) coupling and uncoupling between rhythms and (iii) the opportunity for a transition from resting state to activity. These characteristics have already been discussed to lay the ground for a healthy interplay between various physiological processes (Buchmann, 2002). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Brain entropy and human intelligence: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, Glenn N; Calderone, Daniel; Morales, Leah J

    2018-01-01

    Human intelligence comprises comprehension of and reasoning about an infinitely variable external environment. A brain capable of large variability in neural configurations, or states, will more easily understand and predict variable external events. Entropy measures the variety of configurations possible within a system, and recently the concept of brain entropy has been defined as the number of neural states a given brain can access. This study investigates the relationship between human intelligence and brain entropy, to determine whether neural variability as reflected in neuroimaging signals carries information about intellectual ability. We hypothesize that intelligence will be positively associated with entropy in a sample of 892 healthy adults, using resting-state fMRI. Intelligence is measured with the Shipley Vocabulary and WASI Matrix Reasoning tests. Brain entropy was positively associated with intelligence. This relation was most strongly observed in the prefrontal cortex, inferior temporal lobes, and cerebellum. This relationship between high brain entropy and high intelligence indicates an essential role for entropy in brain functioning. It demonstrates that access to variable neural states predicts complex behavioral performance, and specifically shows that entropy derived from neuroimaging signals at rest carries information about intellectual capacity. Future work in this area may elucidate the links between brain entropy in both resting and active states and various forms of intelligence. This insight has the potential to provide predictive information about adaptive behavior and to delineate the subdivisions and nature of intelligence based on entropic patterns.

  3. Brain entropy and human intelligence: A resting-state fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, Daniel; Morales, Leah J.

    2018-01-01

    Human intelligence comprises comprehension of and reasoning about an infinitely variable external environment. A brain capable of large variability in neural configurations, or states, will more easily understand and predict variable external events. Entropy measures the variety of configurations possible within a system, and recently the concept of brain entropy has been defined as the number of neural states a given brain can access. This study investigates the relationship between human intelligence and brain entropy, to determine whether neural variability as reflected in neuroimaging signals carries information about intellectual ability. We hypothesize that intelligence will be positively associated with entropy in a sample of 892 healthy adults, using resting-state fMRI. Intelligence is measured with the Shipley Vocabulary and WASI Matrix Reasoning tests. Brain entropy was positively associated with intelligence. This relation was most strongly observed in the prefrontal cortex, inferior temporal lobes, and cerebellum. This relationship between high brain entropy and high intelligence indicates an essential role for entropy in brain functioning. It demonstrates that access to variable neural states predicts complex behavioral performance, and specifically shows that entropy derived from neuroimaging signals at rest carries information about intellectual capacity. Future work in this area may elucidate the links between brain entropy in both resting and active states and various forms of intelligence. This insight has the potential to provide predictive information about adaptive behavior and to delineate the subdivisions and nature of intelligence based on entropic patterns. PMID:29432427

  4. Repetitive tactile stimulation changes resting-state functional connectivity – implications for treatment of sensorimotor decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eFreyer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders and physiological aging can lead to a decline of perceptual abilities. In contrast to the conventional therapeutic approach that comprises intensive training and practicing, passive repetitive sensory stimulation (RSS has recently gained increasing attention as an alternative to countervail the sensory decline by improving perceptual abilities without the need of active participation. A particularly effective type of high-frequency RSS, utilizing Hebbian learning principles, improves perceptual acuity as well as sensorimotor functions and has been successfully applied to treat chronic stroke patients and elderly subjects. High-frequency RSS has been shown to induce plastic changes of somatosensory cortex such as representational map reorganization, but its impact on the brain’s ongoing network activity and resting-state functional connectivity has not been investigated so far. Here, we applied high-frequency RSS in healthy human subjects and analyzed resting state Electroencephalography (EEG functional connectivity patterns before and after RSS by means of imaginary coherency (ImCoh, a frequency-specific connectivity measure which is known to reduce overestimation biases due to volume conduction and common reference. Thirty minutes of passive high-frequency RSS lead to significant ImCoh-changes of the resting state mu-rhythm in the individual upper alpha frequency band within distributed sensory and motor cortical areas. These stimulation induced distributed functional connectivity changes likely underlie the previously observed improvement in sensorimotor integration.

  5. Abnormal resting-state connectivity of motor and cognitive networks in early manifest Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R C; Sambataro, F; Vasic, N; Depping, M S; Thomann, P A; Landwehrmeyer, G B; Süssmuth, S D; Orth, M

    2014-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of multiple neural networks during the brain's 'resting state' could facilitate biomarker development in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and may provide new insights into the relationship between neural dysfunction and clinical symptoms. To date, however, very few studies have examined the functional integrity of multiple resting state networks (RSNs) in manifest HD, and even less is known about whether concomitant brain atrophy affects neural activity in patients. Using MRI, we investigated brain structure and RSN function in patients with early HD (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 20). For resting-state fMRI data a group-independent component analysis identified spatiotemporally distinct patterns of motor and prefrontal RSNs of interest. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess regional brain atrophy, and 'biological parametric mapping' analyses to investigate the impact of atrophy on neural activity. Compared with controls, patients showed connectivity changes within distinct neural systems including lateral prefrontal, supplementary motor, thalamic, cingulate, temporal and parietal regions. In patients, supplementary motor area and cingulate cortex connectivity indices were associated with measures of motor function, whereas lateral prefrontal connectivity was associated with cognition. This study provides evidence for aberrant connectivity of RSNs associated with motor function and cognition in early manifest HD when controlling for brain atrophy. This suggests clinically relevant changes of RSN activity in the presence of HD-associated cortical and subcortical structural abnormalities.

  6. Improved left ventricular function and perfusion at rest after successful transluminal coronary angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepzig, H.; Kaltenbach, M.; Standke, R.; Maul, F.D.; Hoer, G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate left ventricular function and perfusion at rest before and after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. In consecutive 69 patients in whom coronary stenoses were dilated, the radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction at rest increased significantly. In 26 of these patients, the ejection fraction increased by at least 4%. In these patients, exercise-induced ischemic ST depression had been more pronounced than in the others. 36 other patients underwent 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy before and after angioplasty. Twelve patients in whom pre-PTCA images had revealed regions with irreversible 201 Tl uptake defects, showed normal 201 Tl distribution patterns on post-PTCA scintigrams. Post-exercise 201 Tl uptake (representing myocardial perfusion and metabolic activity) during pre-PTCA exercise stress tests was significantly lower in these cases. It is concluded that PTCA can improve left ventricular function and perfusion at rest. This improvement is most obvious in patients with pronounced exercise-induced myocardial ischemia as diagnosed by typical ST segment depression and reduced thallium uptake. (orig.) [de

  7. A case for motor network contributions to schizophrenia symptoms: Evidence from resting-state connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jessica A; Goen, James R M; Maldonado, Ted

    2017-09-01

    Though schizophrenia (SCZ) is classically defined based on positive symptoms and the negative symptoms of the disease prove to be debilitating for many patients, motor deficits are often present as well. A growing literature highlights the importance of motor systems and networks in the disease, and it may be the case that dysfunction in motor networks relates to the pathophysiology and etiology of SCZ. To test this and build upon recent work in SCZ and in at-risk populations, we investigated cortical and cerebellar motor functional networks at rest in SCZ and controls using publically available data. We analyzed data from 82 patients and 88 controls. We found key group differences in resting-state connectivity patterns that highlight dysfunction in motor circuits and also implicate the thalamus. Furthermore, we demonstrated that in SCZ, these resting-state networks are related to both positive and negative symptom severity. Though the ventral prefrontal cortex and corticostriatal pathways more broadly have been implicated in negative symptom severity, here we extend these findings to include motor-striatal connections, as increased connectivity between the primary motor cortex and basal ganglia was associated with more severe negative symptoms. Together, these findings implicate motor networks in the symptomatology of psychosis, and we speculate that these networks may be contributing to the etiology of the disease. Overt motor deficits in SCZ may signal underlying network dysfunction that contributes to the overall disease state. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4535-4545, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Matter density distributions and elastic form factors of some two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmed N Abdullah

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... include the proton, neutron and matter density distributions, the corresponding rms radii, the binding energy per nucleon and the charge form ... the nuclear structure models based on the experimental data for stable nuclei ... Most exotic nuclei are so short lived that they cannot be used as targets at rest.

  9. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  10. Whole brain resting-state analysis reveals decreased functional connectivity in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya M. Veer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, both increases and decreases in resting-state functional connectivity have been found in major depression. However, these studies only assessed functional connectivity within a specific network or between a few regions of interest, while comorbidity and use of medication was not always controlled for. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate whole-brain functional connectivity, unbiased by a priori definition of regions or networks of interest, in medication-free depressive patients without comorbidity. We analyzed resting-state fMRI data of 19 medication-free patients with a recent diagnosis of major depression (within six months before inclusion and no comorbidity, and 19 age- and gender-matched controls. Independent component analysis was employed on the concatenated data sets of all participants. Thirteen functionally relevant networks were identified, describing the entire study sample. Next, individual representations of the networks were created using a dual regression method. Statistical inference was subsequently done on these spatial maps using voxelwise permutation tests. Abnormal functional connectivity was found within three resting-state networks in depression: 1 decreased bilateral amygdala and left anterior insula connectivity in an affective network, 2 reduced connectivity of the left frontal pole in a network associated with attention and working memory, and 3 decreased bilateral lingual gyrus connectivity within ventromedial visual regions. None of these effects were associated with symptom severity or grey matter density. We found abnormal resting-state functional connectivity not previously associated with major depression, which might relate to abnormal affect regulation and mild cognitive deficits, both associated with the symptomatology of the disorder.

  11. Bed Rest is an Analog to Study the Physiological Changes of Spaceflight and to Evaluate Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannenstiel, P.; Ottenbacher, M.; Inniss, A.; Ware, D.; Anderson, K.; Stranges, S.; Keith, K.; Cromwell, R.; Neigut. J.; Powell, D.

    2012-01-01

    The UTMB/NASA Flight Analog Research Unit is an inpatient unit with a bionutrition kitchen and unique testing areas for studying subjects subjected to 6 degree head-down complete bed rest for prolonged periods as an analog for zero gravity. Bed rest allows study of physiological changes and performance of functional tasks representative of critical interplanetary mission operations and measures of the efficacy of countermeasures designed to protect against the resulting deleterious effects. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Subjects are healthy adults 24-55 years old; 60 75 in tall; body mass index 18.5-30; and bone mineral density normal by DXA scan. Over 100 subjects have been studied in 7 campaigns since 2004. The iRAT countermeasure combines high intensity interval aerobic exercises on alternating days with continuous aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise is performed 3 days per week. Subjects are tested on an integrated suite of functional and interdisciplinary physiological tests before and after 70 days of total bed rest. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: It is anticipated that post-bed rest functional performance will be predicted by a weighted combination of sensorimotor, cardiovascular and muscle physiological factors. Control subjects who do not participate in the exercise countermeasure will have significantly greater decreases in these parameters. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity, leading to disruption in the ability to perform functional tasks after reintroduction to a gravitational environment. Current flight exercise countermeasures are not fully protective of cardiovascular, muscle and bone health. There is a need to refine and optimize countermeasures to mitigate health risks associated with long-term space missions.

  12. Discovering EEG resting state alterations of semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, Matthias; Koenig, Thomas; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Utsunomiya, Keita; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Dierks, Thomas; Nishida, Keiichiro

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis of semantic dementia relies on cost-intensive MRI or PET, although resting EEG markers of other dementias have been reported. Yet the view still holds that resting EEG in patients with semantic dementia is normal. However, studies using increasingly sophisticated EEG analysis methods have demonstrated that slightest alterations of functional brain states can be detected. We analyzed the common four resting EEG microstates (A, B, C, and D) of 8 patients with semantic dementia in comparison with 8 healthy controls and 8 patients with Alzheimer's disease. Topographical differences between the groups were found in microstate classes B and C, while microstate classes A and D were comparable. The data showed that the semantic dementia group had a peculiar microstate E, but the commonly found microstate C was lacking. Furthermore, the presence of microstate E was significantly correlated with lower MMSE and language scores. Alterations in resting EEG can be found in semantic dementia. Topographical shifts in microstate C might be related to semantic memory deficits. This is the first study that discovered resting state EEG abnormality in semantic dementia. The notion that resting EEG in this dementia subtype is normal has to be revised. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterizing Resting-State Brain Function Using Arterial Spin Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jann, Kay; Wang, Danny J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an increasingly established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that is finding broader applications in studying the healthy and diseased brain. This review addresses the use of ASL to assess brain function in the resting state. Following a brief technical description, we discuss the use of ASL in the following main categories: (1) resting-state functional connectivity (FC) measurement: the use of ASL-based cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements as an alternative to the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) technique to assess resting-state FC; (2) the link between network CBF and FC measurements: the use of network CBF as a surrogate of the metabolic activity within corresponding networks; and (3) the study of resting-state dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and cerebral metabolism: the use of dynamic CBF information obtained using ASL to assess dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and oxidative metabolism in the resting state. In addition, we summarize some future challenges and interesting research directions for ASL, including slice-accelerated (multiband) imaging as well as the effects of motion and other physiological confounds on perfusion-based FC measurement. In summary, this work reviews the state-of-the-art of ASL and establishes it as an increasingly viable MRI technique with high translational value in studying resting-state brain function. PMID:26106930

  14. Differential effects of human activity on Hawaiian spinner dolphins in their resting bays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Heenehan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hawaiian spinner dolphins display predictable daily behavior, using shallow bays to rest during the daytime, bays that are also frequented by humans. All previous research on the potential response of Hawaiian spinner dolphins to human activity has been conducted visually, at the surface. In this study we take a different approach by using passive acoustic monitoring to analyze dolphin behavior and assess whether human activity affects the behavior of the animals. We used days (n=99 and hours (n=641 when dolphins were confirmed present in visual surveys between January 9, 2011 and August 15, 2012 and metrics generated from concomitant 30-second sound recordings (n=9615. Previous research found that the dolphins were predictably silent during rest and that acoustic activity matched general activity of the dolphins with higher acoustic activity before and after rest, and silence during rest. The daily pattern of dolphin whistle activity in Bay 2 and 4 (Kealakekua and Kauhako matched what would be expected from this earlier work. However, in Bay 1 and 3 (Makako and Honaunau there was no drop in dolphin whistle activity during rest. After assessing the relationship between time of day and dolphin acoustic activity, data on human presence were used to determine how variability in the dolphins’ acoustic activity might be explained by human activity (i.e. the number of vessels, kayaks and swimmer snorkelers present. Bay 2, the bay with the most human activity, showed no relationship between dolphin whistle activity and human presence (either vessels, kayaks, or swimmer/snorkelers. Although the relationships were weak, Bay 1 displayed a positive relationship between dolphin whistle activity and the number of vessels and swimmer/snorkelers present in the bay. Bay 4 also showed a positive relationship between dolphin whistle activity and the number of swimmer snorkelers. We also documented less sound being added to the soundscape with each additional

  15. Low frequency fluctuations in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Küblböck, M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the course of the last two decades, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has emerged as a widely used, highly accepted and very popular method for the assessment of neuronal activity in the human brain. It is a completely non-invasive imaging technique with high temporal resolution, which relies on the measurement of local differences in magnetic susceptibility between oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Therefore, fMRI can be regarded as an indirect measure of neuronal activity via measurement of localised changes in cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen consumption. Maps of neuronal activity are calculated from fMRI data acquired either in the presence of an explicit task (task-based fMRI) or in absence of a task (resting-state fMRI). While in task-based fMRI task-specific patterns of brain activity are subject to research, resting-state fMRI reveals fundamental networks of intrinsic brain activity. These networks are characterized by low-frequency oscillations in the power spectrum of resting-state fMRI data. In the present work, we first introduce the physical principles and the technical background that allow us to measure these changes in blood oxygenation, followed by an introduction to the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect and to analysis methods for both task-based and resting-state fMRI data. We also analyse the temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR) of a novel 2D-EPI sequence, which allows the experimenter to acquire several slices simultaneously in order to assess the optimal parameter settings for this sequence at 3T. We then proceed to investigate the temporal properties of measures for the amplitude of low-frequency oscillations in resting-state fMRI data, which are regarded as potential biomarkers for a wide range of mental diseases in various clinical studies and show the high stability and robustness of these data, which are important prerequisites for application as a biomarker as well as their dependency on head motion

  16. A spatial individual-based model predicting a great impact of copious sugar sources and resting sites on survival of Anopheles gambiae and malaria parasite transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Qualls, Whitney A.; Marshall, John M; Arheart, Kris L.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; McManus, John W.; Traore, Sekou F.; Doumbia, Seydou; Schlein, Yosef; Muller, Gunter C.; Beier, John C.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundAgent-based modelling (ABM) has been used to simulate mosquito life cycles and to evaluate vector control applications. However, most models lack sugar-feeding and resting behaviours or are based on mathematical equations lacking individual level randomness and spatial components of mosquito life. Here, a spatial individual-based model (IBM) incorporating sugar-feeding and resting behaviours of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae was developed to estimate the impact of environmental sugar sources and resting sites on survival and biting behaviour.MethodsA spatial IBM containing An. gambiae mosquitoes and humans, as well as the village environment of houses, sugar sources, resting sites and larval habitat sites was developed. Anopheles gambiae behaviour rules were attributed at each step of the IBM: resting, host seeking, sugar feeding and breeding. Each step represented one second of time, and each simulation was set to run for 60 days and repeated 50 times. Scenarios of different densities and spatial distributions of sugar sources and outdoor resting sites were simulated and compared.ResultsWhen the number of natural sugar sources was increased from 0 to 100 while the number of resting sites was held constant, mean daily survival rate increased from 2.5% to 85.1% for males and from 2.5% to 94.5% for females, mean human biting rate increased from 0 to 0.94 bites per human per day, and mean daily abundance increased from 1 to 477 for males and from 1 to 1,428 for females. When the number of outdoor resting sites was increased from 0 to 50 while the number of sugar sources was held constant, mean daily survival rate increased from 77.3% to 84.3% for males and from 86.7% to 93.9% for females, mean human biting rate increased from 0 to 0.52 bites per human per day, and mean daily abundance increased from 62 to 349 for males and from 257 to 1120 for females. All increases were significant (P houses.ConclusionsIncreases in densities of sugar sources or

  17. "I am resting but rest less well with you." The moderating effect of anxious attachment style on alpha power during EEG resting state in a social context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeke, W.J.M.I.; Pozharliev, R.; van Strien, J.W.; Belschak, F.; Bagozzi, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    We took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A) or together (T). We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results indicate

  18. Variation in foraging behavior and body mass in broods of Emperor Geese (Chen canagica): Evidence for interspecific density dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, J.A.; Laing, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    Broods of geese spend time feeding according to availability and quality of food plants, subject to inherent foraging and digestive constraints. We studied behavioral patterns of broods of Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, and examined how feeding and alert behavior varied in relation to habitat and goose density. During 1994–1996, time spent feeding by Emperor Goose goslings and adult females was positively related to multispecies goose densities near observation blinds, and not to just Emperor Goose density. Similarly, body mass of Emperor Goose goslings was more strongly related (negatively) to multispecies goose densities than intraspecific densities. A grazing experiment in 1995 indicated that most above ground primary production by Carex subspathacea, a preferred food plant, was consumed by grazing geese. Those results demonstrate that interspecific competition for food occurred, with greatest support for goslings whose behavioral repertoire is limited primarily to feeding, digesting, and resting. Although the more abundant Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) differed from Emperor Geese in their preferred use of habitats during brooding rearing (Schmutz 2001), the two species occurred in equal abundance in habitats preferred by Emperor Goose broods. Thus, Cackling Canada Geese were a numerically significant competitor with Emperor Geese. Comparing these results to an earlier study, time spent feeding by goslings, adult females, and adult males were greater during 1993–1996 than during 1985–1986. During the interval between those studies, densities of Cackling Canada Geese increased two to three times whereas Emperor Goose numbers remained approximately stable, which implies that interspecific competition affected foraging behavior over a long time period. These density-dependent changes in foraging behavior and body mass indicate that interspecific competition affects nutrient acquisition and gosling

  19. Resting-state low-frequency fluctuations reflect individual differences in spoken language learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C.M.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The “competition” (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest – ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success

  20. Resting-state low-frequency fluctuations reflect individual differences in spoken language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-03-01

    A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The "competition" (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest--ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success

  1. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Mirosław

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modifications of resting state networks in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Sirio; Saccà, Francesco; Cervo, Amedeo; Marsili, Angela; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Giorgio, Sara Maria Delle Acque; De Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Brunetti, Arturo; Quarantelli, Mario

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the integrity of the Resting State Networks in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) and the correlations between the modification of these networks and clinical variables. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) data from 19 SCA2 patients and 29 healthy controls were analyzed using an independent component analysis and dual regression, controlling at voxel level for the effect of atrophy by co-varying for gray matter volume. Correlations between the resting state networks alterations and disease duration, age at onset, number of triplets, and clinical score were assessed by Spearman's coefficient, for each cluster which was significantly different in SCA2 patients compared with healthy controls. In SCA2 patients, disruption of the cerebellar components of all major resting state networks was present, with supratentorial involvement only for the default mode network. When controlling at voxel level for gray matter volume, the reduction in functional connectivity in supratentorial regions of the default mode network, and in cerebellar regions within the default mode, executive and right fronto-parietal networks, was still significant. No correlations with clinical variables were found for any of the investigated resting state networks. The SCA2 patients show significant alterations of the resting state networks, only partly explained by the atrophy. The default mode network is the only resting state network that shows also supratentorial changes, which appear unrelated to the cortical gray matter volume. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical significance of these changes. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  3. A classical density functional investigation of nucleation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Satinath; Ghosh, Swapan K.

    2009-01-01

    Study of nucleation and growth phenomena in condensation is of prime importance in various applications such as crystal growth, nanoparticle synthesis, pattern formation etc. The knowledge of nucleation barrier in condensation is necessary to control the nucleation kinetics, size of the nanoparticles etc. Classical nucleation theory (CNT) assumes the density of the drop as bulk density irrespective of the size of the drop and overestimates the nucleation barrier. Here we are interested in solving the problem analytically using density functional theory (DFT) with square gradient approximation along the lines of Cahn and Hilliard. Nucleation barrier and density profile obtained in this work are consistent with other works based on nonclassical theory. (author)

  4. Neural markers of loss aversion in resting-state brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Nicola; Crespi, Chiara; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Dodich, Alessandra; Falini, Andrea; Antonellis, Giulia; Cappa, Stefano F

    2017-02-01

    Neural responses in striatal, limbic and somatosensory brain regions track individual differences in loss aversion, i.e. the higher sensitivity to potential losses compared with equivalent gains in decision-making under risk. The engagement of structures involved in the processing of aversive stimuli and experiences raises a further question, i.e. whether the tendency to avoid losses rather than acquire gains represents a transient fearful overreaction elicited by choice-related information, or rather a stable component of one's own preference function, reflecting a specific pattern of neural activity. We tested the latter hypothesis by assessing in 57 healthy human subjects whether the relationship between behavioral and neural loss aversion holds at rest, i.e. when the BOLD signal is collected during 5minutes of cross-fixation in the absence of an explicit task. Within the resting-state networks highlighted by a spatial group Independent Component Analysis (gICA), we found a significant correlation between strength of activity and behavioral loss aversion in the left ventral striatum and right posterior insula/supramarginal gyrus, i.e. the very same regions displaying a pattern of neural loss aversion during explicit choices. Cross-study analyses confirmed that this correlation holds when voxels identified by gICA are used as regions of interest in task-related activity and vice versa. These results suggest that the individual degree of (neural) loss aversion represents a stable dimension of decision-making, which reflects in specific metrics of intrinsic brain activity at rest possibly modulating cortical excitability at choice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lobular patterns of cerebellar resting-state connectivity in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivito, Giusy; Lupo, Michela; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Clausi, Silvia; Baiocco, Roberto; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco; Leggio, Maria

    2018-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core deficits in social functioning. Core autistics traits refer to poor social and imagination skills, poor attention-switching/strong focus of attention, exceptional attention to detail, as expressed by the autism-spectrum quotient. Over the years, the importance of the cerebellum in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorder has been acknowledged. Neuroimaging studies have provided a strong support to this view, showing both structural and functional connectivity alterations to affect the cerebellum in autism spectrum disorder. According to the underconnectivity theory, disrupted connectivity within cerebello-cerebral networks has been specifically implicated in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorder. However, inconsistent results have been generated across studies. In this study, an integrated approach has been used in a selected population of adults with autism spectrum disorder to analyse both cerebellar morphometry and functional connectivity. In individuals with autism spectrum disorder, a decreased cerebellar grey matter volume affected the right Crus II, a region showing extensive connections with cerebral areas related to social functions. This grey matter reduction correlates with the degree of autistic traits as measured by autism-spectrum quotient. Interestingly, altered functional connectivity was found between the reduced cerebellar Crus II and contralateral cerebral regions, such as frontal and temporal areas. Overall, the present data suggest that adults with autism spectrum disorder present with specific cerebellar structural alterations that may affect functional connectivity within cerebello-cerebral modules relevant to social processing and account for core autistics traits. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Feasibility Study of a Lunar Analog Bed Rest Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.; Platts, Steven H.; Yarbough, Patrice; Buccello-Stout, Regina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a 9.5deg head-up tilt bed rest model to simulate the effects of the 1/6 g load to the human body that exists on the lunar surface. The lunar analog bed rest model utilized a modified hospital bed. The modifications included mounting the mattress on a sled that rolled on bearings to provide freedom of movement. The weight of the sled was off-loaded using a counterweight system to insure that 1/6 body weight was applied along the long axis (z-axis) of the body. Force was verified through use of a force plate mounted at the foot of the bed. A seating assembly was added to the bed to permit periods of sitting. Subjects alternated between standing and sitting positions throughout the day. A total of 35% of the day was spent in the standing position and 65% was spent sitting. In an effort to achieve physiologic fluid shifts expected for a 1/6 G environment, subjects wore compression stockings and performed unloaded foot and ankle exercises. Eight subjects (3 females and 5 males) participated in this study. Subjects spent 13 days in the pre-bed rest phase, 6 days in bed rest and 3 days post bed rest. Subjects consumed a standardized diet throughout the study. To determine feasibility, measures of subject comfort, force and plasma volume were collected. Subject comfort was assessed using a Likert scale. Subjects were asked to assess level of comfort (0-100) for 11 body regions and provide an overall rating. Results indicated minimal to no discomfort as most subjects reported scores of zero. Force measures were performed for each standing position and were validated against subject s calculated 1/6 body weight (r(sup 2) = 0.993). The carbon monoxide rebreathing technique was used to assess plasma volume during pre-bed rest and on the last day of bed rest. Plasma volume results indicated a significant decrease (p = 0.001) from pre to post bed rest values. Subjects lost on average 8.3% (sd = 6.1%) during the

  7. Neurophysiological features of Internet gaming disorder and alcohol use disorder: a resting-state EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, K-L; Choi, J-S; Lee, J; Park, S M; Lim, J-A; Lee, J Y; Kim, S N; Oh, S; Kim, D J; Kwon, J S

    2015-09-01

    Despite that Internet gaming disorder (IGD) shares clinical, neuropsychological and personality characteristics with alcohol use disorder (AUD), little is known about the resting-state quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) patterns associated with IGD and AUD. Therefore, this study compared the QEEG patterns in patients with IGD with those in patients with AUD to identify unique neurophysiological characteristics that can be used as biomarkers of IGD. A total of 76 subjects (34 with IGD, 17 with AUD and 25 healthy controls) participated in this study. Resting-state, eyes-closed QEEGs were recorded, and the absolute and relative power of brains were analyzed. The generalized estimating equation showed that the IGD group had lower absolute beta power than AUD (estimate = 5.319, P < 0.01) and the healthy control group (estimate = 2.612, P = 0.01). The AUD group showed higher absolute delta power than IGD (estimate = 7.516, P < 0.01) and the healthy control group (estimate = 7.179, P < 0.01). We found no significant correlations between the severity of IGD and QEEG activities in patients with IGD. The current findings suggest that lower absolute beta power can be used as a potential trait marker of IGD. Higher absolute power in the delta band may be a susceptibility marker for AUD. This study clarifies the unique characteristics of IGD as a behavioral addiction, which is distinct from AUD, by providing neurophysiological evidence.

  8. Asymmetrical hippocampal connectivity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: evidence from resting state fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellano Gabriela

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE, the most common type of focal epilepsy in adults, is often caused by hippocampal sclerosis (HS. Patients with HS usually present memory dysfunction, which is material-specific according to the hemisphere involved and has been correlated to the degree of HS as measured by postoperative histopathology as well as by the degree of hippocampal atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Verbal memory is mostly affected by left-sided HS, whereas visuo-spatial memory is more affected by right HS. Some of these impairments may be related to abnormalities of the network in which individual hippocampus takes part. Functional connectivity can play an important role to understand how the hippocampi interact with other brain areas. It can be estimated via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI resting state experiments by evaluating patterns of functional networks. In this study, we investigated the functional connectivity patterns of 9 control subjects, 9 patients with right MTLE and 9 patients with left MTLE. Results We detected differences in functional connectivity within and between hippocampi in patients with unilateral MTLE associated with ipsilateral HS by resting state fMRI. Functional connectivity resulted to be more impaired ipsilateral to the seizure focus in both patient groups when compared to control subjects. This effect was even more pronounced for the left MTLE group. Conclusions The findings presented here suggest that left HS causes more reduction of functional connectivity than right HS in subjects with left hemisphere dominance for language.

  9. Dynamic brain glucose metabolism identifies anti-correlated cortical-cerebellar networks at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Dardo G; Shokri-Kojori, Ehsan; Wiers, Corinde E; Kim, Sunny W; Demiral, Şukru B; Cabrera, Elizabeth A; Lindgren, Elsa; Miller, Gregg; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2017-12-01

    It remains unclear whether resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) networks are associated with underlying synchrony in energy demand, as measured by dynamic 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoroglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We measured absolute glucose metabolism, temporal metabolic connectivity (t-MC) and rfMRI patterns in 53 healthy participants at rest. Twenty-two rfMRI networks emerged from group independent component analysis (gICA). In contrast, only two anti-correlated t-MC emerged from FDG-PET time series using gICA or seed-voxel correlations; one included frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, the other included the cerebellum and medial temporal regions. Whereas cerebellum, thalamus, globus pallidus and calcarine cortex arose as the strongest t-MC hubs, the precuneus and visual cortex arose as the strongest rfMRI hubs. The strength of the t-MC linearly increased with the metabolic rate of glucose suggesting that t-MC measures are strongly associated with the energy demand of the brain tissue, and could reflect regional differences in glucose metabolism, counterbalanced metabolic network demand, and/or differential time-varying delivery of FDG. The mismatch between metabolic and functional connectivity patterns computed as a function of time could reflect differences in the temporal characteristics of glucose metabolism as measured with PET-FDG and brain activation as measured with rfMRI.

  10. Resting state brain networks in the prairie vole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Juan J; Portillo, Wendy; Paredes, Raul G; Young, Larry J; Alcauter, Sarael

    2018-01-19

    Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has shown the hierarchical organization of the human brain into large-scale complex networks, referred as resting state networks. This technique has turned into a promising translational research tool after the finding of similar resting state networks in non-human primates, rodents and other animal models of great value for neuroscience. Here, we demonstrate and characterize the presence of resting states networks in Microtus ochrogaster, the prairie vole, an extraordinary animal model to study complex human-like social behavior, with potential implications for the research of normal social development, addiction and neuropsychiatric disorders. Independent component analysis of rsfMRI data from isoflurane-anestethized prairie voles resulted in cortical and subcortical networks, including primary motor and sensory networks, but also included putative salience and default mode networks. We further discuss how future research could help to close the gap between the properties of the large scale functional organization and the underlying neurobiology of several aspects of social cognition. These results contribute to the evidence of preserved resting state brain networks across species and provide the foundations to explore the use of rsfMRI in the prairie vole for basic and translational research.

  11. Early processing variations in selective attention to the color and direction of moving stimuli during 30 days head-down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; He, Si-Yang; Niu, Dong-Bin; Guo, Jian-Ping; Xu, Yun-Long; Wang, De-Sheng; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Qi; Tan, Cheng; Li, Zhi-Li; Tang, Guo-Hua; Li, Yin-Hui; Bai, Yan-Qiang

    2013-11-01

    Dynamic variations in early selective attention to the color and direction of moving stimuli were explored during a 30 days period of head-down bed rest. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded at F5, F6, P5, P6 scalp locations in seven male subjects who attended to pairs of bicolored light emitting diodes that flashed sequentially to produce a perception of movement. Subjects were required to attend selectively to a critical feature of the moving target, e.g., color or direction. The tasks included: a no response task, a color selective response task, a moving direction selective response task, and a combined color-direction selective response task. Subjects were asked to perform these four tasks on: the 3rd day before bed rest; the 3rd, 15th and 30th day during the bed rest; and the 5th day after bed rest. Subjects responded quickly to the color than moving direction and combined color-direction response. And they had a longer reaction time during bed rest on the 15th and 30th day during bed rest after a relatively quicker response on the 3rd day. Using brain event-related potentials technique, we found that in the color selective response task, the mean amplitudes of P1 and N1 for target ERPs decreased in the 3rd day during bed rest and 5th day after bed rest in comparison with pre-bed rest, 15th day and 30th day during bed rest. In the combined color-direction selective response task, the P1 latencies for target ERPs on the 3rd and 30th day during bed rest were longer than on the 15th day during bed rest. As 3rd day during bed rest was in the acute adaptation period and 30th day during bed rest was in the relatively adaptation stage of head-down bed rest, the results help to clarify the effects of bed rest on different task loads and patterns of attention. It was suggested that subjects expended more time to give correct decision in the head-down tilt bed rest state. A difficulty in the recruitment of brain resources was found in feature selection task

  12. Laboratory Density Functionals

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals.

  13. Specialization Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz , Ulrik Pagh; Lawall , Julia ,; Consel , Charles

    1999-01-01

    Design patterns offer numerous advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the finished program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose to consider program specialization and design patterns as complementary concepts. On the one hand, program specialization can optimize object-oriented programs written using design patterns. On the other hand, design pat...

  14. Expression of REST4 in human gliomas in vivo and influence of pioglitazone on REST in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Huan [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China); Gao, Zhangfeng [Department of Neurosurgery, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Wu, Nayiyuan; Zeng, Liu; Tang, Xinyue; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Zhaoqian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Liansheng [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China); Li, Zhi, E-mail: lizhi489@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China)

    2015-08-07

    The repressor element-1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) has an irreplaceable role during the differentiation of neurons. REST has multiple splice variants which link to various types of cancer. Previous work had highlighted the role of REST in glioma, where the expression of REST is enhanced. But whether alternative splicing of REST is expressed in glioma has not been described. Here, we show that a specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens, and will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists have a role of antineoplastic in various tumor cells, which including glioma cells. Moreover, study indicated that PPARγ agonist pioglitazone can promote alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. In this study, we selected pioglitazone as a tool drug to explore whether the role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma is mediated by regulating REST expression or promoting alternative splicing of REST in glioma cells. Results show that pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cell in vitro, which may be mediated by down-regulating REST mRNA level but not by inducing alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. Our study firstly reports the expression of REST4 in glioma tissue samples. And we recommend that pioglitazone, which can reduce the expression level of REST, represents a promising drug for therapy of glioma. - Highlights: • A specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens in vivo. • REST4 will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. • Pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cells. • The role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma may be mediated by down-regulating REST.

  15. Expression of REST4 in human gliomas in vivo and influence of pioglitazone on REST in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Huan; Gao, Zhangfeng; Wu, Nayiyuan; Zeng, Liu; Tang, Xinyue; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Zhaoqian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Liansheng; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    The repressor element-1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) has an irreplaceable role during the differentiation of neurons. REST has multiple splice variants which link to various types of cancer. Previous work had highlighted the role of REST in glioma, where the expression of REST is enhanced. But whether alternative splicing of REST is expressed in glioma has not been described. Here, we show that a specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens, and will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists have a role of antineoplastic in various tumor cells, which including glioma cells. Moreover, study indicated that PPARγ agonist pioglitazone can promote alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. In this study, we selected pioglitazone as a tool drug to explore whether the role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma is mediated by regulating REST expression or promoting alternative splicing of REST in glioma cells. Results show that pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cell in vitro, which may be mediated by down-regulating REST mRNA level but not by inducing alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. Our study firstly reports the expression of REST4 in glioma tissue samples. And we recommend that pioglitazone, which can reduce the expression level of REST, represents a promising drug for therapy of glioma. - Highlights: • A specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens in vivo. • REST4 will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. • Pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cells. • The role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma may be mediated by down-regulating REST

  16. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  17. Disrupted resting brain graph measures in individuals at high risk for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Bharath; Panda, Rajanikant; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Biswal, Bharat; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Benegal, Vivek

    2017-07-30

    Familial susceptibility to alcoholism is likely to be linked to the externalizing diathesis seen in high-risk offspring from high-density alcohol use disorder (AUD) families. The present study aimed at comparing resting brain functional connectivity and their association with externalizing symptoms and alcoholism familial density in 40 substance-naive high-risk (HR) male offspring from high-density AUD families and 30 matched healthy low-risk (LR) males without a family history of substance dependence using graph theory-based network analysis. The HR subjects from high-density AUD families compared with LR, showed significantly reduced clustering, small-worldness, and local network efficiency. The frontoparietal, cingulo-opercular, sensorimotor and cerebellar networks exhibited significantly reduced functional segregation. These disruptions exhibited independent incremental value in predicting the externalizing symptoms over and above the demographic variables. The reduction of functional segregation in HR subjects was significant across both the younger and older age groups and was proportional to the family loading of AUDs. Detection and estimation of these developmentally relevant disruptions in small-world architecture at critical brain regions sub-serving cognitive, affective, and sensorimotor processes are vital for understanding the familial risk for early onset alcoholism as well as for understanding the pathophysiological mechanism of externalizing behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Brain resting-state networks in adolescents with high-functioning autism: Analysis of spatial connectivity and temporal neurodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernas, Antoine; Barendse, Evelien M; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Backes, Walter H; Hofman, Paul A M; Hendriks, Marc P H; Kessels, Roy P C; Willems, Frans M J; de With, Peter H N; Zinger, Svitlana; Jansen, Jacobus F A

    2018-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is mainly characterized by functional and communication impairments as well as restrictive and repetitive behavior. The leading hypothesis for the neural basis of autism postulates globally abnormal brain connectivity, which can be assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Even in the absence of a task, the brain exhibits a high degree of functional connectivity, known as intrinsic, or resting-state, connectivity. Global default connectivity in individuals with autism versus controls is not well characterized, especially for a high-functioning young population. The aim of this study is to test whether high-functioning adolescents with ASD (HFA) have an abnormal resting-state functional connectivity. We performed spatial and temporal analyses on resting-state networks (RSNs) in 13 HFA adolescents and 13 IQ- and age-matched controls. For the spatial analysis, we used probabilistic independent component analysis (ICA) and a permutation statistical method to reveal the RSN differences between the groups. For the temporal analysis, we applied Granger causality to find differences in temporal neurodynamics. Controls and HFA display very similar patterns and strengths of resting-state connectivity. We do not find any significant differences between HFA adolescents and controls in the spatial resting-state connectivity. However, in the temporal dynamics of this connectivity, we did find differences in the causal effect properties of RSNs originating in temporal and prefrontal cortices. The results show a difference between HFA and controls in the temporal neurodynamics from the ventral attention network to the salience-executive network: a pathway involving cognitive, executive, and emotion-related cortices. We hypothesized that this weaker dynamic pathway is due to a subtle trigger challenging the cognitive state prior to the resting state.

  19. ABERRANT RESTING-STATE BRAIN ACTIVITY IN POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: A META-ANALYSIS AND SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Saskia B J; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Nawijn, Laura; Frijling, Jessie L; Veltman, Dick J; Olff, Miranda

    2016-07-01

    About 10% of trauma-exposed individuals develop PTSD. Although a growing number of studies have investigated resting-state abnormalities in PTSD, inconsistent results suggest a need for a meta-analysis and a systematic review. We conducted a systematic literature search in four online databases using keywords for PTSD, functional neuroimaging, and resting-state. In total, 23 studies matched our eligibility criteria. For the meta-analysis, we included 14 whole-brain resting-state studies, reporting data on 663 participants (298 PTSD patients and 365 controls). We used the activation likelihood estimation approach to identify concurrence of whole-brain hypo- and hyperactivations in PTSD patients during rest. Seed-based studies could not be included in the quantitative meta-analysis. Therefore, a separate qualitative systematic review was conducted on nine seed-based functional connectivity studies. The meta-analysis showed consistent hyperactivity in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex and the parahippocampus/amygdala, but hypoactivity in the (posterior) insula, cerebellar pyramis and middle frontal gyrus in PTSD patients, compared to healthy controls. Partly concordant with these findings, the systematic review on seed-based functional connectivity studies showed enhanced salience network (SN) connectivity, but decreased default mode network (DMN) connectivity in PTSD. Combined, these altered resting-state connectivity and activity patterns could represent neurobiological correlates of increased salience processing and hypervigilance (SN), at the cost of awareness of internal thoughts and autobiographical memory (DMN) in PTSD. However, several discrepancies between findings of the meta-analysis and systematic review were observed, stressing the need for future studies on resting-state abnormalities in PTSD patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A human brain atlas derived via n-cut parcellation of resting-state and task-based fMRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, George Andrew; Hazaroglu, Onder; Bush, Keith A

    2016-02-01

    The growth of functional MRI has led to development of human brain atlases derived by parcellating resting-state connectivity patterns into functionally independent regions of interest (ROIs). All functional atlases to date have been derived from resting-state fMRI data. But given that functional connectivity between regions varies with task, we hypothesized that an atlas incorporating both resting-state and task-based fMRI data would produce an atlas with finer characterization of task-relevant regions than an atlas derived from resting-state alone. To test this hypothesis, we derived parcellation atlases from twenty-nine healthy adult participants enrolled in the Cognitive Connectome project, an initiative to improve functional MRI's translation into clinical decision-making by mapping normative variance in brain-behavior relationships. Participants underwent resting-state and task-based fMRI spanning nine cognitive domains: motor, visuospatial, attention, language, memory, affective processing, decision-making, working memory, and executive function. Spatially constrained n-cut parcellation derived brain atlases using (1) all participants' functional data (Task) or (2) a single resting-state scan (Rest). An atlas was also derived from random parcellation for comparison purposes (Random). Two methods were compared: (1) a parcellation applied to the group's mean edge weights (mean), and (2) a two-stage approach with parcellation of individual edge weights followed by parcellation of mean binarized edges (two-stage). The resulting Task and Rest atlases had significantly greater similarity with each other (mean Jaccard indices JI=0.72-0.85) than with the Random atlases (JI=0.59-0.63; all pRest atlas similarity was greatest for the two-stage method (JI=0.85), which has been shown as more robust than the mean method; these atlases also better reproduced voxelwise seed maps of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during rest and performing the n-back working memory

  1. Sparse dictionary learning of resting state fMRI networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eavani, Harini; Filipovych, Roman; Davatzikos, Christos; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2012-07-02

    Research in resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) has revealed the presence of stable, anti-correlated functional subnetworks in the brain. Task-positive networks are active during a cognitive process and are anti-correlated with task-negative networks, which are active during rest. In this paper, based on the assumption that the structure of the resting state functional brain connectivity is sparse, we utilize sparse dictionary modeling to identify distinct functional sub-networks. We propose two ways of formulating the sparse functional network learning problem that characterize the underlying functional connectivity from different perspectives. Our results show that the whole-brain functional connectivity can be concisely represented with highly modular, overlapping task-positive/negative pairs of sub-networks.

  2. Exclusive channels in bar pp annihilation at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluem, P.

    1992-01-01

    Exclusive channels in bar pp annihilation at rest provide a powerful tool for studying the meson spectrum below the bar pp threshold. The mesons can be classified in SU(3) multiplets according to their quantum numbers. The states which do not fit into this classification are candidates for new forms of hadronic matter like glueballs, hybrids, and multi-quark states. Recent results on the search for exotic states in exclusive channels of bar pp annihilation at rest are discussed. No less important is the study of the annihilation mechanism. In particular, high-statistic measurements of bar pp annihilation at rest into two-meson final states are an excellent tool for studying quark dynamics. Examples of two-body reactions are presented. 24 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Phylogenetic placement of two species known only from resting spores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajek, Ann E; Gryganskyi, Andrii; Bittner, Tonya

    2016-01-01

    resting spores, Zoophthora independentia, infecting Tipula (Lunatipula) submaculata in New York State, is now described as a new species and Tarichium porteri, described in 1942, which infects Tipula (Triplicitipula) colei in Tennessee, is transferred to the genus Zoophthora. We have shown that use......Molecular methods were used to determine the generic placement of two species of Entomophthorales known only from resting spores. Historically, these species would belong in the form-genus Tarichium, but this classification provides no information about phylogenetic relationships. Using DNA from...... of molecular methods can assist with determination of the phylogenetic relations of specimens within the form-genus Tarichium for an already described species and a new species for which only resting spores are available....

  4. Multifraction dose response of growing and resting phase hair follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegesna, V.; Withers, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    It has been established in both the clinic and the laboratory that there is a differentiation response to changes in dose per fraction in early and late responding tissues. To study one possible biological reason for differences in early and late responses. The authors selected one kind of cellular entity, the hair follicle, in two different phases of mitotic activity. The follicles are usually in a resting phase (7-12 wks), but mitotic activity can be initiated by plucking the club hairs. This was done on one half of the thorax and then exposing mice to doses of radiation (cesium gamma-ray). Dose responses for epilation between growing (early) and resting (late) follicles were compared for the same mouse. The fractionated response was studied by reducing the dose down to 2.5 Gy/fx. As the literature suggests, the total dose tolerated by a resting (late) follicle increased more than that for a growing (early) follicle

  5. Physiological and Functional Alterations after Spaceflight and Bed Rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Miller, Chris A; Kofman, Igor S; Reschke, Millard F; Taylor, Laura C; Lawrence, Emily L; Wood, Scott J; Laurie, Steven S; Lee, Stuart M C; Buxton, Roxanne E; May-Phillips, Tiffany R; Stenger, Michael B; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L; Ryder, Jeffrey W; Feiveson, Alan H; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2018-04-03

    Exposure to microgravity causes alterations in multiple physiological systems, potentially impacting the ability of astronauts to perform critical mission tasks. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of spaceflight on functional task performance and to identify the key physiological factors contributing to their deficits. A test battery comprised of 7 functional tests and 15 physiological measures was used to investigate the sensorimotor, cardiovascular and neuromuscular adaptations to spaceflight. Astronauts were tested before and after 6-month spaceflights. Subjects were also tested before and after 70 days of 6° head-down bed rest, a spaceflight analog, to examine the role of axial body unloading on the spaceflight results. These subjects included Control and Exercise groups to examine the effects of exercise during bed rest. Spaceflight subjects showed the greatest decrement in performance during functional tasks that required the greatest demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium which was paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests that assessed postural and dynamic gait control. Other changes included reduced lower limb muscle performance and increased heart rate to maintain blood pressure. Exercise performed during bed rest prevented detrimental change in neuromuscular and cardiovascular function, however, both bed rest groups experienced functional and balance deficits similar to spaceflight subjects. Bed rest data indicates that body support unloading experienced during spaceflight contributes to postflight postural control dysfunction. Further, the bed rest results in the Exercise group of subjects confirm that resistance and aerobic exercises performed during spaceflight can play an integral role in maintaining neuromuscular and cardiovascular function, which can help in reducing decrements in functional performance. These results indicate that a countermeasure to mitigate postflight postural control dysfunction is

  6. Gender differences in association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and resting-state EEG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volf, N V; Belousova, L V; Knyazev, G G; Kulikov, A V

    2015-01-22

    Human brain oscillations represent important features of information processing and are highly heritable. Gender has been observed to affect association between the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region) polymorphism and various endophenotypes. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 5-HTTLPR on the spontaneous electroencephalography (EEG) activity in healthy male and female subjects. DNA samples extracted from buccal swabs and resting EEG recorded at 60 standard leads were collected from 210 (101 men and 109 women) volunteers. Spectral EEG power estimates and cortical sources of EEG activity were investigated. It was shown that effects of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on electrical activity of the brain vary as a function of gender. Women with the S/L genotype had greater global EEG power compared to men with the same genotype. In men, current source density was markedly different among genotype groups in only alpha 2 and alpha 3 frequency ranges: S/S allele carriers had higher current source density estimates in the left inferior parietal lobule in comparison with the L/L group. In women, genotype difference in global power asymmetry was found in the central-temporal region. Contrasting L/L and S/L genotype carriers also yielded significant effects in the right hemisphere inferior parietal lobule and the right postcentral gyrus with L/L genotype carriers showing lower current source density estimates than S/L genotype carriers in all but gamma bands. So, in women, the effects of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were associated with modulation of the EEG activity in a wide range of EEG frequencies. The significance of the results lies in the demonstration of gene by sex interaction with resting EEG that has implications for understanding sex-related differences in affective states, emotion and cognition. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Significance of stepwise excretion pattern in renogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Nagara; Ishihara, Takashi; Mori, Toru; Bito, Sanae; Ito, Hidetomi

    1981-01-01

    In 204 routine renogram examinations using 131 I-iodohippurate, stepwise excretion curves were observed in 22 cases (14 with chronic thyroiditis, 4 with idiopathic edema, 3 with lower urinary tract disorders, and 1 with Bartter's syndrome). Such a phenomenon was observed in 74% of euthyroid edematous patients with chronic thyroiditis and 57% of patients with idiopathic edema. The stepwise pattern was considered to have certain correlations with spasm or increased peristalsis of the urinary tract through the studies of excretory urogram, butylscopolamine treated renogram, and regional renogram. In one of these edematous patients with chronic thyroiditis, this renogram pattern could not be reproduced after bed rest corresponding with the clinical evidence that physical rest reduce the edema. Thus, the stepwise excretory pattern in renogram seemed to be a useful indicator of the fluctuating edema in patients with chronic thyroiditis and idiopathic edema. (author)

  8. Resting release of acetylcholine at the motor endplate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molenaar, P.C.; Polak, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews recent work on resting release of ACh in frog, rat and mouse skeletal muscle. Because of the effect of Ca 2+ on resting release it was of interest to know whether non-quantal release of ACh is increased under conditions of increased Ca 2+ influx, viz. during depolarization of the nerve terminals. It is shown that depolarization of the motor nerve terminals by K + ions led to an increase of both min.e.p.c. frequency and chemically detectable ACh release

  9. Hemifacial Display of Emotion in the Resting State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Mandal

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The human face at rest displays distinguishable asymmetries with some lateralization of emotion or expression. The asymmetrical nature of the resting face was examined by preparing hemifacial composites, left–left, right–right, along with normal facial orientation. The left side and right side composites were constructed by using the lateral half of one side of the face and its mirror-reversal. The left side facial composites were found to be more emotional than the right side or normal facial orientations of neutral expressions.

  10. The spectral diversity of resting-state fluctuations in the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudius Kalcher

    Full Text Available In order to assess whole-brain resting-state fluctuations at a wide range of frequencies, resting-state fMRI data of 20 healthy subjects were acquired using a multiband EPI sequence with a low TR (354 ms and compared to 20 resting-state datasets from standard, high-TR (1800 ms EPI scans. The spatial distribution of fluctuations in various frequency ranges are analyzed along with the spectra of the time-series in voxels from different regions of interest. Functional connectivity specific to different frequency ranges (<0.1 Hz; 0.1-0.25 Hz; 0.25-0.75 Hz; 0.75-1.4 Hz was computed for both the low-TR and (for the two lower-frequency ranges the high-TR datasets using bandpass filters. In the low-TR data, cortical regions exhibited highest contribution of low-frequency fluctuations and the most marked low-frequency peak in the spectrum, while the time courses in subcortical grey matter regions as well as the insula were strongly contaminated by high-frequency signals. White matter and CSF regions had highest contribution of high-frequency fluctuations and a mostly flat power spectrum. In the high-TR data, the basic patterns of the low-TR data can be recognized, but the high-frequency proportions of the signal fluctuations are folded into the low frequency range, thus obfuscating the low-frequency dynamics. Regions with higher proportion of high-frequency oscillations in the low-TR data showed flatter power spectra in the high-TR data due to aliasing of the high-frequency signal components, leading to loss of specificity in the signal from these regions in high-TR data. Functional connectivity analyses showed that there are correlations between resting-state signal fluctuations of distant brain regions even at high frequencies, which can be measured using low-TR fMRI. On the other hand, in the high-TR data, loss of specificity of measured fluctuations leads to lower sensitivity in detecting functional connectivity. This underlines the advantages of low

  11. Exploring connectivity with large-scale Granger causality on resting-state functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DSouza, Adora M; Abidin, Anas Z; Leistritz, Lutz; Wismüller, Axel

    2017-08-01

    Large-scale Granger causality (lsGC) is a recently developed, resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) connectivity analysis approach that estimates multivariate voxel-resolution connectivity. Unlike most commonly used multivariate approaches, which establish coarse-resolution connectivity by aggregating voxel time-series avoiding an underdetermined problem, lsGC estimates voxel-resolution, fine-grained connectivity by incorporating an embedded dimension reduction. We investigate application of lsGC on realistic fMRI simulations, modeling smoothing of neuronal activity by the hemodynamic response function and repetition time (TR), and empirical resting-state fMRI data. Subsequently, functional subnetworks are extracted from lsGC connectivity measures for both datasets and validated quantitatively. We also provide guidelines to select lsGC free parameters. Results indicate that lsGC reliably recovers underlying network structure with area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.93 at TR=1.5s for a 10-min session of fMRI simulations. Furthermore, subnetworks of closely interacting modules are recovered from the aforementioned lsGC networks. Results on empirical resting-state fMRI data demonstrate recovery of visual and motor cortex in close agreement with spatial maps obtained from (i) visuo-motor fMRI stimulation task-sequence (Accuracy=0.76) and (ii) independent component analysis (ICA) of resting-state fMRI (Accuracy=0.86). Compared with conventional Granger causality approach (AUC=0.75), lsGC produces better network recovery on fMRI simulations. Furthermore, it cannot recover functional subnetworks from empirical fMRI data, since quantifying voxel-resolution connectivity is not possible as consequence of encountering an underdetermined problem. Functional network recovery from fMRI data suggests that lsGC gives useful insight into connectivity patterns from resting-state fMRI at a multivariate voxel-resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  12. Case study: dairies utilizing ultra-high stocking density grazing in Pennsylvania and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultra-high stocking density (UHSD) grazing has gained interest in the forage industry. Proponents of UHSD emphasize increased forage use efficiency and soil improvement by grazing mature forage with stocking densities up to 560,425 kg ha**-1 of beef cattle on small paddocks with rest periods of up t...

  13. A novel probe density controllable electrochemiluminescence biosensor for ultra-sensitive detection of Hg2+ based on DNA hybridization optimization with gold nanoparticles array patterned self-assembly platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenhua; Zhang, An; Chen, Yunsheng; Chen, Zixuan; Chen, Yaowen; Lu, Fushen; Chen, Zhanguang

    2013-11-15

    Biosensor based on DNA hybridization holds great potential to get higher sensitivity as the optimal DNA hybridization efficiency can be achieved by controlling the distribution and orientation of probe strands on the transducer surface. In this work, an innovative strategy is reported to tap the sensitivity potential of current electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensing system by dispersedly anchoring the DNA beacons on the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) array which was electrodeposited on the glassy carbon electrode surface, rather than simply sprawling the coil-like strands onto planar gold surface. The strategy was developed by designing a "signal-on" ECL biosensing switch fabricated on the GNPs nanopatterned electrode surface for enhanced ultra-sensitivity detection of Hg(2+). A 57-mer hairpin-DNA labeled with ferrocene as ECL quencher and a 13-mer DNA labeled with Ru(bpy)3(2+) as reporter were hybridized to construct the signal generator in off-state. A 31-mer thymine (T)-rich capture-DNA was introduced to form T-T mismatches with the loop sequence of the hairpin-DNA in the presence of Hg(2+) and induce the stem-loop open, meanwhile the ECL "signal-on" was triggered. The peak sensitivity with the lowest detection limit of 0.1 nM was achieved with the optimal GNPs number density while exorbitant GNPs deposition resulted in sensitivity deterioration for the biosensor. We expect the present strategy could lead the renovation of the existing probe-immobilized ECL genosensor design to get an even higher sensitivity in ultralow level of target detection such as the identification of genetic diseases and disorders in basic research and clinical application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Huang, Qixing; Deng, Bailin; Schiftner, Alexander; Kilian, Martin; Guibas, Leonidas J.; Wallner, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  15. Foam patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  16. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-07-26

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  17. Densities of carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, J.O. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The densities of arc-evaporated carbon target foils have been measured by several methods. The density depends upon the method used to measure it; for the same surface density, values obtained by different measurement techniques may differ by fifty percent or more. The most reliable density measurements are by flotation, yielding a density of 2.01±0.03 g cm -3 , and interferometric step height with the surface density known from auxiliary measurements, yielding a density of 2.61±0.4 g cm -3 . The difference between these density values mayy be due in part to the compressive stresses that carbon films have while still on their substrates, uncertainties in the optical calibration of surface densities of carbon foils, and systematic errors in step-height measurements. Mechanical thickness measurements by micrometer caliper are unreliable due to nonplanarity of these foils. (orig.)

  18. Kudu foraging behaviour: influenced by animal density? | van der ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dry season utilisation patterns of two woody species, Acacia tortilis and Boscia albitrunca, in two comparable sites but subjected to different kudu densities, were studied to determine if kudu adapt their feeding behaviour in response to animal density. Shoots of plants in the high-density area were vertically more ...

  19. Experimental evidence for density dependence of reproduction in great tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, Christiaan

    1998-01-01

    1.  Density dependence of avian reproduction has often been analysed using correlations between annual mean reproductive output and population density. Experiments are necessary to prove that density is the cause of the observed patterns, but so far, three out of four experimental studies do not

  20. Experimental evidence for density dependence of reproduction in great tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C.

    1998-01-01

    1. Density dependence of avian reproduction has often been analysed using correlations between annual mean reproductive output and population density. Experiments are necessary to prove that density is the cause of the observed patterns, but so far, three out of four experimental studies do not

  1. Association between uncoupling protein 2, adiponectin and resting energy expenditure in obese women with normal and low resting energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghadomi Masoumi, Zahra; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Hedayati, Mahdi; Pishva, Hamideh

    2018-02-01

    Obesity is recognized as the most prevalent metabolic disease worldwide. Decreases in energy expenditure may increase risk of obesity. One of the key regulators of energy balance is uncoupling protein2 (UCP2), a transporter protein presents in mitochondrial inner membrane. Moreover, adiponectin is the most abundant adipocytokine, it may play a role in energy metabolism and gene expression of UCP2. The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between the level of uncoupling protein 2 and adiponectin and their relationship with REE (Resting Energy Expenditure) in obese women with normal and low resting energy expenditure. A total of 49 subjects (women, 25-50 years old), were included in current study, 16 subjects with BMI > 30 and low resting energy expenditure, 17 subjects with BMI > 30 and normal resting energy expenditure and 16 non-obese subjects as a control group. Anthropometric, body composition parameters and resting energy expenditure were measured. Plasma adiponectin, UCP2 protein and total protein in PBMC were determined. Measured resting energy expenditure in obese subjects with low REE was significantly lower than other groups. Plasma adiponectin in the obese subjects with low REE was significantly lower compared to normal weight group. There was a significant relationship between 'UCP2 protein/Total protein' ratio and plasma adiponectin in obese group with low REE and in three groups when we pooled. There was a significant association between REE and plasma adiponectin in three groups when we pooled. There was a significant association between plasma adiponectin and REE. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between UCP2 and REE.

  2. Spatiotemporal psychopathology I: No rest for the brain's resting state activity in depression? Spatiotemporal psychopathology of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-15

    Despite intense neurobiological investigation in psychiatric disorders like major depressive disorder (MDD), the basic disturbance that underlies the psychopathological symptoms of MDD remains, nevertheless, unclear. Neuroimaging has focused mainly on the brain's extrinsic activity, specifically task-evoked or stimulus-induced activity, as related to the various sensorimotor, affective, cognitive, and social functions. Recently, the focus has shifted to the brain's intrinsic activity, otherwise known as its resting state activity. While various abnormalities have been observed during this activity, their meaning and significance for depression, along with its various psychopathological symptoms, are yet to be defined. Based on findings in healthy brain resting state activity and its particular spatial and temporal structure - defined in a functional and physiological sense rather than anatomical and structural - I claim that the various depressive symptoms are spatiotemporal disturbances of the resting state activity and its spatiotemporal structure. This is supported by recent findings that link ruminations and increased self-focus in depression to abnormal spatial organization of resting state activity. Analogously, affective and cognitive symptoms like anhedonia, suicidal ideation, and thought disorder can be traced to an increased focus on the past, increased past-focus as basic temporal disturbance o the resting state. Based on these findings, I conclude that the various depressive symptoms must be conceived as spatiotemporal disturbances of the brain's resting state's activity and its spatiotemporal structure. Importantly, this entails a new form of psychopathology, "Spatiotemporal Psychopathology" that directly links the brain and psyche, therefore having major diagnostic and therapeutic implications for clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Local activity determines functional connectivity in the resting human brain: a simultaneous FDG-PET/fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Valentin; Bienkowska, Katarzyna; Strobel, Carola; Tahmasian, Masoud; Grimmer, Timo; Förster, Stefan; Friston, Karl J; Sorg, Christian; Drzezga, Alexander

    2014-04-30

    Over the last decade, synchronized resting-state fluctuations of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals between remote brain areas [so-called BOLD resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC)] have gained enormous relevance in systems and clinical neuroscience. However, the neural underpinnings of rs-FC are still incompletely understood. Using simultaneous positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging we here directly investigated the relationship between rs-FC and local neuronal activity in humans. Computational models suggest a mechanistic link between the dynamics of local neuronal activity and the functional coupling among distributed brain regions. Therefore, we hypothesized that the local activity (LA) of a region at rest determines its rs-FC. To test this hypothesis, we simultaneously measured both LA (glucose metabolism) and rs-FC (via synchronized BOLD fluctuations) during conditions of eyes closed or eyes open. During eyes open, LA increased in the visual system, and the salience network (i.e., cingulate and insular cortices) and the pattern of elevated LA coincided almost exactly with the spatial pattern of increased rs-FC. Specifically, the voxelwise regional profile of LA in these areas strongly correlated with the regional pattern of rs-FC among the same regions (e.g., LA in primary visual cortex accounts for ∼ 50%, and LA in anterior cingulate accounts for ∼ 20% of rs-FC with the visual system). These data provide the first direct evidence in humans that local neuronal activity determines BOLD FC at rest. Beyond its relevance for the neuronal basis of coherent BOLD signal fluctuations, our procedure may translate into clinical research particularly to investigate potentially aberrant links between local dynamics and remote functional coupling in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders.

  4. I think therefore I am: Rest-related prefrontal cortex neural activity is involved in generating the sense of self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruberger, M; Levkovitz, Y; Hendler, T; Harel, E V; Harari, H; Ben Simon, E; Sharon, H; Zangen, A

    2015-05-01

    The sense of self has always been a major focus in the psychophysical debate. It has been argued that this complex ongoing internal sense cannot be explained by any physical measure and therefore substantiates a mind-body differentiation. Recently, however, neuro-imaging studies have associated self-referential spontaneous thought, a core-element of the ongoing sense of self, with synchronous neural activations during rest in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as the medial and lateral parietal cortices. By applying deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over human PFC before rest, we disrupted activity in this neural circuitry thereby inducing reports of lowered self-awareness and strong feelings of dissociation. This effect was not found with standard or sham TMS, or when stimulation was followed by a task instead of rest. These findings demonstrate for the first time a critical, causal role of intact rest-related PFC activity patterns in enabling integrated, enduring, self-referential mental processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bed rest and increased diuretic treatment in chronic congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, U; Aldershvile, J; Ring-Larsen, H

    1985-01-01

    To elucidate the effect of bed rest used as an adjunct to increased diuretic treatment, twelve patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) had a 50% increase in loop diuretic dosage and were allocated to either continuous bed rest or bed rest during nights only. The 24-hour bed rest group...... is a reasonable adjunct to diuretic treatment in patients with CHF....

  6. 49 CFR 37.201 - Intermediate and rest stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wheelchair, shall be permitted to leave and return to the bus on the same basis as other passengers. The... passenger to get on and off the bus at the stop (e.g., operate the lift and provide assistance with... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.201 Intermediate and rest stops. (a) Whenever an OTRB makes...

  7. Effects of Flotation-REST on Muscle Tension Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Kjellgren

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the floating form of the restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST may be applied within the field of pain relief. Flotation-REST consists of a procedure whereby an individual is immersed in a tank filled with water of an extremely high salt concentration. Thirty-seven patients (14 men and 23 women suffering from chronic pain consisting of aching muscles in the neck and back area participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either a control group (17 participants or an experimental group (20 participants. The experimental group received nine opportunities to use the flotation-REST technique in the water tank over a three-week period. The results indicated that the most severe perceived pain intensity was significantly reduced, whereas low perceived pain intensity was not influenced by the floating technique. Further, the results indicated that circulating levels of the noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol were reduced significantly in the experimental group but not in the control group following treatment, whereas endorphin levels were not affected by flotation. Flotation-REST treatment also elevated the participants' optimism and reduced the degree of anxiety or depression; at nighttime, patients who underwent flotation fell asleep more easily. The present findings describe possible changes, for the better, in patients presenting with chronic pain complaints.

  8. Effects of flotation-REST on muscle tension pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, A; Sundequist, U; Norlander, T; Archer, T

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the floating form of the restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST) may be applied within the field of pain relief. Flotation-REST consists of a procedure whereby an individual is immersed in a tank filled with water of an extremely high salt concentration. Thirty-seven patients (14 men and 23 women) suffering from chronic pain consisting of aching muscles in the neck and back area participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either a control group (17 participants) or an experimental group (20 participants). The experimental group received nine opportunities to use the flotation-REST technique in the water tank over a three-week period. The results indicated that the most severe perceived pain intensity was significantly reduced, whereas low perceived pain intensity was not influenced by the floating technique. Further, the results indicated that circulating levels of the noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol were reduced significantly in the experimental group but not in the control group following treatment, whereas endorphin levels were not affected by flotation. Flotation-REST treatment also elevated the participants' optimism and reduced the degree of anxiety or depression; at nighttime, patients who underwent flotation fell asleep more easily. The present findings describe possible changes, for the better, in patients presenting with chronic pain complaints.

  9. A Rwandan spirometry and resting ventilation study | Gahutu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To illustrate spirometric population variation and ventilatory adaptation to moderate altitude, we report the spirometric and resting ventilation values observed in a student population in Butare, Rwanda (altitude: 1 768 m; barometric pressure: 629 mm Hg). Spirometry was carried out with a Mijnhardt Volutest VT-3 ...

  10. Effects of temperature and salinity on resting metabolism in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the resting metabolic rate (RMR; mg O2 g/h) of the resident rock pool fish Caffrogobius caffer and the transient sparid Diplodus sargus capensis at a range of salinities (5, 15, 25, 35 and 45 PSU) and temperatures (14, 20 and 28°C) using closed-vessel respirometry. Both species were temperature ...

  11. JASPAR RESTful API: accessing JASPAR data from any programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aziz; Mathelier, Anthony

    2018-05-01

    JASPAR is a widely used open-access database of curated, non-redundant transcription factor binding profiles. Currently, data from JASPAR can be retrieved as flat files or by using programming language-specific interfaces. Here, we present a programming language-independent application programming interface (API) to access JASPAR data using the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. The REST API enables programmatic access to JASPAR by most programming languages and returns data in eight widely used formats. Several endpoints are available to access the data and an endpoint is available to infer the TF binding profile(s) likely bound by a given DNA binding domain protein sequence. Additionally, it provides an interactive browsable interface for bioinformatics tool developers. This REST API is implemented in Python using the Django REST Framework. It is accessible at http://jaspar.genereg.net/api/ and the source code is freely available at https://bitbucket.org/CBGR/jaspar under GPL v3 license. aziz.khan@ncmm.uio.no or anthony.mathelier@ncmm.uio.no. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  12. Isospin effects in anti p3He annihilation at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestra, F.; Barbieri, R.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Bendiscioli, G.; Breivik, F.O.; Bossolasco, S.; Bussa, M.P.; Busso, L.; Falomkin, I.V.; Ferrero, L.; Guaraldo, C.; Haatuft, A.; Halsteinslid, A.; Jacobsen, T.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Maggiora, A.; Myklebost, K.; Olsen, J.M.; Panzieri, D.; Piragino, G.; Pontecorvo, G.B.; Rozhdestvensky, A.M.; Rotondi, A.; Salvini, P.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Soerensen, S.O.; Tosello, F.; Tretyak, V.I.; Venaglioni, A.; Zenoni, A.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis of anti p 3 He annihilation events at rest (from the PS 179 experiment at LEAR) gives the value 0.467±0.035 for the ratio between the annihilation cross sections on n and on p. This low value indicates a strong isospin dependence of the anti NN amplitude in P wave. (orig.)

  13. Myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased adiposity on myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal exercise in young adults. The study consisted of 85 young adults (18-22years) grouped into 3 based on ...

  14. Resting cardiointegram: correlation with stress thallium perfusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, L.A.; Betzu, R.; Judge, D.; Lee, J.; Taddeo, M.; Yang, D.

    1988-01-01

    The cardiointegram is a noninvasive technique for the analysis of the electrical signals of the heart obtained by a transformation of the voltage versus time format by a series of integrations. The stress thallium perfusion study is a widely used test for the detection of coronary artery disease. In order to evaluate the correlation between the resting cardiointegram and the stress thallium 201 perfusion study, 20 patients with normal resting electrocardiograms underwent stress thallium tests and resting cardiointegrams. The cardiointegram was determined on two resting complexes of leads I, II, V4, V5, and V6 and called abnormal if five of ten complexes deviated outside a normalized template. There was concordance of the cardiointegram and the thallium study in 16 of 20 patients (80%). The sensitivity for the detection of coronary artery disease was 71%, and the specificity was 80%. The overall accuracy was 74%. Thus in patients with normal electrocardiograms, the cardiointegram is a useful noninvasive test for the detection of coronary artery disease

  15. Hierarchical Functional Modularity in the Resting-State Human Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrarini, Luca; Veer, Ilya M.; Baerends, Evelinda; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Renken, Remco J.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dirk. J.; Aleman, Andre; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Milles, Julien

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that anatomically distinct brain regions are functionally connected during the resting state. Basic topological properties in the brain functional connectivity (BFC) map have highlighted the BFC's small-world topology. Modularity, a

  16. Hierarchical Functional Modularity in the Resting-State Human Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrarini, L.; Veer, I.M.; Baerends, E.; van Tol, M.J.; Renken, R.J.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Veltman, D.J.; Aleman, A.; Zitman, F.G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; van Buchem, M.A.; Reiber, J.H.C.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Milles, J.

    2009-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that anatomically distinct brain regions are functionally connected during the resting state. Basic topological properties in the brain functional connectivity (BFC) map have highlighted the BFC's small-world topology. Modularity, a

  17. Separation of uranium in bone rest for their dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, G.; Ordonez R, E.; Tenorio, D.; Cordoba, L.

    2001-01-01

    The uranium (U) and thorium (Th) recovery, as fundamental part of the 'uranium serie' technique is an alternative method for dating of bone rests in Mexico. That so is how it has been possible its application for dating geological material and in this research it has been determined the age of some mammoth samples from the basin of Mexico valley. (Author)

  18. Simplifying cardiovascular risk estimation using resting heart rate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-09-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is a known, independent cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, but is not included in risk estimation systems, including Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). We aimed to derive risk estimation systems including RHR as an extra variable and assess the value of this addition.

  19. Metabolic, respiratory, and cardiological measurements during exercise and rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Low concentration effects of CO2 on metabolic respiration and circulation were measured during work and at rest. The relationship between heart rate and metabolic rate is examined, as well as calibration procedures, and rate measurement during submaximal and standard exercise tests. Alterations in acid base and electrolytes were found during exhaustive exercise, including changes in ECG and metabolic alkalosis effects.

  20. Effects of aging on blood pressure variability in resting conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, D. P.; Imholz, B. P.; Wieling, W.; Karemaker, J. M.; van Montfrans, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aging on beat-to-beat blood pressure and pulse interval variability in resting conditions and to determine the effect of aging on the sympathetic and vagal influence on the cardiovascular system by power spectral analysis of blood pressure

  1. Altered Resting and Exercise Respiratory Physiology in Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Akshay

    2009-01-01

    Obesity, particularly severe obesity, affects both resting and exercise-related respiratory physiology. Severe obesity classically produces a restrictive ventilatory abnormality, characterized by reduced expiratory reserve volume. However, obstructive ventilatory abnormality may also be associated with abdominal obesity. Decreased peak work rates are usually seen among obese subjects in a setting of normal or decreased ventilatory reserve and normal cardiovascular response to exercise. Weight...

  2. Hours of work and rest in the rail industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C; Grunstein, R R; Rajaratnam, S M W

    2013-06-01

    Currently, the National Transport Commission is considering four options to form the regulatory framework for rail safety within Australia with respect to fatigue. While the National Transport Commission currently recommends no limitations around hours of work or rest, we provide evidence which suggests regulatory frameworks should incorporate a traditional hours of service regulation over more flexible policies. Our review highlights: Shift durations >12 h are associated with a doubling of risk for accident and injury. Fatigue builds cumulatively with each successive shift where rest in between is inadequate (hours of work and rest, including maximum shift duration and successive number of shifts. Appropriately, validated biomathematical models and technologies may be used as a part of a fatigue management system, to augment the protection afforded by limits on hours of work and rest. A comprehensive sleep disorder screening and management programme should form an essential component of any regulatory framework. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  3. Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Begall, S.; Červený, Jaroslav; Neef, J.; Burda, H.; Vojtěch, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 36 (2008), s. 13451-13455 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : grazing behavior * magnetic alignment * magnetoreception * resting behavior * spatial orientation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 9.380, year: 2008

  4. Resting-State Oscillatory Activity in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornew, Lauren; Roberts, Timothy P. L.; Blaskey, Lisa; Edgar, J. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Neural oscillatory anomalies in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggest an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance; however, the nature and clinical relevance of these anomalies are unclear. Whole-cortex magnetoencephalography data were collected while 50 children (27 with ASD, 23 controls) underwent an eyes-closed resting-state exam. A Fast Fourier…

  5. Resting state FMRI research in child psychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Marianne; Francx, Winke; Beckmann, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mennes, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Concurring with the shift from linking functions to specific brain areas towards studying network integration, resting state FMRI (R-FMRI) has become an important tool for delineating the functional network architecture of the brain. Fueled by straightforward data collection, R-FMRI analysis methods

  6. Aerobic exercise deconditioning and countermeasures during bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M C; Moore, Alan D; Everett, Meghan E; Stenger, Michael B; Platts, Steven H

    2010-01-01

    Bed rest is a well-accepted model for spaceflight in which the physiologic adaptations, particularly in the cardiovascular system, are studied and potential countermeasures can be tested. Bed rest without countermeasures results in reduced aerobic capacity and altered submaximal exercise responses. Aerobic endurance and factors which may impact prolonged exercise, however, have not been well studied. The initial loss of aerobic capacity is rapid, occurring in parallel with the loss of plasma volume. Thereafter, the reduction in maximal aerobic capacity proceeds more slowly and is influenced by central and peripheral adaptation. Exercise capacity can be maintained during bed rest and may be improved during recovery with appropriate countermeasures. Plasma volume restoration, resistive exercise, orthostatic stress, aerobic exercise, and aerobic exercise plus orthostatic stress all have been tested with varying levels of success. However, the optimal combination of elements-exercise modality, intensity, duration, muscle groups exercised and frequency of aerobic exercise, orthostatic stress, and supplementary resistive or anaerobic exercise training-has not been systematically evaluated. Currently, frequent (at least 3 days per week) bouts of intense exercise (interval-style and near maximal) with orthostatic stress appears to be the most efficacious method to protect aerobic capacity during bed rest. Further refinement of protocols and countermeasure hardware may be necessary to insure the success of countermeasures in the unique environment of space.

  7. Production of doubly charmed baryons nearly at rest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groote, Stefan; Koshkarev, Sergey [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Tartu (Estonia)

    2017-08-15

    We investigate the production cross sections, momentum distributions and rapidity distributions for doubly charmed baryons which according to the intrinsic heavy quark mechanism are produced nearly at rest. These events should be measurable at fixed-target experiments like STAR rate at RHIC and AFTER rate at LHC. (orig.)

  8. Effects of strict prolonged bed rest on cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Aarts, Hugo M; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis [International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) CRD42017055619] was to assess the effects of strict prolonged bed rest (without countermeasures) on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) and to explore sources of variation therein....

  9. Search Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Morville, Peter

    2010-01-01

    What people are saying about Search Patterns "Search Patterns is a delight to read -- very thoughtful and thought provoking. It's the most comprehensive survey of designing effective search experiences I've seen." --Irene Au, Director of User Experience, Google "I love this book! Thanks to Peter and Jeffery, I now know that search (yes, boring old yucky who cares search) is one of the coolest ways around of looking at the world." --Dan Roam, author, The Back of the Napkin (Portfolio Hardcover) "Search Patterns is a playful guide to the practical concerns of search interface design. It cont

  10. Gradient Compression Stockings may Prevent Recovery after Bed Rest Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.; Westby, Christian M.; Willig, Michael C.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Astronauts continue to wear a compression garment during and immediately after landing to prevent orthostatic intolerance (OI). We recently developed a custom-fitted, 3-piece garment that consists of thigh-high stockings with biker-style shorts that provides continuous, gradient compression: 55 mmHg at the ankle that decreases to approximately 20 mmHg at the top of the leg and 15 mmHg over the abdomen. This garment has been shown to be effective in preventing symptoms of OI during a short stand test after Space Shuttle missions, but symptoms may persist for several days after a long-duration mission in some astronauts. The purpose of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of wearing these elastic, gradient compression garments during orthostatic testing after 2 weeks of 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest as a model of spaceflight and to determine whether they would impact recovery after bed rest. Methods: Eight (5 treatment, 3 control) of 16 subjects have completed this study to-date. All subjects wore the 3-piece garment from waking until tilt testing (3 h) as a simulation of the timeline for astronauts on landing day (BR+0). Control subjects removed the garment after the tilt test. Treatment subjects wore the garment for the remainder of the day and wore lower compression thigh-high only garments on the day after bed rest (BR+1). Blood pressure, heart rate, and stroke volume responses to a 15-min 80 degree head-up tilt test were determined before 2 weeks of 6 degree head-down tilt, and on BR+0 and BR+1. Plasma volume (PV) was measured before each of these test sessions. Data are mean SE. Results: Compression garments prevented signs of OI on BR+0; all subjects in both groups completed the full 15-min test. Heart rate responses to tilt were lower on BR+0 than all other test days. Control subjects demonstrated a marginal PV decrease after bed rest, but showed typical recovery the day after bed rest (BR+0: 2.32 plus or minus 0.15 L to BR+1: 2

  11. Future Road Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  12. Changes in dynamic resting state network connectivity following aphasia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, E Susan; Small, Steven L

    2017-10-24

    Resting state magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) permits observation of intrinsic neural networks produced by task-independent correlations in low frequency brain activity. Various resting state networks have been described, with each thought to reflect common engagement in some shared function. There has been limited investigation of the plasticity in these network relationships after stroke or induced by therapy. Twelve individuals with language disorders after stroke (aphasia) were imaged at multiple time points before (baseline) and after an imitation-based aphasia therapy. Language assessment using a narrative production task was performed at the same time points. Group independent component analysis (ICA) was performed on the rsfMRI data to identify resting state networks. A sliding window approach was then applied to assess the dynamic nature of the correlations among these networks. Network correlations during each 30-second window were used to cluster the data into ten states for each window at each time point for each subject. Correlation was performed between changes in time spent in each state and therapeutic gains on the narrative task. The amount of time spent in a single one of the (ten overall) dynamic states was positively associated with behavioral improvement on the narrative task at the 6-week post-therapy maintenance interval, when compared with either baseline or assessment immediately following therapy. This particular state was characterized by minimal correlation among the task-independent resting state networks. Increased functional independence and segregation of resting state networks underlies improvement on a narrative production task following imitation-based aphasia treatment. This has important clinical implications for the targeting of noninvasive brain stimulation in post-stroke remediation.

  13. A Nap But Not Rest or Activity Consolidates Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Heim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that a period of sleep after a motor learning task is a relevant factor for memory consolidation. However, it is yet open whether this also holds true for language-related learning. Therefore, the present study compared the short- and long-term effects of a daytime nap, rest, or an activity task after vocabulary learning on learning outcome. Thirty healthy subjects were divided into three treatment groups. Each group received a pseudo-word learning task in which pictures of monsters were associated with unique pseudo-word names. At the end of the learning block a first test was administered. Then, one group went for a 90-min nap, one for a waking rest period, and one for a resting session with interfering activity at the end during which a new set of monster names was to be learned. After this block, all groups performed a first re-test of the names that they initially learned. On the morning of the following day, a second re-test was administered to all groups. The nap group showed significant improvement from test to re-test and a stable performance onto the second re-test. In contrast, the rest and the interference groups showed decline in performance from test to re-test, with persistently low performance at re-test 2. The 3 (GROUP × 3 (TIME ANOVA revealed a significant interaction, indicating that the type of activity (nap/rest/interfering action after initial learning actually had an influence on the memory outcome. These data are discussed with respect to translation to clinical settings with suggestions for improvement of intervention outcome after speech-language therapy if it is followed by a nap rather than interfering activity.

  14. Intensive Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Intensive exercise training during bed rest attenuates deconditioning. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 207-215, 1997. A 30-d 6 deg head-down bed rest project was conducted to evaluate variable high-intensity, short-duration, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent resistive isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regimens designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (adaptive) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Major findings are summarized in this paper. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volumes, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (f) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (g) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40% but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (b) induced positive body water balance, (i) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and 0) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regimens and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  15. Can resting B cells present antigen to T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwell, J.D.; DeFranco, A.L.; Paul, W.E.; Schwartz, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Antigen stimulation of T lymphocytes can occur only in the presence of an antigen-presenting cell (APC). An ever-increasing number of cell types have been found to act as APCs; these include macrophages, splenic and lymph node dendritic cells, and Langerhans cells of the skin. Although activated B lymphocytes and B cell lymphomas are known to serve as APCs, it has been generally believed that resting B cells cannot perform this function. However, in recent studies the authors have found that resting B cells can indeed present soluble antigen to T cell clones as well as to antigen-primed T cells. The previous difficulty in demonstrating this activity can be explained by the finding that, in contrast to macrophages and dendritic cells, the antigen-presenting ability of resting B cells is very radiosensitive. Macrophages are usually irradiated with 2000-3300 rads to prevent them from incorporating [ 3 H]thymidine in the T cell proliferation assay. Resting B cells, however, begin to lose presenting function at 1500 rads and have completely lost this activity at 3300 rads. It was also possible to distinguish two distinct T cell clonal phenotypes when resting B cells were used as APCs on the basis of two different assays (T cell proliferation, and B cell proliferation resulting from T cell activation). The