WorldWideScience

Sample records for rest atom area

  1. Sustainable Rest Area Design and Operations

    2017-10-01

    One way in which State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) can modernize their rest areas while reducing operations and maintenance costs is by incorporating sustainable practices into rest area design and operations. Sustainability practices that D...

  2. Partnership strategies for safety roadside rest areas.

    2009-01-01

    This project studied the many factors influencing the potential for public private partnerships for Safety : Roadside Rest Areas. It found that Federal and California State laws and regulations represent important : barriers to certain types and loca...

  3. New discovery: Quantization of atomic and nuclear rest mass differences

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I. E.

    2007-01-01

    We come to the conclusion that all atomic models based on either the Newton equation and the Kepler laws, or the Maxwell equations, or the Schrodinger and Dirac equations are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. We can only suspect that these equations are grounded on the same fundamental principle(s) which is (are) not known or these equations can be transformed into each other. We proposed a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in the whole system - nuclei + atoms + condensed matter - nuclear reactions in plasma - can occur at smaller threshold energies than the corresponding ones on free constituents. We were able to quantize [1] phenomenologically the first time the differences between atomic and nuclear rest masses by the formula: ΔΔ M = n 1 /n 2 x 0.0076294 (in MeV/c 2 ), n i =1,2,3,... Note that this quantization rule is justified for atoms and nuclei with different A, N and Z and the nuclei and atoms represent a coherent synchronized open systems - a complex of coupled oscillators (resonators). The cooperative resonance synchronization mechanisms are responsible for explanation of how the electron volt world can influence on the nuclear mega electron volt world. It means that we created new possibilities for inducing and controlling nuclear reactions by atomic processes grounded on the fundamental low of physics - conservation law of energy. The results of these research fields can provide new ecologically pure mobile sources of energy independent from oil, gas and coal, new substances, and technologies. For example, this discovery gives us a simple and cheep method for utilization of nuclear waste. References [1] F.A. Gareev, I.E. Zhidkova, E-print arXiv Nucl-th/0610002 2006

  4. Quantization of Differences Between Atomic and Nuclear Rest Masses and Self-organization of Atoms and Nuclei

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I. E.

    2007-03-01

    We come to the conclusion that all atomic models based on either the Newton equation and the Kepler laws, or the Maxwell equations, or the Schrodinger and Dirac equations are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. We can only suspect that these equations are grounded on the same fundamental principle(s) which is (are) not known or these equations can be transformed into each other. We proposed a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in the whole system nuclei + atoms + condensed matter - nuclear reactions in plasma - can occur at smaller threshold energies than the corresponding ones on free constituents. We were able to quantize phenomenologically the first time the differences between atomic and nuclear rest masses by the formula: δδM =n1/n2 X 0.0076294 (in MeV/ c^2), ni=1,2,3,.... Note that this quantization rule is justified for atoms and nuclei with different A, N and Z and the nuclei and atoms represent a coherent synchronized systems - a complex of coupled oscillators (resonators). The cooperative resonance synchronization mechanisms can explain how electron volt (atomic-) scale processes can induce and control nuclear MeV (nuclear-) scale processes and reactions., F.A. Gareev, I.E. Zhidkova, E-print arXiv Nucl-th/ 0610002 2006.

  5. New discovery: quantization of atomic and nuclear rest mass differences and self-organization of atoms and nuclei

    Gareev, F.A.; Zhidkova, I.E.; )

    2007-01-01

    Full text: We come to the conclusion that all atomic models based on either the Newton equation and the Kepler laws, or the Maxwell equations, or the Schroedinger and Dirac equations are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. We can only suspect that these equations are grounded on the same fundamental principles which are not known or these equations can be transformed into each other. We proposed a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in the whole system - nuclei + atoms + condensed matter - nuclear reactions in plasma - can occur at smaller threshold energies than the corresponding ones on free constituents. We were able to quantize phenomenologically the first time the differences between atomic and nuclear rest masses by the formula: ΔΔM = n 1 /n 2 ·0.0076294 (in MeV/ ), n i =1,.2,3... Note that this quantization rule is justified for atoms and nuclei with different A, N and Z and the nuclei and atoms represent a coherent synchronized open systems - a complex of coupled oscillators (resonators). The cooperative resonance synchronization mechanisms are responsible for explanation of how the electron volt world can influence on the nuclear mega electron volt world. It means that we created new possibilities for inducing and controlling nuclear reactions by atomic processes grounded on the fundamental low of physics - conservation law of energy. The results of these research field can provide new ecologically pure mobile sources of energy independent from oil, gas and coal, new substances, and technologies. For example, this discovery gives us a simple and cheep method for utilization of nuclear waste

  6. Solar Lighting Technologies for Highway Green Rest Areas in China: Energy Saving Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, taking Lushan West Sea highway green rest area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the suitable types, applicability, advantages, and effective methods of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area were determined based on the analysis of characteristics of highway green rest area. It was proved that solar lighting technologies including the natural light guidance system, solar LED lighting, and maximizing natural light penetration were quite suitable for highway rest area in terms of lighting effects and energy and economic efficiency. The illuminance comparison of light guidance system with electrical lighting was made based on the on-site experiment. Also, the feasibility of natural light guidance system was well verified in terms of the lighting demand of the visitor centre in the rest area by the illuminance simulation analysis. The evaluation of the energy saving, economic benefits, and environmental effects of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area was, respectively, made in detail. It was proved that the application of solar technology for green lighting of highway rest facilities not only could have considerable energy saving capacity and achieve high economic benefits, but also make great contributions to the reduction of environment pollution.

  7. Fan cooling of the resting area in a free stalls dairy barn

    Calegari, Ferdinando; Calamari, Luigi; Frazzi, Ermes

    2014-08-01

    This summer study evaluated the effect of providing additional fans (cooling) in the resting area within a free-stall dairy barn that had fans and sprinklers in the feeding area and paddock availability. Thirty cows were divided into two homogenous groups and kept in two pens: one had the resting area equipped with two fans (FAN) while no fans were added to the other resting area (CON). Microclimatic parameters, rectal temperature (RT), breathing rate (BR), milk yield, and milk pH traits were recorded. Time budgeting and the behaviour of the cows (time spent in the feeding area, standing and lying in other areas) were also recorded using digital video technology. Two slight-to-moderate heat waves were observed. During the hottest period the daily maximum temperature recorded was 33.5 °C and the daily maximum THI was 81.6. During this period, the BR and RT increased only slightly in both groups, with lower BR (n.s.) in FAN compared with CON. Milk yield was better maintained (n.s.) in FAN compared with CON during the hottest period. The FAN cows showed a greater ( P FAN and CON, respectively), whereas CON cows made greater ( P fans in the resting area improves cow comfort, which increases use of the resting area. The lying time results also suggest that the benefits of providing ventilation in the resting area might be more evident in barns where there is no paddock.

  8. Benefits of public roadside safety rest areas in Texas : technical report.

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this investigation was to develop a benefit-cost analysis methodology for safety rest areas in : Texas and to demonstrate its application in select corridors throughout the state. In addition, this project : considered novel safety r...

  9. Wind-powered electrical systems : highway rest areas, weigh stations, and team section buildings.

    2009-02-01

    This project considered the use of wind for providing electrical power at Illinois Department of Transportation : (IDOT) highway rest areas, weigh stations, and team section buildings. The goal of the project was to determine : the extent to which wi...

  10. Calibration of atomic trajectories in a large-area dual-atom-interferometer gyroscope

    Yao, Zhan-Wei; Lu, Si-Bin; Li, Run-Bing; Luo, Jun; Wang, Jin; Zhan, Ming-Sheng

    2018-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a method for calibrating atomic trajectories in a large-area dual-atom-interferometer gyroscope. The atom trajectories are monitored by modulating and delaying the Raman transition, and they are precisely calibrated by controlling the laser orientation and the bias magnetic field. To improve the immunity to the gravity effect and the common phase noise, the symmetry and the overlap of two large-area atomic interference loops are optimized by calibrating the atomic trajectories and by aligning the Raman-laser orientations. The dual-atom-interferometer gyroscope is applied in the measurement of the Earth's rotation. The sensitivity is 1.2 ×10-6 rad s -1 Hz-1/2, and the long-term stability is 6.2 ×10-8 rad/s at 2000 s.

  11. Misting and fan cooling of the rest area in a dairy barn

    Calegari, Ferdinando; Calamari, Luigi; Frazzi, Ermes

    2012-03-01

    This summer study aimed to evaluate the effect on dairy cows, kept in a free stall barn equipped with fans and sprinklers in the feeding area, of the delivery rate of misters in a cooling system in rest areas with different bedding materials. Thirty cows were divided into two homogenous groups according to milk yield and kept in two pens: one had beds with sand (SAMM) while the other had straw (STLM). Each pen was equipped with 2 fans (Ø 70 cm, 0.50 kW) and 2 misters (delivery rate of 11.2 and 22.5 L/h in STLM and SAMM, respectively) in the rest area. Microclimatic parameters, rectal temperature (RT), breathing rate (BR), milk yield, and some milk traits were recorded. Behavioural routines of the cows (standing and lying) were also continuously recorded during the hotter days. During the trial, two mild-moderate heat waves were observed. During these hotter periods, the daily maximum temperature recorded in the rest areas was 28.9 in SAMM and 31.2 in STLM, and the daily maximum THI was 78.2 in SAMM and 81.5 in STLM. In these periods, the cows in SAMM compared with those in STLM showed lower BR ( P sand as bedding materials reduces heat stress and improves cow comfort.

  12. Functional MRI of motor speech area combined with motor stimulation during resting period

    Lim, Yeong Su; Park, Hark Hoon; Chung, Gyung Ho; Lee, Sang Yong; Chon, Su Bin; Kang, Shin Hwa

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate functional MR imaging of the motor speech area with and without motor stimulation during the rest period. Nine healthy, right-handed volunteers(M:F=7:2, age:21-40years) were included in this study. Brain activity was mapped using a multislice, gradient echo single shot EPI on a 1.5T MR scanner. The paradigm consisted on a series of alternating rest and activation tasks, performed six times. Each volunteer in the first study(group A) was given examples of motor stimulation during the rest period, while each in the second study(group B) was not given examples of a rest period. Motor stimulation in group A was achieved by continuously flexing five fingers of the right hand. In both groups, maximum internal word generation was achieved during the activation period. Using fMRI analysis software(Stimulate 5.0) and a cross-correlation method(backgroud threshold, 200; correlation threshold, 0.3; ceiling, 1.0; floor, 0.3; minimal count, 3), functional images were analysed. After correlating the activated foci and a time-signal intensity curve, the activated brain cortex and number of pixels were analysed and compared between the two tasks. The t-test was used for statistical analysis. In all nine subjects in group A and B, activation was observed in and adjacent to the left Broca's area. The mean number of activated pixels was 31.6 in group A and 27.8 in group B, a difference which was not statistically significant(P>0.1). Activities in and adjacent to the right Broca's area were seen in seven of group A and four of group B. The mean number of activated pixels was 14.9 in group A and 18 in group B. Eight of nine volunteers in group A showed activity in the left primary motor area with negative correlation to the time-signal intensity curve. The mean number of activated pixels for this group was 17.5. In three volonteers, activation in the right primary motor area was also observed, the mean number of activated pixels in these cases was 10.0. During the rest

  13. Cooling systems of the resting area in free stall dairy barn

    Calegari, F.; Calamari, L.; Frazzi, E.

    2016-04-01

    A study during the summer season evaluated the effect of different cooling systems on behavioral and productive responses of Italian Friesian dairy cows kept in an experimental-free stall barn located in the Po Valley in Italy. The study involved 30 lactating dairy cows subdivided into two groups kept in two pens with external hard court paddock in each free stall. The same cooling system was applied in the feeding area in both pens. A different cooling system in the resting area was applied to the two pens: in the pen SW, the resting area was equipped with fans and misters; in the other, there was simple ventilation (SV). Breathing rate, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk characteristics (fat, protein, and somatic cell count) were measured. Behavioral activities (standing and lying cows in the different areas, as well as the animals in the feed bunk) were recorded. Mild to moderate heat waves during the trial were observed. On average, the breathing rate was numerically greater in SV compared with SW cows (60.2 and 55.8 breath/min, respectively), and mean rectal temperature remained below 39 °C in both groups during the trial (on average 38.7 and 38.8 °C in SV and SW, respectively. During the hotter periods of the trial, the time spent lying indoor in the free stall was greater in SW (11.8 h/day) than SV (10.7 h/day). Conversely, the time spent standing indoor without feeding was greater in SV (4.3 h/day) than SW (3.8 h/day). Milk yield was slightly better maintained during hotter period in SW compared with SV and somatic cell count was also slightly greater in the former. In conclusion, the adoption of the cooling system by means of evaporative cooling also in the resting area reduces the alteration of time budget caused by heat stress.

  14. Beta Peak Frequencies at Rest Correlate with Endogenous GABA+/Cr Concentrations in Sensorimotor Cortex Areas.

    Thomas J Baumgarten

    Full Text Available Neuronal oscillatory activity in the beta band (15-30 Hz is a prominent signal within the human sensorimotor cortex. Computational modeling and pharmacological modulation studies suggest an influence of GABAergic interneurons on the generation of beta band oscillations. Accordingly, studies in humans have demonstrated a correlation between GABA concentrations and power of beta band oscillations. It remains unclear, however, if GABA concentrations also influence beta peak frequencies and whether this influence is present in the sensorimotor cortex at rest and without pharmacological modulation. In the present study, we investigated the relation between endogenous GABA concentration (measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and beta oscillations (measured by magnetoencephalography at rest in humans. GABA concentrations and beta band oscillations were measured for left and right sensorimotor and occipital cortex areas. A significant positive linear correlation between GABA concentration and beta peak frequency was found for the left sensorimotor cortex, whereas no significant correlations were found for the right sensorimotor and the occipital cortex. The results show a novel connection between endogenous GABA concentration and beta peak frequency at rest. This finding supports previous results that demonstrated a connection between oscillatory beta activity and pharmacologically modulated GABA concentration in the sensorimotor cortex. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that for a predominantly right-handed sample, the correlation between beta band oscillations and endogenous GABA concentrations is evident only in the left sensorimotor cortex.

  15. Beta Peak Frequencies at Rest Correlate with Endogenous GABA+/Cr Concentrations in Sensorimotor Cortex Areas

    Baumgarten, Thomas J.; Oeltzschner, Georg; Hoogenboom, Nienke; Wittsack, Hans-Jörg; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal oscillatory activity in the beta band (15–30 Hz) is a prominent signal within the human sensorimotor cortex. Computational modeling and pharmacological modulation studies suggest an influence of GABAergic interneurons on the generation of beta band oscillations. Accordingly, studies in humans have demonstrated a correlation between GABA concentrations and power of beta band oscillations. It remains unclear, however, if GABA concentrations also influence beta peak frequencies and whether this influence is present in the sensorimotor cortex at rest and without pharmacological modulation. In the present study, we investigated the relation between endogenous GABA concentration (measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and beta oscillations (measured by magnetoencephalography) at rest in humans. GABA concentrations and beta band oscillations were measured for left and right sensorimotor and occipital cortex areas. A significant positive linear correlation between GABA concentration and beta peak frequency was found for the left sensorimotor cortex, whereas no significant correlations were found for the right sensorimotor and the occipital cortex. The results show a novel connection between endogenous GABA concentration and beta peak frequency at rest. This finding supports previous results that demonstrated a connection between oscillatory beta activity and pharmacologically modulated GABA concentration in the sensorimotor cortex. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that for a predominantly right-handed sample, the correlation between beta band oscillations and endogenous GABA concentrations is evident only in the left sensorimotor cortex. PMID:27258089

  16. An analytical method for computing atomic contact areas in biomolecules.

    Mach, Paul; Koehl, Patrice

    2013-01-15

    We propose a new analytical method for detecting and computing contacts between atoms in biomolecules. It is based on the alpha shape theory and proceeds in three steps. First, we compute the weighted Delaunay triangulation of the union of spheres representing the molecule. In the second step, the Delaunay complex is filtered to derive the dual complex. Finally, contacts between spheres are collected. In this approach, two atoms i and j are defined to be in contact if their centers are connected by an edge in the dual complex. The contact areas between atom i and its neighbors are computed based on the caps formed by these neighbors on the surface of i; the total area of all these caps is partitioned according to their spherical Laguerre Voronoi diagram on the surface of i. This method is analytical and its implementation in a new program BallContact is fast and robust. We have used BallContact to study contacts in a database of 1551 high resolution protein structures. We show that with this new definition of atomic contacts, we generate realistic representations of the environments of atoms and residues within a protein. In particular, we establish the importance of nonpolar contact areas that complement the information represented by the accessible surface areas. This new method bears similarity to the tessellation methods used to quantify atomic volumes and contacts, with the advantage that it does not require the presence of explicit solvent molecules if the surface of the protein is to be considered. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Increased neuronal firing in resting and sleep in areas of the macaque medial prefrontal cortex.

    Gabbott, Paul L; Rolls, Edmund T

    2013-06-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of humans and macaques is an integral part of the default mode network and is a brain region that shows increased activation in the resting state. A previous paper from our laboratory reported significantly increased firing rates of neurons in the macaque subgenual cingulate cortex, Brodmann area (BA) 25, during disengagement from a task and also during slow wave sleep [E.T. Rolls et al. (2003) J. Neurophysiology, 90, 134-142]. Here we report the finding that there are neurons in other areas of mPFC that also increase their firing rates during disengagement from a task, drowsiness and eye-closure. During the neurophysiological recording of single mPFC cells (n = 249) in BAs 9, 10, 13 m, 14c, 24b and especially pregenual area 32, populations of neurons were identified whose firing rates altered significantly with eye-closure compared with eye-opening. Three types of neuron were identified: Type 1 cells (28.1% of the total population) significantly increased (mean + 329%; P ≪ 0.01) their average firing rate with eye-closure, from 3.1 spikes/s when awake to 10.2 spikes/s when asleep; Type 2 cells (6.0%) significantly decreased (mean -68%; P areas of mPFC, implicated in the anterior default mode network, there is a substantial population of neurons that significantly increase their firing rates during periods of eye-closure. Such neurons may be part of an interconnected network of distributed brain regions that are more active during periods of relaxed wakefulness than during attention-demanding tasks. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Patterns of resting state connectivity in human primary visual cortical areas: a 7T fMRI study.

    Raemaekers, Mathijs; Schellekens, Wouter; van Wezel, Richard J A; Petridou, Natalia; Kristo, Gert; Ramsey, Nick F

    2014-01-01

    The nature and origin of fMRI resting state fluctuations and connectivity are still not fully known. More detailed knowledge on the relationship between resting state patterns and brain function may help to elucidate this matter. We therefore performed an in depth study of how resting state fluctuations map to the well known architecture of the visual system. We investigated resting state connectivity at both a fine and large scale within and across visual areas V1, V2 and V3 in ten human subjects using a 7Tesla scanner. We found evidence for several coexisting and overlapping connectivity structures at different spatial scales. At the fine-scale level we found enhanced connectivity between the same topographic locations in the fieldmaps of V1, V2 and V3, enhanced connectivity to the contralateral functional homologue, and to a lesser extent enhanced connectivity between iso-eccentric locations within the same visual area. However, by far the largest proportion of the resting state fluctuations occurred within large-scale bilateral networks. These large-scale networks mapped to some extent onto the architecture of the visual system and could thereby obscure fine-scale connectivity. In fact, most of the fine-scale connectivity only became apparent after the large-scale network fluctuations were filtered from the timeseries. We conclude that fMRI resting state fluctuations in the visual cortex may in fact be a composite signal of different overlapping sources. Isolating the different sources could enhance correlations between BOLD and electrophysiological correlates of resting state activity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Resting eggs in a key player Calanoid copepod in coastal areas. The case of Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Hansen, Benni Winding

      Acartia tonsa is an invasive copepod of the European coastal waters, first described in France in 1926, it was found later in most of the European coastal areas. These invasions are believed to come from transport of resting eggs in ships ballast water. In this presentation, I will show the main...

  20. A protected area at the Ezeiza Atomic Centre?

    Kundt, Miriam S.; Furnari, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing concern among the populations regarding environmental pollution that can affects our quality of life, the biodiversity and the entire planet. This concern has led to the signing of international legal conventions in the framework of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. This paper considers the relevance of establishing a space for the protection of nature and for academic studies related to the environment at the Ezeiza Atomic Center. The Center is located in the outskirt s of the urban most populous region of the country and it is one of the few green spaces in the area that contributes to the quality of urban environment. It is also a refuge of natural wildlife to the Pampean eco region. (author) [es

  1. Spatial overlaps of foraging and resting areas of black-legged kittiwakes breeding in the English Channel with existing marine protected areas

    Ponchon, A.; Aulert, C.; Le Guillou, G.; Gallien, F.; Peron, Clara; Gremillet, D.

    2017-01-01

    The English Channel is one of the most anthropized marine ecosystems due to increasing human pressures, both along the coasts and at sea. Numerous marine protected areas (MPAs) have been created in this area but their ecological relevance still needs to be demonstrated for mobile species such as seabirds. Here, we identified the at-sea foraging and resting areas of black-legged kittiwakes to quantify their spatial overlap with existing neighbouring MPAs. Using solar-powered GPS-UHF, we tracke...

  2. Wide-area mapping of resting state hemodynamic correlations at microvascular resolution with multi-contrast optical imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Senarathna, Janaka; Hadjiabadi, Darian; Gil, Stacy; Thakor, Nitish V.; Pathak, Arvind P.

    2017-02-01

    Different brain regions exhibit complex information processing even at rest. Therefore, assessing temporal correlations between regions permits task-free visualization of their `resting state connectivity'. Although functional MRI (fMRI) is widely used for mapping resting state connectivity in the human brain, it is not well suited for `microvascular scale' imaging in rodents because of its limited spatial resolution. Moreover, co-registered cerebral blood flow (CBF) and total hemoglobin (HbT) data are often unavailable in conventional fMRI experiments. Therefore, we built a customized system that combines laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging and fluorescence imaging (FI) to generate multi-contrast functional connectivity maps at a spatial resolution of 10 μm. This system comprised of three illumination sources: a 632 nm HeNe laser (for LSCI), a 570 nm ± 5 nm filtered white light source (for IOS), and a 473 nm blue laser (for FI), as well as a sensitive CCD camera operating at 10 frames per second for image acquisition. The acquired data enabled visualization of changes in resting state neurophysiology at microvascular spatial scales. Moreover, concurrent mapping of CBF and HbT-based temporal correlations enabled in vivo mapping of how resting brain regions were linked in terms of their hemodynamics. Additionally, we complemented this approach by exploiting the transit times of a fluorescent tracer (Dextran-FITC) to distinguish arterial from venous perfusion. Overall, we demonstrated the feasibility of wide area mapping of resting state connectivity at microvascular resolution and created a new toolbox for interrogating neurovascular function.

  3. The acoustic climate at the rest and service areas – parking lots by the Silesian section of A4 motorway

    Robert WIESZAŁA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the state of the acoustic climate at the rest and service areas (MOPs situated by A4 motorway in Silesia The analysis includes the research results conducted at these parking lots from May till August 2010. The research was conducted with the digital noise meter, which was connected with the computer during measurement. The research results indicate the essential differences in the noise intensity between the particular rest and service area reaching up to 12 dB(A, in spite of the similar value of the traffic noise in all of the places where the research was conducted. It was assumed that the level of noise on each of the parking lots should be similar to standing norms for the recreation areas i.e. below 55 dB(A. The research conducted at 4 MOPs indicated that only at two of them, MOP Halemba and Wirek, these norms are fulfilled. The lack of the proper anti-noise protection in the form of the sound absorbing screens at the parking lots situated by the motorway causes the situation in which the level of noise at the places devoted to rest highly decreases the possibility to relax before the next stage of a journey.

  4. Effect of space availability at feed bunk and rest area on metabolic conditions and productive responses in dairy cows

    L. Stefanini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that dairy cows spend 3 to 5 h/d eating, consuming 9 to 14 meals per day. In addition, they ruminate 7 to 10 h/d, spend approximately 30 min/d drinking, 2 to 3 h/d being milked, and require approximately 10 h/d for lying time (Grant and Albright, 2000. Management decisions on dairy must not interfere with the cow’s ability to perform these activities which comprises her daily routines. It is well known that feed bunk space modifies eating behaviour, while the amount and characteristics of rest area modify resting activity of the cows. The traditional recommendation of 0.6 linear meter of bunk space per cow is the minimal amount of space needed for all cows to eat at one time (Grant and Albright, 2001.......

  5. 102(ℎ/2π)k Large Area Atom Interferometers

    Chiow, Sheng-wey; Kovachy, Tim; Chien, Hui-Chun; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate atom interferometers utilizing a novel beam splitter based on sequential multiphoton Bragg diffractions. With this sequential Bragg large momentum transfer (SB-LMT) beam splitter, we achieve high contrast atom interferometers with momentum splittings of up to 102 photon recoil momenta (102(ℎ/2π)k). To our knowledge, this is the highest momentum splitting achieved in any atom interferometer, advancing the state-of-the-art by an order of magnitude. We also demonstrate strong noise correlation between two simultaneous SB-LMT interferometers, which alleviates the need for ultralow noise lasers and ultrastable inertial environments in some future applications. Our method is intrinsically scalable and can be used to dramatically increase the sensitivity of atom interferometers in a wide range of applications, including inertial sensing, measuring the fine structure constant, and detecting gravitational waves.

  6. Patterns of resting state connectivity in human primary visual cortical areas: a 7T fMRI study

    Raemaekers, Mathijs; Schellekens, Wouter; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; Petridou, Natalia; Kristo, Gert; Ramsey, Nick F.

    2014-01-01

    The nature and origin of fMRI resting state fluctuations and connectivity are still not fully known. More detailed knowledge on the relationship between resting state patterns and brain function may help to elucidate this matter. We therefore performed an in depth study of how resting state

  7. Self-alignment of a compact large-area atomic Sagnac interferometer

    Tackmann, G; Berg, P; Schubert, C; Abend, S; Gilowski, M; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E M

    2012-01-01

    We report on the realization of a compact atomic Mach-Zehnder-type Sagnac interferometer of 13.7 cm length, which covers an area of 19 mm 2 previously reported only for large thermal beam interferometers. According to Sagnac's formula, which holds for both light and atoms, the sensitivity for rotation rates increases linearly with the area enclosed by the interferometer. The use of cold atoms instead of thermal atoms enables miniaturization of Sagnac interferometers without sacrificing large areas. In comparison with thermal beams, slow atoms offer better matching of the initial beam velocity and the velocity with which the matter waves separate. In our case, the area is spanned by a cold atomic beam of 2.79 m s -1 , which is split, deflected and combined by driving a Raman transition between the two hyperfine ground states of 87 Rb in three spatially separated light zones. The use of cold atoms requires a precise angular alignment and high wave front quality of the three independent light zones over the cloud envelope. We present a procedure for mutually aligning the beam splitters at the microradian level by making use of the atom interferometer itself in different configurations. With this method, we currently achieve a sensitivity of 6.1×10 -7 rad s -1 Hz -1/2 . (paper)

  8. To Ingest or Rest? Specialized Roles of Lateral Hypothalamic Area Neurons in Coordinating Energy Balance

    Juliette A. Brown

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Survival depends on an organism’s ability to sense nutrient status and accordingly regulate intake and energy expenditure behaviors. Uncoupling of energy sensing and behavior, however, underlies energy balance disorders such as anorexia or obesity. The hypothalamus regulates energy balance, and in particular the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA is poised to coordinate peripheral cues of energy status and behaviors that impact weight, such as drinking, locomotor behavior, arousal/sleep and autonomic output. There are several populations of LHA neurons that are defined by their neuropeptide content and contribute to energy balance. LHA neurons that express the neuropeptides melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH or orexins/hypocretins (OX are best characterized and these neurons play important roles in regulating ingestion, arousal, locomotor behavior and autonomic function via distinct neuronal circuits. Recently, another population of LHA neurons containing the neuropeptide Neurotensin (Nts has been implicated in coordinating anorectic stimuli and behavior to regulate hydration and energy balance. Understanding the specific roles of MCH, OX and Nts neurons in harmonizing energy sensing and behavior thus has the potential to inform pharmacological strategies to modify behaviors and treat energy balance disorders.

  9. Atoms

    Fuchs, Alain; Villani, Cedric; Guthleben, Denis; Leduc, Michele; Brenner, Anastasios; Pouthas, Joel; Perrin, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Completed by recent contributions on various topics (atoms and the Brownian motion, the career of Jean Perrin, the evolution of atomic physics since Jean Perrin, relationship between scientific atomism and philosophical atomism), this book is a reprint of a book published at the beginning of the twentieth century in which the author addressed the relationship between atomic theory and chemistry (molecules, atoms, the Avogadro hypothesis, molecule structures, solutes, upper limits of molecular quantities), molecular agitation (molecule velocity, molecule rotation or vibration, molecular free range), the Brownian motion and emulsions (history and general features, statistical equilibrium of emulsions), the laws of the Brownian motion (Einstein's theory, experimental control), fluctuations (the theory of Smoluchowski), light and quanta (black body, extension of quantum theory), the electricity atom, the atom genesis and destruction (transmutations, atom counting)

  10. [Analysis of body composition and resting metabolic rate of 858 middle-aged and elderly people in urban area of Beijing].

    Yu, D N; Xian, T Z; Wang, L J; Cheng, B; Sun, M X; Guo, L X

    2018-05-10

    Objective: To understand the overweight rate and obesity rate in middle-aged and elderly people in urban area of Beijing, and analyze the changes of body composition and resting metabolic rate with age. Methods: From November 2014 to December 2015, body composition measurement and resting metabolic rate detection were conducted among 858 people aged 51 to 99 years, including 760 men, 98 women, who received physical examination at Beijing Hospital. Results: The overweight rate was 51.4 % , and the obesity rate was 16.9 % . The overweight rate was 26.5 % and the obesity rate was 14.3 % in women, significantly lower than those in men (54.6 % and 17.2 % ) ( P area and resting metabolic rate in different age groups were different ( P area increased obviously ( P area increased significantly in age group 70- years ( P area of Beijing, and the rates were higher in men than in women. With the increase of age, the skeletal muscle volume, muscle index and resting metabolic rate gradually decreased, while the percentage of body fat and visceral fat area increased; Overweight and obese people had earlier changes in body composition and resting metabolic rate.

  11. Towards relativistic atomic physics. Part 1. The rest-frame instant form of dynamics and a canonical transformation for a system of charged particles plus the electromagnetic field

    Alba, D.; Crater, H.W.; Lusanna, L.

    2010-01-01

    A complete exposition of the rest-frame instant form of dynamics for arbitrary isolated systems (particles, fields, strings, fluids) admitting a Lagrangian description is given. The starting point is the parametrized Minkowski theory describing the system in arbitrary admissible noninertial frames in Minkowski space-time, which allows one to define the energy-momentum tensor of the system and to show the independence of the description from the clock synchronization convention and from the choice of the 3-coordinates. The restriction to the inertial rest frame, centered on the inertial observer having the Fokker-Pryce center-of-inertia world-line, and the study of relativistic collective variables replacing the nonrelativistic center of mass lead to the description of the isolated system as a decoupled globally defined noncovariant canonical external center of mass carrying a pole-dipole structure (the invariant mass M and the rest spin S¯ of the system) and an external realization of the Poincare group. Mc and S¯ are the energy and angular momentum of a unfaithful internal realization of the Poincare group built with the energy-momentum tensor of the system and acting inside the instantaneous Wigner 3-spaces where all the 3-vectors are Wigner covariant. The vanishing of the internal 3-momentum and of the internal Lorentz boosts eliminate the internal 3-center of mass inside the Wigner 3-spaces, so that at the end the isolated system is described only by Wigner-covariant canonical internal relative variables. Then an isolated system of positive-energy charged scalar articles with mutual Coulomb interaction plus a transverse electromagnetic field in the radiation gauge is investigated as a classical background for defining relativistic atomic physics. The electric charges of the particles are Grassmann-valued to regularize the self-energies. The external and internal realizations of the Poincare algebra in the rest-frame instant form of dynamics are found. This

  12. Functional connectivity of the ventral tegmental area and avolition in subjects with schizophrenia: a resting state functional MRI study.

    Giordano, Giulia Maria; Stanziano, Mario; Papa, Michele; Mucci, Armida; Prinster, Anna; Soricelli, Andrea; Galderisi, Silvana

    2018-04-10

    Avolition, a deficit in goal-directed behavior, is a key aspect of negative symptoms. It is highly prevalent in schizophrenia and is associated to poor functional outcome and to measures of real life motivation, indicating that central to the concept is the lack of interest and motivation. In this study we tested the hypothesis that avolition is related to altered connectivity within dopaminergic cortico-striatal circuits involved in motivation processes. Since dopamine input to these circuits derives mostly from the ventro-tegmental area (VTA), we investigated the relationships between the resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) of the VTA and avolition in twenty-six subjects with schizophrenia (SCZ), treated with second-generation antipsychotics only, compared to twenty-two healthy controls (HC). SCZ, in comparison to HC, showed significantly reduced RS-FC of the VTA with bilateral ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), bilateral insular cortex (IC) and right (R) lateral occipital complex (LOC) and increased RS-FC of the VTA with bilateral dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Significant negative correlations were found between avolition and RS-FC of the VTA with the bilateral IC, R VLPFC and R LOC. According to our findings, avolition is linked to a disconnectivity of the VTA from several key cortical regions involved in the integration of value information with action selection. These findings are in line with translational animal models of "auto-activation apathy". Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  13. Atom

    Auffray, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The atom through centuries, has been imagined, described, explored, then accelerated, combined...But what happens truly inside the atom? And what are mechanisms who allow its stability? Physicist and historian of sciences, Jean-Paul Auffray explains that these questions are to the heart of the modern physics and it brings them a new lighting. (N.C.)

  14. Association between commercial vehicle driver at-fault crashes involving sleepiness/fatigue and proximity to rest areas and truck stops.

    Bunn, Terry L; Slavova, Svetla; Rock, Peter J

    2017-11-22

    There is ongoing concern at the national level about the availability of adequate commercial vehicle rest areas and truck stops for commercial vehicle drivers to rest or to wait for a delivery window. A retrospective case-control study was conducted to determine the association between the occurrence of sleepiness/fatigue-related (cases) vs. all other human factor-related commercial vehicle driver at-fault crashes (controls) and proximity to rest areas, weigh stations with rest havens, and truck stops. Commercial vehicle driver at-fault crashes involving sleepiness/fatigue were more likely to occur on roadways where the nearest rest areas/weigh stations with rest havens/truck stops were located 20 miles or more from the commercial vehicle crash site (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.32; Confidence Interval [CI] 1.615, 3.335] for 20-39.9 miles vs. commercial vehicle at-fault driver crashes with human factors other than sleepiness/fatigue cited in crash reports. Commercial vehicle driver at-fault crashes involving sleepiness/fatigue also were more likely to occur on parkways compared to interstates (adjusted OR=3.747 [CI 2.83, 4.95]), during nighttime hours (adjusted OR=6.199 [CI 4.733, 8.119]), and on dry pavement (adjusted OR 1.909, [CI 1.373, 2.655]). The use of statewide crash data analysis coupled with ArcGIS mapping capabilities provided the opportunity to both statistically determine and to visualize the association between rest area/weigh station with rest haven/truck stop distance and the occurrence of commercial vehicle driver at-fault crashes involving sleepiness/fatigue. Implementation and evaluation of commercial vehicle employer policies and interventions such as the use of commercial vehicle driver fatigue alert systems may help to reduce fatigue and sleepiness in commercial vehicle drivers. These results can be used by state and local highway transportation officials to inform and increase truck parking availability, especially on parkways. Copyright © 2017

  15. Area-selective atomic layer deposition of platinum using photosensitive polyimide

    Vervuurt, R.H.J.; Sharma, A.; Jiao, Y.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bol, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Area-selective atomic layer deposition (AS-ALD) of platinum (Pt) was studied using photosensitive polyimide as a masking layer. The polyimide films were prepared by spin-coating and patterned using photolithography. AS-ALD of Pt using poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) masking layers was used as a

  16. Detecting bilateral motor associated areas with resting state functional magnetic resonance: the effect of different seed points selection on the results

    Yi Huiming; Yang Mingming; Meng Liangliang; Zhang Jing

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of different seed points selection on localizing bilateral hand motor associated areas in resting state functional magnetic resonance. Methods: Thirty -one subjects were recruited (male 15, female 16), all of them underwent both block-designed fMRI scan during performing bilateral hand motor task and resting-state fMRI scan. DPARSA V2.0 and SPM8 were used to process the data. The peak voxels in the activity map of the task scan were selected as seeds to compute functional connectivity map of the resting-state scan. Spatial correlation analysis was performed to compare the activity map of the task scan and the connectivity map of the resting- state scan. Results: Fifteen isolated clusters were picked to generate the peak voxels, which were selected as seeds to compute functional connectivity maps. Among all the functional connectivity maps, those generated by motor area (SMA) presented the most consistent spatial distribution with task associated activity map, and the functional connectivity maps generated by primary motor cortex (M1) and dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) consisted of bilateral Ml and SMA. the functional connectivity maps generated by putamen (Pu), thalamus (Th), cerebellum anterior lobe (CbAL) and cerebellum posterior lobe (CbPL) consisted of the areas around the seeds and the mirror areas in the contralateral cortex. Conclusion: Using SMA as seed to compute resting-state functional connectivity map may produce the best spatial coherence with the activity map generated by bilateral hand motor task, and selecting M1 and PMd as seeds may present the best primary motor cortex in the connectivity map. (authors)

  17. RESTful NET

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  18. Correlated Disruption of Resting-State fMRI, LFP, and Spike Connectivity between Area 3b and S2 following Spinal Cord Injury in Monkeys.

    Wu, Ruiqi; Yang, Pai-Feng; Chen, Li Min

    2017-11-15

    This study aims to understand how functional connectivity (FC) between areas 3b and S2 alters following input deprivation and the neuronal basis of disrupted FC of resting-state fMRI signals. We combined submillimeter fMRI with microelectrode recordings to localize the deafferented digit regions in areas 3b and S2 by mapping tactile stimulus-evoked fMRI activations before and after cervical dorsal column lesion in each male monkey. An average afferent disruption of 97% significantly reduced fMRI, local field potential (LFP), and spike responses to stimuli in both areas. Analysis of resting-state fMRI signal correlation, LFP coherence, and spike cross-correlation revealed significantly reduced functional connectivity between deafferented areas 3b and S2. The degrees of reductions in stimulus responsiveness and FC after deafferentation differed across fMRI, LFP, and spiking signals. The reduction of FC was much weaker than that of stimulus-evoked responses. Whereas the largest stimulus-evoked signal drop (∼80%) was observed in LFP signals, the greatest FC reduction was detected in the spiking activity (∼30%). fMRI signals showed mild reductions in stimulus responsiveness (∼25%) and FC (∼20%). The overall deafferentation-induced changes were quite similar in areas 3b and S2 across signals. Here we demonstrated that FC strength between areas 3b and S2 was much weakened by dorsal column lesion, and stimulus response reduction and FC disruption in fMRI covary with those of LFP and spiking signals in deafferented areas 3b and S2. These findings have important implications for fMRI studies aiming to probe FC alterations in pathological conditions involving deafferentation in humans. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT By directly comparing fMRI, local field potential, and spike signals in both tactile stimulation and resting states before and after severe disruption of dorsal column afferent, we demonstrated that reduction in fMRI responses to stimuli is accompanied by weakened

  19. Changes in neural resting state activity in primary and higher-order motor areas induced by a short sensorimotor intervention based on the Feldenkrais method

    Julius eVerrel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We use functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate short-term neural effects of a brief sensorimotor intervention adapted from the Feldenkrais method, a movement-based learning method. Twenty-one participants (10 men, 19-30 years took part in the study. Participants were in a supine position in the scanner with extended legs while an experienced Feldenkrais practitioner used a planar board to touch and apply minimal force to different parts of the sole and toes of their left foot under two experimental conditions. In the local condition, the practitioner explored movement within foot and ankle. In the global condition, the practitioner focused on the connection and support from the foot to the rest of the body. Before (baseline and after each intervention (post-local, post-global, we measured brain activity during intermittent pushing/releasing with the left leg and during resting state. Independent localizer tasks were used to identify regions of interest (ROI.Brain activity during left-foot pushing did not significantly differ between conditions in sensorimotor areas. Resting state activity (regional homogeneity, ReHo increased from baseline to post-local in medial right motor cortex, and from baseline to post-global in the left supplementary/cingulate motor area. Contrasting post-global to post-local showed higher ReHo in right lateral motor cortex. ROI analyses showed significant increases in ReHo in pushing-related areas from baseline to both post-local and post-global, and this increase tended to be more pronounced post-local. The results of this exploratory study show that a short, non-intrusive sensorimotor intervention can have short-term effects on spontaneous cortical activity in functionally related brain regions. Increased resting state activity in higher-order motor areas supports the hypothesis that the global intervention engages action-related neural processes.

  20. Alterations in task-induced activity and resting-state fluctuations in visual and DMN areas revealed in long-term meditators.

    Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Harel, Michal; Hahamy, Avital; Arieli, Amos; Malach, Rafael

    2016-07-15

    Recently we proposed that the information contained in spontaneously emerging (resting-state) fluctuations may reflect individually unique neuro-cognitive traits. One prediction of this conjecture, termed the "spontaneous trait reactivation" (STR) hypothesis, is that resting-state activity patterns could be diagnostic of unique personalities, talents and life-styles of individuals. Long-term meditators could provide a unique experimental group to test this hypothesis. Using fMRI we found that, during resting-state, the amplitude of spontaneous fluctuations in long-term mindfulness meditation (MM) practitioners was enhanced in the visual cortex and significantly reduced in the DMN compared to naïve controls. Importantly, during a visual recognition memory task, the MM group showed heightened visual cortex responsivity, concomitant with weaker negative responses in Default Mode Network (DMN) areas. This effect was also reflected in the behavioral performance, where MM practitioners performed significantly faster than the control group. Thus, our results uncover opposite changes in the visual and default mode systems in long-term meditators which are revealed during both rest and task. The results support the STR hypothesis and extend it to the domain of local changes in the magnitude of the spontaneous fluctuations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Is Rest Really Rest? Resting State Functional Connectivity during Rest and Motor Task Paradigms.

    Jurkiewicz, Michael T; Crawley, Adrian P; Mikulis, David J

    2018-04-18

    Numerous studies have identified the default mode network (DMN) within the brain of healthy individuals, which has been attributed to the ongoing mental activity of the brain during the wakeful resting-state. While engaged during specific resting-state fMRI paradigms, it remains unclear as to whether traditional block-design simple movement fMRI experiments significantly influence the default mode network or other areas. Using blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI we characterized the pattern of functional connectivity in healthy subjects during a resting-state paradigm and compared this to the same resting-state analysis performed on motor task data residual time courses after regressing out the task paradigm. Using seed-voxel analysis to define the DMN, the executive control network (ECN), and sensorimotor, auditory and visual networks, the resting-state analysis of the residual time courses demonstrated reduced functional connectivity in the motor network and reduced connectivity between the insula and the ECN compared to the standard resting-state datasets. Overall, performance of simple self-directed motor tasks does little to change the resting-state functional connectivity across the brain, especially in non-motor areas. This would suggest that previously acquired fMRI studies incorporating simple block-design motor tasks could be mined retrospectively for assessment of the resting-state connectivity.

  2. PreSurgMapp: a MATLAB Toolbox for Presurgical Mapping of Eloquent Functional Areas Based on Task-Related and Resting-State Functional MRI.

    Huang, Huiyuan; Ding, Zhongxiang; Mao, Dewang; Yuan, Jianhua; Zhu, Fangmei; Chen, Shuda; Xu, Yan; Lou, Lin; Feng, Xiaoyan; Qi, Le; Qiu, Wusi; Zhang, Han; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2016-10-01

    The main goal of brain tumor surgery is to maximize tumor resection while minimizing the risk of irreversible postoperative functional sequelae. Eloquent functional areas should be delineated preoperatively, particularly for patients with tumors near eloquent areas. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a noninvasive technique that demonstrates great promise for presurgical planning. However, specialized data processing toolkits for presurgical planning remain lacking. Based on several functions in open-source software such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), Resting-State fMRI Data Analysis Toolkit (REST), Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI (DPARSF) and Multiple Independent Component Analysis (MICA), here, we introduce an open-source MATLAB toolbox named PreSurgMapp. This toolbox can reveal eloquent areas using comprehensive methods and various complementary fMRI modalities. For example, PreSurgMapp supports both model-based (general linear model, GLM, and seed correlation) and data-driven (independent component analysis, ICA) methods and processes both task-based and resting-state fMRI data. PreSurgMapp is designed for highly automatic and individualized functional mapping with a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) for time-saving pipeline processing. For example, sensorimotor and language-related components can be automatically identified without human input interference using an effective, accurate component identification algorithm using discriminability index. All the results generated can be further evaluated and compared by neuro-radiologists or neurosurgeons. This software has substantial value for clinical neuro-radiology and neuro-oncology, including application to patients with low- and high-grade brain tumors and those with epilepsy foci in the dominant language hemisphere who are planning to undergo a temporal lobectomy.

  3. Evolution of the Contact Area with Normal Load for Rough Surfaces: from Atomic to Macroscopic Scales.

    Huang, Shiping

    2017-11-13

    The evolution of the contact area with normal load for rough surfaces has great fundamental and practical importance, ranging from earthquake dynamics to machine wear. This work bridges the gap between the atomic scale and the macroscopic scale for normal contact behavior. The real contact area, which is formed by a large ensemble of discrete contacts (clusters), is proven to be much smaller than the apparent surface area. The distribution of the discrete contact clusters and the interaction between them are key to revealing the mechanism of the contacting solids. To this end, Green's function molecular dynamics (GFMD) is used to study both how the contact cluster evolves from the atomic scale to the macroscopic scale and the interaction between clusters. It is found that the interaction between clusters has a strong effect on their formation. The formation and distribution of the contact clusters is far more complicated than that predicted by the asperity model. Ignorance of the interaction between them leads to overestimating the contacting force. In real contact, contacting clusters are smaller and more discrete due to the interaction between the asperities. Understanding the exact nature of the contact area with the normal load is essential to the following research on friction.

  4. Decreased functional connectivity between ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens in Internet gaming disorder: evidence from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Ma, Shan-Shan; Yip, Sarah W; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Chen, Chao; Yan, Chao-Gan; Liu, Lu; Liu, Ben; Deng, Lin-Yuan; Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2015-11-18

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has become an increasing mental health problem worldwide. Decreased resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been found in substance use and is thought to play an important role in the development of substance addiction. However, rsFC between the VTA and NAcc in a non-substance addiction, such as IGD, has not been assessed previously. The current study aimed to investigate: (1) if individuals with IGD exhibit alterations in VTA-NAcc functional connectivity; and (2) whether VTA-NAcc functional connectivity is associated with subjective Internet craving. Thirty-five male participants with IGD and 24 healthy control (HC) individuals participated in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regions of interest (left NAcc, right NAcc and VTA) were selected based on the literature and were defined by placing spheres centered on Talairach Daemon coordinates. In comparison with HCs, individuals with IGD had significantly decreased rsFC between the VTA and right NAcc. Resting-state functional connectivity strength between the VTA and right NAcc was negatively correlated with self-reported subjective craving for the Internet. These results suggest possible neural functional similarities between individuals with IGD and individuals with substance addictions.

  5. Young Investigator Proposal, Research Area 7.4 Reactive Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer Electroless Deposition

    2017-09-30

    Report: Young Investigator Proposal, Research Area 7.4 Reactive Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer ...Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer Electroless Deposition Report Term: 0-Other Email: pcappillino... Layer Electroless Deposition (ALED, Figure 1) is the ability to tune growth mechanism, hence growth morphology, by altering conditions. In this

  6. Partial Correlation-Based Retinotopically Organized Resting-State Functional Connectivity Within and Between Areas of the Visual Cortex Reflects More Than Cortical Distance.

    Dawson, Debra Ann; Lam, Jack; Lewis, Lindsay B; Carbonell, Felix; Mendola, Janine D; Shmuel, Amir

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between cortical areas. Recent evidence suggests that synchronous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI reflect functional organization at a scale finer than that of visual areas. In this study, we investigated whether RSFCs within and between lower visual areas are retinotopically organized and whether retinotopically organized RSFC merely reflects cortical distance. Subjects underwent retinotopic mapping and separately resting-state fMRI. Visual areas V1, V2, and V3, were subdivided into regions of interest (ROIs) according to quadrants and visual field eccentricity. Functional connectivity (FC) was computed based on Pearson's linear correlation (correlation), and Pearson's linear partial correlation (correlation between two time courses after the time courses from all other regions in the network are regressed out). Within a quadrant, within visual areas, all correlation and nearly all partial correlation FC measures showed statistical significance. Consistently in V1, V2, and to a lesser extent in V3, correlation decreased with increasing eccentricity separation. Consistent with previously reported monkey anatomical connectivity, correlation/partial correlation values between regions from adjacent areas (V1-V2 and V2-V3) were higher than those between nonadjacent areas (V1-V3). Within a quadrant, partial correlation showed consistent significance between regions from two different areas with the same or adjacent eccentricities. Pairs of ROIs with similar eccentricity showed higher correlation/partial correlation than pairs distant in eccentricity. Between dorsal and ventral quadrants, partial correlation between common and adjacent eccentricity regions within a visual area showed statistical significance; this extended to more distant eccentricity regions in V1. Within and between quadrants, correlation decreased

  7. An aerial radiological survey of the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant and surrounding area, Newport, Michigan

    1986-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant during the period 27 to 30 May 1986. The survey covered a 64-square-kilometer (25-square-mile) area around the plant. The deteted radiation was due to the presence of varying concentrations of naturally-occurring radioactive materials. Radionuclides of the uranium and thorium decay chains and radioactive potassium were found. For the majority of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rate levels varied between 10 and 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). The reported exposure rate values included an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 μR/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted concurrently with the aerial survey, were compared to the inferred aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at five locations within the survey area. The exposure rate values obtained from these ground-based measurements were in good agreement with the corresponding inferred aerial values. No evidence was found of any radioactive contamination which might have occurred as a result of plant operations. This conclusion was supported by the results of the soil samples analyses and the comparison of the current survey data with those obtained in September 1970. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Innovation projects of atomic energy institute of national nuclear center RK in the area of peaceful use of atomic energy

    Kenzhin, E.; Tazhibayeva, I.; Vasiliyev, Y.; Kolodeshnikov, A.; Vurim, A.

    2010-01-01

    Institute of Atomic Energy of National Nuclear Center RK (IAE NNC RK) is located in Kurchatov. The city is situated at the border of former Semipalatinsk test site. The institute includes two reactor complexes - IGR and Baikal-1, which are rather distant from Kurchatov. Main activities of IAE NNC RK are: 1. Experimental researches of the nuclear power reactors safety; 2. Experimental researches of behavior of the structural materials for fusion and fission facilities under reactor irradiation; 3. Management of radioactive wastes; 4. Participation in the projects on decommissioning of the fast neutron reactor BN-350; 5. innovation projects: creation of first Kazakhstan's fusion reactor - tokamak KTM for materials; research and testing; development of new technologies (irradiated Be-recycling); development of new reactor technologies - project on creation of high temperature gas-cooled reactor KHTR. IAE NNC RK jointly with Japanese Atomic Energy Agency and with participation of Japanese Atomic Power Company is performing the activities on experimental substantiation of design of active core of prospective fast neutron reactor. Main goal of out-of-pile experiments at the EAGLE facility is obtaining of the information on fuel movement processes under conditions simulating the accident with melting of fast reactor core containing tube-design fuel assembly. Batch mixture is loaded into graphite crucible; then it is melded into electric melting furnace and poured into melt top trap. The outlet pipe is melted by the melt, which is poured into bottom melt trap through the pipe with sodium

  9. Age-related differences in the response of leg muscle cross-sectional area and water diffusivity measures to a period of supine rest.

    Lorbergs, Amanda L; Noseworthy, Michael D; MacIntyre, Norma J

    2015-06-01

    The object was to assess whether cross-sectional area (CSA) and water diffusion properties of leg muscles in young and older women change with increased time spent in supine rest. Healthy young (n = 9, aged 20-30 years) and older (n = 9, aged 65-75 years) women underwent MRI scanning of the right leg at baseline, 30 and 60 min of supine rest. Muscle CSA was derived from proton density images. Water diffusion properties [apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA)] of the tibialis anterior and posterior, soleus, and medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius were derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Repeated measures ANOVAs and Bonferroni post hoc tests determined the effects of time and group on each muscle outcome. In both groups, muscle CSA and FA did not significantly change over time, whereas ADC significantly decreased. A greater decline at 30 min for young women was only observed for ADC in the medial gastrocnemius. Regardless of age, ADC values decreased with fluid shift associated with time spent supine, whereas CSA and FA were not affected. For leg muscle assessment in young and older women, DTI scanning protocols should consider the amount of time spent in a recumbent position.

  10. Bilateral 5 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation on fronto-temporal areas modulates resting-state EEG.

    D'Atri, Aurora; Romano, Claudia; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Scarpelli, Serena; Alfonsi, Valentina; Ferrara, Michele; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Rossini, Paolo Maria; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2017-11-15

    Rhythmic non-invasive brain stimulations are promising tools to modulate brain activity by entraining neural oscillations in specific cortical networks. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility to influence the neural circuits of the wake-sleep transition in awake subjects via a bilateral transcranial alternating current stimulation at 5 Hz (θ-tACS) on fronto-temporal areas. 25 healthy volunteers participated in two within-subject sessions (θ-tACS and sham), one week apart and in counterbalanced order. We assessed the stimulation effects on cortical EEG activity (28 derivations) and self-reported sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale). θ-tACS induced significant increases of the theta activity in temporo-parieto-occipital areas and centro-frontal increases in the alpha activity compared to sham but failed to induce any online effect on sleepiness. Since the total energy delivered in the sham condition was much less than in the active θ-tACS, the current data are unable to isolate the specific effect of entrained theta oscillatory activity per se on sleepiness scores. On this basis, we concluded that θ-tACS modulated theta and alpha EEG activity with a topography consistent with high sleep pressure conditions. However, no causal relation can be traced on the basis of the current results between these rhythms and changes on sleepiness.

  11. The Gyllingnaes investigation - a survey of altitudes in the Gylling postal area towards atomic power

    Boldsen, N.; Buelow, W.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation of the altitudes of the local population towards the possible construction of an atomic power station at Gyllingnaes in Denmark. It is primarily based on questionnaries, secondarily on interviews. To put the results in better perspective, similar investigations from 1974-1976 are also dealt with. It is concluded that the majority of the population are against atomic power; not only do they oppose the erection of an atomic power station at Gyllingnaes but they oppose the building of atomic power stations in general. An attempt is made to characterize the ''typical'' opponent and the ''typical'' supporter of atomic power. (B.P.)

  12. Lidar mapping of atmospheric atomic mercury in the Wanshan area, China.

    Lian, Ming; Shang, Lihai; Duan, Zheng; Li, Yiyun; Zhao, Guangyu; Zhu, Shiming; Qiu, Guangle; Meng, Bo; Sommar, Jonas; Feng, Xinbin; Svanberg, Sune

    2018-05-08

    A novel mobile laser radar system was used for mapping gaseous atomic mercury (Hg 0 ) atmospheric pollution in the Wanshan district, south of Tongren City, Guizhou Province, China. This area is heavily impacted by legacy mercury from now abandoned mining activities. Differential absorption lidar measurements were supplemented by localized point monitoring using a Lumex RA-915M Zeeman modulation mercury analyzer. Range-resolved concentration measurements in different directions were performed. Concentrations in the lower atmospheric layers often exceeded levels of 100 ng/m 3 for March conditions with temperature ranging from 5 °C to 20 °C. A flux measurement of Hg 0 over a vertical cross section of 0.12 km 2 resulted in about 29 g/h. Vertical lidar sounding at night revealed quickly falling Hg 0 concentrations with height. This is the first lidar mapping demonstration in a heavily mercury-polluted area in China, illustrating the lidar potential in complementing point monitors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Area-selective atomic layer deposition of platinum using photosensitive polyimide.

    Vervuurt, René H J; Sharma, Akhil; Jiao, Yuqing; Kessels, Wilhelmus Erwin M M; Bol, Ageeth A

    2016-10-07

    Area-selective atomic layer deposition (AS-ALD) of platinum (Pt) was studied using photosensitive polyimide as a masking layer. The polyimide films were prepared by spin-coating and patterned using photolithography. AS-ALD of Pt using poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) masking layers was used as a reference. The results show that polyimide has excellent selectivity towards the Pt deposition, after 1000 ALD cycles less than a monolayer of Pt is deposited on the polyimide surface. The polyimide film could easily be removed after ALD using a hydrogen plasma, due to a combination of weakening of the polyimide resist during Pt ALD and the catalytic activity of Pt traces on the polyimide surface. Compared to PMMA for AS-ALD of Pt, polyimide has better temperature stability. This resulted in an improved uniformity of the Pt deposits and superior definition of the Pt patterns. In addition, due to the absence of reflow contamination using polyimide the nucleation phase during Pt ALD is drastically shortened. Pt patterns down to 3.5 μm were created with polyimide, a factor of ten smaller than what is possible using PMMA, at the typical Pt ALD processing temperature of 300 °C. Initial experiments indicate that after further optimization of the polyimide process Pt features down to 100 nm should be possible, which makes AS-ALD of Pt using photosensitive polyimide a promising candidate for patterning at the nanoscale.

  14. Planned amendment to the Atomic Energy Act in the area of waste management

    Wild, E.

    1991-01-01

    In view of the present lack of agreement on nuclear energy utilization the lecturer would rather abide by the present legal status of the Atomic Energy Act and thus prefer no amendment. However he considers a jurisprudential discussion expedient and debates the main points of the Rengeling expertise from his point of view: privatization, licensing competence, plan approval, proof of having made provisions for waste disposal, European cooperation, direct ultimate waste disposal, financing. (HSCH) [de

  15. REST based mobile applications

    Rambow, Mark; Preuss, Thomas; Berdux, Jörg; Conrad, Marc

    2008-02-01

    Simplicity is the major advantage of REST based webservices. Whereas SOAP is widespread in complex, security sensitive business-to-business aplications, REST is widely used for mashups and end-user centric applicatons. In that context we give an overview of REST and compare it to SOAP. Furthermore we apply the GeoDrawing application as an example for REST based mobile applications and emphasize on pros and cons for the use of REST in mobile application scenarios.

  16. Alternative REST Splicing Underappreciated

    Chen, Guo-Lin; Miller, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    As a major orchestrator of the cellular epigenome, the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) can either repress or activate thousands of genes depending on cellular context, suggesting a highly context-dependent REST function tuned by environmental cues. While REST shows cell-type non-selective active transcription, an N-terminal REST4 isoform caused by alternative splicing - inclusion of an extra exon (N3c) which introduces a pre-mature stop codon - has been implicated in...

  17. Atomic polarizabilities

    Safronova, M. S.; Mitroy, J.; Clark, Charles W.; Kozlov, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed

  18. Atomic polarizabilities

    Safronova, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); Clark, Charles W. [Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Kozlov, M. G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-22

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed.

  19. Assessment of productivity and water use efficiency in three maize (zea mays L.) varieties in Kwabenya-Atomic area

    Frimpong, J. O.

    2010-06-01

    The production of rain-fed maize in the Kwabenya-Atomic area of the coastal savannah environment of Ghana is limited by low and erratic rainfall. Enhancing maize production in the area will require the use of maize varieties efficient in the use of soil moisture. The study was, therefore, conducted to evaluate three recently released maize varieties (Obatanpa, Mamaba, and Golden Crystal) for their efficiency in the use of soil moisture for total dry matter and grain production and consequently identify the maize varieties suitable for rain-fed production in the Kwabenya-Atomic area. Field experiments were conducted m 2008 during the major and minor cropping seasons at Kwabenya-Atomic area in Ghana using three maize varieties grown at a planting distance of 0.4 m within rows and 0.8 m between rows. The experimental design used was the randomised complete block design in four replicates. Plants were sampled every two weeks throughout the maize growing seasons. Access tubes installed in each sub-plot facilitated simultaneous moisture monitoring with the aid of a neutron probe (CPN (R) 503 Hydroprobe) in a 120 cm soil profile. The moisture content values were used for the estimation of actual evapotranspiration of the maize crop using the water balance approach. Grain yield (GY) and its associated water use efficiency (WUE GY ) were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) among the maize varieties during the major cropping season with Mamaba producing the highest grain yield of 7250.0 kg ha -1 and WUE GY of 13.2 kg ha -1 mm -1 . For the minor cropping season, no significant difference was observed in grain yield, which ranged between 5800.0 and 7200.0 kg ha -1 , with Obatanpa producing the highest grain yield. No significant difference was observed in WUE GY during the minor cropping season which ranged between 14.6 and 19.1 kg ha -1 mm -1 with Obatanpa having the highest WUE GY . The maize genotype produced similar total dry matter (TDM) during each of the cropping

  20. Atomic scale characterization of white etching area and its adjacent matrix in a martensitic 100Cr6 bearing steel

    Li, Y.J., E-mail: y.li@mpie.de [Max-Planck Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 1, Düsseldorf D-40237 (Germany); Center for Interface-Dominated High Performance Materials, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44780 (Germany); Herbig, M.; Goto, S. [Max-Planck Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 1, Düsseldorf D-40237 (Germany); Raabe, D., E-mail: d.raabe@mpie.de [Max-Planck Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 1, Düsseldorf D-40237 (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Atom probe tomography was employed to characterize the microstructure and C distribution in the white etching area (WEA) of a martensitic 100Cr6 bearing steel subjected to rolling contact fatigue. Different from its surrounding matrix where a plate-like martensitic structure prevails, the WEA exhibits equiaxed grains with a uniform grain size of about 10 nm. Significant C grain boundary enrichment (>7.5at.%) and an overall higher C concentration than the nominal value are observed in the WEA. These results suggest that the formation of WEA results from severe local plastic deformation that causes dissolution of carbides and the redistribution of C. - Highlights: •APT has been applied to characterize the microstructure of white etching area (WEA). •Quantitative analyses of C distribution indicate that carbides are dissolved on the WEA. •WEA contains equiaxed grains with a uniform grain size of 10 nm. •C segregation at grain boundaries stabilizes the nanosized grain structure. •Formation of WEA is explained by severe local plastic deformation introduced by cyclic contact loading.

  1. “…then came Cisco, and the rest is history”: a ‘history friendly’ model of the Local Area Networking industry

    R. Fontana; L. Zirulia

    2015-01-01

    We study the role that switching costs, compatibility, and mergers and acquisitions, play in influencing the evolution of a multi-market industry. By looking at the case of the Local Area Networking industry, we propose a 'history friendly model' to replicate its evolution during the 1990s. Our model explains how a firm can start from a dominant position in one of the existing markets and exploit switching costs and compatibility to enter a new market when it opens. Mergers and acquisitions a...

  2. RESTful Web Services Cookbook

    Allamaraju, Subbu

    2010-01-01

    While the REST design philosophy has captured the imagination of web and enterprise developers alike, using this approach to develop real web services is no picnic. This cookbook includes more than 100 recipes to help you take advantage of REST, HTTP, and the infrastructure of the Web. You'll learn ways to design RESTful web services for client and server applications that meet performance, scalability, reliability, and security goals, no matter what programming language and development framework you use. Each recipe includes one or two problem statements, with easy-to-follow, step-by-step i

  3. Clinical applications of resting state functional connectivity

    Michael D Fox

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During resting conditions the brain remains functionally and metabolically active. One manifestation of this activity that has become an important research tool is spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal of fMRI. The identification of correlation patterns in these spontaneous fluctuations has been termed resting state functional connectivity (fcMRI and has the potential to greatly increase the translation of fMRI into clinical care. In this article we review the advantages of the resting state signal for clinical applications including detailed discussion of signal to noise considerations. We include guidelines for performing resting state research on clinical populations, outline the different areas for clinical application, and identify important barriers to be addressed to facilitate the translation of resting state fcMRI into the clinical realm.

  4. Quantitative comparisons on hand motor functional areas determined by resting state and task BOLD fMRI and anatomical MRI for pre-surgical planning of patients with brain tumors

    Bob L. Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For pre-surgical planning we present quantitative comparison of the location of the hand motor functional area determined by right hand finger tapping BOLD fMRI, resting state BOLD fMRI, and anatomically using high resolution T1 weighted images. Data were obtained on 10 healthy subjects and 25 patients with left sided brain tumors. Our results show that there are important differences in the locations (i.e., >20 mm of the determined hand motor voxels by these three MR imaging methods. This can have significant effect on the pre-surgical planning of these patients depending on the modality used. In 13 of the 25 cases (i.e., 52% the distances between the task-determined and the rs-fMRI determined hand areas were more than 20 mm; in 13 of 25 cases (i.e., 52% the distances between the task-determined and anatomically determined hand areas were >20 mm; and in 16 of 25 cases (i.e., 64% the distances between the rs-fMRI determined and anatomically determined hand areas were more than 20 mm. In just three cases, the distances determined by all three modalities were within 20 mm of each other. The differences in the location or fingerprint of the hand motor areas, as determined by these three MR methods result from the different underlying mechanisms of these three modalities and possibly the effects of tumors on these modalities.

  5. REST based service composition

    Grönvall, Erik; Ingstrup, Mads; Pløger, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an ongoing work developing and testing a Service Composition framework based upon the REST architecture named SECREST. A minimalistic approach have been favored instead of a creating a complete infrastructure. One focus has been on the system's interaction model. Indeed, an aim...

  6. CVD synthesis of large-area, highly crystalline MoSe2 atomic layers on diverse substrates and application to photodetectors.

    Xia, Jing; Huang, Xing; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Wang, Meng; Wang, Lei; Huang, Ben; Zhu, Dan-Dan; Li, Jun-Jie; Gu, Chang-Zhi; Meng, Xiang-Min

    2014-08-07

    Synthesis of large-area, atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) on diverse substrates is of central importance for the large-scale fabrication of flexible devices and heterojunction-based devices. In this work, we successfully synthesized a large area of highly-crystalline MoSe2 atomic layers on SiO2/Si, mica and Si substrates using a simple chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method at atmospheric pressure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy reveal that the as-grown ultrathin MoSe2 layers change from a single layer to a few layers. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy demonstrates that while the multi-layer MoSe2 shows weak emission peaks, the monolayer has a much stronger emission peak at ∼ 1.56 eV, indicating the transition from an indirect to a direct bandgap. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirms the single-crystallinity of MoSe2 layers with a hexagonal structure. In addition, the photoresponse performance of photodetectors based on MoSe2 monolayer was studied for the first time. The devices exhibit a rapid response of ∼ 60 ms and a good photoresponsivity of ∼ 13 mA/W (using a 532 nm laser at an intensity of 1 mW mm(-2) and a bias of 10 V), suggesting that MoSe2 monolayer is a promising material for photodetection applications.

  7. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    Sneddon, J

    2000-01-01

    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  8. Atomic layer deposition of highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles on a high surface area electrode backbone for electrochemical promotion of catalysis

    Hajar, Y.; di Palma, V.; Kyriakou, V.; Verheijen, M. A.; Baranova, E. A.; Vernoux, P.; Kessels, W. M. M.; Creatore, M.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Tsampas, M. N.

    2017-01-01

    A novel catalyst design for electrochemical promotion of catalysis (EPOC) is proposed which overcomes the main bottlenecks that limit EPOC commercialization, i.e., the low dispersion and small surface area of metal catalysts. We have increased the surface area by using a porous composite electrode

  9. Dipoles at rest

    Griffiths, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    In a world populated by magnetic monopoles (as well as ordinary electric charges), there are two kinds of electric dipoles: those due to separated electric charges, and those due to current loops of magnetic charge. Similarly, there are two kinds of magnetic dipoles: those due to separated magnetic monopoles, and those due to electric current loops. This paper derives the potentials and fields of each of the four dipole species, and calculates the force, torque, energy, momentum, and angular momentum of each type, when placed (at rest) in a static external field (which may itself be produced by electric charges and currents, magnetic charges and currents, or all of these). Some implications and applications of the various results are discussed

  10. Deeply bound pionic atom

    Toki, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    1989-01-01

    The standard method of pionic atom formation does not produce deeply bound pionic atoms. A study is made on the properties of deeply bound pionic atom states by using the standard pion-nucleus optical potential. Another study is made to estimate the cross sections of the formation of ls pionic atom states by various methods. The pion-nucleus optical potential is determined by weakly bound pionic atom states and pion nucleus scattering. Although this potential may not be valid for deeply bound pionic atoms, it should provide some hint on binding energies and level widths of deeply bound states. The width of the ls state comes out to be 0.3 MeV and is well separated from the rest. The charge dependence of the ls state is investigated. The binding energies and the widths increase linearly with Z azbove a Z of 30. The report then discusses various methods to populate deeply bound pionic atoms. In particular, 'pion exchange' reactions are proposed. (n, pπ) reaction is discussed first. The cross section is calculated by assuming the in- and out-going nucleons on-shell and the produced pion in (n1) pionic atom states. Then, (n, dπ - ) cross sections are estimated. (p, 2 Heπ - ) reaction would have cross sections similar to the cross section of (n, dπ - ) reaction. In conclusion, it seems best to do (n, p) experiment on heavy nuclei for deeply bound pionic atom. (Nogami, K.)

  11. Atomic and molecular manipulation

    Mayne, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Work with individual atoms and molecules aims to demonstrate that miniaturized electronic, optical, magnetic, and mechanical devices can operate ultimately even at the level of a single atom or molecule. As such, atomic and molecular manipulation has played an emblematic role in the development of the field of nanoscience. New methods based on the use of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) have been developed to characterize and manipulate all the degrees of freedom of individual atoms and molecules with an unprecedented precision. In the meantime, new concepts have emerged to design molecules and substrates having specific optical, mechanical and electronic functions, thus opening the way to the fabrication of real nano-machines. Manipulation of individual atoms and molecules has also opened up completely new areas of research and knowledge, raising fundamental questions of "Optics at the atomic scale", "Mechanics at the atomic scale", Electronics at the atomic scale", "Quantum physics at the atomic sca...

  12. Progress in atomic spectroscopy

    Beyer, H.J.; Kleinpoppen, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents reviews by leading experts in the field covering areas of research at the forefront of atomic spectroscopy. Topics considered include the k ordering of atomic structure, multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock calculations for complex atoms, new methods in high-resolution laser spectroscopy, resonance ionization spectroscopy (inert atom detection), trapped ion spectroscopy, high-magnetic-field atomic physics, the effects of magnetic and electric fields on highly excited atoms, x rays from superheavy collision systems, recoil ion spectroscopy with heavy ions, investigations of superheavy quasi-atoms via spectroscopy of electron rays and positrons, impact ionization by fast projectiles, and amplitudes and state parameters from ion- and atom-atom excitation processes

  13. 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas, Master coverage of "atom" features used as a source to generate several derivative layers for the Sheriff RMS and E-911 map rolls. Cover is painstakingly maintained interactively by GIS staff. All atom boundaries are snapped to the road centerline cover, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas dataset current as of 2008. Master coverage of "atom" features used as a source to generate several derivative layers for the...

  14. Heavy metals in brick kiln located area using atomic absorption spectrophotometer: a case study from the city of Peshawar, Pakistan.

    Ishaq, M; Khan, Murad Ali; Jan, F Akbar; Ahmad, I

    2010-07-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the burning issues of the world. In developed countries, there are lot of awareness about the environment and the impact of various industries on their life and surroundings. A little has been done in this direction in developing countries. In Pakistan, a big problem is the rapid conglomeration of the brick kilns in the outskirts of nearly all the urban centers to cope with the rapid construction work in big cities. A huge amount of low-grade coal or rubber tires is used as fuel in a very non-scientific manner. The purpose of the present study was to look into the impact of the brick kilns on the different aspects of environmental pollution caused by these kilns. Concentration of metals Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, and Mn were measured on 36 soil samples collected from the area and the same number of plant samples in order to establish the distribution of heavy metals in the area and to determine the effect of this distribution on the surrounding atmosphere and the possible effects on human life.

  15. DIRAC RESTful API

    Casajus Ramo, A; Graciani Diaz, R; Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2012-01-01

    The DIRAC framework for distributed computing has been designed as a flexible and modular solution that can be adapted to the requirements of any community. Users interact with DIRAC via command line, using the web portal or accessing resources via the DIRAC python API. The current DIRAC API requires users to use a python version valid for DIRAC. Some communities have developed their own software solutions for handling their specific workload, and would like to use DIRAC as their back-end to access distributed computing resources easily. Many of these solutions are not coded in python or depend on a specific python version. To solve this gap DIRAC provides a new language agnostic API that any software solution can use. This new API has been designed following the RESTful principles. Any language with libraries to issue standard HTTP queries may use it. GSI proxies can still be used to authenticate against the API services. However GSI proxies are not a widely adopted standard. The new DIRAC API also allows clients to use OAuth for delegating the user credentials to a third party solution. These delegated credentials allow the third party software to query to DIRAC on behalf of the users. This new API will further expand the possibilities communities have to integrate DIRAC into their distributed computing models.

  16. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    Sneddon, J

    1997-01-01

    This series describes selected advances in the area of atomic spectroscopy. It is primarily intended for the reader who has a background in atmoic spectroscopy; suitable to the novice and expert. Although a widely used and accepted method for metal and non-metal analysis in a variety of complex samples, Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy covers a wide range of materials. Each Chapter will completely cover an area of atomic spectroscopy where rapid development has occurred.

  17. Independent Verification Survey Of The SPRU Lower Level Hillside Area At The Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory Niskayuna, New York

    Harpenau, Evan M.; Weaver, Phyllis C.

    2012-01-01

    During August 10, 2011 through August 19, 2011, and October 23, 2011 through November 4, 2011, ORAU/ORISE conducted verification survey activities at the Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) site that included in-process inspections, surface scans, and soil sampling of the Lower Level Hillside Area. According to the Type-B Investigation Report, Sr-90 was the primary contributor to the majority of the activity (60 times greater than the Cs-137 activity). The evaluation of the scan data and sample results obtained during verification activities determined that the primary radionuclide of concern, Sr-90, was well below the agreed upon soil cleanup objective (SCO) of 30 pCi/g for the site. However, the concentration of Cs-137 in the four judgmental samples collected in final status survey (FSS) Units A and B was greater than the SCO. Both ORAU and aRc surveys identified higher Cs-137 concentrations in FSS Units A and B; the greatest concentrations were indentified in FSS Unit A

  18. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  19. A Scalable Route to Nanoporous Large-Area Atomically Thin Graphene Membranes by Roll-to-Roll Chemical Vapor Deposition and Polymer Support Casting.

    Kidambi, Piran R; Mariappan, Dhanushkodi D; Dee, Nicholas T; Vyatskikh, Andrey; Zhang, Sui; Karnik, Rohit; Hart, A John

    2018-03-28

    Scalable, cost-effective synthesis and integration of graphene is imperative to realize large-area applications such as nanoporous atomically thin membranes (NATMs). Here, we report a scalable route to the production of NATMs via high-speed, continuous synthesis of large-area graphene by roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (CVD), combined with casting of a hierarchically porous polymer support. To begin, we designed and built a two zone roll-to-roll graphene CVD reactor, which sequentially exposes the moving foil substrate to annealing and growth atmospheres, with a sharp, isothermal transition between the zones. The configurational flexibility of the reactor design allows for a detailed evaluation of key parameters affecting graphene quality and trade-offs to be considered for high-rate roll-to-roll graphene manufacturing. With this system, we achieve synthesis of uniform high-quality monolayer graphene ( I D / I G casting and postprocessing, show size-selective molecular transport with performance comparable to that of membranes made from conventionally synthesized graphene. Therefore, this work establishes the feasibility of a scalable manufacturing process of NATMs, for applications including protein desalting and small-molecule separations.

  20. EMF-REST: Generation of RESTful APIs from Models

    Hamza , Ed-Douibi; Cánovas Izquierdo , Javier Luis; Gómez , Abel; Tisi , Massimo; Cabot , Jordi

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, RESTful Web services have become more and more popular as a lightweight solution to connect remote systems in distributed and Cloud-based architectures. However, being an architectural style rather than a specification or standard, the proper design of RESTful Web services is not trivial since developers have to deal with a plethora of recommendations and best practices. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) emphasizes the use of models and model transformations to raise the level...

  1. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  2. Clustering of resting state networks.

    Megan H Lee

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to demonstrate a hierarchical structure of resting state activity in the healthy brain using a data-driven clustering algorithm.The fuzzy-c-means clustering algorithm was applied to resting state fMRI data in cortical and subcortical gray matter from two groups acquired separately, one of 17 healthy individuals and the second of 21 healthy individuals. Different numbers of clusters and different starting conditions were used. A cluster dispersion measure determined the optimal numbers of clusters. An inner product metric provided a measure of similarity between different clusters. The two cluster result found the task-negative and task-positive systems. The cluster dispersion measure was minimized with seven and eleven clusters. Each of the clusters in the seven and eleven cluster result was associated with either the task-negative or task-positive system. Applying the algorithm to find seven clusters recovered previously described resting state networks, including the default mode network, frontoparietal control network, ventral and dorsal attention networks, somatomotor, visual, and language networks. The language and ventral attention networks had significant subcortical involvement. This parcellation was consistently found in a large majority of algorithm runs under different conditions and was robust to different methods of initialization.The clustering of resting state activity using different optimal numbers of clusters identified resting state networks comparable to previously obtained results. This work reinforces the observation that resting state networks are hierarchically organized.

  3. Atom optics

    Balykin, V. I.; Jhe, W.

    1999-01-01

    Atom optics, in analogy to neutron and electron optics, deals with the realization of as a traditional elements, such as lenes, mirrors, beam splitters and atom interferometers, as well as a new 'dissipative' elements such as a slower and a cooler, which have no analogy in an another types of optics. Atom optics made the development of atom interferometer with high sensitivity for measurement of acceleration and rotational possible. The practical interest in atom optics lies in the opportunities to create atom microprobe with atom-size resolution and minimum damage of investigated objects. (Cho, G. S.)

  4. Atom-by-atom assembly

    Hla, Saw Wai

    2014-01-01

    Atomic manipulation using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip enables the construction of quantum structures on an atom-by-atom basis, as well as the investigation of the electronic and dynamical properties of individual atoms on a one-atom-at-a-time basis. An STM is not only an instrument that is used to ‘see’ individual atoms by means of imaging, but is also a tool that is used to ‘touch’ and ‘take’ the atoms, or to ‘hear’ their movements. Therefore, the STM can be considered as the ‘eyes’, ‘hands’ and ‘ears’ of the scientists, connecting our macroscopic world to the exciting atomic world. In this article, various STM atom manipulation schemes and their example applications are described. The future directions of atomic level assembly on surfaces using scanning probe tips are also discussed. (review article)

  5. Atomic and Molecular Interactions

    2002-01-01

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Atomic and Molecular Interactions was held at Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field

  6. Modern atomic physics

    Natarajan, Vasant

    2015-01-01

    Much of our understanding of physics in the last 30-plus years has come from research on atoms, photons, and their interactions. Collecting information previously scattered throughout the literature, Modern Atomic Physics provides students with one unified guide to contemporary developments in the field. After reviewing metrology and preliminary material, the text explains core areas of atomic physics. Important topics discussed include the spontaneous emission of radiation, stimulated transitions and the properties of gas, the physics and applications of resonance fluorescence, coherence, cooling and trapping of charged and neutral particles, and atomic beam magnetic resonance experiments. Covering standards, a different way of looking at a photon, stimulated radiation, and frequency combs, the appendices avoid jargon and use historical notes and personal anecdotes to make the topics accessible to non-atomic physics students. Written by a leader in atomic and optical physics, this text gives a state-of-the...

  7. Calculation of the factor of the time's relativity in quantum area for different atoms based on the `Substantial motion' theory of Mulla Sadra

    Gholibeigian, Hassan

    2015-03-01

    Iranian Philosopher, Mulla Sadra (1571-1640) in his theory of ``Substantial motion'' emphasized that ``the universe moves in its entity'', and ``the time is the fourth dimension of the universe'' This definition of space-time is proposed by him at three hundred years before Einstein. He argued that the time is magnitude of the motion (momentum) of the matter in its entity. In the other words, the time for each atom (body) is sum of the momentums of its involved fundamental particles. The momentum for each atom is different from the other atoms. In this methodology, by proposing some formulas, we can calculate the time for involved particles' momentum (time) for each atom in a second of the Eastern Time Zone (ETZ). Due to differences between these momentums during a second in ETZ, the time for each atom, will be different from the other atoms. This is the relativity in quantum physics. On the other hand, the God communicates with elementary particles via sub-particles (see my next paper) and transfers the packages (bit) of information and laws to them for processing and selection of their next step. Differences between packages like complexity and velocity of processing during the time, is the second variable in relativity of time for each atom which may be effective on the factor.

  8. RESTful Java web services security

    Enríquez, René

    2014-01-01

    A sequential and easy-to-follow guide which allows you to understand the concepts related to securing web apps/services quickly and efficiently, since each topic is explained and described with the help of an example and in a step-by-step manner, helping you to easily implement the examples in your own projects. This book is intended for web application developers who use RESTful web services to power their websites. Prior knowledge of RESTful is not mandatory, but would be advisable.

  9. Current Trends in Atomic Spectroscopy.

    Wynne, James J.

    1983-01-01

    Atomic spectroscopy is the study of atoms/ions through their interaction with electromagnetic radiation, in particular, interactions in which radiation is absorbed or emitted with an internal rearrangement of the atom's electrons. Discusses nature of this field, its status and future, and how it is applied to other areas of physics. (JN)

  10. Atomic physics

    Foot, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    This text will thoroughly update the existing literature on atomic physics. Intended to accompany an advanced undergraduate course in atomic physics, the book will lead the students up to the latest advances and the applications to Bose-Einstein Condensation of atoms, matter-wave inter-ferometry and quantum computing with trapped ions. The elementary atomic physics covered in the early chapters should be accessible to undergraduates when they are first introduced to the subject. To complement. the usual quantum mechanical treatment of atomic structure the book strongly emphasizes the experimen

  11. The NASA Bed Rest Project

    Rhodes, Bradley; Meck, Janice

    2005-01-01

    NASA s National Vision for Space Exploration includes human travel beyond low earth orbit and the ultimate safe return of the crews. Crucial to fulfilling the vision is the successful and timely development of countermeasures for the adverse physiological effects on human systems caused by long term exposure to the microgravity environment. Limited access to in-flight resources for the foreseeable future increases NASA s reliance on ground-based analogs to simulate these effects of microgravity. The primary analog for human based research will be head-down bed rest. By this approach NASA will be able to evaluate countermeasures in large sample sizes, perform preliminary evaluations of proposed in-flight protocols and assess the utility of individual or combined strategies before flight resources are requested. In response to this critical need, NASA has created the Bed Rest Project at the Johnson Space Center. The Project establishes the infrastructure and processes to provide a long term capability for standardized domestic bed rest studies and countermeasure development. The Bed Rest Project design takes a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, integrated approach that reduces the resource overhead of one investigator for one campaign. In addition to integrating studies operationally relevant for exploration, the Project addresses other new Vision objectives, namely: 1) interagency cooperation with the NIH allows for Clinical Research Center (CRC) facility sharing to the benefit of both agencies, 2) collaboration with our International Partners expands countermeasure development opportunities for foreign and domestic investigators as well as promotes consistency in approach and results, 3) to the greatest degree possible, the Project also advances research by clinicians and academia alike to encourage return to earth benefits. This paper will describe the Project s top level goals, organization and relationship to other Exploration Vision Projects, implementation

  12. Atomic physics

    Armbruster, P.; Beyer, H.; Bosch, F.; Dohmann, H.D.; Kozhuharov, C.; Liesen, D.; Mann, R.; Mokler, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    The heavy ion accelerator UNILAC is well suited to experiments in the field of atomic physics because, with the aid of high-energy heavy ions atoms can be produced in exotic states - that is, heavy atoms with only a few electrons. Also, in close collisions of heavy ions (atomic number Z 1 ) and heavy target atoms (Z 2 ) short-lived quasi-atomic 'superheavy' systems will be formed - huge 'atoms', where the inner electrons are bound in the field of the combined charge Z 1 + Z 2 , which exceeds by far the charge of the known elements (Z <= 109). Those exotic or transient superheavy atoms delivered from the heavy ion accelerator make it possible to study for the first time in a terrestrial laboratory exotic, but fundamental, processes, which occur only inside stars. Some of the basic research carried out with the UNILAC is discussed. This includes investigation of highly charged heavy atoms with the beam-foil method, the spectroscopy of highly charged slow-recoil ions, atomic collision studies with highly ionised, decelerated ions and investigations of super-heavy quasi-atoms. (U.K.)

  13. Ultracold atoms on atom chips

    Krüger, Peter; Hofferberth, S.; Haller, E.

    2005-01-01

    Miniaturized potentials near the surface of atom chips can be used as flexible and versatile tools for the manipulation of ultracold atoms on a microscale. The full scope of possibilities is only accessible if atom-surface distances can be reduced to microns. We discuss experiments in this regime...

  14. Theoretical atomic physics for fusion: 1988 annual report

    Pindzola, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses progress in atomic physics in the following areas: Electron-impact ionization of atomic ions; electron-impact excitation of atomic ions; Dielectronic recombination of atomic ions; and relativistic effects on electron-ion scattering

  15. Localized atomic segregation in the spalled area of a Zr50Cu40Al10 bulk metallic glasses induced by laser-shock experiment

    Jodar, B.; Loison, D.; Yokoyama, Y.; Lescoute, E.; Nivard, M.; Berthe, L.; Sangleboeuf, J.-C.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-shock experiments were performed on a ternary {Zr50{Cu}40{Al}10} bulk metallic glass. A spalling process was studied through post-mortem analyses conducted on a recovered sample and spall. Scanning electron microscopy magnification of fracture surfaces revealed the presence of a peculiar feature known as cup-cone. Cups are found on sample fracture surface while cones are observed on spall. Two distinct regions can be observed on cups and cones: a smooth viscous-like region in the center and a flat one with large vein-pattern in the periphery. Energy dispersive spectroscopy measurements conducted on these features emphasized atomic distribution discrepancies both on the sample and spall. We propose a mechanism for the initiation and the growth of these features but also a process for atomic segregation during spallation. Cup and cones would originate from cracks arising from shear bands formation (softened paths). These shear bands result from a quadrupolar-shaped atomic disorder engendered around an initiation site by shock wave propagation. This disorder turns into a shear band when tensile front reaches spallation plane. During the separation process, temperature gain induced by shock waves and shear bands generation decreases material viscosity leading to higher atomic mobility. Once in a liquid-like form, atomic clusters migrate and segregate due to inertial effects originating from particle velocity variation (interaction of release waves). As a result, a high rate of copper is found in sample cups and high zirconium concentration is found on spall cones.

  16. RESTful web services with Dropwizard

    Dallas, Alexandros

    2014-01-01

    A hands-on focused step-by-step tutorial to help you create Web Service applications using Dropwizard. If you are a software engineer or a web developer and want to learn more about building your own Web Service application, then this is the book for you. Basic knowledge of Java and RESTful Web Service concepts is assumed and familiarity with SQL/MySQL and command-line scripting would be helpful.

  17. Thermal equilibrium concentration of intrinsic point defects in heavily doped silicon crystals - Theoretical study of formation energy and formation entropy in area of influence of dopant atoms-

    Kobayashi, K.; Yamaoka, S.; Sueoka, K.; Vanhellemont, J.

    2017-09-01

    It is well known that p-type, neutral and n-type dopants affect the intrinsic point defect (vacancy V and self-interstitial I) behavior in single crystal Si. By the interaction with V and/or I, (1) growing Si crystals become more V- or I-rich, (2) oxygen precipitation is enhanced or retarded, and (3) dopant diffusion is enhanced or retarded, depending on the type and concentration of dopant atoms. Since these interactions affect a wide range of Si properties ranging from as-grown crystal quality to LSI performance, numerical simulations are used to predict and to control the behavior of both dopant atoms and intrinsic point defects. In most cases, the thermal equilibrium concentrations of dopant-point defect pairs are evaluated using the mass action law by taking only the binding energy of closest pair to each other into account. The impacts of dopant atoms on the formation of V and I more distant than 1st neighbor and on the change of formation entropy are usually neglected. In this study, we have evaluated the thermal equilibrium concentrations of intrinsic point defects in heavily doped Si crystals. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to obtain the formation energy (Ef) of the uncharged V and I at all sites in a 64-atom supercell around a substitutional p-type (B, Ga, In, and Tl), neutral (C, Ge, and Sn) and n-type (P, As, and Sb) dopant atom. The formation (vibration) entropies (Sf) of free I, V and I, V at 1st neighboring site from B, C, Sn, P and As atoms were also calculated with the linear response method. The dependences of the thermal equilibrium concentrations of trapped and total intrinsic point defects (sum of free I or V and I or V trapped with dopant atoms) on the concentrations of B, C, Sn, P and As in Si were obtained. Furthermore, the present evaluations well explain the experimental results of the so-called ;Voronkov criterion; in B and C doped Si, and also the observed dopant dependent void sizes in P and As doped Si

  18. WEB-SERVICE. RESTFUL ARCHITECTURE

    M. Melnichuk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Network technology for interaction between two applications via the HTTP protocol was considered in article.When client works with REST API - it means it works with "resources", and in SOAP work is performed with operations. To build REST web services, you must follow certain principles: explicit use of HTTP methods, access to resources by URI, stateless, HATEAOS, caching, transfer of objects in JSON or XML representation. But sometimes some principles are ignored to ensure a higher speed of work and to reduce development time.The pros and cons of using JSON and XML representations were considered, and it can be said that using the JSON format reduces the amount of data transfer, and with the use of XML, the readability of data increases.Also, two main ways of data transfer in REST web services were considered: converting the file to Base64 and transferring it as an object field or transferring the file using the usual HTTP multipart. The Base64 standard approach gives a higher speed for multiple files in a single request, because only one HTTP connection is created, but these files are stored in RAM during request processing, which increases chance of the application crashing.In the conclusion, the advantages of using web services and their wide use in other architectural approaches were considered, which increases the popularity of web services.

  19. Ubiquitous atom

    Spruch, G.M.; Spruch, L.

    1974-01-01

    The fundamentals of modern physics, including the basic physics and chemistry of the atom, elementary particles, cosmology, periodicity, and recent advances, are surveyed. The biology and chemistry of the life process is discussed to provide a background for considering the effects of atomic particles on living things. The uses of atomic power in space travel, merchant shipping, food preservation, desalination, and nuclear clocks are explored. (Pollut. Abstr.)

  20. Atomic physics

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Research activities in atomic physics at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 are described. Topics covered include: experiments on stored ions; test for parity violation in neutral weak currents; energy conservation and astrophysics; atomic absorption spectroscopy, atomic and molecular detectors; theoretical studies of quantum electrodynamics and high-z ions; atomic beam magnetic resonance; radiative decay from the 2 3 Po, 2 levels of helium-like argon; quenching of the metastable 2S/sub 1/2/ state of hydrogen-like argon in an external electric field; and lifetime of the 2 3 Po level of helium-like krypton

  1. Low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of 2-D MoS2 : Large area, thickness control and tuneable morphology

    Sharma, A.; Verheijen, M.A.; Wu, L.; Karwal, S.; Vandalon, V.; Knoops, H.C.M.; Sundaram, R.S.; Hofmann, J.P.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bol, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Low-temperature controllable synthesis of monolayer-to-multilayer thick MoS2 with tuneable morphology is demonstrated by using plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The characteristic self-limiting ALD growth with a growth-per-cycle of 0.1 nm per cycle and digital thickness control down

  2. Rest requirements and rest management of personnel in shift work

    Hammell, B.D. [PDG Environmental, Melbourne, FL (United States); Scheuerle, A. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A difficulty-weighted shift assignment scheme is proposed for use in prolonged and strenuous field operations such as emergency response, site testing, and short term hazardous waste remediation projects. The purpose of the work rotation plan is to increase productivity, safety, and moral of workers. Job weighting is accomplished by assigning adjustments to the mental and physical intensity of the task, the protective equipment worn, and the climatic conditions. The plan is based on medical studies of sleep deprivation, the effects of rest adjustments, and programs to reduce sleep deprivation and normalize shift schedules.

  3. Atomic physics

    Born, Max

    1969-01-01

    The Nobel Laureate's brilliant exposition of the kinetic theory of gases, elementary particles, the nuclear atom, wave-corpuscles, atomic structure and spectral lines, electron spin and Pauli's principle, quantum statistics, molecular structure and nuclear physics. Over 40 appendices, a bibliography, numerous figures and graphs.

  4. Early Atomism

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/10/0905-0925. Keywords. Atomic theory; Avogadro's hypothesis; atomic weights; periodic table; valence; molecular weights; molecular formula; isomerism. Author Affiliations. S Ramasesha1. Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, ...

  5. Atom spectroscopy

    Kodling, K.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on atom photoabsorption spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation in the 10-1000 eV range are reviewed. Properties of the necessary synchrotron radiation and the experiment on absorption spectroscopy are briefly described. Comparison with other spectroscopy methods is conducted. Some data on measuring photoabsorption, photoelectron emission and atom mass spectra are presented [ru

  6. Exotic atoms

    Horvath, D.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography on exotic atoms covers the years 1939 till 1982. The annual entries are headed by an introduction describing the state of affairs of the branch of science and listing the main applications in quantum electrodynamics, particle physics, nuclear physics, atomic physics, chemical physics and biological sciences. The bibliography includes an author index and a subject index. (Auth.)

  7. Restful API Architecture Based on Laravel Framework

    Chen, Xianjun; Ji, Zhoupeng; Fan, Yu; Zhan, Yongsong

    2017-10-01

    Web service has been an industry standard tech for message communication and integration between heterogeneous systems. RESTFUL API has become mainstream web service development paradigm after SOAP, how to effectively construct RESTFUL API remains a research hotspots. This paper presents a development model of RESTFUL API construction based on PHP language and LARAVEL framework. The key technical problems that need to be solved during the construction of RESTFUL API are discussed, and implementation details based on LARAVEL are given.

  8. Efficiency at rest: magnetoencephalographic resting-state connectivity and individual differences in verbal working memory.

    del Río, David; Cuesta, Pablo; Bajo, Ricardo; García-Pacios, Javier; López-Higes, Ramón; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando

    2012-11-01

    Inter-individual differences in cognitive performance are based on an efficient use of task-related brain resources. However, little is known yet on how these differences might be reflected on resting-state brain networks. Here we used Magnetoencephalography resting-state recordings to assess the relationship between a behavioral measurement of verbal working memory and functional connectivity as measured through Mutual Information. We studied theta (4-8 Hz), low alpha (8-10 Hz), high alpha (10-13 Hz), low beta (13-18 Hz) and high beta (18-30 Hz) frequency bands. A higher verbal working memory capacity was associated with a lower mutual information in the low alpha band, prominently among right-anterior and left-lateral sensors. The results suggest that an efficient brain organization in the domain of verbal working memory might be related to a lower resting-state functional connectivity across large-scale brain networks possibly involving right prefrontal and left perisylvian areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Atomic fusion, Gerrard atomic fusion

    Gerrard, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    In the approach to atomic fusion described here the heat produced in a fusion reaction, which is induced in a chamber by the interaction of laser beams and U.H.F. electromagnetic beams with atom streams, is transferred to a heat exchanger for electricity generation by a coolant flowing through a jacket surrounding the chamber. (U.K.)

  10. Superradiators created atom by atom

    Meschede, Dieter

    2018-02-01

    High radiation rates are usually associated with macroscopic lasers. Laser radiation is “coherent”—its amplitude and phase are well-defined—but its generation requires energy inputs to overcome loss. Excited atoms spontaneously emit in a random and incoherent fashion, and for N such atoms, the emission rate simply increases as N. However, if these atoms are in close proximity and coherently coupled by a radiation field, this microscopic ensemble acts as a single emitter whose emission rate increases as N2 and becomes “superradiant,” to use Dicke's terminology (1). On page 662 of this issue, Kim et al. (2) show the buildup of coherent light fields through collective emission from atomic radiators injected one by one into a resonator field. There is only one atom ever in the cavity, but the emission is still collective and superradiant. These results suggest another route toward thresholdless lasing.

  11. Resting state FMRI research in child psychiatric disorders

    Oldehinkel, Marianne; Francx, Winke; Beckmann, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mennes, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Concurring with the shift from linking functions to specific brain areas towards studying network integration, resting state FMRI (R-FMRI) has become an important tool for delineating the functional network architecture of the brain. Fueled by straightforward data collection, R-FMRI analysis methods

  12. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    Sneddon, J

    1998-01-01

    This volume continues the series'' cutting-edge reviews on developments in this field. Since its invention in the 1920s, electrostatic precipitation has been extensively used in industrial hygiene to remove dust and particulate matter from gases before entering the atmosphere. This combination of electrostatic precipitation is reported upon in the first chapter. Following this, chapter two reviews recent advances in the area of chemical modification in electrothermal atomization. Chapter three consists of a review which deal with advances and uses of electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry. Flow injection atomic spectroscopy has developed rapidly in recent years and after a general introduction, various aspects of this technique are looked at in chapter four. Finally, in chapter five the use of various spectrometric techniques for the determination of mercury are described.

  13. Atomic interferometry

    Baudon, J.; Robert, J.

    2004-01-01

    Since the theoretical works of L. De Broglie (1924) and the famous experiment of Davisson and Germer (1927), we know that a wave is linked with any particle of mass m by the relation λ = h/(mv), where λ is the wavelength, v the particle velocity and h is the Planck constant. The basic principle of the interferometry of any material particle, atom, molecule or aggregate is simple: using a simple incident wave, several mutually consistent waves (with well-defined relative phases) are generated and controllable phase-shifts are introduced between them in order to generate a wave which is the sum of the previous waves. An interference figure is obtained which consists in a succession of dark and bright fringes. The atomic interferometry is based on the same principle but involves different techniques, different wave equations, but also different beams, sources and correlations which are described in this book. Because of the small possible wavelengths and the wide range of possible atomic interactions, atomic interferometers can be used in many domains from the sub-micron lithography to the construction of sensors like: inertial sensors, gravity-meters, accelerometers, gyro-meters etc. The first chapter is a preliminary study of the space and time diffraction of atoms. The next chapters is devoted to the description of slit, light separation and polarization interferometers, and the last chapter treats of the properties of Bose-Einstein condensates which are interesting in atomic interferometry. (J.S.)

  14. Intrasellar Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6×5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest.

  15. Atomic politics

    Skogmar, G.

    1979-01-01

    The authors basic point is that the military and civil sides of atomic energy cannot be separated. The general aim of the book is to analyze both the military and civil branches, and the interdependence between them, of American foreign policy in the atomic field. Atomic policy is seen as one of the most important imstruments of foreign policy which, in turn, is seen against the background of American imperialism in general. Firstly, the book investigates the most important means by which the United States has controlled the development in the nuclear field in other countries. These means include influencing the conditions of access to nuclear resources of various kinds, influencing the flow of technical-economic information and influencing international organizations and treaties bearing on atomic energy. The time period treated is 1945-1973. 1973 is chosen as the end-year of the study mainly because of the new conditions in the whole energy field initiated by the oil crisis in that year. The sources of the empirical work are mainly hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy of the U.S. Congress and legal material of various kinds. Secondly, the goals of the American policy are analyzed. The goals identified are armament effect, non-proliferation (horizontal), sales, and energy dependence. The relation between the main goals is discussed.The discussion is centered on the interdependence between the military and the civil aspects, conflict and coincidence of various goals, the relation between short-term and long-term goals, and the possibilities of using one goal as pretext for another. Thirdly, some causes of the changes in the atomic policy around 1953 and 1963 are identified. These are the strategic balance, the competitive situation, the capacity (of the American atomic productive apparatus), and the nuclear technological stage. The specific composition of these four factors at the two time-points can explain the changes of policy. (author)

  16. Determination of Lead and Cadmium in environment materials from the planned area for a nuclear power plant by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method

    Supriyanto, C; Djokowidodo; Isyuniarto; Heri-Wahyudi; Ashar-Andrianto

    1996-01-01

    The determination of Pb and Cd in environment materials (water, cassava leaves and soil) have been done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method, The determination of Pb and Cd was done with graphite tube atomizer (GTA) method at optimum condition : wavelength for Pb and Cd 217.0 nm and 228.8 nm; temperature/time ashing 550 o C/37 sec and 350 o C/52 sec; temperature/time atomizing 2000 o C/5.1 sec and 2000 o C/5.2 sec. Modifier for Pb was 3 μL of Mg 1000 μg/ml and Cd was 2 μL of Pd 2000 μg/ml. The content Pb in Spalun river, Hulu Putih river and sea water Lemah Abang was 0.94 ± 0.03; 0.91± 0.02; 4.71 ± 0.26 ng/ml respectively; the Cd content was 1.23 ± 0.11; 0.48 ± 0.01; 0.55 ± 0.01 ng/ml respectively. The Pb dan Cd content in cassava leaves was 163.24 ± 3.72 and 18.45 ± 1.46 ng/g respectively, while the Pb content in soil at the depth variation 0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 20 and 20 - 30 Cm was 2.35 ± 0.15; 2.86 ± 0.16; 1.97 ± 0.11 and 2.19 ± 0.06 μg/g respectively and the Cd content was 43.67 ± 1.52; 37.01 ± 1.01; 31.68 ± 0.17 and 36.97 ± 1.63 ng/g respectively. SRM Citrous leaves from NSB and SRM Soil 7 from the IAEA local used to control the quality of the analyzed method. The Pb, Cd content in SRM was in accordance with the value in the certified legend

  17. Observational Evidence for Atoms.

    Jones, Edwin R., Jr.; Childers, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the development of the concept of atomicity and some of the many which can be used to establish its validity. Chemical evidence, evidence from crystals, Faraday's law of electrolysis, and Avogadro's number are among the areas which show how the concept originally developed from a purely philosophical idea. (JN)

  18. Atomic secrecy

    Sweet, W.

    1979-01-01

    An article, The H-Bomb Secret: How We Got It, Why We're Telling It, by Howard Morland was to be published in The Progressive magazine in February, 1979. The government, after learning of the author's and the editors' intention to publish the article and failing to persuade them to voluntarily delete about 20% of the text and all of the diagrams showing how an H-bomb works, requested a court injunction against publication. Acting under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, US District Court Judge Robert W. Warren granted the government's request on March 26. Events dealing with the case are discussed in this publication. Section 1, Progressive Hydrogen Bomb Case, is discussed under the following: Court Order Blocking Magazine Report; Origins of the Howard Morland Article; Author's Motives, Defense of Publication; and Government Arguments Against Disclosure. Section 2, Access to Atomic Data Since 1939, contains information on need for secrecy during World War II; 1946 Atomic Energy Act and its effects; Soviet A-Bomb and the US H-Bomb; and consequences of 1954 Atomic Energy Act. Section 3, Disputed Need for Atomic Secrecy, contains papers entitled: Lack of Studies on H-Bomb Proliferation; Administration's Position on H-Bombs; and National Security Needs vs Free Press

  19. Interaction of relativistic elementary atoms with matter. I. General formulas

    Mrowczyn'ski, S.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of the interaction of relativistic elementary atoms (Coulomb bound states of elementary particles such as positronium, pionium, etc.) with matter is studied in the reference frame where the atom is initially at rest. An atom of matter is treated as a spinless structureless fast particle. The amplitudes of elementary-atom interaction are derived in the Born approximation under the assumption that a momentum transfer to the atom does not significantly exceed an inverse Bohr radius of the atom. The elementary-atom excitation and ionization processes are considered. The transitions where the spin projection of the atom component is reversed are also studied. In particular the matrix elements for para-ortho and ortho-para transitions are given. The spin structure of the amplitudes is discussed in detail. The sum rules, which allow the calculation of the cross sections summed over atom final states are found. Finally the formulas of the atom interaction cross sections are presented

  20. Flame emission, atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrometry

    Horlick, G.

    1980-01-01

    Six hundred and thirty references are cited in this review. The information in the review is divided into 12 major areas: books, reviews, and bibliographies; fundamental studies in flames; developments in instrumentation; measurement techniques and procedure; flame emission spectrometry; flame atomic absorption spectrometry; flame molecular absorption spectrometry; electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectroscopy; hydride generation techniques; graphite furnace atomic emission spectrometry; atomic fluorescence spectrometry; and analytical comparisons

  1. 23 CFR 752.5 - Safety rest areas.

    2010-04-01

    ... for the handicapped. (b) The State may permit the placement of vending machines in existing or new... allowed. Such vending machines shall be operated by the State. (c) The State may operate the vending... vending machines. In permitting the placement of vending machines the State shall give priority to vending...

  2. Predictive Modeling of Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Resting Habitat in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    Thorne, Lesley H.; Johnston, David W.; Urban, Dean L.; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W.; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H.; Deakos, Mark H.; Mobley, Joseph R.; Pack, Adam A.; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

  3. Antimatter atoms

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    In january 1996, CERN broadcasted the information of the creation of nine anti-hydrogen atoms, observed through disintegration products. The experimental facility was CERN LEAR ring. An antiproton beam scattered a xenon jet, and the resulting antimatter was first selected by its insensitivity to beam bending magnets. Their disintegration was detected in thin NaI detectors, in which the anti-atoms are at once deprived from their positron. Then, magnetic and time-of-flight spectrometers are used. (D.L.)

  4. Atomic theories

    Loring, FH

    2014-01-01

    Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

  5. An area of protection around nuclear facilities - questions at issue in atomic law and law concerning the protection against nuisances. Pt. 2

    Blickle, D.

    1973-01-01

    The necessity for an area of protection around nuclear facilities could originate from the need to protect these facilities against outside effects. Danger to nuclear facilities can only threaten from a few industries which are of a dangerous nature. In order to keep away these industries there is no need for an area of protection around the nuclear facilities. It would be sufficient to consider in the licensing procedures, according to the trade regulations, that the close proximity of nuclear facilities can present a danger of a special kind, whereby the standards of the nuclear licensing procedures are to be applied. In this context it would be permissible, too, to make bigger demands on the safety requirements than requested by the trade regulations solely. Furthermore, the need to keep away human settlements from the area with nuclear facilities without creating an area of protection can be complied with area planning by interpreting the laws of area planning in such a way that subsequent planning which would increase the risks can be rejected. In any case, poltical clarification of this point seems to be necessary. (orig./LN) [de

  6. Pro REST API development with nodejs

    Doglio, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Pro REST API Development with Node.js is your guide to managing and understanding the full capabilities of successful REST development. API design is a hot topic in the programming world, but not many resources exist for developers to really understand how you can leverage the advantages. This book will provide a brief background on REST and the tools it provides (well known and not so well known). Understand how there is more to REST than just JSON and URLs. You will then cover and compare the maintained modules currently available in the npm community, including Express, Restify, Vatican,

  7. Atomic cluster collisions

    Korol, Andrey V.; Solov'yov, Andrey

    2013-01-01

    Atomic cluster collisions are a field of rapidly emerging research interest by both experimentalists and theorists. The international symposium on atomic cluster collisions (ISSAC) is the premier forum to present cutting-edge research in this field. It was established in 2003 and the most recent conference was held in Berlin, Germany in July of 2011. This Topical Issue presents original research results from some of the participants, who attended this conference. This issues specifically focuses on two research areas, namely Clusters and Fullerenes in External Fields and Nanoscale Insights in Radiation Biodamage.

  8. Resting state fMRI: A review on methods in resting state connectivity analysis and resting state networks.

    Smitha, K A; Akhil Raja, K; Arun, K M; Rajesh, P G; Thomas, Bejoy; Kapilamoorthy, T R; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

    2017-08-01

    The inquisitiveness about what happens in the brain has been there since the beginning of humankind. Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a prominent tool which helps in the non-invasive examination, localisation as well as lateralisation of brain functions such as language, memory, etc. In recent years, there is an apparent shift in the focus of neuroscience research to studies dealing with a brain at 'resting state'. Here the spotlight is on the intrinsic activity within the brain, in the absence of any sensory or cognitive stimulus. The analyses of functional brain connectivity in the state of rest have revealed different resting state networks, which depict specific functions and varied spatial topology. However, different statistical methods have been introduced to study resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity, yet producing consistent results. In this article, we introduce the concept of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in detail, then discuss three most widely used methods for analysis, describe a few of the resting state networks featuring the brain regions, associated cognitive functions and clinical applications of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. This review aims to highlight the utility and importance of studying resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity, underlining its complementary nature to the task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  9. Cognitive and default-mode resting state networks: do male and female brains "rest" differently?

    Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Moayedi, Massieh; Taylor, Keri S; Pope, Geoff; Davis, Karen D

    2010-11-01

    Variability in human behavior related to sex is supported by neuroimaging studies showing differences in brain activation patterns during cognitive task performance. An emerging field is examining the human connectome, including networks of brain regions that are not only temporally-correlated during different task conditions, but also networks that show highly correlated spontaneous activity during a task-free state. Both task-related and task-free network activity has been associated with individual task performance and behavior under certain conditions. Therefore, our aim was to determine whether sex differences exist during a task-free resting state for two networks associated with cognitive task performance (executive control network (ECN), salience network (SN)) and the default mode network (DMN). Forty-nine healthy subjects (26 females, 23 males) underwent a 5-min task-free fMRI scan in a 3T MRI. An independent components analysis (ICA) was performed to identify the best-fit IC for each network based on specific spatial nodes defined in previous studies. To determine the consistency of these networks across subjects we performed self-organizing group-level ICA analyses. There were no significant differences between sexes in the functional connectivity of the brain areas within the ECN, SN, or the DMN. These important findings highlight the robustness of intrinsic connectivity of these resting state networks and their similarity between sexes. Furthermore, our findings suggest that resting state fMRI studies do not need to be controlled for sex. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Atoms stories

    Radvanyi, P.; Bordry, M.

    1988-01-01

    Physicists from different countries told each evening during one learning week, to an audience of young people, some great discoveries in evoking the difficulties and problems to which the researchers were confronted. From Antiquity to a more recent history, it is a succession of atoms stories. (N.C.)

  11. Atomic physics

    Held, B.

    1991-01-01

    This general book describes the change from classical physics to quantum physics. The first part presents atom evolution since antiquity and introduces fundamental quantities and elements of relativity. Experiments which have contributed to the evolution of knowledge on matter are analyzed in the second part. Applications of wave mechanics to the study of matter properties are presented in the third part [fr

  12. Cognitive Rest: An Integrated Literature Review

    Schneider, Kathleen H.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive rest has been suggested as a treatment for school athletes who have sustained a concussion, but the concept has rarely been defined. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive definition of cognitive rest, based on an integrative literature review. The method of synthesis was guided by Avant and Walker's concept analysis…

  13. Resting state EEG correlates of memory consolidation.

    Brokaw, Kate; Tishler, Ward; Manceor, Stephanie; Hamilton, Kelly; Gaulden, Andrew; Parr, Elaine; Wamsley, Erin J

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that post-training sleep benefits human memory. At the same time, emerging data suggest that other resting states may similarly facilitate consolidation. In order to identify the conditions under which non-sleep resting states benefit memory, we conducted an EEG (electroencephalographic) study of verbal memory retention across 15min of eyes-closed rest. Participants (n=26) listened to a short story and then either rested with their eyes closed, or else completed a distractor task for 15min. A delayed recall test was administered immediately following the rest period. We found, first, that quiet rest enhanced memory for the short story. Improved memory was associated with a particular EEG signature of increased slow oscillatory activity (rest can facilitate memory, and that this may occur via an active process of consolidation supported by slow oscillatory EEG activity and characterized by decreased attention to the external environment. Slow oscillatory EEG rhythms are proposed to facilitate memory consolidation during sleep by promoting hippocampal-cortical communication. Our findings suggest that EEG slow oscillations could play a significant role in memory consolidation during other resting states as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of atomic hydrogen on the selective area growth of Si and Si1-xGex thin films on Si and SiO2 surfaces: Inhibition, nucleation, and growth

    Schroeder, T.W.; Lam, A.M.; Ma, P.F.; Engstrom, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Supersonic molecular beam techniques have been used to study the nucleation of Si and Si 1-x Ge x thin films on Si and SiO 2 surfaces, where Si 2 H 6 and GeH 4 have been used as sources. A particular emphasis of this study has been an examination of the effects of a coincident flux of atomic hydrogen. The time associated with formation of stable islands of Si or Si 1-x Ge x on SiO 2 surfaces--the incubation time--has been found to depend strongly on the kinetic energy of the incident molecular precursors (Si 2 H 6 and GeH 4 ) and the substrate temperature. After coalescence, thin film morphology has been found to depend primarily on substrate temperature, with smoother films being grown at substrate temperatures below 600 deg. C. Introduction of a coincident flux of atomic hydrogen has a large effect on the nucleation and growth process. First, the incubation time in the presence of atomic hydrogen has been found to increase, especially at substrate temperatures below 630 deg. C, suggesting that hydrogen atoms adsorbed on Si-like sites on SiO 2 can effectively block nucleation of Si. Unfortunately, in terms of promoting selective area growth, coincident atomic hydrogen also decreases the rate of epitaxial growth rate, essentially offsetting any increase in the incubation time for growth on SiO 2 . Concerning Si 1-x Ge x growth, the introduction of GeH 4 produces substantial changes in both thin film morphology and the rate nucleation of poly-Si 1-x Ge x on SiO 2 . Briefly, the addition of Ge increases the incubation time, while it lessens the effect of coincident hydrogen on the incubation time. Finally, a comparison of the maximum island density, the time to reach this density, and the steady-state polycrystalline growth rate strongly suggests that all thin films [Si, Si 1-x Ge x , both with and without H(g)] nucleate at special sites on the SiO 2 surface, and grow primarily via direct deposition of adatoms on pre-existing islands

  15. Effects of Flotation-REST on Muscle Tension Pain

    Anette Kjellgren

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the floating form of the restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST may be applied within the field of pain relief. Flotation-REST consists of a procedure whereby an individual is immersed in a tank filled with water of an extremely high salt concentration. Thirty-seven patients (14 men and 23 women suffering from chronic pain consisting of aching muscles in the neck and back area participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either a control group (17 participants or an experimental group (20 participants. The experimental group received nine opportunities to use the flotation-REST technique in the water tank over a three-week period. The results indicated that the most severe perceived pain intensity was significantly reduced, whereas low perceived pain intensity was not influenced by the floating technique. Further, the results indicated that circulating levels of the noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol were reduced significantly in the experimental group but not in the control group following treatment, whereas endorphin levels were not affected by flotation. Flotation-REST treatment also elevated the participants' optimism and reduced the degree of anxiety or depression; at nighttime, patients who underwent flotation fell asleep more easily. The present findings describe possible changes, for the better, in patients presenting with chronic pain complaints.

  16. Effects of flotation-REST on muscle tension pain.

    Kjellgren, A; Sundequist, U; Norlander, T; Archer, T

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the floating form of the restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST) may be applied within the field of pain relief. Flotation-REST consists of a procedure whereby an individual is immersed in a tank filled with water of an extremely high salt concentration. Thirty-seven patients (14 men and 23 women) suffering from chronic pain consisting of aching muscles in the neck and back area participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either a control group (17 participants) or an experimental group (20 participants). The experimental group received nine opportunities to use the flotation-REST technique in the water tank over a three-week period. The results indicated that the most severe perceived pain intensity was significantly reduced, whereas low perceived pain intensity was not influenced by the floating technique. Further, the results indicated that circulating levels of the noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol were reduced significantly in the experimental group but not in the control group following treatment, whereas endorphin levels were not affected by flotation. Flotation-REST treatment also elevated the participants' optimism and reduced the degree of anxiety or depression; at nighttime, patients who underwent flotation fell asleep more easily. The present findings describe possible changes, for the better, in patients presenting with chronic pain complaints.

  17. [Radiation-induced changes in the cellular chromatin of cereal plants cultivated in the area of the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station].

    Reshetnikov, V N; Lapteva, O K; Sosnovskaia, T F; Roshchenko, M V

    1996-01-01

    The changes in chromatin and DNA of seedling and callus tissues of cereals grown in the Chernobyl NPP zones with contamination levels of 15, 40 and 60 Ci/km2 were studied. Test samples produced by germinating and culturing seed cells of grown in contaminated areas were notable for the content of soluble polydesoxiribonucleotides, amount of DNA damages, DNA distribution over separate compartments of cell nucleus as compared to the control. Analogy between radiation-induced changes in chromatine and processes occurring in cell nucleus senescence was observed.

  18. An area of protection around nuclear facilities - questions at issue in atomic law and law concerning the protection against nuisances. Pt. 3

    Hasenfuss, W.

    1973-01-01

    The author takes the view that areas of protection do not only not promote but can impede more than hitherto the development of nuclear energy, a field in which it is vital to keep pace with other countries in the world, also after the decision of the Federal Court of Justice regarding the location of the KWO. The best guarantee for safe operation of a nuclear facility and for the protection of citizens, which would be the guarantee for the development of nuclear energy as well, are the safety precautions in the nuclear facility itself which are generally accepted and finely balanced with regard to their necessity and consequence. (orig./LN) [de

  19. The generation of resting membrane potentials in an inner ear hair cell system.

    Bracho, H; Budelli, R

    1978-01-01

    1. The macula sacculi in the mudpuppy is an inner ear sensory area accessible for intracellular recordings in vitro and in vivo. 2. The resting potentials recorded in vitro can be explained by the electrodiffusion theory assuming a uniform ionic selective in the membranes of the neuroepithelial cells. 3. The resting potentials recorded in vivo are significantly larger than predicted by the electrodiffusion theory, probably because of an electrogenic metabolic process present in the neuroepithelial cells. 4. An equivalent circuit is proposed to explain the resting electrogenesis in the neuroepithelial cells present in the sensory area. Images Plate 1 PMID:702400

  20. Atom-surface potentials and atom interferometry

    Babb, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Long-range atom-surface potentials characterize the physics of many actual systems and are now measurable spectroscopically in deflection of atomic beams in cavities or in reflection of atoms in atomic fountains. For a ground state, spherically symmetric atom the potential varies as -1/R 3 near the wall, where R is the atom-surface distance. For asymptotically large distances the potential is weaker and goes as -1/R 4 due to retardation arising from the finite speed of light. This diminished interaction can also be interpreted as a Casimir effect. The possibility of measuring atom-surface potentials using atomic interferometry is explored. The particular cases studied are the interactions of a ground-state alkali-metal atom and a dielectric or a conducting wall. Accurate descriptions of atom-surface potentials in theories of evanescent-wave atomic mirrors and evanescent wave-guided atoms are also discussed. (author)

  1. Resting-state brain activity in adult males who stutter.

    Yun Xuan

    Full Text Available Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF, region of interest (ROI-based functional connectivity (FC and independent component analysis (ICA-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN and in the connections between them.

  2. Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter

    Zhu, Chaozhe; Wang, Liang; Yan, Qian; Lin, Chunlan; Yu, Chunshui

    2012-01-01

    Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN) in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN) and in the connections between them. PMID:22276215

  3. Temporal reliability and lateralization of the resting-state language network.

    Zhu, Linlin; Fan, Yang; Zou, Qihong; Wang, Jue; Gao, Jia-Hong; Niu, Zhendong

    2014-01-01

    The neural processing loop of language is complex but highly associated with Broca's and Wernicke's areas. The left dominance of these two areas was the earliest observation of brain asymmetry. It was demonstrated that the language network and its functional asymmetry during resting state were reproducible across institutions. However, the temporal reliability of resting-state language network and its functional asymmetry are still short of knowledge. In this study, we established a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis of language network with seed regions located at Broca's and Wernicke's areas, and investigated temporal reliability of language network and its functional asymmetry. The language network was found to be temporally reliable in both short- and long-term. In the aspect of functional asymmetry, the Broca's area was found to be left lateralized, while the Wernicke's area is mainly right lateralized. Functional asymmetry of these two areas revealed high short- and long-term reliability as well. In addition, the impact of global signal regression (GSR) on reliability of the resting-state language network was investigated, and our results demonstrated that GSR had negligible effect on the temporal reliability of the resting-state language network. Our study provided methodology basis for future cross-culture and clinical researches of resting-state language network and suggested priority of adopting seed-based functional connectivity for its high reliability.

  4. Temporal reliability and lateralization of the resting-state language network.

    Linlin Zhu

    Full Text Available The neural processing loop of language is complex but highly associated with Broca's and Wernicke's areas. The left dominance of these two areas was the earliest observation of brain asymmetry. It was demonstrated that the language network and its functional asymmetry during resting state were reproducible across institutions. However, the temporal reliability of resting-state language network and its functional asymmetry are still short of knowledge. In this study, we established a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis of language network with seed regions located at Broca's and Wernicke's areas, and investigated temporal reliability of language network and its functional asymmetry. The language network was found to be temporally reliable in both short- and long-term. In the aspect of functional asymmetry, the Broca's area was found to be left lateralized, while the Wernicke's area is mainly right lateralized. Functional asymmetry of these two areas revealed high short- and long-term reliability as well. In addition, the impact of global signal regression (GSR on reliability of the resting-state language network was investigated, and our results demonstrated that GSR had negligible effect on the temporal reliability of the resting-state language network. Our study provided methodology basis for future cross-culture and clinical researches of resting-state language network and suggested priority of adopting seed-based functional connectivity for its high reliability.

  5. Temporal Reliability and Lateralization of the Resting-State Language Network

    Zou, Qihong; Wang, Jue; Gao, Jia-Hong; Niu, Zhendong

    2014-01-01

    The neural processing loop of language is complex but highly associated with Broca's and Wernicke's areas. The left dominance of these two areas was the earliest observation of brain asymmetry. It was demonstrated that the language network and its functional asymmetry during resting state were reproducible across institutions. However, the temporal reliability of resting-state language network and its functional asymmetry are still short of knowledge. In this study, we established a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis of language network with seed regions located at Broca's and Wernicke's areas, and investigated temporal reliability of language network and its functional asymmetry. The language network was found to be temporally reliable in both short- and long-term. In the aspect of functional asymmetry, the Broca's area was found to be left lateralized, while the Wernicke's area is mainly right lateralized. Functional asymmetry of these two areas revealed high short- and long-term reliability as well. In addition, the impact of global signal regression (GSR) on reliability of the resting-state language network was investigated, and our results demonstrated that GSR had negligible effect on the temporal reliability of the resting-state language network. Our study provided methodology basis for future cross-culture and clinical researches of resting-state language network and suggested priority of adopting seed-based functional connectivity for its high reliability. PMID:24475058

  6. Recent experiments involving highly excited atoms

    Latimer, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    Very large and fragile atoms may be produced by exciting normal atoms with light or by collisions with other atomic particles. Atoms as large as 10 -6 m are now routinely produced in the laboratory and their properties studied. In this review some of the simpler experimental methods available for the production and detection of such atoms are described including tunable dye laser-excitation and field ionization. A few recent experiments which illustrate the collision properties and the effects of electric and and magnetic fields are also described. The relevance of highly excited atoms in other areas of research including radioastronomy and isotope separation are discussed. (author)

  7. Exotic atoms

    Kunselman, R.

    1993-01-01

    The experiments use a solid hydrogen layer to form muonic hydrogen isotopes that escape into vacuum. The method relies on transfer of the muon from protium to either a deuteron or a triton. The resulting muonic deuterium or muonic tritium will not immediately thermalize because of the very low elastic cross sections, and may be emitted from the surface of the layer. Measurements which detect decay electrons, muonic x-rays, and fusion products have been used to study the processes. A target has been constructed which exploits muonic atom emission in order to learn more about the energy dependence of transfer and muon molecular formation

  8. Focal Gray Matter Plasticity as a Function of Long Duration Head-down Tilt Bed Rest

    Koppelmans, V.; DeDios, Y. E.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, P. A.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Koppelmans, V.

    2014-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight (i.e., > or = 22 days) has been associated with changes in sensorimotor systems, resulting in difficulties that astronauts experience with posture control, locomotion, and manual control. The microgravity environment is an important causal factor for spaceflight induced sensorimotor changes. Whether these sensorimotor changes may be related to structural and functional brain changes is yet unknown. However, experimental studies revealed changes in the gray matter (GM) of the brain after simulated microgravity. Thus, it is possible that spaceflight may affect brain structure and thereby cognitive functioning and motor behavior. Long duration head-down tilt bed rest has been suggested as an exclusionary analog to study microgravity effects on the sensorimotor system. Bed rest mimics microgravity in body unloading and bodily fluid shifts. In consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers both in- and post-flight, we are conducting a prospective longitudinal 70-day bed rest study as an analog to investigate the effects of microgravity on the brain. VBM analysis revealed a progressive decrease from pre- to in- bed rest in GM volume in bilateral areas including the frontal medial cortex, the insular cortex and the caudate. Over the same time period, there was a progressive increase in GM volume in the cerebellum, occipital-, and parietal cortex, including the precuneus. The majority of these changes did not fully recover during the post-bed rest period. Analysis of lobular GM volumes obtained with BRAINS showed significantly increased volume from pre-bed rest to in-bed rest in GM of the parietal lobe and the third ventricle. Temporal GM volume at 70 days in bed rest was smaller than that at the first pre-bed rest measurement. Trend analysis showed significant positive linear and negative quadratic relationships between parietal GM and time, a positive linear relationship between third ventricle volume and time, and a negative linear

  9. RESTful Java patterns and best practices

    Mehta, Bhakti

    2014-01-01

    This book is aimed at novice developers who want to gain insights into building RESTful services and improve productivity, as well as for advanced developers who want to delve into more complicated topics.

  10. Brief wakeful resting can eliminate directed forgetting.

    Schlichting, Andreas; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2017-02-01

    When cued to intentionally forget previously encoded memories, participants typically show reduced recall of the memories on a later recall test. We examined how such directed forgetting is affected by a brief period of wakeful resting between encoding and test. Encoding was followed by a "passive" wakeful resting period in which subjects heard emotionally neutral music or perceived neutral pictures, or it was followed by an "active" distraction period in which subjects were engaged in counting or calculation tasks. Whereas typical directed forgetting was present after active distraction, the forgetting was absent after wakeful resting. The findings indicate that the degree to which people can intentionally forget memories is influenced by the cognitive activity that people engage in shortly after learning takes place. The results provide first evidence on the interplay between wakeful resting and intentional forgetting.

  11. Elegants ja eklektika - Rest Art / Lylian Meister

    Meister, Lylian, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Tallinnas Mustika keskuses asuvas sisustussalongis Rest Art pakutavast. Asjade müümise kõrval pakutakse kodudele ja hotellidele-restoranidele terviklahendusi. Salongi kujundas Kard Männil. 4 värv. vaadet

  12. USAJOBS Job Opportunity Announcements (JOA) REST API

    Office of Personnel Management — This REST-based API is designed to support lightweight Federal Job Opportunity Announcement (JOA) content consumption by consumers. It is anticipated that this API...

  13. Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them

    Hulet, Randall; Tollett, Jeff; Franke, Kurt; Moss, Steve; Sackett, Charles; Gerton, Jordan; Ghaffari, Bita; McAlexander, W.; Strecker, K.; Homan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Atom skimmers are devices that act as low-pass velocity filters for atoms in thermal atomic beams. An atom skimmer operating in conjunction with a suitable thermal atomic-beam source (e.g., an oven in which cesium is heated) can serve as a source of slow atoms for a magneto-optical trap or other apparatus in an atomic-physics experiment. Phenomena that are studied in such apparatuses include Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases, spectra of trapped atoms, and collisions of slowly moving atoms. An atom skimmer includes a curved, low-thermal-conduction tube that leads from the outlet of a thermal atomic-beam source to the inlet of a magneto-optical trap or other device in which the selected low-velocity atoms are to be used. Permanent rare-earth magnets are placed around the tube in a yoke of high-magnetic-permeability material to establish a quadrupole or octupole magnetic field leading from the source to the trap. The atoms are attracted to the locus of minimum magnetic-field intensity in the middle of the tube, and the gradient of the magnetic field provides centripetal force that guides the atoms around the curve along the axis of the tube. The threshold velocity for guiding is dictated by the gradient of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of the tube. Atoms moving at lesser velocities are successfully guided; faster atoms strike the tube wall and are lost from the beam.

  14. The Physiology of Bed Rest. Chapter 39

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Schneider, Victor S.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged rest in bed has been utilized by physicians and other health-care workers to immobilize and confine patients for rehabilitation and restoration of health since time immemorial. The sitting or horizontal position is sought by the body to relieve the strain of the upright or vertical postures, for example during syncopal situations, bone fractures, muscle injuries, fatigue, and probably also to reduce energy expenditure. Most health-care personnel are aware that adaptive responses occurring during bed rest proceed concomitantly with the healing process; signs and symptoms associated with the former should be differentiated from those of the latter. Not all illnesses and infirmities benefit from prolonged bed rest. Considerations in prescribing bed rest for patients-including duration, body position, mode and duration of exercise, light-dark cycles, temperature, and humidity-have not been investigated adequately. More recently, adaptive physiological responses have been measured in normal, healthy subjects in the horizontal or slightly head-down postures during prolonged bed rest as analogs for the adaptive responses of astronauts exposed to the microgravity environment of outer and bed-rest research.

  15. Wavepacket dynamics of a Rydberg atom monitored by a pair of time-delayed laser pulses

    Xin, PeiPei; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, ShanShan; Wang, HanMu; Liu, HongPing

    2018-02-01

    We have investigated the Rydberg state population of an argon atom by an intense laser pulse and its wavepacket dynamics monitored by another successive laser pulse in the tunneling regime. A wavepacket comprising a superposition of close high-lying Rydberg states is irradiated by a multicycle laser pulse, where the sub-wave components in the wavepacket have fixed relative phases. A time-delayed second laser pulse is employed to apply on the excited Rydberg atom. If the time is properly chosen, one of the sub-wave components will be guided towards the ionization area while the rest remains intact. By means of this pump-probe technique, we could control and monitor the Rydberg wavepacket dynamics and reveal some interesting phenomenon such as the survival rate of individual Rydberg states related to the classical orbital period of electron.

  16. Resting state functional connectivity predicts neurofeedback response

    Dustin eScheinost

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tailoring treatments to the specific needs and biology of individual patients – personalized medicine – requires delineation of reliable predictors of response. Unfortunately, these have been slow to emerge, especially in neuropsychiatric disorders. We have recently described a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI neurofeedback protocol that can reduce contamination-related anxiety, a prominent symptom of many cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Individual response to this intervention is variable. Here we used patterns of brain functional connectivity, as measured by baseline resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI, to predict improvements in contamination anxiety after neurofeedback training. Activity of a region of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and anterior prefrontal cortex, Brodmann area (BA 10, associated with contamination anxiety in each subject was measured in real time and presented as a neurofeedback signal, permitting subjects to learn to modulate this target brain region. We have previously reported both enhanced OFC/BA 10 control and improved anxiety in a group of subclinically anxious subjects after neurofeedback. Five individuals with contamination-related OCD who underwent the same protocol also showed improved clinical symptomatology. In both groups, these behavioral improvements were strongly correlated with baseline whole-brain connectivity in the OFC/BA 10, computed from rs-fMRI collected several days prior to neurofeedback training. These pilot data suggest that rs-fMRI can be used to identify individuals likely to benefit from rt-fMRI neurofeedback training to control contamination anxiety.

  17. Mechanisms and energetics of surface atomic processes

    Tsong, T.T.

    1991-01-01

    The energies involved in various surface atomic processes such as surface diffusion, the binding of small atomic clusters on the surface, the interaction between two adsorbed atoms, the dissociation of an atom from a small cluster or from a surface layer, the binding of kink size atoms or atoms at different adsorption sites to the surface etc., can be derived from an analysis of atomically resolved field ion microscope images and a kinetic energy measurement of low temperature field desorbed ions using the time-of-flight atom-probe field ion microscope. These energies can be used to compare with theories and to understand the transport of atoms on the surface in atomic reconstructions, epitaxial growth of surface layers and crystal growth, adsorption layer superstructure formation, and also why an atomic ordering or atomic reconstruction at the surface is energetically favored. Mechanisms of some of the surface atomic processes are also clarified from these quantitative, atomic resolution studies. In this paper work in this area is bris briefly reviewed

  18. Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics

    Nagourney, Warren

    2010-01-01

    Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics provides a course in quantum electronics for researchers in atomic physics. The book covers the usual topics, such as Gaussian beams, cavities, lasers, nonlinear optics and modulation techniques, but also includes a number of areas not usually found in a textbook on quantum electronics. It includes such practical matters as the enhancement of nonlinear processes in a build-up cavity, impedance matching into a cavity, laser frequencystabilization (including servomechanism theory), astigmatism in ring cavities, and atomic/molecular spectroscopic techniques

  19. Electromagnetic trapping of neutral atoms

    Metcalf, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cooling and trapping of neutral atoms is a new branch of applied physics that has potential for application in many areas. The authors present an introduction to laser cooling and magnetic trapping. Some basic ideas and fundamental limitations are discussed, and the first successful experiments are reviewed. Trapping a neutral object depends on the interaction between an inhomogeneous electromagnetic field and a multiple moment that results in the exchange of kinetic for potential energy. In neutral atom traps, the potential energy must be stored as internal atomic energy, resulting in two immediate and extremely important consequences. First, the atomic energy levels will necessarily shift as the atoms move in the trap, and, second, practical traps for ground state neutral atoms atr necessarily very shallow compared to thermal energy. This small depth also dictates stringent vacuum requirements because a trapped atom cannot survive a single collision with a thermal energy background gas molecule. Neutral trapping, therefore, depends on substantial cooling of a thermal atomic sample and is inextricably connected with the cooling process

  20. Stopping atoms with diode lasers

    Watts, R.N.; Wieman, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The use of light pressure to cool and stop neutral atoms has been an area of considerable interest recently. Cooled neutral atoms are needed for a variety of interesting experiments involving neutral atom traps and ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy. Laser cooling of sodium has previously been demonstrated using elegant but quite elaborate apparatus. These techniques employed stabilized dye lasers and a variety of additional sophisticated hardware. The authors have demonstrated that a frequency chirp technique can be implemented using inexpensive diode lasers and simple electronics. In this technique the atoms in an atomic beam scatter resonant photons from a counterpropagating laser beam. The momentum transfer from the photons slows the atoms. The primary difficulty is that as the atoms slow their Doppler shift changes, and so they are no longer in resonance with the incident photons. In the frequency chirp technique this is solved by rapidly changing the laser frequency so that the atoms remain in resonance. To achieve the necessary frequency sweep with a dye laser one must use an extremely sophisticated high-speed electrooptic modulator. With a diode laser, however, the frequency can be smoothly and rapidly varied over many gigahertz simply by changing the injection current

  1. Atomic molecular and optical physics

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Laser-assisted manufacturing and fiber-optics communications are but two of the products of atomic, molecular, and optical physics, (AMO) research. AMO physics provides theoretical and experimental methods and essential data to neighboring areas of science such as chemistry, astrophysics, condensed-matter physics, plasma physics, surface science, biology, and medicine. This book addresses advances in atomic, molecular, and optical fields and provides recommendations for further research. It also looks at scientific applications in national security, manufacturing, medicine, and other fields

  2. Dispositional Mindfulness and Depressive Symptomatology: Correlations with Limbic and Self-Referential Neural Activity during Rest

    Way, Baldwin M.; Creswell, J. David; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between mindfulness and depression, we studied normal young adults (n=27) who completed measures of dispositional mindfulness and depressive symptomatology, which were then correlated with: a) Rest: resting neural activity during passive viewing of a fixation cross, relative to a simple goal-directed task (shape-matching); and b) Reactivity: neural reactivity during viewing of negative emotional faces, relative to the same shape-matching task. Dispositional mindfulness was negatively correlated with resting activity in self-referential processing areas, while depressive symptomatology was positively correlated with resting activity in similar areas. In addition, dispositional mindfulness was negatively correlated with resting activity in the amygdala, bilaterally, while depressive symptomatology was positively correlated with activity in the right amygdala. Similarly, when viewing emotional faces, amygdala reactivity was positively correlated with depressive symptomatology and negatively correlated with dispositional mindfulness, an effect that was largely attributable to differences in resting activity. These findings indicate that mindfulness is associated with intrinsic neural activity and that changes in resting amygdala activity could be a potential mechanism by which mindfulness-based depression treatments elicit therapeutic improvement. PMID:20141298

  3. Atomic absorption spectrometry

    Haswell, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy is now well established and widely used technique for the determination of trace and major elements in a wide range analyte types. There have been many advances in the atomic spectroscopy over the last decade and for this reason and to meet the demand, it was felt that there was a need for an updated book. Whilst interest in instrumental design has tended to dominate the minds of the spectrocopist, the analyst concerned with obtaining reliable and representative data, in diverse areas of application, has been diligently modifying and developing sample treatment and instrumental introduction techniques. Such methodology is de fundamental part of analysis and form the basis of the fourteen application chapters of this book. The text focuses in the main on AAS; however, the sample handling techniques described are in many cases equally applicable to ICP-OES and ICP-MS analysis. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  4. Principal Areas of Activity to Improve the Monitoring of Nuclear Material Security and Accounting in the Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy, within the Framework of the Program of Cooperation with the United States of America

    Erastov, Victor V.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.

    2004-01-01

    One of the major elements of the Russian Federation state system of accounting and control of nuclear materials (SSAC NM) is a 'universal' oversight system for nuclear materials security covering MPC and A at the federal, agency and enterprise levels. Oversight of SSAC NM has always been considered important by the State. In 1951 an Order of the USSR Council of Ministers created a department responsible for the accounting and storing of nuclear materials at the enterprises. The accounting and storing of NM was assigned to the First Central administrative board of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (the former name of the Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russia). Originally this activity included, in general, oversight of the maintenance of secrecy and security during the performance of various kinds of work connected with special production (classified products and materials). Since 1995, beginning with the enactment of the Federal law 'On the use of atomic energy,' this activity has received additional development beyond organizational-methodological activities. Technical equipment and new technologies have been introduced into work on the control of nuclear materials security (for example, means of controlling access to nuclear material, equipment for detecting radiation from nuclear material, etc.). The questions connected to development and perfection of oversight activity are laid out in the 6th section of the Federal targeted program 'Nuclear and radiation safety of Russia' in which the overall working plan for the creation and perfection of the state system accounting and the control of nuclear material in Russia are described. Russian-American collaboration on MPC and A began nearly simultaneously with the enactment of the Law 'On the use of atomic energy.' The purpose of this collaborative program is the introduction of modern technologies in the area of nuclear materials security to the Russian installations using nuclear materials for industrial and

  5. Resting-state FMRI confounds and cleanup

    Murphy, Kevin; Birn, Rasmus M.; Bandettini, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is to investigate the brain’s functional connections by using the temporal similarity between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals in different regions of the brain “at rest” as an indicator of synchronous neural activity. Since this measure relies on the temporal correlation of FMRI signal changes between different parts of the brain, any non-neural activity-related process that affects the signals will influence the measure of functional connectivity, yielding spurious results. To understand the sources of these resting-state FMRI confounds, this article describes the origins of the BOLD signal in terms of MR physics and cerebral physiology. Potential confounds arising from motion, cardiac and respiratory cycles, arterial CO2 concentration, blood pressure/cerebral autoregulation, and vasomotion are discussed. Two classes of techniques to remove confounds from resting-state BOLD time series are reviewed: 1) those utilising external recordings of physiology and 2) data-based cleanup methods that only use the resting-state FMRI data itself. Further methods that remove noise from functional connectivity measures at a group level are also discussed. For successful interpretation of resting-state FMRI comparisons and results, noise cleanup is an often over-looked but essential step in the analysis pipeline. PMID:23571418

  6. Atomic reactor thermal engineering

    Kim, Gwang Ryong

    1983-02-01

    This book starts the introduction of atomic reactor thermal engineering including atomic reaction, chemical reaction, nuclear reaction neutron energy and soon. It explains heat transfer, heat production in the atomic reactor, heat transfer of fuel element in atomic reactor, heat transfer and flow of cooler, thermal design of atomic reactor, design of thermodynamics of atomic reactor and various. This deals with the basic knowledge of thermal engineering for atomic reactor.

  7. Atomic energy

    Ramanna, R.

    1978-01-01

    Development of nuclear science in India, particularly the research and development work at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay, is described. Among the wide range of materials developed for specific functions under rigorous conditions are nuclear pure grade uranium, zirconium and beryllium, and conventional materials like aluminium, carbon steel and stainless steels. Radioisotopes are produced and used for tracer studies in various fields. Various types of nuclear gauges and nuclear instruments are produced. Radiations have been used to develop new high yielding groundnut mutants with large kernals. The sterile male technique for pest control and radiosterilization technique to process potatoes, onions and marine foods for storage are ready for exploitation. Processes and equipment have been developed for production of electrolytic hydrogen, electrothermal phosphorus and desalinated water. Indigenously manufactured components and materials are now being used for the nuclear energy programme. Indian nuclear power programme strategy is to build heavy water reactors and to utilise their byproduct plutonium and depleted uranium to feed fast breeder reactors which will produce more fissile material than burnt. Finally a special mention has been made of the manpower development programme of the BARC. BARC has established a training school in 1957 giving advanced training in physics, chemistry and various branches of engineering and metallurgy

  8. Dirac Matrices and Feynman’s Rest of the Universe

    Young S. Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two sets of four-by-four matrices introduced by Dirac. The first set consists of fifteen Majorana matrices derivable from his four γ matrices. These fifteen matrices can also serve as the generators of the group SL(4, r. The second set consists of ten generators of the Sp(4 group which Dirac derived from two coupled harmonic oscillators. It is shown possible to extend the symmetry of Sp(4 to that of SL(4, r if the area of the phase space of one of the oscillators is allowed to become smaller without a lower limit. While there are no restrictions on the size of phase space in classical mechanics, Feynman’s rest of the universe makes this Sp(4-to-SL(4, r transition possible. The ten generators are for the world where quantum mechanics is valid. The remaining five generators belong to the rest of the universe. It is noted that the groups SL(4, r and Sp(4 are locally isomorphic to the Lorentz groups O(3, 3 and O(3, 2 respectively. This allows us to interpret Feynman’s rest of the universe in terms of space-time symmetry.

  9. Long range stress correlations in the inherent structures of liquids at rest

    Chowdhury, Sadrul; Abraham, Sneha; Hudson, Toby; Harrowell, Peter [School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2016-03-28

    Simulation studies of the atomic shear stress in the local potential energy minima (inherent structures) are reported for binary liquid mixtures in 2D and 3D. These inherent structure stresses are fundamental to slow stress relaxation and high viscosity in supercooled liquids. We find that the atomic shear stress in the inherent structures (IS’s) of both liquids at rest exhibits slowly decaying anisotropic correlations. We show that the stress correlations contribute significantly to the variance of the total shear stress of the IS configurations and consider the origins of the anisotropy and spatial extent of the stress correlations.

  10. Bremsstrahlung in atom-atom collisions

    Amus'ya, M.Y.; Kuchiev, M.Y.; Solov'ev, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that in the collision of a fast atom with a target atom when the frequencies are on the order of the potentials or higher, there arises bremsstrahlung comparable in intensity with the bremsstrahlung emitted by an electron with the same velocity in the field of the target atom. The mechanism by which bremsstrahlung is produced in atom-atom collisions is elucidated. Results of specific calculations of the bremsstrahlung spectra are given for α particles and helium atoms colliding with xenon

  11. Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats Authors: Gary E. Hatch, John McKee, James Brown, Bill McDonnell, Elston Seal, Joleen Soukup, Ralph Slade, Kay Crissman and Robert Devlin, National Health and Environmental...

  12. Exercise countermeasures for bed-rest deconditioning

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.

  13. REST in practice Hypermedia and systems architecture

    Webber, Jim; Robinson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Why don't typical enterprise projects go as smoothly as projects you develop for the Web? Does the REST architectural style really present a viable alternative for building distributed systems and enterprise-class applications? In this insightful book, three SOA experts provide a down-to-earth explanation of REST and demonstrate how you can develop simple and elegant distributed hypermedia systems by applying the Web's guiding principles to common enterprise computing problems. You'll learn techniques for implementing specific Web technologies and patterns to solve the needs of a typical com

  14. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition

    B. Alexander eDiaz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non-sensory experiences like mind wandering may arise from ongoing brain activity. However, little is known about the link between ongoing brain activity and cognition, as phenotypes of resting-state cognition—and tools to quantify them—have been lacking. To facilitate rapid and structured measurements of resting-state cognition we developed a 50-item self-report survey, the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ. Based on ARSQ data from 813 participants assessed after five minutes eyes-closed rest in their home, we identified seven dimensions of resting-state cognition using factor analysis: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Further, we showed that the structure of cognition was similar during resting-state fMRI and EEG, and that the test-retest correlations were remarkably high for all dimensions. To explore whether inter-individual variation of resting-state cognition is related to health status, we correlated ARSQ-derived factor scores with psychometric scales measuring depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Mental health correlated positively with Comfort and negatively with Discontinuity of Mind. Finally, we show that sleepiness may partially explain a resting-state EEG profile previously associated with Alzheimer’s disease. These findings indicate that the ARSQ readily provides information about cognitive phenotypes and that it is a promising tool for research on the neural correlates of resting-state cognition in health and disease.

  15. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition

    Diaz, B. Alexander; Van Der Sluis, Sophie; Moens, Sarah; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Migliorati, Filippo; Stoffers, Diederick; Den Braber, Anouk; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Hardstone, Richard; Van't Ent, Dennis; Boomsma, Dorret I.; De Geus, Eco; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non-sensory experiences like mind wandering may arise from ongoing brain activity. However, little is known about the link between ongoing brain activity and cognition, as phenotypes of resting-state cognition—and tools to quantify them—have been lacking. To facilitate rapid and structured measurements of resting-state cognition we developed a 50-item self-report survey, the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ). Based on ARSQ data from 813 participants assessed after 5 min eyes-closed rest in their home, we identified seven dimensions of resting-state cognition using factor analysis: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Further, we showed that the structure of cognition was similar during resting-state fMRI and EEG, and that the test-retest correlations were remarkably high for all dimensions. To explore whether inter-individual variation of resting-state cognition is related to health status, we correlated ARSQ-derived factor scores with psychometric scales measuring depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Mental health correlated positively with Comfort and negatively with Discontinuity of Mind. Finally, we show that sleepiness may partially explain a resting-state EEG profile previously associated with Alzheimer's disease. These findings indicate that the ARSQ readily provides information about cognitive phenotypes and that it is a promising tool for research on the neural correlates of resting-state cognition in health and disease. PMID:23964225

  16. Atomic physics using relativistic H- beams

    Bryant, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: An 8 GeV hydrogen atom can traverse a focused laser beam of width of 1 micron in a time of 353 attoseconds in its rest frame. A design is currently underway at Fermilab for a superconducting linear accelerator that will accelerate H - ions to 8 GeV. This 'Proton Driver' beam is intended to be injected, after stripping down to protons, into the 120 GeV Main Injector for the mass production of neutrinos aimed at a neutrino detector (MINOS) in a mine shaft in Soudan, Minnesota (USA) for the study of neutrino oscillations. It has not passed unnoticed that with some advance planning a few nanoamps from the up-to-250 mA beam could be diverted for atomic physics experiments. Relativistic kinematics enable the creation of extreme conditions for a beam atom. For example, the Doppler shift allows a very large tuning range in the atom's rest frame of a laser beam that is fixed- frequency in the lab. At 8 GeV the rest frame Doppler shift ranges from a factor of 19 in the forward direction to 0.05 backward. The laser intensity is enhanced by the square of the Doppler shift, so that the world's most intense laser beam would be amplified by a factor of 360 in the atom's rest frame. Furthermore, although there are extreme changes in the frequency and intensity in the atom's frame as one changes the intersection angle, the ponderomotive potential remains constant, as it is a relativistic invariant. One of the interesting problems that arises in the planning for this accelerator is the stripping of electrons from the negative ions by photodetachment from Doppler shifted thermal photons. We estimate that, if the transfer lines are kept at 300 K (room temperature), the mean free path at 8 GeV for stripping from collisions with cavity radiation is about 1300 km. The physics of the interactions of such a beam with very thin material foils, again in the attosecond regime, has been treated theoretically, but has not been studied experimentally at such high energies. We will

  17. 1 SHORT COMMUNICATION Resting behaviour of Anopheles ...

    2011-10-04

    Oct 4, 2011 ... Resting behaviour of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and its implication on malaria .... nature) were requested to sleep under the double mosquito net trap (one ... designed from the DNA sequences of the intergenic spacer region of ...

  18. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    Costes, D.

    2012-01-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  19. [Creep of amalgam fillings under clasp rests].

    Borchers, L; Jung, T; West, M

    1989-10-01

    A clinically realistic experiment was set up to obtain information on the amount of vertical settling of clasp rests in amalgam restorations under functional loading. Mesioocclusal cavities were prepared in 16 lower molar specimens cast in brass. The cavities were filled with amalgam and provided with a mesial rest seat. A constant load of 100 N was applied via a simplified (experimental) saddle to a cobalt-chromium E-clasp cast to the saddle. The duration of the load corresponded to 160 days of clinical function. The chronological course of vertical displacement was analyzed mathematically. According to this result the process can be divided into three components: settling immediately upon load initiation (mean value 96 microns, transition creep (mean value 25 microns) and creep ata constant rate (mean value 15 microns). The mean overall vertical displacement of the rests was 136 microns, the maximum value 287 microns. These findings suggest that vertical settling of a clasp rest into its seat in an amalgam restoration may eventually result in significant changes in occlusion and may almost completely exhaust gingival resilience.

  20. Atomic weight versus atomic mass controversy

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    A problem for the Atomic Weights Commission for the past decade has been the controversial battle over the names ''atomic weight'' and ''atomic mass''. The Commission has considered the arguments on both sides over the years and it appears that this meeting will see more of the same discussion taking place. In this paper, I review the situation and offer some alternatives

  1. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  2. Influence of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 surface treatments on the properties of 30 × 30 cm2 large area modules with atomic layer deposited Zn(O,S) buffers

    Merdes, S.; Steigert, A.; Ziem, F.; Lauermann, I.; Klenk, R.; Hergert, F.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Schlatmann, R.

    2015-01-01

    We report the effect of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) 2 absorber surface treatments on the properties of atomic layer deposited-Zn(O,S) buffered 30 × 30 cm 2 large area modules. The absorber is prepared by the sequential process. H 2 O and KCN solution treatments are investigated. The absorber surface treatment is found to influence significantly the open circuit voltage and the fill factor of the full modules. Light soaking related metastabilities are also found to depend on the type of treatment. While both H 2 O and KCN treatments are efficient at removing Se-oxides and Na 2 HCO 3 , the KCN treatment is found to remove additionally Ga-oxides and elemental Se that are detected on the surface of the absorber. A 30 × 30 cm 2 module aperture efficiency up to 12.3% could be achieved with KCN surface treatment of the absorber. - Highlights: • The Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) 2 surface influences the Zn(O,S)-buffered module performance. • Surface treatment by H 2 O efficiently removes Se-oxides and sodium compounds. • KCN treatment of the absorber removes Se-oxides, Ga-oxides and elemental Se. • The devices' light soaking behavior depends on the absorber's surface chemistry. • A 30 × 30 cm 2 module efficiency of 12.3% is achieved with KCN treatment

  3. Determination of water quality of ground water in selected Payatas residential areas using ion-selective electrodes (ISE) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) (determination of NO3, Cl, Pb, Cd, Zn)

    Tahir, Samsudin A.; Roque, Willie P.; Arididon, Bonifacio D. Jr.; Gardon, Ruel W.

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to determine the water-soluble ions using ion-selective electrodes (ISE) and trace metals using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Seven water samples were chosen from the thirteen sites, which were gathered from the selected Payatas residential areas in Quezon City. For the trace metals the lowest detection of AAS in lead was obtained in La Brea site and was found to be -0.5 ppm. Lead content has a value of -0.04 ppm and was found to be below the detection limit of 0.1 ppm. The remaining sites obtained high value of lead concentrations in AAS reading. The range of concentration for lead was from 0.5 ppm for La Brea site to 1.4 ppm for Velasco site. The cadmium as trace metal in groundwater samples from Payatas residential area was found to be below the lowest limit of detection ( 3 which is 15.6 ppm and it was obtained by the used of ion selective electrodes (ISE) Horiba model type. Second to it was the La Brea site, which is 10.04 ppm All the other samples do not exceeds to the maximum allowable concentration of nitrate (50.0 ppm), and it ranged from 4.10 ppm for open-well site to 15.6 ppm for Lopez site. In chloride determination, Lagro High School obtained a reading of 57.6 ppm using ISE and it was the highest concentration amount present in seven samples. Next to it was the Ungrin site (36.8 ppm), samples ranged from 6.7 ppm for La Brea site to 57.6 ppm for Lagro high school site. All the samples do not exceeds to the maximum allowable concentration for chloride, which is 250 ppm. (Authors)

  4. REST: a toolkit for resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data processing.

    Xiao-Wei Song

    Full Text Available Resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI has been drawing more and more attention in recent years. However, a publicly available, systematically integrated and easy-to-use tool for RS-fMRI data processing is still lacking. We developed a toolkit for the analysis of RS-fMRI data, namely the RESting-state fMRI data analysis Toolkit (REST. REST was developed in MATLAB with graphical user interface (GUI. After data preprocessing with SPM or AFNI, a few analytic methods can be performed in REST, including functional connectivity analysis based on linear correlation, regional homogeneity, amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF, and fractional ALFF. A few additional functions were implemented in REST, including a DICOM sorter, linear trend removal, bandpass filtering, time course extraction, regression of covariates, image calculator, statistical analysis, and slice viewer (for result visualization, multiple comparison correction, etc.. REST is an open-source package and is freely available at http://www.restfmri.net.

  5. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Brain Functional Connectivity and Sensorimotor Functioning

    Cassady, K.; Koppelmans, V.; De Dios, Y.; Stepanyan, V.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S.; Reuter-Lorenz, P.; Castenada, R. Riascos; Kofman, I.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight has been associated with detrimental alterations in human sensorimotor functioning. Prolonged exposure to a head-down tilt (HDT) position during long duration bed rest can resemble several effects of the microgravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The question of whether microgravity affects other central nervous system functions such as brain functional connectivity and its relationship with behavior is largely unknown, but of importance to the health and performance of astronauts both during and post-flight. In the present study, we investigate the effects of prolonged exposure to HDT bed rest on resting state brain functional connectivity and its association with behavioral changes in 17 male participants. To validate that our findings were not due to confounding factors such as time or task practice, we also acquired resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and behavioral measurements from 14 normative control participants at four time points. Bed rest participants remained in bed with their heads tilted down six degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Rs-fMRI and behavioral data were obtained at seven time points averaging around: 12 and 8 days prior to bed rest; 7, 50, and 70 days during bed rest; and 8 and 12 days after bed rest. 70 days of HDT bed rest resulted in significant increases in functional connectivity during bed rest followed by a reversal of changes in the post bed rest recovery period between motor cortical and somatosensory areas of the brain. In contrast, decreases in connectivity were observed between temporoparietal regions. Furthermore, post-hoc correlation analyses revealed a significant relationship between motor-somatosensory network connectivity and standing balance performance changes; participants that exhibited the greatest increases in connectivity strength showed the least deterioration in postural

  6. Highly excited atoms

    Kleppner, D.; Littman, M.G.; Zimmerman, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Highly excited atoms are often called Rydberg atoms. These atoms have a wealth of exotic properties which are discussed. Of special interest, are the effects of electric and magnetic fields on Rydberg atoms. Ordinary atoms are scarcely affected by an applied electric or magnetic field; Rydberg atoms can be strongly distorted and even pulled apart by a relatively weak electric field, and they can be squeezed into unexpected shapes by a magnetic field. Studies of the structure of Rydberg atoms in electric and magnetic fields have revealed dramatic atomic phenomena that had not been observed before

  7. Laser-assisted atom-atom collisions

    Roussel, F.

    1984-01-01

    The basic layer-assisted atom-atom collision processes are reviewed in order to get a simpler picture of the main physical facts. The processes can be separated into two groups: optical collisions where only one atom is changing state during the collision, the other acting as a spectator atom, and radiative collisions where the states of the two atoms are changing during the collision. All the processes can be interpreted in terms of photoexcitation of the quasimolecule formed during the collisional process. (author)

  8. Atmospheric spatial atomic-layer-deposition of Zn(O, S) buffer layer for flexible Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells: From lab-scale to large area roll to roll processing

    Frijters, C.H.; Bolt, P.J.; Poodt, P.W.G.; Knaapen, R.; Brink, J. van den; Ruth, M.; Bremaud, D.; Illiberi, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript we present the first successful application of a spatial atomic-layer-deposition process to thin film solar cells. Zn(O,S) has been grown by spatial atomic layer deposition (S-ALD) at atmospheric pressure and applied as buffer layer in rigid and flexible CIGS cells by a lab-scale

  9. Code ATOM for calculation of atomic characteristics

    Vainshtein, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    In applying atomic physics to problems of plasma diagnostics, it is necessary to determine some atomic characteristics, including energies and transition probabilities, for very many atoms and ions. Development of general codes for calculation of many types of atomic characteristics has been based on general but comparatively simple approximate methods. The program ATOM represents an attempt at effective use of such a general code. This report gives a brief description of the methods used, and the possibilities of and limitations to the code are discussed. Characteristics of the following processes can be calculated by ATOM: radiative transitions between discrete levels, radiative ionization and recombination, collisional excitation and ionization by electron impact, collisional excitation and ionization by point heavy particle (Born approximation only), dielectronic recombination, and autoionization. ATOM explores Born (for z=1) or Coulomb-Born (for z>1) approximations. In both cases exchange and normalization can be included. (N.K.)

  10. Atomic iodine laser

    Fisk, G.A.; Gusinow, M.A.; Hays, A.K.; Padrick, T.D.; Palmer, R.E.; Rice, J.K.; Truby, F.K.; Riley, M.E.

    1978-05-01

    The atomic iodine photodissociation laser has been under intensive study for a number of years. The physics associated with this system is now well understood and it is possible to produce a 0.1 nsec (or longer) near-diffraction-limited laser pulse which can be amplified with negligible temporal distortion and little spatial deformation. The output of either a saturated or unsaturated amplifier consists of a high-fidelity near-diffraction-limited, energetic laser pulse. The report is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 is a survey of the important areas affecting efficient laser operation and summarizes the findings of Chap. 2. Chapter 2 presents detailed discussions and evaluations pertinent to pumps, chemical regeneration, and other elements in the overall laser system. Chapter 3 briefly discusses those areas that require further work and the nature of the work required to complete the full-scale evaluation of the applicability of the iodine photodissociation laser to the inertial confinement program

  11. Changes of resting cerebral activities in subacute ischemic stroke patients

    Ping Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to detect the difference in resting cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants, define the abnormal site, and provide new evidence for pathological mechanisms, clinical diagnosis, prognosis prediction and efficacy evaluation of ischemic stroke. At present, the majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies focus on the motor dysfunction and the acute stage of ischemic stroke. This study recruited 15 right-handed ischemic stroke patients at subacute stage (15 days to 11.5 weeks and 15 age-matched healthy participants. A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed on each subject to detect cerebral activity. Regional homogeneity analysis was used to investigate the difference in cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants. The results showed that the ischemic stroke patients had lower regional homogeneity in anterior cingulate and left cerebrum and higher regional homogeneity in cerebellum, left precuneus and left frontal lobe, compared with healthy participants. The experimental findings demonstrate that the areas in which regional homogeneity was different between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants are in the cerebellum, left precuneus, left triangle inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate. These locations, related to the motor, sensory and emotion areas, are likely potential targets for the neural regeneration of subacute ischemic stroke patients.

  12. Increased interhemispheric resting-state functional connectivity after sleep deprivation: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Zhu, Yuanqiang; Feng, Zhiyan; Xu, Junling; Fu, Chang; Sun, Jinbo; Yang, Xuejuan; Shi, Dapeng; Qin, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Several functional imaging studies have investigated the regional effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on impaired brain function; however, potential changes in the functional interactions between the cerebral hemispheres after SD are not well understood. In this study, we used a recently validated approach, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC), to directly examine the changes in interhemispheric homotopic resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) after SD. Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) was performed in 28 participants both after rest wakefulness (RW) and a total night of SD. An interhemispheric RSFC map was obtained by calculating the Pearson correlation (Fisher Z transformed) between each pair of homotopic voxel time series for each subject in each condition. The between-condition differences in interhemispheric RSFC were then examined at global and voxelwise levels separately. Significantly increased global VMHC was found after sleep deprivation; specifically, a significant increase in VMHC was found in specific brain regions, including the thalamus, paracentral lobule, supplementary motor area, postcentral gyrus and lingual gyrus. No regions showed significantly reduced VMHC after sleep deprivation. Further analysis indicates that these findings did not depend on the various sizes of smoothing kernels that were adopted in the preprocessing steps and that the differences in these regions were still significant with or without global signal regression. Our data suggest that the increased VMHC might reflect the compensatory involvement of bilateral brain areas, especially the bilateral thalamus, to prevent cognitive performance deterioration when sleep pressure is elevated after sleep deprivation. Our findings provide preliminary evidence of interhemispheric correlation changes after SD and contribute to a better understanding of the neural mechanisms of SD.

  13. Atomic, molecular and optical physics

    1990-01-01

    This is related to the actual situation and perspectives of atomic, molecular and optical physics in Brazil. It gives a general overview of the most important research groups in the above mentioned areas. It discusses as well, the future trends of Brazilian universities and the financing of these groups. (A.C.A.S.)

  14. On the spontaneous radiative decay of a moving atom

    Voitkiv, A B; Najjari, B; Ullrich, J

    2007-01-01

    We consider the relationship between the spontaneous radiative decay of an atom at rest and of an atom moving with a constant velocity. Based on the relativistic form, A μ j μ , of the field-current interaction we analyse two situations. In the first of them the radiative decay of a single atom is considered by using two different reference frames. In the second, a single reference frame is used to describe the radiative decay of two identical atoms, one of which is at rest in this frame and the other one moves with a constant velocity. Although in special relativity only the relative velocity between a source and an observer matters, there are subtle differences in the analysis of these situations: within the framework of the first situation one deals only with the Lorentz transformation, which is insensitive to whether exact or approximate atomic wave functions are used in the analysis, whereas the analysis of the second situation involves a gauge transformation which in general is not compatible with using approximate atomic wave functions. We have also shown that this gauge transformation can be used as a test for the accuracy of approximate atomic states obtained in atomic structure calculations

  15. Information Flow Between Resting-State Networks.

    Diez, Ibai; Erramuzpe, Asier; Escudero, Iñaki; Mateos, Beatriz; Cabrera, Alberto; Marinazzo, Daniele; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto J; Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Cortes Diaz, Jesus M

    2015-11-01

    The resting brain dynamics self-organize into a finite number of correlated patterns known as resting-state networks (RSNs). It is well known that techniques such as independent component analysis can separate the brain activity at rest to provide such RSNs, but the specific pattern of interaction between RSNs is not yet fully understood. To this aim, we propose here a novel method to compute the information flow (IF) between different RSNs from resting-state magnetic resonance imaging. After hemodynamic response function blind deconvolution of all voxel signals, and under the hypothesis that RSNs define regions of interest, our method first uses principal component analysis to reduce dimensionality in each RSN to next compute IF (estimated here in terms of transfer entropy) between the different RSNs by systematically increasing k (the number of principal components used in the calculation). When k=1, this method is equivalent to computing IF using the average of all voxel activities in each RSN. For k≥1, our method calculates the k multivariate IF between the different RSNs. We find that the average IF among RSNs is dimension dependent, increasing from k=1 (i.e., the average voxel activity) up to a maximum occurring at k=5 and to finally decay to zero for k≥10. This suggests that a small number of components (close to five) is sufficient to describe the IF pattern between RSNs. Our method--addressing differences in IF between RSNs for any generic data--can be used for group comparison in health or disease. To illustrate this, we have calculated the inter-RSN IF in a data set of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to find that the most significant differences between AD and controls occurred for k=2, in addition to AD showing increased IF w.r.t. The spatial localization of the k=2 component, within RSNs, allows the characterization of IF differences between AD and controls.

  16. Annihilation of antiproton on deuteron at rest

    Grach, I.; Shmatikov, M.

    1982-01-01

    The system of Faddeev equations for amplitudes of anti pD iteraction at rest accounting for higher partial anti NN waves is derived. From its solution the total and elastic anti pD cross sections are calculated. Predictions for the missing-mass spectrum in the anti pD annihilation are made. The P-wave anti NN states give small contribution to the anti pD cross section at rest, the theoretical value of the latter being less than the experimental cross section extrapolated to the threshold. Let us emphasize that the total anti pD cross section depending weakly on the radii of anti NN interactions is sensitive to the values of the anti NN scattering lengths. Experimental data for anti pD cross sections at rest can be obtained only by extrapolation procedure. Henceforth it is very important to investigate the anti pD interactions at low but non-zero momenta where the direct comparison to the experiment is possible [ru

  17. Atomic fountain and applications

    Rawat, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the development of working of MOT along with the basic principle of laser atom cooling and trapping is given. A technique to separate the cooled and trapped atoms from the MOT using atomic fountain technique will also be covered. The widely used technique for atomic fountain is, first to cool and trap the neutral atoms in MOT and then launch them in the vertical direction, using moving molasses technique. Using 133 Cs atomic fountain clock, time improvement of 2 to 3 order of magnitude over a conventional 133 Cs atomic clock has been observed

  18. Interferometry with atoms

    Helmcke, J.; Riehle, F.; Witte, A.; Kisters, T.

    1992-01-01

    Physics and experimental results of atom interferometry are reviewed and several realizations of atom interferometers are summarized. As a typical example of an atom interferometer utilizing the internal degrees of freedom of the atom, we discuss the separated field excitation of a calcium atomic beam using four traveling laser fields and demonstrate the Sagnac effect in a rotating interferometer. The sensitivity of this interferometer can be largely increased by use of slow atoms with narrow velocity distribution. We therefore furthermore report on the preparation of a laser cooled and deflected calcium atomic beam. (orig.)

  19. Electron affinities of atoms, molecules, and radicals

    Christodoulides, A.A.; McCorkle, D.L.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    We review briefly but comprehensively the theoretical, semiempirical and experimental methods employed to determine electron affinities (EAs) of atoms, molecules and radicals, and summarize the EA data obtained by these methods. The detailed processes underlying the principles of the experimental methods are discussed very briefly. It is, nonetheless, instructive to recapitulate the definition of EA and those of the related quantities, namely, the vertical detachment energy, VDE, and the vertical attachment energy, VAE. The EA of an atom is defined as the difference in total energy between the ground state of the neutral atom (plus the electron at rest at infinity) and its negative ion. The EA of a molecule is defined as the difference in energy between the neutral molecule plus an electron at rest at infinity and the molecular negative ion when both, the neutral molecules and the negative ion, are in their ground electronic, vibrational and rotational states. The VDE is defined as the minimum energy required to eject the electron from the negative ion (in its ground electronic and nuclear state) without changing the internuclear separation; since the vertical transition may leave the neutral molecule in an excited vibrational/rotational state, the VDE, although the same as the EA for atoms is, in general, different (larger than), from the EA for molecules. Similarly, the VAE is defined as the difference in energy between the neutral molecule in its ground electronic, vibrational and rotational states plus an electron at rest at infinity and the molecular negative ion formed by addition of an electron to the neutral molecule without allowing a change in the intermolecular separation of the constituent nuclei; it is a quantity appropriate to those cases where the lowest negative ion state lies above the ground states of the neutral species and is less or equal to EA

  20. Three-atom clusters

    Pen'kov, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Born-Oppenheimer approximation is used to obtain an equation for the effective interaction in three atoms bound by a single electron. For low binding energies in an 'electron + atom' pair, long-range forces arise between the atoms, leading to bound states when the size of the three-atom cluster is a few tens of angstrom. A system made of alkali-metal atoms is considered as an example

  1. Stable atomic hydrogen: Polarized atomic beam source

    Niinikoski, T.O.; Penttilae, S.; Rieubland, J.M.; Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    We have carried out experiments with stable atomic hydrogen with a view to possible applications in polarized targets or polarized atomic beam sources. Recent results from the stabilization apparatus are described. The first stable atomic hydrogen beam source based on the microwave extraction method (which is being tested ) is presented. The effect of the stabilized hydrogen gas density on the properties of the source is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with vegetation and soil parameters under rest grazing management in a desert steppe ecosystem.

    Bai, Gegenbaoleer; Bao, Yuying; Du, Guoxin; Qi, Yunlong

    2013-05-01

    The impact of rest grazing on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the interactions of AMF with vegetation and soil parameters under rest grazing condition were investigated between spring and late summer in a desert steppe ecosystem with different grazing managements (rest grazing with different lengths of resting period, banned or continuous grazing) in Inner Mongolia, China. AMF diversity and colonization, vegetation biomass, soil properties and soil phosphatase activity were examined. In rest grazing areas of 60 days, AMF spore number and diversity index at a 0-10 cm soil depth as well as vesicular and hyphal colonization rates were higher compared with other grazing treatments. In addition, soil organic matter and total N contents were highest and soil alkaline phosphatase was most active under 60-day rest grazing. In August and September, these areas also had the highest amount of aboveground vegetation. The results indicated that resting grazing for an appropriate period of time in spring has a positive effect on AMF sporulation, colonization and diversity, and that under rest grazing conditions, AMF parameters are positively correlated with some soil characteristics.

  3. Energy dissipation unveils atomic displacement in the noncontact atomic force microscopy imaging of Si(111 )-(7 ×7 )

    Arai, Toyoko; Inamura, Ryo; Kura, Daiki; Tomitori, Masahiko

    2018-03-01

    The kinetic energy of the oscillating cantilever of noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) at room temperature was considerably dissipated over regions between a Si adatom and its neighboring rest atom for Si(111 )-(7 ×7 ) in close proximity to a Si tip on the cantilever. However, nc-AFM topographic images showed no atomic features over those regions, which were the hollow sites of the (7 ×7 ). This energy dissipation likely originated from displacement of Si adatoms with respect to the tip over the hollow sites, leading to a lateral shift of the adatoms toward the rest atom. This interaction led to hysteresis over each cantilever oscillation cycle; when the tip was retracted, the Si adatom likely returned to its original position. To confirm the atomic processes involved in the force interactions through Si dangling bonds, the Si(111 )-(7 ×7 ) surface was partly terminated with atomic hydrogen (H) and examined by nc-AFM. When the Si adatoms and/or the rest atoms were terminated with H, the hollow sites were not bright (less dissipation) in images of the energy dissipation channels by nc-AFM. The hollow sites acted as metastable sites for Si adatoms in surface diffusion and atom manipulation; thus, the dissipation energy which is saturated on the tip likely corresponds to the difference in the potential energy between the hollow site and the Si adatom site. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of dissipation channels of nc-AFM to enable visualization of the dynamics of atoms and molecules on surfaces, which cannot be revealed by nc-AFM topographic images alone.

  4. Regional homogeneity and resting state functional connectivity: associations with exposure to early life stress.

    Philip, Noah S; Kuras, Yuliya I; Valentine, Thomas R; Sweet, Lawrence H; Tyrka, Audrey R; Price, Lawrence H; Carpenter, Linda L

    2013-12-30

    Early life stress (ELS) confers risk for psychiatric illness. Previous literature suggests ELS is associated with decreased resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in adulthood, but there are no studies of resting-state neuronal activity in this population. This study investigated whether ELS-exposed individuals demonstrate resting-state activity patterns similar to those found in PTSD. Twenty-seven adults (14 with at least moderate ELS), who were medication-free and without psychiatric or medical illness, underwent MRI scans during two 4-minute rest periods. Resting-state activity was examined using regional homogeneity (ReHo), which estimates regional activation patterns through indices of localized concordance. ReHo values were compared between groups, followed by rs-FC analyses utilizing ReHo-localized areas as seeds to identify other involved regions. Relative to controls, ELS subjects demonstrated diminished ReHo in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and superior temporal gyrus (STG). ReHo values were inversely correlated with ELS severity. Secondary analyses revealed decreased rs-FC between the IPL and right precuneus/posterior cingulate, left fusiform gyrus, cerebellum and caudate in ELS subjects. These findings indicate that ELS is associated with altered resting-state activity and connectivity in brain regions involved in trauma-related psychiatric disorders. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether these associations represent potential imaging biomarkers of stress exposure. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Gold volatile species atomization and preconcentration in quartz devices for atomic absorption spectrometry

    Arslan, Yasin [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v. v. i., Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Faculty of Arts & Sciences, Chemistry Department, 15030 Burdur (Turkey); Musil, Stanislav; Matoušek, Tomáš; Kratzer, Jan [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v. v. i., Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Dědina, Jiří, E-mail: dedina@biomed.cas.cz [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v. v. i., Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-01

    The on-line atomization of gold volatile species was studied and the results were compared with thermodynamic calculations in several quartz atomizers, namely: diffusion flame, flame-in-gas-shield, flame-in-plain-tube, externally heated T-tube and externally heated flame-in-T-tube. Atomization mechanism in the explored devices is proposed, where volatile species are converted to thermodynamically stable AuH at elevated temperature over 500 °C and then atomized by an interaction with a cloud of hydrogen radicals. Because of its inherent simplicity and robustness, diffusion flame was employed as a reference atomizer. It yielded atomization efficiency of 70 to 100% and a very good long time reproducibility of peak area sensitivity: 1.6 to 1.8 s μg{sup −1}. Six and eleven times higher sensitivity, respectively, was provided by atomizers with longer light paths in the observation volume, i.e. externally heated T-tube and externally heated flame-in-T-tube. The latter one, offering limit of detection below 0.01 μg ml{sup −1}, appeared as the most prospective for on-line atomization. Insight into the mechanism of atomization of gold volatile species, into the fate of free atoms and into subsequent analyte transfer allowed to assess possibilities of in-atomizer preconcentration of gold volatile species: it is unfeasible with quartz atomizers but a sapphire tube atomizer could be useful in this respect. - Highlights: • On-line atomization of gold volatile species for AAS in quartz devices was studied. • Atomization mechanism was proposed and atomization efficiency was estimated. • Possibilities of in-atomizer preconcentration of gold volatile species were assessed.

  6. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    Berman, Paul R; Arimondo, Ennio

    2006-01-01

    Volume 54 of the Advances Series contains ten contributions, covering a diversity of subject areas in atomic, molecular and optical physics. The article by Regal and Jin reviews the properties of a Fermi degenerate gas of cold potassium atoms in the crossover regime between the Bose-Einstein condensation of molecules and the condensation of fermionic atom pairs. The transition between the two regions can be probed by varying an external magnetic field. Sherson, Julsgaard and Polzik explore the manner in which light and atoms can be entangled, with applications to quantum information processing

  7. Cross coherence independent component analysis in resting and action states EEG discrimination

    Almurshedi, A; Ismail, A K

    2014-01-01

    Cross Coherence time frequency transform and independent component analysis (ICA) method were used to analyse the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in resting and action states during open and close eyes conditions. From the topographical scalp distributions of delta, theta, alpha, and beta power spectrum can clearly discriminate between the signal when the eyes were open or closed, but it was difficult to distinguish between resting and action states when the eyes were closed. In open eyes condition, the frontal area (Fp1, Fp2) was activated (higher power) in delta and theta bands whilst occipital (O1, O2) and partial (P3, P4, Pz) area of brain was activated alpha band in closed eyes condition. The cross coherence method of time frequency analysis is capable of discrimination between rest and action brain signals in closed eyes condition

  8. Microfabricated Waveguide Atom Traps.

    Jau, Yuan-Yu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A nanoscale , microfabricated waveguide structure can in - principle be used to trap atoms in well - defined locations and enable strong photon-atom interactions . A neutral - atom platform based on this microfabrication technology will be prealigned , which is especially important for quantum - control applications. At present, there is still no reported demonstration of evanescent - field atom trapping using a microfabricated waveguide structure. We described the capabilities established by our team for future development of the waveguide atom - trapping technology at SNL and report our studies to overcome the technical challenges of loading cold atoms into the waveguide atom traps, efficient and broadband optical coupling to a waveguide, and the waveguide material for high - power optical transmission. From the atomic - physics and the waveguide modeling, w e have shown that a square nano-waveguide can be utilized t o achieve better atomic spin squeezing than using a nanofiber for first time.

  9. Compilation and evaluation of atomic and molecular data relevant to controlled thermonuclear research needs: USA programs

    Barnett, C.F.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. role in the compilation and evaluation of atomic data for controlled thermonuclear research is discussed in the following three areas: (1) atomic structure data, (2) atomic collision data, and (3) surface data

  10. Atomic imaging of an InSe single-crystal surface with atomic force microscope

    Uosaki, Kohei; Koinuma, Michio

    1993-01-01

    The atomic force microscope was employed to observed in air the surface atomic structure of InSe, one of III-VI compound semiconductors with layered structures. Atomic arrangements were observed in both n-type and p-type materials. The observed structures are in good agreement with those expected from bulk crystal structures. The atomic images became less clear by repeating the imaging process. Wide area imaging after the imaging of small area clearly showed that a mound was created at the sp...

  11. An atomic empire a technical history of the rise and fall of the British atomic energy programme

    Hill, C N

    2013-01-01

    Britain was the first country to exploit atomic energy on a large scale, and at its peak in the mid-1960s, it had generated more electricity from nuclear power than the rest of the world combined.The civil atomic energy programme grew out of the military programme which produced plutonium for atomic weapons. In 1956, Calder Hall power station was opened by the Queen. The very next year, one of the early Windscale reactors caught fire and the world's first major nuclear accident occurred.The civil programme ran into further difficulty in the mid-1960s and as a consequence of procrastination in

  12. Atomic Fisher information versus atomic number

    Nagy, A.; Sen, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the Thomas-Fermi Fisher information is negative. A slightly more sophisticated model proposed by Gaspar provides a qualitatively correct expression for the Fisher information: Gaspar's Fisher information is proportional to the two-third power of the atomic number. Accurate numerical calculations show an almost linear dependence on the atomic number

  13. Resting-state functional connectivity differences in premature children

    Eswar Damaraju

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the coherence in the spontaneous brain activity of sleeping children as measured by the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI signals. The results are described in terms of resting-state networks (RSN and their properties. More specifically, in this study we examine the effect of severe prematurity on the spatial location of the visual, temporal, motor, basal ganglia, and the default mode networks, the temporal response properties of each of these networks, and the functional connectivity between them. Our results suggest that the anatomical locations of the RSNs are well developed by 18 months of age and their spatial locations are not distinguishable between premature and term born infants at 18 months or at 36 months, with the exception of small spatial differences noted in the basal ganglia area and the visual cortex. The two major differences between term and preterm children were present at 36 but not 18 months and include: 1 increased spectral energy in the low frequency range (0.01 – 0.06 Hz for pre-term children in the basal ganglia component, and 2 stronger connectivity between RSNs in term children. We speculate that children born very prematurely are vulnerable to injury resulting in weaker connectivity between resting state networks by 36 months of age. Further work is required to determine whether this could be a clinically useful tool to identify children at risk of developmental delay related to premature birth.

  14. Habenula functional resting-state connectivity in pediatric CRPS.

    Erpelding, Nathalie; Sava, Simona; Simons, Laura E; Lebel, Alyssa; Serrano, Paul; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    The habenula (Hb) is a small brain structure located in the posterior end of the medial dorsal thalamus and through medial (MHb) and lateral (LHb) Hb connections, it acts as a conduit of information between forebrain and brainstem structures. The role of the Hb in pain processing is well documented in animals and recently also in acute experimental pain in humans. However, its function remains unknown in chronic pain disorders. Here, we investigated Hb resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) compared with healthy controls. Twelve pediatric patients with unilateral lower-extremity CRPS (9 females; 10-17 yr) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls provided informed consent to participate in the study. In healthy controls, Hb functional connections largely overlapped with previously described anatomical connections in cortical, subcortical, and brainstem structures. Compared with controls, patients exhibited an overall Hb rsFC reduction with the rest of the brain and, specifically, with the anterior midcingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor cortex, primary motor cortex, and premotor cortex. Our results suggest that Hb rsFC parallels anatomical Hb connections in the healthy state and that overall Hb rsFC is reduced in patients, particularly connections with forebrain areas. Patients' decreased Hb rsFC to brain regions implicated in motor, affective, cognitive, and pain inhibitory/modulatory processes may contribute to their symptomatology.

  15. Framework for ReSTful Web Services in OSGi

    Shams, Khawaja S.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Mittman, David S.; Fox, Jason M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Wallick, Michael N.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Rabe, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ensemble ReST is a software system that eases the development, deployment, and maintenance of server-side application programs to perform functions that would otherwise be performed by client software. Ensemble ReST takes advantage of the proven disciplines of ReST (Representational State Transfer. ReST leverages the standardized HTTP protocol to enable developers to offer services to a diverse variety of clients: from shell scripts to sophisticated Java application suites

  16. Atomic-fluorescence spectrophotometry

    Bakhturova, N.F.; Yudelevich, I.G.

    1975-01-01

    Atomic-fluorescence spectrophotometry, a comparatively new method for the analysis of trace quantities, has developed rapidly in the past ten years. Theoretical and experimental studies by many workers have shown that atomic-fluorescence spectrophotometry (AFS) is capable of achieving a better limit than atomic absorption for a large number of elements. The present review examines briefly the principles of atomic-fluorescence spectrophotometry and the types of fluorescent transition. The excitation sources, flame and nonflame atomizers, used in AFS are described. The limits of detection achieved up to the present, using flame and nonflame methods of atomization are given

  17. Nephrogenic rests mimicking Wilms' tumor on CT

    Subhas, Naveen; Siegelman, Stanley S.; Argani, Pedram; Gearhart, John P.

    2004-01-01

    Nephrogenic rests (NR) are persistent benign remnants of embryonic renal tissue. A small percentage of these may develop into Wilms' tumor (WT). Radiologic imaging is relied upon to differentiate between these entities, with the hallmark of malignant transformation being growth on serial imaging studies. There is, however, considerable overlap in their imaging characteristics. The authors present a case of two biopsy-proven NR in a 2-year-old girl with sporadic aniridia that were indistinguishable from WT on initial radiologic studies. One of the NR grew on serial imaging studies mimicking a WT, but after resection was confirmed to be a benign hyperplastic NR on pathologic examination. (orig.)

  18. Hypoxic responses in resting hyperthermic humans

    Curtis, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This thesis investigated the interaction between steady state hypoxia and passive hyperthermia on human ventilation and the influence of the PETCO2 on this interaction. On one of two days males twice breathed 12% oxygen for 20 min while either normothermic or hyperthermic with PETCO2 clamped -1 mm Hg above resting (iHVR). On the other day the same tests were performed except P&02 was uncontrolled (pHVR). Hyperthermia increased euoxic ventilation compared to normothermia (plO.OO1). During ...

  19. Proton spin structure in the rest frame

    Zavada, P.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that the quark-parton model in the standard infinite momentum approach overestimates the proton spin structure function g 1 (x) in comparison with the approach taking consistently into account the internal motion of quarks described by a spherical phase space in the proton rest frame. Particularly, it is shown the first moment of the spin structure function in the latter approach, assuming only the valence quarks contribution to the proton spin, does not contradict the experimental data. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality ...

    Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality of sheep without enhancing environmental benefits. ... This experiment was established to compare three intensive rotational grazing strategies (fast rotation [FR], average 57-day rest; slow rotation [SR], average 114-day rest; and flexible grazing [FX], based ...

  1. Comparison of Ocular Outcomes in Two 14-Day Bed Rest Studies

    Cromwell, R. L.; Zanello, S. B.; Yarbough, P. O.; Taibbi, G.; Vizzeri, G.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of astronauts visual changes raised concern about ocular health during long-duration spaceflight. Some of these findings included hyperopic shifts, choroidal folds, optic disc edema, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickening, and cotton wool spots. While the etiology remains unknown, hypotheses speculate that hypertension in the brain caused by cephalad fluid shifts during spaceflight is a possible mechanism for these ocular changes. Head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest is a spaceflight analog that induces cephalad fluid shifts. In addition, previous studies of the HDT position demonstrated body fluid shifts associated with changes in intraocular pressure (IOP). For these reasons, vision monitoring of HDT bed rest subjects was implemented for NASA bed rest studies. Subjects selected for these studies were healthy adults (14 males and 5 females). Average age was 37.5 plus or minus 9.1 years, weight was 77.4 plus or minus 11.3 Kg, and height was 173.4 plus or minus 7.2 14 cm. Controlled conditions followed for all NASA bed rest studies were implemented. These conditions included factors such as eating a standardized diet, maintaining a strict sleep wake cycle, and remaining in bed for 24 hours each day. In one study, subjects maintained a horizontal (0 degree) position while in bed and were exercised six days per week with an integrated resistance and aerobic training (iRAT) program. In the other study, subjects were placed at 6 degrees HDT while in bed and did not engage in exercise. All subjects underwent pre- and post bed rest vision testing. While the battery of vision tests for each study was not identical, measures common to both studies will be presented. These measures included IOP and measures that provided an indication of optic disc swelling as derived from optical coherence tomography (OCT) testing: average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (millimeters), disc area (square millimeters), rim area (square millimters), and average cup to disc (C

  2. Effect of ventilation rate on air cleanliness and energy consumption in operation rooms at rest.

    Lee, Shih-Tseng; Liang, Ching-Chieh; Chien, Tsung-Yi; Wu, Feng-Jen; Fan, Kuang-Chung; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2018-02-27

    The interrelationships between ventilation rate, indoor air quality, and energy consumption in operation rooms at rest are yet to be understood. We investigate the effect of ventilation rate on indoor air quality indices and energy consumption in ORs at rest. The study investigates the air temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of carbon dioxide, particulate matter (PM), and airborne bacteria at different ventilation rates in operation rooms at rest of a medical center. The energy consumption and cost analysis of the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system in the operation rooms at rest were also evaluated for all ventilation rates. No air-conditioned operation rooms had very highest PM and airborne bacterial concentrations in the operation areas. The bacterial concentration in the operation areas with 6-30 air changes per hour (ACH) was below the suggested level set by the United Kingdom (UK) for an empty operation room. A 70% of reduction in annual energy cost by reducing the ventilation rate from 30 to 6 ACH was found in the operation rooms at rest. Maintenance of operation rooms at ventilation rate of 6 ACH could save considerable amounts of energy and achieve the goal of air cleanliness.

  3. Elementary particle physics with atoms

    Wieman, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of atomic physics is the capacity to make measurements with extraordinarily high precision. In suitably chosen systems, precision measurements can reveal information about fundamental interactions in nature that is not available from other sources. Although elementary particle physics is often perceived as synonymous with open-quotes high energyclose quotes and open-quotes high cost,close quotes atomic physics has played, and can continue to play, a significant role in this area. A few illustrative examples of this include (1) the measurement of the Lamb shift in hydrogen and its, influence on the modern development of quantum field theory, (2) the severe limits placed on possible time reversal violating interactions by atomic (and neutron) searches for electric dipole moments, and (3) the measurement (and closely related atomic theory) of parity, nonconservation in atoms. This latter work has provides a precise confirmation of the Standard Model of the weak, electromagnetic, and strong interactions, and is a uniquely sensitive test for the validity of a variety of alternative models that have been put forth. I will also discuss some of the joys and frustrations of doggedly pursuing the open-quotes ultimateclose quotes measurement of ridiculously tiny effects

  4. Resting ECG findings in elite football players.

    Bohm, Philipp; Ditzel, Roman; Ditzel, Heribert; Urhausen, Axel; Meyer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate ECG abnormalities in a large sample of elite football players. Data from 566 elite male football players (57 of them of African origin) above 16 years of age were screened retrospectively (age: 20.9 ± 5.3 years; BMI: 22.9 ± 1.7 kg · m(-2), training history: 13.8 ± 4.7 years). The resting ECGs were analysed and classified according to the most current ECG categorisation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) (2010) and a classification of Pelliccia et al. (2000) in order to assess the impact of the new ESC-approach. According to the classification of Pelliccia, 52.5% showed mildly abnormal ECG patterns and 12% were classified as distinctly abnormal ECG patterns. According to the classification of the ESC, 33.7% showed 'uncommon ECG patterns'. Short-QT interval was the most frequent ECG pattern in this group (41.9%), followed by a shortened PR-interval (19.9%). When assessed with a QTc cut-off-point of 340 ms (instead of 360 ms), only 22.2% would have had 'uncommon ECG patterns'. Resting ECG changes amongst elite football players are common. Adjustment of the ESC criteria by adapting proposed time limits for the ECG (e.g. QTc, PR) should further reduce the rate of false-positive results.

  5. Resting State Network Estimation in Individual Subjects

    Hacker, Carl D.; Laumann, Timothy O.; Szrama, Nicholas P.; Baldassarre, Antonello; Snyder, Abraham Z.

    2014-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to study brain networks associated with both normal and pathological cognitive function. The objective of this work is to reliably compute resting state network (RSN) topography in single participants. We trained a supervised classifier (multi-layer perceptron; MLP) to associate blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) correlation maps corresponding to pre-defined seeds with specific RSN identities. Hard classification of maps obtained from a priori seeds was highly reliable across new participants. Interestingly, continuous estimates of RSN membership retained substantial residual error. This result is consistent with the view that RSNs are hierarchically organized, and therefore not fully separable into spatially independent components. After training on a priori seed-based maps, we propagated voxel-wise correlation maps through the MLP to produce estimates of RSN membership throughout the brain. The MLP generated RSN topography estimates in individuals consistent with previous studies, even in brain regions not represented in the training data. This method could be used in future studies to relate RSN topography to other measures of functional brain organization (e.g., task-evoked responses, stimulation mapping, and deficits associated with lesions) in individuals. The multi-layer perceptron was directly compared to two alternative voxel classification procedures, specifically, dual regression and linear discriminant analysis; the perceptron generated more spatially specific RSN maps than either alternative. PMID:23735260

  6. Human activity and rest in situ.

    Roenneberg, Till; Keller, Lena K; Fischer, Dorothee; Matera, Joana L; Vetter, Céline; Winnebeck, Eva C

    2015-01-01

    Our lives are structured by the daily alternation of activity and rest, of wake and sleep. Despite significant advances in circadian and sleep research, we still lack answers to many of the most fundamental questions about this conspicuous behavioral pattern. We strongly believe that investigating this pattern in entrained conditions, real-life and daily contexts-in situ-will help the field to elucidate some of these central questions. Here, we present two common approaches for in situ investigation of human activity and rest: the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) and actimetry. In the first half of this chapter, we provide detailed instructions on how to use and interpret the MCTQ. In addition, we give an overview of the main insights gained with this instrument over the past 10 years, including some new findings on the interaction of light and age on sleep timing. In the second half of this chapter, we introduce the reader to the method of actimetry and share our experience in basic analysis techniques, including visualization, smoothing, and cosine model fitting of in situ recorded data. Additionally, we describe our new approach to automatically detect sleep from activity recordings. Our vision is that the broad use of such easy techniques in real-life settings combined with automated analyses will lead to the creation of large databases. The resulting power of big numbers will promote our understanding of such fundamental biological phenomena as sleep. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Single Atom Antenna

    Trinter, Florian; Williams, Joshua B; Weller, Miriam; Waitz, Markus; Pitzer, Martin; Voigtsberger, Jörg; Schober, Carl; Kastirke, Gregor; Müller, Christian; Goihl, Christoph; Burzynski, Phillip; Wiegandt, Florian; Wallauer, Robert; Kalinin, Anton; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H; Schöffler, Markus S; Jahnke, Till; Dörner, Reinhard; Chiang, Ying-Chih; Gokhberg, Kirill

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate the smallest possible implementation of an antenna-receiver complex which consists of a single (helium) atom acting as the antenna and a second (neon) atom acting as a receiver. (paper)

  8. Atom chips: mesoscopic physics with cold atoms

    Krueger, P.; Wildermuth, S.; Hofferberth, S.; Haller, E.; GAllego Garcia, D.; Schmiedmayer, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Cold neutral atoms can be controlled and manipulated in microscopic potentials near surfaces of atom chips. These integrated micro-devices combine the known techniques of atom optics with the capabilities of well established micro- and nanofabrication technology. In analogy to electronic microchips and integrated fiber optics, the concept of atom chips is suitable to explore the domain of mesoscopic physics with matter waves. We use current and charge carrying structures to form complex potentials with high spatial resolution only microns from the surface. In particular, atoms can be confined to an essentially one-dimensional motion. In this talk, we will give an overview of our experiments studying the manipulation of both thermal atoms and BECs on atom chips. First experiments in the quasi one-dimensional regime will be presented. These experiments profit from strongly reduced residual disorder potentials caused by imperfections of the chip fabrication with respect to previously published experiments. This is due to our purely lithographic fabrication technique that proves to be advantageous over electroplating. We have used one dimensionally confined BECs as an ultra-sensitive probe to characterize these potentials. These smooth potentials allow us to explore various aspects of the physics of degenerate quantum gases in low dimensions. (author)

  9. Past, present, and possible future limits on the photon rest mass

    Nieto, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    In an historical context, present limits on the photon rest mass are reviewed. More stringent, yet speculative, limits which have been proposed are mentioned. Finally, new theoretical ideas and possible experimental improvements on the present limits are discussed, along with possible relationships between these two areas

  10. The relation between resting state connectivity and creativity in adolescents before and after training

    Cousijn, Janna; Zanolie, Kiki; Munsters, Robbert J M; Kleibeuker, Sietske W; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-01-01

    An important component of creativity is divergent thinking, which involves the ability to generate novel and useful problem solutions. In this study, we tested the relation between resting-state functional connectivity of brain areas activated during a divergent thinking task (i.e., supramarginal

  11. Atoms, molecules and optical physics 1. Atoms and spectroscopy

    Hertel, Ingolf V.; Schulz, Claus-Peter

    2015-09-01

    This is the first volume of textbooks on atomic, molecular and optical physics, aiming at a comprehensive presentation of this highly productive branch of modern physics as an indispensable basis for many areas in physics and chemistry as well as in state of the art bio- and material-sciences. It primarily addresses advanced students (including PhD students), but in a number of selected subject areas the reader is lead up to the frontiers of present research. Thus even the active scientist is addressed. This volume 1 provides the canonical knowledge in atomic physics together with basics of modern spectroscopy. Starting from the fundamentals of quantum physics, the reader is familiarized in well structured chapters step by step with the most important phenomena, models and measuring techniques. The emphasis is always on the experiment and its interpretation, while the necessary theory is introduced from this perspective in a compact and occasionally somewhat heuristic manner, easy to follow even for beginners.

  12. Quasi-atoms

    Armbruster, P.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of a quasi-atom is discussed, and several experiments are described in which molecular or quasi-atomic transitions have been observed. X-ray spectra are shown for these experiments in which heavy ion projectiles were incident on various targets and the resultant combined system behaved as a quasi-atom. This rapidly developing field has already given new insight into atomic collision phenomena. (P.J.S.)

  13. "Therapeutic" bed rest in pregnancy: unethical and unsupported by data.

    McCall, Christina A; Grimes, David A; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2013-06-01

    "Therapeutic" bed rest continues to be used widely, despite evidence of no benefit and known harms. In this commentary, we summarize the Cochrane reviews of bed rest and propose an ethical argument for discontinuing this practice. Cochrane systematic reviews do not support "therapeutic" bed rest for threatened abortion, hypertension, preeclampsia, preterm birth, multiple gestations, or impaired fetal growth. This assessment has been echoed in other comprehensive reviews. Prescribing bed rest is inconsistent with the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice. Hence, if bed rest is to be used, it should be only within a formal clinical trial.

  14. The Ensembl REST API: Ensembl Data for Any Language.

    Yates, Andrew; Beal, Kathryn; Keenan, Stephen; McLaren, William; Pignatelli, Miguel; Ritchie, Graham R S; Ruffier, Magali; Taylor, Kieron; Vullo, Alessandro; Flicek, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present a Web service to access Ensembl data using Representational State Transfer (REST). The Ensembl REST server enables the easy retrieval of a wide range of Ensembl data by most programming languages, using standard formats such as JSON and FASTA while minimizing client work. We also introduce bindings to the popular Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor tool permitting large-scale programmatic variant analysis independent of any specific programming language. The Ensembl REST API can be accessed at http://rest.ensembl.org and source code is freely available under an Apache 2.0 license from http://github.com/Ensembl/ensembl-rest. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror

    2015-01-01

    in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic...... endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3...

  16. Atomic Energy Control Act

    1970-01-01

    This act provides for the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The board is responsible for the control and supervision of the development, application and use of atomic energy. The board is also considered necessary to enable Canada to participate effectively in measures of international control of atomic energy

  17. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  18. Resting state networks' corticotopy: the dual intertwined rings architecture.

    Salma Mesmoudi

    Full Text Available How does the brain integrate multiple sources of information to support normal sensorimotor and cognitive functions? To investigate this question we present an overall brain architecture (called "the dual intertwined rings architecture" that relates the functional specialization of cortical networks to their spatial distribution over the cerebral cortex (or "corticotopy". Recent results suggest that the resting state networks (RSNs are organized into two large families: 1 a sensorimotor family that includes visual, somatic, and auditory areas and 2 a large association family that comprises parietal, temporal, and frontal regions and also includes the default mode network. We used two large databases of resting state fMRI data, from which we extracted 32 robust RSNs. We estimated: (1 the RSN functional roles by using a projection of the results on task based networks (TBNs as referenced in large databases of fMRI activation studies; and (2 relationship of the RSNs with the Brodmann Areas. In both classifications, the 32 RSNs are organized into a remarkable architecture of two intertwined rings per hemisphere and so four rings linked by homotopic connections. The first ring forms a continuous ensemble and includes visual, somatic, and auditory cortices, with interspersed bimodal cortices (auditory-visual, visual-somatic and auditory-somatic, abbreviated as VSA ring. The second ring integrates distant parietal, temporal and frontal regions (PTF ring through a network of association fiber tracts which closes the ring anatomically and ensures a functional continuity within the ring. The PTF ring relates association cortices specialized in attention, language and working memory, to the networks involved in motivation and biological regulation and rhythms. This "dual intertwined architecture" suggests a dual integrative process: the VSA ring performs fast real-time multimodal integration of sensorimotor information whereas the PTF ring performs multi

  19. Resting State Networks' Corticotopy: The Dual Intertwined Rings Architecture

    Mesmoudi, Salma; Perlbarg, Vincent; Rudrauf, David; Messe, Arnaud; Pinsard, Basile; Hasboun, Dominique; Cioli, Claudia; Marrelec, Guillaume; Toro, Roberto; Benali, Habib; Burnod, Yves

    2013-01-01

    How does the brain integrate multiple sources of information to support normal sensorimotor and cognitive functions? To investigate this question we present an overall brain architecture (called “the dual intertwined rings architecture”) that relates the functional specialization of cortical networks to their spatial distribution over the cerebral cortex (or “corticotopy”). Recent results suggest that the resting state networks (RSNs) are organized into two large families: 1) a sensorimotor family that includes visual, somatic, and auditory areas and 2) a large association family that comprises parietal, temporal, and frontal regions and also includes the default mode network. We used two large databases of resting state fMRI data, from which we extracted 32 robust RSNs. We estimated: (1) the RSN functional roles by using a projection of the results on task based networks (TBNs) as referenced in large databases of fMRI activation studies; and (2) relationship of the RSNs with the Brodmann Areas. In both classifications, the 32 RSNs are organized into a remarkable architecture of two intertwined rings per hemisphere and so four rings linked by homotopic connections. The first ring forms a continuous ensemble and includes visual, somatic, and auditory cortices, with interspersed bimodal cortices (auditory-visual, visual-somatic and auditory-somatic, abbreviated as VSA ring). The second ring integrates distant parietal, temporal and frontal regions (PTF ring) through a network of association fiber tracts which closes the ring anatomically and ensures a functional continuity within the ring. The PTF ring relates association cortices specialized in attention, language and working memory, to the networks involved in motivation and biological regulation and rhythms. This “dual intertwined architecture” suggests a dual integrative process: the VSA ring performs fast real-time multimodal integration of sensorimotor information whereas the PTF ring performs multi

  20. Resting site use of giant pandas in Wanglang Nature Reserve.

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Li, Junqing

    2017-10-23

    Little is known about the resting sites used by the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), which restricts our understanding of their resting habits and limits conservation efforts. To enhance our understanding of resting site requirements and factors affecting the resting time of giant pandas, we investigated the characteristics of resting sites in the Wanglang Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. The results indicated that the resting sites of giant pandas were characterised by a mean slope of 21°, mean nearest tree size of 53.75 cm, mean nearest shrub size of 2.82 cm, and mean nearest bamboo number of 56. We found that the resting sites were closer to bamboo than to trees and shrubs, suggesting that the resting site use of giant pandas is closely related to the presence of bamboo. Considering that giant pandas typically rest near a large-sized tree, protection of large trees in the forests is of considerable importance for the conservation of this species. Furthermore, slope was found to be an important factor affecting the resting time of giant pandas, as they tended to rest for a relatively longer time in sites with a smaller degree of slope.

  1. Atom-atom collision cascades localization

    Kirsanov, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of an impurity and thermal vibration influence on the atom-atom collision cascade development is analysed by the computer simulation method (the modificated dynamic model). It is discovered that the relatively low energetic cascades are localized with the temperature increase of an irradiated crystal. On the basis of the given effect the mechanism of splitting of the high energetic cascades into subcascades is proposed. It accounts for two factors: the primary knocked atom energy and the irradiated crystal temperature. Introduction of an impurity also localizes the cascades independently from the impurity atom mass. The cascades localization leads to intensification of the process of annealing in the cascades and reduction of the post-cascade vacancy cluster sizes. (author)

  2. Resting-state brain activity in the motor cortex reflects task-induced activity: A multi-voxel pattern analysis.

    Kusano, Toshiki; Kurashige, Hiroki; Nambu, Isao; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Hanakawa, Takashi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Osu, Rieko

    2015-08-01

    It has been suggested that resting-state brain activity reflects task-induced brain activity patterns. In this study, we examined whether neural representations of specific movements can be observed in the resting-state brain activity patterns of motor areas. First, we defined two regions of interest (ROIs) to examine brain activity associated with two different behavioral tasks. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis with regularized logistic regression, we designed a decoder to detect voxel-level neural representations corresponding to the tasks in each ROI. Next, we applied the decoder to resting-state brain activity. We found that the decoder discriminated resting-state neural activity with accuracy comparable to that associated with task-induced neural activity. The distribution of learned weighted parameters for each ROI was similar for resting-state and task-induced activities. Large weighted parameters were mainly located on conjunctive areas. Moreover, the accuracy of detection was higher than that for a decoder whose weights were randomly shuffled, indicating that the resting-state brain activity includes multi-voxel patterns similar to the neural representation for the tasks. Therefore, these results suggest that the neural representation of resting-state brain activity is more finely organized and more complex than conventionally considered.

  3. Microdissecting the Genetic Events in Nephrogenic Rests and Wilms’ Tumor Development

    Charles, Adrian K.; Brown, Keith W.; Berry, P. Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    Nephrogenic rests are precursor lesions associated with about 40% of Wilms’ tumors. This study identifies genetic steps occurring in the development of Wilms’ tumor. Thirty-four Wilms’ tumors with nephrogenic rests and/or areas of anaplasia were microdissected from paraffin sections to determine whether and at what stage loss of heterozygosity (LOH) occurred, using polymerase chain reaction-based polymorphic markers at 11p13, 11p15, and 16q. LOH at these loci have been identified in Wilms’ tumors and are associated with identified or putative tumor suppressor genes. Three cystic nephromas/cystic partially differentiated nephroblastomas were also examined. LOH was detected in six cases at 11p13 and in six cases at 11p15, and two of these cases had LOH at both loci. All intralobar rests showing LOH also showed LOH in the tumor. A case with a small perilobar rest showed LOH of 11p13 only in the tumor. Five cases showing LOH at 16q were identified (this was identified only in the tumor, and not in the associated rest), and three of these had recurrence of the tumor. Two cases had a WT1 mutation (one germline and the other somatic), as well as LOH in both the intralobar rest and the tumor. A cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma showed loss at 11p13 and 11p15, as well as at 16q. This study suggests that LOH at 11p13 and 11p15 and WT1 mutations are early events but that LOH at 16q occurs late in the pathogenesis of Wilms’ tumor. Intralobar and perilobar nephrogenic rests are known to have different biological behaviors, and this study suggests that they are genetically different. A multistep model of Wilms’ tumor pathogenesis is supported by these findings. PMID:9736048

  4. A resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study of concussion in collegiate athletes.

    Czerniak, Suzanne M; Sikoglu, Elif M; Liso Navarro, Ana A; McCafferty, Joseph; Eisenstock, Jordan; Stevenson, J Herbert; King, Jean A; Moore, Constance M

    2015-06-01

    Sports-related concussions are currently diagnosed through multi-domain assessment by a medical professional and may utilize neurocognitive testing as an aid. However, these tests have only been able to detect differences in the days to week post-concussion. Here, we investigate a measure of brain function, namely resting state functional connectivity, which may detect residual brain differences in the weeks to months after concussion. Twenty-one student athletes (9 concussed within 6 months of enrollment; 12 non-concussed; between ages 18 and 22 years) were recruited for this study. All participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task and the Color-Word Interference Test. Neuroimaging data, specifically resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging data, were acquired to examine resting state functional connectivity. Two sample t-tests were used to compare the neurocognitive scores and resting state functional connectivity patterns among concussed and non-concussed participants. Correlations between neurocognitive scores and resting state functional connectivity measures were also determined across all subjects. There were no significant differences in neurocognitive performance between concussed and non-concussed groups. Concussed subjects had significantly increased connections between areas of the brain that underlie executive function. Across all subjects, better neurocognitive performance corresponded to stronger brain connectivity. Even at rest, brains of concussed athletes may have to 'work harder' than their healthy peers to achieve similar neurocognitive results. Resting state brain connectivity may be able to detect prolonged brain differences in concussed athletes in a more quantitative manner than neurocognitive test scores.

  5. Improved limit on the electron anti neutrino rest mass from tritium β decay

    Weinheimer, C.; Przyrembel, M.; Backe, H.; Barth, H.; Bonn, J.; Degen, B.; Edling, T.; Fischer, H.; Fleischmann, L.; Grooss, J.U.; Haid, R.; Hermanni, A.; Kube, G.; Loeken, T.; Molz, A.; Osipowicz, A.; Otten, E.W.; Picard, A.; Schrader, M.; Steininger, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a re-measurement of the endpoint region of the beta-spectrum of tritium by an electrostatic spectrometer with magnetic guiding field. It enables the search for a rest mass of the electron anti neutrino with improved precision. The result is: m ν 2 =(-39±34 stat ±15 syst ) (eV/c 2 ) 2 , from which an upper limit of: m ν 2 may be derived. The experiment yields the atomic mass difference: m(T)-m( 3 He)=(18591±3) eV/c 2 . (TEC). 31 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  6. The effect of 8 days of strict bed rest on the incretin effect in healthy volunteers.

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Harder-Lauridsen, Nina Majlund; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Wedell-Neergaard, Anne-Sophie; Lyngbæk, Mark Preben; Møller, Kirsten; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2016-03-15

    Bed rest and physical inactivity are the consequences of hospital admission for many patients. Physical inactivity induces changes in glucose metabolism, but its effect on the incretin effect, which is reduced in, e.g., Type 2 diabetes, is unknown. To investigate how 8 days of strict bed rest affects the incretin effect, 10 healthy nonobese male volunteers underwent 8 days of strict bed rest. Before and after the intervention, all volunteers underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) followed by an intravenous glucose infusion (IVGI) on the following day to mimic the blood glucose profile from the OGTT. Blood glucose, serum insulin, serum C-peptide, plasma incretin hormones [glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)], and serum glucagon were measured serially during both the OGTT and the IVGI. The incretin effect is calculated as the relative difference between the area under the curve for the insulin response during the OGTT and that of the corresponding IVGI, respectively. Concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and GIP measured during the OGTT were higher after the bed rest intervention (all P effect (P = 0.6). In conclusion, 8 days of bed rest induces insulin resistance, but we did not see evidence of an associated change in the incretin effect. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Qualitative Resting Coronary Pressure Wave Form Analysis to Predict Fractional Flow Reserve.

    Matsumura, Mitsuaki; Maehara, Akiko; Johnson, Nils P; Fearon, William F; De Bruyne, Bernard; Oldroyd, Keith G; Pijls, Nico H J; Jenkins, Paul; Ali, Ziad A; Mintz, Gary S; Stone, Gregg W; Jeremias, Allen

    2018-03-27

    To evaluate the predictability of resting distal coronary pressure wave forms for fractional flow reserve (FFR). Resting coronary wave forms were qualitatively evaluated for the presence of (i) dicrotic notch; (ii) diastolic dipping; and (iii) ventricularization. In a development cohort (n=88) a scoring system was developed that was then applied to a validation cohort (n=428) using a multivariable linear regression model to predict FFR and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) to predict FFR ≤0.8. In the development cohort, all 3 qualitative parameters were independent predictors of FFR. However, in a multivariable linear regression model in the validation cohort, qualitative wave form analysis did not further improve the ability of resting distal coronary to aortic pressure ratio (Pd/Pa) (p=0.80) or instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) (p=0.26) to predict FFR. Using ROC, the area under the curve of resting Pd/Pa (0.86 versus 0.86, P=0.08) and iFR (0.86 versus 0.86, P=0.26) did not improve by adding qualitative analysis. Qualitative coronary wave form analysis showed moderate classification agreement in predicting FFR but did not add substantially to the resting pressure gradients Pd/Pa and iFR; however, when discrepancies between quantitative and qualitative analyses are observed, artifact or pressure drift should be considered.

  8. Auditory Hallucinations and the Brain’s Resting-State Networks: Findings and Methodological Observations

    Alderson-Day, Ben; Diederen, Kelly; Fernyhough, Charles; Ford, Judith M.; Horga, Guillermo; Margulies, Daniel S.; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Northoff, Georg; Shine, James M.; Turner, Jessica; van de Ven, Vincent; van Lutterveld, Remko; Waters, Flavie; Jardri, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the potential for alterations to the brain’s resting-state networks (RSNs) to explain various kinds of psychopathology. RSNs provide an intriguing new explanatory framework for hallucinations, which can occur in different modalities and population groups, but which remain poorly understood. This collaboration from the International Consortium on Hallucination Research (ICHR) reports on the evidence linking resting-state alterations to auditory hallucinations (AH) and provides a critical appraisal of the methodological approaches used in this area. In the report, we describe findings from resting connectivity fMRI in AH (in schizophrenia and nonclinical individuals) and compare them with findings from neurophysiological research, structural MRI, and research on visual hallucinations (VH). In AH, various studies show resting connectivity differences in left-hemisphere auditory and language regions, as well as atypical interaction of the default mode network and RSNs linked to cognitive control and salience. As the latter are also evident in studies of VH, this points to a domain-general mechanism for hallucinations alongside modality-specific changes to RSNs in different sensory regions. However, we also observed high methodological heterogeneity in the current literature, affecting the ability to make clear comparisons between studies. To address this, we provide some methodological recommendations and options for future research on the resting state and hallucinations. PMID:27280452

  9. A comparison of resting images from two myocardial perfusion tracers

    Anagnostopoulos, C.; Laney, R.; Pennell, D.; Proukakis, H.; Underwood, R.

    1995-01-01

    We have compared stress-redistribution and delayed rest thallium-201 with rest technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) tomograms in order to compare the tracers for the assessment of myocardial viability and to validate a rapid protocol combining the two tracers. We studied 30 consecutive patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease [group 1: 16 with normal left ventricular function, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 55%, SD 6%; group 2: 14 with abnormal function, mean LVEF 28%, SD 8%]. 201 Tl was injected during infusion of adenosine followed by acquisition of conventional stress and redistribution tomograms. On a separate day, 201 Tl was injected at rest with imaging 4 h later. 99m Tc-MIBI was then given at rest and imaging was performed. Three images were compared: redistribution 201 Tl, rest 201 Tl, and rest 99m Tc-MIBI. Tracer activity was classified visually and quantitatively in nine segments and segments with>50% activity were defined as containing clinically significant viable myocardium. Mean global tracer uptake as a percentage of maximum was similar in group 1 (rest 201 Tl 69%±12%, redistribution 201 Tl 69%±15%, rest 99m Tc-MIBI 70%±13%), but in group 2 mean tracer uptake was significantly greater in the rest 201 Tl images (59%±16%) than in redistribution 201 Tl images (53%±17%) or rest 99m Tc-MIBI images (53%±19%). Overall agreement for regional uptake score was excellent (κ from 0.79 to 0.84), although there were a significant number of segments with less uptake shown by redistribution 201 Tl and by rest 99m Tc-MIBI than by rest 201 Tl in group 2. The number of segments with significant viable myocardium in group 1 was very similar between the three images but in group 2 rest 201 Tl identified significantly more segments as viable than the other images. (orig./MG) (orig.). With 1 fig., 7 tabs

  10. Brain dynamics of post-task resting state are influenced by expertise: Insights from baseball players.

    Muraskin, Jordan; Dodhia, Sonam; Lieberman, Gregory; Garcia, Javier O; Verstynen, Timothy; Vettel, Jean M; Sherwin, Jason; Sajda, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Post-task resting state dynamics can be viewed as a task-driven state where behavioral performance is improved through endogenous, non-explicit learning. Tasks that have intrinsic value for individuals are hypothesized to produce post-task resting state dynamics that promote learning. We measured simultaneous fMRI/EEG and DTI in Division-1 collegiate baseball players and compared to a group of controls, examining differences in both functional and structural connectivity. Participants performed a surrogate baseball pitch Go/No-Go task before a resting state scan, and we compared post-task resting state connectivity using a seed-based analysis from the supplementary motor area (SMA), an area whose activity discriminated players and controls in our previous results using this task. Although both groups were equally trained on the task, the experts showed differential activity in their post-task resting state consistent with motor learning. Specifically, we found (1) differences in bilateral SMA-L Insula functional connectivity between experts and controls that may reflect group differences in motor learning, (2) differences in BOLD-alpha oscillation correlations between groups suggests variability in modulatory attention in the post-task state, and (3) group differences between BOLD-beta oscillations that may indicate cognitive processing of motor inhibition. Structural connectivity analysis identified group differences in portions of the functionally derived network, suggesting that functional differences may also partially arise from variability in the underlying white matter pathways. Generally, we find that brain dynamics in the post-task resting state differ as a function of subject expertise and potentially result from differences in both functional and structural connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4454-4471, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals

  11. Physics through the 1990s: Atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    1986-01-01

    This report was prepared by the Panel on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics of the Physics Survey Committee in response to its charge to describe the field, to characterize the recent advances, and to identify the current frontiers of research. Some of the areas discussed are: atomic structure, atomic dynamics, accelerator-based atomic physics, molecular photoionization and electron-molecule scattering, astrophysics, laser spectroscopy, atmospheric physics, plasma physics, and applications

  12. Resting state functional connectivity changes in adults with developmental stuttering: an initial sLORETA study.

    Kathleen eJoos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stuttering is defined as speech characterized by verbal dysfluencies, but should not be seen as an isolated speech disorder, but as a generalized sensorimotor timing deficit due to impaired communication between speech related brain areas. Therefore we focused on resting state brain activity and functional connectivity.Method: We included 11 patients with developmental stuttering and 11 age matched controls. To objectify stuttering severity and the impact on the quality of life (QoL, we used the Dutch validated Test for Stuttering Severity-Readers (TSS-R and the Overall Assessment of the Speaker’s Experience of Stuttering (OASES, respectively. Furthermore, we used standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA analyses to look at resting state activity and functional connectivity differences and their correlations with the TSS-R and OASES.Results: No resting state activity differences were identified in comparison to fluently speaking controls or in correlation with stuttering severity or QoL measures. Significant alterations in resting state functional connectivity were found, predominantly interhemispheric, i.e. a decreased functional connectivity for high frequency oscillations (beta and gamma between motor speech areas (BA44 and 45 and the contralateral premotor (BA 6 and motor (BA 4 areas. A positive correlation was found between functional connectivity at low frequency oscillations (theta and alpha and stuttering severity, while a mixed increased and decreased functional connectivity at low and high frequency oscillations correlated with QoL.Discussion: PWS are characterized by decreased high frequency interhemispheric functional connectivity between motor speech, premotor and motor areas in the resting state, while higher functional connectivity in the low frequency bands indicates more severe speech disturbances, suggesting that increased interhemispheric and right sided functional connectivity is

  13. Atomic collisions research with excited atomic species

    Hoogerland, M.D.; Gulley, R.J.; Colla, M.; Lu, W.; Milic, D.; Baldwin, K.G.H.; Buckman, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements and calculations of fundamental atomic collision and spectroscopic properties such as collision cross sections, reaction rates, transition probabilities etc. underpin the understanding and operation of many plasma and gas-discharge-based devices and phenomena, for example plasma processing and deposition. In almost all cases the complex series of reactions which sustains the discharge or plasma, or produces the reactive species of interest, has a precursor electron impact excitation, attachment, dissociation or ionisation event. These processes have been extensively studied in a wide range of atomic and molecular species and an impressive data base of collision cross sections and reaction rates now exists. However, most of these measurements are for collisions with stable atomic or molecular species which are initially in their ground electronic state. Relatively little information is available for scattering from excited states or for scattering from unstable molecular radicals. Examples of such species would be metastable excited rare gases, which are often used as buffer gases, or CF 2 radicals formed by electron impact dissociation in a CF 4 plasma processing discharge. We are interested in developing experimental techniques which will enable the quantitative study of such exotic atomic and molecular species. In this talk I would like to outline one such facility which is being used for studies of collisions with metastable He(2 3 S) atoms

  14. Atoms - molecules - nuclei. Vol. 1

    Otter, G.; Honecker, R.

    1993-01-01

    This first volume covers the following topics: Wave-particle dualism, classical atomic physics; the Schroedinger equation, angular momentum in quantum physics, one-electron atoms and many-electron atoms with atomic structure, atomic spectra, exotic atoms, influence of electric and magnetic fields

  15. Resting eggs in free living marine and estuarine copepods

    Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Kiørboe, Thomas; Brun, Philipp Georg

    2018-01-01

    Marine free living copepods can survive harsh periods and cope with seasonal fluctuations in environmental conditions using resting eggs (embryonic dormancy). Laboratory experiments show that temperature is the common driver for resting egg production. Hence, we hypothesize (i) that seasonal...... temperature variation, rather than variation in food abundance is the main driver for the occurrence of the resting eggs strategy in marine and estuarine copepod species; and (ii) that the thermal boundaries of the distribution determine where resting eggs are produced and whether they are produced to cope...... with warm or cold periods. We compile literature information on the occurrence of resting egg production and relate this to spatio-temporal patterns in sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a concentration obtained from satellite observations. We find that the production of resting eggs has been reported...

  16. Rest but busy: Aberrant resting-state functional connectivity of triple network model in insomnia.

    Dong, Xiaojuan; Qin, Haixia; Wu, Taoyu; Hu, Hua; Liao, Keren; Cheng, Fei; Gao, Dong; Lei, Xu

    2018-02-01

    One classical hypothesis among many models to explain the etiology and maintenance of insomnia disorder (ID) is hyperarousal. Aberrant functional connectivity among resting-state large-scale brain networks may be the underlying neurological mechanisms of this hypothesis. The aim of current study was to investigate the functional network connectivity (FNC) among large-scale brain networks in patients with insomnia disorder (ID) during resting state. In the present study, the resting-state fMRI was used to evaluate whether patients with ID showed aberrant FNC among dorsal attention network (DAN), frontoparietal control network (FPC), anterior default mode network (aDMN), and posterior default mode network (pDMN) compared with healthy good sleepers (HGSs). The Pearson's correlation analysis was employed to explore whether the abnormal FNC observed in patients with ID was associated with sleep parameters, cognitive and emotional scores, and behavioral performance assessed by questionnaires and tasks. Patients with ID had worse subjective thought control ability measured by Thought Control Ability Questionnaire (TCAQ) and more negative affect than HGSs. Intriguingly, relative to HGSs, patients with ID showed a significant increase in FNC between DAN and FPC, but a significant decrease in FNC between aDMN and pDMN. Exploratory analysis in patients with ID revealed a significantly positive correlation between the DAN-FPC FNC and reaction time (RT) of psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). The current study demonstrated that even during the resting state, the task-activated and task-deactivated large-scale brain networks in insomniacs may still maintain a hyperarousal state, looking quite similar to the pattern in a task condition with external stimuli. Those results support the hyperarousal model of insomnia.

  17. From "rest" to language task: Task activation selects and prunes from broader resting-state network.

    Doucet, Gaelle E; He, Xiaosong; Sperling, Michael R; Sharan, Ashwini; Tracy, Joseph I

    2017-05-01

    Resting-state networks (RSNs) show spatial patterns generally consistent with networks revealed during cognitive tasks. However, the exact degree of overlap between these networks has not been clearly quantified. Such an investigation shows promise for decoding altered functional connectivity (FC) related to abnormal language functioning in clinical populations such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this context, we investigated the network configurations during a language task and during resting state using FC. Twenty-four healthy controls, 24 right and 24 left TLE patients completed a verb generation (VG) task and a resting-state fMRI scan. We compared the language network revealed by the VG task with three FC-based networks (seeding the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC)/Broca): two from the task (ON, OFF blocks) and one from the resting state. We found that, for both left TLE patients and controls, the RSN recruited regions bilaterally, whereas both VG-on and VG-off conditions produced more left-lateralized FC networks, matching more closely with the activated language network. TLE brings with it variability in both task-dependent and task-independent networks, reflective of atypical language organization. Overall, our findings suggest that our RSN captured bilateral activity, reflecting a set of prepotent language regions. We propose that this relationship can be best understood by the notion of pruning or winnowing down of the larger language-ready RSN to carry out specific task demands. Our data suggest that multiple types of network analyses may be needed to decode the association between language deficits and the underlying functional mechanisms altered by disease. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2540-2552, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Functional Mobility and Balance: Relationship to Resting State Motor Cortex Connectivity

    Erdeniz, B.; Koppelmans, V.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Kofman, I. S.; DeDios, Y. E.; Riascos-Castaneda, R. F.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA offers researchers from a variety of backgrounds the opportunity to study bed rest as an experimental analog for space flight. Extended exposure to a head-down tilt position during long duration bed rest can resemble many of the effects of a low-gravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The aim of our study is to a) identify changes in brain function that occur with prolonged bed rest and characterize their recovery time course; b) assess whether and how these changes impact behavioral and neurocognitive performance. Thus far, we completed data collection from six participants that include task based and resting state fMRI. The data have been acquired through the bed rest facility located at the University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX). Subjects remained in bed with their heads tilted down 6 degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Behavioral measures and neuroimaging assessments were obtained at seven time points: a) 7 and 12 days before bed rest; b) 7, 30, and 65 days during bed rest; and c) 7 and 12 days after bed rest. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (FcMRI) analysis was performed to assess the connectivity of motor cortex in and out of bed rest. We found a decrease in motor cortex connectivity with vestibular cortex and the cerebellum from pre bed rest to in bed rest. We also used a battery of behavioral measures including the functional mobility test and computerized dynamic posturography collected before and after bed rest. We will report the preliminary results of analyses relating brain and behavior changes. Furthermore, we will also report the preliminary results of a spatial working memory task and vestibular stimulation during in and out of bed rest.

  19. GBAR. Graviational behavior of antihydrogen at rest

    Debu, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.debu@cea.fr [CEA/DSM/IRFU (France); Collaboration: GBAR Collaboration

    2012-12-15

    The GBAR project aims to perform the first test of the Equivalence Principle with antimatter by measuring the free fall of ultra-cold antihydrogen atoms. The objective is to measure the gravitational acceleration to better than a percent in a first stage, with a long term perspective to reach a much higher precision using gravitational quantum states of antihydrogen. The production of {approx}20 {mu}K atoms proceeds via sympathetic cooling of H-bar{sup +} ions by Be{sup +} ions. H-bar{sup +} ions are produced via a two-step process, involving the interaction of bursts of 10{sup 7} slow antiprotons from the AD (or ELENA upgrade) at CERN with a dense positronium cloud. In order to produce enough positronium, it is necessary to realize an intense source of slow positrons, a few 10{sup 8} per second. This is done with a small electron linear accelerator. A few 10{sup 10} positrons are accumulated every cycle in a Penning-Malmberg trap before they are ejected onto a positron-to-positronium converter. The overall scheme of the experiment is described and the status of the installation of the prototype positron source at Saclay is shown. The accumulation scheme of positrons is given, and positronium formation results are presented. The estimated performance and efficiency of the various steps of the experiment are given.

  20. Atomic and molecular sciences

    Lane, N.F.

    1989-01-01

    The theoretical atomic and molecular physics program at Rice University addresses basic questions about the collision dynamics of electrons, atoms, ions and molecules, emphasizing processes related to possible new energy technologies and other applications. The program focuses on inelastic collision processes that are important in understanding energy and ionization balance in disturbed gases and plasmas. Emphasis is placed on systems and processes where some experimental information is available or where theoretical results may be expected to stimulate new measurements. Examples of current projects include: excitation and charge-transfer processes; orientation and alignment of excited states following collisions; Rydberg atom collisions with atoms and molecules; Penning ionization and ion-pair formation in atom-atom collisions; electron-impact ionization in dense, high-temperature plasmas; electron-molecule collisions; and related topics

  1. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and left ventricular function at rest in patients with rest angina pectoris

    Hakki, A.H.; Iskandrian, A.S.; Kane, S.A.; Amenta, A.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the rest thallium-201 perfusion pattern during angina-free periods in 40 patients with rest angina pectoris secondary to coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 70% diameter narrowing). Seventeen patients had previous Q wave myocardial infarction. The perfusion defects were considered fixed or reversible, depending on the absence or presence of redistribution in the 4-hour delayed images. There were 40 perfusion defects (26 fixed and 14 reversible) in 27 patients whereas 13 patients had normal scans. Reversible perfusion defects were present in 10 patients (25%). Of the 26 fixed perfusion defects, 17 did not have corresponding Q waves. Occluded vessels (63%) had more perfusion defects than vessels with subtotal occlusion (30%) (p less than 0.01). The perfusion defect size was larger in patients with lower ejection fraction than in patients with higher ejection fraction. We conclude: (1) perfusion defects are common in patients with rest angina and are reversible in 25% of patients indicating reduced regional coronary blood flow; (2) the degree of stenosis affects the presence of perfusion defect; (3) fixed defects may be present without corresponding Q waves; and (4) global left ventricular function is related to the size of perfusion defects

  2. Resting states are resting traits--an FMRI study of sex differences and menstrual cycle effects in resting state cognitive control networks.

    Hjelmervik, Helene; Hausmann, Markus; Osnes, Berge; Westerhausen, René; Specht, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    To what degree resting state fMRI is stable or susceptible to internal mind states of the individual is currently an issue of debate. To address this issue, the present study focuses on sex differences and investigates whether resting state fMRI is stable in men and women or changes within relative short-term periods (i.e., across the menstrual cycle). Due to the fact that we recently reported menstrual cycle effects on cognitive control based on data collected during the same sessions, the current study is particularly interested in fronto-parietal resting state networks. Resting state fMRI was measured in sixteen women during three different cycle phases (menstrual, follicular, and luteal). Fifteen men underwent three sessions in corresponding time intervals. We used independent component analysis to identify four fronto-parietal networks. The results showed sex differences in two of these networks with women exhibiting higher functional connectivity in general, including the prefrontal cortex. Menstrual cycle effects on resting states were non-existent. It is concluded that sex differences in resting state fMRI might reflect sexual dimorphisms in the brain rather than transitory activating effects of sex hormones on the functional connectivity in the resting brain.

  3. Developing RESTful web services with Jersey 2.0

    Gulabani, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    The book will follow a standard tutorial approach and will teach readers how to use the Jersey API for creating RESTful web services.This book is intended for Java EE developers who are building applications on the REST architecture. This is a quick, hands-on guide for learning JAX-RS 2.0. Developers should have some knowledge about RESTful web services but it's not essential to know JAX-RS 1.0.

  4. Separating bedtime rest from activity using waist or wrist-worn accelerometers in youth.

    Dustin J Tracy

    Full Text Available Recent interest in sedentary behavior and technological advances expanded use of watch-size accelerometers for continuous monitoring of physical activity (PA over extended periods (e.g., 24 h/day for 1 week in studies conducted in natural living environment. This approach necessitates the development of new methods separating bedtime rest and activity periods from the accelerometer recordings. The goal of this study was to develop a decision tree with acceptable accuracy for separating bedtime rest from activity in youth using accelerometer placed on waist or wrist. Minute-by-minute accelerometry data were collected from 81 youth (10-18 years old, 47 females during a monitored 24-h stay in a whole-room indirect calorimeter equipped with a force platform covering the floor to detect movement. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to determine the accelerometer cut points for rest and activity. To examine the classification differences, the accelerometer bedtime rest and activity classified by the algorithm in the development group (n = 41 were compared with actual bedtime rest and activity classification obtained from the room calorimeter-measured metabolic rate and movement data. The selected optimal bedtime rest cut points were 20 and 250 counts/min for the waist- and the wrist-worn accelerometer, respectively. The selected optimal activity cut points were 500 and 3,000 counts/min for waist and wrist-worn accelerometers, respectively. Bedtime rest and activity were correctly classified by the algorithm in the validation group (n = 40 by both waist- (sensitivity: 0.983, specificity: 0.946, area under ROC curve: 0. 872 and wrist-worn (0.999, 0.980 and 0.943 accelerometers. The decision tree classified bedtime rest correctly with higher accuracy than commonly used automated algorithm for both waist- and wrist-warn accelerometer (all p<0.001. We concluded that cut points developed and validated for waist- and wrist

  5. The significance of resting thallium-201 delayed SPECT for assessing viability of infarcted regions

    Mori, Takao; Yamabe, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Kazumi; Fukuzaki, Hisashi

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-eight patients with old myocardial infarction (OMI) and 35 patients with effort angina pectoris (EAP) underwent resting thallium-201 (Tl) SPECT one week after exercise (Ex) Tl SPECT. On the basis of both resting and Ex Tl SPECT scans, OMI patients were divided into 3 groups: those who had Tl redistribution (RD) on Ex images and the same perfusion defect (PD) on both resting and Ex delayed images (n=12, Group 1); those who had a lower PD on resting delayed images than Ex delayed images (n=15, Group 2); and those who had no Tl RD on Ex images in spite of the same PD on both resting and EX delayed images (n=11, Group 3). EAP patients were divided into Group 1 (n=18) in whom no PD was seen on Ex delayed image and Group 2 (n=17) in whom PD was not seen on Ex delayed images either, but seen on resting delayed images. EX images showed higher pulmonary artery wedge pressure in Group 2 than Group 1 of both OMI and EAP patients (27±7 mmHg vs 15±6 mmHg for OMI patients; 22±6 mmHg vs 12±7 mmHg for EAP patients). For PD, Tl uptake rate on Ex initial images was higher in Group 1 than Gorup 2 of both OMI and EAP patients (63±7% vs 55±9% for OMI patients; 72±7% vs 65±9% for EAP patients). Resting delayed images for OMI patients showed the highest Tl uptake rate in Group 1 (78±7%), followed by Group 2 (74±8%) and then Group 3 (41±10%). In the group of OMI patients, the incidence of akinetic or dyskinetic wall motion on left ventriculography was the highest in Group 3 (85.7%), followed by Group 2 (52.2%) and Group 1 (24.3%). OMI patients, as well as EAP patients, had lower PD on resting delayed images than EX delayed images. Thus, severer ischemia may be associated with stress and infarcted areas may not involve viable muscle when Tl PD is decreased on resting delayed images. (N.K.)

  6. Changes in resting-state fMRI in vestibular neuritis.

    Helmchen, Christoph; Ye, Zheng; Sprenger, Andreas; Münte, Thomas F

    2014-11-01

    responsiveness, postural sway). VN leads to a change in resting-state activity of the contralateral IPS adjacent to the SMG, which reverses during vestibular compensation over 3 months. The ventral intraparietal area in the IPS contains multimodal regions with directionally selective responses to vestibular stimuli making them suitable for participating in spatial orientation and multisensory integration. The clinical importance is indicated by the fact that the increase in resting-state activity tended to be larger in those patients with only little disability at the follow-up examination. This may indicate powerful restitution-related or compensatory cortical changes in resting-state activity.

  7. Metal atom oxidation laser

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides

  8. Economical Atomic Layer Deposition

    Wyman, Richard; Davis, Robert; Linford, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition is a self limiting deposition process that can produce films at a user specified height. At BYU we have designed a low cost and automated atomic layer deposition system. We have used the system to deposit silicon dioxide at room temperature using silicon tetrachloride and tetramethyl orthosilicate. Basics of atomic layer deposition, the system set up, automation techniques and our system's characterization are discussed.

  9. Atomic physics made clear

    Meinhold, H.

    1980-01-01

    This book is a popular introduction into the foundations of atomic physics und quantum mechanics. Starting from some phenomenological concepts Bohr's model and the construction of the periodic system regarding the shell structure of atoms are introduced. In this framework the selection rules and magnetic moments of atomic electrons are considered. Finally the wave-particle dualism is considered. In the appendix some mathematical methods are described which are useful for a deeper penetration into the considered ideas. (HSI)

  10. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    Walther, Herbert; Walther, Herbert

    1999-01-01

    This series, established in 1965, is concerned with recent developments in the general area of atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The field is in a state of rapid growth, as new experimental and theoretical techniques are used on many old and new problems. Topics covered also include related applied areas, such as atmospheric science, astrophysics, surface physics, and laser physics.

  11. Volunteer Work, Religious Commitment, and Resting Pulse Rates.

    Krause, Neal; Ironson, Gail; Hill, Peter C

    2017-04-01

    Research indicates that greater involvement in volunteer activities is associated with better health. We aim to contribute to this literature in two ways. First, rather than rely on self-reports of health, measured resting pulse rates serve as the dependent variable. Second, an effort is made to see if religious commitment moderates the relationship between volunteering and resting pulse rates. Data that come from a recent nationwide survey (N = 2265) suggest that volunteer work is associated with lower resting pulse rates. The results also reveal that the relationship between engaging in volunteer work and resting pulse rates improves among study participants who are more deeply committed to religion.

  12. Single atom oscillations

    Wiorkowski, P.; Walther, H.

    1990-01-01

    Modern methods of laser spectroscopy allow the study of single atoms or ions in an unperturbed environment. This has opened up interesting new experiments, among them the detailed study of radiation-atom coupling. In this paper, the following two experiments dealing with this problem are reviewed: the single-atom maser and the study of the resonance fluorescence of a single stored ion. The simplest and most fundamental system for studying radiation-matter coupling is a single two-level atom interacting with a single mode of an electromagnetic field in a cavity. This problem received a great deal of attention shortly after the maser was invented

  13. Atomic hydrogen reactor

    Massip de Turville, C.M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Methods are discussed of generating heat in an atomic hydrogen reactor which involve; the production of atomic hydrogen by an electrical discharge, the capture of nascent neutrons from atomic hydrogen in a number of surrounding steel alloy tubes having a high manganese content to produce 56 Mn, the irradiation of atomic hydrogen by the high energy antineutrinos from the beta decay of 56 Mn to yield nascent neutrons, and the removal of the heat generated by the capture of nascent neutrons by 55 Mn and the beta decay of 56 Mn. (U.K.)

  14. Introducing the PRIDE Archive RESTful web services.

    Reisinger, Florian; del-Toro, Noemi; Ternent, Tobias; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The PRIDE (PRoteomics IDEntifications) database is one of the world-leading public repositories of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics data and it is a founding member of the ProteomeXchange Consortium of proteomics resources. In the original PRIDE database system, users could access data programmatically by accessing the web services provided by the PRIDE BioMart interface. New REST (REpresentational State Transfer) web services have been developed to serve the most popular functionality provided by BioMart (now discontinued due to data scalability issues) and address the data access requirements of the newly developed PRIDE Archive. Using the API (Application Programming Interface) it is now possible to programmatically query for and retrieve peptide and protein identifications, project and assay metadata and the originally submitted files. Searching and filtering is also possible by metadata information, such as sample details (e.g. species and tissues), instrumentation (mass spectrometer), keywords and other provided annotations. The PRIDE Archive web services were first made available in April 2014. The API has already been adopted by a few applications and standalone tools such as PeptideShaker, PRIDE Inspector, the Unipept web application and the Python-based BioServices package. This application is free and open to all users with no login requirement and can be accessed at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/ws/archive/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Latent heat of traffic moving from rest

    Farzad Ahmadi, S.; Berrier, Austin S.; Doty, William M.; Greer, Pat G.; Habibi, Mohammad; Morgan, Hunter A.; Waterman, Josam H. C.; Abaid, Nicole; Boreyko, Jonathan B.

    2017-11-01

    Contrary to traditional thinking and driver intuition, here we show that there is no benefit to ground vehicles increasing their packing density at stoppages. By systematically controlling the packing density of vehicles queued at a traffic light on a Smart Road, drone footage revealed that the benefit of an initial increase in displacement for close-packed vehicles is completely offset by the lag time inherent to changing back into a ‘liquid phase’ when flow resumes. This lag is analogous to the thermodynamic concept of the latent heat of fusion, as the ‘temperature’ (kinetic energy) of the vehicles cannot increase until the traffic ‘melts’ into the liquid phase. These findings suggest that in situations where gridlock is not an issue, drivers should not decrease their spacing during stoppages in order to lessen the likelihood of collisions with no loss in flow efficiency. In contrast, motion capture experiments of a line of people walking from rest showed higher flow efficiency with increased packing densities, indicating that the importance of latent heat becomes trivial for slower moving systems.

  16. Rest frame properties of the proton

    Strobel, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The proton is modeled as three quarks of small current quark mass. The three-body Dirac equation is solved with spin-independent central diagonal linear confining potentials with an attractive Coulombic term in a relativistic three-quark model. Hyperspherical coordinates are used, and the bound state is found analytically. After integrating over the hyperangles, the Hamiltonian is an 8 by 8 matrix of coupled first-order differential equations in one variable, the hyperradius. These are analytically solved in hypercentral approximation. For the (1/2 + ) 3 ground-state configuration in the nonrelativistic large-quark-mass limit, there are no nodes in the wave function. However, in the extreme relativistic limit of small current quark masses of a few MeV, the expectation value of the number of nodes is about 1.30 when the potential parameters are chosen to reproduce the proton rms charge radius. The quarks are assumed to possess a Pauli anomalous magnetic moment, like that of the electron and muon of (α/2π)(e/m). Assuming all three quarks have equal mass, one can fit the rest energy, magnetic moment, rms charge radius, and axial charge of the proton with this relativistic three-body Dirac equation model. The solution found shows the necessity of including all components of the composite three-quark wave function, as the upper component contributes only 0.585 to the norm

  17. Morphological brain plasticity induced by musical expertise is accompanied by modulation of functional connectivity at rest.

    Fauvel, Baptiste; Groussard, Mathilde; Chételat, Gaël; Fouquet, Marine; Landeau, Brigitte; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Platel, Hervé

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this study was to explore whether musical practice-related gray matter increases in brain regions are accompanied by modifications in their resting-state functional connectivity. 16 young musically experienced adults and 17 matched nonmusicians underwent an anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI). A whole-brain two-sample t test run on the T1-weighted structural images revealed four clusters exhibiting significant increases in gray matter (GM) volume in the musician group, located within the right posterior and middle cingulate gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus and right inferior orbitofrontal gyrus. Each cluster was used as a seed region to generate and compare whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity maps. The two clusters within the cingulate gyrus exhibited greater connectivity for musicians with the right prefrontal cortex and left temporal pole, which play a role in autobiographical and semantic memory, respectively. The cluster in the left superior temporal gyrus displayed enhanced connectivity with several language-related areas (e.g., left premotor cortex, bilateral supramarginal gyri). Finally, the cluster in the right inferior frontal gyrus displayed more synchronous activity at rest with claustrum, areas thought to play a role in binding sensory and motor information. We interpreted these findings as the consequence of repeated collaborative use in general networks supporting some of the memory, perceptual-motor and emotional features of musical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stomach-brain synchrony reveals a novel, delayed-connectivity resting-state network in humans.

    Rebollo, Ignacio; Devauchelle, Anne-Dominique; Béranger, Benoît; Tallon-Baudry, Catherine

    2018-03-21

    Resting-state networks offer a unique window into the brain's functional architecture, but their characterization remains limited to instantaneous connectivity thus far. Here, we describe a novel resting-state network based on the delayed connectivity between the brain and the slow electrical rhythm (0.05 Hz) generated in the stomach. The gastric network cuts across classical resting-state networks with partial overlap with autonomic regulation areas. This network is composed of regions with convergent functional properties involved in mapping bodily space through touch, action or vision, as well as mapping external space in bodily coordinates. The network is characterized by a precise temporal sequence of activations within a gastric cycle, beginning with somato-motor cortices and ending with the extrastriate body area and dorsal precuneus. Our results demonstrate that canonical resting-state networks based on instantaneous connectivity represent only one of the possible partitions of the brain into coherent networks based on temporal dynamics. © 2018, Rebollo et al.

  19. Atom dynamics in laser fields

    Jang, Su; Mi, No Gin

    2004-12-01

    This book introduces coherent dynamics of internal state, spread of atoms wave speed, semiclassical atoms density matrix such as dynamics equation in both still and moving atoms, excitation of atoms in movement by light, dipole radiating power, quantum statistical mechanics by atoms in movement, semiclassical atoms in movement, atoms in movement in the uniform magnetic field including effects of uniform magnetic field, atom cooling using laser such as Doppler cooling, atom traps using laser and mirrors, radiant heat which particles receive, and near field interactions among atoms in laser light.

  20. Atoms stories; Histoire d`atomes

    Radvanyi, P; Bordry, M [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    1988-12-31

    Physicists from different countries told each evening during one learning week, to an audience of young people, some great discoveries in evoking the difficulties and problems to which the researchers were confronted. From Antiquity to a more recent history, it is a succession of atoms stories. (N.C.)

  1. Low energy atom-atom collisions

    Child, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    The semiclassical theory of atom-atom potential scattering and of low energy inelastic atom-atom scattering is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the origin and interpretation of rainbow structure, diffraction oscillations and exchange oscillations in the potential scattering differential cross-section, and to the glory structure and symmetry oscillations in the integral cross-section. Available methods for direct inversion of the cross-section data to recover the potential are reviewed in some detail. The theory of non-adiabatic transitions is introduced by a short discussion of interaction mechanisms and of diabetic and adiabatic representations. Analytical S matrix elements are presented for two state curve-crossing (Landau-Zener-Stuckelberg), Demkov and Nikitin models. The relation between Stuckelberg oscillations in the S matrix and in the differential cross-section is discussed in terms of interference between trajectories belonging to two different classical deflection functions. The energy dependences of the inelastic integral cross-section for curve-crossing and Demkov type transitions are also discussed. Finally the theory is reviewed in relation to a recent close-coupled study of fine structure transitions in F( 2 P) + Xe( 2 S) scattering

  2. Comparison of stress-rest and rest-stress one day myocardial perfusion scintigraphies in detecting coronary artery diseases

    Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Jun; Song, Ho Cheon; Kim, Ji Yeul

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that both rest and stress myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium agents can be performed on the same day using two different doses injected within few hours. The purpose of this study was to compare the two protocols (stress-rest and rest-stress) in detecting coronary artery diseases. One hundred and sixty patients (101 males, 59 females, mean age 57±9 years) and 120 patients (79 males, 41 females, mean age 59±10 years) underwent stress-rest myocardial perfusion SPECT and rest-stress myocardial perfusion SPECT, respectively. All of them underwent both myocardial perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography within 1 month. A coronary stenosis was considered significant when it compromised the luminal diameter by ≥50%. The chi square test was used to compare differences in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy between the two groups. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of stress-rest protocol were 99%, 35% and 68%, respectively. Those of rest-stress protocol were 96%, 47% and 78%, respectively. There was no difference between the two protocols in identifying individual diseased coronary artery branches. Therefore, one day stress-rest and rest-stress myocardial SPECT using 99m Tc agents were comparable and were very sensitive tests in detecting coronary artery diseases

  3. The influence of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate for malaria risk

    Thomas Matthew B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of the mosquito and parasite life-history traits that combine to determine malaria transmission intensity are temperature sensitive. In most cases, the process-based models used to estimate malaria risk and inform control and prevention strategies utilize measures of mean outdoor temperature. Evidence suggests, however, that certain malaria vectors can spend large parts of their adult life resting indoors. Presentation of hypothesis If significant proportions of mosquitoes are resting indoors and indoor conditions differ markedly from ambient conditions, simple use of outdoor temperatures will not provide reliable estimates of malaria transmission intensity. To date, few studies have quantified the differential effects of indoor vs outdoor temperatures explicitly, reflecting a lack of proper understanding of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate. Testing the hypothesis Published records from 8 village sites in East Africa revealed temperatures to be warmer indoors than outdoors and to generally show less daily variation. Exploring the effects of these temperatures on malaria parasite development rate suggested indoor-resting mosquitoes could transmit malaria between 0.3 and 22.5 days earlier than outdoor-resting mosquitoes. These differences translate to increases in transmission risk ranging from 5 to approaching 3,000%, relative to predictions based on outdoor temperatures. The pattern appears robust for low- and highland areas, with differences increasing with altitude. Implications of the hypothesis Differences in indoor vs outdoor environments lead to large differences in the limits and the intensity of malaria transmission. This finding highlights a need to better understand mosquito resting behaviour and the associated microclimate, and to broaden assessments of transmission ecology and risk to consider the potentially important role of endophily.

  4. Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds

    Manning, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Explores the atoms that govern chemical processes. This book shows how the interactions between simple substances such as salt and water are crucial to life on Earth and how those interactions are predestined by the atoms that make up the molecules.

  5. Atomic Energy Control Board

    Blackman, N.S.; Gummer, W.K.

    1982-02-01

    This paper has been prepared to provide an overview of the responsibilities and activities of the Atomic Energy Control Board. It is designed to address questions that are often asked concerning the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board, its enabling legislation, licensing and compliance activities, federal-provincial relationships, international obligations, and communications with the public

  6. mu. -nucleon atoms

    Dobretsov, Yu; Dolgoshein, B; Kirillov-Ugryumov, V

    1980-12-01

    The properties and formation are described of ..mu..-nucleon atoms, the Larmor method of muon spin precession is discussed and the experimental confirmation of the existence of ..mu..-nucleon atoms is shown. The prospects of their use are indicated.

  7. μ-nucleon atoms

    Dobretsov, Yu.; Dolgoshejn, B.; Kirillov-Ugryumov, V.

    1980-01-01

    The properties and formation are described of μ-nucleon atoms, the Larmor method of muon spin precession is discussed and the experimental confirmation of the existence of μ-nucleon atoms is shown. The prospects of their use are indicated. (J.P.)

  8. Atomic Ferris wheel beams

    Lembessis, Vasileios E.

    2017-07-01

    We study the generation of atom vortex beams in the case where a Bose-Einstein condensate, released from a trap and moving in free space, is diffracted from a properly tailored light mask with a spiral transverse profile. We show how such a diffraction scheme could lead to the production of an atomic Ferris wheel beam.

  9. Atom lithography of Fe

    Sligte, te E.; Smeets, B.; van der Stam, K.M.R.; Herfst, R.W.; Straten, van der P.; Beijerinck, H.C.W.; Leeuwen, van K.A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Direct write atom lithography is a technique in which nearly resonant light is used to pattern an atom beam. Nanostructures are formed when the patterned beam falls onto a substrate. We have applied this lithography scheme to a ferromagnetic element, using a 372 nm laser light standing wave to

  10. Beyond the Atom

    Cox, John

    2011-08-01

    1. Introduction - the atom in the seventies; 2. The vacuum tube; 3. The new rays; 4. The new substances; 5. Disintegration; 6. A family tree; 7. Verifications and results; 8. The objective reality of molecules; 9. The new atom; Bibliography; Index.

  11. When Atoms Want

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry students and teachers often explain the chemical reactivity of atoms, molecules, and chemical substances in terms of purposes or needs (e.g., atoms want or need to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to become more stable). These teleological explanations seem to have pedagogical value as they help students understand and use…

  12. Atom electron scattering

    Santoso, B.

    1976-01-01

    Green Lippmann-Schwinger functions operator representations, derivation of perturbation method using Green function and atom electron scattering, are discussed. It is concluded that by using complex coordinate places where resonances occur, can be accurately identified. The resonance can be processed further for practical purposes, for example for the separation of atom. (RUW)

  13. Atomic energy for progress

    1974-01-01

    The film discusses the functions and activities of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. Shown are the applications of atomic energy in research, agriculture, engineering, industry and medicine, as well as the construction of the research reactor and its inauguration by President Marcos

  14. Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    A new method of background correction in atomic absorption spectroscopy has recently been introduced, based on the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic field. A theoretical analysis of the background correction capability observed in such instruments is presented. A Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a 50 Hz sine wave modulated magnetic field is described. (Auth.)

  15. Isotopes and atomic weights

    Zhang Qinglian

    1990-01-01

    A review of the chemical and mass spectrometric methods of determining the atomic weights of elements is presented. A, special discussion is devoted to the calibration of the mass spectrometer with highly enriched isotopes. It is illustrated by the recent work on europium. How to choose the candidate element for new atomic weight determination forms the last section of the article

  16. A novel lunar bed rest analogue.

    Cavanagh, Peter R; Rice, Andrea J; Licata, Angelo A; Kuklis, Matthew M; Novotny, Sara C; Genc, Kerim O; Englehaupt, Ricki K; Hanson, Andrea M

    2013-11-01

    Humans will eventually return to the Moon and thus there is a need for a ground-based analogue to enable the study of physiological adaptations to lunar gravity. An important unanswered question is whether or not living on the lunar surface will provide adequate loading of the musculoskeletal system to prevent or attenuate the bone loss that is seen in microgravity. Previous simulations have involved tilting subjects to an approximately 9.5 degrees angle to achieve a lunar gravity component parallel to the long-axis of the body. However, subjects in these earlier simulations were not weight-bearing, and thus these protocols did not provide an analogue for load on the musculoskeletal system. We present a novel analogue which includes the capability to simulate standing and sitting in a lunar loading environment. A bed oriented at a 9.5 degrees angle was mounted on six linear bearings and was free to travel with one degree of freedom along rails. This allowed approximately 1/6 body weight loading of the feet during standing. "Lunar" sitting was also successfully simulated. A feasibility study demonstrated that the analogue was tolerated by subjects for 6 d of continuous bed rest and that the reaction forces at the feet during periods of standing were a reasonable simulation of lunar standing. During the 6 d, mean change in the volume of the quadriceps muscles was -1.6% +/- 1.7%. The proposed analogue would appear to be an acceptable simulation of lunar gravity and deserves further exploration in studies of longer duration.

  17. Aging, resting pulse rate, and longevity.

    Stessman, Jochanan; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Stessman-Lande, Irit; Gilon, Dan; Leibowitz, David

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between resting pulse rate (RPR) and longevity in individuals aged 70 to 90. The Jerusalem Longitudinal Cohort Study (1990-2010) is a prospective longitudinal study of a representative cohort born in 1920-21. Home-based comprehensive assessment in 1990, 1998, and 2005. Individuals aged 70 (n = 453), 78 (n = 856), and 85 (n = 1,044), with follow-up to age 90. Comprehensive assessment included average RPR, beta-blocker usage, and physical activity level. Mortality data were collected from the Ministry of Interior from 1990 to 2010. Cox proportional hazards ratios (HRs) were determined for RPR (continuous variable), adjusting for sex, education, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, hypertension, kidney disease, anemia, physical activity, body mass index, self-rated health, dementia, beta-blocker use, and an interaction term for RPR by beta-blocker use. Mean RPR was 75.1 ± 9.9 at 70, 74.5 ± 10.9 at 78, and 68.5 ± 10.5 at 85 in women and 74.3 ± 10.7 at 70, 73.1 ± 11.2 at 78, and 65.2 ± 10.5 at 85 in men, with a significant decline from 78 to 85 for both sexes. In participants not taking beta-blockers followed up from 70 to 77, 78 to 84, and 85 to 90, mean RPR was lower in survivors than nonsurvivors for women (75.8 ± 9.2 vs 83.5 ± 10.9, P longevity. It may serve as a simple prognostic marker in the oldest old. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Virtual Resting Pd/Pa From Coronary Angiography and Blood Flow Modelling: Diagnostic Performance Against Fractional Flow Reserve.

    Papafaklis, Michail I; Muramatsu, Takashi; Ishibashi, Yuki; Bourantas, Christos V; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Garcia-Garcia, Héctor M; Escaned, Javier; Serruys, Patrick W; Michalis, Lampros K

    2018-03-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) has been established as a useful diagnostic tool. The distal coronary pressure to aortic pressure (Pd/Pa) ratio at rest is a simpler physiologic index but also requires the use of the pressure wire, whereas recently proposed virtual functional indices derived from coronary imaging require complex blood flow modelling and/or are time-consuming. Our aim was to test the diagnostic performance of virtual resting Pd/Pa using routine angiographic images and a simple flow model. Three-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (3D-QCA) was performed in 139 vessels (120 patients) with intermediate lesions assessed by FFR. The resting Pd/Pa for each lesion was assessed by computational fluid dynamics. The discriminatory power of virtual resting Pd/Pa against FFR (reference: ≤0.80) was high (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve [AUC]: 90.5% [95% CI: 85.4-95.6%]). Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for the optimal virtual resting Pd/Pa cut-off (≤0.94) were 84.9%, 90.4% and 81.6%, respectively. Virtual resting Pd/Pa demonstrated superior performance (pvirtual resting Pd/Pa and FFR (r=0.69, pVirtual resting Pd/Pa using routine angiographic data and a simple flow model provides fast functional assessment of coronary lesions without requiring the pressure-wire and hyperaemia induction. The high diagnostic performance of virtual resting Pd/Pa for predicting FFR shows promise for using this simple/fast virtual index in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Atomic diffusion in stars

    Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This book gives an overview of atomic diffusion, a fundamental physical process, as applied to all types of stars, from the main sequence to neutron stars. The superficial abundances of stars as well as their evolution can be significantly affected. The authors show where atomic diffusion plays an essential role and how it can be implemented in modelling.  In Part I, the authors describe the tools that are required to include atomic diffusion in models of stellar interiors and atmospheres. An important role is played by the gradient of partial radiative pressure, or radiative acceleration, which is usually neglected in stellar evolution. In Part II, the authors systematically review the contribution of atomic diffusion to each evolutionary step. The dominant effects of atomic diffusion are accompanied by more subtle effects on a large number of structural properties throughout evolution. One of the goals of this book is to provide the means for the astrophysicist or graduate student to evaluate the importanc...

  20. Theoretical atomic physics

    Friedrich, Harald

    2017-01-01

    This expanded and updated well-established textbook contains an advanced presentation of quantum mechanics adapted to the requirements of modern atomic physics. It includes topics of current interest such as semiclassical theory, chaos, atom optics and Bose-Einstein condensation in atomic gases. In order to facilitate the consolidation of the material covered, various problems are included, together with complete solutions. The emphasis on theory enables the reader to appreciate the fundamental assumptions underlying standard theoretical constructs and to embark on independent research projects. The fourth edition of Theoretical Atomic Physics contains an updated treatment of the sections involving scattering theory and near-threshold phenomena manifest in the behaviour of cold atoms (and molecules). Special attention is given to the quantization of weakly bound states just below the continuum threshold and to low-energy scattering and quantum reflection just above. Particular emphasis is laid on the fundamen...

  1. Antiprotonic-hydrogen atoms

    Batty, C.J.

    1989-07-01

    Experimental studies of antiprotonic-hydrogen atoms have recently made great progress following the commissioning of the low energy antiproton facility (LEAR) at CERN in 1983. At the same time our understanding of the atomic cascade has increased considerably through measurements of the X-ray spectra. The life history of the p-bar-p atom is considered in some detail, from the initial capture of the antiproton when stopping in hydrogen, through the atomic cascade with the emission of X-rays, to the final antiproton annihilation and production of mesons. The experiments carried out at LEAR are described and the results compared with atomic cascade calculations and predictions of strong interaction effects. (author)

  2. Atypical Laterality of Resting Gamma Oscillations in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Maxwell, Christina R.; Villalobos, Michele E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Kohls, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal brain oscillatory activity has been found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and proposed as a potential biomarker. While several studies have investigated gamma oscillations in ASD, none have examined resting gamma power across multiple brain regions. This study investigated resting gamma power using EEG in 15 boys with ASD and 18 age…

  3. Rest tremor in idiopathic adult-onset dystonia.

    Gigante, A F; Berardelli, A; Defazio, G

    2016-05-01

    Tremor in dystonia has been described as a postural or kinetic abnormality. In recent series, however, patients with idiopathic adult-onset dystonia also displayed rest tremor. The frequency and distribution of rest tremor were studied in a cohort of 173 consecutive Italian patients affected by various forms of idiopathic adult-onset dystonia attending our movement disorder clinic over 8 months. Examination revealed tremor in 59/173 patients (34%): 12 patients had head tremor, 34 patients had arm tremor, whilst 13 patients presented tremor in both sites. Head tremor was postural in all patients, whereas arm tremor was postural/kinetic in 28 patients, only at rest in one and both postural/kinetic and at rest in 18 patients. Patients with tremor were more likely to have segmental/multifocal dystonia. Patients who had rest tremor (either alone or associated with action tremor) had a higher age at dystonia onset and a greater frequency of dystonic arm involvement than patients with action tremor alone or without tremor. Both action and rest tremor are part of the tremor spectrum of adult-onset dystonia and are more frequently encountered in segmental/multifocal dystonia. The higher age at dystonia onset and the greater frequency of arm dystonia in patients with rest tremor may have pathophysiological implications and may account, at least in part, for the previous lack of identification of rest tremor as one possible type of tremor present in dystonia. © 2016 EAN.

  4. Identification of Resting State Networks Involved in Executive Function.

    Connolly, Joanna; McNulty, Jonathan P; Boran, Lorraine; Roche, Richard A P; Delany, David; Bokde, Arun L W

    2016-06-01

    The structural networks in the human brain are consistent across subjects, and this is reflected also in that functional networks across subjects are relatively consistent. These findings are not only present during performance of a goal oriented task but there are also consistent functional networks during resting state. It suggests that goal oriented activation patterns may be a function of component networks identified using resting state. The current study examines the relationship between resting state networks measured and patterns of neural activation elicited during a Stroop task. The association between the Stroop-activated networks and the resting state networks was quantified using spatial linear regression. In addition, we investigated if the degree of spatial association of resting state networks with the Stroop task may predict performance on the Stroop task. The results of this investigation demonstrated that the Stroop activated network can be decomposed into a number of resting state networks, which were primarily associated with attention, executive function, visual perception, and the default mode network. The close spatial correspondence between the functional organization of the resting brain and task-evoked patterns supports the relevance of resting state networks in cognitive function.

  5. Restful Implementation of Catalogue Service for Geospatial Data Provenance

    Jiang, L. C.; Yue, P.; Lu, X. C.

    2013-10-01

    Provenance, also known as lineage, is important in understanding the derivation history of data products. Geospatial data provenance helps data consumers to evaluate the quality and reliability of geospatial data. In a service-oriented environment, where data are often consumed or produced by distributed services, provenance could be managed by following the same service-oriented paradigm. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) is used for the registration and query of geospatial data provenance by extending ebXML Registry Information Model (ebRIM). Recent advance of the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) paradigm has shown great promise for the easy integration of distributed resources. RESTful Web Service aims to provide a standard way for Web clients to communicate with servers based on REST principles. The existing approach for provenance catalogue service could be improved by adopting the RESTful design. This paper presents the design and implementation of a catalogue service for geospatial data provenance following RESTful architecture style. A middleware named REST Converter is added on the top of the legacy catalogue service to support a RESTful style interface. The REST Converter is composed of a resource request dispatcher and six resource handlers. A prototype service is developed to demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  6. A REST-ful interpretation for embedded modular systems based on open architecture

    Lyke, James

    2016-05-01

    The much-anticipated revolution of the "Internet of things" (IoT) is expected to generate one trillion internet devices within the next 15 years, mostly in the form of simple wireless sensor devices. While this revolution promises to transform silicon markets and drive a number of disruptive changes in society, it is also the case that the protocols, complexity, and security issues of extremely large dynamic, co-mingled networks is still poorly understood. Furthermore, embedded system developers, to include military and aerospace users, have largely ignored the potential (good and bound) of the cloudlike, possibly intermingling networks having variable structure to how future systems might be engineered. In this paper, we consider a new interpretation of IoT inspired modular architecture strategies involving the representational state transfer (REST) model, in which dynamic networks with variable structure employ stateless application programming interface (API) concepts. The power of the method, which extends concepts originally developed for space plug-and-play avionics, is that it allows for the fluid co-mingling of hardware and software in networks whose structure can overlap and evolve. Paradoxically, these systems may have the most stringent determinism and fault-tolerant needs. In this paper we review how RESTful APIs can potentially be used to design, create, test, and deploy systems rapidly while addressing security and referential integrity even when the nodes of many systems might physically co-mingle. We will also explore ways to take advantage of the RESTful paradigm for fault tolerance and what extensions might be necessary to deal with high-performance and determinism.

  7. Stress/Rest Tc-99m-MIBI SPECT in Comparison with Rest/Stress Rubidium - 82 PET

    Lee, D. S.; Kamg, K. W.; Lee, K. H.; Jeong, J. M.; Kwark, C. E.; Chung, J. K.; Lee, M.C.; Seo, J. D.; Koh, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    We compared stress/rest myocardial Tc-99m-MIBI tomographic image findings with rest/stress rubidium-82 tomographic images. In 23 patients with coronary artery disease (12 of them received bypass grafts before) and 6 normal subjects, rest rubidium PET study was performed, rubidium-82 and Tc-99m-MIBI were injected simultaneously to each patient after dipyridamole stress for rubidium PET and MIBI SPECT; and rest MIBI SPECT was performed 4 hours thereafter. We scored segmental decrease of rubidium, or MIBI uptakes into 5 grades for 29 segments from 3 short-axis, vertical and horizontal slices. Scores were summed for each major arterial territory. When more score than two grade-2's or one grade-3 was considered as the cue for significant stenosis for major arterial territories, 67% of 46 stenosed arteries were found with MIBI studies and 78% of them by rubidium studies. Fourteen among 28 grafted arterial territories of 12 post-CABG patients were found normal with both rubidium and MIBI. Segmental scores were concordant between rubidium and MIBI in 72% of 709-stress segments and in 80% of 825 rest segments. Stress rubidium segmental scores were less than stress MIBI scores in 9%, so were rest rubidium scores. Stress rubidium scores were more than stress MIBI scores in 20% of segments, and rest rubidium segmental scores were more than rest MIBI scores in 11%. Rank correlations (Spearman's rho's more than 0.7(stress) and 0.5(rest), slopes (MIBI/rubidium) around 0.7(stress) and 0.9(rest) suggested deeper and wider defects in stress with rubidium. Slope over 1 (MIBI/rubidium) with LAD segmental scores at rest and 7 territories which had much larger score with MIBI revealed exaggeration of rest defects with rest MIBI in same-day stress/rest study. Difference scores (stress-rest for each territory) suggesting ischemia were larger with rubidium (slope of MIBI/rubidium around 0.45). As has been implied by animal or separate-day- human studies, these segmental analyses with

  8. Stress hormones at rest and following exercise testing predict coronary artery disease severity and outcome.

    Popovic, Dejana; Damjanovic, Svetozar; Djordjevic, Tea; Martic, Dejana; Ignjatovic, Svetlana; Milinkovic, Neda; Banovic, Marko; Lasica, Ratko; Petrovic, Milan; Guazzi, Marco; Arena, Ross

    2017-09-01

    Despite considerable knowledge regarding the importance of stress in coronary artery disease (CAD) pathogenesis, its underestimation persists in routine clinical practice, in part attributable to lack of a standardized, objective assessment. The current study examined the ability of stress hormones to predict CAD severity and prognosis at basal conditions as well as during and following an exertional stimulus. Forty Caucasian subjects with significant coronary artery lesions (≥50%) were included. Within 2 months of coronary angiography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) on a recumbent ergometer was performed in conjunction with stress echocardiography (SE). At rest, peak and after 3 min of recovery following CPET, plasma levels of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and NT-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) were measured by immunoassay sandwich technique, radioimmunoassay, and radioimmunometric technique, respectively. Subjects were subsequently followed a mean of 32 ± 10 months. Mean ejection fraction was 56.7 ± 9.6%. Subjects with 1-2 stenotic coronary arteries (SCA) demonstrated a significantly lower plasma cortisol levels during CPET compared to those with 3-SCA (p  .05). Among CPET, SE, and hormonal parameters, cortisol at rest and during CPET recovery demonstrated the best predictive value in distinguishing between 1-, 2-, and 3-SCA [area under ROC curve 0.75 and 0.77 (SE = 0.11, 0.10; p = .043, .04) for rest and recovery, respectively]. ΔCortisol peak/rest predicted cumulative cardiac events (area under ROC curve 0.75, SE = 0.10, p = .049). Cortisol at rest and following an exercise test holds predictive value for CAD severity and prognosis, further demonstrating a link between stress and unwanted cardiac events.

  9. Strength and hypertrophy responses to constant and decreasing rest intervals in trained men using creatine supplementation.

    Souza-Junior, Tácito P; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Bloomer, Richard; Leite, Richard D; Fleck, Steven J; Oliveira, Paulo R; Simão, Roberto

    2011-10-27

    The purpose of the current study was to compare strength and hypertrophy responses to resistance training programs that instituted constant rest intervals (CI) and decreasing rest intervals (DI) between sets over the course of eight weeks by trained men who supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CR). Twenty-two recreationally trained men were randomly assigned to a CI group (n = 11; 22.3 ± 1 years; 77.7 ± 5.4 kg; 180 ± 2.2 cm) or a DI group (n = 11; 22 ± 2.5 years; 75.8 ± 4.9 kg; 178.8 ± 3.4 cm). Subjects in both groups supplemented with CR; the only difference between groups was the rest interval instituted between sets; the CI group used 2 minutes rest intervals between sets and exercises for the entire 8-weeks of training, while the DI group started with a 2 minute rest interval the first two weeks; after which the rest interval between sets was decreased 15 seconds per week (i.e. 2 minutes decreasing to 30 seconds between sets). Pre- and post-intervention maximal strength for the free weight back squat and bench press exercises and isokinetic peak torque were assessed for the knee extensors and flexors. Additionally, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the right thigh and upper arm was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Both groups demonstrated significant increases in back squat and bench press maximal strength, knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torque, and upper arm and right thigh CSA from pre- to post-training (p ≤ 0.0001); however, there were no significant differences between groups for any of these variables. The total volume for the bench press and back squat were significantly greater for CI group versus the DI group. We report that the combination of CR supplementation and resistance training can increase muscular strength, isokinetic peak torque, and muscle CSA, irrespective of the rest interval length between sets. Because the volume of training was greater for the CI group versus the DI group, yet strength gains were

  10. Strength and hypertrophy responses to constant and decreasing rest intervals in trained men using creatine supplementation

    Fleck Steven J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the current study was to compare strength and hypertrophy responses to resistance training programs that instituted constant rest intervals (CI and decreasing rest intervals (DI between sets over the course of eight weeks by trained men who supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CR. Methods Twenty-two recreationally trained men were randomly assigned to a CI group (n = 11; 22.3 ± 1 years; 77.7 ± 5.4 kg; 180 ± 2.2 cm or a DI group (n = 11; 22 ± 2.5 years; 75.8 ± 4.9 kg; 178.8 ± 3.4 cm. Subjects in both groups supplemented with CR; the only difference between groups was the rest interval instituted between sets; the CI group used 2 minutes rest intervals between sets and exercises for the entire 8-weeks of training, while the DI group started with a 2 minute rest interval the first two weeks; after which the rest interval between sets was decreased 15 seconds per week (i.e. 2 minutes decreasing to 30 seconds between sets. Pre- and post-intervention maximal strength for the free weight back squat and bench press exercises and isokinetic peak torque were assessed for the knee extensors and flexors. Additionally, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA of the right thigh and upper arm was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Both groups demonstrated significant increases in back squat and bench press maximal strength, knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torque, and upper arm and right thigh CSA from pre- to post-training (p ≤ 0.0001; however, there were no significant differences between groups for any of these variables. The total volume for the bench press and back squat were significantly greater for CI group versus the DI group. Conclusions We report that the combination of CR supplementation and resistance training can increase muscular strength, isokinetic peak torque, and muscle CSA, irrespective of the rest interval length between sets. Because the volume of training was greater for the

  11. Determination numbers of ionized atoms from emission and absorption lines

    Alizadeh Azimi, A.; Shokouhi, N.

    2002-01-01

    Saha, M., (1920) estimated that salter chromosphere is not only due to radiation from neutral atoms, but from ionized atoms. The failure to observe these stellar lines in the laboratory was attributed to internal temperature and pressure about 10* E + 6 K 10* E-7 atm. In this research we found that emission lines of ionized atoms (like Cs) could be measured in laboratory condition, (about 10* E-3 atm and 2000 K) by using Graphite France Atomic Absorption with injection 124 u g C sel. We calculated the numbers of ionized atoms from Bottzman law. We also measured these numbers from area under the energy-time curve

  12. Experimental atomic physics

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental atomic physics program within the physics division is carried out by two groups, whose reports are given in this section. Work of the accelerator atomic physics group is centered around the 6.5-MV EN tandem accelerator; consequently, most of its research is concerned with atomic processes occurring to, or initiated by, few MeV/amu heavy ions. Other activities of this group include higher energy experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF), studies of electron and positron channeling radiation, and collaborative experiments at other institutions. The second experimental group concerns itself with lower energy atomic collision physics in support of the Fusion Energy Program. During the past year, the new Electron Cyclotron Resonance Source has been completed and some of the first data from this facility is presented. In addition to these two activities in experimental atomic physics, other chapters of this report describe progress in theoretical atomic physics, experimental plasma diagnostic development, and atomic data center compilation activities

  13. Resting-State Network Topology Differentiates Task Signals across the Adult Life Span.

    Chan, Micaela Y; Alhazmi, Fahd H; Park, Denise C; Savalia, Neil K; Wig, Gagan S

    2017-03-08

    Brain network connectivity differs across individuals. For example, older adults exhibit less segregated resting-state subnetworks relative to younger adults (Chan et al., 2014). It has been hypothesized that individual differences in network connectivity impact the recruitment of brain areas during task execution. While recent studies have described the spatial overlap between resting-state functional correlation (RSFC) subnetworks and task-evoked activity, it is unclear whether individual variations in the connectivity pattern of a brain area (topology) relates to its activity during task execution. We report data from 238 cognitively normal participants (humans), sampled across the adult life span (20-89 years), to reveal that RSFC-based network organization systematically relates to the recruitment of brain areas across two functionally distinct tasks (visual and semantic). The functional activity of brain areas (network nodes) were characterized according to their patterns of RSFC: nodes with relatively greater connections to nodes in their own functional system ("non-connector" nodes) exhibited greater activity than nodes with relatively greater connections to nodes in other systems ("connector" nodes). This "activation selectivity" was specific to those brain systems that were central to each of the tasks. Increasing age was accompanied by less differentiated network topology and a corresponding reduction in activation selectivity (or differentiation) across relevant network nodes. The results provide evidence that connectional topology of brain areas quantified at rest relates to the functional activity of those areas during task. Based on these findings, we propose a novel network-based theory for previous reports of the "dedifferentiation" in brain activity observed in aging. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Similar to other real-world networks, the organization of brain networks impacts their function. As brain network connectivity patterns differ across

  14. Biomarkers of Dose and Effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    Background: Human controlled exposure studies have generally focused on subjects exposed to ozone (O3) while exercising while exposures in rats have been done at rest. We exposed resting subjects to labeled O3 (18O3, 0.4 ppm, for 2 hr) and compared O3 dose and effects with our...

  15. Building RESTful web services with Go learn how to build powerful RESTful APIs with Golang that scale gracefully

    Yellavula, Naren

    2017-01-01

    REST is an architectural style that tackles the challenges of building scalable web services and in today's connected world, APIs have taken a central role on the web. APIs provide the fabric through which systems interact, and REST has become synonymous with APIs. The depth, breadth, and ease of use of Go, makes it a breeze for developers to ...

  16. Task vs. rest-different network configurations between the coactivation and the resting-state brain networks.

    Di, Xin; Gohel, Suril; Kim, Eun H; Biswal, Bharat B

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in studies of human brain networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, it is unclear whether and how brain networks measured during the resting-state exhibit comparable properties to brain networks during task performance. In the present study, we investigated meta-analytic coactivation patterns among brain regions based upon published neuroimaging studies, and compared the coactivation network configurations with those in the resting-state network. The strength of resting-state functional connectivity between two regions were strongly correlated with the coactivation strength. However, the coactivation network showed greater global efficiency, smaller mean clustering coefficient, and lower modularity compared with the resting-state network, which suggest a more efficient global information transmission and between system integrations during task performing. Hub shifts were also observed within the thalamus and the left inferior temporal cortex. The thalamus and the left inferior temporal cortex exhibited higher and lower degrees, respectively in the coactivation network compared with the resting-state network. These results shed light regarding the reconfiguration of the brain networks between task and resting-state conditions, and highlight the role of the thalamus in change of network configurations in task vs. rest.

  17. Atomic mass spectrometry

    Sanz-Medel, A.

    1997-01-01

    The elemental inorganic analysis seems to be dominated today by techniques based on atomic spectrometry. After an evaluation of advantages and limitations of using mass analysers (ion detectors) versus conventional photomultipliers (photon detector) a brief review of the more popular techniques of the emerging Atomic Mass spectrometry is carried out. Their huge potential for inorganic trace analysis is such that in the future we could well witness how this end of the century and millennium marked the fall of the photons empire in Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. (Author)

  18. Physics of the atom

    Wehr, Russell M; Adair, Thomas W

    1984-01-01

    The fourth edition of Physics of the Atom is designed to meet the modern need for a better understanding of the atomic age. It is an introduction suitable for students with a background in university physics and mathematical competence at the level of calculus. This book is designed to be an extension of the introductory university physics course into the realm of atomic physics. It should give students a proficiency in this field comparable to their proficiency in mechanics, heat, sound, light, and electricity.

  19. Atom trap trace analysis

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O' Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  20. Division of atomic physics

    Kroell, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Division of Atomic Physics, Lund Institute of Technology (LTH), is responsible for the basic physics teaching in all subjects at LTH and for specialized teaching in Optics, Atomic Physics, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy and Laser Physics. The Division has research activities in basic and applied optical spectroscopy, to a large extent based on lasers. It is also part of the Physics Department, Lund University, where it forms one of eight divisions. Since the beginning of 1980 the research activities of our division have been centred around the use of lasers. The activities during the period 1991-1992 is described in this progress reports

  1. Atom trap trace analysis

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O'Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-01-01

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual 85 Kr and 81 Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10 -11 and 10 -13 , respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications

  2. Atomic physics research with synchrotron radiation

    Crasemann, B.; Wuilleumier, F.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter discusses applications of synchrotron light in atomic and molecular physics. Use of the radiation from storage rings has expanded and lent access to new areas of absorption and photoemission spectroscopy and scattering experiments. Techniques applied in connection with synchrotron radiation are discussed including absorption spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Problem areas that are being studied by the techniques mentioned above are discussed. Synchrotron radiation has provided the means for measuring the threshold-excitation and interference effects that signal the breakdown of the two-step model of atomic excitation/deexcitation. Synchrotron radiation provides more means of excited-state photoionization measurements

  3. RESTful M2M Gateway for Remote Wireless Monitoring for District Central Heating Networks

    Bo Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST Machine-to-Machine (M2M gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented.

  4. Recognizing mild cognitive impairment based on network connectivity analysis of resting EEG with zero reference

    Xu, Peng; Xiong, Xiu Chun; Tian, Yin; Zhang, Rui; Li, Pei Yang; Yao, De Zhong; Xue, Qing; Wang, Yu Ping; Peng, Yueheng

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is very helpful for early therapeutic interventions of Alzheimer's disease (AD). MCI has been proven to be correlated with disorders in multiple brain areas. In this paper, we used information from resting brain networks at different EEG frequency bands to reliably recognize MCI. Because EEG network analysis is influenced by the reference that is used, we also evaluate the effect of the reference choices on the resting scalp EEG network-based MCI differentiation. The conducted study reveals two aspects: (1) the network-based MCI differentiation is superior to the previously reported classification that uses coherence in the EEG; and (2) the used EEG reference influences the differentiation performance, and the zero approximation technique (reference electrode standardization technique, REST) can construct a more accurate scalp EEG network, which results in a higher differentiation accuracy for MCI. This study indicates that the resting scalp EEG-based network analysis could be valuable for MCI recognition in the future. (paper)

  5. Effect of scanner acoustic background noise on strict resting-state fMRI.

    Rondinoni, C; Amaro, E; Cendes, F; dos Santos, A C; Salmon, C E G

    2013-04-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) resting-state experiments are aimed at identifying brain networks that support basal brain function. Although most investigators consider a 'resting-state' fMRI experiment with no specific external stimulation, subjects are unavoidably under heavy acoustic noise produced by the equipment. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of auditory input on the resting-state networks (RSNs). Twenty-two healthy subjects were scanned using two similar echo-planar imaging sequences in the same 3T MRI scanner: a default pulse sequence and a reduced "silent" pulse sequence. Experimental sessions consisted of two consecutive 7-min runs with noise conditions (default or silent) counterbalanced across subjects. A self-organizing group independent component analysis was applied to fMRI data in order to recognize the RSNs. The insula, left middle frontal gyrus and right precentral and left inferior parietal lobules showed significant differences in the voxel-wise comparison between RSNs depending on noise condition. In the presence of low-level noise, these areas Granger-cause oscillations in RSNs with cognitive implications (dorsal attention and entorhinal), while during high noise acquisition, these connectivities are reduced or inverted. Applying low noise MR acquisitions in research may allow the detection of subtle differences of the RSNs, with implications in experimental planning for resting-state studies, data analysis, and ergonomic factors.

  6. Resting right ventricular function is associated with exercise performance in PAH, but not in CTEPH.

    Rehman, Michaela Beatrice; Howard, Luke S; Christiaens, Luc P; Gill, Dipender; Gibbs, J Simon R; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros

    2018-02-01

    To assess whether resting right ventricular (RV) function assessed by Global RV longitudinal strain (RVLS) and RV fractional area change (FAC) is associated with exercise performance in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We prospectively recruited 46 consecutive patients with PAH and 42 patients with CTEPH who were referred for cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and transthoracic echocardiography. Resting RV systolic function was assessed with RVLS and FAC. CPET parameters analyzed were percentage of predicted maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and the slope of ventilation against carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2). Spearman correlation was performed between echocardiographic measurements and CPET measurements. In PAH, spearman correlation found an association between RVLS and VE/VCO2 (coefficient = 0.556, P PAH, resting RV function as assessed by FAC or RVLS is associated with exercise performance and could therefore make a significant contribution to non-invasive assessment in PAH patients. This association is not found in CTEPH, suggesting a disconnection between resting RV function and exercise performance, with implications for the use of exercise measurements as a prognostic marker and clinical/research endpoint in CTEPH. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Resting-State Connectivity Predicts Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesias in Parkinson's Disease

    Herz, Damian M.; Haagensen, Brian N.; Nielsen, Silas H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Levodopa-induced dyskinesias are a common side effect of dopaminergic therapy in PD, but their neural correlates remain poorly understood. Objectives: This study examines whether dyskinesias are associated with abnormal dopaminergic modulation of resting-state cortico-striatal connect......Background: Levodopa-induced dyskinesias are a common side effect of dopaminergic therapy in PD, but their neural correlates remain poorly understood. Objectives: This study examines whether dyskinesias are associated with abnormal dopaminergic modulation of resting-state cortico......-striatal connectivity. Methods: Twelve PD patients with peak-of-dose dyskinesias and 12 patients without dyskinesias were withdrawn from dopaminergic medication. All patients received a single dose of fast-acting soluble levodopa and then underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging before any...... dyskinesias emerged. Levodopa-induced modulation of cortico-striatal resting-state connectivity was assessed between the putamen and the following 3 cortical regions of interest: supplementary motor area, primary sensorimotor cortex, and right inferior frontal gyrus. These functional connectivity measures...

  8. Visual learning alters the spontaneous activity of the resting human brain: an fNIRS study.

    Niu, Haijing; Li, Hao; Sun, Li; Su, Yongming; Huang, Jing; Song, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) has been widely used to investigate spontaneous brain activity that exhibits correlated fluctuations. RSFC has been found to be changed along the developmental course and after learning. Here, we investigated whether and how visual learning modified the resting oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) functional brain connectivity by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We demonstrate that after five days of training on an orientation discrimination task constrained to the right visual field, resting HbO functional connectivity and directed mutual interaction between high-level visual cortex and frontal/central areas involved in the top-down control were significantly modified. Moreover, these changes, which correlated with the degree of perceptual learning, were not limited to the trained left visual cortex. We conclude that the resting oxygenated hemoglobin functional connectivity could be used as a predictor of visual learning, supporting the involvement of high-level visual cortex and the involvement of frontal/central cortex during visual perceptual learning.

  9. Effect of scanner acoustic background noise on strict resting-state fMRI

    C. Rondinoni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI (fMRI resting-state experiments are aimed at identifying brain networks that support basal brain function. Although most investigators consider a ‘resting-state' fMRI experiment with no specific external stimulation, subjects are unavoidably under heavy acoustic noise produced by the equipment. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of auditory input on the resting-state networks (RSNs. Twenty-two healthy subjects were scanned using two similar echo-planar imaging sequences in the same 3T MRI scanner: a default pulse sequence and a reduced “silent” pulse sequence. Experimental sessions consisted of two consecutive 7-min runs with noise conditions (default or silent counterbalanced across subjects. A self-organizing group independent component analysis was applied to fMRI data in order to recognize the RSNs. The insula, left middle frontal gyrus and right precentral and left inferior parietal lobules showed significant differences in the voxel-wise comparison between RSNs depending on noise condition. In the presence of low-level noise, these areas Granger-cause oscillations in RSNs with cognitive implications (dorsal attention and entorhinal, while during high noise acquisition, these connectivities are reduced or inverted. Applying low noise MR acquisitions in research may allow the detection of subtle differences of the RSNs, with implications in experimental planning for resting-state studies, data analysis, and ergonomic factors.

  10. Dye lasers in atomic spectroscopy

    Lange, W.; Luther, J.; Steudel, A.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of dye lasers which are relevant to atomic spectroscopy are discussed. Several experiments made possible by tunable dye lasers are discussed. Applications of high spectral density dye lasers are covered in areas such as absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, photoionization and photodetachment, and two- and multi-photon processes. Applications which take advantage of the narrow bandwidth of tunable dye lasers are discussed, including saturation spectroscopy, fluorescence line narrowing, classic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, nonoptical detection of optical resonances, heterodyne spectroscopy, and nonlinear coherent resonant phenomena. (26 figures, 180 references) (U.S.)

  11. Changes in resting neural connectivity during propofol sedation.

    Emmanuel A Stamatakis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The default mode network consists of a set of functionally connected brain regions (posterior cingulate, medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral parietal cortex maximally active in functional imaging studies under "no task" conditions. It has been argued that the posterior cingulate is important in consciousness/awareness, but previous investigations of resting interactions between the posterior cingulate cortex and other brain regions during sedation and anesthesia have produced inconsistent results.We examined the connectivity of the posterior cingulate at different levels of consciousness. "No task" fMRI (BOLD data were collected from healthy volunteers while awake and at low and moderate levels of sedation, induced by the anesthetic agent propofol. Our data show that connectivity of the posterior cingulate changes during sedation to include areas that are not traditionally considered to be part of the default mode network, such as the motor/somatosensory cortices, the anterior thalamic nuclei, and the reticular activating system.This neuroanatomical signature resembles that of non-REM sleep, and may be evidence for a system that reduces its discriminable states and switches into more stereotypic patterns of firing under sedation.

  12. WKB approximation in atomic physics

    Karnakov, Boris Mikhailovich

    2013-01-01

    Provides extensive coverage of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation and its applications. Presented as a sequence of problems with highly detailed solutions. Gives a concise introduction for calculating Rydberg states, potential barriers and quasistationary systems. This book has evolved from lectures devoted to applications of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin- (WKB or quasi-classical) approximation and of the method of 1/N -expansion for solving various problems in atomic and nuclear physics. The intent of this book is to help students and investigators in this field to extend their knowledge of these important calculation methods in quantum mechanics. Much material is contained herein that is not to be found elsewhere. WKB approximation, while constituting a fundamental area in atomic physics, has not been the focus of many books. A novel method has been adopted for the presentation of the subject matter, the material is presented as a succession of problems, followed by a detailed way of solving them. The methods introduced are then used to calculate Rydberg states in atomic systems and to evaluate potential barriers and quasistationary states. Finally, adiabatic transition and ionization of quantum systems are covered.

  13. Section of Atomic Collisions

    Berenyi, D.; Biri, S.; Gulyas, L.; Juhasz, Z.; Kover, A.; Orban, A.; Palinkas, J.; Papp, T.; Racz, R.; Ricz, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Section of Atomic Collisions is a research unit with extended activity in the field of atomic and molecular physics. Starting from the study of atomic processes at the beamlines of nuclear physics accelerators in the seventies, our research community became one of the centers of fundamental research in Atomki. We also have a strong connection to materials sciences especially along the line of electron and ion spectroscopy methods. Our present activity covers a wide range of topics from atomic collision mechanisms of fundamental interest, to the complex interactions of electrons, ions, photons and antiparticles with atoms, molecules, surfaces, and specific nanostructures. In the last few years, an increasing fraction of our present topics has become relevant for applications, e.g., molecular collision studies for the radiation therapy methods of tumors, or ion-nanostructure interactions for the future construction of small ion-focusing elements. Our section belongs to the Division of Atomic Physics. The other unit of the Division is the Section of Electron Spectroscopy and Materials Sciences. There are traditionally good connections and a strong collaboration between the groups of the two sections in many fields. From the very beginning of our research work in atomic collisions, external collaborations were of vital importance for us. We regularly organize international workshops in the field of fast ion-atom collisions and related small conferences in Debrecen from 1981. Recently, we organized the Conference on Radiation Damage in Biomolecular Systems (RADAM 2008, Debrecen), and coorganized the Conference on Elementary Processes in Atomic Systems (CEPAS 2008, Cluj). We have access to several large scale facilities in Europe within the framework of formal and informal collaborations. The next themes are in this article: Forward electron emission from energetic atomic collisions; Positron-atom collisions; Photon-atom interactions; Interference effects in electron

  14. Effects of irritant chemicals on Aedes aegypti resting behavior: is there a simple shift to untreated "safe sites"?

    Hortance Manda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti to irritant and repellent chemicals that can be exploited to reduce man-vector contact. Maximum efficacy of interventions based on irritant chemical actions will, however, require full knowledge of variables that influence vector resting behavior and how untreated "safe sites" contribute to overall impact. METHODS: Using a laboratory box assay, resting patterns of two population strains of female Ae. aegypti (THAI and PERU were evaluated against two material types (cotton and polyester at various dark:light surface area coverage (SAC ratio and contrast configuration (horizontal and vertical under chemical-free and treated conditions. Chemicals evaluated were alphacypermethrin and DDT at varying concentrations. RESULTS: Under chemical-free conditions, dark material had significantly higher resting counts compared to light material at all SAC, and significantly increased when material was in horizontal configuration. Cotton elicited stronger response than polyester. Within the treatment assays, significantly higher resting counts were observed on chemical-treated dark material compared to untreated light fabric. However, compared to matched controls, significantly less resting observations were made on chemical-treated dark material overall. Most importantly, resting observations on untreated light material (or "safe sites" in the treatment assay did not significantly increase for many of the tests, even at 25% SAC. Knockdown rates were ≤5% for all assays. Significantly more observations of flying mosquitoes were made in test assays under chemical-treatment conditions as compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: When preferred Ae. aegypti resting sites are treated with chemicals, even at reduced treatment coverage area, mosquitoes do not simply move to safe sites (untreated areas following contact with the treated material. Instead, they become agitated

  15. Non-Hermitian optics in atomic systems

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Ma, Danmeng; Sheng, Jiteng; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2018-04-01

    A wide class of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians can possess entirely real eigenvalues when they have parity-time (PT) symmetric potentials. Recently, this family of non-Hermitian systems has attracted considerable attention in diverse areas of physics due to their extraordinary properties, especially in optical systems based on solid-state materials, such as coupled gain-loss waveguides and microcavities. Considering the desired refractive index can be effectively manipulated through atomic coherence, it is important to realize such non-Hermitian optical potentials and further investigate their distinct properties in atomic systems. In this paper, we review the recent theoretical and experimental progress of non-Hermitian optics with coherently prepared multi-level atomic configurations. The realizations of (anti-) PT symmetry with different schemes have extensively demonstrated the special optical properties of non-Hermitian optical systems with atomic coherence.

  16. Do resting brain dynamics predict oddball evoked-potential?

    Lee Tien-Wen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oddball paradigm is widely applied to the investigation of cognitive function in neuroscience and in neuropsychiatry. Whether cortical oscillation in the resting state can predict the elicited oddball event-related potential (ERP is still not clear. This study explored the relationship between resting electroencephalography (EEG and oddball ERPs. The regional powers of 18 electrodes across delta, theta, alpha and beta frequencies were correlated with the amplitude and latency of N1, P2, N2 and P3 components of oddball ERPs. A multivariate analysis based on partial least squares (PLS was applied to further examine the spatial pattern revealed by multiple correlations. Results Higher synchronization in the resting state, especially at the alpha spectrum, is associated with higher neural responsiveness and faster neural propagation, as indicated by the higher amplitude change of N1/N2 and shorter latency of P2. None of the resting quantitative EEG indices predict P3 latency and amplitude. The PLS analysis confirms that the resting cortical dynamics which explains N1/N2 amplitude and P2 latency does not show regional specificity, indicating a global property of the brain. Conclusions This study differs from previous approaches by relating dynamics in the resting state to neural responsiveness in the activation state. Our analyses suggest that the neural characteristics carried by resting brain dynamics modulate the earlier/automatic stage of target detection.

  17. REST-MapReduce: An Integrated Interface but Differentiated Service

    Jong-Hyuk Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the fast deployment of cloud computing, MapReduce architectures are becoming the major technologies for mobile cloud computing. The concept of MapReduce was first introduced as a novel programming model and implementation for a large set of computing devices. In this research, we propose a novel concept of REST-MapReduce, enabling users to use only the REST interface without using the MapReduce architecture. This approach provides a higher level of abstraction by integration of the two types of access interface, REST API and MapReduce. The motivation of this research stems from the slower response time for accessing simple RDBMS on Hadoop than direct access to RDMBS. This is because there is overhead to job scheduling, initiating, starting, tracking, and management during MapReduce-based parallel execution. Therefore, we provide a good performance for REST Open API service and for MapReduce, respectively. This is very useful for constructing REST Open API services on Hadoop hosting services, for example, Amazon AWS (Macdonald, 2005 or IBM Smart Cloud. For evaluating performance of our REST-MapReduce framework, we conducted experiments with Jersey REST web server and Hadoop. Experimental result shows that our approach outperforms conventional approaches.

  18. Correspondent Functional Topography of the Human Left Inferior Parietal Lobule at Rest and Under Task Revealed Using Resting-State fMRI and Coactivation Based Parcellation.

    Wang, Jiaojian; Xie, Sangma; Guo, Xin; Becker, Benjamin; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jiang, Tianzi

    2017-03-01

    The human left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) plays a pivotal role in many cognitive functions and is an important node in the default mode network (DMN). Although many previous studies have proposed different parcellation schemes for the LIPL, the detailed functional organization of the LIPL and the exact correspondence between the DMN and LIPL subregions remain unclear. Mounting evidence indicates that spontaneous fluctuations in the brain are strongly associated with cognitive performance at the behavioral level. However, whether a consistent functional topographic organization of the LIPL during rest and under task can be revealed remains unknown. Here, they used resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and task-related coactivation patterns separately to parcellate the LIPL and identified seven subregions. Four subregions were located in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and three subregions were located in the angular gyrus (AG). The subregion-specific networks and functional characterization revealed that the four anterior subregions were found to be primarily involved in sensorimotor processing, movement imagination and inhibitory control, audition perception and speech processing, and social cognition, whereas the three posterior subregions were mainly involved in episodic memory, semantic processing, and spatial cognition. The results revealed a detailed functional organization of the LIPL and suggested that the LIPL is a functionally heterogeneous area. In addition, the present study demonstrated that the functional architecture of the LIPL during rest corresponds with that found in task processing. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1659-1675, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. History of early atomic clocks

    Ramsey, N.F.

    2005-01-01

    This review of the history of early atomic clocks includes early atomic beam magnetic resonance, methods of separated and successive oscillatory fields, microwave absorption, optical pumping and atomic masers. (author)

  20. Atomic Energy Authority Bill

    Gray, J.H.N.; Stoddart, D.L.; Sinclair, R.M.; Ezra, D.

    1985-01-01

    The House, in Committee, discussed the following matters in relation to the Atomic Energy Authority Bill; financing; trading; personnel conditions of employment; public relations; organization; research programmes; fuels; energy sources; information dissemination. (U.K.)

  1. Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry

    Hadeishi, T.; McLaughlin, R.

    1978-08-01

    The design and development of a Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer for trace element analysis are described. An instruction manual is included which details the operation, adjustment, and maintenance. Specifications and circuit diagrams are given

  2. Optics With Cold Atoms

    Hau, Lene

    2004-01-01

    .... And to test the novel atom sensor, we have built a moving-molasses magneto-optical trap in a geometry tailor-suited to the nanotube detector geometry, involving construction of a highly stable laser...

  3. Atomic Energy Control Regulations

    1992-01-01

    This is the consolidated text of the Atomic Energy Control Regulations of 17 March 1960, with amendments to 27 August 1992. The Regulations cover the licensing of nuclear facilities, radiation sources, including uranium mining, radiation protection questions, etc. (NEA)

  4. The atomic conflict

    Mez, L.

    1981-01-01

    This book provides a general view at the atomic programmes of several countries and makes an attempt to unmask the atomic industrial combines with their interlockings. The governments role is analysed as well as the atomic policy of the parties, union-trades and associations. Then, the anti-atomic movements in those countries, their forms of resistance, the resonance and the alternative proposals are presented. The countries concerned are Australia, the FRG, COMECON, Danmark, the EG, Finland, France, Great Britain, Ireland, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Austria, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain and the USA. For the pocket book version, Lutz Mez adds an updating epilogue which continues with the developments until springtime 1981. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Atom chip gravimeter

    Schubert, Christian; Abend, Sven; Gebbe, Martina; Gersemann, Matthias; Ahlers, Holger; Müntinga, Hauke; Matthias, Jonas; Sahelgozin, Maral; Herr, Waldemar; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst

    2016-04-01

    Atom interferometry has developed into a tool for measuring rotations [1], accelerations [2], and testing fundamental physics [3]. Gravimeters based on laser cooled atoms demonstrated residual uncertainties of few microgal [2,4] and were simplified for field applications [5]. Atomic gravimeters rely on the interference of matter waves which are coherently manipulated by laser light fields. The latter can be interpreted as rulers to which the position of the atoms is compared. At three points in time separated by a free evolution, the light fields are pulsed onto the atoms. First, a coherent superposition of two momentum states is produced, then the momentum is inverted, and finally the two trajectories are recombined. Depending on the acceleration the atoms experienced, the number of atoms detected in the output ports will change. Consequently, the acceleration can be determined from the output signal. The laser cooled atoms with microkelvin temperatures used in state-of-the-art gravimeters impose limits on the accuracy [4]. Therefore, ultra-cold atoms generated by Bose-Einstein condensation and delta-kick collimation [6,7] are expected to be the key for further improvements. These sources suffered from a low flux implying an incompatible noise floor, but a competitive performance was demonstrated recently with atom chips [8]. In the compact and robust setup constructed for operation in the drop tower [6] we demonstrated all steps necessary for an atom chip gravimeter with Bose-Einstein condensates in a ground based operation. We will discuss the principle of operation, the current performance, and the perspectives to supersede the state of the art. The authors thank the QUANTUS cooperation for contributions to the drop tower project in the earlier stages. This work is supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under grant numbers DLR 50WM

  6. Atoms at work

    1982-07-01

    This illustrated booklet discusses the following: atoms; fission of uranium; nuclear power plants; reactor types; plutonium (formation, properties, uses); radioactive waste (fuel cycle, reprocessing, waste management); nuclear fusion; fusion reactors; radiation; radioisotopes and their uses. (U.K.)

  7. Topics in atomic physics

    Burkhardt, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    The study of atomic physics propelled us into the quantum age in the early twentieth century and carried us into the twenty-first century with a wealth of new and, in some cases, unexplained phenomena. Topics in Atomic Physics provides a foundation for students to begin research in modern atomic physics. It can also serve as a reference because it contains material that is not easily located in other sources. A distinguishing feature is the thorough exposition of the quantum mechanical hydrogen atom using both the traditional formulation and an alternative treatment not usually found in textbooks. The alternative treatment exploits the preeminent nature of the pure Coulomb potential and places the Lenz vector operator on an equal footing with other operators corresponding to classically conserved quantities. A number of difficult to find proofs and derivations are included as is development of operator formalism that permits facile solution of the Stark effect in hydrogen. Discussion of the classical hydrogen...

  8. Atomic Interferometry, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) is a new technology which can be used for developing high performance laser components for atom-based sensors...

  9. Atomic bomb cataracts

    Shiraeda, Kanji

    1992-01-01

    Eye disturbance caused by atomic bomb radiation can be divided into three groups: direct injury immediately after exposure, eye lesions associated with radiation syndrome, and delayed disturbance. The crystalline lens of the eye is the most radiosensitive. Atomic bomb cataract has been investigated in a number of studies. The first section of this chapter discusses radiation cataract in terms of the incidence and characteristics. The second section deals with atomic bomb cataract, which can be diagnosed based on the four criteria: (1) opacity of the crystalline lens, (2) a history of proximal exposure, (3) lack of eye disease complicating cataract, and (4) non-exposure to radiation other than atomic bombing. The prevalence of cataract and severity of opacity are found to correlate with exposure doses and age at the time of exposure. Furthermore, it is found to correlate with distance from the hypocenter, the condition of shielding, epilation, and the presence or absence or degree of radiation syndrome. (N.K.)

  10. The Atomic Energy Control Board

    Doern, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    This study describes and assesses the regulatory and administrative processes and procedures of the Atomic Energy Control Board, the AECB. The Atomic Energy Control Act authorized the AECB to control atomic energy materials and equipment in the national interest and to participate in measures for the international control of atomic energy. The AECB is authorized to make regulations to control atomic energy materials and equipment and to make grants in support of atomic energy research. (author)

  11. Energy flux of hot atoms

    Wotzak, G.P.; Kostin, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    The process in which hot atoms collide with thermal atoms of a gas, transfer kinetic energy to them, and produce additional hot atoms is investigated. A stochastic method is used to obtain numerical results for the spatial and time dependent energy flux of hot atoms in a gas. The results indicate that in hot atom systems a front followed by an intense energy flux of hot atoms may develop

  12. Harnessing the atom

    1999-01-01

    Splitting the atom has had a major impact on the history of the latter part of the 20th century. This film depicts the many benefits - and also drawbacks - of nuclear technology, and describes how the International Atomic Energy Agency performs its various tasks. It touches on challenges such as the choice between major energy sources, growing concerns about the global climate, and prospects for nuclear arms control and disarmament

  13. Atomic Energy Act 1946

    1946-01-01

    This Act provides for the development of atomic energy in the United Kingdom and for its control. It details the duties and powers of the competent Minister, in particular his powers to obtain information on and to inspect materials, plant and processes, to control production and use of atomic energy and publication of information thereon. Also specified is the power to search for and work minerals and to acquire property. (NEA) [fr

  14. Hirshfeld atom refinement.

    Capelli, Silvia C; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Dittrich, Birger; Grabowsky, Simon; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2014-09-01

    Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly-l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree-Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are freely refined without constraints or restraints - even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu's), all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu's. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules), the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å(2) as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements - an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å.

  15. Manipulating atoms with photons

    Cohen-Tannoudji, C.N.

    1998-01-01

    The article is a translation of the lecture delivered on the occasion of the 1997 Nobel Prize awarding ceremony. The physical mechanisms which allow manipulating of neutral atoms with laser photons are described. A remark is also made concerning several possible applications of ultra-cool atoms and streams of future research. The article is completed by Prof. Cohen-Tannoudji's autobiography. (Z.J.)

  16. Atoms, molecules & elements

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Young scientists will be thrilled to explore the invisible world of atoms, molecules and elements. Our resource provides ready-to-use information and activities for remedial students using simplified language and vocabulary. Students will label each part of the atom, learn what compounds are, and explore the patterns in the periodic table of elements to find calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), and helium (He) through hands-on activities.

  17. Feeding and resting postures of wild northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

    Iurck, Maria F; Nowak, Matthew G; Costa, Leny C M; Mendes, Sérgio L; Ford, Susan M; Strier, Karen B

    2013-01-01

    Increased body size in Brachyteles has been regarded as an important evolutionary adaptation that allowed a greater reliance on leaves compared to other more frugivorous Atelidae, but its association with muriqui positional behavior and substrate use is still unknown. Here, we present original data on the feeding and resting postures of the northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) and evaluate predictions about the relationships between body size, postural behavior, and substrate use derived from previously published data for other atelids (e.g. Alouatta, Ateles, and Lagothrix). The study was undertaken from August 2002 to July 2003 on a large group of well-habituated muriquis inhabiting the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural - Felíciano Miguel Abdala in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Consistent with our predictions, we found that B. hypoxanthus was highly suspensory during postural feeding (60.9%) and commonly used tail-hind limb suspension/horizontal tripod (38.0%) or tail-forelimb/hind limb suspension (21.4%). However, although tail-suspensory postures permitted the muriquis to use the terminal canopy and small-sized substrates, these areas were also accessed via tail-assisted above-branch postural behaviors involving multiple substrates. Unexpectedly, tail-suspensory postures were found to be frequently associated with large substrates, tree trunks, and the understory. We suggest that Brachyteles' ability to access food resources from all areas of a feeding tree and from tree crowns at different canopy levels may account for their ability to efficiently exploit food resources in seasonal disturbed forest fragments of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest today. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. RestKit for iOS standard guide

    Kalapun, Taras

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step, example-based guide to learning how you can link your apps and web services using RestKit.This book is for iOS developers of all levels who are interested in boosting their productivity by utilizing third party libraries and who have a willingness to learn how to build RESTful apps using the RestKit framework. A basic knowledge of Objective-C is required as well as a simple understanding of how to use CoreData.

  19. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    Ichimaru, M; Tomonaga, M; Amenomori, T; Matsuo, T [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1991-12-01

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5{approx}0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author).

  20. On the bosonic atoms

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Chernysheva, L. V.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate ground state properties of atoms, in which substitute fermions - electrons by bosons, namely π --mesons. We perform some calculations in the frame of modified Hartree-Fock (HF) equation. The modification takes into account symmetry, instead of anti-symmetry of the pair identical bosons wave function. The modified HF approach thus enhances (doubles) the effect of self-action for the boson case. Therefore, we accordingly modify the HF equations by eliminating the self-action terms "by hand". The contribution of meson-meson and meson-nucleon non-Coulomb interaction is inessential at least for atoms with low and intermediate nuclear charge, which is our main subject. We found that the binding energy of pion negative ions A π - , pion atoms A π , and the number of extra bound pions ΔN π increases with the growth of nuclear charge Z. For e.g. Xe ΔN π = 4. As an example of a simple process with a pion atom, we consider photoionization that differs essentially from that for electron atoms. Namely, it is not monotonic decreasing from the threshold but has instead a prominent maximum above threshold. We study also elastic scattering of pions by pion atoms.

  1. Electron - atom bremsstrahlung

    Kim, L.

    1986-01-01

    Features of bremsstrahlung radiation from neutral atoms and atoms in hot dense plasmas are studied. Predictions for the distributions of electron-atom bremsstrahlung radiation for both the point-Coulomb potential and screened potentials are obtained using a classical numerical method. Results agree with exact quantum-mechanical partial-wave results for low incident electron energies in both the point-Coulomb and screened potentials. In the screened potential, the asymmetry parameter of a spectrum is reduced from the Coulomb values. The difference increases with decreasing energy and begins to oscillate at very low energies. The scaling properties of bremsstrahlung spectra and energy losses were also studied. It was found that the ratio of the radiative energy loss for positrons to that for electrons obeys a simple scaling law, being expressible fairly accurately as a function only of the quantity T 1 /Z 2 . This scaling is exact in the case of the point-Coulomb potential, both for classical bremsstrahlung and for the nonrelativistic dipole Sommerfeld formula. Bremsstrahlung from atoms in hot dense plasmas were also studied describing the atomic potentials by the temperature-and-density dependent Thomas-Fermi mode. Gaunt factors were obtained with the relativistic partial-wave method for atoms in plasmas of various densities and temperatures

  2. FAO and atomic energy

    NONE

    1960-07-15

    During the past six years FAO has become more engaged in work concerned with atomic energy. In 1957 it established an Atomic Energy Branch. The new forces and new tools which have become available for use in the fight against poverty, disease and malnutrition can be of the greatest assistance in FAO's work in nearly all phases of the production, storage and distribution of food and other agricultural products. The Organization promotes their use to improve the standards of feeding, clothing and housing throughout the world. Another side of work related to atomic energy is concerned with combating contamination from the use of atomic energy for power production and other purposes. This raises considerable problems for food and agriculture, so that FAO also has a responsibility for assisting Governments in safeguarding their food and food-producing resources from contamination. FAO is essentially concerned with fostering wider knowledge of the many contributions that atomic science can make to agriculture, forestry, fisheries and nutrition. It is also concerned in assisting governments to establish sound programmes for applying atomic science in food and agriculture. One way of spreading such knowledge is through the publication of documents and reports

  3. Atomic clocks for geodesy

    Mehlstäubler, Tanja E.; Grosche, Gesine; Lisdat, Christian; Schmidt, Piet O.; Denker, Heiner

    2018-06-01

    We review experimental progress on optical atomic clocks and frequency transfer, and consider the prospects of using these technologies for geodetic measurements. Today, optical atomic frequency standards have reached relative frequency inaccuracies below 10‑17, opening new fields of fundamental and applied research. The dependence of atomic frequencies on the gravitational potential makes atomic clocks ideal candidates for the search for deviations in the predictions of Einstein’s general relativity, tests of modern unifying theories and the development of new gravity field sensors. In this review, we introduce the concepts of optical atomic clocks and present the status of international clock development and comparison. Besides further improvement in stability and accuracy of today’s best clocks, a large effort is put into increasing the reliability and technological readiness for applications outside of specialized laboratories with compact, portable devices. With relative frequency uncertainties of 10‑18, comparisons of optical frequency standards are foreseen to contribute together with satellite and terrestrial data to the precise determination of fundamental height reference systems in geodesy with a resolution at the cm-level. The long-term stability of atomic standards will deliver excellent long-term height references for geodetic measurements and for the modelling and understanding of our Earth.

  4. FAO and atomic energy

    1960-01-01

    During the past six years FAO has become more engaged in work concerned with atomic energy. In 1957 it established an Atomic Energy Branch. The new forces and new tools which have become available for use in the fight against poverty, disease and malnutrition can be of the greatest assistance in FAO's work in nearly all phases of the production, storage and distribution of food and other agricultural products. The Organization promotes their use to improve the standards of feeding, clothing and housing throughout the world. Another side of work related to atomic energy is concerned with combating contamination from the use of atomic energy for power production and other purposes. This raises considerable problems for food and agriculture, so that FAO also has a responsibility for assisting Governments in safeguarding their food and food-producing resources from contamination. FAO is essentially concerned with fostering wider knowledge of the many contributions that atomic science can make to agriculture, forestry, fisheries and nutrition. It is also concerned in assisting governments to establish sound programmes for applying atomic science in food and agriculture. One way of spreading such knowledge is through the publication of documents and reports

  5. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    Ichimaru, M.; Tomonaga, M.; Amenomori, T.; Matsuo, T.

    1991-01-01

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5∼0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  6. Atomic phenomena in dense plasmas

    Weisheit, J.C.

    1981-03-01

    The following chapters are included: (1) the plasma environment, (2) perturbations of atomic structure, (3) perturbations of atomic collisions, (4) formation of spectral lines, and (5) dielectronic recombination

  7. Geneva University: On our way to anti-hydrogen at rest

    Geneva University

    2010-01-01

    Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVA 4 Tel: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 28 April 2010 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs – Stückelberg Auditorium On our way to anti-hydrogen at rest Prof. Walter Oelert, Research Center Jülich, Germany Trapped cold atoms of anti-hydrogen are optimal for testing possible CPT violations in comparison of spectral lines and gravitational effects on matter and anti-matter. For this reason it is mandatory to optimize the properties of the clouds of anti-protons and positrons used to produce the anti-hydrogen atoms. The ATRAP-collaboration at CERNs AD did perform such experiments by studying the temperature of these clouds and their stability at different conditions. Though detailed tests have been performed to verify the trapping of anti-hydrogen atoms in a magnetic gradient field no statistically significant signal was detected yet. Re...

  8. A computational study of whole-brain connectivity in resting state and task fMRI

    Goparaju, Balaji; Rana, Kunjan D.; Calabro, Finnegan J.; Vaina, Lucia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background We compared the functional brain connectivity produced during resting-state in which subjects were not actively engaged in a task with that produced while they actively performed a visual motion task (task-state). Material/Methods In this paper we employed graph-theoretical measures and network statistics in novel ways to compare, in the same group of human subjects, functional brain connectivity during resting-state fMRI with brain connectivity during performance of a high level visual task. We performed a whole-brain connectivity analysis to compare network statistics in resting and task states among anatomically defined Brodmann areas to investigate how brain networks spanning the cortex changed when subjects were engaged in task performance. Results In the resting state, we found strong connectivity among the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), lateral parietal cortex, and hippocampal formation, consistent with previous reports of the default mode network (DMN). The connections among these areas were strengthened while subjects actively performed an event-related visual motion task, indicating a continued and strong engagement of the DMN during task processing. Regional measures such as degree (number of connections) and betweenness centrality (number of shortest paths), showed that task performance induces stronger inter-regional connections, leading to a denser processing network, but that this does not imply a more efficient system as shown by the integration measures such as path length and global efficiency, and from global measures such as small-worldness. Conclusions In spite of the maintenance of connectivity and the “hub-like” behavior of areas, our results suggest that the network paths may be rerouted when performing the task condition. PMID:24947491

  9. Resting technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile cardiac imaging in chronic coronary artery disease: comparison with rest-redistribution thallium-201 scintigraphy

    Cuocolo, A.; Maurea, S.; Pace, L.; Nicolai, E.; Nappi, A.; Imbriaco, M.; Trimarco, B.; Salvatore, M.

    1993-01-01

    We studied 19 patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction 33%±8%) by resting technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI) and rest-redistribution thallium-201 cardiac imaging. Thallium and 99m Tc-MIBI studies were visually analysed. Of 285 segments, 203 (71%) had normal thallium uptake, 48 (17%) showed reversible thallium defects and 34 (12%) showed irreversible thallium defects. Of these 34 irreversible thallium defects, 19 (56%) were moderate and 15 (44%) were severe. Of the corresponding 285 segments, 200 (70%) had normal 99m Tc-MIBI uptake, while 37 (13%) showed moderate and 48 (17%) showed severe reduction of MIBI uptake. Myocardial segmental agreement for regional uptake score between initial thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI images was 90% (κ=0.78). Segmental agreement between delayed thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI images was 77% (κ=0.44). In particular, in 26 (9%) segments 99m Tc-MIBI uptake was severely reduced while delayed thallium uptake was normal or only moderately reduced. These data suggest that although rest-redistribution thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI cardiac imaging provide concordant results in the majority of myocardial segments, some segments with severely reduced resting 99m Tc-MIBI uptake may contain viable but hypoperfused myocardium. Thus, conclusions on myocardial viability based on 99m Tc-MIBI uptake should be made with caution in chronic coronary artery disease. (orig.)

  10. Computational atomic and nuclear physics

    Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R.; McGrory, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    The evolution of parallel processor supercomputers in recent years provides opportunities to investigate in detail many complex problems, in many branches of physics, which were considered to be intractable only a few years ago. But to take advantage of these new machines, one must have a better understanding of how the computers organize their work than was necessary with previous single processor machines. Equally important, the scientist must have this understanding as well as a good understanding of the structure of the physics problem under study. In brief, a new field of computational physics is evolving, which will be led by investigators who are highly literate both computationally and physically. A Center for Computationally Intensive Problems has been established with the collaboration of the University of Tennessee Science Alliance, Vanderbilt University, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The objective of this Center is to carry out forefront research in computationally intensive areas of atomic, nuclear, particle, and condensed matter physics. An important part of this effort is the appropriate training of students. An early effort of this Center was to conduct a Summer School of Computational Atomic and Nuclear Physics. A distinguished faculty of scientists in atomic, nuclear, and particle physics gave lectures on the status of present understanding of a number of topics at the leading edge in these fields, and emphasized those areas where computational physics was in a position to make a major contribution. In addition, there were lectures on numerical techniques which are particularly appropriate for implementation on parallel processor computers and which are of wide applicability in many branches of science

  11. Changes in Resting-State Connectivity following Melody-Based Therapy in a Patient with Aphasia

    Tali Bitan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Melody-based treatments for patients with aphasia rely on the notion of preserved musical abilities in the RH, following left hemisphere damage. However, despite evidence for their effectiveness, the role of the RH is still an open question. We measured changes in resting-state functional connectivity following melody-based intervention, to identify lateralization of treatment-related changes. A patient with aphasia due to left frontal and temporal hemorrhages following traumatic brain injuries (TBI more than three years earlier received 48 sessions of melody-based intervention. Behavioral measures improved and were maintained at the 8-week posttreatment follow-up. Resting-state fMRI data collected before and after treatment showed an increase in connectivity between motor speech control areas (bilateral supplementary motor areas and insulae and RH language areas (inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis and pars opercularis. This change, which was specific for the RH, was greater than changes in a baseline interval measured before treatment. No changes in RH connectivity were found in a matched control TBI patient scanned at the same intervals. These results are compatible with a compensatory role for RH language areas following melody-based intervention. They further suggest that this therapy intervenes at the level of the interface between language areas and speech motor control areas necessary for language production.

  12. AgNOR Count in Resting Cells (Resting NOR Is a New Prognostic Marker in Invasive Bladder Tumor

    Mitsuro Tomobe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that the AgNOR count in proliferating cells is a predictor of tumor recurrence in superficial bladder tumor (J. Urol. 162 (1999, 63–68. In the present study, we evaluate the type of AgNOR associated with cell cycles as a prognostic factor in invasive bladder tumor using a double staining technique employing both AgNOR and MIB-1 labelling. Materials and methods: Forty-four paraffin sections of invasive bladder tumors were stained simultaneously with AgNOR and MIB-1. The number of AgNORs in proliferating (MIB-1 positive or resting (MIB-1 negative cells were counted from a total of 100 nuclei. Correlations between MIB-1 associated AgNOR count and clinicopathological parameters were statistically analyzed. Results: The AgNOR count in proliferating cells (proliferating NOR was significantly higher than that in resting cells (resting NOR (p < 0.01. The resting NOR in tumors with distant metastases was significantly higher than that in tumors without metastases (p < 0.05. Patients with a low resting NOR tumor had a better prognosis than those with a high resting NOR tumor, whereas the proliferating NOR was not associated with survival. Survival analysis revealed that the resting NOR was the most powerful prognostic marker in patients with invasive bladder tumor (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Resting NOR had a predictive value in the prognosis of patients with invasive bladder tumor. Keywords: Transitional cell carcinoma, invasive, resting cell, AgNORs, MIB-1

  13. Tendon vibration attenuates superficial venous vessel response of the resting limb during static arm exercise

    Ooue Anna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superficial vein of the resting limb constricts sympathetically during exercise. Central command is the one of the neural mechanisms that controls the cardiovascular response to exercise. However, it is not clear whether central command contributes to venous vessel response during exercise. Tendon vibration during static elbow flexion causes primary muscle spindle afferents, such that a lower central command is required to achieve a given force without altering muscle force. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate whether a reduction in central command during static exercise with tendon vibration influences the superficial venous vessel response in the resting limb. Methods Eleven subjects performed static elbow flexion at 35% of maximal voluntary contraction with (EX + VIB and without (EX vibration of the biceps brachii tendon. The heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE in overall and exercising muscle were measured. The cross-sectional area (CSAvein and blood velocity of the basilic vein in the resting upper arm were assessed by ultrasound, and blood flow (BFvein was calculated using both variables. Results Muscle tension during exercise was similar between EX and EX + VIB. However, RPEs at EX + VIB were lower than those at EX (P P vein in the resting limb at EX decreased during exercise from baseline (P vein at EX + VIB did not change during exercise. CSAvein during exercise at EX was smaller than that at EX + VIB (P vein did not change during the protocol under either condition. The decreases in circulatory response and RPEs during EX + VIB, despite identical muscle tension, showed that activation of central command was less during EX + VIB than during EX. Abolishment of the decrease in CSAvein during exercise at EX + VIB may thus have been caused by a lower level of central command at EX + VIB rather than EX. Conclusion Diminished central command induced by tendon

  14. Increased power spectral density in resting-state pain-related brain networks in fibromyalgia.

    Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Seong-Ho; Seo, Jeehye; Kim, Sang-Hyon; Han, Seung Woo; Nam, Eon Jeong; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Hui Joong; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Yang-Tae; Chang, Yongmin

    2013-09-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM), characterized by chronic widespread pain, is known to be associated with heightened responses to painful stimuli and atypical resting-state functional connectivity among pain-related regions of the brain. Previous studies of FM using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have focused on intrinsic functional connectivity, which maps the spatial distribution of temporal correlations among spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation in functional MRI (fMRI) resting-state data. In the current study, using rs-fMRI data in the frequency domain, we investigated the possible alteration of power spectral density (PSD) of low-frequency fluctuation in brain regions associated with central pain processing in patients with FM. rsfMRI data were obtained from 19 patients with FM and 20 age-matched healthy female control subjects. For each subject, the PSDs for each brain region identified from functional connectivity maps were computed for the frequency band of 0.01 to 0.25 Hz. For each group, the average PSD was determined for each brain region and a 2-sample t test was performed to determine the difference in power between the 2 groups. According to the results, patients with FM exhibited significantly increased frequency power in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. In patients with FM, the increase in PSD did not show an association with depression or anxiety. Therefore, our findings of atypical increased frequency power during the resting state in pain-related brain regions may implicate the enhanced resting-state baseline neural activity in several brain regions associated with pain processing in FM. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Female thermal sensitivity to hot and cold during rest and exercise.

    Gerrett, Nicola; Ouzzahra, Yacine; Redortier, Bernard; Voelcker, Thomas; Havenith, George

    2015-12-01

    Regional differences in thermal sensation to a hot or cold stimulus are often limited to male participants, in a rested state and cover minimal locations. Therefore, magnitude sensation to both a hot and cold stimulus were investigated during rest and exercise in 8 females (age: 20.4 ± 1.4 years, mass: 61.7 ± 4.0 kg, height: 166.9 ± 5.4 cm, VO2max: 36.8 ± 4.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Using a repeated measures cross over design, participants rested in a stable environment (22.3 ± 0.9°C, 37.7 ± 5.5% RH) whilst a thermal probe (25 cm(2)), set at either 40°C or 20°C, was applied in a balanced order to 29 locations across the body. Participants reported their thermal sensation after 10s of application. Following this, participants cycled at 50% VO2max for 20 min and then 30% VO2max whilst the sensitivity test was repeated. Females experienced significantly stronger magnitude sensations to the cold than the hot stimulus (5.5 ± 1.7 and 4.3 ± 1.3, pcold stimulation (psensation was greatest at the head then the torso and declined towards the extremities. No significant effect of location was found in response to the hot stimulation and the pattern across the body was more homogenous. In comparison to rest, exercise caused a significant overall reduction in thermal sensation (5.2 ± 1.5 and 4.6 ± 1.7, respectively, p<0.05). Body maps were produced for both stimuli during rest and exercise, which highlight sensitive areas across the body. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Resting States Are Resting Traits – An fMRI Study of Sex Differences and Menstrual Cycle Effects in Resting State Cognitive Control Networks

    Hjelmervik, Helene; Hausmann, Markus; Osnes, Berge; Westerhausen, René; Specht, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    To what degree resting state fMRI is stable or susceptible to internal mind states of the individual is currently an issue of debate. To address this issue, the present study focuses on sex differences and investigates whether resting state fMRI is stable in men and women or changes within relative short-term periods (i.e., across the menstrual cycle). Due to the fact that we recently reported menstrual cycle effects on cognitive control based on data collected during the same sessions, the c...

  17. Atomic test site (south Australia)

    Godman, N.A.; Cousins, Jim; Hamilton, Archie.

    1993-01-01

    The debate, which lasted about half an hour, is reported verbatin. It was prompted by the campaign by the Maralinga people of South Australia to have their traditional lands restored to them. Between 1953 and 1957 the United Kingdom government carried out of atomic tests and several hundred minor trials on the lands. A clean-up programme had taken place in 1967 but further decontamination was needed before the area is safe for traditional aboriginal life and culture. A small area will remain contaminated with plutonium for thousands of years. The cost and who would pay, the Australian or UK government was being negotiated. The UK government's position was that the site is remote, the health risk is slight and the clean-up operation of 1967 was acknowledged as satisfactory by the Australian government. (UK)

  18. Atoms, molecules and optical physics

    Hertel, Ingolf V

    2015-01-01

    This is the first volume of textbooks on atomic, molecular and optical physics, aiming at a comprehensive presentation of this highly productive branch of modern physics as an indispensable basis for many areas in physics and chemistry as well as in state of the art bio- and material-sciences. It primarily addresses advanced students (including PhD students), but in a number of selected subject areas the reader is lead up to the frontiers of present research. Thus even the active scientist is addressed. This volume 1 provides the canonical knowledge in atomic physics together with basics of modern spectroscopy. Starting from the fundamentals of quantum physics, the reader is familiarized in well structured chapters step by step with the most important phenomena, models and measuring techniques. The emphasis is always on the experiment and its interpretation, while the necessary theory is introduced from this perspective in a compact and occasionally somewhat heuristic manner, easy to follow even for beginner...

  19. Radionuclide ventriculography during rest and exercise: normal values

    Ludwig, E.B.; Marroni, B.J.; Achutti, A.C.; Anselmi, O.E.; Rabin, M.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty young volunteers of both sexes were examined by radioisotopic techniques to establish the normal range of ventricular function at rest and the response to a stress test (systolic arterious pressure X cardiac frequency > 25000). (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. Memory reactivation during rest supports upcoming learning of related content

    Schlichting, Margaret L.; Preston, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of studies have highlighted the importance of offline processes for memory, how these mechanisms influence future learning remains unknown. Participants with established memories for a set of initial face–object associations were scanned during passive rest and during encoding of new related and unrelated pairs of objects. Spontaneous reactivation of established memories and enhanced hippocampal–neocortical functional connectivity during rest was related to better subsequent learning, specifically of related content. Moreover, the degree of functional coupling during rest was predictive of neural engagement during the new learning experience itself. These results suggest that through rest-phase reactivation and hippocampal–neocortical interactions, existing memories may come to facilitate encoding during subsequent related episodes. PMID:25331890

  1. Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss

    ... Risk Factors for Bone Loss Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Like muscle, bone ... complications of pregnancy; and those who are experiencing immobilization of some part of the body because of ...

  2. Myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal ...

    olayemitoyin

    2008-11-26

    Nov 26, 2008 ... ratio were the most important independent parameters in prediction of RPP. The study shows that ... study of various medical, surgical, and physical interventions on .... increase in myocardial activity and thus the MVO2 at rest.

  3. Effects of Interval Training Programme on Resting Heart Rate in ...

    DATONYE ALASIA

    Subjects with Hypertension: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Type of Article: Original ... Resting Heart Rate in Subjects with Hypertension — Lamina S. et al investigate the effect of interval .... changes in VO max) of interest. In the t-test. 2.

  4. Memory reactivation during rest supports upcoming learning of related content.

    Schlichting, Margaret L; Preston, Alison R

    2014-11-04

    Although a number of studies have highlighted the importance of offline processes for memory, how these mechanisms influence future learning remains unknown. Participants with established memories for a set of initial face-object associations were scanned during passive rest and during encoding of new related and unrelated pairs of objects. Spontaneous reactivation of established memories and enhanced hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity during rest was related to better subsequent learning, specifically of related content. Moreover, the degree of functional coupling during rest was predictive of neural engagement during the new learning experience itself. These results suggest that through rest-phase reactivation and hippocampal-neocortical interactions, existing memories may come to facilitate encoding during subsequent related episodes.

  5. A resting box for outdoor sampling of adult Anopheles arabiensis in rice irrigation schemes of lower Moshi, northern Tanzania

    Msangi Shandala

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector sampling is the best method for understanding the vector dynamics and infectivity; thus, disease transmission seasonality can be established. There is a need to protecting humans involved in the sampling of disease vectors during surveillance or in control programmes. In this study, human landing catch, two cow odour baited resting boxes and an unbaited resting box were evaluated as vector sampling tools in an area with a high proportion of Anopheles arabiensis, as the major malaria vector. Methods Three resting boxes were evaluated against human landing catch. Two were baited with cow odour, while the third was unbaited. The inner parts of the boxes were covered with black cloth materials. Experiments were arranged in latin-square design. Boxes were set in the evening and left undisturbed; mosquitoes were collected at 06:00 am the next morning, while human landing catch was done overnight. Results A total of 9,558 An. arabiensis mosquitoes were collected. 17.5% (N = 1668 were collected in resting box baited with cow body odour, 42.5% (N = 4060 in resting box baited with cow urine, 15.1% (N = 1444 in unbaited resting box and 24.9% (N = 2386 were collected by human landing catch technique. In analysis, the house positions had no effect on the density of mosquitoes caught (DF = 3, F = 0.753, P = 0.387; the sampling technique had significant impact on the caught mosquitoes densities (DF = 3, F 37. 944, P Conclusion Odour-baited resting boxes have shown the possibility of replacing the existing traditional method (human landing catch for sampling malaria vectors in areas with a high proportion of An. arabiensis as malaria vectors. Further evaluations of fermented urine and longevity of the urine odour still need to be investigated.

  6. RESTful web API design with Node.js

    Bojinov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    If you are a web developer wanting to enrich your development skills to create scalable, server-side, RESTful applications based on the Node.js platform, this book is for you. You also need to be aware of HTTP communication concepts and should have a working knowledge of JavaScript. Knowledge of REST would be an added advantage but is definitely not a necessity.

  7. The Classic: On Rest and Pain: Lecture XIV.

    Hilton, John

    2009-09-01

    This Classic article is a reprint of the original work by John Hilton, On Rest and Pain: Lecture XIV. An accompanying biographical sketch on John Hilton, MD, is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-0927-2 . The Classic Article is reprinted with courtesy from Hilton J. On The Influence of Mechanical and Physiological Rest in the Treatment of Accidents and Surgical Diseases, and the Diagnostic Value of Pain. London, England: Bell and Daldy; 1863.

  8. Genetic variablilities of body temperature and resting behaviour in ...

    This implies that neither progeny nor generation had effect on body temperature. The Alpha strain exhibited more resting behaviour than did the exotic and the pure native types. Majority of the birds rested in the afternoon at 2.00 pm. This could be attributed to the fact that at 2.00 pm the weather is hot and birds search for a ...

  9. Relativistic theory of gravitation and the graviton rest mass

    Logunsov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines a graviton rest mass (m) introduced in the framework of the relativistic theory of gravitation and obtains equations that describe a massive gravitational field. Under the assumption that the entire hidden mass of the matter in the Universe is due to the existence of a massive gravitational field, an upper bound on the rest mass is obtained: m ≤ 0.64 x 10 --65 g

  10. Discovering EEG resting state alterations of semantic dementia.

    Grieder, Matthias; Koenig, Thomas; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Utsunomiya, Keita; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Dierks, Thomas; Nishida, Keiichiro

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis of semantic dementia relies on cost-intensive MRI or PET, although resting EEG markers of other dementias have been reported. Yet the view still holds that resting EEG in patients with semantic dementia is normal. However, studies using increasingly sophisticated EEG analysis methods have demonstrated that slightest alterations of functional brain states can be detected. We analyzed the common four resting EEG microstates (A, B, C, and D) of 8 patients with semantic dementia in comparison with 8 healthy controls and 8 patients with Alzheimer's disease. Topographical differences between the groups were found in microstate classes B and C, while microstate classes A and D were comparable. The data showed that the semantic dementia group had a peculiar microstate E, but the commonly found microstate C was lacking. Furthermore, the presence of microstate E was significantly correlated with lower MMSE and language scores. Alterations in resting EEG can be found in semantic dementia. Topographical shifts in microstate C might be related to semantic memory deficits. This is the first study that discovered resting state EEG abnormality in semantic dementia. The notion that resting EEG in this dementia subtype is normal has to be revised. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterizing Resting-State Brain Function Using Arterial Spin Labeling

    Jann, Kay; Wang, Danny J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an increasingly established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that is finding broader applications in studying the healthy and diseased brain. This review addresses the use of ASL to assess brain function in the resting state. Following a brief technical description, we discuss the use of ASL in the following main categories: (1) resting-state functional connectivity (FC) measurement: the use of ASL-based cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements as an alternative to the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) technique to assess resting-state FC; (2) the link between network CBF and FC measurements: the use of network CBF as a surrogate of the metabolic activity within corresponding networks; and (3) the study of resting-state dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and cerebral metabolism: the use of dynamic CBF information obtained using ASL to assess dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and oxidative metabolism in the resting state. In addition, we summarize some future challenges and interesting research directions for ASL, including slice-accelerated (multiband) imaging as well as the effects of motion and other physiological confounds on perfusion-based FC measurement. In summary, this work reviews the state-of-the-art of ASL and establishes it as an increasingly viable MRI technique with high translational value in studying resting-state brain function. PMID:26106930

  12. Correlation of an abnormal rest /sup 201/Tl myocardial image: Pathological findings in cardiac transplant recipients

    McKillop, J.H.; McDougall, I.R.; Billingham, M.; Schroeder, J.S.

    1982-06-01

    Rest myocardial /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy was undertaken in 15 males mean age 39 years (22-54) who had been accepted for cardiac transplantation. Complete pathological correlation was obtained in 14 after transplantation and in 1 who died before a suitable donor heart became available. The average time from scintigraphy to pathological evaluation was 42 days (9-103). All the /sup 201/Tl images were grossly abnormal and on the basis of these studies it was not possible to differentiate ischemic from idiopathic cardiomyopathy. Each of the three views of the /sup 201/Tl study was divided into three segments, therefore 135 areas were available for comparison (3 x 3 x 15). Eighty-eight of these were abnormal on scan and 78 of these were abnormal pathologically. The right ventricle was seen on all rest images but the degree of uptake bore no relationship to the measured thickness of the right ventricular wall. Structures such as the atrial wall and the enlarged papillary muscle were visualized in some patients. In two patients there was an improvement of the rest /sup 201/Tl image in delayed views and histologically these areas showed a mixture of muscle and fibrous tissue. The sensitivity of /sup 201/Tl imaging in this study was 89% and there was close correlation of the images with gross and microscopic pathological findings.

  13. Interaction Effects of BDNF and COMT Genes on Resting-State Brain Activity and Working Memory

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Chunhui; Xia, Mingrui; Wu, Karen; Chen, Chuansheng; He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Wang, Wenjing; He, Yong; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes have been found to interactively influence working memory (WM) as well as brain activation during WM tasks. However, whether the two genes have interactive effects on resting-state activities of the brain and whether these spontaneous activations correlate with WM are still unknown. This study included behavioral data from WM tasks and genetic data (COMT rs4680 and BDNF Val66Met) from 417 healthy Chinese adults and resting-state fMRI data from 298 of them. Significant interactive effects of BDNF and COMT were found for WM performance as well as for resting-state regional homogeneity (ReHo) in WM-related brain areas, including the left medial frontal gyrus (lMeFG), left superior frontal gyrus (lSFG), right superior and medial frontal gyrus (rSMFG), right medial orbitofrontal gyrus (rMOFG), right middle frontal gyrus (rMFG), precuneus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left superior occipital gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule. Simple effects analyses showed that compared to other genotypes, subjects with COMT-VV/BDNF-VV had higher WM and lower ReHo in all five frontal brain areas. The results supported the hypothesis that COMT and BDNF polymorphisms influence WM performance and spontaneous brain activity (i.e., ReHo). PMID:27853425

  14. Collapse and revival of the Doppler-Rabi oscillations of a moving atom in a cavity

    Kozlovskii, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    Collapse and revival of the Doppler-Rabi oscillations of a two-level atom moving in a cavity electromagnetic field are analyzed. The coupled atom-field dynamics are predicted accurately by numerical calculation and approximately by using the stationary phase approximation combined with the Poisson summation formula. The collapse and revival patterns are shown to be qualitatively different in the cases of moving atom and atom at rest. In particular, quantum revivals of Doppler-Rabi oscillations occur with a period determined by the Doppler shift of the atomic transition frequency. This regime of Doppler-Rabi oscillations requires that the Rabi frequency and the Doppler shift satisfy the condition Ω R D . Under the inverse relation, the collapse- revival phenomenon generally does not occur. It is shown that even a small amount of atom-cavity detuning eliminates collapse-revival behavior. The analysis is performed for both coherent and thermal cavity fields

  15. Rydberg atoms in weak magnetic fields

    Kazantsev, A.P.; Pokrovsky, V.L.; Bergou, J.

    1983-01-01

    The quadratic Zeeman effect of Rydberg atoms in the framework of perturbation theory is dealt with and a special quasiclassical approximation scheme is applied. The Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition is given in terms of complete elliptic integrals. It is shown that part of the spectrum is doubly degenerate, the corresponding states are asymmetric with respect to the Coulomb centre and have a non-zero dipole moment; the rest of the spectrum is nondegenerate, the states are symmetric and their dipole-moment vanishes. The transition from the symmetric to the asymmetric region is similar to a phase transition and it gives an experimental possibility to distinguish between the two types of states. (author)

  16. High power atomic iodine photodissociation lasers

    Palmer, R.E.; Padrick, T.D.; Jones, E.D.

    1976-01-01

    The atomic iodine photodissociation laser has developed into a system capable of producing nanosecond or shorter pulses of near infrared radiation with energies well in excess of a hundred J. Discussed are the operating characteristics, advantages, and potential problem areas associated with this laser

  17. Atomic physics research with synchrotron radiation

    Crasemann, B.

    1981-01-01

    Applications of synchrotron radiation to research in high-energy atomic physics are summarized. These lie in the areas of photoelectron spectrometry, photon scattering, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, time-resolved measurements, resonance spectroscopy and threshold excitation, and future, yet undefined studies

  18. New atomization nozzle for spray drying

    Deventer, H.C. van; Houben, R.J.; Koldeweij, R.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    A new atomization nozzle based on ink jet technology is introduced for spray drying. Application areas are the food and dairy industry, in the first instance, because in these industries the quality demands on the final powders are high with respect to heat load, powder shape, and size distribution.

  19. International Atomic Energy Agency. Highlights of activities

    Gillen, V.A.

    1991-09-01

    This document provides a brief, well-illustrated summary of the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the months up to September 1991. Especially mentioned are the programmes to enhance the safety of nuclear power, from the study of nuclear reactors to assessing the radiological consequences of reactor accidents, and the areas of non-proliferation and safeguards

  20. International Atomic Energy Agency: Highlights of activities

    Gillen, A.

    1992-09-01

    This document provides a brief, well-illustrated summary of the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the months up to September 1992. Especially mentioned are the programmes to enhance the safety of nuclear power, from the study of nuclear reactors to assessing the radiological consequences of reactor accidents, and the areas of non-proliferation and safeguards

  1. UNESCO and atomic energy

    NONE

    1960-01-15

    Atomic energy has been of particular concern to UNESCO virtually since the founding of this United Nations agency with the mission of promoting the advancement of science along with education and culture. UNESCO has been involved in the scientific aspects of nuclear physics - notably prior to the creation of the International Atomic Energy Agency - but it has also focussed its attention upon the educational and cultural problems of the atomic age. UNESCO's sphere of action was laid down by its 1954 General Conference which authorized its Director-General to extend full co-operation to the United Nations in atomic energy matters, with special reference to 'the urgent study of technical questions such as those involved in the effects of radioactivity on life in general, and to the dissemination of objective information concerning all aspects of the peaceful utilization of atomic energy; to study, and if necessary, to propose measures of international scope to facilitate the use of radioisotopes in research and industry'. UNESCO's first action under this resolution was to call a meeting of a committee of experts from twelve nations to study the establishment of a system of standards and regulations for the preparation, distribution, transport and utilization of radioactive isotopes and tracer molecules

  2. The effects of a mid-task break on the brain connectome in healthy participants: A resting-state functional MRI study.

    Sun, Yu; Lim, Julian; Dai, Zhongxiang; Wong, KianFoong; Taya, Fumihiko; Chen, Yu; Li, Junhua; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2017-05-15

    Although rest breaks are commonly administered as a countermeasure to reduce mental fatigue and boost cognitive performance, the effects of taking a break on behavior are not consistent. Moreover, our understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of rest breaks and how they modulate mental fatigue is still rudimentary. In this study, we investigated the effects of receiving a rest break on the topological properties of brain connectivity networks via a two-session experimental paradigm, in which one session comprised four successive blocks of a mentally demanding visual selective attention task (No-rest session), whereas the other contained a rest break between the second and third task blocks (Rest session). Functional brain networks were constructed using resting-state functional MRI data recorded from 20 healthy adults before and after the performance of the task blocks. Behaviorally, subjects displayed robust time-on-task (TOT) declines, as reflected by increasingly slower reaction time as the test progressed and lower post-task self-reported ratings of engagement. However, we did not find a significant effect on task performance due to administering a mid-task break. Compared to pre-task measurements, post-task functional brain networks demonstrated an overall decrease of optimal small-world properties together with lower global efficiency. Specifically, we found TOT-related reduced nodal efficiency in brain regions that mainly resided in the subcortical areas. More interestingly, a significant block-by-session interaction was revealed in local efficiency, attributing to a significant post-task decline in No-rest session and a preserved local efficiency when a mid-task break opportunity was introduced in the Rest session. Taken together, these findings augment our understanding of how the resting brain reorganizes following the accumulation of prolonged task, suggest dissociable processes between the neural mechanisms of fatigue and recovery, and provide

  3. Laser cooling of atoms and ions

    Morigi, G.

    1999-02-01

    introduction, which puts it into the context of the past and present scientific debate, and then the work itself which, in the cases where it has already appeared in a scientific journal, is presented in the form of the publication. More in detail, the introductory chapter deals first briefly with laser cooling of free atoms and then more comprehensively with laser cooling of trapped atoms, giving particular attention to the basic concepts and mechanisms which are recurrent throughout the rest of the thesis. At the end of the first chapter I give a discussion on the laser cooling of many atoms and ions, summarizing the state of the art and the applications currently under discussion, such as degenerate atomic gases and implementations of quantum information processing. The second and third chapters discuss schemes of laser cooling of single trapped atoms or ions to the motional ground state of a trap. These schemes are designed to be efficient in the regime where the amplitude of the particle's motion is comparable with the laser wavelength. In particular the scheme described in chapter II is a modification of sideband cooling and it considerably extends the efficiency of this technique to a wider range of trapping conditions. In chapter III a dark state cooling mechanism is presented, where the dark state is obtained in real space. Both schemes are demonstrated to be effective methods for preparing atoms in the ground state of a trapping potential. Chapter IV and chapter V focus on the problem of cooling more than one trapped ion, taking into account their Coulomb interaction, for trapping conditions which are typical for quantum information experiments. Chapter IV concentrates more on laser cooling to the ground state by means of sideband cooling, whereas in chapter V the theoretical problem of Doppler cooling of interacting trapped ions is discussed. (author)

  4. Functional connectivity of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei at rest

    Beliveau, Vincent; Svarer, Claus; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter critically involved in a broad range of brain functions and implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses including major depression, anxiety and sleep disorders. Despite being widely distributed throughout the brain, there is limited...... knowledge on the contribution of 5-HT to intrinsic brain activity. The dorsal raphe (DR) and median raphe (MR) nuclei are the source of most serotonergic neurons projecting throughout the brain and thus provide a compelling target for a seed-based probe of resting-state activity related to 5-HT. Here we...... implemented a novel multimodal neuroimaging approach for investigating resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between DR and MR and cortical, subcortical and cerebellar target areas. Using [(11)C]DASB positron emission tomography (PET) images of the brain serotonin transporter (5-HTT) combined...

  5. Different Resting-State Functional Connectivity Alterations in Smokers and Nonsmokers with Internet Gaming Addiction

    Xue Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA. Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA.

  6. Accelerators for atomic energy research

    Shibata, Tokushi

    1999-01-01

    The research and educational activities accomplished using accelerators for atomic energy research were studied. The studied items are research subjects, facility operation, the number of master theses and doctor theses on atomic energy research using accelerators and the future role of accelerators in atomic energy research. The strategy for promotion of the accelerator facility for atomic energy research is discussed. (author)

  7. Atomic nucleus and elementary particles

    Zakrzewski, J.

    1976-01-01

    Negatively charged leptons and hadrons can be incorporated into atomic shells forming exotic atoms. Nucleon resonances and Λ hyperons can be considered as constituents of atomic nuclei. Information derived from studies of such exotic systems enriches our knowledge of both the interactions of elementary particles and of the structure of atomic nuclei. (author)

  8. Compilation of data from hadronic atoms

    Poth, H.

    1979-01-01

    This compilation is a survey of the existing data of hadronic atoms (pionic-atoms, kaonic-atoms, antiprotonic-atoms, sigmonic-atoms). It collects measurements of the energies, intensities and line width of X-rays from hadronic atoms. Averaged values for each hadronic atom are given and the data are summarized. The listing contains data on 58 pionic-atoms, on 54 kaonic-atoms, on 23 antiprotonic-atoms and on 20 sigmonic-atoms. (orig./HB) [de

  9. "I am resting but rest less well with you." The moderating effect of anxious attachment style on alpha power during EEG resting state in a social context

    Verbeke, W.J.M.I.; Pozharliev, R.; van Strien, J.W.; Belschak, F.; Bagozzi, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    We took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A) or together (T). We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results indicate

  10. Resting-state functional connectivity abnormalities in limbic and salience networks in social anxiety disorder without comorbidity

    Pannekoek, J. Nienke; Veer, Ilya M.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Werff, Steven J. A.; Demenescu, Liliana R.; Aleman, Andre; Veltman, Dick J.; Zitman, Frans G.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.

    The neurobiology of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is not yet fully understood. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies in SAD have identified abnormalities in various brain areas, particularly the amygdala and elements of the salience network. This study is the first to examine resting-state

  11. Resting-state functional connectivity abnormalities in limbic and salience networks in social anxiety disorder without comorbidity

    Pannekoek, J.N.; Veer, I.M.; van Tol, M.J.; van der Werff, S.J.A.; Demenescu, L.R.; Aleman, A.; Veltman, D.J.; Zitman, F. G.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; van der Wee, N.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The neurobiology of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is not yet fully understood. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies in SAD have identified abnormalities in various brain areas, particularly the amygdala and elements of the salience network. This study is the first to examine resting-state

  12. Neural correlates of verbal creativity: Differences in resting-state functional connectivity associated with expertise in creative writing

    Martin eLotze

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Neural characteristics of verbal creativity as assessed by word generation tasks have been recently identified, but differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rFC between experts and non-experts in creative writing have not been reported yet. Previous electroencephalography (EEG coherence measures during rest demonstrated a decreased cooperation between brain areas in association with creative thinking ability. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare 20 experts in creative writing and 23 age-matched non-experts with respect to rFC strengths within a brain network previously found to be associated with creative writing. Decreased rFC for experts was found between areas 44 of both hemispheres. Increased rFC for experts was observed between right hemispheric caudate and intraparietal sulcus. Correlation analysis of verbal creativity indices with rFC values in the expert group revealed predominantly negative associations, particularly of rFC between left area 44 and left temporal pole. Overall, our data support previous findings on reduced connectivity between interhemispheric areas and increased right-hemispheric connectivity during rest in highly verbally creative individuals.

  13. Feeding during the resting phase causes profound changes in physiology and desynchronization between liver and muscle rhythms of rats

    Opperhuizen, Anne-Loes; Wang, Dawei; Foppen, E.; Jansen, Remi; Boudzovitch-Surovtseva, Olga; de Vries, Janneke; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.

    2016-01-01

    Shiftworkers run an increased risk of developing metabolic disorders, presumably as a result of disturbed circadian physiology. Eating at a time-of-day that is normally dedicated to resting and fasting, may contribute to this association. The hypothalamus is the key brain area that integrates

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow during rest and skilled hand movements by xenon-133 inhalation and emission computerized tomography

    Lauritzen, M; Henriksen, L; Lassen, N A

    1981-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in 16 normal adult volunteers during rest and in 10 the study was repeated during skilled hand movements. A fast-rotating ("dynamic"), single-photon emission computerized tomograph (ECT) with four detector heads was used. Xenon-133 was inhaled over a 1...... motor area on both sides by 34 +/- 15% (p less than 0.025)....

  15. High spatial correspondence at a columnar level between activation and resting state fMRI signals and local field potentials.

    Shi, Zhaoyue; Wu, Ruiqi; Yang, Pai-Feng; Wang, Feng; Wu, Tung-Lin; Mishra, Arabinda; Chen, Li Min; Gore, John C

    2017-05-16

    Although blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has been widely used to map brain responses to external stimuli and to delineate functional circuits at rest, the extent to which BOLD signals correlate spatially with underlying neuronal activity, the spatial relationships between stimulus-evoked BOLD activations and local correlations of BOLD signals in a resting state, and whether these spatial relationships vary across functionally distinct cortical areas are not known. To address these critical questions, we directly compared the spatial extents of stimulated activations and the local profiles of intervoxel resting state correlations for both high-resolution BOLD at 9.4 T and local field potentials (LFPs), using 98-channel microelectrode arrays, in functionally distinct primary somatosensory areas 3b and 1 in nonhuman primates. Anatomic images of LFP and BOLD were coregistered within 0.10 mm accuracy. We found that the point spread functions (PSFs) of BOLD and LFP responses were comparable in the stimulus condition, and both estimates of activations were slightly more spatially constrained than local correlations at rest. The magnitudes of stimulus responses in area 3b were stronger than those in area 1 and extended in a medial to lateral direction. In addition, the reproducibility and stability of stimulus-evoked activation locations within and across both modalities were robust. Our work suggests that the intrinsic resolution of BOLD is not a limiting feature in practice and approaches the intrinsic precision achievable by multielectrode electrophysiology.

  16. Resting state functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex in veterans with and without post-traumatic stress disorder

    Kennis, Mitzy; Rademaker, Arthur R.; van Rooij, Sanne J H; Kahn, René S.; Geuze, Elbert

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that is associated with structural and functional alterations in several brain areas, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Here, we examine resting state functional connectivity of ACC subdivisions in PTSD, using a seed-based

  17. CP violation in atoms

    Barr, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Electric dipole moments of large atoms are an excellent tool to search for CP violation beyond the Standard Model. These tell us about the electron EDM but also about CP-violating electron-nucleon dimension-6 operators that arise from Higgs-exchange. Rapid strides are being made in searches for atomic EDMs. Limits on the electron EDM approaching the values which would be expected from Higgs-exchange mediated CP violation have been achieved. It is pointed out that in this same kind of model if tan β is large the effects in atoms of the dimension-6 e - n operators may outweigh the effect of the electron EDM. (author) 21 refs

  18. US Atomic Energy Law

    1981-01-01

    This is a new volume follows in the series supplementing the volumes 11 and 12 published in 1965 and 1966, updating the collection of Federal Acts and Executive Orders of the President of the United States of America relating to atomic energy legislation. Since the publication of volumes 11 and 12, the US Atomic Energy Act of 1954 alone has been amended 25 times, mainly as a consequence of by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act, both of 1978. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 is supplemented by a selection of the most important Federal Acts, Executive Orders of the President and Resolutions of the Congress. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Atomic profits, no thanks

    Bartels, W.; Dietrich, K.; Moeller, H.; Speier, C.

    1980-01-01

    The authors deal with the following topics: The secret of nuclear energy; the atom programmes of Bonn; on some arguments of the present nuclear energy discussion; how socialist countries solve the problems of nuclear energy. From the socialist point of view they discuss sociological, ideological and moral reasons for a peaceful utilization of nuclear energy. Nevertheless they refuse Bonn's atom programme because the high finance's interests concerning profit and power make it a danger. The biggest danger is said to lie in the creation of a plutonium-industry and the militaristic abuse which would be connected with it. The socialist way of utilizing atomic energy is seen by them as a way with a high feeling of responsibility towards all people and towards a guaranteed energy supply. (HSCH) [de

  20. Controlling the atom

    Mazuzan, G.T.; Walker, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The authors trace the early history of nuclear power regulation in the US. Focusing on the Atomic Energy Commission, they describe the role of other groups that figured in the development of regulatory policies, including the Congressional Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, other federal agencies, state governments, the nuclear industry, and scientific organizations. They consider changes in public perceptions of and attitudes toward atomic energy and the dangers of radiation exposure. The basic purpose of the book is to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the general public with information on the historical antecedents and background of regulatory issues so that there will be continuity in policy decisions. The book concludes with an annotated bibliography of selected references. 19 figures

  1. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  2. Atoms in Slovakia

    Danis, D.; Feik, K.; Florek, M.; Kmosena, J.; Chrapan, J.; Morovic, M.; Slugen, V.; Seliga, M.; Valovic, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this book the history of development of using of nuclear energy in the Slovak Republic as well as in the Czechoslovakia (before 1993 year) is presented. The aim of the book is to preserve the memory of the period when the creation and development of nuclear physics, technology, nuclear medicine, radioecology and energetics in Slovakia occurred - as witnessed by people who experienced this period and to adapt it to future generations. The Editorial board of the SNUS collected the views of 60 contributors and distinguished workers - Slovakian experts in nuclear science, education and technology. Calling upon a wide spectrum of experts ensured an objective historical description of the period. A huge amount of subjective views on recent decades were collected and supported by a wealth of photographic documentation. This created a synthesised reflection on the history of the 'atoms' in Slovakia. The book contains 15 tables, 192 black and white and 119 colour pictures from around the world and from places involved in the compilation of the study and with the study of atomic science in Slovakia. The main chapters are as follows: Atoms in the world, Atoms in Slovakia, Atoms in the educational system, Atoms in health services (Radiology, Nuclear medicine, Radiation protection, the Cyclotron centre of the Slovak Republic), Radioecology, Other applications of irradiation, Nuclear energetics (Electric energy in the second half of the 20 th century, NPP Bohunice, NPP Mochovce, the back-end of Nuclear energetics, Big names in Nuclear energetics in Slovakia), Chronology and an Appendix entitled 'Slovak companies in nuclear energetics'

  3. Visual food stimulus changes resting oscillatory brain activities related to appetitive motive.

    Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Yamano, Yoko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2016-09-26

    Changes of resting brain activities after visual food stimulation might affect the feeling of pleasure in eating food in daily life and spontaneous appetitive motives. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to identify brain areas related to the activity changes. Fifteen healthy, right-handed males [age, 25.4 ± 5.5 years; body mass index, 22.5 ± 2.7 kg/m 2 (mean ± SD)] were enrolled. They were asked to watch food or mosaic pictures for 5 min and to close their eyes for 3 min before and after the picture presentation without thinking of anything. Resting brain activities were recorded during two eye-closed sessions. The feeling of pleasure in eating food in daily life and appetitive motives in the study setting were assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. The γ-band power of resting oscillatory brain activities was decreased after the food picture presentation in the right insula [Brodmann's area (BA) 13], the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) (BA11), and the left frontal pole (BA10). Significant reductions of the α-band power were observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (BA46). Particularly, the feeling of pleasure in eating food was positively correlated with the power decrease in the insula and negatively with that in the DLPFC. The changes in appetitive motives were associated with the power decrease in the frontal pole. These findings suggest automatic brain mechanics whereby changes of the resting brain activity might be associated with positive feeling in dietary life and have an impact on the irresistible appetitive motives through emotional and cognitive brain functions.

  4. Resting-State Functional MR Imaging for Determining Language Laterality in Intractable Epilepsy.

    DeSalvo, Matthew N; Tanaka, Naoaki; Douw, Linda; Leveroni, Catherine L; Buchbinder, Bradley R; Greve, Douglas N; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To measure the accuracy of resting-state functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in determining hemispheric language dominance in patients with medically intractable focal epilepsies against the results of an intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board, and all subjects gave signed informed consent. Data in 23 patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy were retrospectively analyzed. All 23 patients were candidates for epilepsy surgery and underwent both IAP and resting-state functional MR imaging as part of presurgical evaluation. Language dominance was determined from functional MR imaging data by calculating a laterality index (LI) after using independent component analysis. The accuracy of this method was assessed against that of IAP by using a variety of thresholds. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by using leave-one-out cross validation. Spatial maps of language components were qualitatively compared among each hemispheric language dominance group. Results Measurement of hemispheric language dominance with resting-state functional MR imaging was highly concordant with IAP results, with up to 96% (22 of 23) accuracy, 96% (22 of 23) sensitivity, and 96% (22 of 23) specificity. Composite language component maps in patients with typical language laterality consistently included classic language areas such as the inferior frontal gyrus, the posterior superior temporal gyrus, and the inferior parietal lobule, while those of patients with atypical language laterality also included non-classical language areas such as the superior and middle frontal gyri, the insula, and the occipital cortex. Conclusion Resting-state functional MR imaging can be used to measure language laterality in patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  5. Systemic inflammation and resting state connectivity of the default mode network.

    Marsland, Anna L; Kuan, Dora C-H; Sheu, Lei K; Krajina, Katarina; Kraynak, Thomas E; Manuck, Stephen B; Gianaros, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    The default mode network (DMN) encompasses brain systems that exhibit coherent neural activity at rest. DMN brain systems have been implicated in diverse social, cognitive, and affective processes, as well as risk for forms of dementia and psychiatric disorders that associate with systemic inflammation. Areas of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and surrounding medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) within the DMN have been implicated specifically in regulating autonomic and neuroendocrine processes that relate to systemic inflammation via bidirectional signaling mechanisms. However, it is still unclear whether indicators of inflammation relate directly to coherent resting state activity of the ACC, mPFC, or other areas within the DMN. Accordingly, we tested whether plasma interleukin (IL)-6, an indicator of systemic inflammation, covaried with resting-state functional connectivity of the DMN among 98 adults aged 30-54 (39% male; 81% Caucasian). Independent component analyses were applied to resting state fMRI data to generate DMN connectivity maps. Voxel-wise regression analyses were then used to test for associations between IL-6 and DMN connectivity across individuals, controlling for age, sex, body mass index, and fMRI signal motion. Within the DMN, IL-6 covaried positively with connectivity of the sub-genual ACC and negatively with a region of the dorsal medial PFC at corrected statistical thresholds. These novel findings offer evidence for a unique association between a marker of systemic inflammation (IL-6) and ACC and mPFC functional connectivity within the DMN, a network that may be important for linking aspects of immune function to psychological and behavioral states in health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling

    Lustbader, Jason Aaron; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory J.; Yeakel, Skip; Adelman, Steven; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-04-05

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  7. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling: Preprint

    Lustbader, Jason; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory; Adelman, Steve; Yeakel, Skip; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-03-24

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  8. Interferometry with particles of non-zero rest mass: topological experiments

    Opat, G.I.

    1994-01-01

    Interferometry as a space-time process is described, together with its topology. Starting from this viewpoint, a convenient unified formalism for the phase shifts which arise in particle interferometry is developed. This formalism is based on a covariant form of Hamilton's action principle and Lagrange's equations of motion. It will be shown that this Lorentz invariant formalism yields a simple perturbation theoretic expression for the general phase shift that arises in matter-wave interferometry. The Lagrangian formalism is compared with the more usual formalism based on the wave propagation vector and frequency. The resulting formalism will be used to analyse the Sagnac effect, gravitational field measurements, and several Aharonov-Bohm-like topological phase shifts. Several topological interferometric experiments using particles of non-zero rest mass are discussed. These experiments involve the use of electrons, neutrons and neutral atoms. Neutron experiments will be emphasised. 45 refs., 15 figs

  9. GATA transcription factors in testicular adrenal rest tumours

    Manon Engels

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Testicular adrenal rest tumours (TARTs are benign adrenal-like testicular tumours that frequently occur in male patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Recently, GATA transcription factors have been linked to the development of TARTs in mice. The aim of our study was to determine GATA expression in human TARTs and other steroidogenic tissues. We determined GATA expression in TARTs (n = 16, Leydig cell tumours (LCTs; n = 7, adrenal (foetal (n = 6 + adult (n = 10 and testis (foetal (n = 13 + adult (n = 8. We found testis-like GATA4, and adrenal-like GATA3 and GATA6 gene expressions by qPCR in human TARTs, indicating mixed testicular and adrenal characteristics of TARTs. Currently, no marker is available to discriminate TARTs from LCTs, leading to misdiagnosis and incorrect treatment. GATA3 and GATA6 mRNAs exhibited excellent discriminative power (area under the curve of 0.908 and 0.816, respectively, while immunohistochemistry did not. GATA genes contain several CREB-binding sites and incubation with 0.1 mM dibutyryl cAMP for 4 h stimulated GATA3, GATA4 and GATA6 expressions in a human foetal testis cell line (hs181.tes. Incubation of adrenocortical cells (H295RA with ACTH, however, did not induce GATA expression in vitro. Although ACTH did not dysregulate GATA expression in the only human ACTH-sensitive in vitro model available, our results do suggest that aberrant expression of GATA transcription factors in human TARTs might be involved in TART formation.

  10. Theory and applications of atomic and ionic polarizabilities

    Mitroy, J [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); Safronova, M S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Clark, Charles W, E-mail: jxm107@rsphysse.anu.edu.a, E-mail: msafrono@udel.ed, E-mail: charles.clark@nist.go [Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8410 (United States)

    2010-10-28

    Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics. The dielectric constant and refractive index of any gas are examples of macroscopic properties that are largely determined by the dipole polarizability. When it comes to microscopic phenomena, the existence of alkaline-earth anions and the recently discovered ability of positrons to bind to many atoms are predominantly due to the polarization interaction. An imperfect knowledge of atomic polarizabilities is presently looming as the largest source of uncertainty in the new generation of optical frequency standards. Accurate polarizabilities for the group I and II atoms and ions of the periodic table have recently become available by a variety of techniques. These include refined many-body perturbation theory and coupled-cluster calculations sometimes combined with precise experimental data for selected transitions, microwave spectroscopy of Rydberg atoms and ions, refractive index measurements in microwave cavities, ab initio calculations of atomic structures using explicitly correlated wavefunctions, interferometry with atom beams and velocity changes of laser cooled atoms induced by an electric field. This review examines existing theoretical methods of determining atomic and ionic polarizabilities, and discusses their relevance to various applications with particular emphasis on cold-atom physics and the metrology of atomic frequency standards. (topical review)

  11. Theory and applications of atomic and ionic polarizabilities

    Mitroy, J; Safronova, M S; Clark, Charles W

    2010-01-01

    Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics. The dielectric constant and refractive index of any gas are examples of macroscopic properties that are largely determined by the dipole polarizability. When it comes to microscopic phenomena, the existence of alkaline-earth anions and the recently discovered ability of positrons to bind to many atoms are predominantly due to the polarization interaction. An imperfect knowledge of atomic polarizabilities is presently looming as the largest source of uncertainty in the new generation of optical frequency standards. Accurate polarizabilities for the group I and II atoms and ions of the periodic table have recently become available by a variety of techniques. These include refined many-body perturbation theory and coupled-cluster calculations sometimes combined with precise experimental data for selected transitions, microwave spectroscopy of Rydberg atoms and ions, refractive index measurements in microwave cavities, ab initio calculations of atomic structures using explicitly correlated wavefunctions, interferometry with atom beams and velocity changes of laser cooled atoms induced by an electric field. This review examines existing theoretical methods of determining atomic and ionic polarizabilities, and discusses their relevance to various applications with particular emphasis on cold-atom physics and the metrology of atomic frequency standards. (topical review)

  12. What goes on in the resting-state? A qualitative glimpse into resting-state experience in the scanner

    Hurlburt, Russell T.; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The brain’s resting-state has attracted considerable interest in recent years, but currently little is known either about typical experience during the resting-state or about whether there are inter-individual differences in resting-state phenomenology. We used descriptive experience sampling (DES) in an attempt to apprehend high fidelity glimpses of the inner experience of five participants in an extended fMRI study. Results showed that the inner experiences and the neural activation patterns (as quantified by amplitude of low frequency fluctuations analysis) of the five participants were largely consistent across time, suggesting that our extended-duration scanner sessions were broadly similar to typical resting-state sessions. However, there were very large individual differences in inner phenomena, suggesting that the resting-state itself may differ substantially from one participant to the next. We describe these individual differences in experiential characteristics and display some typical moments of resting-state experience. We also show that retrospective characterizations of phenomena can often be very different from moment-by-moment reports. We discuss implications for the assessment of inner experience in neuroimaging studies more generally, concluding that it may be possible to use fMRI to investigate neural correlates of phenomena apprehended in high fidelity. PMID:26500590

  13. Positron-atom collisions

    Drachman, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The past decade has seen the field of positron-atom collisions mature into an important sub-field of atomic physics. Increasingly intense positron sources are leading towards a situation in which electron and positron collision experiments will be on almost an equal footing, challenging theory to analyze their similarities and differences. The author reviews the advances made in theory, including dispersion theory, resonances, and inelastic processes. A survey of experimental progress and a brief discussion of astrophysical positronics is also included. (Auth.)

  14. Atomic Force Microscope

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  15. Optically pumped atoms

    Happer, William; Walker, Thad

    2010-01-01

    Covering the most important knowledge on optical pumping of atoms, this ready reference is backed by numerous examples of modelling computation for optical pumped systems. The authors show for the first time that modern scientific computing software makes it practical to analyze the full, multilevel system of optically pumped atoms. To make the discussion less abstract, the authors have illustrated key points with sections of MATLAB codes. To make most effective use of contemporary mathematical software, it is especially useful to analyze optical pumping situations in the Liouville spa

  16. Pulsed atomic soliton laser

    Carr, L.D.; Brand, J.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that simultaneously changing the scattering length of an elongated, harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate from positive to negative and inverting the axial portion of the trap, so that it becomes expulsive, results in a train of self-coherent solitonic pulses. Each pulse is itself a nondispersive attractive Bose-Einstein condensate that rapidly self-cools. The axial trap functions as a waveguide. The solitons can be made robustly stable with the right choice of trap geometry, number of atoms, and interaction strength. Theoretical and numerical evidence suggests that such a pulsed atomic soliton laser can be made in present experiments

  17. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  18. Young students's opinion about atomic energy

    Barroso, Belen; Martin, Hugo R.

    2006-01-01

    the little knowledge on which they count is contributed by mass media and 35% by the school. Only a 1% had contact with specialists in the area. 3) A 42% of the students indicated that the Atomic Energy is applied mainly for the generation of electrical energy, a 34% to the nuclear weapons production and a 24% to the industry. 4) The greater percentages of students are convinced that the use of the Atomic Energy causes contamination by liberation of radiations. A 36% of the students incorrectly selected 'acid rain' and 'greenhouse effect'. 5) A 61% of the students correctly selected the option that it placed to Uranium like nuclear raw material. 32% described it as Radioactive Waste of the nuclear activity and only a 7% did not consider any relation between both terms. 6) Cordoba were selected by 46% of the sample as a province with uranium resources; in the second place Mendoza with a 24% and 20% of the students responded incorrectly Buenos Aires and Tierra del Fuego provinces. 7) In similar percentage, the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant (43%) and the CNEA-RC (45%) were recognized by the students as located in the Province of Cordoba. A 12% selected the incorrect alternatives of Atucha I NPP and Atucha II NPP. 8) Although the students declared in a 45% to know the existence the CNEA-RC, 57% declared not to count on information on the activities that are developed there. A 23% responded correctly that Geology of Uranium (3%) and Uranium Oxide Powder Production (20%) are made in these facilities. 20% rest incorrectly marked to generation of energy (17%) and nuclear weapons production (3%). 9) An important data is that the students were interested in a 94% in knowing the facilities and activities of CNEA-RC. 10) A 62% of the sample declared to be against the operation of this type of industrial plants in urbanized zones, 34% are in a neutral position and 4% to favor. In spite of this, an equal percentage (62%) recognized the importance of continuing these activities in the

  19. Modifications of resting state networks in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2.

    Cocozza, Sirio; Saccà, Francesco; Cervo, Amedeo; Marsili, Angela; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Giorgio, Sara Maria Delle Acque; De Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Brunetti, Arturo; Quarantelli, Mario

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the integrity of the Resting State Networks in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) and the correlations between the modification of these networks and clinical variables. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) data from 19 SCA2 patients and 29 healthy controls were analyzed using an independent component analysis and dual regression, controlling at voxel level for the effect of atrophy by co-varying for gray matter volume. Correlations between the resting state networks alterations and disease duration, age at onset, number of triplets, and clinical score were assessed by Spearman's coefficient, for each cluster which was significantly different in SCA2 patients compared with healthy controls. In SCA2 patients, disruption of the cerebellar components of all major resting state networks was present, with supratentorial involvement only for the default mode network. When controlling at voxel level for gray matter volume, the reduction in functional connectivity in supratentorial regions of the default mode network, and in cerebellar regions within the default mode, executive and right fronto-parietal networks, was still significant. No correlations with clinical variables were found for any of the investigated resting state networks. The SCA2 patients show significant alterations of the resting state networks, only partly explained by the atrophy. The default mode network is the only resting state network that shows also supratentorial changes, which appear unrelated to the cortical gray matter volume. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical significance of these changes. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  20. Atomic collisions related to atomic laser isotope separation

    Shibata, Takemasa

    1995-01-01

    Atomic collisions are important in various places in atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS). At a vaporization zone, many atomic collisions due to high density have influence on the atomic beam characteristics such as velocity distribution and metastable states' populations at a separation zone. In the separation zone, a symmetric charge transfer between the produced ions and the neutral atoms may degrade selectivity. We have measured atomic excitation temperatures of atomic beams and symmetric charge transfer cross sections for gadolinium and neodymium. Gadolinium and neodymium are both lanthanides. Nevertheless, results for gadolinium and neodymium are very different. The gadolinium atom has one 5d electron and neodymium atom has no 5d electron. It is considered that the differences are due to existence of 5d electron. (author)

  1. Spatially resolved photoionization of ultracold atoms on an atom chip

    Kraft, S.; Guenther, A.; Fortagh, J.; Zimmermann, C.

    2007-01-01

    We report on photoionization of ultracold magnetically trapped Rb atoms on an atom chip. The atoms are trapped at 5 μK in a strongly anisotropic trap. Through a hole in the chip with a diameter of 150 μm, two laser beams are focused onto a fraction of the atomic cloud. A first laser beam with a wavelength of 778 nm excites the atoms via a two-photon transition to the 5D level. With a fiber laser at 1080 nm the excited atoms are photoionized. Ionization leads to depletion of the atomic density distribution observed by absorption imaging. The resonant ionization spectrum is reported. The setup used in this experiment is suitable not only to investigate mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates and ions but also for single-atom detection on an atom chip

  2. Brain activation and inhibition after acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi: resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Shao-qun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture can induce changes in the brain. However, the majority of studies to date have focused on a single acupoint at a time. In the present study, we observed activity changes in the brains of healthy volunteers before and after acupuncture at Taichong (LR3 and Taixi (KI3 using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain 15 minutes before acupuncture, then received acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi using the nail-pressing needle insertion method, after which the needle was retained in place for 30 minutes. Fifteen minutes after withdrawal of the needle, the volunteers underwent a further session of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed that the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, a measure of spontaneous neuronal activity, increased mainly in the cerebral occipital lobe and middle occipital gyrus (Brodmann area 18/19, inferior occipital gyrus (Brodmann area 18 and cuneus (Brodmann area 18, but decreased mainly in the gyrus rectus of the frontal lobe (Brodmann area 11, inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 44 and the center of the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. The present findings indicate that acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi specifically promote blood flow and activation in the brain areas related to vision, emotion and cognition, and inhibit brain areas related to emotion, attention, phonological and semantic processing, and memory.

  3. Brain activation and inhibition after acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi: resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Zhang, Shao-Qun; Wang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Ji-Ping; Chen, Jun-Qi; Wu, Chun-Xiao; Li, Zhi-Peng; Chen, Jia-Rong; Ouyang, Huai-Liang; Huang, Yong; Tang, Chun-Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Acupuncture can induce changes in the brain. However, the majority of studies to date have focused on a single acupoint at a time. In the present study, we observed activity changes in the brains of healthy volunteers before and after acupuncture at Taichong (LR3) and Taixi (KI3) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain 15 minutes before acupuncture, then received acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi using the nail-pressing needle insertion method, after which the needle was retained in place for 30 minutes. Fifteen minutes after withdrawal of the needle, the volunteers underwent a further session of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed that the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, a measure of spontaneous neuronal activity, increased mainly in the cerebral occipital lobe and middle occipital gyrus (Brodmann area 18/19), inferior occipital gyrus (Brodmann area 18) and cuneus (Brodmann area 18), but decreased mainly in the gyrus rectus of the frontal lobe (Brodmann area 11), inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 44) and the center of the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. The present findings indicate that acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi specifically promote blood flow and activation in the brain areas related to vision, emotion and cognition, and inhibit brain areas related to emotion, attention, phonological and semantic processing, and memory.

  4. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  5. Atomic defects and diffusion in metals

    Siegel, R.W.

    1981-11-01

    The tracer self-diffusion data for fcc and refractory bcc metals are briefly reviewed with respect to (i) the available monovacancy formation and migration properties and (ii) the high-temperature diffusion enhancement above that expected for mass transport via atomic exchange with monovacancies. While the atomic-defect mechanism for low-temperature self-diffusion can be reliably attributed to monovacancies, the mechanisms responsible for high-temperature mass transport are not so easily defined at this time; both divacancies and interstitials must be seriously considered. Possibilities for improving our understanding in this area are discussed. 68 references, 7 figures

  6. Atomic layer deposition of nanostructured materials

    Pinna, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition, formerly called atomic layer epitaxy, was developed in the 1970s to meet the needs of producing high-quality, large-area fl at displays with perfect structure and process controllability. Nowadays, creating nanomaterials and producing nanostructures with structural perfection is an important goal for many applications in nanotechnology. As ALD is one of the important techniques which offers good control over the surface structures created, it is more and more in the focus of scientists. The book is structured in such a way to fi t both the need of the expert reader (du

  7. Atomic nanoscale technology in the nuclear industry

    Woo, Taeho

    2011-01-01

    Developments at the nanoscale are leading to new possibilities and challenges for nuclear applications in areas ranging from medicine to international commerce to atomic power production/waste treatment. Progress in nanotech is helping the nuclear industry slash the cost of energy production. It also continues to improve application reliability and safety measures, which remain a critical concern, especially since the reactor disasters in Japan. Exploring the new wide-ranging landscape of nuclear function, Atomic Nanoscale Technology in the Nuclear Industry details the breakthroughs in nanosca

  8. Electron induced atomic inner-shell ionization

    Quarles, C.A.

    1974-01-01

    The current status of cross section measurements for atomic inner-shell ionization by electron bombardment is reviewed. Inner shell ionization studies using electrons as projectiles compliment the similar studies being done with heavy particles, and in addition can provide tests of the theory in those cases when relativistic effects and exchange effects are expected to be important. Both total cross sections and recently measured differential cross sections will be discussed and compared with existing theories where possible. Prospects for further experimental and theoretical work in this area of atomic physics using small electron accelerators will also be discussed

  9. Atomic physics through astrophysics

    Dalgarno, A.

    1987-01-01

    Astronomical environments encompass an extreme range of physical conditions of temperature, density, pressure and radiation fields and unusual situations abound. In this lecture, the author describes some of the objects found in the Universe and discussed the atomic processes that occur. 45 references, 8 figures

  10. Rutherford-Bohr atom

    Heilbron, J. L.

    1981-03-01

    Bohr used to introduce his attempts to explain clearly the principles of the quantum theory of the atom with an historical sketch, beginning invariably with the nuclear model proposed by Rutherford. That was sound pedagogy but bad history. The Rutherford-Bohr atom stands in the middle of a line of work initiated by J.J. Thomson and concluded by the invention of quantum mechanics. Thompson's program derived its inspiration from the peculiar emphasis on models characteristic of British physics of the 19th century. Rutherford's atom was a late product of the goals and conceptions of Victorian science. Bohr's modifications, although ultimately fatal to Thomson's program, initially gave further impetus to it. In the early 1920s the most promising approach to an adequate theory of the atom appeared to be the literal and detailed elaboration of the classical mechanics of multiply periodic orbits. The approach succeeded, demonstrating in an unexpected way the force of an argument often advanced by Thomson: because a mechanical model is richer in implications than the considerations for which it was advanced, it can suggest new directions of research that may lead to important discoveries.

  11. Deep diode atomic battery

    Anthony, T.R.; Cline, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    A deep diode atomic battery is made from a bulk semiconductor crystal containing three-dimensional arrays of columnar and lamellar P-N junctions. The battery is powered by gamma rays and x-ray emission from a radioactive source embedded in the interior of the semiconductor crystal

  12. Atoms in Astronomy.

    Blanchard, Paul A.

    This booklet is part of an American Astronomical Society curriculum project designed to provide teaching materials to teachers of secondary school chemistry, physics, and earth science. A Basic Topics section discusses atomic structure, emphasizing states of matter at high temperature and spectroscopic analysis of light from the stars. A section…

  13. Atomic energy and you

    1975-01-01

    The film discusses the peaceful applications of atomic energy in agriculture, engineering, industry and medicine. Shows exploration, prospecting and mining of uraninum ores at Larap, Camarines Norte and the study of geographical conditions of the site for the proposed Nuclear Power Plant in Bataan

  14. Discovery and the atom

    1989-01-01

    ''Discovery and the Atom'' tells the story of the founding of nuclear physics. This programme looks at nuclear physics up to the discovery of the neutron in 1932. Animation explains the science of the classic experiments, such as the scattering of alpha particles by Rutherford and the discovery of the nucleus. Archive film shows the people: Lord Rutherford, James Chadwick, Marie Curie. (author)

  15. Atomically resolved tissue integration.

    Karlsson, Johan; Sundell, Gustav; Thuvander, Mattias; Andersson, Martin

    2014-08-13

    In the field of biomedical technology, a critical aspect is the ability to control and understand the integration of an implantable device in living tissue. Despite the technical advances in the development of biomaterials, the elaborate interplay encompassing materials science and biology on the atomic level is not very well understood. Within implantology, anchoring a biomaterial device into bone tissue is termed osseointegration. In the most accepted theory, osseointegration is defined as an interfacial bonding between implant and bone; however, there is lack of experimental evidence to confirm this. Here we show that atom probe tomography can be used to study the implant-tissue interaction, allowing for three-dimensional atomic mapping of the interface region. Interestingly, our analyses demonstrated that direct contact between Ca atoms and the implanted titanium oxide surface is formed without the presence of a protein interlayer, which means that a pure inorganic interface is created, hence giving experimental support to the current theory of osseointegration. We foresee that this result will be of importance in the development of future biomaterials as well as in the design of in vitro evaluation techniques.

  16. Atomic transport properties

    Freyss, M.

    2015-01-01

    As presented in the first chapter of this book, atomic transport properties govern a large panel of nuclear fuel properties, from its microstructure after fabrication to its behaviour under irradiation: grain growth, oxidation, fission product release, gas bubble nucleation. The modelling of the atomic transport properties is therefore the key to understanding and predicting the material behaviour under irradiation or in storage conditions. In particular, it is noteworthy that many modelling techniques within the so-called multi-scale modelling scheme of materials make use of atomic transport data as input parameters: activation energies of diffusion, diffusion coefficients, diffusion mechanisms, all of which are then required to be known accurately. Modelling approaches that are readily used or which could be used to determine atomic transport properties of nuclear materials are reviewed here. They comprise, on the one hand, static atomistic calculations, in which the migration mechanism is fixed and the corresponding migration energy barrier is calculated, and, on the other hand, molecular dynamics calculations and kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations, for which the time evolution of the system is explicitly calculated. (author)

  17. Experimental atomic physics

    Sellin, I.A.; Elston, S.B.; Forester, J.P.; Liao, K.H.; Pegg, D.J.; Peterson, R.S.; Thoe, R.S.; Hayden, H.C.; Griffin, P.M.

    1976-01-01

    The atomic structure and collision phenomena of highly stripped ions in the range Z = 6 to 35 were studied. Charge-transfer and multiple-electron-loss cross sections were determined. Absolute x-ray-production cross sections for incident heavy ions were measured. 10 figures, 1 table

  18. Transition probabilities for atoms

    Kim, Y.K.

    1980-01-01

    Current status of advanced theoretical methods for transition probabilities for atoms and ions is discussed. An experiment on the f values of the resonance transitions of the Kr and Xe isoelectronic sequences is suggested as a test for the theoretical methods

  19. Ludwig Boltzmann: Atomic genius

    Cercignani, C. [Department of Mathematics, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)]. E-mail: carcer@mate.polimi.it

    2006-09-15

    On the centenary of the death of Ludwig Boltzmann, Carlo Cercignani examines the immense contributions of the man who pioneered our understanding of the atomic nature of matter. The man who first gave a convincing explanation of the irreversibility of the macroscopic world and the symmetry of the laws of physics was the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann, who tragically committed suicide 100 years ago this month. One of the key figures in the development of the atomic theory of matter, Boltzmann's fame will be forever linked to two fundamental contributions to science. The first was his interpretation of 'entropy' as a mathematically well-defined measure of the disorder of atoms. The second was his derivation of what is now known as the Boltzmann equation, which describes the statistical properties of a gas as made up of molecules. The equation, which described for the first time how a probability can evolve with time, allowed Boltzmann to explain why macroscopic phenomena are irreversible. The key point is that while microscopic objects like atoms can behave reversibly, we never see broken coffee cups reforming because it would involve a long series of highly improbable interactions - and not because it is forbidden by the laws of physics. (U.K.)

  20. Coherent atomic spectroscopy

    Garton, W.R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Argonne Spectroscopy Laboratory, initiated and advanced over several decades by F.S. Tomkins and M. Fred, has been a major international facility. A range of collaborative work in atomic spectroscopy is selected to illustrate advances in experimental physics which have been made possible by combination of the talents of Tomkins and Fred with the unique facilities of the Argonne Laboratory. (orig.)

  1. Spectra of alkali atoms

    Santoso, Budi; Arumbinang, Haryono.

    1981-01-01

    Emission spectra of alkali atoms has been determined by using spectrometer at the ultraviolet to infra red waves range. The spectra emission can be obtained by absorption spectrophotometric analysis. Comparative evaluations between experimental data and data handbook obtained by spark method were also presented. (author tr.)

  2. Atomic Particle Detection

    Hellman, Hal

    1970-01-01

    This booklet tells how scientists observe the particles and electromagnetic radiation that emerges from an atomic nucleus. The equipment used falls into two general categories: counters which count each particle as it passes by, and track detectors, which make a photographic record of the particle's track.

  3. Feasibility Study of a Lunar Analog Bed Rest Model

    Cromwell, Ronita L.; Platts, Steven H.; Yarbough, Patrice; Buccello-Stout, Regina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a 9.5deg head-up tilt bed rest model to simulate the effects of the 1/6 g load to the human body that exists on the lunar surface. The lunar analog bed rest model utilized a modified hospital bed. The modifications included mounting the mattress on a sled that rolled on bearings to provide freedom of movement. The weight of the sled was off-loaded using a counterweight system to insure that 1/6 body weight was applied along the long axis (z-axis) of the body. Force was verified through use of a force plate mounted at the foot of the bed. A seating assembly was added to the bed to permit periods of sitting. Subjects alternated between standing and sitting positions throughout the day. A total of 35% of the day was spent in the standing position and 65% was spent sitting. In an effort to achieve physiologic fluid shifts expected for a 1/6 G environment, subjects wore compression stockings and performed unloaded foot and ankle exercises. Eight subjects (3 females and 5 males) participated in this study. Subjects spent 13 days in the pre-bed rest phase, 6 days in bed rest and 3 days post bed rest. Subjects consumed a standardized diet throughout the study. To determine feasibility, measures of subject comfort, force and plasma volume were collected. Subject comfort was assessed using a Likert scale. Subjects were asked to assess level of comfort (0-100) for 11 body regions and provide an overall rating. Results indicated minimal to no discomfort as most subjects reported scores of zero. Force measures were performed for each standing position and were validated against subject s calculated 1/6 body weight (r(sup 2) = 0.993). The carbon monoxide rebreathing technique was used to assess plasma volume during pre-bed rest and on the last day of bed rest. Plasma volume results indicated a significant decrease (p = 0.001) from pre to post bed rest values. Subjects lost on average 8.3% (sd = 6.1%) during the

  4. Atomic Physics 16: Sixteenth International Conference on Atomic Physics. Proceedings

    Baylis, W.E.; Drake, G.W.

    1999-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 16th International Conference on Atomic Physics held in Windsor, Ontario, Canada, in August, 1998. The topics discussed included a wide array of subjects in atomic physics such as atom holography, alignment in atomic collisions, coulomb-interacting particles, muon experiments, x-rays from comets, atomic electron collisions in intense laser fields, spectroscopy of trapped ions, and Bose-Einstein condensates. This conference represents the single most important meeting world wide on fundamental advances in atomic physics. There were 30 papers presented at the conference,out of which 4 have been abstracted for the Energy, Science and Technology database

  5. A Transportable Gravity Gradiometer Based on Atom Interferometry

    Yu, Nan; Thompson, Robert J.; Kellogg, James R.; Aveline, David C.; Maleki, Lute; Kohel, James M.

    2010-01-01

    rest frame for the trapped atoms. While still in this moving-frame molasses, the laser frequencies are further detuned from the atomic resonance (while maintaining this relative frequency shift) to cool the atom cloud's temperature to 2 K or below, corresponding to an rms velocity of less than 2 cm/s. After launch, the cold atoms undergo further state and velocity selection to prepare for atom interferometry. The atom interferometers are then realized using laser-induced stimulated Raman transitions to perform the necessary manipulations of each atom, and the resulting interferometer phase is measured using laser-induced fluorescence for state-normalized detection. More than 20 laser beams with independent controls of frequency, phase, and intensity are required for this measurement sequence. This instrument can facilitate the study of Earth's gravitational field from surface and air vehicles, as well as from space by allowing gravity mapping from a low-cost, single spacecraft mission. In addition, the operation of atom interferometer-based instruments in space offers greater sensitivity than is possible in terrestrial instruments due to the much longer interrogation times available in the microgravity environment. A space-based quantum gravity gradiometer has the potential to achieve sensitivities similar to the GRACE mission at long spatial wavelengths, and will also have resolution similar to GOCE for measurement at shorter length scales.

  6. Multimode quantum model of a cw atom laser

    Hope, J.J.; Haine, S.A.; Savage, C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Laser cooling allows dilute atomic gases to be cooled to within K of absolute zero. Ultracold gases were first achieved twenty years ago and have since found applications in areas such as spectroscopy, time standards, frequency standards, quantum information processing and atom optics. The atomic analogue of the lasing mode in optical lasers is Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC), in which a cooled sample of atoms condense into the lowest energy quantum state. This new state of matter was recently achieved in dilute Bose gases in 1995. Atoms coupled out of a BEC exhibit long-range spatial coherence, and provide the coldest atomic source currently available. These atomic sources are called 'atom lasers' because the BEC is analogous to the lasing mode of an optical laser. The high spectral flux from optical lasers is caused by a process called gain-narrowing, which requires continuous wave (cw) operation. Coupling a BEC quickly into an untrapped state forms a coherent atomic beam but it has a spread in momentum as large as the trapped BEC. Coupling the atoms out more slowly reduces the output linewidth at the expense of reducing the overall flux. These atom lasers are equivalent to Q-switched optical lasers. A cw atom laser with gain-narrowing would produce an increasingly monoenergetic output as the flux increased, dramatically improving the spectral flux. A cw atom laser is therefore a major goal of the atom optics community, but there are several theoretical and practical obstacles to understanding the complexities of such a system. The main obstacle to the production of a cw atom laser is the technical difficulties involved in continuously pumping the lasing mode. No complete theory exists which describes a cw atom laser. Complete cw atom laser models require a quantum field description due to their non-Markovian dynamics, significant spatial effects and the dependence of the output on the quantum statistics of the lasing mode. The extreme dimensionality

  7. Resting state brain networks in the prairie vole.

    Ortiz, Juan J; Portillo, Wendy; Paredes, Raul G; Young, Larry J; Alcauter, Sarael

    2018-01-19

    Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has shown the hierarchical organization of the human brain into large-scale complex networks, referred as resting state networks. This technique has turned into a promising translational research tool after the finding of similar resting state networks in non-human primates, rodents and other animal models of great value for neuroscience. Here, we demonstrate and characterize the presence of resting states networks in Microtus ochrogaster, the prairie vole, an extraordinary animal model to study complex human-like social behavior, with potential implications for the research of normal social development, addiction and neuropsychiatric disorders. Independent component analysis of rsfMRI data from isoflurane-anestethized prairie voles resulted in cortical and subcortical networks, including primary motor and sensory networks, but also included putative salience and default mode networks. We further discuss how future research could help to close the gap between the properties of the large scale functional organization and the underlying neurobiology of several aspects of social cognition. These results contribute to the evidence of preserved resting state brain networks across species and provide the foundations to explore the use of rsfMRI in the prairie vole for basic and translational research.

  8. Atomic bomb injury: radiation

    Dunham, C L; Cronkite, E P; Le Roy, G V; Warren, S

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports. In the first report, the clinical diagnosis and treatment of radiation syndrome in survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are described. The syndrome of acute radiation injury is applied to the symptom complex, or diseased state, which results from exposure of the whole body to the initial nuclear radiation of an atomic bomb. It is applied to injuries of the skin and subcutaneous tissues resulting from x-radiation or from contact with radioactive material. Internal radiation injury may result from the selective deposition, such as in bone or thyroid, of radioactive material that has been inhaled or absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract or wounds. Radiation syndrome is classified as very severe, severe, and mild. In the second report, a brief discussion is presented on the question of genetic effects in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the third report, a study was carried out on 205 4-1/2 year old children who had been exposed to the atomic bomb blast during the first half of intra-uterine life. Correlation between head size and mental development of the child with distance from the hypocenter, symptoms of radiation effect and type of shielding of the mother is discussed. The conclusion drawn from the present study is that central nervous system defects can be produced in the fetus by atomic bomb radiation, provided that exposure occurs within approximately 1200 meters of the hypocenter and that no effective shielding, such as concrete, protects the fetus from direct irradiation.

  9. Trapped atoms along nanophotonic resonators

    Fields, Brian; Kim, May; Chang, Tzu-Han; Hung, Chen-Lung

    2017-04-01

    Many-body systems subject to long-range interactions have remained a very challenging topic experimentally. Ultracold atoms trapped in extreme proximity to the surface of nanophotonic structures provides a dynamic system combining the strong atom-atom interactions mediated by guided mode photons with the exquisite control implemented with trapped atom systems. The hybrid system promises pair-wise tunability of long-range interactions between atomic pseudo spins, allowing studies of quantum magnetism extending far beyond nearest neighbor interactions. In this talk, we will discuss our current status developing high quality nanophotonic ring resonators, engineered on CMOS compatible optical chips with integrated nanostructures that, in combination with a side illuminating beam, can realize stable atom traps approximately 100nm above the surface. We will report on our progress towards loading arrays of cold atoms near the surface of these structures and studying atom-atom interaction mediated by photons with high cooperativity.

  10. Expression of REST4 in human gliomas in vivo and influence of pioglitazone on REST in vitro

    Ren, Huan [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China); Gao, Zhangfeng [Department of Neurosurgery, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Wu, Nayiyuan; Zeng, Liu; Tang, Xinyue; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Zhaoqian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Liansheng [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China); Li, Zhi, E-mail: lizhi489@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China)

    2015-08-07

    The repressor element-1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) has an irreplaceable role during the differentiation of neurons. REST has multiple splice variants which link to various types of cancer. Previous work had highlighted the role of REST in glioma, where the expression of REST is enhanced. But whether alternative splicing of REST is expressed in glioma has not been described. Here, we show that a specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens, and will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists have a role of antineoplastic in various tumor cells, which including glioma cells. Moreover, study indicated that PPARγ agonist pioglitazone can promote alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. In this study, we selected pioglitazone as a tool drug to explore whether the role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma is mediated by regulating REST expression or promoting alternative splicing of REST in glioma cells. Results show that pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cell in vitro, which may be mediated by down-regulating REST mRNA level but not by inducing alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. Our study firstly reports the expression of REST4 in glioma tissue samples. And we recommend that pioglitazone, which can reduce the expression level of REST, represents a promising drug for therapy of glioma. - Highlights: • A specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens in vivo. • REST4 will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. • Pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cells. • The role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma may be mediated by down-regulating REST.

  11. Expression of REST4 in human gliomas in vivo and influence of pioglitazone on REST in vitro

    Ren, Huan; Gao, Zhangfeng; Wu, Nayiyuan; Zeng, Liu; Tang, Xinyue; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Zhaoqian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Liansheng; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    The repressor element-1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) has an irreplaceable role during the differentiation of neurons. REST has multiple splice variants which link to various types of cancer. Previous work had highlighted the role of REST in glioma, where the expression of REST is enhanced. But whether alternative splicing of REST is expressed in glioma has not been described. Here, we show that a specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens, and will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists have a role of antineoplastic in various tumor cells, which including glioma cells. Moreover, study indicated that PPARγ agonist pioglitazone can promote alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. In this study, we selected pioglitazone as a tool drug to explore whether the role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma is mediated by regulating REST expression or promoting alternative splicing of REST in glioma cells. Results show that pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cell in vitro, which may be mediated by down-regulating REST mRNA level but not by inducing alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. Our study firstly reports the expression of REST4 in glioma tissue samples. And we recommend that pioglitazone, which can reduce the expression level of REST, represents a promising drug for therapy of glioma. - Highlights: • A specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens in vivo. • REST4 will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. • Pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cells. • The role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma may be mediated by down-regulating REST

  12. Physiological responses of women to simulated weightlessness: A review of the first female bed-rest study

    Sandler, H.; Winter, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Subjects were exposed to centrifugation, to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), and to exericse stress both before and after bed rest. Areas studied were centrifugation tolerance, fluid electrolyte changes and hematology, tolerance to LBNP, physical working capacity, biochemistries, blood fibrinolytic activity, female metabolic and hormonal responses, circadian alterations, and gynecology. Results were compared with the responses observed in similarly bed-rested male subjects. The bed-rested females showed deconditioning responses similar to those of the males, although with some differences. Results indicate that women are capable of coping with exposure to weightlessness and, moreover, that they may be more sensitive subjects for evaluating countermeasures to weightlessness and developing criteria for assessing applicants for shuttle voyages.

  13. Recovery from an acute relapse is associated with changes in motor resting-state connectivity in multiple sclerosis

    Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Blinkenberg, Morten; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) of the brain has been successfully used to identify altered functional connectivity in the motor network in multiple sclerosis (MS).1 In clinically stable patients with MS, we recently demonstrated increased coupling between the basal ganglia and the motor...... network.1 Accordingly, rs-fMRI in MS is particularly suited to investigate functional reorganisation of the motor network in the remission phase after a relapse because the resting-state connectivity pattern is not influenced by interindividual differences in motor ability and task performance....... In this prospective rs-fMRI study, we mapped acute changes in resting-state motor connectivity in 12 patients with relapsing forms of MS presenting with an acute relapse involving an upper limb paresis. Previous functional MRI (fMRI) studies have shown that the activation of sensorimotor areas was stronger and more...

  14. Ultratrace determination of lead in whole blood using electrothermal atomization laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Wagner, E P; Smith, B W; Winefordner, J D

    1996-09-15

    Laser-excited atomic fluorescence has been used to detect lead that was electrothermally atomized from whole blood in a graphite furnace. A 9 kHz repetition rate copper vapor laser pumped dye laser was used to excite the lead at 283.3 nm, and the resulting atomic fluorescence was detected at 405.8 nm. No matrix modification was used other than a 1:21 dilution of the whole blood with high-purity water. Using the atomic fluorescence peak area as the analytical measure and a background correction technique based upon a simultaneous measurement of the transmitted laser intensity, excellent agreement for NIST and CDC certified whole blood reference samples was obtained with aqueous standards. A limit of detection in blood of 10 fg/mL (100 ag absolute) was achieved.

  15. General relativistic fields of an isolated spin-half charged particle near the spin axis with application to the rest-mass of the electron and positron

    Lynch, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    Using a lowest-order approximation, the field equations of a general relativistic spinor-connection theory are solved semi-analytically for the fields of a stable, spin-half changed particle near the spin axis. With the exception of the atomic fine-structure constant, all parameters arising in the solution, including the rest mass of the source particle, are found by imposing the standard junction conditions of general relativity and electromagnetism. Using the empirical value for the fine-structure constant, the value derived for the rest mass gives some reason to identify the source particle with the electron. Moreover, since the rest mass is independent of the sign of the electron charge carried by the source, the solution is equally applicable to the positron

  16. Sparse dictionary learning of resting state fMRI networks.

    Eavani, Harini; Filipovych, Roman; Davatzikos, Christos; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2012-07-02

    Research in resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) has revealed the presence of stable, anti-correlated functional subnetworks in the brain. Task-positive networks are active during a cognitive process and are anti-correlated with task-negative networks, which are active during rest. In this paper, based on the assumption that the structure of the resting state functional brain connectivity is sparse, we utilize sparse dictionary modeling to identify distinct functional sub-networks. We propose two ways of formulating the sparse functional network learning problem that characterize the underlying functional connectivity from different perspectives. Our results show that the whole-brain functional connectivity can be concisely represented with highly modular, overlapping task-positive/negative pairs of sub-networks.

  17. Exclusive channels in bar pp annihilation at rest

    Bluem, P.

    1992-01-01

    Exclusive channels in bar pp annihilation at rest provide a powerful tool for studying the meson spectrum below the bar pp threshold. The mesons can be classified in SU(3) multiplets according to their quantum numbers. The states which do not fit into this classification are candidates for new forms of hadronic matter like glueballs, hybrids, and multi-quark states. Recent results on the search for exotic states in exclusive channels of bar pp annihilation at rest are discussed. No less important is the study of the annihilation mechanism. In particular, high-statistic measurements of bar pp annihilation at rest into two-meson final states are an excellent tool for studying quark dynamics. Examples of two-body reactions are presented. 24 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Phylogenetic placement of two species known only from resting spores

    Hajek, Ann E; Gryganskyi, Andrii; Bittner, Tonya

    2016-01-01

    resting spores, Zoophthora independentia, infecting Tipula (Lunatipula) submaculata in New York State, is now described as a new species and Tarichium porteri, described in 1942, which infects Tipula (Triplicitipula) colei in Tennessee, is transferred to the genus Zoophthora. We have shown that use......Molecular methods were used to determine the generic placement of two species of Entomophthorales known only from resting spores. Historically, these species would belong in the form-genus Tarichium, but this classification provides no information about phylogenetic relationships. Using DNA from...... of molecular methods can assist with determination of the phylogenetic relations of specimens within the form-genus Tarichium for an already described species and a new species for which only resting spores are available....

  19. Multifraction dose response of growing and resting phase hair follicles

    Vegesna, V.; Withers, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    It has been established in both the clinic and the laboratory that there is a differentiation response to changes in dose per fraction in early and late responding tissues. To study one possible biological reason for differences in early and late responses. The authors selected one kind of cellular entity, the hair follicle, in two different phases of mitotic activity. The follicles are usually in a resting phase (7-12 wks), but mitotic activity can be initiated by plucking the club hairs. This was done on one half of the thorax and then exposing mice to doses of radiation (cesium gamma-ray). Dose responses for epilation between growing (early) and resting (late) follicles were compared for the same mouse. The fractionated response was studied by reducing the dose down to 2.5 Gy/fx. As the literature suggests, the total dose tolerated by a resting (late) follicle increased more than that for a growing (early) follicle

  20. Mach's principle and the rest mass of the graviton

    Woodward, J.F.; Crowley, R.J.; Yourgrau, W.

    1975-01-01

    The question of the graviton rest mass is briefly discussed and then it is shown that the Sciama-Dicke formulation of Mach's principle admits, in the linear approximation, the calculation of the graviton rest mass. One finds that the value of the graviton rest mass depends on the cosmological model adopted, the mean matter density in the universe, the speed of light, and the constant of gravitation. The value obtained for an infinite, stationary universe is 7.6 times 10 -67 g. The value for evolutionary cosmological models is found to depend critically on the mass and ''radius'' of the universe, both null and non-null values occurring only for certain values of these parameters. Problems that arise as a consequence of the linear approximation are pointed out

  1. Externalities of energy and atomic power

    2006-09-01

    Energy technology ensures not only energy supply but also has great impacts on society and environments. Economical value and effect evaluation alone doesn't mean appropriate so the evaluation of 'externalities' should be appreciated. In order to assess atomic power in this context, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan set up a research committee on 'externalities of energy and atomic power' from April 2002 to March 2006, whose activities were described in this report. In addition to environmental effects and environmental externalities, four areas were newly studied as follows: (1) biological effects of low dose rate exposure and externalities, (2) externalities as social/economical effects including stable supply and security, (3) energy technologies evaluation and (4) social choice and decision-making. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Atomic physics precise measurements and ultracold matter

    Inguscio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Atomic Physics provides an expert guide to two spectacular new landscapes in physics: precision measurements, which have been revolutionized by the advent of the optical frequency comb, and atomic physics, which has been revolutionized by laser cooling. These advances are not incremental but transformative: they have generated a consilience between atomic and many-body physics, precipitated an explosion of scientific and technological applications, opened new areas of research, and attracted a brilliant generation of younger scientists. The research is advancing so rapidly, the barrage of applications is so dazzling, that students can be bewildered. For both students and experienced scientists, this book provides an invaluable description of basic principles, experimental methods, and scientific applications.

  3. Brain entropy and human intelligence: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Saxe, Glenn N; Calderone, Daniel; Morales, Leah J

    2018-01-01

    Human intelligence comprises comprehension of and reasoning about an infinitely variable external environment. A brain capable of large variability in neural configurations, or states, will more easily understand and predict variable external events. Entropy measures the variety of configurations possible within a system, and recently the concept of brain entropy has been defined as the number of neural states a given brain can access. This study investigates the relationship between human intelligence and brain entropy, to determine whether neural variability as reflected in neuroimaging signals carries information about intellectual ability. We hypothesize that intelligence will be positively associated with entropy in a sample of 892 healthy adults, using resting-state fMRI. Intelligence is measured with the Shipley Vocabulary and WASI Matrix Reasoning tests. Brain entropy was positively associated with intelligence. This relation was most strongly observed in the prefrontal cortex, inferior temporal lobes, and cerebellum. This relationship between high brain entropy and high intelligence indicates an essential role for entropy in brain functioning. It demonstrates that access to variable neural states predicts complex behavioral performance, and specifically shows that entropy derived from neuroimaging signals at rest carries information about intellectual capacity. Future work in this area may elucidate the links between brain entropy in both resting and active states and various forms of intelligence. This insight has the potential to provide predictive information about adaptive behavior and to delineate the subdivisions and nature of intelligence based on entropic patterns.

  4. Brain entropy and human intelligence: A resting-state fMRI study

    Calderone, Daniel; Morales, Leah J.

    2018-01-01

    Human intelligence comprises comprehension of and reasoning about an infinitely variable external environment. A brain capable of large variability in neural configurations, or states, will more easily understand and predict variable external events. Entropy measures the variety of configurations possible within a system, and recently the concept of brain entropy has been defined as the number of neural states a given brain can access. This study investigates the relationship between human intelligence and brain entropy, to determine whether neural variability as reflected in neuroimaging signals carries information about intellectual ability. We hypothesize that intelligence will be positively associated with entropy in a sample of 892 healthy adults, using resting-state fMRI. Intelligence is measured with the Shipley Vocabulary and WASI Matrix Reasoning tests. Brain entropy was positively associated with intelligence. This relation was most strongly observed in the prefrontal cortex, inferior temporal lobes, and cerebellum. This relationship between high brain entropy and high intelligence indicates an essential role for entropy in brain functioning. It demonstrates that access to variable neural states predicts complex behavioral performance, and specifically shows that entropy derived from neuroimaging signals at rest carries information about intellectual capacity. Future work in this area may elucidate the links between brain entropy in both resting and active states and various forms of intelligence. This insight has the potential to provide predictive information about adaptive behavior and to delineate the subdivisions and nature of intelligence based on entropic patterns. PMID:29432427

  5. Repetitive tactile stimulation changes resting-state functional connectivity – implications for treatment of sensorimotor decline

    Frank eFreyer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders and physiological aging can lead to a decline of perceptual abilities. In contrast to the conventional therapeutic approach that comprises intensive training and practicing, passive repetitive sensory stimulation (RSS has recently gained increasing attention as an alternative to countervail the sensory decline by improving perceptual abilities without the need of active participation. A particularly effective type of high-frequency RSS, utilizing Hebbian learning principles, improves perceptual acuity as well as sensorimotor functions and has been successfully applied to treat chronic stroke patients and elderly subjects. High-frequency RSS has been shown to induce plastic changes of somatosensory cortex such as representational map reorganization, but its impact on the brain’s ongoing network activity and resting-state functional connectivity has not been investigated so far. Here, we applied high-frequency RSS in healthy human subjects and analyzed resting state Electroencephalography (EEG functional connectivity patterns before and after RSS by means of imaginary coherency (ImCoh, a frequency-specific connectivity measure which is known to reduce overestimation biases due to volume conduction and common reference. Thirty minutes of passive high-frequency RSS lead to significant ImCoh-changes of the resting state mu-rhythm in the individual upper alpha frequency band within distributed sensory and motor cortical areas. These stimulation induced distributed functional connectivity changes likely underlie the previously observed improvement in sensorimotor integration.

  6. Circulating androgens correlate with resting-state MRI in transgender men.

    Mueller, Sven C; Wierckx, Katrien; Jackson, Kathryn; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2016-11-01

    Despite mounting evidence regarding the underlying neurobiology in transgender persons, information regarding resting-state activity, particularly after hormonal treatment, is lacking. The present study examined differences between transgender persons on long-term cross-sex hormone therapy and comparisons on two measures of local functional connectivity, intensity of spontaneous resting-state activity (low frequency fluctuations, LFF) and local synchronization of specific brain areas (regional homogeneity, ReHo). Nineteen transgender women (TW, male-to-female), 19 transgender men (TM, female-to-male), 21 non-transgender men (NTM) and 20 non-transgender women (NTW) underwent a resting-state MRI scan. The results showed differences between transgender persons and non-transgender comparisons on both LFF and ReHo measures in the frontal cortex, medial temporal lobe, and cerebellum. More interestingly, circulating androgens correlated for TM in the cerebellum and regions of the frontal cortex, an effect that was associated with treatment duration in the cerebellum. By comparison, no associations were found for TW with estrogens. These data provide first evidence for a potential masculinization of local functional connectivity in hormonally-treated transgender men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Resting-state functional connectivity of the default mode network associated with happiness.

    Luo, Yangmei; Kong, Feng; Qi, Senqing; You, Xuqun; Huang, Xiting

    2016-03-01

    Happiness refers to people's cognitive and affective evaluation of their life. Why are some people happier than others? One reason might be that unhappy people are prone to ruminate more than happy people. The default mode network (DMN) is normally active during rest and is implicated in rumination. We hypothesized that unhappiness may be associated with increased default-mode functional connectivity during rest, including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The hyperconnectivity of these areas may be associated with higher levels of rumination. One hundred forty-eight healthy participants underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. A group-independent component analysis identified the DMNs. Results indicated increased functional connectivity in the DMN was associated with lower levels of happiness. Specifically, relative to happy people, unhappy people exhibited greater functional connectivity in the anterior medial cortex (bilateral MPFC), posterior medial cortex regions (bilateral PCC) and posterior parietal cortex (left IPL). Moreover, the increased functional connectivity of the MPFC, PCC and IPL, correlated positively with the inclination to ruminate. These results highlight the important role of the DMN in the neural correlates of happiness, and suggest that rumination may play an important role in people's perceived happiness. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Abnormal resting-state connectivity of motor and cognitive networks in early manifest Huntington's disease.

    Wolf, R C; Sambataro, F; Vasic, N; Depping, M S; Thomann, P A; Landwehrmeyer, G B; Süssmuth, S D; Orth, M

    2014-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of multiple neural networks during the brain's 'resting state' could facilitate biomarker development in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and may provide new insights into the relationship between neural dysfunction and clinical symptoms. To date, however, very few studies have examined the functional integrity of multiple resting state networks (RSNs) in manifest HD, and even less is known about whether concomitant brain atrophy affects neural activity in patients. Using MRI, we investigated brain structure and RSN function in patients with early HD (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 20). For resting-state fMRI data a group-independent component analysis identified spatiotemporally distinct patterns of motor and prefrontal RSNs of interest. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess regional brain atrophy, and 'biological parametric mapping' analyses to investigate the impact of atrophy on neural activity. Compared with controls, patients showed connectivity changes within distinct neural systems including lateral prefrontal, supplementary motor, thalamic, cingulate, temporal and parietal regions. In patients, supplementary motor area and cingulate cortex connectivity indices were associated with measures of motor function, whereas lateral prefrontal connectivity was associated with cognition. This study provides evidence for aberrant connectivity of RSNs associated with motor function and cognition in early manifest HD when controlling for brain atrophy. This suggests clinically relevant changes of RSN activity in the presence of HD-associated cortical and subcortical structural abnormalities.

  9. Parkinsonian rest tremor can be detected accurately based on neuronal oscillations recorded from the subthalamic nucleus.

    Hirschmann, J; Schoffelen, J M; Schnitzler, A; van Gerven, M A J

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the possibility of tremor detection based on deep brain activity. We re-analyzed recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) from the subthalamic nucleus in 10 PD patients (12 body sides) with spontaneously fluctuating rest tremor. Power in several frequency bands was estimated and used as input to Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) which classified short data segments as either tremor-free rest or rest tremor. HMMs were compared to direct threshold application to individual power features. Applying a threshold directly to band-limited power was insufficient for tremor detection (mean area under the curve [AUC] of receiver operating characteristic: 0.64, STD: 0.19). Multi-feature HMMs, in contrast, allowed for accurate detection (mean AUC: 0.82, STD: 0.15), using four power features obtained from a single contact pair. Within-patient training yielded better accuracy than across-patient training (0.84vs. 0.78, p=0.03), yet tremor could often be detected accurately with either approach. High frequency oscillations (>200Hz) were the best performing individual feature. LFP-based markers of tremor are robust enough to allow for accurate tremor detection in short data segments, provided that appropriate statistical models are used. LFP-based markers of tremor could be useful control signals for closed-loop deep brain stimulation. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Handbook of hot atom chemistry

    Adloff, J.P.; Matsuura, Tatsuo; Yoshihara, Kenji

    1992-01-01

    Hot atom chemistry is an increasingly important field, which has contributed significantly to our understanding of many fundamental processes and reactions. Its techniques have become firmly entrenched in numerous disciplines, such as applied physics, biomedical research, and all fields of chemistry. Written by leading experts, this comprehensive handbook encompasses a broad range of topics. Each chapter comprises a collection of stimulating essays, given an in-depth account of the state-of-the-art of the field, and stressing opportunities for future work. An extensive introduction to the whole area, this book provides unique insight into a vast subject, and a clear delineation of its goals, techniques, and recent findings. It also contains detailed discussions of applications in fields as diverse as nuclear medicine, geochemistry, reactor technology, and the chemistry of comets and interstellar grains. (orig.)

  11. Ionization of highly excited atoms by atomic particle impact

    Smirnov, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    The ionization of a highly excited atom by a collision with an atom or molecule is considered. The theory of these processes is presented and compared with experimental data. Cross sections and ionization potential are discussed. 23 refs

  12. Single-atom lasing induced atomic self-trapping

    Salzburger, T.; Ritsch, H.

    2004-01-01

    We study atomic center of mass motion and field dynamics of a single-atom laser consisting of a single incoherently pumped free atom moving in an optical high-Q resonator. For sufficient pumping, the system starts lasing whenever the atom is close to a field antinode. If the field mode eigenfrequency is larger than the atomic transition frequency, the generated laser light attracts the atom to the field antinode and cools its motion. Using quantum Monte Carlo wave function simulations, we investigate this coupled atom-field dynamics including photon recoil and cavity decay. In the regime of strong coupling, the generated field shows strong nonclassical features like photon antibunching, and the atom is spatially confined and cooled to sub-Doppler temperatures. (author)

  13. Physiological and Functional Alterations after Spaceflight and Bed Rest.

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Miller, Chris A; Kofman, Igor S; Reschke, Millard F; Taylor, Laura C; Lawrence, Emily L; Wood, Scott J; Laurie, Steven S; Lee, Stuart M C; Buxton, Roxanne E; May-Phillips, Tiffany R; Stenger, Michael B; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L; Ryder, Jeffrey W; Feiveson, Alan H; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2018-04-03

    Exposure to microgravity causes alterations in multiple physiological systems, potentially impacting the ability of astronauts to perform critical mission tasks. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of spaceflight on functional task performance and to identify the key physiological factors contributing to their deficits. A test battery comprised of 7 functional tests and 15 physiological measures was used to investigate the sensorimotor, cardiovascular and neuromuscular adaptations to spaceflight. Astronauts were tested before and after 6-month spaceflights. Subjects were also tested before and after 70 days of 6° head-down bed rest, a spaceflight analog, to examine the role of axial body unloading on the spaceflight results. These subjects included Control and Exercise groups to examine the effects of exercise during bed rest. Spaceflight subjects showed the greatest decrement in performance during functional tasks that required the greatest demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium which was paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests that assessed postural and dynamic gait control. Other changes included reduced lower limb muscle performance and increased heart rate to maintain blood pressure. Exercise performed during bed rest prevented detrimental change in neuromuscular and cardiovascular function, however, both bed rest groups experienced functional and balance deficits similar to spaceflight subjects. Bed rest data indicates that body support unloading experienced during spaceflight contributes to postflight postural control dysfunction. Further, the bed rest results in the Exercise group of subjects confirm that resistance and aerobic exercises performed during spaceflight can play an integral role in maintaining neuromuscular and cardiovascular function, which can help in reducing decrements in functional performance. These results indicate that a countermeasure to mitigate postflight postural control dysfunction is

  14. The way that Ibaraki Prefecture has tackled atomic energy

    Nakata, Hirokatsu; Hirai, Yasuo; Tsuji, Tadashi.

    1996-01-01

    First, the development of the district centering around Tokai Village is mentioned, where at present Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Japan Atomic Power Co. and others are located. Ibaraki Prefecture investigated the effects that atomic energy facilities exerted economically and socially to the district. As to the social environment investigation related to atomic energy facilities, its purpose, the objects of investigation, the contents and the method of investigation are reported. As to the progress of the development and utilization of atomic energy in Ibaraki Prefecture, 23 establishments are located in the district. Also there are 16 power reactors and research reactors, one fuel reprocessing plant, 4 nuclear fuel fabrication facilities, 86 nuclear fuel using facilities and 28 radioisotope using facilities. Their situations are reported. As to the atomic energy administration of Ibaraki Prefecture, the safety administration and the countermeasures for surrounding areas are explained. The effects exerted to the society and the economy of the district are reported. The results of the investigation of the conscience concerning atomic energy of residents are shown about energy and atomic energy, atomic energy administration, and the relation of atomic energy facilities with the district. (K.I.)

  15. Angular momentum coupling in atom-atom collisions

    Grosser, J.

    1986-01-01

    The coupling between the electronic angular momentum and the rotating atom-atom axis in the initial or the final phase of an atom-atom collision is discussed, making use of the concepts of radial and rotational (Coriolis) coupling between different molecular states. The description is based on a limited number of well-understood approximations, and it allows an illustrative geometric representation of the transition from the body fixed to the space fixed motion of the electrons. (orig.)

  16. Hot atom chemistry of monovalent atoms in organic condensed phases

    Stoecklin, G.

    1975-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of hot atom studies in condensed organic phases are considered, and recent advances in condensed phase organic hot atom chemistry of recoil tritium and halogen atoms are discussed. Details are presented of the present status and understanding of liquid phase hot atom chemistry and also that of organic solids. The consequences of the Auger effect in condensed organic systems are also considered. (author)

  17. Absorption imaging of ultracold atoms on atom chips

    Smith, David A.; Aigner, Simon; Hofferberth, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Imaging ultracold atomic gases close to surfaces is an important tool for the detailed analysis of experiments carried out using atom chips. We describe the critical factors that need be considered, especially when the imaging beam is purposely reflected from the surface. In particular we present...... methods to measure the atom-surface distance, which is a prerequisite for magnetic field imaging and studies of atom surface-interactions....

  18. Resting release of acetylcholine at the motor endplate

    Molenaar, P.C.; Polak, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews recent work on resting release of ACh in frog, rat and mouse skeletal muscle. Because of the effect of Ca 2+ on resting release it was of interest to know whether non-quantal release of ACh is increased under conditions of increased Ca 2+ influx, viz. during depolarization of the nerve terminals. It is shown that depolarization of the motor nerve terminals by K + ions led to an increase of both min.e.p.c. frequency and chemically detectable ACh release

  19. Hemifacial Display of Emotion in the Resting State

    M. K. Mandal

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The human face at rest displays distinguishable asymmetries with some lateralization of emotion or expression. The asymmetrical nature of the resting face was examined by preparing hemifacial composites, left–left, right–right, along with normal facial orientation. The left side and right side composites were constructed by using the lateral half of one side of the face and its mirror-reversal. The left side facial composites were found to be more emotional than the right side or normal facial orientations of neutral expressions.

  20. Imaging the Where and When of Tic Generation and Resting State Networks in Adult Tourette Patients

    Irene eNeuner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tourette syndrome (TS is a neuropsychiatric disorder with the core phenomenon of tics, whose origin and temporal pattern are unclear. We investigated the When and Where of tic generation and resting state networks (RSNs via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI.Methods: Tic-related activity and the underlying resting state networks in adult TS were studied within one fMRI session. Participants were instructed to lie in the scanner and to let tics occur freely. Tic onset times, as determined by video-observance were used as regressors and added to preceding time-bins of one second duration each to detect prior activation. RSN were identified by independent component analysis (ICA and correlated to disease severity by the means of dual regression.Results: Two seconds before a tic, the supplementary motor area (SMA, ventral primary motor cortex, primary sensorimotor cortex and parietal operculum exhibited activation; one second before a tic, the anterior cingulate, putamen, insula, amygdala, cerebellum and the extrastriatal-visual cortex exhibited activation; with tic-onset, the thalamus, central operculum, primary motor and somatosensory cortices exhibited activation. Analysis of resting state data resulted in 21 components including the so-called default-mode network. Network strength in those regions in SMA of two premotor ICA maps that were also active prior to tic occurrence, correlated significantly with disease severity according to the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTTS scores.Discussion: We demonstrate that the temporal pattern of tic generation follows the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit, and that cortical structures precede subcortical activation. The analysis of spontaneous fluctuations highlights the role of cortical premotor structures. Our study corroborates the notion of TS as a network disorder in which abnormal resting state network activity might contribute to the generation of tics in SMA.