Sample records for responsive mothers tend

  1. Large for Gestational Age Newborns from Mothers Without Diabetes Mellitus Tend to Become Tall and Lean Toddlers.

    de Zegher, Francis; Pérez-Cruz, Miriam; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Díaz, Marta; López-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes


    A longitudinal study with dual x-ray absorptiometry disclosed that infants born large for gestational age from mothers without diabetes mellitus and without excessive gestational weight gain tend to be long with increased adipose tissue as newborns and tall and lean as toddlers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Amygdala Response to Mother

    Tottenham, Nim; Shapiro, Mor; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.


    In altricial species, like the human, the caregiver, very often the mother, is one of the most potent stimuli during development. The distinction between mothers and other adults is learned early in life and results in numerous behaviors in the child, most notably mother-approach and stranger wariness. The current study examined the influence of…

  3. Mothers' pupillary responses to infant facial expressions.

    Yrttiaho, Santeri; Niehaus, Dana; Thomas, Eileen; Leppänen, Jukka M


    Human parental care relies heavily on the ability to monitor and respond to a child's affective states. The current study examined pupil diameter as a potential physiological index of mothers' affective response to infant facial expressions. Pupillary time-series were measured from 86 mothers of young infants in response to an array of photographic infant faces falling into four emotive categories based on valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (mild vs. strong). Pupil dilation was highly sensitive to the valence of facial expressions, being larger for negative vs. positive facial expressions. A separate control experiment with luminance-matched non-face stimuli indicated that the valence effect was specific to facial expressions and cannot be explained by luminance confounds. Pupil response was not sensitive to the arousal level of facial expressions. The results show the feasibility of using pupil diameter as a marker of mothers' affective responses to ecologically valid infant stimuli and point to a particularly prompt maternal response to infant distress cues.

  4. Cataloguers May Tend to Have Learning Styles Different from Other Library Job Responsibilities

    Eamon C. Tewell


    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether relationships exist between academic librarians’ learning styles and their professional work responsibilities. Design – Self-selecting survey. Setting – Email listservs. Subjects – 1579 academic librarians. Methods – The authors used the Index of Learning Styles questionnaire, based on the Felder-Silverman Learning Styles model consisting of eight dimensions on four scales: Active/Reflective, Sensing/Intuitive, Visual/Verbal, and Sequential/Global. The multiple choice survey was distributed online to 23 email listservs for academic librarians in 2011, and to 14 additional listservs in 2013 targeting technical services librarians. 1579 responses were received in total, which were analyzed using ANOVA with a Tukey-Kramer post-hoc mean separation, and descriptively using observed frequencies. Main Results – In examining the relationship between positions and learning styles, the study revealed there to be five statistically significant p-values when the data were analyzed. Catalogers (n=145 were found to be more reflective learners compared to Administrative (n=321 and Instruction librarians (n=228 at the p = 0.009 level. Administrative, Instruction, and “Other” librarians were found to be more intuitive learners than Catalogers, who are more likely to be sensing learners, at the p = 0.0004 level. Digital librarians (n=40 are more likely to be visual learners and Catalogers more likely to be sequential learners when compared to several other librarian categories, at the p = 0.020 and p = 0.001 levels respectively. Conclusions – The authors concluded that there were some statistically significant differences between librarians’ learning styles scores according to job responsibilities. Catalogers were found to have different learning styles than other types of librarians for three out of four scales. Based on these findings, the authors indicate that further research into how librarians’ work

  5. So not mothers: responsibility for surrogate orphans.

    Parks, Jennifer A; Murphy, Timothy F


    The law ordinarily recognises the woman who gives birth as the mother of a child, but in certain jurisdictions, it will recognise the commissioning couple as the legal parents of a child born to a commercial surrogate. Some commissioning parents have, however, effectively abandoned the children they commission, and in such cases, commercial surrogates may find themselves facing unexpected maternal responsibility for children they had fully intended to give up. Any assumption that commercial surrogates ought to assume maternal responsibility for abandoned children runs contrary to the moral suppositions that typically govern contract surrogacy, in particular, assumptions that gestational carriers are not 'mothers' in any morally significant sense. In general, commercial gestational surrogates are almost entirely conceptualised as 'vessels'. In a moral sense, it is deeply inconsistent to expect commercial surrogates to assume maternal responsibility simply because commissioning parents abandon children for one reason or another. We identify several instances of child abandonment and discuss their implications with regard to the moral conceptualisation of commercial gestational surrogates. We conclude that if gestational surrogates are to remain conceptualised as mere vessels, they should not be expected to assume responsibility for children abandoned by commissioning parents, not even the limited responsibility of giving them up for adoption or surrendering them to the state. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Grave Tending: With Mom at the Cemetery

    Carolyn Ellis


    Full Text Available This autoethnographic story shows the process of tending the graves of family members. In the past, the author reluctantly accompanied her mother on her visits to the family cemetery. Once there, she took on the role of distant observer as her mother took care of the family cemetery plots. When her mother becomes disabled, the author begins to arrange the flowers on the graves. Doing so leads her to examine the meaning of visiting the cemetery, feel and connect with her losses, and consider the customs she wants to be part of her own death. When her mother dies, the next generation of women in the family—the author, her sister, and sister-in-law—take on the role of tending the graves, connected in their love and respect for their mother and their feelings of family and family responsibility. This story examines the meanings of family rituals around death and how they are passed from generation to generation. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0302285

  7. Maternal responsivity in mothers of young children with Down syndrome.

    Sterling, Audra; Warren, Steven F


    The purpose of this study was to examine maternal responsivity and directive behaviors in mothers of children with Down syndrome (DS). Participants included 22 mothers with a young child with DS compared to 22 mothers of chronologically age-matched typically developing (TD) children using a cross-sectional design. The dyads participated in videotaped structured activities that were coded for responsive and directive behaviors. RESULTS indicated that the mothers of children with DS used a more facilitative style with the older children while these behaviors decreased with older children with TD; one directive behavior, request for behavioral comply, increased with the older children with DS. The mothers of children with DS adapted their parenting style to be facilitative of their children's linguistic development.

  8. Mothers' labeling responses to infants' gestures predict vocabulary outcomes.

    Olson, Janet; Masur, Elise Frank


    Twenty-nine infants aged 1;1 and their mothers were videotaped while interacting with toys for 18 minutes. Six experimental stimuli were presented to elicit infant communicative bids in two communicative intent contexts - proto-declarative and proto-imperative. Mothers' verbal responses to infants' gestural and non-gestural communicative bids were coded for object and action labels. Relations between maternal labeling responses and infants' vocabularies at 1;1 and 1;5 were examined. Mothers' labeling responses to infants' gestural communicative bids were concurrently and predictively related to infants' vocabularies, whereas responses to non-gestural communicative bids were not. Mothers' object labeling following gestures in the proto-declarative context mediated the association from infants' gesturing in the proto-declarative context to concurrent noun lexicons and was the strongest predictor of subsequent noun lexicons. Mothers' action labeling after infants' gestural bids in the proto-imperative context predicted infants' acquisition of action words at 1;5. Findings show that mothers' responsive labeling explain specific relations between infants' gestures and their vocabulary development.

  9. Cortisol, hedonics, and maternal responsiveness in human mothers.

    Fleming, A S; Steiner, M; Corter, C


    New mothers are more attracted to the body odor of newborn infants than are nonmothers. In this study we investigated the relation of postpartum hormones and of prior experience with infants to this enhanced maternal attraction to infant odors. New mothers were asked to complete a hedonics task, using a pleasantness scale to provide an attraction score to different odorants presented on a cotton substrate in a 1-pt Baskin-Robbins container. Mothers were "blind" to the contents of the container. Participants also completed an extensive set of 100-item likert scales concerning their attitudes toward infants, care taking, own maternal adequacy, and other interpersonal relations. Mothers were videotaped interacting with their infants and provided salivary samples prior to the interaction. Salivary samples were assayed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) for salivary concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone. Results show that first-time mothers with higher cortisol concentrations were more attracted to their own infant's body odor. Mothers with higher cortisol levels were also better able to recognize their own infants' odors. While cortisol was not related to attitudinal measures of maternal responsiveness, mothers with more prior experience interacting with infants exhibited both more attraction to infant odors and more positive maternal attitudes. Together, prior maternal experience and postpartum cortisol explain a significant proportion of the variance in mothers' attraction to newborn infant odors. These relations are discussed in terms of the variety of "meanings" cortisol could have during the postpartum period. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  10. Stress, Roles and Responsibilities of Single Mothers in Malaysia

    Mohd Hashim Intan Hashimah


    Full Text Available Life as a single mother is often associated with great demands and many challenges. This study examines how a group of single mothers in Malaysia views sources of stress and challenges in their lives. It also investigates perceived roles and responsibilities of single mothers. Three hundred single mothers from all over Malaysia were interviewed in this study. Single mothers reported relatively low level of stress that was mostly related to financial (insufficient pay and day-to-day living. They had fairly low stress on issues related to romantic partner and romantic relationships. They however reported extensive roles and responsibilities. Single mothers reported feeling responsible across various domains of life including for their own health and well-being and also for the health and wellbeing of their family and friends. They reported high level of coping and particularly oriented towards solving the problems. They also reported general satisfaction over life. Correlation analysis indicated significant positive relationships between roles and responsibilities and life satisfaction and coping in which coping was associated with higher level of roles and responsibilities and life satisfaction. There was also a negative correlation between stress and life satisfaction in which more stress was associated with lower life satisfaction. Findings indicated a substantial nurturing role of single mothers and provided important policy and practice implications that highlights the important to study and continuously improve quality of life for these women. Finally, this study highlights the important to continuously study and support, important but marginalized groups in society such as single mothers.

  11. Brain responses differ to faces of mothers and fathers.

    Arsalidou, Marie; Barbeau, Emmanuel J; Bayless, Sarah J; Taylor, Margot J


    We encounter many faces each day but relatively few are personally familiar. Once faces are familiar, they evoke semantic and social information known about the person. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate differential brain activity to familiar and non-familiar faces; however, brain responses related to personally familiar faces have been more rarely studied. We examined brain activity with fMRI in adults in response to faces of their mothers and fathers compared to faces of celebrities and strangers. Overall, faces of mothers elicited more activity in core and extended brain regions associated with face processing, compared to fathers, celebrity or stranger faces. Fathers' faces elicited activity in the caudate, a deep brain structure associated with feelings of love. These new findings of differential brain responses elicited by faces of mothers and fathers are consistent with psychological research on attachment, evident even during adulthood. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Depressed mothers' infants are less responsive to faces and voices.

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria


    A review of our recent research suggests that infants of depressed mothers appeared to be less responsive to faces and voices as early as the neonatal period. At that time they have shown less orienting to the live face/voice stimulus of the Brazelton scale examiner and to their own and other infants' cry sounds. This lesser responsiveness has been attributed to higher arousal, less attentiveness and less "empathy." Their delayed heart rate decelerations to instrumental and vocal music sounds have also been ascribed to their delayed attention and/or slower processing. Later at 3-6 months they showed less negative responding to their mothers' non-contingent and still-face behavior, suggesting that they were more accustomed to this behavior in their mothers. The less responsive behavior of the depressed mothers was further compounded by their comorbid mood states of anger and anxiety and their difficult interaction styles including withdrawn or intrusive interaction styles and their later authoritarian parenting style. Pregnancy massage was effectively used to reduce prenatal depression and facilitate more optimal neonatal behavior. Interaction coaching was used during the postnatal period to help these dyads with their interactions and ultimately facilitate the infants' development.

  13. Links between Chinese Mothers' Parental Beliefs and Responses to Children's Expression of Negative Emotions

    Chan, Siu Mui


    This study investigated relations between parental beliefs and mothers' reported responses to their children's negative emotions. Altogether 189 Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years were interviewed in group sessions using structured questionnaires. It was found that Chinese mothers endorsed Guan, the Chinese parental beliefs. They…

  14. Influences on Maternal Responsivity in Mothers of Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    Sterling, Audra M.; Warren, Steven F.; Brady, Nancy; Fleming, Kandace


    This study investigated the influence of maternal and child variables on the maternal responsivity of 55 mothers with young children with fragile X syndrome. Data included video observations of mother-child interactions in four different contexts, standardized assessments with the children, and standardized questionnaires for the mothers. The…

  15. Children Evoke Similar Affective and Instructional Responses from Their Teachers and Mothers

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Dietrich, Julia; Pakarinen, Eija; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Hirvonen, Riikka; Muotka, Joona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik


    In the present study, we examined the extent to which the responses of teachers and mothers toward a particular child are similar in respect to their instructional support and affect, and whether child characteristics predict these responses. The data of 373 Finnish child-teacher-mother triads (178 girls, 195 boys) were analysed. Teachers and…

  16. Depression impacts the physiological responsiveness of mother-daughter dyads during social interaction.

    Amole, Marlissa C; Cyranowski, Jill M; Wright, Aidan G C; Swartz, Holly A


    Maternal depression is associated with increased risk of psychiatric illness in offspring. While risk may relate to depressed mothers' difficulties regulating emotions in the context of interacting with offspring, physiological indicators of emotion regulation have rarely been examined during mother-child interactions-and never among mother-adolescent dyads in which both mother and adolescent have histories of major depressive disorder (MDD). We examined changes in high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), an indicator of parasympathetic (vagal) function that has been related to depression, stress, social engagement, and emotion regulation, in 46 mother-daughter dyads (23 in which both mother and daughter had an MDD history and 23 never-depressed controls). Hierarchical linear models evaluated changes in HF-HRV while mother-daughter dyads engaged in discussions about shared pleasant events and relationship conflicts. While control dyads displayed positive slopes (increases) in HF-HRV during both discussions, MDD dyads displayed minimal change in HF-HRV across discussions. Among controls, HF-HRV slopes were positively correlated between mothers and daughters during the pleasant events' discussion. In contrast, HF-HRV slopes were negatively correlated between MDD mothers and daughters during both discussions. Vagal responses observed in control mother-daughter dyads suggest a pattern of physiological synchrony and reciprocal positive social engagement, which may play a role in adolescent development of secure social attachments and healthy emotion regulation. In contrast, MDD mothers and daughters displayed diminished and discordant patterns of vagal responsiveness. More research is needed to understand the development and consequences of these patterns of parasympathetic responses among depressed mother-daughter dyads. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Experience of dealing with moral responsibility as a mother with cancer.

    Elmberger, Eva; Bolund, Christina; Lützén, Kim


    This study explored how women with a diagnosis of cancer (lymphoma) deal with moral concerns related to their responsibility as parents. Ten women with cancer and who had children living at home were interviewed. The interviews were analysed according to the constant comparative method used in grounded theory. In order to provide a focus for the analysis, the ethics of care and the concept of mothering were used as sensitizing concepts. The core concept 'experience of dealing with moral responsibility of being a parent with cancer by redefining oneself as a mother was identified. The processes involved were: interrupted mothering; facing the life-threatening illness and children's reactions; striving to be a good mother; attempting to deal with moral responsibility; and coming to terms with being a mother.

  18. Infants' Behaviors as Antecedents and Consequents of Mothers' Responsive and Directive Utterances

    Masur, Elise Frank; Flynn, Valerie; Lloyd, Carrie A.


    To investigate possible influences on and consequences of mothers' speech, specific infant behaviors preceding and following four pragmatic categories of mothers' utterances--responsive utterances, supportive behavioral directives, intrusive behavioral directives, and intrusive attentional directives--were examined longitudinally during dyadic…

  19. A face a mother could love: depression-related maternal neural responses to infant emotion faces.

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Ablow, Jennifer C


    Depressed mothers show negatively biased responses to their infants' emotional bids, perhaps due to faulty processing of infant cues. This study is the first to examine depression-related differences in mothers' neural response to their own infant's emotion faces, considering both effects of perinatal depression history and current depressive symptoms. Primiparous mothers (n = 22), half of whom had a history of major depressive episodes (with one episode occurring during pregnancy and/or postpartum), were exposed to images of their own and unfamiliar infants' joy and distress faces during functional neuroimaging. Group differences (depression vs. no-depression) and continuous effects of current depressive symptoms were tested in relation to neural response to own infant emotion faces. Compared to mothers with no psychiatric diagnoses, those with depression showed blunted responses to their own infant's distress faces in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Mothers with higher levels of current symptomatology showed reduced responses to their own infant's joy faces in the orbitofrontal cortex and insula. Current symptomatology also predicted lower responses to own infant joy-distress in left-sided prefrontal and insula/striatal regions. These deficits in self-regulatory and motivational response circuits may help explain parenting difficulties in depressed mothers.

  20. The functional neuroanatomy of maternal love: mother's response to infant's attachment behaviors.

    Noriuchi, Madoka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Senoo, Atsushi


    Maternal love, which may be the core of maternal behavior, is essential for the mother-infant attachment relationship and is important for the infant's development and mental health. However, little has been known about these neural mechanisms in human mothers. We examined patterns of maternal brain activation in response to infant cues using video clips. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements while 13 mothers viewed video clips, with no sound, of their own infant and other infants of approximately 16 months of age who demonstrated two different attachment behaviors (smiling at the infant's mother and crying for her). We found that a limited number of the mother's brain areas were specifically involved in recognition of the mother's own infant, namely orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), periaqueductal gray, anterior insula, and dorsal and ventrolateral parts of putamen. Additionally, we found the strong and specific mother's brain response for the mother's own infant's distress. The differential neural activation pattern was found in the dorsal region of OFC, caudate nucleus, right inferior frontal gyrus, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, thalamus, substantia nigra, posterior superior temporal sulcus, and PFC. Our results showed the highly elaborate neural mechanism mediating maternal love and diverse and complex maternal behaviors for vigilant protectiveness.

  1. Influences on maternal responsivity in mothers of children with fragile X syndrome

    Sterling, Audra M.; Warren, Steven F.; Brady, Nancy; Fleming, Kandace


    This study investigated the influence of maternal and child variables on the maternal responsivity of 55 mothers with young children with fragile X syndrome. Data included video observations of maternal-child interactions in four different contexts, standardized assessments with the children, and standardized questionnaires for the mothers. The video observations were coded for child communication acts; maternal responsivity was coded at two levels: a more general measure and a behavior-by-be...

  2. Mothers' guilt responses to children's obesity risk feedback.

    Persky, Susan; McBride, Colleen M; Faith, Myles S; Wagner, Laura K; Ward, Dianne S


    This study explored the influence of family health history-based obesity risk feedback for their child on 147 overweight mothers' guilt related to children's lifestyle behaviors and passing down a genetic propensity for overweight. Mothers were randomized to receive, or not, obesity risk feedback for their 4- to 5-year-old child and then made food choices for them using a virtual reality-based buffet. Receipt of risk information increased lifestyle- and genetics-related guilt. Choosing fewer unhealthful foods for the child attenuated both types of guilt. Work in this area may aid in development of obesity risk feedback strategies that enhance child feeding. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. The impact of borderline personality pathology on mothers' responses to infant distress.

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Gratz, Kim L; Moore, Sarah Anne; Latzman, Robert D; Tull, Matthew T


    This study sought to extend extant research on the association between borderline personality (BP) pathology and at-risk parenting by examining the dynamic nature of parenting in response to infant distress in mothers with and without clinically relevant levels of BP pathology. Findings revealed that mothers with clinically relevant levels of BP pathology were less likely than those without BP pathology to display positive affect in response to infant distress. There were no differences in the overall likelihood of insensitive parenting behaviors as a function of BP pathology, either in general or in response to infant distress. However, consistent with literature emphasizing the transactional nature of parent-child relationships, findings revealed that the likelihood of insensitive parenting behaviors among mothers with clinically relevant levels of BP pathology changed over time, increasing significantly as infant distress persisted for longer durations (a pattern not present for mothers without BP pathology). Moreover, maternal responses to infant distress were found to influence infant distress, with the likelihood of infant distress decreasing after maternal positive affect and increasing after maternal insensitive behaviors. The implications of findings for understanding the mechanisms of risk for children of mothers with BP pathology, as well as the transactional nature of mother-infant relationships in general, are discussed.

  4. The missing link: mothers' neural response to infant cry related to infant attachment behaviors.

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Ablow, Jennifer C


    This study addresses a gap in the attachment literature by investigating maternal neural response to cry related to infant attachment classifications and behaviors. Twenty-two primiparous mothers and their 18-month old infants completed the Strange Situation (SS) procedure to elicit attachment behaviors. During a separate functional MRI session, mothers were exposed to their own infant's cry sound, as well as an unfamiliar infant's cry and control sound. Maternal neural response to own infant cry related to both overall attachment security and specific infant behaviors. Mothers of less secure infants maintained greater activation to their cry in left parahippocampal and amygdala regions and the right posterior insula consistent with a negative schematic response bias. Mothers of infants exhibiting more avoidant or contact maintaining behaviors during the SS showed diminished response across left prefrontal, parietal, and cerebellar areas involved in attentional processing and cognitive control. Mothers of infants exhibiting more disorganized behavior showed reduced response in bilateral temporal and subcallosal areas relevant to social cognition and emotion regulation. No differences by attachment classification were found. Implications for attachment transmission models are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ventilatory response to hypercarbia in newborns of smoking and substance-misusing mothers.

    Ali, Kamal; Wolff, Kim; Peacock, Janet L; Hannam, Simon; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Bhat, Ravindra; Greenough, Anne


    Infants of mothers who smoked (S) or substance misused (SM) during pregnancy have an increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). To test the hypothesis that infants of S and SM mothers compared with infants of non-substance-misusing, nonsmoking mothers (control subjects) would have a reduced ventilatory response to hypercarbia and that any reduction would be greater in the SM infants. Infants were assessed before maternity/neonatal unit discharge. Maternal and infant urine samples were obtained and tested for cotinine, cannabinoids, opiates, amphetamines, methadone, cocaine, and benzodiazepines. Respiratory flow and Vt were measured using a pneumotachograph inserted into a face mask placed over the infant's mouth and nose. The ventilatory responses to three levels of inspired carbon dioxide (0 [baseline], 2, and 4% CO2) were assessed. Twenty-three SM, 34 S, and 22 control infants were assessed. The birth weight of the control subjects was higher than the SM and S infants (P = 0.017). At baseline, SM infants had a higher respiratory rate (P = 0.003) and minute volume (P = 0.007) compared with control subjects and S infants. Both the SM and S infants had a lower ventilatory response to 2% (P ventilatory response to CO2 was lower in the SM infants compared with the S infants (P = 0.009). These results are consistent with infants of smoking mothers and substance misuse/smoking mothers having a dampened ventilatory response to hypercarbia, which is particularly marked in the latter group.

  6. Physiological Correlates of Maternal Responsivity in Mothers of Preschoolers with Fragile X Syndrome

    Robinson, Ashley N.; Roberts, Jane E.; Brady, Nancy C.; McQuillin, Samuel D.; Warren, Steven F.


    The present study examined the relationship between salivary cortisol and maternal responsiveness in mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Maternal responsivity is strongly associated with child outcomes, and children with FXS are at risk for compromised development due to intellectual disability and problem behavior. Increased…

  7. Bad thoughts: Brazilian women's responses to mothering while experiencing postnatal depression.

    Santos, Hudson Pires Oliveira; Sandelowski, Margarete; Gualda, Dulce Maria Rosa


    this study explores Brazilian women's experiences of mothering of their infants while experiencing postnatal depression. a cross-language qualitative descriptive design. the sample was composed of 15 women diagnosed with postnatal depression in a psychiatric institute in São Paulo, Brazil. Open-ended interviews were conducted and the data underwent thematic analysis. 13 women worried that harm would come to their infants. Seven of these women self-identified as potential sources of harm, with two women physically hurting their infants. The remaining six women worried about unknown agents, such as disease, hurting their infants. In response to these bad thoughts, women mothered their infants in one of four ways: (1) transferred care, completely delegating this task to family members; (2) shared care, asking family members to share the responsibility; (3) sole care, having to look after their infants by themselves because they had no available family support; (4) and smother care, being hyper-vigilant, constantly watching their infants and not trusting infant care to anyone else. the bad thoughts influenced the women's adaptation to mothering their infants. Health professionals should assess these thoughts early in the postnatal period and the women's mothering responses for the protection of mother and child. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Greater brain response to emotional expressions of their own children in mothers of preterm infants: an fMRI study.

    Montirosso, R; Arrigoni, F; Casini, E; Nordio, A; De Carli, P; Di Salle, F; Moriconi, S; Re, M; Reni, G; Borgatti, R


    The birth of a preterm infant and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit hospitalization constitute a potentially traumatic experience for mothers. Although behavioral studies investigated the parenting stress in preterm mothers, no study focused on the underlying neural mechanisms. We examined the effect of preterm births in mothers, by comparing brain activation in mothers of preterm and full-term infants. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the cerebral response of 10 first-time mothers of preterm infants (gestational age mothers of full-term infants, viewing happy-, neutral- and distress-face images of their own infant, along with a matched unknown infant. While viewing own infant's face preterm mothers showed increased activation in emotional processing area (i.e., inferior frontal gyrus) and social cognition (i.e., supramarginal gyrus) and affiliative behavior (i.e., insula). Differential brain activation patterns in mothers appears to be a function of the atypical parenthood transition related to prematurity.

  9. Relationships between maternal malaria and malarial immune responses in mothers and neonates

    Rasheed, F N; Bulmer, J N; De Francisco, A


    and schizonts (190L and 190N) were higher in neonates than mothers. There was no clear relationship between maternal malaria and neonatal mean lymphoproliferation to malarial antigens, although fewer neonates responded when mothers were actively infected. Matched maternal and neonatal lymphoproliferation...... responses did not correlate. However, first born neonatal lymphoproliferation to PPD and malarial antigens appeared lower than other neonates, in agreement with lower lymphoproliferation in primigravidae compared with multigravidae. Also in common with mothers, autologous plasma suppressed neonatal...... lymphoproliferation to PPD and malarial antigens, suggesting common immunoregulation. Higher cortisol or other circulating factors in first pregnancies may be implicated. The relevance of cell-mediated malarial immune responses detected at birth remains to be established....

  10. Onset and Maturation of Fetal Heart Rate Response to the Mother's Voice over Late Gestation

    Kisilevsky, Barbara S.; Hains, Sylvia M. J.


    Background: Term fetuses discriminate their mother's voice from a female stranger's, suggesting recognition/learning of some property of her voice. Identification of the onset and maturation of the response would increase our understanding of the influence of environmental sounds on the development of sensory abilities and identify the period when…

  11. The Role of Book Familiarity and Book Type on Mothers' Reading Strategies and Toddlers' Responsiveness

    Fletcher, Kathryn L.; Finch, W. Holmes


    The purpose of the current study was to examine how maternal reading strategies and book type would impact on toddlers' responsiveness as they became familiar with three books. Eleven mothers and their 2- to 3-year-olds were recorded reading the same set of three different books (i.e. word book, narrative book and no narrative book) on four…

  12. A Randomized Control Study of Responsive Teaching with Young Turkish Children and Their Mothers

    Karaaslan, Ozcan; Diken, Ibrahim H.; Mahoney, Gerald


    A randomized control study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of responsive teaching (RT) with a sample of 19 Turkish preschool-age children with disabilities and their mothers over a 6-months period. RT is an early intervention curriculum that attempts to promote children's development by encouraging parents to engage in highly…

  13. Mothers' responses to children's negative emotions and child emotion regulation: the moderating role of vagal suppression.

    Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Nelson, Jackie A; Leerkes, Esther M; Marcovitch, Stuart


    The current study examined the moderating effect of children's cardiac vagal suppression on the association between maternal socialization of negative emotions (supportive and nonsupportive responses) and children's emotion regulation behaviors. One hundred and ninety-seven 4-year-olds and their mothers participated. Mothers reported on their reactions to children's negative emotions and children's regulatory behaviors. Observed distraction, an adaptive self-regulatory strategy, and vagal suppression were assessed during a laboratory task designed to elicit frustration. Results indicated that children's vagal suppression moderated the association between mothers' nonsupportive emotion socialization and children's emotion regulation behaviors such that nonsupportive reactions to negative emotions predicted lower observed distraction and lower reported emotion regulation behaviors when children displayed lower levels of vagal suppression. No interaction was found between supportive maternal emotion socialization and vagal suppression for children's emotion regulation behaviors. Results suggest physiological regulation may serve as a buffer against nonsupportive emotion socialization. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mind-mindedness and maternal responsiveness in infant-mother interactions in mothers with severe mental illness.

    Pawlby, S; Fernyhough, C; Meins, E; Pariante, C M; Seneviratne, G; Bentall, R P


    Previous cross-diagnosis studies of interaction between mothers with severe mental illness and their babies have concluded that mothers with schizophrenia have deficits in interaction, but these studies have not included healthy controls. In-patients on a mother and baby unit, with diagnoses of schizophrenia (n=15), depressive mood disorders with or without psychosis (n=23), or mood disorders where mania was the predominant feature, with or without psychosis (n=12), were observed interacting with their infants on admission and discharge. Mothers' mind-mindedness and other measures of the quality of maternal and infant behaviour were coded. Findings from this sample were compared with those from healthy mothers and their infants (n=49). Compared with healthy controls, on admission depressed mothers were marginally less likely to comment appropriately on their infants' mental states. Both the depressed and mania groups were more likely to touch their babies and engage in attention-seeking behaviours. Interactional behaviours of mothers in the schizophrenia group were not markedly different from healthy controls. On discharge there were fewer differences between the clinical and healthy groups, although the depressed group continued to engage in more attention-seeking and touching behaviour and the mania group continued to touch their infants more. Only mothers in the schizophrenia group showed changes in interactional behaviours between admission and discharge, talking more to their infants. The findings challenge previous conclusions that mothers with schizophrenia have deficits in their interactions with their babies, and demonstrate that mothers with severe mental illness are able to respond appropriately to their infants' cues.

  15. Mothers' perceptions of their health choices, related duties and responsibilities: A qualitative interview study.

    Kangasniemi, Mari; Blomberg, Katja; Korhonen, Anne


    to describe mothers' perceptions of their health choices, related duties and responsibilities. descriptive exploratory study with qualitative research method. interviews conducted after the clients' regular health visits to one publicly provided maternity clinic in a southern city in Finland. 13 mothers aged between 21 and 40-years-old, who were pregnant or had given birth in the past four weeks. Six of participants were pregnant or had delivered for first time and it was the second to fourth pregnancy for the remainder. one-to-one semi-structured interviews using the inductive content analysis method. women reported increased responsibility for their health choices for themselves and their baby during pregnancy. However, their duties and responsibilities were seldom discussed at maternity clinics. The duty to reconsider their health choices was described as a predictor of commitment to their pregnancy and motherhood, but they recognised that it required sufficient knowledge to realise this. In addition, the mothers said their health choices changed from private to one of public interest during this period. health choices are connected to maternal duties and responsibilities, but they can sometimes lack clarity during this new phase of life. In future, more research should be conducted to study maternal duties and responsibilities in different contexts. findings highlight the skills of nurses and midwives at maternity clinics to discuss and support mothers' moral pondering during pregnancy. Although health choices in general are well recognised as a part of maternal counselling, these findings suggest a moral perspective should be incorporated into the advice that is provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Stress-Response Psycho-Training on the Stress Levels of Mothers with Autistic Children

    Karaman, Ömer


    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of stress-response psycho-training on the stress levels of mothers with autistic children. The research was experimental in design encompassing a pretest-posttest model with control and placebo groups. Participation in the study was voluntary with a total of 28 mothers of autistic children included…

  17. Pathways to Conscience: Early Mother-Child Mutually Responsive Orientation and Children's Moral Emotion, Conduct, and Cognition

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Forman, David R.; Aksan, Nazan; Dunbar, Stephen B.


    Background: Associations between early mother-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) and children's conscience have been previously established, but the mechanisms accounting for those links are not understood. We examined three such mediational mechanisms: (a) the child's enhanced enjoyment of interactions with the mother, (b) increased…

  18. Maternal Sadness and Adolescents' Responses to Stress in Offspring of Mothers with and without a History of Depression

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Fear, Jessica M.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Reising, Michelle M.; Compas, Bruce E.


    This study examined maternal sadness and adolescents' responses to stress in the offspring (n = 72) of mothers with and without a history of depression. Mothers with a history of depression reported higher levels of current depressive symptoms and exhibited greater sadness during interactions with their adolescent children (ages 11-14) than…

  19. Infants of Depressed Mothers Are Less Responsive To Faces and Voices: A Review

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria


    A review of our recent research suggests that infants of depressed mothers appeared to be less responsive to faces and voices as early as the neonatal period. At that time they have shown less orienting to the live face/voice stimulus of the Brazelton scale examiner and to their own and other infants’ cry sounds. This lesser responsiveness has been attributed to higher arousal, less attentiveness and less “empathy.” Their delayed heart rate decelerations to instrumental and vocal music sounds have also been ascribed to their delayed attention and/or slower processing. Later at 3–6 months they showed less negative responding to their mothers’ non-contingent and still-face behavior, suggesting that they were more accustomed to this behavior in their mothers. The less responsive behavior of the depressed mothers was further compounded by their comorbid mood states of anger and anxiety and their difficult interaction styles including withdrawn or intrusive interaction styles and their later authoritarian parenting style. Pregnancy massage was effectively used to reduce prenatal depression and facilitate more optimal neonatal behavior. Interaction coaching was used during the postnatal period to help these dyads with their interactions and ultimately facilitate the infants’ development PMID:19439359

  20. Differential responsiveness to a parenting intervention for mothers in substance abuse treatment.

    Paris, Ruth; Herriott, Anna; Holt, Melissa; Gould, Karen


    This study examines the relationship between levels of psychological distress in substance-dependent mothers and their differential response to a dyadic parent-child intervention. A sample of 66 mothers who were receiving treatment for substance abuse, as well as a simultaneous parenting intervention, were interviewed pre and post-treatment on measures of psychological distress, adult and child trauma history, parental reflective functioning, and child social-emotional development. Additionally, clinicians provided assessments of the parent-child relationships. As anticipated, trauma histories for mothers and children, children's social emotional development, and parental reflective functioning were associated with aspects of maternal psychological distress. Kruskal-Wallis and subsequent Wilcoxson signed rank tests revealed that women with highest levels of baseline psychological distress showed significant improvements in psychological functioning post-treatment while women with moderately elevated levels of psychological distress did not. Women who were most distressed at baseline showed increased levels of parental reflective functioning post-treatment while women with moderate and lower levels of baseline psychological distress showed improvements on clinician-rated assessments of parent-child relationships. Chi Square analyses showed that parents who endorsed the highest levels of distress at baseline reported that their children's risk status regarding social-emotional development decreased post-treatment. Despite similarities in substance dependence, mothers in this sample had different needs and outcomes in the context of this parenting intervention due to variation in mental health. Given this variation, parenting interventions for substance-dependent mothers need to account for the individual differences in levels of psychological distress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Experience of Young Children and Their Incarcerated Mothers: A Call for Humanly-Responsive Policy.

    Farrell, Ann


    Describes the IMCIPE Project (Incarcerated Mothers and Children: Impact of Prison Environments) which investigates the experiences of incarcerated mothers whose children live with them in Mother and Baby Units and incarcerated mothers who are separated from their children; the impact of the prison environment on mother-child relationships; and…

  2. Radiation dose-response relationship of micronucleus occurrence in pollen mother cells of tradescantia

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Yeon Ku; Song, Hi Sup


    This study was carried out to investigate the radiation dose-response of micronucleus frequencies in Tradescantia pollen mother cells. The number of micronuclei increased in the tetrads as a result of chromosome deletion after irradiation. The maximal frequency of micronucleus showed a good dose-response relationship in the range of dose 0∼50 cGy. On the basis of the relationship, a dose of 1 cGy resulted in two additional micronuclei in 100 tetrads. The radiation dose-response relationship of micronucleus occurrence is prerequisite to biological monitoring of radiation and can be modified for biological risk assessment of toxicants, and to safety test of water or soil integrity

  3. Differences between self-employed and employed mothers in balancing family and work responsibilities: Evidence from Latin American countries

    Juan Carlos, Campaña; J. Ignacio, Giménez-Nadal; Jose Alberto, Molina


    In this paper, we analyze how self-employed and employed mothers in several Latin American countries allocate their time throughout the day in order to balance their family and work responsibilities. Using data from time-use surveys for Mexico (2009), Peru (2010), Panama (2011), Ecuador (2012) and Colombia (2012), we find that self-employed mothers devote less time to paid work and more time to unpaid work and child care, compared to employed mothers, in the five countries. Our results are co...

  4. Attachment in the Making: Mother and Father Sensitivity and Infants’ Responses during the Still-Face Paradigm

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Zentall, Shannon; Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Ekas, Naomi V.; Oshio, Toko; Planalp, Elizabeth


    This study examined the extent to which infant and parent response trajectories during the Still-Face-Paradigm (SFP) in early infancy predicted later infant-mother and infant-father attachment. Families (n = 135) participated in the SFP when infants were 3, 5, and 7 months and the Strange Situation when infants were 12 (mothers) and 14 months (fathers). Multilevel models showed that parent sensitivity assessed during the SFP was related to infants’ affective and behavioral response trajectories during the SFP, and that sensitivity and infant response trajectories predicted attachment. Results from the present study support the notion that parent and infant responses in the SFP with mothers and fathers during Bowlby’s Attachment in the Making phase provide insight into the developing parent-child attachment relationship. PMID:24833270

  5. Kangaroo care by fathers and mothers: comparison of physiological and stress responses in preterm infants.

    Srinath, B K; Shah, J; Kumar, P; Shah, P S


    To compare physiological and biochemical responses in stable preterm neonates and their parents following kangaroo mother care (KMC) and kangaroo father care (KFC). We conducted a prospective cross-over design study of stable preterm neonates of KFC for 1 h on consecutive days in a random order. Heart rate, temperature, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and salivary cortisol in infants before and after kangaroo care and heart rate, temperature and salivary cortisol in parents before and after kangaroo care were measured. Pairwise comparisons of changes in these measures were analyzed. Twenty-six sets of neonates and their parents were studied for physiological parameters, of which 19 had adequate samples for salivary cortisol assessment. The infants had a mean birth weight of 1096 g (s.d.=217) and a mean postmenstrual age at study of 32 weeks (s.d.=2). There were no significant differences in the changes in mean heart rate (P=0.51), temperature (P=0.37), oxygen saturation (P=0.50), systolic blood pressure (P=0.32), mean blood pressure (0.10) and salivary cortisol (P=0.50) before and after KMC or KFC in the neonates. The changes in mean heart rate (P=0.62), temperature (P=0.28) and salivary cortisol (P=0.59) before and after kangaroo care were similar between mothers and fathers. No significant differences in physiological and stress responses were identified following KMC or KFC in preterm neonates. KFC may be as safe and as effective as KMC.

  6. Ant tending influences soldier production in a social aphid.

    Shingleton, A W; Foster, W A


    The aphid Pseudoregma sundanica (Van der Goot) (Homoptera: Aphididae) has two defence strategies. It is obligatorily tended by various species of ant and also produces sterile soldiers. We investigated how they allocate their investment in these two strategies. We measured the size, number of soldiers, number and species of tending ant, and number and species of predators in P. sundanica populations. We found that the level of ant tending correlated negatively with soldier investment in P. sundanica. The species of tending ant also influenced soldier investment. We excluded ants from aphid populations and recorded changes in population size and structure over four weeks. Ant exclusion led to population decline and extinction. At the same time, surviving populations showed a significant increase in soldier investment. The data demonstrate that social aphids can adjust their investment in soldiers in direct response to environmental change.

  7. Mothers' Cognitions about Relational Aggression: Associations with Discipline Responses, Children's Normative Beliefs, and Peer Competence

    Werner, Nicole E.; Grant, Samantha


    Prior research has shown that parental social cognitions are associated with child outcomes such as aggression. The goal of this study was to examine mothers' cognitions about relational aggression, and to explore linkages between mothers' attributions and normative beliefs about aggression and children's competence with peers. Participants…

  8. Bias in employment decisions about mothers and fathers: The (dis)advantages of sharing care responsibilities

    Vinkenburg, C.J.; Van Engen, M.L.; Coffeng, J.; Dikkers, J.S.E.


    Bias against mothers in employment decisions has often been explained by the assumption that mothers are less committed and competent than fathers and nonparents. In a simulated employment context, we studied whether this "motherhood bias" can be attenuated by different ways of dividing care

  9. Taking Stress Response out of the Box: Stability, Discontinuity, and Temperament Effects on HPA and SNS across Social Stressors in Mother-Infant Dyads

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffrey


    This study investigated continuity and stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response measures in mother-infant dyads across 2 different types of social stress sessions. Synchrony of response trajectories across systems (SNS-HPA coordination) and partners (mother-infant attunement) was addressed, as…

  10. Responses of free-ranging rhesus monkeys to a natural form of social separation. I. Parallels with mother-infant separation in captivity.

    Berman, C M; Rasmussen, K L; Suomi, S J


    Observations of 23 free-ranging rhesus monkey infants on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, indicated that mothers' first postpartum estrous periods were marked by large increases in the amount of time infants were separated from their mothers, by disturbances in mother-infant relationships, and by increases in infant distress behavior. When their mothers resumed mating, most infants showed signs of agitation; a few briefly showed indications of depression. Male infants responded to their mothers' resumption of mating by playing more, whereas females engaged in less play and more allogrooming. The results suggest (a) that basic parallels exist between the behavioral responses of rhesus infants to their mothers' resumption of mating in the field and to forcible separation from their mothers in captivity and (b) that early separation experiences may play a role in the normal development or manifestation of sex differences in behavior.

  11. Child Maltreatment History and Response to CBT Treatment in Depressed Mothers Participating in Home Visiting.

    Ammerman, Robert T; Peugh, James L; Teeters, Angelique R; Putnam, Frank W; Van Ginkel, Judith B


    Child maltreatment contributes to depression in adults. Evidence indicates that such experiences are associated with poorer outcomes in treatment. Mothers in home visiting programs display high rates of depression and child maltreatment histories. In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT) was developed to treat maternal depression in home visiting. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effects of child maltreatment history on depression, social functioning, and parenting in mothers participating in a clinical trial of IH-CBT. Ninety-three depressed mothers in home visiting between 2 and 10 months postpartum were randomly assigned to IH-CBT (n = 47) plus home visiting or standard home visiting (SHV; n = 46). Mothers were identified via screening and then confirmation of major depressive disorder diagnosis. Measures of child maltreatment history, depression, social functioning, and parenting were administered at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Results indicated high rates of maltreatment in both conditions relative to the general population. Mixed model analyses found a number of main effects in which experiences of different types of trauma were associated with poorer functioning regardless of treatment condition. Evidence of a moderating effect of maltreatment on treatment outcomes was found for physical abuse and parenting and emotional abuse and social network size. Future research should focus on increasing the effectiveness of IH-CBT with depressed mothers who have experienced child maltreatment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. The ethics of commercial surrogate mothering: a response to Casey Humbyrd.

    Omonzejele, Peter F


    This article critically examines the argument advanced by Casey Humbyrd in support of international commercial surrogate mothering. It finds her arguments unconvincing especially at the point of implementation. This is because the author was unable to demonstrate how regulation and her notion offair compensation would not lead to undue inducement and exploitation in resource-poor settings where urgent needs often exist. In fact, the argument advanced in this article is that commercial surrogate mothering cannot but be exploitative in so far as urgent and compelling needs exist. To logically drive home this point, the elements of exploitation were discussed in order to show that regulation and fair compensation cannot prevent exploitative transaction in commercial surrogate mothering arrangements. This may happen in the same way as regulation and compensation framework have not been successful in preventing the allegations of exploitation in the research context especially where studies are conducted in resource-poor countries.

  13. Migrant mothers in unstable environments balancing healthy life styles and parenting responsiveness

    Ditlevsen, Kia

    and -practice. This paper investigates the promotion of healthy life styles in migrant families, living in insecure or uncertain situations in Denmark. It will describe the logics, rationalities and difficulties of migrant mothers, who want to promote a healthy life style in their families, and will question...... the notion of a universal, adequate parenting style and practice. The paper will address the overall question of how migrant mothers deal with health related concerns for their children, while living in precarious conditions. The following themes will be explored in the presentation: “Appropriate parenting...

  14. Discrepancies in mother and child perceptions of spina bifida medical responsibilities during the transition to adolescence: associations with family conflict and medical adherence.

    Psihogios, Alexandra M; Holmbeck, Grayson N


    This study investigated mother-child discrepancies over perceptions of who is responsible for spina bifida (SB) medical tasks in relation to family conflict and medical adherence. 140 youth with SB and their mothers completed questionnaires regarding who is responsible for specific SB medical tasks, family conflict, and medical adherence. An observational measure was also used to assess family conflict. Although children viewed themselves as more responsible for medical management than mothers did, mother-child discrepancies were not associated with family conflict or medical adherence. Interaction effects revealed that adherence was better when family conflict was low and when parents were responsible for medical tasks. Parental involvement in SB medical care is essential for optimal medical adherence during adolescence. The presence of family conflict also plays an influential role on SB medical adherence. Future research should evaluate the relations between discrepancies, family conflict, and medical adherence across time.

  15. No response to hepatitis B vaccine in infants born to HBsAg(+) mothers is associated to the transplacental transfer of HBsAg.

    Wang, Jing; He, Yingli; Jin, Dongfang; Liu, Jinfeng; Zheng, Jie; Yuan, Ningxia; Bai, Yun; Yan, Taotao; Yang, Yuan; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Shulin; Zhao, Yingren; Chen, Tianyan


    No or low hepatitis B (HB) vaccine response is more frequent in infants from HBsAg(+) mothers than those from HBsAg(-). Our previous study found temporary positivity of HBsAg in infants from HBsAg(+) mothers. In this study, we hypothesized that HBsAg in infant blunt immune response to standard hepatitis B vaccination. A total of 328 consecutive HBsAg(+) mothers and their offspring were enrolled. Blood samples were taken from mothers and their infants and quantified for HBsAg, anti-HBs titer and HBV DNA load concentration; Placenta samples were collected to stain for HBsAg. First, 6.7% infants (22/328) showed anti-HBs titer lower than 10 mIU/mL after HB vaccination (non-response to HB vaccine). HBsAg(+) newborns showed higher risk of non-response than HBsAg(-) infants (13.0% versus 5.0%, p = 0.016). Infants from high HBsAg titer mothers displayed higher risk of HBsAg positivity at birth than those from low titer mothers (45.3% versus 2.8%, p < 0.001). HBsAg titer in mothers of HBsAg(+) newborns was much higher than mothers of HBsAg(-) newborns (p < 0.001). All those data supported HBsAg can be transferred through placenta. Our hypothesis was further reinforced by immunostaining with specific antibody against HBsAg, a substantial higher prevalence (87.5% versus 30.8%, p = 0.024) and stronger immunostaining (p = 0.008) was demonstrated in HBsAg(+) group comparing with placenta of the HBsAg(-) group. No response to HB vaccine in infants of HBsAg(+) mothers was associated to the transplacental transfer of HBsAg.

  16. Parent training in head start: a comparison of program response among African American, Asian American, Caucasian, and Hispanic mothers.

    Reid, M J; Webster-Stratton, C; Beauchaine, T P


    The effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parenting Program was evaluated in a low-income sample of Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Asian mothers whose children were enrolled in Head Start. Data from two prior intervention studies [Webster-Stratton (1998) Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(5), 715-730; Webster-Stratton et al. (in press) Journal of Clinical Child Psychology] were combined, yielding a sample of 634 families (370 Caucasian, 120 African American, 73 Asian, 71 Hispanic) across 23 Head Start centers. Centers were matched and assigned randomly to either an experimental condition (8-12 weeks of weekly 2-hr parenting classes), or a control condition (the regular Head Start Program without parenting groups). Families in both conditions were assessed using home observations of parent-child interactions and parent reports of parenting style and discipline strategies and child behavior problems in the fall (baseline) and spring (postintervention) of the children's Head Start year. Families were reassessed 1 year later. Following treatment, intervention mothers were observed to be more positive, less critical, more consistent, and more competent in their parenting than were control mothers. Additionally, children of intervention parents were observed to exhibit fewer behavior problems than were control children. Differences in treatment response across ethnic groups were few, and did not exceed the number expected by chance. Parents from all groups reported high satisfaction levels following the parenting program. Results indicate that the Incredible Years Program is accepted by and effective with diverse populations.

  17. Children's responses to mother-infant and father-infant interaction with a baby sibling: jealousy or joy?

    Volling, Brenda L; Yu, Tianyi; Gonzalez, Richard; Kennedy, Denise E; Rosenberg, Lauren; Oh, Wonjung


    Firstborn children's reactions to mother-infant and father-infant interaction after a sibling's birth were examined in an investigation of 224 families. Triadic observations of parent-infant-sibling interaction were conducted at 1 month after the birth. Parents reported on children's problem behaviors at 1 and 4 months after the birth and completed the Attachment Q-sort before the birth. Latent profile analysis (LPA) identified 4 latent classes (behavioral profiles) for mother-infant and father-infant interactions: regulated-exploration, disruptive-dysregulated, approach-avoidant, and anxious-clingy. A fifth class, attention-seeking, was found with fathers. The regulated-exploration class was the normative pattern (60%), with few children in the disruptive class (2.7%). Approach-avoidant children had more behavior problems at 4 months than any other class, with the exception of the disruptive children, who were higher on aggression and attention problems. Before the birth, anxious-clingy children had less secure attachments to their fathers than approach avoidant children but more secure attachments to their mothers. Results underscore individual differences in firstborns' behavioral responses to parent-infant interaction and the importance of a person-centered approach for understanding children's jealousy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Mothers' power assertion; children's negative, adversarial orientation; and future behavior problems in low-income families: early maternal responsiveness as a moderator of the developmental cascade.

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna


    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers' responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children's behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children's negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers' responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Bibliotecas escolares: tendências globais

    Kelley Cristine Gonçalves Dias Gasque


    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda as transformações do processo de ensinoaprendizagem e das tecnologias e o impacto dessas nas bibliotecas escolares, especificamente, na formação do acervo, na configuração do espaço e no papel dos bibliotecários. A análise da literatura mostra tendência à adoção de modelos de aprendizagem baseados na construção colaborativa do conhecimento, com ênfase na aprendizagem compreensiva e atividades de ensino em ambientes diversificados. As bibliotecas escolares podem acolher e subsidiar atividades de ensino variadas, transformando-se em locais não apenas de apropriação da informação, mas também de produção do conhecimento por meio de atividades colaborativas, conectadas e diversificadas. O bibliotecário precisa fortalecer o domínio de tecnologias para obtenção, gerenciamento, produção e compartilhamento de informações. O fomento à leitura continua a ser importante, mas precisa ser ampliado para diferentes suportes e formatos.

  20. Can depression be diagnosed by response to mother's face? A personalized attachment-based paradigm for diagnostic fMRI.

    Xian Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Objective measurement of depression remains elusive. Depression has been associated with insecure attachment, and both have been associated with changes in brain reactivity in response to viewing standard emotional and neutral faces. In this study, we developed a method to calculate predicted scores for the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II using personalized stimuli: fMRI imaging of subjects viewing pictures of their own mothers. METHODS: 28 female subjects ages 18-30 (14 healthy controls and 14 unipolar depressed diagnosed by MINI psychiatric interview were scored on the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II and the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI coherence of mind scale of global attachment security. Subjects viewed pictures of Mother (M, Friend (F and Stranger (S, during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Using a principal component regression method (PCR, a predicted Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II score was obtained from activity patterns in the paracingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 32 and compared to clinical diagnosis and the measured BDI-II score. The same procedure was performed for AAI coherence of mind scores. RESULTS: Activity patterns in BA-32 identified depressed subjects. The categorical agreement between the derived BDI-II score (using the standard clinical cut-score of 14 on the BDI-II and depression diagnosis by MINI psychiatric interview was 89%, with sensitivity 85.7% and specificity 92.8%. Predicted and measured BDI-II scores had a correlation of 0.55. Prediction of attachment security was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Brain activity in response to viewing one's mother may be diagnostic of depression. Functional magnetic resonance imaging using personalized paradigms has the potential to provide objective assessments, even when behavioral measures are not informative. Further, fMRI based diagnostic algorithms may enhance our understanding of the neural mechanisms of depression by

  1. Stage sensitivity and dose response of meiotic chromosomes of pollen mother cells of Tradescantia to X-rays

    Ma, T H; Kontos, Jr, G J; Anderson, V A [Western Illinois Univ., Macomb (USA). Dept. of Biological Sciences


    Chromosome damage induced by physical and chemical mutagens can be quantitated by the frequencies of micronuclei (MCN) produced in tetrads of the meiotic pollen mother cells of Tradescantia, i.e. the 'MCN-in-Tetrad' test. The stage sensitivity and dose response of these meiocytes to low exposures of X-rays was studied to improve the efficiency and reliability of this test. Stage sensitivity was determined by observing, at 3 hr intervals, the frequencies of X-ray (35 rads)-induced MCN in tetrads from a series of 16 fixations of tetrad-containing inflorescences. Late stages of meiosis (3-9 hr post-irradiation fixation groups) were insensitive (5-14 MCN/100 tetrads). Relatively high sensitivity was exhibited in the early stages of meiosis. The first and second sensitive peaks (62 and 61 MCN/100 tetrads) centered around the 21 and 39 hr post-irradiation fixation groups respectively. Control groups yielded around 3-4 MCN/100 tetrads. A dose-response relation for MCN was determined by treating early stages of meiotic pollen mother cells with X-ray exposures ranging from 9.5 to 57.5 rads. A linear regression line was established with about 20 MCN/100 tetrads per 10 rad increment.

  2. Stage sensitivity and dose response of meiotic chromosomes of pollen mother cells of Tradescantia to X-rays

    Ma, T.-H.; Kontos, G.J. Jr.; Anderson, V.A.


    Chromosome damage induced by physical and chemical mutagens can be quantitated by the frequencies of micronuclei (MCN) produced in tetrads of the meiotic pollen mother cells of Tradescantia, i.e. the 'MCN-in-Tetrad' test. The stage sensitivity and dose response of these meiocytes to low exposures of X-rays was studied to improve the efficiency and reliability of this test. Stage sensitivity was determined by observing, at 3 hr intervals, the frequencies of X-ray (35 rads)-induced MCN in tetrads from a series of 16 fixations of tetrad-containing inflorescences. Late stages of meiosis (3-9 hr post-irradiation fixation groups) were insensitive (5-14 MCN/100 tetrads). Relatively high sensitivity was exhibited in the early stages of meiosis. The first and second sensitive peaks (62 and 61 MCN/100 tetrads) centered around the 21 and 39 hr post-irradiation fixation groups respectively. Control groups yielded around 3-4 MCN/100 tetrads. A dose-response relation for MCN was determined by treating early stages of meiotic pollen mother cells with X-ray exposures ranging from 9.5 to 57.5 rads. A linear regression line was established with about 20 MCN/100 tetrads per 10 rad increment. (author)

  3. Disruption to the development of maternal responsiveness? The impact of prenatal depression on mother-infant interactions.

    Pearson, R M; Melotti, R; Heron, J; Joinson, C; Stein, A; Ramchandani, P G; Evans, J


    Both prenatal and postnatal maternal depression are independently associated with an increased risk of adverse infant development. The impact of postnatal depression on infants may be mediated through the effect of depression in reducing maternal responsiveness. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of prenatal depression are unclear. Using longitudinal data from over 900 mother-infant pairs in a UK birth cohort (ALSPAC), we found that women with high depressive symptom scores during mid pregnancy, but NOT when their infants were 8 months, had a 30% increased risk of low maternal responsiveness when the infant was 12 months compared to women with consistently low depression. This may provide a mechanism to explain the independent association between prenatal depression and poorer infant development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reader-Responses of Pregnant Adolescents and Teenage Mothers to Young Adult Novels Portraying Protagonists with Problems Similar and Dissimilar to the Readers'.

    Poe, Elizabeth Ann

    Applying reader response theory, a study explored the responses of 19 pregnant adolescents and teenage mothers to two dissimilar young adult novels, one about teenage pregnancy and one about adolescent alcoholism. Quantitative analysis, using a modified version of the Purves-Rippere (1968) system, and qualitative analysis of written answers to…

  5. The potential role of mother-in-law in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: a mixed methods study from the Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania

    Leshabari Sebalda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Kilimanjaro region the mother-in-law has traditionally had an important role in matters related to reproduction and childcare. The aim of this study was to explore the role of the mothers-in-law in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT service utilization and adherence to infant feeding guidelines. Methods The study was conducted during 2007-2008 in rural and urban areas of Moshi district in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Mixed methods were used and included focus group discussions with mothers-in-law, mothers and fathers; in-depth interviews with mothers-in-law, mothers, fathers and HIV-infected mothers, and a survey of 446 mothers bringing their four-week-old infants for immunisation at five reproductive and child health clinics. Results The study demonstrated that the mother-in-law saw herself as responsible for family health issues in general and child care in particular. However she received limited trust, and couples, in particular couples living in urban areas, tended to exclude her from decisions related to childbearing and infant feeding. Mothers-in-law expected their daughters-in-law to breastfeed in a customary manner and were generally negative towards the infant feeding methods recommended for HIV-infected mothers; exclusive replacement feeding and exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions Decreasing influence of the mother-in-law and increasing prominence of the conjugal couples in issues related to reproduction and child care, reinforce the importance of continued efforts to include male partners in the PMTCT programme. The potential for involving mothers-in-law in the infant feeding component, where she still has influence in some areas, should be further explored.

  6. Infants, Mothers, and Dyadic Contributions to Stability and Prediction of Social Stress Response at 6 Months

    Provenzi, Livio; Olson, Karen L.; Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed


    The study of infants' interactive style and social stress response to repeated stress exposures is of great interest for developmental and clinical psychologists. Stable maternal and dyadic behavior is critical to sustain infants' development of an adaptive social stress response, but the association between infants' interactive style and social…

  7. Consequences of the presence of the mother or unfamiliar adult female on cortisol, ACTH, testosterone and behavioral responses of periadolescent guinea pigs during exposure to novelty.

    Hennessy, M B; Maken, D S; Graves, F C


    Periadolescent guinea pigs were exposed to a novel environment for 10, 30, 60, or 90 min while either alone or with either their biological mother or an unfamiliar adult female. Both classes of females reduced plasma cortisol, ACTH and vocalization responses to the novel environment, and did so to an equivalent degree. However, behavioral interactions with the mother and unfamiliar female differed considerably. The offspring exhibited more defensive behavior and were the targets of more agonistic acts when with the unfamiliar female, though one agonistic behavior, kicking, was observed more often in tests with the mother. Males displayed more social/courtship behavior and tumescence with the unfamiliar female. Further, males exhibited higher plasma testosterone levels when with the unfamiliar female than when either with the mother or alone. These data in conjunction with earlier findings suggest that the ability of unfamiliar adult females to moderate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity fully emerges during the periadolescent period, is not dependent on nurturant behavior by the adult female, and may facilitate the redirection of social behavior from the mother to unrelated adults. Further, mothers appear to inhibit maternally directed sexual behavior and plasma testosterone elevations in their periadolescent sons, effects which likely serve to inhibit inbreeding.

  8. Reasoning and Negotiation about Child Responsibility in Urban Chinese Families: Reports from Mothers, Fathers and Children

    Bowes, Jennifer M.; San, Li Qing; Chen, May-Jane; Yuan, Li


    The study investigates everyday parental practices involved in the transmission of cultural values and extends current literature on parenting in Chinese families. Children aged 6, 8, and 10 years from 240 Beijing families, and both their parents, were asked about ways in which expectations of child responsibility are transmitted through routine…

  9. "Good" Students and "Involved" Mothers: Latin@ Responses to Normalization Pressures in Schools

    Cuero, Kimberley Kennedy; Valdez, Veronica E.


    Drawing from two in-depth qualitative studies, we used a sociocultural lens for a cross-case analysis examining how Latin@s' participation in schools is affected by ideological messages that subordinately position them in terms of their ethnicity, class, and immigrant status. We identified a range of dynamic responses to the school's normalization…

  10. The effects of selection on low mortality and brooding by a mother hen on open-field response, feather pecking and cannibalism in laying hens

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Ellen, E.D.; Komen, J.


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of selection on low mortality in combination with brooding by a mother hen on open-field response at 5-6 weeks of age and on plumage and body condition at 42 weeks of age. Birds in the experiment were either selected for low mortality in

  11. Children's responses to mothers' and fathers' emotionality and tactics in marital conflict in the home.

    Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Papp, Lauren M; Dukewich, Tammy L


    Addressing a gap in methodological approaches to the study of links between marital conflict and children, 51 couples were trained to complete home diary reports on everyday marital conflicts and children's responses. Parental negative emotionality and destructive conflict tactics related to children's insecure emotional and behavioral responses. Parental positive emotionality and constructive conflict tactics were linked with children's secure emotional responding. When parents' emotions and tactics were considered in the same model, negative emotionality was more consistently related to children's negative reactions than were destructive conflict tactics, whereas constructive conflict tactics were more consistently related to children's positive reactions than parents' positive emotionality. Differences in children's responding as a function of specific parental negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear) and parent gender were identified.

  12. Autonomic functioning in mothers with interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder in response to separation-reunion.

    Schechter, Daniel S; Moser, Dominik A; McCaw, Jaime E; Myers, Michael M


    This study characterizes autonomic nervous system activity reactive to separation-reunion among mothers with Interpersonal Violence-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (IPV-PTSD). Heart-rate (HR) and high frequency heart-rate-variability (HF-HRV) were measured in 17 IPV-PTSD-mothers, 22 sub-threshold-mothers, and 15 non-PTSD mother-controls while interacting with their toddlers (12-48 months). Analyses showed IPV-PTSD-mothers having generally lower HR than other groups. All groups showed negative correlations between changes in HR and HF-HRV from sitting- to standing-baseline. During initial separation, controls no longer showed a negative relationship between HR and HF-HRV. But by the second reunion, the negative relationship reappeared. IPV-PTSD- and sub-threshold-mothers retained negative HR/HF-HRV correlations during the initial separation, but stopped showing them by the second reunion. Results support that mother-controls showed a pattern of autonomic regulation suggestive of hypervigilance during initial separation that resolved by the time of re-exposure. PTSD-mothers showed delayed onset of this pattern only upon re-exposure, and were perhaps exhibiting defensive avoidance or numbing during the initial separation/reunion. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Predictors of Treatment Response in Depressed Mothers Receiving In-Home Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Concurrent Home Visiting

    Ammerman, Robert T.; Peugh, James L.; Putnam, Frank W.; Van Ginkel, Judith B.


    Home visiting is a child abuse prevention strategy that seeks to optimize child development by providing mothers with support, training, and parenting information. Research has consistently found high rates of depression in mothers participating in home visiting programs and low levels of obtaining mental health treatment in the community.…

  14. Low and Middle Income Mothers' Regulation of Negative Emotion: Effects of Children's Temperament and Situational Emotional Responses

    Martini, Tanya S.; Root, Carol A.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.


    The present study investigated the effects of situational (child situational emotions) and dispositional (child temperament) child variables on mothers' regulation of their own hostile (anger) and nonhostile (sadness and anxiety) emotions. Participants included 94 low and middle income mothers and their children (41 girls; 53 boys) aged 3 to 6…

  15. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations promote ant tending of aphids.

    Kremer, Jenni M M; Nooten, Sabine S; Cook, James M; Ryalls, James M W; Barton, Craig V M; Johnson, Scott N


    Animal mutualisms, which involve beneficial interactions between individuals of different species, are common in nature. Insect-insect mutualism, for example, is widely regarded as a keystone ecological interaction. Some mutualisms are anticipated to be modified by climate change, but the focus has largely been on plant-microbe and plant-animal mutualisms rather than those between animals. Ant-aphid mutualisms, whereby ants tend aphids to harvest their honeydew excretions and, in return, provide protection for the aphids, are widespread. The mutualism is heavily influenced by the quality and quantity of honeydew produced by aphids, which is directly affected by host plant quality. As predicted increases in concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO 2 ) are widely reported to affect plant nutritional chemistry, this may also alter honeydew quality and hence the nature of ant-aphid mutualisms. Using glasshouse chambers and field-based open-top chambers, we determined the effect of eCO 2 on the growth and nutritional quality (foliar amino acids) of lucerne (Medicago sativa). We determined how cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora) populations and honeydew production were impacted when feeding on such plants and how this affected the tending behaviour of ants (Iridomyrmex sp.). eCO 2 stimulated plant growth but decreased concentrations of foliar amino acids by 29% and 14% on aphid-infested plants and aphid-free plants, respectively. Despite the deterioration in host plant quality under eCO 2 , aphids maintained performance and populations were unchanged by eCO 2 . Aphids induced higher concentrations of amino acids (glutamine, asparagine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid) important for endosymbiont-mediated synthesis of essential amino acids. Aphids feeding under eCO 2 also produced over three times more honeydew than aphids feeding under ambient CO 2 , suggesting they were imbibing more phloem sap at eCO 2 . The frequency of ant tending of aphids more than doubled in

  16. Influenza Transmission in the Mother-Infant Dyad Leads to Severe Disease, Mammary Gland Infection, and Pathogenesis by Regulating Host Responses.

    Paquette, Stéphane G; Banner, David; Huang, Stephen S H; Almansa, Raquel; Leon, Alberto; Xu, Luoling; Bartoszko, Jessica; Kelvin, David J; Kelvin, Alyson A


    Seasonal influenza viruses are typically restricted to the human upper respiratory tract whereas influenza viruses with greater pathogenic potential often also target extra-pulmonary organs. Infants, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers are highly susceptible to severe respiratory disease following influenza virus infection but the mechanisms of disease severity in the mother-infant dyad are poorly understood. Here we investigated 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection and transmission in breastfeeding mothers and infants utilizing our developed infant-mother ferret influenza model. Infants acquired severe disease and mortality following infection. Transmission of the virus from infants to mother ferrets led to infection in the lungs and mother mortality. Live virus was also found in mammary gland tissue and expressed milk of the mothers which eventually led to milk cessation. Histopathology showed destruction of acini glandular architecture with the absence of milk. The virus was localized in mammary epithelial cells of positive glands. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland infection, we performed global transcript analysis which showed downregulation of milk production genes such as Prolactin and increased breast involution pathways indicated by a STAT5 to STAT3 signaling shift. Genes associated with cancer development were also significantly increased including JUN, FOS and M2 macrophage markers. Immune responses within the mammary gland were characterized by decreased lymphocyte-associated genes CD3e, IL2Ra, CD4 with IL1β upregulation. Direct inoculation of H1N1 into the mammary gland led to infant respiratory infection and infant mortality suggesting the influenza virus was able to replicate in mammary tissue and transmission is possible through breastfeeding. In vitro infection studies with human breast cells showed susceptibility to H1N1 virus infection. Together, we have shown that the host-pathogen interactions of influenza virus

  17. Validation of the Comprehensive Assessment of Defense Style (CADS): mothers' and children's responses to the stresses of missile attacks.

    Wolmer, L; Laor, N; Cicchetti, D V


    This study furthers the validation of the Comprehensive Assessment of Defense Style (CADS) as a measure of children's defensive behavior. Participants were 81 mothers who assessed the defense style (CADS) of their 8- to 10-year-old children, as well as their own defense style and level of object relations. Five years earlier, the mothers had rated their children's symptom level and personality after the missile attacks during the Gulf War. The original factor structure of the CADS was replicated for the most part. Self-oriented and other-oriented defenses were related to the children's early personality and symptomatic reaction, as well as to their mother's defense style and level of object relations. The CADS factors correlated with the defenses of the Defense Mechanisms Manual. The results provide further validation of the CADS and suggest possible areas of implementation, such as longitudinal examination of defenses, psychopathology screening, and therapeutic improvement.

  18. Oral health-related self-efficacy beliefs and toothbrushing: Finnish and Turkish pre-adolescents' and their mothers' responses

    Cinar, Ayse Basak; Tseveenjav, Battsetseg; Murtomaa, Heikki


    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cognitive and behavioural factors of preadolescents and those of their mothers, assessed in terms of self-efficacy beliefs and toothbrushing among Turkish and Finnish population in the framework of Social Cognitive Theory. The speci....... The specific objective was to test if this possible association worked regardless of cultural differences.......The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cognitive and behavioural factors of preadolescents and those of their mothers, assessed in terms of self-efficacy beliefs and toothbrushing among Turkish and Finnish population in the framework of Social Cognitive Theory...

  19. Graphemes Sharing Phonetic Features Tend to Induce Similar Synesthetic Colors

    Kang, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Yeseul; Shin, Ji-Young; Kim, Chai-Youn


    Individuals with grapheme-color synesthesia experience idiosyncratic colors when viewing achromatic letters or digits. Despite large individual differences in grapheme-color association, synesthetes tend to associate graphemes sharing a perceptual feature with similar synesthetic colors. Sound has been suggested as one such feature. In the present study, we investigated whether graphemes of which representative phonemes have similar phonetic features tend to be associated with analogous synes...

  20. Comparison of the effects of the mother and an unfamiliar adult female on cortisol and behavioral responses of pre- and postweaning guinea pigs.

    Graves, F C; Hennessy, M B


    In the guinea pig, the presence of the mother, but not littermates, has been found to inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses during brief (30-60 min) exposure to novel surroundings both prior to and several weeks following the completion of weaning. In the present study, we found that an unfamiliar adult female inhibited plasma cortisol and vocalization responses of pre- and postweaning guinea pigs during a 60-min exposure to a novel environment. However, the presence of the mother still had a greater effect on the cortisol levels of the young, at least during the preweaning period. The moderating influence of the unfamiliar adult female on vocalizations and cortisol levels occurred despite behavioral interactions, such as heightened aggression and sexual behavior, not seen during tests with the mother. It is suggested that the unfamiliar adult female's effectiveness in reducing HPA activity during exposure to novelty may facilitate the change in patterns of social interaction occurring in recently weaned animals. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Mother Trouble

    Griselda Pollock


    this paper, I outline some of the fundamntals of this radical but not eccentric theoretical work, and introduce one of its most recent conceptual moves in which Ettinger challenges the psychoanalytical establishments failure of acknowledge as primal 'fantasies,'  addressing sourceless primal enigmas, the  emergent subject's anguish over insufficiency, devouring and abandonment. Placing Ettinger's work on primal fantasies and the maternal in the contcxt of Winnicott, Kristeva and Laplanche, this article points to the implications of this major theorization for rethinking and working with often unresolved mother/daughter/ daughter/mother relations whose psychic freight remains unrelieved in contemporary phallic psychoanalytical paradigms and for the interface of ethics and aesthetics for which models of  matrixial severality and transsubjective passages are rich already in potential examples (studies of Sylvia Plath, Louise Bourgeois and Berthe Morisot had to be cut for reasons of length and future possibilities, including responses to international and interethnic violence at the time of this article going to press.

  2. The Effects of Television Advertising on Children: Survey of Children's and Mother's Responses to Television Commercials. Final Report.

    Atkin, Charles K.

    This research assesses reactions to Saturday morning television advertising by four to twelve year old children and their mothers and examines young viewers' naturalistic learning of facts, attitudes, and behavior from commercials. An omnibus questionnaire was administered to 738 children. Interviews were conducted with 301 randomly selected…

  3. Tend to Compare and Tend to Be Fair: The Relationship between Social Comparison Sensitivity and Justice Sensitivity

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun


    Social comparison is a prerequisite for processing fairness, although the two types of cognition may be associated with different emotions. Whereas social comparison may induce envy, the perception of unfairness may elicit anger. Yet, it remains unclear whether people who tend to have a strong sense of fairness also tend to compare themselves more with others. Here, Study 1 used a modified ultimatum game (UG) and a social comparison game (SCG) to examine the relationship between justice sensi...

  4. Mothers' part-time employment: associations with mother and family well-being.

    Buehler, Cheryl; O'Brien, Marion


    The associations between mothers' part-time employment and mother well-being, parenting, and family functioning were examined using seven waves of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data (N = 1,364), infancy through middle childhood. Concurrent comparisons were made between families in which mothers were employed part time and both those in which mothers were not employed and those in which mothers were employed full time. Using multivariate analysis of covariance with extensive controls, results indicated that mothers employed part time had fewer depressive symptoms during the infancy and preschool years and better self-reported health at most time points than did nonemployed mothers. Across the time span studied, mothers working part time tended to report less conflict between work and family than those working full time. During their children's preschool years, mothers employed part time exhibited more sensitive parenting than did other mothers, and at school age were more involved in school and provided more learning opportunities than mothers employed full time. Mothers employed part time reported doing a higher proportion of child care and housework than mothers employed full time. Part-time employment appears to have some benefits for mothers and families throughout the child rearing years.

  5. [Response of HeLa cells to mitomycine C. III. The analysis of nucleoli of mother and daughter cells].

    Petrov, Iu P; Neguliaev, Iu A; Tsupkina, N V


    The comparative analysis of the number of nucleoli in cells of the established HeLa-M line was carried out before and after exposure to mitomycin C in a concentration of 10 μg/ml for 2 h. Using time-lapse microscopy, nucleoli in mother and their respective daughter cells were computed. It has been shown that the average number of nucleoli per cell is generally higher in daughter cells than in mother cells, and a standard deviation, on the contrary, decreases. An average number of nucleoli in daughter cells, whose mother cells had been treated with mitomycin C, was higher than in corresponding cells of control group. The separate analysis has been performed for the cells having from 1 to 4 nucleoli. Nonrandom complete coincidence of the number of nucleoli in mather and daughter cells has been typicaly shown for about 1/7 of the total cell population. Mitomycin C reduces this value of about 1.5 times.

  6. How We Tend To Overestimate Powerlaw Tail Exponents

    Nassim N. Taleb


    In the presence of a layer of metaprobabilities (from uncertainty concerning the parameters), the asymptotic tail exponent corresponds to the lowest possible tail exponent regardless of its probability. The problem explains "Black Swan" effects, i.e., why measurements tend to chronically underestimate tail contributions, rather than merely deliver imprecise but unbiased estimates.

  7. When disaster strikes -- caring for mothers and babies. Special feature -- mothers as refugees.


    In many countries, women are poorly nourished and have a high rate of reproductive morbidity. However, during war and other disaster situations, women and children become even more vulnerable. Most of the world's refugees and internally displaced people are women and children. Many women refugees are malnourished and during the emergency and exodus phases, many are starving. Severe malnutrition in a pregnant woman causes fetal malnutrition. Infants born to a malnourished mother are of low birth weight and will grow up malnourished if they stay in the same deprived environment as their mothers. Households headed by women tend to obtain the least food and the children of such households tend to be poorly nourished. Many of the problems and obstacles women face during peacetime and non-emergency situations are simply exacerbated during disasters and war. It may not be possible to head off disasters which result in massive social upheaval, but preparations can nonetheless be made to mollify conditions once disaster hits. Responsible organizations and agencies should research the situation and plan for the worst. This paper discusses how women lose social and economic power during periods of armed conflict, the often lack of even basic reproductive health care during armed conflict and emergencies, coping in an emergency, and living in a refugee camp.

  8. Evaluation of maternal attachment, self-efficacy, levels of depression, and anxiety in mothers who have babies diagnosed with retinopathy of prematurity.

    Özyurt, Gonca; Özyurt, Ayhan; Ozturk, Taylan; Yaman, Aylin; Berk, A Tulin


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the emotional stress and its effects on parental self-efficacy and mother-infant attachment in mothers whose babies were diagnosed with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Study sample was consisted of voluntarily participating 82 mothers whose babies were first diagnosed with ROP, 83 mothers of preterm babies without ROP, and 85 mothers of term babies admitting for their routine visits. Sociodemographic data form maternal attachment scale, state-trait anxiety inventory, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, and parental self-efficacy scale were applied to study participants, and the overall results of three groups were statistically compared. The sociodemographic features of three study groups were similar. Statistical significant differences were found in depression and state anxiety levels among study groups, while maternal attachment scale and trait anxiety level scores and parental self-efficacy scale total score were similar in study groups. Maternal depression and state-anxiety levels were tend to be higher in mother of children diagnosed with ROP and prematurity; however, there were no statistically significant differences between levels of mothers' of premature children with or without ROP. This is the first study in literature assessing the additional effect of ROP on the anxiety and depression levels of recent mothers, as well as mother-infant attachment and parental self-efficacy. Supporting of mothers having an infant with diagnosed ROP is crucial because of feeling themselves inefficient and responsible for all interventions applied to their babies.

  9. Graphemes Sharing Phonetic Features Tend to Induce Similar Synesthetic Colors.

    Kang, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Yeseul; Shin, Ji-Young; Kim, Chai-Youn


    Individuals with grapheme-color synesthesia experience idiosyncratic colors when viewing achromatic letters or digits. Despite large individual differences in grapheme-color association, synesthetes tend to associate graphemes sharing a perceptual feature with similar synesthetic colors. Sound has been suggested as one such feature. In the present study, we investigated whether graphemes of which representative phonemes have similar phonetic features tend to be associated with analogous synesthetic colors. We tested five Korean multilingual synesthetes on a color-matching task using graphemes from Korean, English, and Japanese orthography. We then compared the similarity of synesthetic colors induced by those characters sharing a phonetic feature. Results showed that graphemes associated with the same phonetic feature tend to induce synesthetic color in both within- and cross-script analyses. Moreover, this tendency was consistent for graphemes that are not transliterable into each other as well as graphemes that are. These results suggest that it is the perceptual-i.e., phonetic-properties associated with graphemes, not just conceptual associations such as transliteration, that determine synesthetic color.

  10. Graphemes Sharing Phonetic Features Tend to Induce Similar Synesthetic Colors

    Kang, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Yeseul; Shin, Ji-Young; Kim, Chai-Youn


    Individuals with grapheme-color synesthesia experience idiosyncratic colors when viewing achromatic letters or digits. Despite large individual differences in grapheme-color association, synesthetes tend to associate graphemes sharing a perceptual feature with similar synesthetic colors. Sound has been suggested as one such feature. In the present study, we investigated whether graphemes of which representative phonemes have similar phonetic features tend to be associated with analogous synesthetic colors. We tested five Korean multilingual synesthetes on a color-matching task using graphemes from Korean, English, and Japanese orthography. We then compared the similarity of synesthetic colors induced by those characters sharing a phonetic feature. Results showed that graphemes associated with the same phonetic feature tend to induce synesthetic color in both within- and cross-script analyses. Moreover, this tendency was consistent for graphemes that are not transliterable into each other as well as graphemes that are. These results suggest that it is the perceptual—i.e., phonetic—properties associated with graphemes, not just conceptual associations such as transliteration, that determine synesthetic color. PMID:28348537

  11. "#discrimination": The Online Response to a Case of a Breastfeeding Mother Being Ejected from a UK Retail Premises.

    Grant, Aimee


    Stigma is a significant barrier to breastfeeding. Internationally, mothers have reported stigma surrounding public breastfeeding. In the United Kingdom, the Equality Act 2010 gives women the right to breastfeed in public, including within private businesses. In April 2014, a woman who was breastfeeding in a UK sports shop was asked to leave, resulting in a localized protest by breastfeeding mothers. This resulted in the issue of public breastfeeding being highlighted in local, national, and social media. To examine online opinion regarding breastfeeding in public and protesting about the right to breastfeed in public within the context of a single case. Online user-generated content relating to the case of Wioletta Komar was downloaded from Twitter and the comments section of a UK online news source, Mail Online. Data comprised 884 comments and 1210 tweets, collected within 24 hours of the incident. Semiotic and thematic analysis was facilitated by NVivo 10. Comments from Twitter were supportive (76%) or neutral (22%) regarding the protesting women and public breastfeeding. Conversely, Mail Online comments were mostly negative (85%). Mail Online posters questioned the legality of public breastfeeding, while Twitter comments acknowledged and supported women's legal right to breastfeed publicly. Many Mail Online commenters stated that they found it uncomfortable to watch breastfeeding or thought it was unnecessary to breastfeed in public. If the UK government is serious about increasing breastfeeding, interventions to promote public support for public breastfeeding are urgently required. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Antiretroviral treatment response of HIV-infected children after prevention of mother-to-child transmission in West Africa

    Ndondoki, Camille; Dicko, Fatoumata; Ahuatchi Coffie, Patrick


    INTRODUCTION: We assessed the rate of treatment failure of HIV-infected children after 12 months on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the Paediatric IeDEA West African Collaboration according to their perinatal exposure to antiretroviral drugs for preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT......). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study in children younger than five years at ART initiation between 2004 and 2009 was nested within the pWADA cohort, in Bamako-Mali and Abidjan-Côte d'Ivoire. Data on PMTCT exposure were collected through a direct review of children's medical records. The 12-month Kaplan....... Immunological failure was defined according to the 2006 World Health Organization age-related immunological thresholds for severe immunodeficiency. RESULTS: Among the 1035 eligible children, PMTCT exposure was only documented for 353 children (34.1%) and remained unknown for 682 (65.9%). Among children...

  13. Kepler Planets Tend to Have Siblings of the Same Size

    Kohler, Susanna


    After 8.5 years of observations with the Kepler space observatory, weve discovered a large number of close-in, tightly-spaced, multiple-planet systems orbiting distant stars. In the process, weve learned a lot about the properties about these systems and discovered some unexpected behavior. A new study explores one of the properties that has surprised us: planets of the same size tend to live together.Orbital architectures for 25 of the authors multiplanet systems. The dots are sized according to the planets relative radii and colored according to mass. Planets of similar sizes and masses tend to live together in the same system. [Millholland et al. 2017]Ordering of SystemsFrom Keplers observations of extrasolar multiplanet systems, we have seen that the sizes of planets in a given system arent completely random. Systems that contain a large planet, for example, are more likely to contain additional large planets rather than additional planets of random size. So though there is a large spread in the radii weve observed for transiting exoplanets, the spread within any given multiplanet system tends to be much smaller.This odd behavior has led us to ask whether this clustering occurs not just for radius, but also for mass. Since the multiplanet systems discovered by Kepler most often contain super-Earths and mini-Neptunes, which have an extremely large spread in densities, the fact that two such planets have similar radii does not guarantee that they have similar masses.If planets dont cluster in mass within a system, this would raise the question of why planets coordinate only their radii within a given system. If they do cluster in mass, it implies that planets within the same system tend to have similar densities, potentially allowing us to predict the sizes and masses of planets we might find in a given system.Insight into MassesLed by NSF graduate research fellow Sarah Millholland, a team of scientists at Yale University used recently determined masses for

  14. Tendências de pesquisas brasileiras sobre mulheres mastectomizadas

    Azevedo, Elisângela Braga de; Bezerra, Pollyana Amorim Ponce de Leon; Neto, José Melquiades Ramalho; Bustorff, Leila Alcina Correia Vaz; Souto, Cláudia Maria Ramos Medeiros


    Objetivou-se analisar as tendências das pesquisas realizadas no Brasil sobre mulheres mastectomizadas. Trata-se de um estudo bibliográfico de abordagem quantitativa, realizado de 15 de junho a 31 de julho de 2009. Para coleta dos dados empíricos utilizou-se um instrumento estruturado, posteriormente os dados foram tabulados, analisados, transformados em porcentagens e agrupados em uma tabela para facilitar a visualização das informações. A amostra foi constituída por resumos adquiridos atravé...

  15. Gastronomia Molecular: Desconstruindo 20 anos de Uma Tendência

    Joana Pellerano


    Full Text Available A gastronomia molecular gera interesse e controvérsia desde que foi criada, em 1992, nos workshops de Erice, na Itália. Da curiosidade dos cientistas Nicholas Kurti e Hervé This, que desenvolveram a disciplina, à aplicação prática encontrada por chefs de todo o mundo, a gastronomia molecular é perseguida por parecer ser mais complicada do que realmente é: o estudo meticuloso dos alimentos. O objetivo desse artigo é descrever o seu surgimento e o que trouxe ao cenário contemporâneo enquanto tendência gastronômica. Para tanto, foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica em livros e citações na imprensa estrangeira, o que permitiu descrever os motivos para que essa forma de cozinhar cause tanta polêmica.

  16. Tend to Compare and Tend to Be Fair: The Relationship between Social Comparison Sensitivity and Justice Sensitivity.

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun


    Social comparison is a prerequisite for processing fairness, although the two types of cognition may be associated with different emotions. Whereas social comparison may induce envy, the perception of unfairness may elicit anger. Yet, it remains unclear whether people who tend to have a strong sense of fairness also tend to compare themselves more with others. Here, Study 1 used a modified ultimatum game (UG) and a social comparison game (SCG) to examine the relationship between justice sensitivity and social comparison sensitivity in 51 young adults. Study 2 examined self-reported social comparison and justice sensitivity in 142 young adults. Both studies showed a positive correlation between social comparison sensitivity and justice sensitivity. We reason that social comparison and justice sensitivity have an important positive correlation in human decision-making. The rejection of self-disadvantageous inequality offers may be due to the social comparison effect, which suggests that the tendency to compare oneself with others may contribute to having a strong sense of justice. Our findings suggest that the predictions of game theory may vary depending on the social culture context and incorporating notions of fairness and social comparison tendency may be essential to better predict the actual behavior of players in social interactive situations.

  17. Tend to Compare and Tend to Be Fair: The Relationship between Social Comparison Sensitivity and Justice Sensitivity.

    Shanshan Zhen

    Full Text Available Social comparison is a prerequisite for processing fairness, although the two types of cognition may be associated with different emotions. Whereas social comparison may induce envy, the perception of unfairness may elicit anger. Yet, it remains unclear whether people who tend to have a strong sense of fairness also tend to compare themselves more with others. Here, Study 1 used a modified ultimatum game (UG and a social comparison game (SCG to examine the relationship between justice sensitivity and social comparison sensitivity in 51 young adults. Study 2 examined self-reported social comparison and justice sensitivity in 142 young adults. Both studies showed a positive correlation between social comparison sensitivity and justice sensitivity. We reason that social comparison and justice sensitivity have an important positive correlation in human decision-making. The rejection of self-disadvantageous inequality offers may be due to the social comparison effect, which suggests that the tendency to compare oneself with others may contribute to having a strong sense of justice. Our findings suggest that the predictions of game theory may vary depending on the social culture context and incorporating notions of fairness and social comparison tendency may be essential to better predict the actual behavior of players in social interactive situations.

  18. Tendências em medicina laboratorial Trends in laboratory medicine

    Gustavo Aguiar Campana


    Full Text Available A patologia clínica/medicina laboratorial é uma especialidade direcionada à realização de exames complementares no auxílio ao diagnóstico, com impacto nos diferentes estágios da cadeia de saúde: prevenção, diagnóstico, prognóstico e acompanhamento terapêutico. Diversos elementos apontam para maior utilização da medicina diagnóstica no futuro. Para discutirmos as principais tendências na medicina laboratorial, descrevemos os fatores que colaboram e são fundamentais para o crescimento desse mercado denominados, neste estudo, drivers de crescimento. As principais tendências que terão forte impacto na medicina laboratorial, e que serão descritas neste artigo, são: ferramentas de gestão, inserção de novos testes no mercado e rol de procedimentos, qualidade dos serviços em medicina diagnóstica, modelos de operação, automação, consolidação e integração, tecnologia da informação, medicina personalizada e genética. Sabemos que a medicina diagnóstica demonstra sua importância ao participar de 70% das decisões clínicas, absorvendo uma pequena parte dos custos em saúde (cerca de 10%. Todas as tendências analisadas neste trabalho apontam para um crescimento na utilização dos exames laboratoriais e também para sua importância na cadeia de saúde. Esse novo posicionamento, somado às novas expectativas de alta resolubilidade, pressiona o mercado e as companhias que o compõem a buscar mudanças e novas estratégias de atuação.Clinical pathology/laboratory medicine, a specialty focused on performing complementary tests to aid diagnosis, has impact upon several stages of health care: prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic management. There are several factors that will foster the use of laboratory medicine in the future. In order to discuss the main trends in laboratory medicine, this article describes the major factors that have promoted growth in this market, which herein are referred to as growth

  19. Human papillomavirus 16 E2-, E6- and E7-specific T-cell responses in children and their mothers who developed incident cervical intraepithelial neoplasia during a 14-year follow-up of the Finnish Family HPV cohort.

    Koskimaa, Hanna-Mari; Paaso, Anna E; Welters, Marij J P; Grénman, Seija E; Syrjänen, Kari J; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Syrjänen, Stina M


    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has traditionally been regarded as a sexually transmitted disease (STD), but recent evidence implicates that an infected mother can transmit HPV to her newborn during pregnancy, at delivery, perinatal period or later. Given the lack of any studies on HPV-specific immune responses in children, we conducted HPV16-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) monitoring of the mother-child pairs with known oral and genital HPV follow-up (FU) data since the delivery. In the Finnish Family HPV Study, 10 out of 331 mothers developed incident cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) during their 14-year FU. Our hypothesis according to the common dogma is that there is no HPV16 specific immune response in offspring of the CIN mother as she/he has not started the sexual life yet. We used overlapping 30-35 mer peptides covering the entire HPV16 E2, E6 and E7 protein sequences. Assays for lymphocyte proliferation capacity, cytokine production and HPV16-specific Foxp3 + CD25 + CD4+ regulatory T-cells were performed. HPV16-specific proliferative T-cell responses were broader in children than in their mothers. Nine of 10 children had responses against both E2 peptide pools compared to only 4 of the 10 mothers. Six of the 10 children and only 2 mothers displayed reactivity to E6 and/or E7. The cytokine levels of IL-2 (p = 0.023) and IL-5 (p = 0.028) induced by all peptide pools, were also higher among children than their mothers. The children of the mothers with incident CIN3 had significantly higher IFN-γ (p = 0.032) and TNF-α (p = 0.008) levels than other children. Our study is the first to show that also children could have HPV-specific immunity. These data indicate that the children have circulating HPV16-specific memory T-cells which might have been induced by previous HPV16 exposure or ongoing HPV 16 infection.

  20. Evaluation of working conditions of workers engaged in tending horses

    Bożena Nowakowicz-Dębek


    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. A growing interest in the horse business has resulted in the increased engagement of many people in this area, and the health problems occurring among workers create the need to search for prophylactic measures. [b]objective[/b]. The objective of the study was evaluation of the level of exposure to air pollution in a stable, and estimation of the degree of work load among workers engaged in tending horses. [b]material and methods[/b]. The study was conducted twice, during the winter season, in a stable maintaining race horses, and in a social room. In order to evaluate workers’ exposure, air samples were collected by the aspiration method. After the incubation of material, the total number of bacteria and fungi in the air was determined, as well as the number of aerobic mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, expressed as the number of colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m[sup]3[/sup]. The measurement of total dust concentration in the air was also performed, simultaneously with the measurement of microclimatic parameters. The study of work load also covered the measurement of energy expenditure, evaluation of static physical load, and monotony of movements performed. [b]conclusions[/b]. The stable may be considered as a workplace with considerable risk of the occurrence of unfavourable health effects.

  1. Breastfeeding, Bonding, and the Mother-Infant Relationship.

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Clark, Roseanne


    Analyzed data from a longitudinal study of 570 mother-infant pairs to test the bonding hypothesis and the good-enough caregiver hypothesis as they relate to breastfeeding with maternal bonding and the mother-infant relationship. Found that breastfeeding dyads tended to show higher-quality relationships at 12 months than did bottle-feeding dyads.…

  2. Methylation of NR3C1 is related to maternal PTSD, parenting stress and maternal medial prefrontal cortical activity in response to child separation among mothers with histories of violence exposure

    Daniel Scott Schechter


    Full Text Available Prior research has shown that mothers with Interpersonal Violence-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (IPV-PTSD report greater difficulty in parenting their toddlers. Relative to their frequent early exposure to violence and maltreatment, these mothers display dysregulation of their hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA-axis, characterized by hypocortisolism. Considering methylation of the promoter region of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 as a marker for HPA-axis functioning, with less methylation likely being associated with less circulating cortisol, the present study tested the hypothesis that the degree of methylation of this gene would be negatively correlated with maternal IPV-PTSD severity and parenting stress, and positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC activity in response to video-stimuli of stressful versus non-stressful mother-child interactions. Following a mental health assessment, 45 mothers and their children (ages 12-42 months participated in a behavioral protocol involving free-play and laboratory stressors such as mother-child separation. Maternal DNA was extracted from saliva. Interactive behavior was rated on the CARE-Index. During subsequent fMRI scanning, mothers were shown films of free-play and separation drawn from this protocol. Maternal PTSD severity and parenting stress were negatively correlated with the mean percentage of methylation of NR3C1. Maternal mPFC activity in response to video-stimuli of mother-child separation versus play correlated positively to NR3C1 methylation, and negatively to maternal IPV-PTSD and parenting stress. Among interactive behavior variables, child cooperativeness in play was positively correlated with NR3C1 methylation. Thus, the present study is the first published report to our knowledge, suggesting convergence of behavioral, epigenetic, and neuroimaging data that form a psychobiological signature of parenting-risk in the context of early life stress

  3. Mothers' and Fathers' Responsive Problem Solving with Early Adolescents: Do Gender, Shyness, and Social Acceptance Make a Difference?

    Miller, Scott R.; Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma M.


    We assessed the extent to which youths' (n = 231) shyness and social acceptance in preadolescence were associated with parents' responsive problem solving 1 year later after controlling for initial levels of parents' problem solving. Teachers (n = 176) completed assessments of youths' shyness and social acceptance, and parents (n = 231 married…

  4. Adrenocortical responsiveness in southern elephant seal mothers and pups during lactation and the effect of scientific handling

    Engelhard, GH; Brasseur, SMJM; Hall, AJ; Burton, HR; Reijnders, PJH

    We examined the cortisol responses to chemical and physical restraint stress in southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina females and their pups at three stages during lactation. In anaesthetised females the serum cortisol levels changed moderately during the 45-min sampling period following

  5. Comparison of the Effects of Attachment Training for Mothers on the Behavioral Responses of Premature Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Mitra Edraki


    Full Text Available Background: Premature infants are among high-risk groups in community who need to be hospitalized at intensive care units for survival and receiving basic or special care. Hospitalization at neonatal intensive care units (NICUs unsettles the family and leads to the separation of parents from their infants. This study aimed to determine the effects of maternal attachment behaviors on the behavioral responses of premature infants, hospitalized at NICUs. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 64 premature infants, who were hospitalized at NICUs and were eligible for the study, were randomly allocated to study and control groups. Attachment behaviors including touching, massage and kangaroo care were applied for the study group, while the conventional attachment method was adopted for the control group. Behavioral responses were evaluated two hours before and two hours after training attachment behaviors. Data were analyzed, using Chi-square and student’s t-test. Results: The mean difference in the duration of deep sleep and consciousness was more significant in the study group, compared to the control group. Furthermore, the duration of drowsiness was significantly less in the study group, compared to the control group. Conclusion: The implementation of attachment training at NICUs decreased the time of drowsiness and improved behavioral responses, deep sleep time and consciousness.

  6. Case Study of Teen Mothers' Perceptions of Their Influence on Preschoolers' Language Development

    Duncan, Mary


    Children born to teen mothers tend to score lower on language development assessments and to have school readiness delays. To support teen mothers and their children in improving language development, educators need information about mothers' daily interactions with their children and how they contribute to their children's language development.…

  7. Lone mothers in Sweden

    Burström, B; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, S


    To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period.......To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period....

  8. Mothers: The Unacknowledged Victims.

    Patterson, G.R.


    Used coercion theory to investigate aversive mother- child interactions. Literature indicated younger children produced higher rates of aversive interactions with their mothers. Mothers' role satisfaction varied as a function of such rates. Observation data showed mothers of aggressive children encountered higher rates of aversive interactions…

  9. The effect of chronic stress in pregnant mothers on the responsiveness to morphine in mice: a behavioral sensitization study

    zahra Nazari


    experimental group had no effect, but in high dose caused induced motion activations. But this motion activity was much less than the control group. The low dose morphine injection (1 mg/Kg in stressed groups caused induced motion activities which this action in dose 50mg/kg was significant statistically (** P<0/01. Conclusion: Results showed that inducing a psychological relatively slight stress (a short-term restrain could cause major changes, firstly in embryos brain and secondly in right handedness and left handedness and thirdly a response to morphine.

  10. Depressive Symptoms and Perceptions of Child Difficulty Are Associated with Less Responsive Feeding Behaviors in an Observational Study of Low-Income Mothers.

    Elias, Cindy V; Power, Thomas G; Beck, Ashley E; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Papaioannou, Maria A; Hughes, Sheryl O


    Maternal depressive symptoms and perceptions of child difficulty are associated with negative effects on general development and cognitive functioning in children. The study examined associations between maternal depressive symptoms, perceptions of child difficulty, and maternal feeding behaviors in a population at elevated risk for childhood obesity. Participants were 138 low-income black and Hispanic mothers and their children (ages 3-5) participating in an observational study of mealtimes among Head Start families. Three dinnertime observations were conducted over 2 weeks on each family and audio/videotaped for coding. Coding included eating influence attempts and other food- and nonfood-related interactions exhibited by the mother during dinner. Mothers completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and perceptions of child difficulty. Linear regressions were conducted, examining associations between maternal depressive symptoms, perceptions of child difficulty, and coded parent feeding behaviors. Mothers reporting higher levels of depressive symptoms used more verbal pressure to get their child to eat during meals, were more likely to discourage child independence, and less likely to enforce table manners. Mothers reporting higher perceptions of child difficulty were less likely to have nonfood-related discussions during meals and to try to get the child to eat a different food. This study is one of the first to investigate associations between maternal depression, perceptions of child difficulty, and mother's feeding behaviors during meals using observational methodology. These results may help researchers identify specific parental characteristics and feeding practices on which to intervene when developing tailored intervention programs for reducing childhood obesity.

  11. Tendências da gestão social

    Ladislau Dowbor


    .Capitalism is a good system when production is concerned, but not good enough a system if we want adequate distribution. And a system that produces well, but does not distribute accordingly, is structurally unbalanced. We need alternatives. What we have had up to now are not alternatives, but simplifications, with statism on one side, and liberalism on the other, redemption being expected to come either from the bourgeoisie or from the proletariat, depending on the political views. This debate will continue, but reality has changed. Economic growth is obviously not sufficient, assuming it exists. No modern economic activity can be stimulated if we do not have the corresponding investment in people, through health, education, culture, leisure and so on. Social activities are no longer a complement to banking and industry. They have become central to the economy itself. In the U.S., the new economic locomotive is not the car industry, but health, representing 14% of GDP. While social services have become central in modern economies, they still have to find their management paradigm. Huge, centralized state burocracies are not responsive enough, while privatization has led to dramatic abuse. The lack of specific management responses to the new demands of social services has become a key problem both in avanced and developing economies.

  12. Stigma in mothers of deaf children.

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Mohammadi, Eissa; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Pirzadeh, Akbar; Mahmoudi, Hamzeh; Ansari, Ismail


    A deaf child creates a feeling of stigma in many hearing parents. Stigma in mothers can have a negative impact on a child's treatment and rehabilitation process. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the extent of stigma in mothers with deaf children. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 90 mothers with deaf children. The data-collection instrument included the stigma scale in the mothers of children with disabilities. The reliability and validity of the instrument were confirmed through content validity and Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α=86%), respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software. Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child's deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother's level of education and mean stigma scores (P<0.033). The stigma score was higher in mothers who were living independently of their relatives (P<0.029). The mean stigma score in mothers of children with a cochlear implant was lower than that of mothers of children with earphones (86.70 vs. 99.64), and this difference tended towards significance (P=0.057). This study showed that half of all mothers with deaf children were scorned and felt ashamed of having a deaf child in the family because of the stigma. The majority of mothers with deaf children felt stigmatized, and only their education and residency status affected this issue. The mothers of cochlear-implanted children perceived less stigma. Due to the various social and psychological problems caused by hearing impairment, it is necessary to consider the emotional health and psychological state of the mothers in addition to rehabilitation programs and standard services for the children themselves.

  13. Aging mothers' and their adult daughters' perceptions of conflict behaviors.

    Fingerman, K L


    Aging parents tend to perceive greater compatibility between themselves and offspring than do off-spring, but there is little research examining differences in perceptions of conflicts. Ninety-six older mothers (M age = 76) and their daughters (M age = 44) together selected a conflictual incident, then individually rated the degree to which they and the other person had engaged in destructive, constructive, or avoidant conflict behaviors. Mothers and daughters reported using constructive approaches more than other approaches. Mothers claimed to engage in constructive behaviors more than daughters recognized. Daughters reported engaging in destructive and avoidant behaviors more than mothers realized. Mothers also thought daughters felt better about the incident than daughters reported feeling about it. Findings suggest older mothers' underestimate daughters' negative behaviors and feelings in conflict situations.

  14. Maternal perceptions of family-centred support and their associations with the mother-nurse relationship in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Shimizu, Aya; Mori, Akiko


    To evaluate maternal perceptions of family-centred support with hospitalised preterm infants and their relationship between mothers and nurses in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Mothers who gave birth to preterm infants tend to suffer more stress and need individual support based on family-centred care. However, there may be a shortage of support for mothers to obtain parent-crafting skills before bringing their infants home. This cross-sectional study used path analysis and multiple group analysis to evaluate a structural equation model of the relationship between maternal perception based on family-centred support in parent-crafting training and the mothers-nurses collaboration. We analysed data from 98 mothers (valid response proportion, 41.0%) whose infants were hospitalised in the NICU of two types of perinatal centres in Japan. We used three revised standardised questionnaires in Japanese: Measure of Process of Care in the NICU (Neo-MPOC 20), Enabling Practice Scale in the NICU (Neo-EPS) and the author-developed Mother and Infant Questionnaire. Path analysis revealed that the relationship between mothers and nurses was linked to three factors related to the perinatal centres' support: consideration of parents' feelings, ability to deal with specific needs and coordination in dealing with situations that interact with provision of parent-friendly visual information. Separate path analyses for each perinatal centre showed the same pattern, although the standard coefficients were different. Maternal perceptions of family-centred support with hospitalised preterm infants promoted better collaboration between mothers and nurses to obtain parent-crafting skills at two types of perinatal units in Japan. Clear visual information materials might promote better maternal understanding of their infants, help in acquisition of parent-crafting skills and improve mother-nurse collaboration, with the result that mothers are better able to care for their infants

  15. "Good mothering" or "good citizenship"?

    Porter, Maree; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C


    Umbilical cord blood banking is one of many biomedical innovations that confront pregnant women with new choices about what they should do to secure their own and their child's best interests. Many mothers can now choose to donate their baby's umbilical cord blood (UCB) to a public cord blood bank or pay to store it in a private cord blood bank. Donation to a public bank is widely regarded as an altruistic act of civic responsibility. Paying to store UCB may be regarded as a "unique opportunity" to provide "insurance" for the child's future. This paper reports findings from a survey of Australian women that investigated the decision to either donate or store UCB. We conclude that mothers are faced with competing discourses that force them to choose between being a "good mother" and fulfilling their role as a "good citizen." We discuss this finding with reference to the concept of value pluralism.

  16. Methylation of NR3C1 is related to maternal PTSD, parenting stress and maternal medial prefrontal cortical activity in response to child separation among mothers with histories of violence exposure

    Schechter, Daniel S.; Moser, Dominik A.; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane; Stenz, Ludwig; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Aue, Tatjana; Adouan, Wafae; Cordero, María I.; Suardi, Francesca; Manini, Aurelia; Sancho Rossignol, Ana; Merminod, Gaëlle; Ansermet, Francois; Dayer, Alexandre G.; Rusconi Serpa, Sandra


    Prior research has shown that mothers with Interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (IPV-PTSD) report greater difficulty in parenting their toddlers. Relative to their frequent early exposure to violence and maltreatment, these mothers display dysregulation of their hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA-axis), characterized by hypocortisolism. Considering methylation of the promoter region of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 as a marker for HPA-axis functioning, with less methylation likely being associated with less circulating cortisol, the present study tested the hypothesis that the degree of methylation of this gene would be negatively correlated with maternal IPV-PTSD severity and parenting stress, and positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) activity in response to video-stimuli of stressful versus non-stressful mother–child interactions. Following a mental health assessment, 45 mothers and their children (ages 12–42 months) participated in a behavioral protocol involving free-play and laboratory stressors such as mother–child separation. Maternal DNA was extracted from saliva. Interactive behavior was rated on the CARE-Index. During subsequent fMRI scanning, mothers were shown films of free-play and separation drawn from this protocol. Maternal PTSD severity and parenting stress were negatively correlated with the mean percentage of methylation of NR3C1. Maternal mPFC activity in response to video-stimuli of mother–child separation versus play correlated positively to NR3C1 methylation, and negatively to maternal IPV-PTSD and parenting stress. Among interactive behavior variables, child cooperativeness in play was positively correlated with NR3C1 methylation. Thus, the present study is the first published report to our knowledge, suggesting convergence of behavioral, epigenetic, and neuroimaging data that form a psychobiological signature of parenting-risk in the context of early life stress and PTSD

  17. Determinants of subjective health status of HIV positive mothers in NAUTH Nnewi.

    Nwabueze, S A; Adogu, P O U; Adinma, E D; Ifeadike, C O; Nnebue, C C; Ilika, A L; Ikechebelu, J I


    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by human immune deficiency virus (HIV), once dominated by infected males has become feminized especially in sub-Saharan Africa where the majority of adults living with the condition are females. Positive life styles, belonging to social support groups and stigma-free HIV services by providers may have good impact on the quality of life of HIV-positive mothers. This study was aimed at assessing the determinants of subjective health status of HIV-positive mothers accessing prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV services in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH) Nnewi. This is a descriptive study in which 288 consenting HIV positive mothers were selected using the systematic sampling technique. Data on demographics, life style, social support, contraceptive use and subjective feeling about current health status were collected from the subjects using a pre-tested, structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. The mean age of the respondents was 30.46 +/- 4.86 years. Majority (89.2%) of them were married while 55.2% were traders. A significantly higher proportion of the mothers on highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART) (70.8%) than non users (29.2%) described their current health status as 'excellent' (p<0.001). Also a significantly higher proportion of condom users (99%) than pill users (1%) described their health status as 'excellent' (p<0.02). The same significantly higher proportions of 'excellent' response were given by subjects who engage in social support activities (p<0.001), who practice good feeding (p<0.01) andpersonal hygiene (p<0.01). Access to family planning services and HAART, participation in support group activities and positive lifestyle practices tend to improve subjective health status and should be comprehensively encouraged among the HIV positive mothers.

  18. Mother-Child Interactional Patterns in High- and Low-Risk Mothers.

    Dolz, Laura; Cerezo, M. Angeles; Milner, Joel S.


    A study of 10 high-risk (of child physical abuse) and 10 demographically similar low-risk Spanish mother-child dyads investigated interactional patterns in the home. High-risk mothers made fewer neutral approaches to their children, displayed more negative behaviors toward their children, and made more indiscriminate responses to their children's…

  19. Children of imprisoned mothers.

    Senanayake, M P; Arachchi, J K; Wickremasinghe, V P


    To describe the problems faced by children during separation from their imprisoned mothers, and evaluate the health of children who accompanied their mothers into prison. A prospective observational study. Welikada Prison, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 200 randomly selected mothers who had left their children at home were interviewed using a questionnaire. During a period of 8 months 30 children living with their mothers in prison underwent physical and developmental examination and tuberculin testing. The living conditions within the prison were evaluated. During 18 months from January 1999, 4089 women were imprisoned. 88% were remanded, 20% awaited trial for more than one year in prison. 2416 were mothers. 1411 had at least one child under 12 years of age. The 200 mothers interviewed had 262 children under 12 years at home. Their care arrangements were: a relative (69%), father (16%), older sibling (4%), religious organisation (2.7%), neighbour (1.3%). None had received social services support. 70 children accompanied mothers into prison. In the 30 children followed up regularly 23% had scabies, 10% pediculosis, and 7% impetigo. No severe malnutrition was found and screening for tuberculosis was negative. 70% were breastfed. The child-friendly dormitory was inadequate to accommodate all children. Care arrangements and schooling were affected and no counselling services were provided during the imprisoned mothers' absence. The children within the prison enjoyed close bonds with the mothers and their physical needs were met. The child's best interest had not always been considered by court when deciding on custody during the mothers' imprisonment.

  20. Culpa o Responsabilidad: Terapia con Madres de Niñas y Niños que han Sufrido Abuso Sexual Blame or Responsibility: Therapy for Mothers of Girls and Boys who had Suffered Sexual Abuse

    Caroline Sinclair


    Full Text Available Se desarrolla un modelo psicoterapéutico para madres de niñas y niños que sufrieron abuso sexual intrafamiliar, considerando que el apoyo materno es el factor más significativo en la moderación del impacto traumático en los niños. La literatura tradicional se ha centrado en dilucidar el rol de la madre en la génesis del abuso, predominando un enfoque culpabilizador que contribuye a su descalificación como figura protectora post-revelación. Se propone un enfoque de responsabilidad que destaca la importancia de desarrollar intervenciones que, junto con potenciar la activación de sus recursos protectores, permita acoger el impacto traumático de la madre ante el abuso y sus consecuencias. El modelo propuesto considera los objetivos de la terapia con la madre y las fases del proceso.This article explains the development of a psychotherapeutic model for mothers of girls and boys who have undergone intra-familiar sexual abuse. Our model considers that maternal support is the most significant factor minimizing the abused child's traumatic impact. Traditional literature has focused in explaining the mother's role in the origins of sexual abuse with a predominating blame approach, which contributes to her disqualification as a protective figure. Far from a blame approach, our method proposes a responsibility approach highlighting the importance of interventions prompting the activation of the mother's protective resources and allowing them to deal with her traumatic impact when they have to face her child's sexual abuse and its consequences. This model describes both, therapeutic goals with the mother and process stages.

  1. Breastfeeding considerations of opioid dependent mothers and infants.

    Hilton, Tara C


    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has a long-standing recommendation against breastfeeding if the maternal methadone dose is above 20 mg/day. In 2001, the AAP lifted the dose restriction of maternal methadone allowing methadone-maintained mothers to breastfeed. The allowance of breastfeeding among mothers taking methadone has been met with opposition due to the uncertainty that exists related to methadone exposure of the suckling infant. Methadone-maintained mothers are at higher risk for abuse, concomitant psychiatric disorders, limited access to healthcare, and financial hardship. Breastfeeding rates among methadone-maintained women tend to be low compared to the national average. This manuscript will discuss the implications for healthcare practitioners caring for methadone-maintained mothers and infants and associated risks and benefits of breastfeeding. This population of mothers and infants stands to obtain particular benefits from the various well-known advantages of breastfeeding.

  2. 29 CFR 788.7 - “Planting or tending trees.”


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPlanting or tending trees.â 788.7 Section 788.7 Labor... MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.7 “Planting or tending trees.” Employees employed in “planting or tending trees” include those engaged in weeding, preparing firebreaks, removing “seeding...

  3. Increasing Working Mothers' Earnings: The Importance of Race, Family, and Job Characteristics. Research-in-Brief.

    Fuller, Taleria R.

    Women's economic responsibility for their families has increased as more married women contribute to family income and more mothers head families alone. In view of this fact, a study compared the characteristics of Black, White, and Hispanic working mothers and the factors affecting working mothers' wages. Black working mothers were much less…

  4. Incongruent Teen Pregnancy Attitudes, Coparenting Conflict, and Support Among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers.

    Denny, T; Jahromi, Laudan B; Zeiders, Katharine H


    The current longitudinal study examined whether differences between Mexican-origin adolescent mothers and their mother figures ( N = 204 dyads) in attitudes on the status attained through teen pregnancy were associated with conflict in their coparenting relationship and whether coparenting conflict was associated with adolescent mothers' perceptions of social support. Findings revealed that when adolescents held more positive attitudes than their mother figures about the status gained through teen pregnancy, they tended to report greater coparenting conflict with their mother figures. Furthermore, greater coparenting conflict was significantly associated with decreases in adolescents' perceptions of social support (i.e., emotional, instrumental, companion support) 1 year later. Findings underscore the importance of incongruent attitudes and the quality of coparenting relationships between adolescent mothers and their mother figures in relation to support processes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' social support in the context of family subsystem attitudes and interactions.

  5. Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Style among Jewish and Arab Mothers in Israel

    Pasternak, Rachel


    Parental modeling of behavior has long been considered a major socialization process for children. In this piece, the author explores how parenting behavior is passed from one generation to the next, focusing on parenting styles among Jewish and Muslim mothers in Israel. The results indicate that young mothers tend to reproduce their parents'…

  6. Stimulus Control: The Sought or Unsought Influence of the Objects We Tend to

    Morsella, Ezequiel; Larson, Lindsay R. L.; Zarolia, Pareezad; Bargh, John A.


    Does the mere presence of the things we have tended to influence our actions systematically, in ways that escape our awareness? For example, while entering a tool shed, does perceiving objects that we once tended to (e.g., tools, musical instruments) influence how we then execute a simple action (e.g., flicking the shed's light switch)? Ancient…

  7. WIC mothers' depressive symptoms are associated with greater use of feeding to soothe, regardless of perceived child negativity.

    Savage, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L


    Maternal symptoms of depression are related to suboptimal parenting practices and child well-being; women with elevated symptoms tend to be less responsive to their children. The objective is to explore how maternal depressive symptomatology is related to childhood obesity-promoting parenting behaviours, and whether depressive symptomatology moderates the association between perceived child negativity and the use of food to soothe among low-income mothers. There is a cross-sectional sample of 60 mothers and their formula fed infants/toddlers participating in the Special Supplemental Woman, Infants and Children Program. Measures included the Infant Behaviors Questionnaire, Baby's Basic Needs Questionnaire, the feeding problem assessment form and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Depressive symptoms exceeded the clinical screening cut-off for 38% of women. Mothers with depressive symptoms perceived their child to be more negative and were more likely to use food to soothe, add cereal to the bottle and put baby to bed with bottle than mothers without depressive symptoms. Generalized linear models revealed that child negativity was associated with greater use of food to soothe but that this effect was moderated by maternal depression: negativity was positively associated with food to soothe among non-depressed but not depressed mothers. A high proportion of low-income mothers reported elevated depressive symptoms; depressive symptomatology was positively associated with perceived child negativity and greater reported use of controlling feeding practices. Screening for maternal depressive symptoms may help in providing more individually tailored counselling on responsive feeding. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  8. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia


    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.

  9. [Effects of target tree tending on community structure and diversity in subtropical natural secondary shrubs].

    Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Guo Mo; Bai, Shang Bin; Wang, Yi Xiang; You, Yu Jie; Zhu, Ting Ting; Zhang, Hua Feng


    The typical natural secondary shrub community was chosen in Lin'an of Zhejiang Pro-vince to discover its possibility of restoration to arbor forest with three kinds of forest management models being taken, i.e., no care as control, closed forest management and target tree tending. Over four years growth, compared with control, closed forest management significantly increased average DBH and height by 130% and 50%, respectively, while 260% and 110% for target tree tending. In target tree tending plots, larger trees had been emerging with 4.5-8.5 cm diameter class and 4.5-8.5 m height class and formed a new storey of 4 m compared with control. The species biodiversity indexes at shrub layer were significantly increased in closed management plots, and did not decrease in target tree tending plots. Closed forest management did not change the tree species composition, following its previous succession direction. However, target tree tending increased the importance value of target species with the high potential succession direction of mixed coniferous-broadleaved forest. The results revealed that the secondary shrub community with target tree tending achieved more desired goals on DBH and height growth of dominant trees and species composition improvement compared with closed management. If the secondary shrub community could be managed when the operational conditions existed, target tree tending model should be selected to accelerate the restoration of shrub toward arbor forest.

  10. Mothers’ Part-time Employment: Associations with Mother and Family Well-being

    Buehler, Cheryl; O’Brien, Marion


    The associations between mothers’ part-time employment and mother well-being, parenting, and family functioning were examined using seven waves of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data (N = 1,364), infancy through middle childhood. Concurrent comparisons were made between families in which mothers were employed part time and both those in which mothers were not employed and those in which mothers were employed full time. Using multivariate analysis of covariance with extensive controls, results indicated that mothers employed part time had fewer depressive symptoms during the infancy and preschool years and better self-reported health at most time points than did nonemployed mothers. Across the time span studied, mothers working part time tended to report less conflict between work and family than those working full time. During their children’s preschool years, mothers employed part time exhibited more sensitive parenting than did other mothers, and at school age were more involved in school and provided more learning opportunities than mothers employed full time. Mothers employed part time reported doing a higher proportion of child care and housework than mothers employed full time. Part-time employment appears to have some benefits for mothers and families throughout the child-rearing years. PMID:22004432

  11. Safeguarding nutritional status of adolescent mothers

    Calderon de la Barca, A.M.; Bolanos, A.V.; Caire Juvera, G.; Roman Perez, R.; Regil, L.M. de; Valencia, M.E.; Casanueva, E.; Sanesteban, V.


    Milk intake of breast-fed infants and body composition of 47 lactating mothers from Northwest and Central Mexico were monitored at 1 and 3 mo postpartum by the deuterium dilution technique and infrared detection. Milk quality was evaluated directly as milk composition and indirectly by infant growth. Maternal body fat tended to be lower in Central than in Northwest Mexico and was significant at 1 mo postpartum (p 0.05) in Z score values for weight/length for infants in the two regions at 3 mo. Neither adolescent or adult mothers from Northwest or Central Mexican regions were undernourished and they produced adequate milk volume and composition to feed their infants and maintain their growth pattern until 3 months postpartum. (author)

  12. Reintegration of young mothers

    Miranda Worthen


    Full Text Available Young mothers seeking reintegration after periods of time spent livingwith fighting forces and armed groups face exclusion and stigmarather than the support they and their children badly need.

  13. Teaching and Mother Love.

    Klein, J. Theodore


    The teaching context is analogous to the context of maternal practice, reflecting the nature of the relationship between adult and child; and as such, the appropriate practice of mother love is seen as an ideal for teaching. (IAH)

  14. Abstinent Heroin Addicts Tend to Take Risks: ERP and Source Localization

    Qinglin Zhao


    Full Text Available Abnormal decision making is a behavioral characteristic of drug addiction. Indeed, drug addicts prefer immediate rewards at the expense of future interests. Assessing the neurocognitive basis of decision-making related to drug dependence, combining event-related potential (ERP analysis and source localization techniques, may provide new insights into understanding decision-making deficits in drug addicts and further guide withdrawal treatment. In this study, EEG was performed in 20 abstinent heroin addicts (AHAs and 20 age-, education- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs while they participated in a simple two-choice gambling task (99 vs. 9. Our behavioral results showed that AHAs tend to select higher-risk choices compared with HCs (i.e., more “99” choices than “9”. ERP results showed that right hemisphere preponderance of stimulus-preceding negativity was disrupted in AHAs, but not in HCs. Feedback-related negativity of difference wave was higher in AHAs than HCs, with the P300 amplitude associated with risk magnitude and valence. Using source localization that allows identification of abnormal brain activity in consequential cognitive stages, including the reward expectation and outcome evaluation stages, we found abnormalities in both behavioral and neural responses on gambling in AHAs. Taken together, our findings suggest AHAs have risk-prone tendency and dysfunction in adaptive decision making, since they continue to choose risky options even after accruing considerable negative scores, and fail to shift to a safer strategy to avoid risk. Such abnormal decision-making bias to risk and immediate reward seeking may be accompanied by abnormal reward expectation and evaluation in AHAs, which explains their high risk-seeking and impulsivity.

  15. Mothers with intellectual disabilities

    Kolarič, Sandra


    For the theoretical part of this master's thesis foreign literature and finished foreign researches were studied. In this part of the thesis the characteristics of mothers with intellectual disabilities; factors, which influence the success of carrying out their mother role; and the rights of people with intellectual disabilities as parents, all based on Slovene legislation are included. We listed reasons for limiting reproduction for women with intellectual disabilities and issues concerning...

  16. Prevention of and response to inadvertent exposure of embryo/fetus to ionizing radiation, due to medical exposure of the mother. The Greek regulatory authority initiatives.

    Economides, Sotirios; Boziari, Argiro; Vogiatzi, Stavroula; Hourdakis, Konstantinos J; Kamenopoulou, Vassiliki; Dimitriou, Panagiotis


    Embryo/fetus (E/F) irradiation as a result of medical exposure of the mother should be avoided, unless there are strong clinical indications. Medical practitioners are assigned the primary task and obligation of ensuring overall patient protection and safety in the prescription of and during the delivery of medical exposure. In cases of unintended exposure of embryo/fetus (E/F), the risk analysis and communication is conducted by or under the supervision of medical physicists at local level. National competent authorities can contribute to the prevention, risk analysis and communication of inadvertent E/F exposure to ionizing radiation by recording, analyzing and disseminating the relevant information. Since 2001, Greek Atomic Energy Commission has established a committee with the mandate to provide advice, to keep records, to analyze and disseminate the experience gained in cases of unintended E/F exposure. During the period 2001-2011, the committee was consulted by 269 pregnant women undergone medical exposures. The conclusions from the relevant data analysis, as well as the experience gained are herein presented and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Influence of Maternal Language Responsiveness on the Expressive Speech Production of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Microanalysis of Mother-Child Play Interactions

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.


    Adult responsiveness is related to language development both in young typically developing children and in children with autism spectrum disorders, such that parents who use more responsive language with their children have children who develop better language skills over time. This study used a micro-analytic technique to examine how two facets…


    Yulia F. Lakhvich


    Full Text Available To become a mother … To be a mother … What does it mean for a woman? And what else changes her life so irreversibly, allows to see the world in a different way and discovers new, earlier unknown features? Probably, nothing does. However, there is also a question how a woman bearing a child and carrying out motherhood responsibilities and a woman who has not given life to a child, but carrying out the same responsibilities, goes through the process of motherhood. It is one of the questions that was studied in a comparative research of the adaptation process in the Belarusian adoptive and biological families in case of a child appearing in the family. The study involved 64 adoptive and 62 biological mothers.

  19. The Impact of Socio-Demographic Variables, Social Support and Child Sex on Mother-Infant and Father-Infant Interaction

    Cesar Augusto Piccinini


    Full Text Available In this study we examine the impact of family socioeconomic status (SES, of social support as perceived by mothers, and of their three-month-olds child's sex, on mother-infant and father-infant interaction. A total of 58 mothers and 52 fathers were observed interacting with their infants. Univariate Analysis of Variance (ANOVA revealed several significant differences, particularly regarding maternal behaviors. Mothers from the highest SES level both talked to and interpreted their infants' behavior more than did lowest SES mothers. Social support perceived as unsatisfactory was associated with a greater amount of touch and stimulation during mother-infant interaction and also more infant vocalization. Mothers and fathers tended to talk more to their same-sex infants, and fathers tended to kiss and caress their sons more than they did their daughters. These results suggest particularities in the mother-infant and fatherinfant interaction when the infant was three months old.

  20. Underemployment among Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Kröger, Teppo; Pu, Cheng-yun


    Background: Mothers with lifelong care responsibilities might involuntarily be non-employed or work part-time, both of which are defined as "underemployment." This study aimed to investigate who these underemployed mothers are and what are the factors associated with such employment hardship when having a child with intellectual…



    exclusive breastfeeding, HIV-positive mothers, aged 21-41 years, married and unemployed, participated during two visits to the study site. Responses to semi- ... Five major themes emerged: (i) benefits of breast milk to the mother and the baby ...

  2. "I'm so Much More Myself Now, Coming Back to Work"--Working Class Mothers, Paid Work and Childcare

    Braun, Annette; Vincent, Carol; Ball, Stephen J.


    This paper explores the ways in which working class mothers negotiate mothering and paid work. Drawing on interviews with 70 families with pre-school children, we examine how caring and working responsibilities are conceptualised and presented in mothers' narratives. Mothers showed a high degree of commitment to paid work and, in contrast to…

  3. Work/non-workday differences in mother, child, and mother-child morning cortisol in a sample of working mothers and their children.

    Hibel, Leah C; Trumbell, Jill M; Mercado, Evelyn


    Mothers have been shown to have higher morning cortisol on days they go to work compared to non-workdays; however, it is unknown how maternal workday associates with child morning cortisol or the attunement of mother-child morning cortisol. This study examined the presence and stability of morning cortisol levels and slopes (i.e., cortisol awakening response or CAR) in a sample of 2-4year old children in out-of-home child care with working mothers. In addition, we examined the differential contributions of maternal workday on mother-child attunement in morning cortisol. Mother and child morning cortisol was sampled twice a day (awakening and 30min later) across four consecutive days (2 non-workdays; 2 workdays) among 47 working mothers and their young children. Mothers also reported on compliance with sampling procedures and provided demographic information. While children exhibited stability in cortisol levels, children's CARs were variable, with children's non-work CARs not predictive of work CARs. Similarly, a significant morning rise in cortisol was only found on workdays, not non-workdays. Overall, mothers had higher cortisol levels and steeper CARs than their children. Further, maternal workday moderated the attunement of mother-child morning cortisol, such that mothers and children had concordant cortisol levels on non-workdays, but discordant cortisol levels on workdays. Morning cortisol may be more variable in pre-school aged children than adults but may be similarly responsive to the social environment. Further, workday mornings may be a time of reduced mother-child cortisol attunement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Why do mothers of young infants choose to formula feed in China? Perceptions of mothers and hospital staff.

    Zhang, Ke; Tang, Li; Wang, Hong; Qiu, Liqian; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H


    In China the exclusive breastfeeding rate remains low and infant formula is widely used. This study aimed to elicit and compare mothers' and hospital staff perceptions of the reasons that shaped mothers' decision to formula feed. In-depth interviews with 50 mothers, and four focus group discussions with 33 hospital staff, were conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen in November 2014. Responses given by the mothers and hospital staff showed a number of commonalities. The perception of "insufficient breast milk" was cited by the majority of women (n = 37, 74%) as the reason for formula feeding. Mothers' confidence in breastfeeding appears to be further reduced by maternal mothers or mothers-in-law's and "confinement ladies" misconceptions about infant feeding. Inadequate breastfeeding facilities and limited flexibility at their workplace was another common reason given for switching to formula feeding. A substantial proportion of mothers (n = 27, 54%) lacked an understanding of the health benefits of breastfeeding. Antenatal education on breastfeeding benefits for expectant mothers and their families is recommended. Moreover, mothers should be provided with breastfeeding support while in hospital and be encouraged to seek professional assistance to deal with breastfeeding problems after discharge. Employers should also make work environments more breastfeeding-friendly.

  5. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Jacek Hołówka


    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  6. Breastfeeding and weaning practices in Bahrain: the role of mothers' education.

    Musaiger, A O; Abdulkhalek, N


    This rapid assessment survey was undertaken to find out the current practices of infant feeding in Bahrain and the impact of educational level of the mothers on these practices. A total sample of 200 Bahraini mothers of children less than 2 years were interviewed in the health centers. The age of mothers ranged from 18 to 47 years. About one third of mothers (39.8%) initiated breastfeeding at the first hour of delivery, and there was no significant association between education of mothers and initiating of breastfeeding. Most infants were placed in the same bed as their mothers (71%), however the proportion was lower among infants with high education (61.8%) compared to low (73.7%) and middle (72.5%) education mothers. The introduction of foods during the first 3 days of the infant's life as well as the practising of breastfeeding on schedule increased with the increased of educational level of mothers. Highly educated mothers tended to introduce rice, wheat, infant formula and fruit at an earlier age of the infant's life than other education groups. The study demonstrates an improvement in infant feeding practices during the last decade. However, the practice of sound infant feeding was less among highly educated mothers when compared to low and middle education mothers. This is mainly due to socio-economic factors rather than lack of awareness.


    Ana-Maria MANDIUC


    A large number of women who practice prostitution get pregnant and have the child. When a mother continues practicing prostitution, while at the same time trying to fulfill parental responsibilities, the child’s rights could end up being violated because of the characteristics of the two roles the woman adopts. The present paper presents the case study of a child of schooling age and whose mother practiced prostitution. The child was put in foster care after the mother’s death and the case st...

  8. Our Mother Corn.

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  9. Mothers in Honors

    Killinger, Mimi; Binder-Hathaway, Rachel; Mitchell, Paige; Patrick, Emily


    This article describes the experiences of four honors mothers as they offer sage advice. They argue convincingly that they are motivated, focused students who bring rich diversity to college programs. They further report disturbing marginalization and isolation that could be ameliorated with support and increased sensitivity on the part of…

  10. Mothers, Learners and Countermemory

    Quinn, Jocey


    This article explores how issues of learning and mothering emerged in research with women students. First it develops the notion of 'a motherhood standpoint'. It then considers how Foucault's concept of 'counter-memory', and, in particular, its reworking in feminist cultural theory as 'countermemory', can be used to explain why students…

  11. Parenting perceptions of low-income mothers.

    Webb, Jenny; Morris, Melanie Hall; Thomas, Sandra P; Combs-Orme, Terri


    The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to gain understanding of perceptions of low-income pregnant women and mothers about parenting. Participants were 65 low-income, primarily African American, women in their 20s and 30s who were recruited from a faith-based social service center in Memphis, Tennessee. Interviews were conducted by nursing, social work, and psychology students. The existential phenomenological method was used to analyze verbatim responses of participants to vignettes depicting parenting behaviors of hypothetical mothers. Five global themes were identified: (a) Focus on baby's development: "Because I'm the Mother, I'm the First Teacher"; (b) Focus on baby's safety/security: "The Baby Could Be Hurt"; (c) Focus on conveying love: "She Just Wants the Baby to Feel Her Love"; (d) Focus on learning the rules of good childcare: "It's Important to Know the Do's and Don'ts"; and (e) Focus on doing it differently (better) than parents did: "When You Know Better, You Do Better." Findings suggest that these mothers care deeply about providing a better life for their children than the life they have had. They desire to learn about being the best parents they can be. As nurses, we can help to provide educational opportunities for mothers through a variety of evidence-based interventions delivered across the childbearing years.

  12. Heritability of Tpeak-Tend Interval and T-wave Amplitude: A Twin Study

    Haarmark, Christian; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Vedel-Larsen, Esben


    BACKGROUND: -Tpeak-Tend interval (TpTe) and T-wave amplitude (Tamp) carry diagnostic and prognostic information regarding cardiac morbidity and mortality. Heart rate and QT interval are known to be heritable traits. The heritability of T-wave morphology parameters such as TpTe and Tamp is unknown...... interval, QTpeak and QTend interval) were measured and averaged over three consecutive beats in lead V5. TpTe was calculated as the QTend and QTpeak interval difference. Heritability was assessed using structural equation models adjusting for age, gender and BMI. All models were reducible to a model...... of additive genetics and unique environment. All variables had considerable genetic components. Adjusted heritability estimates were: TpTe 46%, Tamp lead V1 34%, Tamp lead V5 47%, RR interval 55%, QT interval 67% and QTcB 42%. CONCLUSIONS: -RR interval, QT-interval, T-wave amplitude and Tpeak-Tend interval...

  13. Predatory behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus (Diptera, Syrphidae on aphids tended by ants

    Alexandra Bächtold


    Full Text Available Predatory behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus (Diptera, Syrphidae on aphids tended by ants. In this study, we examined the interactions between myrmecophilous aphids, their ant-guards and a predatory syrphid species, Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Larvae of this predator were found in the colonies of three aphid species: Aphis gossypii, A. spiraecola and Toxoptera sp., which were tended by eight ant species, especially Camponotus. Hoverfly larvae managed to infiltrate the aphid colonies and consume nymphs. Predator larvae exhibited inconspicuous movements and were not detected by ants which were commonly observed touching and antennating the larvae they come into contact. These results suggest that behavioral and chemical cues are involved in the infiltration and on the successful predation of syrphids upon aphids.

  14. Factors That May Tend to Limit the Religious Education of Recruits


    chaplains also mentioned the following as tending to limit recruit religious education : (1) a lack of adequate chapel facilities , (2) not enough chaplains...inadequate chapel facilities at Recruit Training Command for recruit worship and religious education . This is a particular concern for the Catholic and... education . Procedures Data was gathered by distributing questionnaires to members of Division Six on October 22-23, 1991. Participation was voluntary

  15. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen tends to decrease in poorly-differentiated colorectal cancer

    Ester Morina Silalahi


    This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 40 CRC subjects from July 2012 until May 2013. Determination of serum CEA and CA 19-9 levels and histopathological (cellular differentiation grades in CRC biopsies was done in all subjects. RESULTS The study involved forty CRC patients, consisting of 22 males and 18 females, with mean age of 51.93 ± 11.63 years, CEA levels of 51.93 ± 84.07 ng/ml and CA 19-9 levels of 33.81 ± 62.39 U/ml. Carcino-embryonic antigen levels tended to decrease with decreasing CRC histopathological grade, while CA 19-9 levels increased in well-differentiated CRC. However, both relationships were statistically not significant (with p=0.314 and p=0.787, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels tend to decrease with decreasing histopathological grade of CRC, and CA 19-9 levels tend to increase in well-differentiated CRC.

  16. Mentor mother support for mothers experiencing intimate partner violence in family practice: A qualitative study of three different perspectives on the facilitators and barriers of implementation.

    Loeffen, Maartje J W; Daemen, Jasper; Wester, Fred P J F; Laurant, Miranda G H; Lo Fo Wong, Sylvie H; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M


    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is highly prevalent and associated with physical and mental health problems. Mentor mother support is a low threshold intervention in family practice consisting of support by non-professionals trained to support mothers experiencing IPV. A mentor mother support study showed reduced exposure to IPV and decreased symptoms of depression. Identify factors determining implementation success of mentor mother support in family practice. Individual interviews were conducted with 12 family physicians, 16 abused mothers and three mentor mothers. Four mentor mothers participated in a focus group. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. The identification and discussion of abuse is hindered by family physicians' attitudes because they considered mothers experiencing IPV as a difficult target group with a responsibility of their own to break out of their violent situation. Some family physicians doubted the partner's violence because he was known as a patient as well. Acceptance of mentor mother support is related to the readiness for change of mothers experiencing IPV. Mentor mothers facilitate acceptance and completion of their support by connecting as a friend who is equal and less threatening than professionals. To improve successful implementation of mentor mother support in primary care, we should focus on family physicians' attitudes towards IPV. To change these attitudes, we recommend continuous training of family physicians. By being paraprofessional friends, mentor mothers offer low threshold support that is complementary to professional support and should be embedded more widely in primary care. [Box: see text].


    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.


  18. The short-term stress response - Mother nature's mechanism for enhancing protection and performance under conditions of threat, challenge, and opportunity.

    Dhabhar, Firdaus S


    Our group has proposed that in contrast to chronic stress that can have harmful effects, the short-term (fight-or-flight) stress response (lasting for minutes to hours) is nature's fundamental survival mechanism that enhances protection and performance under conditions involving threat/challenge/opportunity. Short-term stress enhances innate/primary, adaptive/secondary, vaccine-induced, and anti-tumor immune responses, and post-surgical recovery. Mechanisms and mediators include stress hormones, dendritic cell, neutrophil, macrophage, and lymphocyte trafficking/function and local/systemic chemokine and cytokine production. Short-term stress may also enhance mental/cognitive and physical performance through effects on brain, musculo-skeletal, and cardiovascular function, reappraisal of threat/anxiety, and training-induced stress-optimization. Therefore, short-term stress psychology/physiology could be harnessed to enhance immuno-protection, as well as mental and physical performance. This review aims to provide a conceptual framework and targets for further investigation of mechanisms and conditions under which the protective/adaptive aspects of short-term stress/exercise can be optimized/harnessed, and for developing pharmacological/biobehavioral interventions to enhance health/healing, and mental/cognitive/physical performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescent girls' communication with "mothers" about topical microbicides.

    Sunder, Punita K; Ramos, Stephanie; Short, Mary B; Rosenthal, Susan L


    Topical microbicides, a female-initiated method to protect against sexually transmitted infections (STI) and pregnancy, will only be effective if found acceptable. Mothers may have an influence on acceptability and use among adolescent girls. The current study examined the communication between girls and mothers to understand the potential predictors and nature of conversations regarding surrogate microbicide products. Sexually experienced girls, 14 to 21 years, were recruited for a 6-month study examining microbicide acceptability. During face-to-face interviews, qualitative data were collected regarding communication between girls and mothers. Two independent raters coded the responses, which were organized into themes. Themes were interpreted according to the conceptual understanding of mother-daughter communication. Fifty percent of the 171 girls with codable responses had a conversation with their mother. Higher levels of indirect parental monitoring were related to being more likely to have a conversation. Concrete events related to the study (i.e. receiving phone call from the researcher, having an appointment, or seeing the product) or inquiries by mothers appeared to promote conversation. Barriers to conversation included the private nature of the information and relationship issues between the mother and daughter. Conversations often addressed issues related to girls' participation in the study, although some conversations included global issues related to sexuality. Girls may talk to their mothers about new products for STI prevention, and such conversations may provide opportunities to promote use.

  20. Conduct of breastfeeding among young Tunisian Mothers

    Miniaoui, Rim; Zediri, Manel; Mankai, Amani; Aouidet, Abdallah; Hamoudia, Faouzia


    Full text: Introduction: Breastfeeding is a natural phenomenon that reflects reality and occupies an important space in the life of all human beings. It is the reference for infant feeding since it is the food better tailored to his needs as its capabilities. The decision to make this practice is the responsibility of each parent. However, it is found that although mothers in particular young age properly begin the practice of breastfeeding, they end, for various reasons by early introduction of other foods or even stop breastfeeding few weeks after the delivery. Objectives: We aim from this study to examine the behavior of young mothers in breastfeeding, determine the impact of attitudes of mothers on the nutritional status of infants and encourage policymakers health to establish a line of action to initiate future and young mothers to breastfeed. Methods: This is a prospective study of 50 young mothers coming to consult or to vaccinate their children aged 2 to 23 months at the center of maternal and child of El Zouhour. Results: The analysis of our results showed that 76% of surveyed mothers have a high level of education, half primiparous and 64% are housewives. Concerning the practice of breastfeeding, we found that 42% of surveyed mothers have weaned their children and only 26% of them believe breastfeeding or breast-feed their infants exclusively for the first six months. Moreover, we noted That among children suffering from obesity 2nd degree be 16% of the total population , 87.5% of them were not (or are not) exclusively breastfed for the first six month of life. However, this relationship is not statistically significant. Conclusion: The evolution of knowledge of young mothers has not influenced their practices in breastfeeding. This requires the establishment of a line of action to promote breastfeeding based on the evaluation of implemented national programs in recent years, the update of their content and the improvement of training of personnel of

  1. Mothering at a Distance: what incarcerated mothers value about a parenting programme.

    Rossiter, Chris; Power, Tamara; Fowler, Cathrine; Jackson, Debra; Hyslop, Deirdre; Dawson, Angela


    Children with incarcerated mothers experience adverse health, social and emotional circumstances, and are a particularly vulnerable group. Mothers in custody face significant challenges in parenting their children. The study aimed to identify participants' views on impact of a parenting support programme for incarcerated mothers in NSW Australia. The mixed-methods study examined 134 responses to open and closed questions on a questionnaire for programme participants. Participants found the programme worthwhile, engaging and relevant. It enhanced their parenting knowledge and confidence. Open-ended responses highlighted program elements which participants valued, specifically support for their parenting role in complicated circumstances, greater understanding of child development and perspectives, and practical strategies for facilitating connections with their children during their incarceration. The study informs nurses working with women who have experienced incarceration and their children, both in custodial and community settings.

  2. Who knows more about the impact of malocclusion on children's quality of life, mothers or fathers?

    Zhang, Man; McGrath, Colman; Hägg, Urban


    Shared decision making between children and parents is required in orthodontics. This study compared agreement among mothers, fathers, and children regarding the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children. A sample of 71 child patients (41 girls and 30 boys) aged 12.6 years with an orthodontic treatment need, together with both their parents completed components of the child OHRQoL measure. Agreement among children, mothers, and fathers was derived from the 31 analogous questions and assessed using comparison and correlation analyses. Comparison analyses identified significant differences between mother's and children's reports and between father's and children's reports. The magnitude of the difference between mother's and children's reports, and between father's and children's reports could best be described as moderate (standard difference >0.2). In addition, absolute differences in scores constituted between 12 and 18 per cent of domain and overall scores for both mother's and children's, and father's and children's reports. Correlation analysis, at the individual family unit level, showed that agreement between mothers and children, and between fathers and children was fair [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) mothers nor fathers know their child's oral health status very well, as there was significant disagreement between mothers', fathers', and children's perceptions. The disagreement between mothers and children, and fathers and children was similar. While at the group level, mothers and fathers tended to agree on perception of their children's oral health status, at an individual family unit level they did not.

  3. Like mother like daughter: putamen activation as a mechanism underlying intergenerational risk for depression.

    Colich, Natalie L; Ho, Tiffany C; Ellwood-Lowe, Monica E; Foland-Ross, Lara C; Sacchet, Matthew D; LeMoult, Joelle L; Gotlib, Ian H


    Having a depressed mother is one of the strongest predictors for developing depression in adolescence. Given the role of aberrant reward processing in the onset and maintenance of depression, we examined the association between mothers' and their daughters' neural response to the anticipation of reward and loss. Fifteen non-depressed mothers with a history of recurrent depression and their never-disordered daughters, and 23 mothers without past or current depression and their never-disordered daughters, underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing the monetary incentive delay task. To assess mother-daughter concordance, we first identified ROIs involved in the anticipation of reward and loss across all mother-daughter pairs. Within each of these ROIs, we examined the association between mothers' and daughters' neural response, and the interaction between group status and mothers' neural response in predicting daughters' neural response. We found a significant association between mothers' and daughters' putamen response to the anticipation of loss, regardless of mother's depression history. Furthermore, pubertal stage moderated the association between mother-daughter putamen concordance. Our findings suggest a unique role of the putamen in the maternal transmission of reward learning and have important implications for understanding disorders characterized by disturbances in reward learning and processing, such as major depression. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Nobody asked the mother: women and maternity on Simbo, western Solomon Islands.

    Dureau, C


    This article's focus is on the role of mothers in Simbo, one of the New Georgia islands in the western Solomon Islands. Mother's role is examined from the standpoint of the actual experiences of motherhood and mother's perceptions and reactions to child rearing, child care, burdensome tasks, and social participation. Anthropological studies emphasize non-Western notions of maternity or romanticize the primitive. Obscured in the process is who these women really are. Western feminist accounts of Third World women emphasize the oppression and uniformity of the "natural" mother. This characterization of Simbo women is presented as a single non-Western view and is unrelated to a global vision. Simbo women as mothers feel oppressed and are envious of Western notions of parenting, yet at the same time feel that Western child rearing deprives the child. Maternity is a state of ambivalence, where women feel both love for and oppression by children, spouses, and other women. The tasks and responsibilities of childbearing are more difficult because of increased fertility and changes in social practices. Women without children are viewed with sympathy and mild condescension. Changes in social practices are in part due to the presence of missionaries after 1903 and the over 200 year involvement of the islands in world trading. The most significant impact on women post-Christianity is the change from the emphasis on female-child relationships to male-female relationships. Pre-Christianity, marriage ceremonies stressed equality of spouses and their kin groups. New customs emphasize brideprice and the husband's authority over women's bodies. The change in power affects fertility levels, child care, women's work, and contraception. Men today do less labor relative to women and, when husbands are absent due to temporary labor migration, women may not have any help. The nuclear family is responsible for all labor. Women specifically tend the gardens and house, care for children, and

  5. Latina mothers' influences on child appetite regulation.

    Silva Garcia, Karina; Power, Thomas G; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O


    Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices would be positively associated with child appetite regulation. Participants were low-income Latino children-a group at high risk for the development of childhood obesity. A total of 186 low-income Latina mothers and their 4-5 year old children came to a laboratory on two separate days. On the first day, mothers and children chose foods for a meal from a buffet and were audio/videotaped so that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices could be later coded. On the second day, children completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) task to measure child appetite regulation. Mothers also completed the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to measure other aspects of child appetite regulation (food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, and emotional overeating). Maternal autonomy promotion during serving was assessed using seven separate measures of child and maternal behavior. Principal components analyses of these serving measures yielded three components: allows child choice, child serves food, and mother does not restrict. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal autonomy promoting serving practices (i.e., allows child choice and does not restrict) were negatively associated with maternal reports of child food responsiveness and emotional overeating (CEBQ). The results for the EAH task were more complex-mothers who were autonomy promoting in their serving practices had children who ate the most in the absence of hunger, but this linear effect was moderated somewhat by a quadratic effect, with moderate levels of autonomy promotion during serving associated with the greatest child EAH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Soy-isoflavone supplementation tends to reduce menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women

    Raditya Wratsangka


    Full Text Available Background Menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women tend to decrease health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The present study’s objective was to determine the effect of daily supplementation of 100 mg soy isoflavones on menopausal symptoms of healthy postmenopausal women. Isoflavones are phytoestrogens abundantly found in soy beans, and several studies have demonstrated that isoflavones are the best among the phytoestrogens. Methods The study was a community-based double blind randomized controlled trial involving 60 healthy postmenopausal women, aged between 48–60 years, in the Mampang Prapatan District, South Jakarta. Participants were block-randomized to receive either 100 mg soy-isoflavone + 500 mg calcium carbonate (intervention group or 500 mg calcium carbonate only (control group. Both supplements were taken daily for 12 weeks, from January to April 2010. Menopausal symptoms (measured by Menopause Rating Scale questionnaire were assessed at baseline and after supplementation. Chi-square test was used to examine the effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on menopausal symptoms. Results Fifty-six (93.3% of participants completed the study. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05 in the prevalence of menopausal symptoms between the isoflavone group and the control group. However, supplementation of soy isoflavones for 12 weeks tended to decrease the prevalence of menopausal symptoms in women with normal body mass index and adequate daily dietary isoflavone intake. Conclusion Daily supplementation of 100 mg soy isoflavones for 12 weeks tend to decrease the incidence of menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women.

  7. The TENDL neutron data library and the TEND1038 38-group neutron constant system

    Abramovich, S.N.; Gorelov, V.P.; Gorshikhin, A.A.; Grebennikov, A.N.; Il'in, V.N.; Krut'ko, N.A.; Farafontov, G.G.


    The library contains neutron data for 103 nuclei - i.e. for 38 actinide nuclei (from 232 Th to 249 Cm), 26 fission fragment nuclei and 39 nuclei in structural and technological materials. The 38-group constants were obtained from TENDL. The high-energy group boundary is 20 MeV. The energy range below 1.2 eV contains 11 groups. Temperature and resonance effects were taken into account. The delayed neutron parameters for 6 groups and the yields of 40 fission fragments were obtained (light and heavy, stable and non-stable). The fast neutron features of spherical critical assemblies were calculated using constants from TEND1038. (author)

  8. Help for breastfeeding mothers. Support groups.


    Many people including some health workers and physicians believe bottle feeding is just as good as breast feeding, even though bottle feeding poses some dangers to infants. Further, health workers in hospital often are too busy to counsel new mothers in breast feeding or are simply not trained to do so. Moreover, young women often live in areas away from their family and friends thus not living close to women with whom they are familiar and who could guide them in mastering breast feeding skills. So new mothers who want to breast feed have no support, lack confidence, and/or feel they cannot do so because they work or have other responsibilities. Support groups for new breast feeding mothers can provide them with the needed confidence to breast feed by allowing them to discuss concerns with other new mothers and an experienced leader and to learn the advantages of breast feeding, e.g., a breast fed infant is never constipated. A confident experienced woman in breast feeding is best suited to start a support group in a community. She needs to promote the group by talking to health workers and physicians and advertising at maternity hospitals, women's organizations, and health centers. Once the support group has become successful, several mothers can undergo training to start and lead new support groups. If no national breast feeding promotion organization exists to offer advice on starting a support group, the article provides addresses of international organizations. At support group meetings, mothers learn how to breast feed, how to express and store breast milk, breast feed inconspicuously in public, how their bodies work, and about child growth and development. Support group members from the Philippines, Belize, Trinidad and Tobago, Australia, and singapore share their experiences.

  9. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Jacek Hołówka


    Full Text Available In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive. Chua shows this educational model as a contrast to the Western model, where the children have their own, naive and sentimental culture, their own shops and catwalks in shopping malls. The results of systematic research on education seem to prove something quite different. The educational success has to be measured using different scales, because it depends on different factors. The data published by OECD show that the level of education depends on the educational tradition of the society, level of GDP, intergenerational contacts, level of education of teachers and their social status. A strong determiner is the family, but not necessarily the mother. Even more, there is a strong correlation between the results in learning and a supporting stance of the parents, but also with their habit of spending free time with their children. The parents who take their children to the cinema, an a trip, gossip with them or take them to McDonalds, can be sure that their children will have statistically higher than the average grades. Detailed results from other sources show that success correlates the most with grades from previous class, parents’ habit of talking about things at school, higher education of the parents, being a child of a single mother, signing the child up for extracurricular classes from music and the mother working part-time. Failure correlates with being an Afro-American or Latino, checking homework by parents, free time after school without

  10. Ascribing Meaning to Occupation: An Example From Healthy, Working Mothers.

    Avrech Bar, Michal; Forwell, Susan; Backman, Catherine L


    Ascribing meaning to occupation is a multifaceted process. Understanding this process is illusive, yet fundamental to theory and practice. The objective is to describe the meaning that mothers ascribe to their occupations. A secondary analysis was conducted with data from a convenience sample of 35 Israeli mothers, ages 25 to 45 years. Data were collected using the Occupational Performance History Interview as part of a larger study. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analysis applied. Two main categories emerged: the meaning of "giving" (investing values) and the meaning of "receiving" (ensuring needs are met). Values such as responsibility require mothers to do occupations they find less desirable than others associated with the mothering role. The study illustrates how values and needs are intertwined to contribute to the meaning of occupation. Moreover, meaningful occupations can be undesirable but doing them arises from the values that drive mothers to fulfill this role. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Desinserción espontánea y bilateral del tendón cuadricipital.

    Jesuan Zordan


    Full Text Available La ruptura espontánea bilateral del tendón cuadricipital es una patología infrecuente (<5% de todas las rupturas cuadricipitales. El mayor número de casos reportados, se asocia a insuficiencia renal crónica,  obesidad, diabetes, lupus eritematoso sistémico, vasculitis e hiperparatiroidismo. Nuestro paciente, de 41 años de edad presenta insuficiencia renal crónica en tratamiento con hemodiálisis desde hace 8 años, asociada a hiperparatiroidismo secundario. Ingresa a nuestro servicio por incapacidad a la extensión de ambos miembros inferiores, tras incorporarse desde una silla, destacando en el examen físico una depresión palpable suprarrotuliana. Se realizan radiografías de ambas rodillas frente y perfil, ecografía de zona suprarrotuliana y resonancia magnética nuclear. Al  constatar lesión bilateral a nivel del tendón cuadricipital, se programa su reparación quirúrgica, la cual se realizó por cuestiones ajenas a nuestro servicio a los 30 días del diagnóstico. Se intervinieron de manera simultánea ambas rodillas utilizando como técnica, tunelización patelar y empleando suturas no reabsorbible. Se obtuvo un resultado excelente en ambos miembros inferiores según el Score Knee Society (S.N.S..

  12. Difficulties facing physician mothers in Japan.

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Kozono, Yuki; Mori, Ryo; Marui, Eiji


    Despite recent increases in the number of female physicians graduating in Japan, their premature resignations after childbirth are contributing to the acute shortage of physicians. Previous Japanese studies have explored supportive measures in the workplace, but have rarely focused on the specific problems or concerns of physician-mothers. Therefore, this study explored the challenges facing Japanese physician-mothers in efforts to identify solutions for their retention. Open-ended questionnaires were mailed to 646 alumnae of Juntendo University School of Medicine. We asked subjects to describe their opinions about 'The challenges related to female physicians' resignations'. Comments gathered from alumnae who graduated between 6 and 30 years ago and have children were analyzed qualitatively. Overall, 249 physicians returned the questionnaire (response rate 38.5%), and 73 alumnae with children who graduated in the stated time period provided comments. The challenges facing physician-mothers mainly consisted of factors associated with Japanese society, family responsibilities, and work environment. Japanese society epitomized by traditional gender roles heightened stress related to family responsibilities and promoted gender discrimination at work environment. Additionally, changing Japanese society positively influenced working atmosphere and husband's support. Moreover, the introduction of educational curriculums that alleviated traditional gender role was proposed for pre- and post- medical students. Traditional gender roles encourage discrimination by male physicians or work-family conflicts. The problems facing female physicians involve more than just family responsibilities: diminishing the notion of gender role is key to helping retain them in the workforce. © 2011 Tohoku University Medical Press

  13. Educational Leaders Who Are Mothers: The Negotiation of Their Roles as School Leader and Mother

    Boldur, Stephanie E.


    Women who work outside the home have two jobs: their workplace responsibilities and their home duties. Like working mothers in other fields, school administrators have the challenge of negotiating their rigorous jobs, often while running a household. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of female school administrators who are…

  14. 'It is hard for mums to put themselves first': how mothers diagnosed with breast cancer manage the sociological boundaries between paid work, family and caring for the self.

    Mackenzie, Catherine Ruth


    This paper aims to increase understanding of how mothers diagnosed with breast cancer while in the paid workforce experience and manage their multiple demands of taking care of themselves, their children and their paid work. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 women who were mothers of dependent children and in the paid workforce at the time of their breast cancer diagnosis. The sample includes women living in urban and rural Australia. The study found that after a breast cancer diagnosis, participants tended to prioritise their health and wellbeing over paid work. Yet dominance of gendered identity meant that they tended to place the needs of family, especially children, above their own health and wellbeing. The key factors that influenced mothers' decisions to continue in, return to, or leave paid work after a breast cancer diagnosis included: a change in perspective regarding what was important in their lives; level of support from the workplace and home; the extent to which participating in paid work was a financial necessity; the extent to which their identity was connected to paid work, and; ongoing level of pain or fatigue. The paper concludes that using the sociological concepts of the fateful moment, boundary maintenance and a feminist ethic of care produces a more nuanced understanding of women's participation in paid work after breast cancer than examining paid workforce participation, or unpaid responsibilities and mothering, separately. The nature of the permeability or malleability of boundaries between work, family and taking care of the self affects women's participation in paid work during and/or after breast cancer treatment. Increased boundary permeability or malleability brought about more by cooperation than conflict facilitated positive experiences of re-negotiating boundaries, whereas increased permeability or malleability brought about more by conflict than cooperation created difficulties for women in finding an

  15. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.


    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  16. Tendências de gerenciamento de unidades de saúde e de pessoas

    Adriana Maria André


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar que fatores produzem novas tendências no gerenciamento das unidades básicas de saúde e mudanças nos modelos de gestão. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo com dez gestores de unidades de saúde e dez especialistas da área de saúde de São Paulo, SP, em 2010. Foi adotada a metodologia Delphi. Foram utilizadas quatro rodadas para a coleta de dados, três quantitativas e a quarta qualitativa. Nas três primeiras foram levantadas as tendências de mudança nos modelos de gestão; no perfil do gestor e nas competências requeridas para a função, foi utilizado o teste estatístico de Mann Whitney. A quarta rodada ocorreu por meio de um painel com os envolvidos, tendo sido escolhida a análise temática. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados os principais fatores que estão impulsionando o gerenciamento das unidades básicas de saúde, como as mudanças nos modelos de gestão. Foi consenso de que as dificuldades no gerenciamento das equipes e nas políticas influemciam nesse processo. Verificou-se que os gestores estão a par das tendências do macrocontexto com o advento das organizações sociais de saúde, mas ainda não estão se antecipando nas ações institucionais. CONCLUSÕES: A formação acadêmica deve ser revista não só quanto aos conteúdos, mas quanto ao desenvolvimento desses profissionais. O recrutamento, a seleção, o desenvolvimento e a avaliação devem ser norteados por essas competências alinhadas à missão, à visão, aos valores e aos modelos de gestão das organizações no contexto do Sistema Único de Saúde.

  17. Promoting Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee


    In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.

  18. Phosphotyrosine signaling proteins that drive oncogenesis tend to be highly interconnected.

    Koytiger, Grigoriy; Kaushansky, Alexis; Gordus, Andrew; Rush, John; Sorger, Peter K; MacBeath, Gavin


    Mutation and overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinases or the proteins they regulate serve as oncogenic drivers in diverse cancers. To better understand receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and its link to oncogenesis, we used protein microarrays to systematically and quantitatively measure interactions between virtually every SH2 or PTB domain encoded in the human genome and all known sites of tyrosine phosphorylation on 40 receptor tyrosine kinases and on most of the SH2 and PTB domain-containing adaptor proteins. We found that adaptor proteins, like RTKs, have many high affinity bindings sites for other adaptor proteins. In addition, proteins that drive cancer, including both receptors and adaptor proteins, tend to be much more highly interconnected via networks of SH2 and PTB domain-mediated interactions than nononcogenic proteins. Our results suggest that network topological properties such as connectivity can be used to prioritize new drug targets in this well-studied family of signaling proteins.

  19. A Psicologia Social contemporânea: principais tendências e perspectivas nacionais e internacionais

    Ferreira, Maria Cristina


    O presente trabalho faz um balanço do estado atual da Psicologia Social, no plano nacional e internacional. Para tanto, faz uma revisão inicial das principais tendências que marcaram a evolução da Psicologia Social na América do Norte, para, em seguida, apresentar as características atuais mais relevantes dessa disciplina na América do Norte, na Europa e na América Latina. Em seguida, detém-se na análise da recente produção brasileira em Psicologia Social. À guisa de conclusão, discute os des...

  20. Robotic and Human-Tended Collaborative Drilling Automation for Subsurface Exploration

    Glass, Brian; Cannon, Howard; Stoker, Carol; Davis, Kiel


    Future in-situ lunar/martian resource utilization and characterization, as well as the scientific search for life on Mars, will require access to the subsurface and hence drilling. Drilling on Earth is hard - an art form more than an engineering discipline. Human operators listen and feel drill string vibrations coming from kilometers underground. Abundant mass and energy make it possible for terrestrial drilling to employ brute-force approaches to failure recovery and system performance issues. Space drilling will require intelligent and autonomous systems for robotic exploration and to support human exploration. Eventual in-situ resource utilization will require deep drilling with probable human-tended operation of large-bore drills, but initial lunar subsurface exploration and near-term ISRU will be accomplished with lightweight, rover-deployable or standalone drills capable of penetrating a few tens of meters in depth. These lightweight exploration drills have a direct counterpart in terrestrial prospecting and ore-body location, and will be designed to operate either human-tended or automated. NASA and industry now are acquiring experience in developing and building low-mass automated planetary prototype drills to design and build a pre-flight lunar prototype targeted for 2011-12 flight opportunities. A successful system will include development of drilling hardware, and automated control software to operate it safely and effectively. This includes control of the drilling hardware, state estimation of both the hardware and the lithography being drilled and state of the hole, and potentially planning and scheduling software suitable for uncertain situations such as drilling. Given that Humans on the Moon or Mars are unlikely to be able to spend protracted EVA periods at a drill site, both human-tended and robotic access to planetary subsurfaces will require some degree of standalone, autonomous drilling capability. Human-robotic coordination will be important

  1. The impact of a breast cancer diagnosis in young women on their relationship with their mothers.

    Ali, Asma; Fergus, Karen; Wright, Frances C; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Kiss, Alex; Warner, Ellen


    For young women with breast cancer mothers might either be a source of support or of increased stress, depending on the premorbid relationship and on the psychological effect of the daughter's diagnosis on her mother. To examine the effects of a breast cancer diagnosis on young women's relationships with their mothers and the possible support needs of these mothers from the daughters' perspective. We developed and pre-tested a self-administered questionnaire on 10 survivors of breast cancer diagnosed ≤ age 40. Then, consecutive recurrence-free young women diagnosed with breast cancer were asked to complete the modified questionnaire. Of 110 daughters approached from July/11 to May/12, 90 (82%) participated. In 11 cases (13%), the daughters had turned to their mothers before approaching anyone else. Of the 83 daughters who disclosed their diagnosis to their mothers, 76 (92%) stated their mothers had been emotionally and/or practically supportive, and 43 (54%) reported that the breast cancer diagnosis had a favorable impact on their relationship with their mothers. Of the 35 employed mothers, 26 had taken time off from work to support their daughters. Nineteen mothers, eight of whom had been living in a different country, had slept over or moved in with daughters during their treatment. Twenty-two daughters believed their mothers felt responsible to some extent for their developing breast cancer. Fifty-nine daughters indicated that health care professionals could help mothers by providing information pamphlets, education sessions, and linking to support groups. Mothers are an important source of support for young daughters with breast cancer, with the mother-daughter relationship frequently becoming closer after the diagnosis. However, the practical and emotional burden on mothers appears to be high. Future studies should address the effects of a breast cancer diagnosis in young daughters from the mothers' perspective, and the benefit of formal supports for these

  2. Marital Conflict Predicts Mother-to-Infant Adrenocortical Transmission.

    Hibel, Leah C; Mercado, Evelyn


    Employing an experimental design, mother-to-infant transmission of stress was examined. Mothers (N = 117) were randomized to either have a positive or conflictual discussion with their marital partners, after which infants (age = 6 months) participated in a fear and frustration task. Saliva samples were collected to assess maternal cortisol responses to the discussion and infant cortisol responses to the challenge task. Results indicate maternal cortisol reactivity and recovery to the conflict (but not positive) discussion predicted infant cortisol reactivity to the infant challenge. Mothers' positive affect during the discussion buffered, and intrusion during the free-play potentiated, mother-to-infant adrenocortical transmission. These findings advance our understanding of the social and contextual regulation of adrenocortical activity in early childhood. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.


    A. Corneaga


    .5% of the mothers that were convinced that the oral health of their child was very good, 17% – good, 47% – satisfactory, 19% – affected; 4% of the mothers refused to answer. 43.7% of the 6 year-old children and 67.8% of their mothers asserted that they practice dental brush at least twice a day. 23.1% of the 6 year-old children and 88.7% of their mothers have had a stomatological control in the last 12 months. Educated mothers tend to have more knowledge on dental health as well as regular health-promoting attitudes, participating actively, together with their children, to the realization of dental brush. Conclusions: The family is responsible for the child’s health-promoting life style, as it constitutes the first source of information on oral health. The results of the present study show that the health-promoting habits of the adults, as well as the level of their knowledge, represent important factors in the health promotion education of their children.

  4. Stress Level and Adversity Quotient among Single Working Mothers

    Dianne Bautista Solis


    Full Text Available The study identified the profile of the single working mothers in terms of number of children, number of years as a single parent and reason for being a single parent; assessed the single mothers’ stress level and adversity quotient; determined the significant difference of stress level and adversity quotient of single mothers when grouped according to profile variables; determined the best predictor of stress level and adversity quotient. Moreover this research endeavoured to test significant relationship between the adversity quotient and stress level of single working mothers. Lastly, it proposed a stress management program for single working mothers for them to cope with their stress and adversities in life. The researcher employed quantitative method using standardized questionnaires namely Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS and Adversity Response Profile (ARP. The respondents were twenty five (25 single working mothers of the students of Batangas State University. From the results, majority of the respondents have 3 children, widow and in early years as single parent; with a normal level of stress and an average adversity quotient.. There are no significant differences on the stress level and adversity quotient of the respondents when grouped according to profile variables. Finally, stress level has no significant effect on adversity quotient of single working mothers. From the findings, the researcher further recommends that the Office of Guidance and Counseling should update the student information database to determine students with a single working mother. The Parent-Teacher Association may form a single-parent subgroup for the single working mothers to be able to identify to other mothers with same situation. Moreover, the proposed stress management program may be reviewed and implemented by the Office of Guidance and Counseling in coordination with the Parent-Teacher Association of Batangas State University. Future researchers

  5. Inter-varietal interactions among plants in genotypically diverse mixtures tend to decrease herbivore performance.

    Grettenberger, Ian M; Tooker, John F


    Much research has explored the effects of plant species diversity on herbivore populations, but far less has considered effects of plant genotypic diversity, or how abiotic stressors, like drought, can modify effects. Mechanisms by which plant genotypic diversity affects herbivore populations remain largely unresolved. We used greenhouse studies with a model system of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) to determine whether the genotypic diversity of a plant's neighborhood influences performance and fitness of herbivores on a focal plant and if drought changes the influence of neighborhood diversity. Taken across all varieties we tested, plant-plant interactions in diverse neighborhoods reduced aphid performance and generated associational resistance, although effects on aphids depended on variety identity. In diverse mixtures, drought stress greatly diminished the genotypic diversity-driven reduction in aphid performance. Neighborhood diversity influenced mother aphid size, and appeared to partially explain how plant-plant interactions reduced the number of offspring produced in mixtures. Plant size did not mediate effects on aphid performance, although neighborhood diversity reduced plant mass across varieties and watering treatments. Our results suggest inter-varietal interactions in genotypic mixtures can affect herbivore performance in the absence of herbivore movement and that abiotic stress may diminish any effects. Accounting for how neighborhood diversity influences resistance of an individual plant to herbivores will help aid development of mixtures of varieties for managing insect pests and clarify the role of plant genotypic diversity in ecosystems.

  6. Tendências da desigualdade salarial para coortes de mulheres brancas e negras no Brasil

    Ana Maria Hermeto Camilo de Oliveira


    Full Text Available É feita uma análise das tendências da desigualdade salarial da força de trabalho feminina no Brasil, segundo a raça, durante as décadas de 1980 e 1990. Crescentes retornos de qualificação e crescente demanda por trabalho qualificado resultam em uma divergência do crescimento salarial entre os trabalhadores com alta e baixa qualificação. Este crescente hiato resulta em um aumento da desigualdade salarial por raça. Com o propósito de interpretar as tendências, são examinadas diferenças por raça nos padrões de casamento, fecundidade, arranjos domiciliares, níveis educacionais, participação na força de trabalho, níveis de qualificação, alocação ocupacional e salários, distinguindo entre medidas de período e coorte. São usados dados provenientes das PNADs 1987-1999 para analisar a importância de mudanças inter e intracoortes para mulheres brancas e negras. Funções salariais são estimadas a partir dos dados agregados da série temporal de cross sections, usando mínimos quadrados ordinários e regressões quantílicas.We analyze trends of wage inequality of the Brazilian female labor force, by race, during the 1980s and 1990s. Increasing returns to skills and increasing demand for skilled labor result in a divergence of wages growth between high and low skilled workers. This increasing gap results in an increase of wage inequality by race. In order to interpret trends, we take into account race differences in marriage patterns, fertility, household arrangements, educational levels, labor market participation, skill levels, occupational location and earnings, distinguishing between period and cohort measures. We use 1987-1999 Brazilian Household Sample Surveys data to examine the importance of within- and between-cohort changes for black and white women. Earnings functions are estimated from the pooled time-series of these cross-section data, using OLS and quantile regressions.

  7. Mother\\'s Experiences of Having Mental Retarded Child

    Sima Mohammadkhan-Kermanshahi


    Full Text Available Objective: Giving birth and training to a child with Mental Retardation (MR can be stressful for mothers. Therefore mothers need role models and adequate preparation to effectively teach the child to function at optimum level within the environment. Nurses are in a strategic position to assume a vital role in a assisting these mothers. With observation, problem solving, and decision making. There is a lack of studies about mothers' experiences of having a child with MR. This study was preformed to investigate mother's experiences of having a child with MR and how explore and describe the experienced mothers with mental retarded child. Materials & Methods: A phenomenographic approach was used. The study was preformed at an exceptional school in Tehran. Twelve mothers were interviewed using guided interviews. Results: From 336 thematic sentences, Six categories emerged, the first having three subcategories and the second having twenty subcategories., the third having three, the fourth category having six, the fifth having two, and the sixth having two subcategories. Mother's experiences of having a child with MR, describes informants a variety of feelings, often ambivalent (acceptance and UN acceptance. In such a situation, attention to God and prayer are the most important coping strategies for positive adaptation in mothers' experiences of having a child with MR, but this perception can not effect to accept him alone. They emphasis on educational and psychological needs for better life. Conclusions: The findings of this study could be used in mothers education to promote understanding of mothers’ experiences and how best to help them. They could also be used in the general media to improve public understanding.

  8. Networks of conforming or nonconforming individuals tend to reach satisfactory decisions.

    Ramazi, Pouria; Riehl, James; Cao, Ming


    Binary decisions of agents coupled in networks can often be classified into two types: "coordination," where an agent takes an action if enough neighbors are using that action, as in the spread of social norms, innovations, and viral epidemics, and "anticoordination," where too many neighbors taking a particular action causes an agent to take the opposite action, as in traffic congestion, crowd dispersion, and division of labor. Both of these cases can be modeled using linear-threshold-based dynamics, and a fundamental question is whether the individuals in such networks are likely to reach decisions with which they are satisfied. We show that, in the coordination case, and perhaps more surprisingly, also in the anticoordination case, the agents will indeed always tend to reach satisfactory decisions, that is, the network will almost surely reach an equilibrium state. This holds for every network topology and every distribution of thresholds, for both asynchronous and partially synchronous decision-making updates. These results reveal that irregular network topology, population heterogeneity, and partial synchrony are not sufficient to cause cycles or nonconvergence in linear-threshold dynamics; rather, other factors such as imitation or the coexistence of coordinating and anticoordinating agents must play a role.

  9. Mechanized systems for early stand tending in central and eastern Canada

    Ryans, M.; St-Amour, M. [Forest Engineering Research Inst. of Canada, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada)


    Machines are currently being used for early stand tending in central and eastern Canada, but account for only 1 to 2% of the annual total for mechanical treatments (including manual and motor-manual operations). Selective and non-selective systems are used, depending on the application and stand conditions. Plantation cleaning operations and precommercial thinning (spacing) of naturally regenerated and seeded stands have been mechanized. Selective methods, primarily for plantation cleaning, use equipment with specialized prime movers, booms and controls, and cutting heads. This paper describes the Canadian experience to date based on FERIC`s studies of successful and unsuccessful operations, and lists the key features of a machine suitable for use in selective treatments. Strip precommercial thinning is used in denser natural stands, but limited improvements in crop-tree growth occur unless a motor-manual follow-up releases crop trees in the leave strips. Most off-the-shelf brushcutting equipment is not optimal for this application, primarily because it is too wide to meet local spacing prescriptions. Some applications such as the spacing of older natural stands have proven difficult to mechanize. Technical, biological, operational , regulatory, economic and social constraints prevent wider use of mechanized systems. Nonetheless, some machines are in operational use, and mechanized plantation cleaning is tested in some regions as an alternative to herbicides. 11 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  10. Gas in the rectum tends to reduce during radical external beam radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer

    Nakamura, Naoki; Mizuno, Norifumo; Endo, Haruna; Ogita, Mami; Kawamori, Jiro; Sekigucho, Kenji; Hatanaka, Shogo; Takahashi, Osamu; Tamaki, Seiichi; Shikama, Naoto


    This study aims to clarify the time-course of gas accumulation in the rectum during treatment as guidance for the management of rectal volumes. We reviewed 2042 sets (35.2 sets per patient) of anteroposterior and right–left mega voltage (MV) images obtained for daily set-up from 58 patients who underwent radical external beam radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer. The patients were instructed to take magnesium oxide tablets during radiotherapy. They were also encouraged to avoid foods that might cause intestinal gas during radiotherapy. Gas accumulation in the rectum was graded into three classes by the same radiation oncologist. If no gas was seen in the rectum, it was classified as grade 0. A small amount of gas was classified as grade 1, whereas a marked amount of gas that required removal was classified as grade 2. Of the 2042 sets of MV images, grades 1 and 2 gas accumulation were seen in 332 (16%) and 156 (8%), respectively. By the trend test, gas accumulation significantly decreased towards the end of treatment (P=0.02 for grade 1 or 2 and P=0.02 for grade 2). On multivariate analysis, we did not identify any significant independent predictors for either baseline gas accumulation or gas reduction. Gas accumulation tended to decrease until the end of treatment. This tendency should be reconfirmed by other institutions.

  11. Keeping it simple: flowering plants tend to retain, and revert to, simple leaves.

    Geeta, R; Dávalos, Liliana M; Levy, André; Bohs, Lynn; Lavin, Mathew; Mummenhoff, Klaus; Sinha, Neelima; Wojciechowski, Martin F


    • A wide range of factors (developmental, physiological, ecological) with unpredictable interactions control variation in leaf form. Here, we examined the distribution of leaf morphologies (simple and complex forms) across angiosperms in a phylogenetic context to detect patterns in the directions of changes in leaf shape. • Seven datasets (diverse angiosperms and six nested clades, Sapindales, Apiales, Papaveraceae, Fabaceae, Lepidium, Solanum) were analysed using maximum likelihood and parsimony methods to estimate asymmetries in rates of change among character states. • Simple leaves are most frequent among angiosperm lineages today, were inferred to be ancestral in angiosperms and tended to be retained in evolution (stasis). Complex leaves slowly originated ('gains') and quickly reverted to simple leaves ('losses') multiple times, with a significantly greater rate of losses than gains. Lobed leaves may be a labile intermediate step between different forms. The nested clades showed mixed trends; Solanum, like the angiosperms in general, had higher rates of losses than gains, but the other clades had higher rates of gains than losses. • The angiosperm-wide pattern could be taken as a null model to test leaf evolution patterns in particular clades, in which patterns of variation suggest clade-specific processes that have yet to be investigated fully. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. A transição nutricional no Brasil: tendências regionais e temporais

    Batista Filho Malaquias


    Full Text Available Tendo como principal fonte de informações três estudos transversais realizados nas décadas de 70, 80 e 90, faz-se uma análise da transição nutricional do Brasil, referenciada no rápido declínio da prevalência de desnutrição em crianças e elevação, num ritmo mais acelerado, da prevalência de sobrepeso/obesidade em adultos. A correção dos déficits de estatura foi de 72% em crianças urbanas e de 54,4% no meio rural, enquanto a ocorrência de obesidade duplicou ou triplicou em homens e mulheres adultos nos extremos da série temporal analisada. Com exceção do Nordeste rural, a prevalência de desnutrição em mulheres adultas declinou para taxas aceitáveis (em torno de 5% a partir de 1989. Inversamente, as anemias continuam com prevalências elevadas e indicações de tendências epidêmicas. Descreve-se a evolução do estado nutricional da população brasileira segundo macrorregiões e distribuição social, analisando-se os prováveis fatores das mudanças ocorridas.

  13. School Trouble: A Mother's Burden.

    Dudley-Marling, Curt


    Used interviews with a diverse group of parents of children who struggled academically in school to examine the effects of school troubles on mothers. Overall, the material and emotional burden for children's schoolwork fell to the mothers, many of whom felt overwhelmed and believed that the demands of schooling had diminished their quality of…

  14. Mothers' Retrospections of Premature Childbirth.

    Kalmar, Magda; And Others

    This study examined Hungarian mothers' recollections, 8 years after the birth of their premature baby, of their stress at the time of the baby's birth. Interviews were conducted with 30 mothers whose babies had been born between 30 and 37 weeks gestational age. At the time of the follow-up, all children had normal IQs and were attending normal…

  15. Literacy and the Mother Tongue

    Literacy Work, 1974


    Reviewing the situation of literacy in the mother tongue, the article reports on projects in: (1) Africa--Mali and Nigeria, (2) the Amazonian jungle of Peru in Latin America, and (3) Papua, New Guinea. Psychological, sociological, and educational advantages of the mother tongue are discussed. (MW)

  16. Where's the Feminism in Mothering?

    D'Arcy, Catherine; Turner, Colleen; Crockett, Belinda; Gridley, Heather


    This article is a reflective narrative bringing together personal, collective, and action learning reflections from three women: all mothers, feminists, and community psychology practitioners. Its focus on mothering highlights the interconnectedness and tensions across these roles, as well as the shared learnings arising from this collaboration.…

  17. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others


    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  18. The adaptation process of mothers raising a child with complex congenital heart disease.

    Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sunhee


    Mothers of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) tend to be concerned about their child's normal life. The majority of these mothers tend to experience negative psychological problems. In this study, the adaptation process of mothers raising a child with complex CHD was investigated based on the sociocultural context of Korea. The data collection was conducted by in-depth interviews and theoretical sampling was performed until the data were saturated. The collected data were analyzed using continuous theoretical comparisons. The results of the present study showed that the core category in the mothers' adaptation process was 'anxiety regarding the future', and the mothers' adaptation process consisted of the impact phase, standing against phase, and accepting phase. In the impact phase, the participants emotionally fluctuated between 'feelings of abandonment' and 'entertaining hope'. In the standing against phase, participants tended to dedicate everything to child-rearing while being affected by 'being encouraged by support' and 'being frustrated by tasks beyond their limits'. In the accepting phase, the subjects attempted to 'accept the child as is', 'resist hard feelings', and 'share hope'. Health-care providers need to develop programs that include information regarding CHD, how to care for a child with CHD, and effective child-rearing behaviors.

  19. Mothers' support for voluntary provision of HPV vaccine in schools.

    Kadis, Jessica A; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gottlieb, Sami L; Lee, Morgan R; Reiter, Paul L; Dittus, Patricia J; Brewer, Noel T


    HPV vaccination rates among adolescents in the United States lag behind some other developed countries, many of which routinely offer the vaccine in schools. We sought to assess mothers' willingness to have their adolescent daughters receive HPV vaccine at school. A national sample of mothers of adolescent females ages 11-14 completed our internet survey (response rate=66%). The final sample (n=496) excluded mothers who did not intend to have their daughters receive HPV vaccine in the next year. Overall, 67% of mothers who intended to vaccinate their daughters or had vaccinated their daughters reported being willing to have their daughters receive HPV vaccine at school. Mothers were more willing to allow their daughters to receive HPV vaccine in schools if they had not yet initiated the vaccine series for their daughters or resided in the Midwest or West (all pconcerns about voluntary school-based provision of HPV vaccine that mothers most frequently cited were that their daughters' doctors should keep track of her shots (64%) and that they wished to be present when their daughters were vaccinated (40%). Our study suggests that most mothers who support adolescent vaccination for HPV find school-based HPV vaccination an acceptable option. Ensuring communication of immunization records with doctors and allowing parents to be present during immunization may increase parental support. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Ana-Maria MANDIUC


    Full Text Available A large number of women who practice prostitution get pregnant and have the child. When a mother continues practicing prostitution, while at the same time trying to fulfill parental responsibilities, the child’s rights could end up being violated because of the characteristics of the two roles the woman adopts. The present paper presents the case study of a child of schooling age and whose mother practiced prostitution. The child was put in foster care after the mother’s death and the case study follows his evolution from birth until the research started, the focus of the study revolving around the four fundamental rights of the child: the right to be raised by the parents, the right to education, the right to health and the right to protection against abuses.

  1. The Eosinophil Count Tends to Be Negatively Associated with Levels of Serum Glucose in Patients with Adrenal Cushing Syndrome

    Younghak Lee


    Full Text Available BackgroundCushing syndrome is characterized by glucose intolerance, cardiovascular disease, and an enhanced systemic inflammatory response caused by chronic exposure to excess cortisol. Eosinopenia is frequently observed in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome, but the relationship between the eosinophil count in peripheral blood and indicators of glucose level in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome has not been determined.MethodsA retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical and laboratory findings of 40 patients diagnosed with adrenal Cushing syndrome at Chungnam National University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2016. Clinical characteristics, complete blood cell counts with white blood cell differential, measures of their endocrine function, description of imaging studies, and pathologic findings were obtained from their medical records.ResultsEosinophil composition and count were restored by surgical treatment of all of the patients with adrenal Cushing disease. The eosinophil count was inversely correlated with serum and urine cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, and inflammatory markers in the patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome.ConclusionSmaller eosinophil populations in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome tend to be correlated with higher levels of blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin. This study suggests that peripheral blood eosinophil composition or count may be associated with serum glucose levels in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome.

  2. The Eosinophil Count Tends to Be Negatively Associated with Levels of Serum Glucose in Patients with Adrenal Cushing Syndrome.

    Lee, Younghak; Yi, Hyon Seung; Kim, Hae Ri; Joung, Kyong Hye; Kang, Yea Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Koon Soon; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ku, Bon Jeong; Shong, Minho


    Cushing syndrome is characterized by glucose intolerance, cardiovascular disease, and an enhanced systemic inflammatory response caused by chronic exposure to excess cortisol. Eosinopenia is frequently observed in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome, but the relationship between the eosinophil count in peripheral blood and indicators of glucose level in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome has not been determined. A retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical and laboratory findings of 40 patients diagnosed with adrenal Cushing syndrome at Chungnam National University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2016. Clinical characteristics, complete blood cell counts with white blood cell differential, measures of their endocrine function, description of imaging studies, and pathologic findings were obtained from their medical records. Eosinophil composition and count were restored by surgical treatment of all of the patients with adrenal Cushing disease. The eosinophil count was inversely correlated with serum and urine cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, and inflammatory markers in the patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome. Smaller eosinophil populations in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome tend to be correlated with higher levels of blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin. This study suggests that peripheral blood eosinophil composition or count may be associated with serum glucose levels in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  3. Tendências em séries anuais de precipitação e temperaturas no Brasil

    Júlio César Penereiro

    Full Text Available RESUMO Nas últimas décadas, pesquisadores científicos e acadêmicos em todo o mundo têm se preocupado com a avaliação das tendências dos climas regional e global. A avaliação das alterações no clima é uma ferramenta para o planejamento da sociedade, pois permite considerar as possíveis consequências do aumento das temperaturas do ar e de mudanças no regime de precipitação que foram observadas ao redor do mundo. Sob a hipótese da presença de alterações climáticas no Brasil, o objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a existência de tendências climáticas em 243 séries anuais de temperaturas máxima, mínima e média do ar (T-Máx., T-Mín. e T-Méd. e precipitação pluviométrica (Prec. em cidades do Brasil. Foram empregados os testes estatísticos de Mann-Kendall (M-K. e Pettitt (Pett. para avaliação de tendências significativas. Para a visualização espacial das tendências observadas, foram elaborados mapas. Os resultados estatísticos mostram que, de todas as cidades estudadas, foram observadas tendências positivas na T-máx. em 35% das séries, negativas em 1% e ausência de tendência em 64%. Para a T-Mín., foram observadas tendências positivas em 30% dos casos, negativas em 8% e ausência de tendência em 63%. Na T-Méd., tendência positiva foi detectada em 35% das cidades analisadas, negativa em 3% e ausência de tendência em 62%. Por fim, na Prec., tendência positiva em 6% dos casos, negativa em 4% e ausência de tendência em 91%. As tendências observadas no presente estudo estão possivelmente relacionadas às atividades antrópicas em cada localidade, como o expansionismo urbano, o desenvolvimento industrial e o adensamento populacional.

  4. Retrospectiva e tendência da alfacicultura brasileira Retrospective and trends of Brazilian lettuce crop

    Fernando Cesar Sala


    Full Text Available A alface é considerada a principal hortaliça folhosa no Brasil. Nas ultimas décadas, houve muitas mudanças quanto aos tipos varietais predominantes no país bem como para a preferência do uso de semente peletizada. O domínio do cultivo da alface lisa foi até a década de 90 com as cultivares do tipo 'manteiga' e 'Regina'. Posteriormente, houve uma mudança para o tipo crespa e que, atualmente, corresponde ao principal segmento cultivado no Brasil. A ausência de formação de cabeça aliada à presença de folhas flabeladas conferiram a esse tipo de alface uma melhor adaptação no cultivo de verão com altas temperaturas e índices de pluviosidade. A preferência brasileira pela alface crespa é um fato único na alfacicultura mundial. A alface americana vem apresentando maiores índices de crescimento e aceitação pelo mercado consumidor. Apesar de apresentar formação de cabeça e que tem limitado seu cultivo no verão, na ausência de cultivo protegido, suas folhas mais espessas têm conferido melhor sabor, crocância e durabilidade pós-colheita na alface americana. Alface com folha espessa é mandatória para o mercado de processamento que apresenta alta tendência de crescimento. Considerações sobre o melhoramento genético para contribuir, pelo menos em parte, com essa situação são discutidas com o surgimento de novos tipos varietais tropicalizados, com a tendência de segmentação de mercado e da necessidade de uma cadeia pós-colheita mais eficiente.Lettuce is considered the main leafy vegetable crop in Brazil. In recent decades, many changes occurred towards the varietal types as well as in the preference for pelleted seeds. Until mid 90 decade, the dominant varieties of looseleaf lettuce were the type 'White Boston' and 'Regina'. Later, there was a change toward the Grand Rapids type which represents the main varietal segment grown in Brazil. The non-head Grand Rapids type with its earliness performed better adaptation

  5. Orlando, ou a tendência social da androginia Orlando. The social tendency of androginy

    Nízia Maria Alvarenga


    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o filme Orlando por ser expressão de uma das tendências que vêm despontando no processo atual de mudanças sociais no conjunto das sociedades capitalistas ocidentais. A dimensão simbólica destas sociedades abrange representações tais como racionalidade, objetividade, pragmatismo, impessoalidade, utilitarismo, disciplina e neutralidade afetiva, que constituem o cerne do sistema de valores sociais predominantes. Uma alteração desta dimensão significa uma revolução em seu modo de ser social. Orlando sugere uma reconciliação entre razão, sensibilidade, emoções, sentimentos e fantasia, abrindo espaço para uma sociedade andrógina, presidida pelo princípio erótico. A dinâmica produtivista do capitalismo é substituída por uma forma de sociabilidade marcada pela amorosidade e o desfrute da vida.This article analyzes the film Orlando because it is representative of one of the trends which are emerging in the actual process of social changes occurring in the west capitalist societies. The symbolic dimension of these societies comprehends representations such as rationality, objectivity, pragmatism, unpersonalty, utilitarianism, discipline and affective neutrality which constitute the nucleous of the system of predominant social values. A change of this dimension signifies a revolution on the way of social being. Orlando suggests a reconciliation between reason, sensibility, emotions, feelings and phantasy, opening place for a androgynous society presided by the erotic principle. The productive dynamic of the capitalism is substituted by a form of sociability marked by affection and enjoyment of living.

  6. Tendências no processamento de frangos de corte: uso racional da água

    Ricardo Lacava Bailone

    Full Text Available RESUMO Atualmente o uso racional da água vem sendo tema de discussão perante órgãos governamentais e não governamentais ao redor do mundo. Seguindo essa tendência, leis cada vez mais severas devem ser implantadas em relação ao uso desse bem natural. Em um frigorífico de frango, o uso da água ocorre de forma generalizada ao longo de todo o processo industrial. Nesse contexto, o atual estudo teve o objetivo de comparar o consumo de água em um frigorífico brasileiro de frangos de corte (grande porte com modelos já propostos e utilizados em outros países com o intuito de identificar soluções para mitigar perdas provenientes de sua má gestão. Concluiu-se que alterações em alguns pontos-chave do processamento possibilitariam à indústria o uso mais sustentável da água, como substituição da eletronarcose por insensibilização a gás, diminuição da dimensão do tanque de escaldagem ou mudança no processo, substituição do pré-resfriamento por imersão em água por pré-resfriamento a ar, redução da renovação de água nos tanques resfriadores, alterações no sistema de geração do frio em ambientes climatizados, assim como o reúso total ou parcial da água.

  7. Tendências no processamento de frangos de corte: uso racional da água

    Ricardo Lacava Bailone


    Full Text Available RESUMO Atualmente o uso racional da água vem sendo tema de discussão perante órgãos governamentais e não governamentais ao redor do mundo. Seguindo essa tendência, leis cada vez mais severas devem ser implantadas em relação ao uso desse bem natural. Em um frigorífico de frango, o uso da água ocorre de forma generalizada ao longo de todo o processo industrial. Nesse contexto, o atual estudo teve o objetivo de comparar o consumo de água em um frigorífico brasileiro de frangos de corte (grande porte com modelos já propostos e utilizados em outros países com o intuito de identificar soluções para mitigar perdas provenientes de sua má gestão. Concluiu-se que alterações em alguns pontos-chave do processamento possibilitariam à indústria o uso mais sustentável da água, como substituição da eletronarcose por insensibilização a gás, diminuição da dimensão do tanque de escaldagem ou mudança no processo, substituição do pré-resfriamento por imersão em água por pré-resfriamento a ar, redução da renovação de água nos tanques resfriadores, alterações no sistema de geração do frio em ambientes climatizados, assim como o reúso total ou parcial da água.

  8. Why Do Mothers of Young Infants Choose to Formula Feed in China? Perceptions of Mothers and Hospital Staff

    Ke Zhang


    Full Text Available In China the exclusive breastfeeding rate remains low and infant formula is widely used. This study aimed to elicit and compare mothers’ and hospital staff perceptions of the reasons that shaped mothers’ decision to formula feed. In-depth interviews with 50 mothers, and four focus group discussions with 33 hospital staff, were conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen in November 2014. Responses given by the mothers and hospital staff showed a number of commonalities. The perception of “insufficient breast milk” was cited by the majority of women (n = 37, 74% as the reason for formula feeding. Mothers’ confidence in breastfeeding appears to be further reduced by maternal mothers or mothers-in-law’s and “confinement ladies” misconceptions about infant feeding. Inadequate breastfeeding facilities and limited flexibility at their workplace was another common reason given for switching to formula feeding. A substantial proportion of mothers (n = 27, 54% lacked an understanding of the health benefits of breastfeeding. Antenatal education on breastfeeding benefits for expectant mothers and their families is recommended. Moreover, mothers should be provided with breastfeeding support while in hospital and be encouraged to seek professional assistance to deal with breastfeeding problems after discharge. Employers should also make work environments more breastfeeding-friendly.

  9. Addressing barriers to health: Experiences of breastfeeding mothers after returning to work.

    Valizadeh, Sousan; Hosseinzadeh, Mina; Mohammadi, Eesa; Hassankhani, Hadi; M Fooladi, Marjaneh; Schmied, Virginia


    Breastfeeding mothers returning to work often feel exhausted as they must feed on demand and attend to family and employment responsibilities, leading to concerns for their personal health. This study was prompted by a desire to understand and identify barriers to mothers' health. We describe the experiences of 12 Iranian breastfeeding and employed mothers through in-depth and semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis. Two main themes emerged: (i) working and mothering alone and (ii) facing concerns about health. The findings highlight the need for a support system for breastfeeding mothers within the family and in the workplace. Family-friendly policies targeting mothers' and employers' views are needed to support working mothers and promote breastfeeding. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Determinants of disciplinary practices in low-income black mothers.

    Kelly, M L; Power, T G; Wimbush, D D


    Disciplinary attitudes and practices of low-income black mothers were examined. Mothers were interviewed about their parenting attitudes and control practices, and their responses were coded in terms of the degree to which they took a parent-versus a child-oriented approach to discipline. Mothers in the sample varied widely in their attitudes toward physical punishment, and mothers who used power-assertive techniques were as likely to take the child's perspective and give input into the socialization process as those who did not. Factors associated with maternal disciplinary styles included: maternal education, father absence, maternal age, and self-reported religious beliefs. Findings are discussed in terms of the variability in disciplinary practices in this population, as well as the factors contributing to these individual differences.

  11. Considerações sobre a tendência da tuberculose no Brasil

    Dina Czeresnia Costa


    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa os vários aspectos que influenciam no padrão da mortalidade e morbidade da tuberculose: a variação nas condições de vida, os efeitos da quimioterapia e a dinâmica de transmissão da doença. Caracteriza os indicadores utilizados na medida da tuberculose que são construídos a partir de inquéritos de prevalência e dos dados de notificação. Os principais indicadores são: risco de infecção; mortalidade; coeficiente de incidência de meningite tuberculosa; coeficientes de incidência de casos de tuberculose, especialmente os pulmonares bacilíferos, etc. O trabalho analisa dados recentes de incidência de casos pulmonares bacilíferos nos estados do Pará e Rio Grande do Sul e mortalidade por tuberculose nas capitais do Pará, Rio Grande do Sul, Pernambuco e Rio de Janeiro, que revelam uma tendência à queda, ainda que em ritmo diferenciado. Discute-se a maneira que a crise econômica atual do país repercutiria no número de casos e mortes pela doença.This paper analises the various factors which affect the rate of mortality and illness from tuberculosis i.e. the variation in the quality of life of the people affected, the effects o f chemotherapy and the dynamics of the transmission of the disease. It describes the epidemiological indices used to measure the spread of tuberculosis. These indices are built up from inquiries of prevalence of the disease and the number of notified cases. The main indices are: the risk of infection, mortality, the coefficient of the incidence of tubercular meningitis, the coefficient of the incidence of cases of tuberculosis, especially smear positives, etc. The paper also analises recent data of incidence of cases of smear positives in the states of Pará and Rio Grande do Sul and the mortality rate from tuberculosis in the state capitals of Pará, Rio Grande do Sul, Pernambuco and Rio de Janeiro, which reveal a downward trend, thought at different rates. The nature of how the

  12. Clever sillies: why high IQ people tend to be deficient in common sense.

    Charlton, Bruce G


    In previous editorials I have written about the absent-minded and socially-inept 'nutty professor' stereotype in science, and the phenomenon of 'psychological neoteny' whereby intelligent modern people (including scientists) decline to grow-up and instead remain in a state of perpetual novelty-seeking adolescence. These can be seen as specific examples of the general phenomenon of 'clever sillies' whereby intelligent people with high levels of technical ability are seen (by the majority of the rest of the population) as having foolish ideas and behaviours outside the realm of their professional expertise. In short, it has often been observed that high IQ types are lacking in 'common sense'--and especially when it comes to dealing with other human beings. General intelligence is not just a cognitive ability; it is also a cognitive disposition. So, the greater cognitive abilities of higher IQ tend also to be accompanied by a distinctive high IQ personality type including the trait of 'Openness to experience', 'enlightened' or progressive left-wing political values, and atheism. Drawing on the ideas of Kanazawa, my suggested explanation for this association between intelligence and personality is that an increasing relative level of IQ brings with it a tendency differentially to over-use general intelligence in problem-solving, and to over-ride those instinctive and spontaneous forms of evolved behaviour which could be termed common sense. Preferential use of abstract analysis is often useful when dealing with the many evolutionary novelties to be found in modernizing societies; but is not usually useful for dealing with social and psychological problems for which humans have evolved 'domain-specific' adaptive behaviours. And since evolved common sense usually produces the right answers in the social domain; this implies that, when it comes to solving social problems, the most intelligent people are more likely than those of average intelligence to have novel but

  13. Mother-daughter dyadic approach for starting preconception counseling at puberty in girls with diabetes.

    Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Fischl, Andrea Rodgers; Choi, Jessica; Schmitt, Patricia L; White, Neil H; Becker, Dorothy; Downs, Julie; Hannan, Margaret; Thurheimer, Jennifer; Sereika, Susan M


    Preconception counseling (PC) significantly and inexpensively reduces risks of reproductive-health complications for women with diabetes. Our validated technology-based preconception counseling intervention, READY-Girls , is tailored for female teens with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes and targets decision-making regarding effective family planning and seeking PC. Our teen-focused research was instrumental in changing the American Diabetes Association's Practice Recommendations to specify that preconception counseling should "Start at puberty…". This directive requires support from well-informed mothers of teens. Our goal is to provide both teen girls and their mothers with preconception counseling knowledge, and provide mothers with sex-communication training. Evaluation should focus on mother-daughter dyads. This feasibility study explored mother's and daughter's awareness and knowledge of diabetes and pregnancy, and preconception counseling; and compared mother-daughter responses using dyadic analyses. A mixed-method design was conducted with 10 mothers of daughters with T1D. Mothers were given READY-Girls intervention and completed knowledge and support questionnaires. Their responses were compared to those of their daughter's who were participating in a large randomized, control intervention trial with READY-Girls . The major theme from one-on-one interviews was, "I know nothing about diabetes/pregnancy risks and PC". Mother's and daughter's perceptions of having limited knowledge were confirmed by low knowledge scores. Mothers perceived giving higher levels of support compared to their daughter's perceptions of receiving support. Mothers can play a vital role in initiating discussions regarding reproductive-health with their daughters and reinforcing preconception counseling. Mother-daughter team approach for starting preconception counseling at puberty in girls with diabetes is feasible. Mother-daughter dyadic analyses can be important to explore

  14. Informing Active Play and Screen Time Behaviour Change Interventions for Low Socioeconomic Position Mothers of Young Children: What Do Mothers Want?

    Katherine L. Downing


    Full Text Available Introduction. This study investigated views of mothers from disadvantaged urban and regional areas (i.e., beyond major capital cities as potential end users of child active play and screen time behaviour change interventions, with a focus on text messaging and web-based delivery platforms. Methods. Thirty-two mothers (22 urban; 10 regional were interviewed. Purpose-designed questions covered topics regarding mothers’ preferences for accessing and receiving information related to parenting and child active play and screen time. Data from transcribed interviews were analysed to identify responses and key themes. Results. Mothers reported frequently accessing parenting- and child-related information online. Regional mothers reported seeking information by talking with other people less frequently than urban mothers and seemed to have a stronger preference for receiving information online. There were few differences between responses from low and high educated mothers. The majority of mothers reported that they would be happy to receive text messages containing information about active play and screen time and that they would find a dedicated website with this information useful. Conclusions. Mothers in this study held favourable views on the potential of receiving information via new communication technologies. Future interventions targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers may benefit from delivering intervention messages via these technologies.

  15. Experimental demonstration of a parasite-induced immune response in wild birds: Darwin's finches and introduced nest flies.

    Koop, Jennifer A H; Owen, Jeb P; Knutie, Sarah A; Aguilar, Maria A; Clayton, Dale H


    Ecological immunology aims to explain variation among hosts in the strength and efficacy of immunological defenses. However, a shortcoming has been the failure to link host immune responses to actual parasites under natural conditions. Here, we present one of the first experimental demonstrations of a parasite-induced immune response in a wild bird population. The recently introduced ectoparasitic nest fly Philornis downsi severely impacts the fitness of Darwin's finches and other land birds in the Galápagos Islands. An earlier study showed that female medium ground finches (Geospiza fortis) had P. downsi-binding antibodies correlating with presumed variation in fly exposure over time. In the current study, we experimentally manipulated fly abundance to test whether the fly does, in fact, cause changes in antibody levels. We manipulated P. downsi abundance in nests and quantified P. downsi-binding antibody levels of medium ground finch mothers, fathers, and nestlings. We also quantified host behaviors, such as preening, which can integrate with antibody-mediated defenses against ectoparasites. Philornis downsi-binding antibody levels were significantly higher among mothers at parasitized nests, compared to mothers at (fumigated) nonparasitized nests. Mothers with higher antibody levels tended to have fewer parasites in their nests, suggesting that antibodies play a role in defense against parasites. Mothers showed no behavioral changes that would enhance the effectiveness of the immune response. Neither adult males, nor nestlings, had P. downsi-induced immunological or behavioral responses that would enhance defense against flies. None of the parasitized nests fledged any offspring, despite the immune response by mothers. Thus, this study shows that, while the immune response of mothers appeared to be defensive, it was not sufficient to rescue current reproductive fitness. This study further shows the importance of testing the fitness consequences of immune

  16. Embodied intersubjective engagement in mother-infant tactile communication: a cross-cultural study of Japanese and Scottish mother-infant behaviors during infant pick-up.

    Negayama, Koichi; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T; Momose, Keiko; Ishijima, Konomi; Kawahara, Noriko; Lux, Erin J; Murphy, Andrew; Kaliarntas, Konstantinos


    This study examines the early development of cultural differences in a simple, embodied, and intersubjective engagement between mothers putting down, picking up, and carrying their infants between Japan and Scotland. Eleven Japanese and ten Scottish mothers with their 6- and then 9-month-old infants participated. Video and motion analyses were employed to measure motor patterns of the mothers' approach to their infants, as well as their infants' collaborative responses during put-down, pick-up, and carry phases. Japanese and Scottish mothers approached their infants with different styles and their infants responded differently to the short duration of separation during the trial. A greeting-like behavior of the arms and hands was prevalent in the Scottish mothers' approach, but not in the Japanese mothers' approach. Japanese mothers typically kneeled before making the final reach to pick-up their children, giving a closer, apparently gentler final approach of the torso than Scottish mothers, who bent at the waist with larger movements of the torso. Measures of the gap closure between the mothers' hands to their infants' heads revealed variably longer duration and distance gap closures with greater velocity by the Scottish mothers than by the Japanese mothers. Further, the sequence of Japanese mothers' body actions on approach, contact, pick-up, and hold was more coordinated at 6 months than at 9 months. Scottish mothers were generally more variable on approach. Measures of infant participation and expressivity indicate more active participation in the negotiation during the separation and pick-up phases by Scottish infants. Thus, this paper demonstrates a culturally different onset of development of joint attention in pick-up. These differences reflect cultures of everyday interaction.

  17. Tendências na assistência hospitalar Trends in hospital care

    Gonzalo Vecina Neto


    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as tendências observadas na assistência hospitalar brasileira, no que diz respeito ao cenário, situação atual, desafios e ao que necessita ser feito, tendo em vista os itens anteriores. As variáveis com as quais se trabalhou o cenário geral foram a demografia, o perfil epidemiológico, os recursos humanos, a tecnologia, a medicalização, os custos, a revisão do papel do cidadão, a legislação, a eqüidade, o hospitalocentrismo e a regionalização, o fracionamento do cuidado e a oferta de leitos. O cenário nacional foi estudado mediante o modelo empregado na assistência médica supletiva, o financiamento e a cadeia de produção na área de serviços de saúde. A situação atual apresenta os modelos de avaliação externa, a terceirização, o relacionamento público-privado, a desospitalização e o financiamento. Os desafios a serem enfrentados analisam a necessidade de se olhar o longo prazo, a busca por novos modelos jurídicos para o "negócio", o uso da informação e a informatização, o controle de custos e a necessidade do aumento da eficiência e do cumprimento dos ditames legais, de garantia de acesso e de integralidade na assistência, a incorporação da prevenção primária ao processo de atenção, a integração entre os setores público e privado e a incorporação do médico na solução dos problemas.This paper analyses trends in the delivery of hospital services in Brazil, considering the setting, the current situation and its challenges, examining what still remains to be done. The variables studied for the analysis of the setting are: demography, epidemiological profile, human resources, technology, medicalization, costs, review of the role of the citizen, legislation, equity, hospital-centricity and regionalization, care fractioning and bed availability. The Brazilian setting was studied through the supplementary healthcare model, financing and the healthcare area production chain. The

  18. Safeguarding nutritional status of adolescent mothers

    Calderon de la Barca, A.M.; Bolanos, A V; Caire Juvera, G; Roman Perez, R; Regil, L.M. de; Valencia, M E [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Casanueva, E; Sanesteban, V [Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia, Mexico, DF (Mexico)


    Milk intake of breast-fed infants and body composition of 47 lactating mothers from Northwest and Central Mexico were monitored at 1 and 3 mo postpartum by the deuterium dilution technique and infrared detection. Milk quality was evaluated directly as milk composition and indirectly by infant growth. Maternal body fat tended to be lower in Central than in Northwest Mexico and was significant at 1 mo postpartum (p<0.001). BMI correlated positively with percentage body fat at 1 mo (r = 0.79, p<0.0001) and 3 mo (r = 0.76, p<0.0001). In Central Mexico, mean maternal energy intake was 19.4 and 23% below the RDA at 1 and 3 mo postpartum respectively. There were no differences in TBW, percentage body fat, BMI energy intake and estimated energy expenditure by activity diary between adolescent and adult women. Milk production rates averaged 573 vs 865 g/d at 1 and 3 mo postpartum in Northwest Mexico and 680 vs 857 g/d in Central Mexico and were not different between areas. Infants' energy intakes in Northwest Mexico at 1 and 3 mo postpartum were not significantly different. Fat intake at 3 mo was significantly lower in Central than in Northwest Mexico (p<0.05). Weight for age and weight for length Z scores were above +0.5 for infants from Northwest region, while for those in Central Area was between 0 and + 0. 5 at 2 and 3 mo. There were no differences (p>0.05) in Z score values for weight/length for infants in the two regions at 3 mo. Neither adolescent or adult mothers from Northwest or Central Mexican regions were undernourished and they produced adequate milk volume and composition to feed their infants and maintain their growth pattern until 3 months postpartum. (author)

  19. Mothers' Mobility after Separation : Do Grandmothers Matter?

    Das, Marjolijn; de Valk, Helga; Merz, Eva-Maria


    Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit

  20. Mothers' Mobility after Separation: Do Grandmothers Matter?

    Das, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Merz, E.-M.


    Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit

  1. Intimate partner violence. Mothers' perspectives of effects on their children.

    Lemmey, D; McFarlane, J; Willson, P; Malecha, A


    Intimate partner violence not only affects adults but also the children living within that "war zone." The present study expands our understanding about how children are affected when they observe violence in their own homes, as reported by their mothers. This descriptive study was conducted to describe mothers' perspectives of the impact of the violence on their children. A consecutive sample of 72 mothers attempting to file assault charges were interviewed in a private room by a registered nurse and were asked to describe the effect of witnessing intimate partner violence on their child's behavior. Each response was written verbatim by the interviewer. A majority (72%) of the mothers reported negative behaviors in their children that they believed were as a result of witnessing their mother's violent experiences. The most common negative traits were distress-indicating behaviors such as sleep disturbances, clinging, and fretful behaviors followed by problems with the abuser, problems in school, and problems with mother. Because intimate partner violence affects children, health care providers should become familiar with behaviors indicative of this problem. To promote the well being and development of children, recommendations for assessment and intervention for women experiencing intimate partner violence are discussed.

  2. Postpartum depression, suicidality, and mother-infant interactions.

    Paris, Ruth; Bolton, Rendelle E; Weinberg, M Katherine


    To date, few studies have examined suicidality in women with postpartum depression. Reports of suicidal ideation in postpartum women have varied (Lindahl et al. Arch Womens Ment Health 8:77-87, 2005), and no known studies have examined the relationship between suicidality and mother-infant interactions. This study utilizes baseline data from a multi-method evaluation of a home-based psychotherapy for women with postpartum depression and their infants to examine the phenomenon of suicidality and its relationship to maternal mood, perceptions, and mother-infant interactions. Overall, women in this clinical sample (n = 32) had wide ranging levels of suicidal thinking. When divided into low and high groups, the mothers with high suicidality experienced greater mood disturbances, cognitive distortions, and severity of postpartum symptomotology. They also had lower maternal self-esteem, more negative perceptions of the mother-infant relationship, and greater parenting stress. During observer-rated mother-infant interactions, women with high suicidality were less sensitive and responsive to their infants' cues, and their infants demonstrated less positive affect and involvement with their mothers. Implications for clinical practice and future research directions are discussed.

  3. The Role of Girls as Mothers in Harry Potter Series

    Marcelina Fransisca


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the role of the female characters in Harry Potter series. It aims to find out the ways the female characters, Hermione Granger, Ginny Weasley, and Luna Lovegood take a mother role for Harry, whereas they are in their teenage years. Using Barthes’ theory on myths, this study identifies that there are two myths that are in operation, the myth that girls are supposed to be mothers and the myth that mothers are supposed to protect, nurture, and educate. As the agents of the myths,the three teenage girls willingly take their role as  mothers  role that are assigned to them. These three female characters take their roles as mothers to Harry in how they protect, nurture, and educate Harry. In response to this, Harry also succumbs to the position of being protected, nurtured and educated by these three girls. Despite Rowling’s claims on her being a feminist when she said that “I’ve always considered myself as a feminist” (Rowling, 2011, she cannot escape the myths on girls and women. Rowling sees that  being a mother is the most powerful role for girls and women

  4. Children's questions about interparent conflict and violence: what's a mother to say?

    McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David; Leahy, Matthew M


    This research examined the relation between mothers' responses to children's questions about interparent conflict and children's adjustment. Participants were 134 mothers and their children (70 boys, 64 girls), aged 7 to 10. In each family, an act of intimate-partner violence (IPV) had recently occurred. Mothers' responses to children's questions about interparent conflict were assessed via a semistructured interview coded to reflect the extent to which the mothers' responses addressed the content of the children's questions. Mothers and children reported on physical IPV. Mothers also reported on interparent conflict, parent-child aggression, and maternal warmth. Children's adjustment was assessed via mothers' and children's reports at two time points 6 months apart. The extent to which mothers' responses addressed the content of the children's questions about interparent conflict was negatively associated with children's adjustment problems, after accounting for the frequency of physical IPV, frequency of interparent conflict, parent-child aggression, and maternal warmth. These associations emerged cross-sectionally and prospectively. However, in those prospective analyses that accounted for children's baseline levels of adjustment, maternal responsiveness was not associated with later children's adjustment problems.

  5. Estudio comparativo de cirugía percutánea del tendón de Aquiles asistida ecográficamente con la cirugía abierta convencional en roturas de tendón de Aquiles

    Rubio Lorenzo, Mónica


    RESUMEN:El tendón de Aquiles es el tendón que con más frecuencia se rompe del cuerpo humano. Generalmente ocurre en la etapa laboral y deportiva de la vida, y conllevan complicaciones postquirúrgicas, tiempo de incapacidad laboral y restringen la calidad de vida de los pacientes, limitando su actividad deportiva y cotidiana posterior. Desarrollamos una técnica percutánea ecoguiada, y lo comparamos con la técnica convencional abierta. Encontramos que: existen diferencias significativa...

  6. A single mothers' group for mothers of children attending an outpatient psychiatric clinic: preliminary results.

    McNamee, J E; Lipman, E L; Hicks, F


    To provide a preliminary report of data from 2 support groups for single mothers, all of whom were mothers of children attending a child outpatient psychiatric clinic. The groups' 2 purposes were: 1. to assess the feasibility of adding structured evaluation to a common clinical intervention; 2. to improve single mothers' parenting skills through raised levels of self-esteem, increased capacity for family functioning and reduced levels of depression. Three structured evaluation instruments were used to measure the domains of self-esteem, family functioning and depression. These instruments were given to both groups of women on 3 occasions: 1. before the group; 2. after the group; 3. at a follow-up session 4 months after group termination. Open-ended questions were also asked at group termination. The questionnaire response rate was 100%; overall response rate for the 3 open-ended questions was 89%. Comparisons of pre-group and post-group scores showed that there was a significant increase in self-esteem (p parenting skills. Methodologic concerns and future directions are discussed.

  7. When Love Is in the Air: Understanding Why Dogs Tend to Mate when It Rains.

    Sreejani Sen Majumder

    Full Text Available Seasonality of reproduction is observed in many species of organisms, across taxa, and is influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. While such seasonality is easy to understand in temperate species exposed to extreme climates, it is more difficult to explain in the tropics. In many tropical species offspring are born during the season of high precipitation, which also coincides with high resource availability. Interestingly, in India, free-ranging dogs seem to mate, and not whelp, when it rains--an observation that cannot be explained by the resource abundance hypothesis. We carried out an extensive study to identify the mating seasons of free-ranging dogs, and observed a strong correlation between both the incidence and frequency of mating related behaviours of dogs, and precipitation levels. There are two clear mating seasons, of which the primary mating season coincides with the monsoon (rainy season and the secondary mating season coincides with the nor'westerlies in this part of India. We speculate that this strong correlation is an effect of chemistry, rather than biology. While male dogs can mate round the year, females come into estrous seasonally. In the urban environment, dogs are exposed to a lot of olfactory noise, which can dilute the signal present in sex pheromones of the females in heat. A shower leads to increased humidity and reduced temperature of the air, leading to intensification of pheromone signals that trigger a sexual response in the dogs.

  8. When Love Is in the Air: Understanding Why Dogs Tend to Mate when It Rains.

    Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Bhadra, Anindita


    Seasonality of reproduction is observed in many species of organisms, across taxa, and is influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. While such seasonality is easy to understand in temperate species exposed to extreme climates, it is more difficult to explain in the tropics. In many tropical species offspring are born during the season of high precipitation, which also coincides with high resource availability. Interestingly, in India, free-ranging dogs seem to mate, and not whelp, when it rains--an observation that cannot be explained by the resource abundance hypothesis. We carried out an extensive study to identify the mating seasons of free-ranging dogs, and observed a strong correlation between both the incidence and frequency of mating related behaviours of dogs, and precipitation levels. There are two clear mating seasons, of which the primary mating season coincides with the monsoon (rainy season) and the secondary mating season coincides with the nor'westerlies in this part of India. We speculate that this strong correlation is an effect of chemistry, rather than biology. While male dogs can mate round the year, females come into estrous seasonally. In the urban environment, dogs are exposed to a lot of olfactory noise, which can dilute the signal present in sex pheromones of the females in heat. A shower leads to increased humidity and reduced temperature of the air, leading to intensification of pheromone signals that trigger a sexual response in the dogs.

  9. Values transferred and cherished by mothers in the rural families in the Polish Second Republic



    Full Text Available In the Polish Second Republic, so in the country rebom afiter one hundred twenty three years of captivity, the role of a woman as a woman-mother, was significantly emphasized. Press, literature, researchers have proved that safety and order in the whole country depend on safety and order in individual families. The key notion became: „from education of a mother to education of a child”. While analyzing sources such as newspapers, magazines, diaries, guidebooks, I noticed the following values for which mothers in rural families were held to be responsible: 1 ,value of work connected with obligation in farm and household, so role of mother asahousewife; 2.the value of the family as a community and the mother's role in it. Mother was the first protector, tutor, patron of a child. Mother took care of child and other members in the family, she helped them, she guaranteed the positive atmosphere at home, took care of safety in a wide context. It was significant that mother appealed in the process of socialization to common traditions and experiences; 3.value of education and social consciousness, so the role of the mother in shaping social consciousness; 4.patriotic value, so the role of the mother in shaping patriotic attitude

  10. Making Work Fit Care: Reconciliation Strategies Used by Working Mothers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Fu, Li-yeh; Chang, Heng-Hao


    Background: This study explored the experiences of working mothers with an adult child with intellectual disabilities to understand how they reconcile paid work and care responsibilities. Methods: Fifteen working mothers in Taiwan with an adult child with intellectual disabilities were interviewed, and an interpretative phenomenological approach…

  11. Chicago Mothers on Finding and Using Child Care during Nonstandard Work Hours

    Stoll, Marcia; Alexander, David; Nicpon, Christine


    Few issues confound child care policy more than the fact that very large numbers of mothers work evenings, overnight, or weekend hours when fewer child care programs operate. The authors interviewed 50 single Chicago mothers with nontraditional work hours about their experiences finding and using child care. Participants' responses addressed…

  12. "It is my destiny as a woman": on becoming a new mother in Indonesia.

    Afiyanti, Yati; Solberg, Shirley M


    The purpose of the study was to provide a greater understanding of the experience of the new Indonesian mother. This study was a hermeneutic phenomenological study. Data were obtained from 13 first time Indonesian mothers through semi-structured interviews. Two main themes were identified: "trying to be a good mother " and "confirming my destiny as a woman." A number of subthemes were identified to understand of how women in rural West Java perceived the meaning of being a new mother. These themes and subthemes described the woman's responsibilities as a new mother and some of the challenges that she accepted as a part of her destiny. This study provides nurses and others with insights into the experiences of Indonesian women with early motherhood, their feelings about taking on the mothering role, and some of their needs during this period. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Surviving Surveillance: How Pregnant Women and Mothers Living With HIV Respond to Medical and Social Surveillance.

    Greene, Saara; Ion, Allyson; Kwaramba, Gladys; Lazarus, Lisa; Loutfy, Mona


    Pregnant women and mothers living with HIV are under surveillance of service providers, family members, and the community at large. Surveillance occurs throughout the medical management of their HIV during pregnancy, preventing HIV transmission to their baby, infant feeding practices, and as part of assessments related to their ability to mother. Enacted and anticipatory HIV-related stigma can exacerbate the negative impact that being under surveillance has on mothers living with HIV as they move through their pregnancy, birthing, and mothering experiences. In response, women living with HIV find ways to manage their experiences of surveillance through engaging in acts of distancing, planning, and resisting at different points in time, and sometimes enacting all three practices at once. Positioning the narratives of pregnant women and mothers living with HIV in relation to their experiences of surveillance illuminates the relationship between the surveillance of mothers living with HIV and HIV-related stigma.

  14. Cytokine expression in the colostral cells of healthy and allergic mothers.

    Hrdý, Jiří; Novotná, Olga; Kocourková, Ingrid; Prokešová, Ludmila


    There is no doubt about the beneficial effect of breastfeeding on the newborn's immune system. It is not fully elucidated what the differences are between the colostrum/milk of healthy and allergic mothers and how beneficial breastfeeding by an allergic mother is. The gene expression of selected cytokines was tested in cells isolated from colostra of healthy and allergic mothers using quantitative real-time PCR. Allergic phenotype was evident in colostral cells of allergic mothers: gene expressions of IL-4, IL-13 and EGF were increased and those of IFN-gamma decreased in comparison with colostral cells of healthy mothers. The allergic phenotype of the colostral cells of allergic mothers supporting the bias to a Th2 type response was found. It remains a question if a small number of these cells could influence the immature newborn immune system.

  15. Medieval orality, mothers, and bonding.

    Schwartz, Scott C


    The role of women in the Middle Ages was vilification, veneration, and exclusion. Due to the high rates of maternal and infant mortality bonding shifted from the mother-child dyad to one in which the Church, Holy Family, and king acted as pseudo-parents. In art this is suggested by the virtual absence of eye contact between the Virgin and Christ-child. Frustration of early oral needs consequent to lack of adequate mother-child bonding prompted a reactive emphasis on orality in art and legend. A decrease in infant mortality and a reciprocal improvement in mother child bonding contributed to cultural shifts in how self-realization would be accomplished during the Renaissance and in the later emergence of secular humanism.

  16. Parenthood motives in IVF-mothers.

    Colpin, H; De Munter, A; Vandemeulebroecke, L


    This is an exploratory study to answer two questions: (1) does in-vitro fertilization (IVF)-mothers' motivation for parenthood differ from the naturally conceiving mothers' motivation for parenthood? and (2) are IVF-mothers' parenthood motives correlated with their adjustment to parenthood (in the same way as they are for naturally conceiving mothers)? The study sample consisted of 31 mothers with a 24-30 month old, single-born child conceived by homologous IVF and a comparison group of 31 mothers with a naturally conceived child. Self-rating questionnaires were used. Overall, the parenthood motivation pattern was quite similar for IVF-mothers and mothers by natural conception. However, 'identity', 'motherhood' and 'social control' were significantly more important motives for IVF-mothers than for the naturally conceiving mothers. The two former motives remained more important for IVF-mothers when findings were adjusted for the influence of the mothers' age and educational level. Possible explanations for these findings refer to the infertility history. Overall, few correlations between parenthood motives and the adjustment to parenthood were significant, both for the IVF-mothers and for the mothers by natural conception. Further (hypothesis-testing) research is needed to support these findings.

  17. Structure, coercive control, and autonomy promotion: A comparison of fathers' and mothers' food parenting strategies.

    Pratt, Mercedes; Hoffmann, Debra; Taylor, Maija; Musher-Eizenman, Dara


    This study explored differences in mothers' and fathers' food parenting strategies, specifically coercive control, structure, and autonomy promotion, and whether parenting style and parental responsibility for food parenting related to the use of these strategies. Parents of children aged 2.5-7.5 years ( N = 497) reported about their parenting practices and food parenting strategies. Parenting style accounted for the majority of the variance in food parenting. Fathers were more authoritarian than mothers. Authoritarian and permissive parenting practices were related to more coercive strategies. Mothers reported more food parenting responsibility. Responsibility was related to less coercive practices and more autonomy promotion and structure.

  18. Mothers' Socialization Goals, Mothers' Emotion Socialization Behaviors, Child Emotion Regulation, and Child Socioemotional Functioning in Urban India

    Raval, Vaishali V.; Raval, Pratiksha H.; Deo, Neeraj


    Studies examining the link between parental socialization and child functioning in varying cultural contexts are scarce. Focusing on early adolescents in suburban middle-class families in India, the present study examined interrelations among reports of mothers' socialization goals, socialization behaviors in response to child emotion, child…

  19. Faranak Parent-Child Mother Goose Program: Impact on Mother-Child Relationship for Mothers of Preschool Hearing Impaired Children

    Rogayeh Koohi


    Discussion: The Frank parent-child Mother Goose program could help families with hearing-impaired children in this 12-week community-based program, wherein parents learned skills that affect the relationship between mother and child.

  20. "If I Had Abandoned My Children": Community Mobilization and Commitment to the Identity of Mother in Northeast Brazil.

    Neuhouser, Kevin


    In an urban Brazilian shantytown, poor mothers took the risk of becoming squatters on public land (despite repressive actions by a military dictatorship) because activism was their only avenue to access the resources (housing) needed for motherhood--their only available valued identity. Poor fathers, having other possible identities, tended to…

  1. Positively Biased Processing of Mother's Emotions Predicts Children's Social and Emotional Functioning.

    Donohue, Meghan Rose; Goodman, Sherryl H; Tully, Erin C

    Risk for internalizing problems and social skills deficits likely emerges in early childhood when emotion processing and social competencies are developing. Positively biased processing of social information is typical during early childhood and may be protective against poorer psychosocial outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that young children with relatively less positively biased attention to, interpretations of, and attributions for their mother's emotions would exhibit poorer prosocial skills and more internalizing problems. A sample of 4- to 6-year-old children ( N =82) observed their mothers express happiness, sadness and anger during a simulated emotional phone conversation. Children's attention to their mother when she expressed each emotion was rated from video. Immediately following the phone conversation, children were asked questions about the conversation to assess their interpretations of the intensity of mother's emotions and misattributions of personal responsibility for her emotions. Children's prosocial skills and internalizing problems were assessed using mother-report rating scales. Interpretations of mother's positive emotions as relatively less intense than her negative emotions, misattributions of personal responsibility for her negative emotions, and lack of misattributions of personal responsibility for her positive emotions were associated with poorer prosocial skills. Children who attended relatively less to mother's positive than her negative emotions had higher levels of internalizing problems. These findings suggest that children's attention to, interpretations of, and attributions for their mother's emotions may be important targets of early interventions for preventing prosocial skills deficits and internalizing problems.

  2. Overweight and obese children: mothers' strategies.

    Jackson, Debra; Mannix, Judy; Faga, Pat; McDonald, Glenda


    This paper reports a study exploring the strategies a group of mothers of overweight and obese children were using and planned to use in the future to assist their children to achieve a healthy weight. Over the past two decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has grown exponentially to become a major public health concern. Extant literature suggests that childhood obesity is associated with a range of physical, social and psychological effects, including poor self-esteem, depression, social isolation, and cardio-vascular and other morbidity. Parents are known to be important in determining early eating and exercise habits, and their involvement is crucial to achieving positive child health outcomes. An exploratory-descriptive design informed by feminist research principles shaped the study, which was carried out in 2003-2004. Eleven mothers meeting the inclusion criteria took part in in-depth interviews. These were transcribed, and qualitatively analysed. Participants revealed sound understandings of the concept and ramifications of obesity. They had initiated a range of strategies including role modelling, developing opportunities for increased physical activity, reducing the use of junk food, and heightened awareness of how they used food. Participants viewed the problem as a family rather than an individual problem, and aimed many of the interventions at the entire family to avoid targeting the focus child. Further research into how childhood obesity is managed within the context of family life is needed. Specifically, additional perspectives on how mothers from various socio-cultural groups address childhood obesity within family life, and longitudinal studies to explore the efficacy and sustainability of family-based lifestyle changes that are made in response to concerns about child weight issues. Additional research to explore the type and nature of family support that can best assist families to achieve sustainable lifestyle improvements is needed.

  3. Importance of Education for Expectant Mothers

    Muhammad Ma’ruf Ch


    Full Text Available Not many people talk about the role of a mother. But they acknowledgethat we are in world to the mother because. Actually, children are a source ofgreat joy and delight, they make life sweet, bring more rizq into a family’s lifeand give hope. A father sees his children as a future source of help and support,as well as representing an increase in numbers and perpetuation of the family.A mother sees her children as a source of hope, consolation and joy in life, andas hope for the future. All of these hopes rest on the good upbringing of thechildren and giving them a sound preparation for life, so that they will becomeactive and constructive elements in society, a source of goodness for their parents,community and society as a whole. Then they will be as Allah Subhanahu wata’ala described them: “ Wealth and sons are allurements of the life of thisworld . . .” (Qur’an 18:46.If their education and upbringing are neglected, they will become badcharacters, a burden on their family, community and society as a whole. Onlywaiting the Muslim woman’s sincerity, how to manage the great responsibilityfor forming their resource, especially in character building1. And how is theMuslim women have understanding the great responsibility and use the bestmethods in bringing them up, and do they able to demonstrate their love andaffection, also treat their sons and daughters equally, even they do not discriminatebetween sons and daughters of their affection, in other time the Muslim womenalert to everything, that may have an influence on their children they instill goodbehavior and attitudes in them.

  4. Mothers perception of sexuality education for children.

    Opara, P I; Eke, G K; Akani, N A


    Sexuality education is the process of acquiring information and forming attitudes and beliefs about sex, sexual identity, relationships and intimacy. It develops young people's skills so that they make informed choices about their behaviour, and feel confident and competent about acting on these choices. It also equips children to face developmental challenges and empowers them against the ills of abuse, exploitation, unwanted pregnancies amongst others. Mothers who are the primary caregivers should be well informed about sexuality issues. The objective of the study is to determine mothers' perception of sexuality education in children, in Port Harcourt. A structured, anonymous and self-administered questionnaire, used as instrument for data collection, was distributed amongst a convenient sample of women attending a Christian women's convention in Port Harcourt. One hundred and fifty eight women participated in the study. Most of them were married (80.4%), and belonged to the 30-49 years age bracket. Seventy one (44.9%) of the respondents had tertiary education. Over 80% agreed that children needed sexuality education but only 15 women (9.5%) had a good knowledge of the concept of sexuality education. One hundred and eleven (70.2%) believed it was the responsibility of both parents to educate their children and over 70% acknowledged that the home was the best place for such education. 64 (40.5%) believed that 6-10 years was the ideal age for starting sex education while 49% thought that the ideal age was 11-15 years. 65% of respondents discussed sexuality issues with their children at least occasionally, the content mostly involved description of body parts and reproductive organs. The average age of menarche amongst respondents was 14.0. One hundred (63%) of the women had prior knowledge of menstruation before menarche. About half of them had received information from their mothers. The study highlights the need for enlightenment of women on sexuality education

  5. Perceptions of adolescents' sexual behavior among mothers living with and without HIV: does dyadic sex communication matter?

    Marhefka, Stephanie L; Mellins, Claude Ann; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; Ehrhardt, Anke A


    Previous studies suggest that mothers can help adolescents make responsible sexual decisions by talking with them about sexual health. Yet, it is not clear how and when mothers make decisions about talking with their adolescents about sex. We sought to determine: (1) the accuracy of mothers' and adolescents' predictions of adolescents' age of sexual debut; and (2) if mothers' beliefs about their adolescents' sexual behavior affected the frequency of mother-adolescent communication about sexual topics and, in turn, if mother-adolescent communication about sexual topics affected mothers' accuracy in predicting adolescents' current and future sexual behavior. Participants were 129 urban, ethnic minority HIV-negative youth (52% male and 48% female; ages 10-14 years at baseline; ages 13-19 years at follow-up) and their mothers; 47% of mothers were HIV-positive. Most mothers and adolescents predicted poorly when adolescents would sexually debut. At baseline, mothers' communication with their early adolescents about sexual topics was not significantly associated with mothers' assessments of their early adolescents' future sexual behavior. At follow-up, mothers were more likely to talk with their adolescents about HIV prevention and birth control if they believed that their adolescents had sexually debuted, though these effects were attenuated by baseline levels of communication. Only one effect was found for adolescents' gender: mothers reported greater communication about sex with daughters. Studies are needed to determine how mothers make decisions about talking with their adolescents about sex, as well as to examine to what extent and in what instances mothers can reduce their adolescents' sexual risk behavior by providing comprehensive, developmentally appropriate sex education well before adolescents are likely to debut.

  6. Work life and mental well-being: single and coupled employed mothers in Southern Europe and Scandinavia.

    Bull, Torill


    Many European mothers, single and coupled, combine work outside the home and family life. The effects of this on their mental well-being may vary depending on the level of support available from the State's welfare system, since welfare may buffer working mothers from some of the stress that can arise from trying to manage significant responsibilities on the job and at home. Welfare may be especially important for single working mothers, for whom the burden of multiple roles may be even heavier. The present study assessed levels and predictors of well-being of single and coupled employed mothers in Greece, Portugal and Spain, where welfare support is relatively limited. Results were compared to a parallel study with data from Denmark, Norway and Sweden, where welfare support is relatively comprehensive. Coupled mothers in Scandinavia had significantly lower financial hardship, longer education, higher life satisfaction, more enriching jobs, practical support, financial support and social participation than coupled mothers in the Southern European sample. On the other hand, the Scandinavian coupled mothers had higher levels of work family conflict than coupled mothers in Southern Europe. Single mothers in Scandinavia, compared to single mothers in Southern Europe, had significantly longer education, higher life satisfaction and positive affect, more enriching jobs, confidant support, practical support, financial support and social participation. Level of job stress was the same for all mother groups. All groups differed significantly from each other in level of financial hardship, with Scandinavian coupled mothers being best off, followed by Scandinavian single mothers, Southern European coupled mothers, and Southern European single mothers. The regional differences suggest that single motherhood per se need not be a risk factor for poorer well-being, and that welfare policies may have a protective effect for the mental well-being of single mothers.

  7. Response

    Higgins, Chris


    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  8. Neither father nor biological mother

    Dahl, Bente; Malterud, Kirsti


    . Results: Analysis showed that ordinary tokens of recognition created feelings of being included, whilelesbian self-confidence played a major role in awkward encounters. Being neither father nor biologicalmother sometimes challenged parental identity. Being women helped co-mothers understand what...

  9. Existential Meaning Among First-Time Full-Term and Preterm Mothers

    Prinds, Christina; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Mogensen, Ole


    Research indicates that childbirth is a time when a woman might experience existential disruptions and gain new perspectives on life. The 2-fold aim of this study was to investigate whether attitudes related to existential meaning among first-time mothers intensify and whether they differ between...... mothers who gave birth at full term and those who gave birth preterm. All first-time mothers who gave birth in Denmark in 2010 before the 32nd week of pregnancy and twice that number of full-term mothers (randomly sampled) were invited to participate in a national cross-sectional survey. Five core items...... concerning meaning in life, vulnerability of life, responsibility, thoughts about life and death, and "something bigger than oneself" were analyzed to compare mothers' attitudes on existential meaning. The overall response rate was 57% (517/913). Contrary to the hypothesis, attitudes related to existential...

  10. Concern as motivation for protection: an investigation of mothers' concern about daughters' breast cancer risk.

    Neuberger, Lindsay; Silk, Kami J; Yun, Doshik; Bowman, Nicholas David; Anderson, Jennifer


    The present study surveyed mothers with daughters (N = 386) to investigate how mothers' concern about their daughters' breast cancer risk influenced intentions to engage in preventive behaviors. Using protection motivation theory as a framework, self-efficacy, response efficacy, and level of concern were posited to influence protective behavioral intention in distinct ways. Results from regression analyses indicate that self-efficacy, response efficacy, and mothers' concern are significant predictors of intentions to engage in preventive behaviors with daughters. In addition, a content analysis of mothers' open-ended reasons for their concern about their daughters' breast cancer risk yield a list of specific concerns and trends that vary by concern level and individual comment valence. The authors discuss implications for incorporating mothers' concerns into breast cancer prevention messages as a novel strategy for campaign designers.

  11. The protective effects of father involvement for infants of teen mothers with depressive symptoms.

    Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J; Waters, Damian; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Southammakosane, Cathy; Gilmore, Jasmine


    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of father involvement on infant distress among children born to teen mothers, particularly those who are depressed. 119 teen mothers (questionnaires administered at baseline, before participation in the intervention or comparison conditions. 29 % of teen mothers screened positive for depression. Mothers reported that 78 % of fathers were engaged with their children, typically seeing them a few times per month, and 71 % took financial responsibility for their children. In a multiple linear regression, father responsibility predicted lower infant distress, maternal depression predicted higher infant distress, and there was a significant interaction in which father engagement buffered the effect of maternal depression on infant distress. Fathers may be a protective resource for children born to teen mothers, even as early as the first 6 months of life, potentially mitigating the heightened risk associated with maternal depression in the postpartum period.

  12. Making work fit care: reconciliation strategies used by working mothers of adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Fu, Li-yeh; Chang, Heng-Hao


    This study explored the experiences of working mothers with an adult child with intellectual disabilities to understand how they reconcile paid work and care responsibilities. Fifteen working mothers in Taiwan with an adult child with intellectual disabilities were interviewed, and an interpretative phenomenological approach was adopted for data collection and analysis. All included mothers prioritized their caregiving role over paid work. The strategies used by these mothers to make paid work fit with caregiving included having strong social networks and informal support for their care work, use of formal services, personal religious beliefs and positive attitudes towards care, as well as having flexible working hours due to self-employment, good relations with employers, working positions and work locations. Formal systems, which include both welfare and labour policies, need to be responsive to and involved in supporting these working mothers, especially those who lack good personal networks. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Mothers and infants exposed to intimate partner violence compensate.

    Letourneau, Nicole; Morris, Catherine Young; Secco, Loretta; Stewart, Miriam; Hughes, Jean; Critchley, Kim


    Reasons for the developmental variability in children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) are unclear and under studied. This article presents exploratory findings on (a) the potential impact of IPV on mother-child relationships and child development and (b) the association between these maternal-child relationship impacts and child development. The fit of findings with compensatory, spillover, and compartmentalization hypotheses was explored. Participants were 49 mothers and 51 children younger than 3 years of age affected by IPV. Data were collected on maternal-child interactions, child development, social support, difficult life circumstances, family functioning, child temperament, and parental depression. The findings suggested developmental impacts on children in the sample, along with children's high sensitivity and responsiveness to their caregivers. Although some spillover effects were observed, the predominant observation was of mothers and infants compensating for exposure to IPV in their interactions.

  14. How Physicians Support Mothers of Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Fujino, Haruo; Saito, Toshio; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Shibata, Saki; Iwata, Yuko; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Shinno, Susumu; Imura, Osamu


    Communicating about Duchenne muscular dystrophy and its prognosis can be difficult for affected children and their family. We focused on how physicians provide support to the mothers of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who have difficulty communicating about the condition with their child. The eligible participants were certified child neurologists of the Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Participants responded to questionnaires consisting of free descriptions of a vignette of a child with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and a mother. We analyzed 263 responses of the participants. We found 4 themes on advising mothers, involving encouraging communication, family autonomy, supporting family, and considering the child's concerns. These results provide a better understanding of the communication between physicians and family members who need help sharing information with a child with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. These findings will assist clinical practitioners in supporting families and the affected children throughout the course of their illness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Mother natural: Motivations and associations for consuming natural foods.

    Moscato, Emily M; Machin, Jane E


    Natural is perceived as innately positive and is a widely sought-after attribute in food products. The natural food industry continues to grow in response to rising consumer demand. This qualitative study explored mothers' motivations for purchasing and consuming natural food products for themselves and their families. Mothers are an important population because of their disproportionate influence on household food consumption. We employed participant photography and a series of three weekly focus groups to derive a rich understanding of the activities surrounding and motivations behind seeking natural in everyday buying decisions. Five major themes were identified. First, natural nurtures well-being: physical, psychological, social, and emotional health. Second, natural behaves "supernaturally," allowing positive attributes to be transmitted from the source to the recipient. Third, natural is associated with authenticity, providing a sense of trust, transparency, and control. Fourth, consuming natural reinforces the socially constructed idea of a good mother. Lastly, the preference for natural does not always translate into purchase; mothers face compromises because of conflicting priorities and resources. Understanding mothers' multiple motivations provides deeper insight into the attraction for natural products. The findings have application in positioning interventions for more nutritional eating and revising regulations on the food label natural. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Thematic Analysis of Mothers' Motivations for Blogging.

    Pettigrew, Simone; Archer, Catherine; Harrigan, Paul


    Introduction Various forms of social media are used by many mothers to maintain social ties and manage the stress associated with their parenting roles and responsibilities. 'Mommy blogging' as a specific type of social media usage is a common and growing phenomenon, but little is known about mothers' blogging-related experiences and how these may contribute to their wellbeing. This exploratory study investigated the blogging-related motivations and goals of Australian mothers. Methods An online survey was emailed to members of an Australian online parenting community. The survey included open-ended questions that invited respondents to discuss their motivations and goals for blogging. A thematic analysis using a grounded approach was used to analyze the qualitative data obtained from 235 mothers. Results Five primary motivations for blogging were identified: developing connections with others, experiencing heightened levels of mental stimulation, achieving self-validation, contributing to the welfare of others, and extending skills and abilities. Discussion These motivations are discussed in terms of their various properties and dimensions to illustrate how these mothers appear to use blogging to enhance their psychological wellbeing.

  17. Effects of daily maladaptive coping on nightly sleep in mothers.

    Felder, Jennifer N; Epel, Elissa S; Coccia, Michael; Puterman, Eli; Prather, Aric A


    We examined effects of daily rumination and suppression in response to stressors on objective and subjective sleep among mothers. Participants were 183 mothers, including chronically stressed mothers of children with an autism spectrum disorder (M-ASD; n = 92) and age-matched mothers of neurotypical children (M-NT; n = 91). In an intensive longitudinal design, participants provided reports of daily rumination and suppression, nightly objective actigraphy-defined sleep and nightly subjective sleep quality for seven consecutive days at baseline, 9 months and 18 months. Total sleep time, sleep fragmentation, sleep onset latency, and subjective sleep quality. Among M-NT with above average depressive symptoms, higher daily rumination was associated with shorter total sleep time. Rumination was associated with more sleep fragmentation among M-NT at the trend level. Rumination was not associated with sleep onset latency among M-NT, or with any sleep outcomes among M-ASD. Suppression was not associated with any sleep outcomes. We provide novel evidence of the effect of rumination on objectively measured sleep duration among M-NT. Coping was not related to sleep among M-ASD. Given the prevalence of poor sleep among mothers, future work should examine modifiable factors perpetuating sleep disturbance.

  18. Cardiovascular malformations in infants of diabetic mothers

    Wren, C; Birrell, G; Hawthorne, G


    Objective: To compare the prevalence at live birth and the spectrum of cardiovascular malformations in infants born to diabetic mothers with pre-existing diabetes with that in infants of non-diabetic mothers.

  19. PAM: A Program for Adolescent Mothers.

    Robichaux, Faye B.; And Others


    Describes the Program for Adolescent Mothers (PAM) established to provide opportunities for teen mothers in Louisiana to increase their self-esteem, become productive citizens, and become aware of the physical and emotional development of children. (JOW)

  20. Mother-Youth Acculturation Gaps and Health-Risking/Emotional Problems among Latin-American Adolescents.

    Wiesner, Margit; Arbona, Consuelo; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kaplan, Charles D


    Second-generation Latin-American adolescents tend to show higher levels of various health-risking behaviors and emotional problems than first-generation Latin-American adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 40 mother-adolescent dyads examined the association of mother-youth acculturation gaps to youth adjustment problems. Intergenerational acculturation gaps were assessed as a bidimensional self-report component and a novel observational measurement component. The Latin-American adolescents were predominantly second-generation of Mexican descent (M age = 13.42 years, SD = 0.55). Most of the mothers were born in Mexico (M age = 39.18 years, SD = 5.17). Data were collected from mothers, adolescents, and coders, using questionnaires, structured interviews, and videotaped mother-youth interaction tasks. Findings revealed generally weak support for the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. In addition, stronger relative adherence to their heritage culture by the adolescents was significantly (p acculturation processes. Mother-youth acculturation gaps in orientation to the heritage culture were the most salient dimension, changing the focus on the original formulation of the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis.

  1. Insightfulness and later infant attachment in clinically depressed and nonclinical mothers.

    Ramsauer, Brigitte; Lotzin, Annett; Quitmann, Julia H; Becker-Stoll, Fabienne; Tharner, Anne; Romer, Georg


    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between maternal insightfulness and sensitivity and subsequent infant attachment security and disorganization in clinically depressed and nonclinical mother-infant groups. Nineteen depressed mothers with infants ages 3 to 11 months participated in this study. Twenty nonclinical mother-infant dyads were matched to the clinical sample according to infant sex and age. Maternal depression was assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (American Psychiatric Association, 1994), insightfulness using the Insightfulness Assessment (IA), and sensitivity using the Maternal Sensitivity Scales (M.D.S. Ainsworth, 1969). IA classifications and subscales were considered separately. Later infant attachment was assessed by the Strange Situation Procedure (M.D.S. Ainsworth, M.C. Blehar, E. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978). Depressed mothers tended to have less securely attached children than did nonclinical mothers. Within the clinical sample, the insightfulness categories correlated slightly moderately with attachment security, but were not related to attachment disorganization. Within the nonclinical sample, the IA categories were slightly moderately associated with attachment security and with disorganization. On IA subscales, relationship patterns differed in clinically depressed and nonclinical mother-infant dyads. These findings provide the first evidence of the predictive power of the IA categorization and subscales on subsequent infant attachment. They also may allow the development of different foci of intervention for enhancing insightful caregiving. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  2. Mindful with Your Baby : Feasibility, Acceptability, and Effects of a Mindful Parenting Group Training for Mothers and Their Babies in a Mental Health Context

    Potharst, E.S.; Aktar, E.; Rexwinkel, M.; Rigterink, M.; Bögels, S.M.


    Many mothers experience difficulties after the birth of a baby. Mindful parenting may have benefits for mothers and babies, because it can help mothers regulate stress, and be more attentive towards themselves and their babies, which may have positive effects on their responsivity. This study

  3. Mother chair reparation to decrease subjective disorders in exclusive breast-feeding period

    Santiana, M. A.; Yusuf, M.; Lokantara, W. D.


    Exclusive breastfeeding is the responsibility of the mother after childbirth. A specific constraint arise for the mother when during the breastfeeding process, the place is not in accordance with the physiological condition of the mother's body. A not physiologically corrected lactation place will cause subjective disorders for breastfeeding mothers. Complaints that arise include quick tiredness, with certain muscles sore and pain, which will ultimately decrease the motivation of the mothers to perform exclusive breastfeeding especially in the first six months of the baby's birth. An improved ergonomic designed chair, this research used experimental method with group within treatment (treatment by subject) to solve the problem. The study took place in Maternity Clinic “CB” Badung regency, Bali. Subjective disorders are measured based on general fatigue and musculoskeletal disorders mothers breastfeeding. Fatigue is predicted using 30 items of questionnaires while musculoskeletal compaints are predicted from the Nordic Body Map questionnaire. Data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially in an experiment condition using using t-pair test. The results showed that there were significant differences in fatigue in general and skeletal musculoskeletal disorders between treatment 1 (using old chair) with treatment 2 (using repaired seats) in breastfeeding mothers. Fatigue in general decreased by 35.6% and skeletal musculoskeletal disorders decreased by 26.8%. It was concluded that improved breastfeeding mothers' seats may decrease subjective disorders during exclusive breastfeeding. It is therefore advisable for breastfeeding mothers to use seats that match their anthropometry.

  4. Mother employment status and nutritional patterns in Japanese junior high schoolchildren.

    Gaina, A; Sekine, M; Chandola, T; Marmot, M; Kagamimori, S


    To investigate associations between mothers' employment (full, part time and no employment) and nutrition habits (regularity of breakfast, snack, dinner, meal speed and portion size) in a sample of Japanese junior high schoolchildren, 12-13 years of age. A total of 10 453 children aged 12-13 years from the Toyama birth cohort study (fourth phase) participated, of whom 8906 children (89% response rate) responded to all questions related to the examined variables. Nutrition habits consisted of breakfast, snack, dinner, meal speed and meal portion. Children's obesity/overweight was measured by body mass index (BMI). Fathers' employment had no effect on their children's nutrition patterns. Children of full-time employed mothers were the most likely to snack and to skip dinner. Children of part-time employed mothers ate larger meal portions, and those of non-employed mothers reported faster meal speeds. BMI was significantly (P<0.001) higher among children of full-time employed mothers (19.3), and lowest among non-employed mothers (19.00). Children of full-time employed mothers are more likely to be overweight, but not obese compared with other children. There was a strong relationship between mother's employment and nutrition patterns in this cohort of Japanese schoolchildren; special programs focused on children's nutrition patterns should take into account the mothers' employment status.

  5. Adolescents’ Conflict Resolution Styles Toward Mothers : The Role of Parenting and Personality

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Klimstra, Theo; Branje, Susan


    In the present research, we examined associations between contextual and individual factors and adolescents’ conflict resolution with mothers. In Study 1, we explored links between maternal responsiveness and psychological control and adolescent conflict resolution styles (positive problem solving,

  6. Adolescents’ conflict resolution styles toward mothers : The role of parenting and personality

    Missotten, L.C.; Luyckx, K.; Van Leeuwen, K.; Klimstra, T.A.; Branje, S.T.J.


    In the present research, we examined associations between contextual and individual factors and adolescents’ conflict resolution with mothers. In Study 1, we explored links between maternal responsiveness and psychological control and adolescent conflict resolution styles (positive problem solving,

  7. Financial Transfers to Husbands' and Wives' Elderly Mothers in Mexico: Do Couples Exhibit Preferential Treatment by Lineage?

    Noël-Miller, Claire; Tfaily, Rania


    The aim of this study was to contrast the likelihood that a husband's elderly mother receives financial assistance from a couple with that of a wife's mother. Prior U.S.-based research has documented a strong bias toward transfers to wives' parents. The authors aimed to extend this literature to Mexico, where financial help from adult children is a critical source of support for a rapidly aging population lacking institutional assistance. The authors' approach to modeling competition between mothers accounted for the nature of their need. The results demonstrate that among mothers of similar financial need, a husband's mother is twice as likely to receive financial assistance as a wife's mother. In contrast, when faced with personal care needs, a wife's mother is disproportionately favored. These results reflect gender differences in Mexican adult children's responsibility for family members' financial and physical well-being. The findings uncover new complexity in the patterns by which couples transfer money to parents of different lineage.

  8. Tendências na incidência e mortalidade por acidentes de trabalho no Brasil, 1998 a 2008

    Flávia Souza e Silva de Almeida


    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar as tendências na incidência e mortalidade por acidentes de trabalho no Brasil, de 1998 a 2008. Trata-se de estudo ecológico de séries temporais, que incluiu, para a análise, os acidentes de trabalho registrados nas estatísticas oficiais do Governo Federal. Foram calculadas as variações percentuais anuais (APC nas taxas de incidência e de mortalidade, através da modelagem pelo método Joinpoint, usando o ano calendário como variável regressora. Observou-se tendência significativa de decréscimo na taxa de incidência de acidentes de trabalho, o mesmo ocorrendo para os acidentes de trabalho típicos. Para ambos, o número de casos aumentou nesse período. O número de casos de acidentes de trabalho de trajeto e sua incidência mostraram tendência significativa de aumento. O número de óbitos e a taxa de mortalidade registraram tendência de decréscimo. São discutidos como fatores contribuintes para o declínio das taxas de incidência de acidentes de trabalho e de mortalidade por esta causa: melhoria das condições de trabalho, maior crescimento do setor de serviços do que do setor industrial, subnotificação dos acidentes de trabalho e terceirização dos serviços. O aumento dos acidentes de trabalho de trajeto sugere a influência da violência dos centros urbanos.

  9. Fathers' and Mothers' Involvement with Their Adolescents

    Phares, Vicky; Fields, Sherecce; Kamboukos, Dimitra


    We explored mothers' and fathers' time spent with their adolescents and found that mothers reported spending more time with their adolescents than did fathers. Developmental patterns were found for some aspects of time involvement, with both mothers and fathers reporting higher involvement with younger adolescents. Ratings of time-spent were not…

  10. Mothers' Coping and Hope in Early Intervention

    Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka


    The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…

  11. Exploring Behavioral Intentions among Young Mothers

    Turney, Howard M.; Conway, Pat; Plummer, Pam; Adkins, Samuel E.; Hudson, George Cliff; McLeod, David A.; Zafaroni, Aileen


    This study examined the relationship between young mothers' individual characteristics (demographics and self-efficacy), social support, and behavioral intentions regarding education and child bearing. Using a home visiting model, the program recruited 141 teen mothers to participate. Young mothers completed an initial assessment, measuring…

  12. College Students' Positivity toward Teen Mothers

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.


    Although teen pregnancy and parenthood are more visible in society than in the past, teen mothers are often stereotyped and stigmatized. The study examined positivity toward teen mothers among college students (N = 316) at a midwestern university. Although students responded positively to some items regarding teen mothers, other statements showed…

  13. Human milk composition differs in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease

    Olivares, M.; Albrecht, S.; Palma, de G.; Desamparados Ferrer, M.; Castillejo, G.; Schols, H.A.; Sanz, Y.


    Purpose To investigate whether breast-milk composition and microbiota differ in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease (CD) to ultimately contribute to identify additional factors determining CD risk. Methods Breast-milk samples from healthy mothers (n = 12) and mothers with CD (n = 12)

  14. South Korean Mothers' Parenting Experiences in Divorced Mother-Headed Families

    Jahng, Kyung Eun; Song, Seung Hee


    These multiple case studies show what in divorced mother-headed families of South Korea, mothers experience with regard to parenting their children aged 6 to 12 years. Data were collected from participant observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants, including mothers and their children in four divorced mother-headed families…

  15. Sole Mothers in Australia: Supporting Mothers to Seek Work

    Marilyn McHugh; Jane Millar


    The rapid increase in the numbers of sole parents in Australia - and their high risk of poverty - has meant that these families have become a focus of increasing concern. This paper explores the issue of sole motherhood and employment, with a particular emphasis on examining the relationship between social security policies and current discourses on the role of women in Australian society, including the perspectives of sole mothers themselves. The paper is part of an edited collection (Duncan...

  16. Análise de tendência do mercado internacional de aglomerado Analysis of international particleboard market tendency

    Rommel Noce


    Full Text Available Neste estudo, analisou-se, pelo método da regressão linear, a tendência do mercado internacional de aglomerado no período de 1990 a 2004. Observou-se tendência de crescimento tanto de produção quanto de exportação, com a ressalva de que o Brasil expande sua produção em ritmo mais acelerado que a produção mundial. Conclui-se que China, Ucrânia e EUA apresentaram maior crescimento, quanto à produção, exportação e importação, entre os mercados tradicionais, respectivamente, e que os mercados não-tradicionais mudaram tendências de crescimento superiores ao grupo dos principais importadores, especialmente o leste europeu.This study analyzed international particleboard market tendency in the period from 1990 to 2004, using the linear regression method. Growth tendency was observed both for production and export, stressing that Brazil's production is expanding in a more accelerated rhythm than the world production. China, Ukraine and USA presented a greater production, export and import growth among the traditional markets, respectively, and the nontraditional markets presented greater growth tendencies, compared to the major import groups, especially East Europe.

  17. Challenges experienced by mothers caring for children with cerebral palsy in Zambia

    Carol Singogo


    Full Text Available Background: Mothers caring for children with disability experience a number of challenges. Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the challenges that mothers who cared for children with cerebral palsy (CP living in Zambia experienced. Methods: During a qualitative study the experiences of 16 conveniently sampled mothers of children with CP, from the Ndola district in Zambia, were explored by means of interviews. The responses were thematically analysed. All the necessary ethical considerations were upheld. Results: Mothers experienced social isolation and marital problems, as well as negative attitudes from family, friends, community members and health care professionals. The physical environment created access challenges because of a lack of sidewalks, ramps, functioning lifts and small indoor spaces. Conclusion: Mothers of children with CP feel socially isolated owing to a lack of support from family, community members, and health care providers. This social isolation was exacerbated by attitudes of others towards the mothers; it was felt that mothers were responsible for their children’s condition. Mothers also experienced marital problems as a result of having a child with CP.

  18. Interaction during feeding times between mothers and malnourished children under two years of age

    Paula Chuproski Saldan


    Full Text Available This study sought to understand the relations between mothers and malnourished children at feeding times. It is an exploratory study with qualitative data analysis. Data collection was performed at home by means of participant observation with eight mother-child dyads and three grandmothers. Based on the thematic analysis, the following themes emerged: food and interaction; day-to-day care of the child. The families' life situation was unfavorable. Mothers and grandmothers were responsible for preparing family meals, feeding and child care. The mother-child relationships were permeated by gestures of affection, slaps, scolding, and threats during feeding and there were cases of negligence, physical and psychological violence in daily care. Some mothers and grandmothers spoke quietly and cared for the child to be fed and cleaned while others mothers showed little patience for dealing with the child and they became easily irritated. Mothers' life stories were marked by adverse events and most of them faced emotional problems that could have repercussions in relationships with children at feeding times and in daily care. The mother-child interactions at home do not always favor feeding and responsive care, which may further worsen the nutritional status of these children.

  19. Mealtime television viewing and dietary quality in low-income African American and Caucasian mother-toddler dyads.

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Stommel, Manfred; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Weatherspoon, Lorraine


    To examine maternal demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms as predictors of TV viewing during mealtimes, and to investigate how mealtime TV viewing predicts mothers' and toddlers' food consumption. A prospective, cross-sectional survey design was employed with 199 African American and 200 Caucasian, low-income, mother-toddler dyads enrolled in eight Early Head Start programs in a Midwestern state. Mothers completed the Toddler-Parent Mealtime Behavior Questionnaire to assess toddler mealtime behavior. Data were analyzed using a three-step multiple regression: (a) step one was to determine what characteristics predicted family TV viewing during mealtime; (b) step two was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted maternal food consumption, and (c) step three was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted toddler food consumption. Direct and indirect effects of TV watching were explored via path models. Maternal race, education, and depressive symptoms predicted 8% of the variance in TV viewing during mealtime (P < or = 0.001). African American mothers and mothers who had fewer years of schooling and exhibited more depressive symptoms tended to watch more TV during mealtime. More TV viewing during mealtime predicted mothers' intake of 'more' unhealthy foods. Mothers' food consumption was the single best predictor of toddlers' food consumption, while TV viewing during mealtime had an indirect effect through mothers' TV viewing. TV viewing practices affect mothers' food consumption and mealtime behaviors; this, in turn, impacts toddlers' food consumption. Practical interventions are needed to positively influence the nutritional habits of lower-income mothers. Reducing mothers' "unhealthy" food consumption while watching TV may offer one effective strategy.

  20. Information Access Skills in Mothers as Containment of Internet Negative Impact

    Putri Limilia


    Full Text Available Media and Information Literacy (MIL skills was one of the skills that must be possessed by netizens. These skills become important in the effort of coping with the negative impact of the internet. The high penetration of the internet is not followed by the high skill of MIL. Therefore, the writers are interested to know the skills of information and media literacy (access skills in mothers. This study uses descriptive quantitative method by using questionnaires as means of data collection. The result of the study shows that mothers tend to have moderate-level information access skills. The skills are reflected in the skills of mothers at moderate level in understanding the role of information, seeking sources of information, accessing information effectively and efficiently, and storing information.

  1. Surrogate mothering: exploitation or empowerment?

    Purdy, Laura M


    The morality of surrogate mothering is analyzed from a "consequentialist" framework which attempts to separate those consequences that invariably accompany a given act from those that accompany it only in particular circumstances. Critics of surrogacy argue that it transfers the burden and risk of pregnancy onto another woman, separates sex and reproduction, and separates reproduction and childrearing; none of these acts is necessarily wrong, either morally or for women's or society's basic interests. While surrogate mothering can be rendered immoral if women are coerced into the practice or become victims of subordinating or penalizing contracts, it has the potential to empower women and increase their status in society by providing a job that is less risky and more enjoyable than other jobs women are forced to take and by achieving greater social recognition for reproductive labor.

  2. Physical activity barriers and facilitators among working mothers and fathers.

    Mailey, Emily L; Huberty, Jennifer; Dinkel, Danae; McAuley, Edward


    The transition to parenthood is consistently associated with declines in physical activity. In particular, working parents are at risk for inactivity, but research exploring physical activity barriers and facilitators in this population has been scarce. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine perceptions of physical activity among working parents. Working mothers (n = 13) and fathers (n = 12) were recruited to participate in one of four focus group sessions and discuss physical activity barriers and facilitators. Data were analyzed using immersion/crystallization in NVivo 10. Major themes for barriers included family responsibilities, guilt, lack of support, scheduling constraints, and work. Major themes for facilitators included being active with children or during children's activities, being a role model for children, making time/prioritizing, benefits to health and family, and having support available. Several gender differences emerged within each theme, but overall both mothers and fathers reported their priorities had shifted to focus on family after becoming parents, and those who were fitting in physical activity had developed strategies that allowed them to balance their household and occupational responsibilities. The results of this study suggest working mothers and fathers report similar physical activity barriers and facilitators and would benefit from interventions that teach strategies for overcoming barriers and prioritizing physical activity amidst the demands of parenthood. Future interventions might consider targeting mothers and fathers in tandem to create an optimally supportive environment in the home.

  3. Experiencing and the realization of motherhood by teenage mothers

    Ewa Rzechowska


    Full Text Available Background Early motherhood constitutes a difficult challenge for girls, and the level of their performance in that role is varied. In this article, teenage motherhood as a process is considered. The objective of the research was to determine the paths by which teenage girls enter the mother role. Particular attention was paid to the nature of individual differences in the ways of experiencing and the realization of the successive steps of teenage motherhood: how the girls reacted to the fact of being a mother, what they experienced and how they behaved during pregnancy and performed child care. Participants and procedure In the research, 166 mothers who had given birth to their children between the 15th and 19th year of life were included (at the moment of giving birth to the child, the age of the mother was M = 17.22. A follower interview was used. It was directed towards recreating the course of their lives from the period preceding becoming pregnant to the period of pregnancy and looking after the child, taking into consideration the complex situations connected with life and development of the female teenagers. Results In the research, we applied the Reconstruction Strategy of the Process Transformation, setting the direction of qualitative analyses: (1 the level of single cases (case study, and (2 the level of the collection of cases (extracting groups of girls with common characteristics using the artificial intelligence algorithm C4.5. The analysis revealed the diversity and the internal structure of paths of the experience and realization of early motherhood: from negating oneself as a responsible mother to accepting the role of mother. Conclusions The final result is constituted by the model revealing the transformation of teenage motherhood and mechanisms underlying it.

  4. Feeding style of adolescent mothers and complementary feeding practice of their infants

    Karla Adriana Oliveira da COSTA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate feeding styles of adolescent mothers and complementary feeding practices of their infants. Methods A cross-sectional study comparing a group of dyads of 50 adolescent mothers (ages 15 to 19 with 62 adult mothers (ages 24 to 44 and their infants (9 to 24 months was performed. All mothers and infants were assisted by three basic health family units in the city of Recife, Brazil. Data were collected through a structured interview on socioeconomic conditions, maternal styles of feeding the child, and evaluation of infant feeding practices. The food styles were classified as responsive, authoritative, and passive, according to the adapted form of Carvalhaes, Perosa and Silveira of 2009. The frequency of food intake was calculated for six food groups (1. Bread and cereals; 2. Fruits and vegetables; 3. Meat, eggs, and beans; 4. Milk and dairy products; 5. Sugars, sweets, and fats; 6. Industrialized food. Children’s anthropometry and body mass index by age were classified into Z-score according to the World Health Organization Standard Curves, 2006. Results Adolescent mothers began complementary feeding more frequently before the seventh month (.=0,02, presented less responsive (.=0.04 and more authoritarian feeding styles (.=0.01, and their children received more foods with sugars, oils, and fats (.=0.02, and less meat, eggs, and beans (.=0.06 than the children of adult mothers. Conclusion Adolescent mothers adopt less responsive eating styles and offer more inadequate complementary feeding for their infants.

  5. Tendência da prevalência do diabetes melito autorreferido em adultos nas capitais brasileiras, 2006 a 2012

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a tendência da prevalência de diabetes melito autorreferido nas capitais brasileiras, entre 2006 e 2012. MÉTODOS: estudo ecológico com dados da Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel referentes a adultos (≥18 anos, analisados por meio de regressão linear simples. RESULTADOS: no período estudado, houve tendência de aumento de 5,7% para 7,4% no conjunto da população adulta das capitais (p=0,008, de 4,8% para 6,5% entre homens (p=0,002 e de 6,4% para 8,1% entre mulheres (p=0,039; a elevação entre mulheres ocorreu em 9 capitais - Belém-PA, Belo Horizonte-MG, Curitiba-PR, Macapá-AP, Maceió-AL, Palmas-TO, Recife-PE, Rio Branco-AC e Vitória-ES -; e entre homens, em 6 capitais - Boa Vista-RR, Florianópolis-SC, Fortaleza-CE, Rio Branco-AC, Rio de Janeiro-RJ e São Paulo-SP. CONCLUSÃO: houve aumento da prevalência do diabetes em diversas capitais brasileiras; o monitoramento das tendências e fatores de risco é útil ao planejamento em saúde.

  6. Understanding “Tiger Parenting” Through the Perceptions of Chinese Immigrant Mothers: Can Chinese and U.S. Parenting Coexist?

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Leung, Christy Y. Y.; Zhou, Nan


    How Chinese immigrant mothers perceive “Chinese” and “U.S.” parenting and changes in their parenting postmigration remains unclear, despite recent interest in Chinese parenting particularly in response to A. Chua's (2011) controversial book on “Tiger Mothers”. The present study addressed this issue by examining the parenting beliefs and practices of Chinese immigrant mothers through qualitative interviews. Participants included 50 first-generation Chinese immigrant mothers (mean age = 38.39 y...

  7. Exploring the relationships between self-presentation and self-esteem of mothers in social media in Russia

    Djafarova, Elmira; Trofimenko, Oxana


    Majority of parents use social media platforms, with young mothers being the most active users. Academic research has only recently started addressing the impact of social media on mothers, although they are one of the most engaged online audiences. Instagram and Facebook perceived as positive types of social media, where users post positive content to increase encouraging response from their subscribers and thus enhance their self-esteem. This also relates to mothers portraying positive self...


    Achema.G.; Chigbo.R


    The study determined the perception of bottle feeding among mothers attending child welfare clinic in selected health centers in Aba South LGA. It also ascertained the knowledge of mothers about the breast feeding and factors responsible for chosen bottle feeding. A descriptive research design was adopted for the study where a total survey of 45 mothers who were selected systematically from the centers were interviewed as a method of data collection. The findings of the study showed that 93% ...

  9. Relationship between participation in leisure activities and constraints on Taiwanese breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities.

    Chow, Hsueh-wen; Dong, Yin-Han


    Participation in leisure activities strongly associates with health and well-being. Little research has explored the relationship between participation in leisure activities and constraints on breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities. The purposes of this study are: 1) to investigate constraints on breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities and participation in leisure activities; 2) to investigate the differences between preferences for leisure activities and actual participation by breastfeeding mothers; 3) to segment breastfeeding mothers with similar patterns, using a cluster analysis based on the delineated participation in leisure activities and leisure preferences; 4) to explore any differences between clusters of breastfeeding mothers with respect to socio-demographic characteristics, breastfeeding behaviours and leisure constraints. This study has a cross-sectional design using an online survey conducted among mothers having breastfeeding experiences of more than four months. The questionnaire includes demographic variables, breastfeeding behaviours, preferences for leisure activities participation, and constraints on leisure activities. Collection of data occurred between March and July 2011, producing 415 valid responses for analysis. For breastfeeding mothers, this study identifies constraints on breastfeeding related to leisure activities in addition to the three traditional factors for constraints in the model. This study demonstrates that reports of constraints related to children, family, and nursing environments are the most frequent. Breastfeeding mothers in Taiwan participate regularly in family activities or activities related to their children. Cluster analysis classified breastfeeding mothers into Action and Contemplation groups, and found that mothers within the latter group participate less in leisure activities and experienced more constraints related to breastfeeding. Implications provide a developmental design for public

  10. A cry in the dark: depressed mothers show reduced neural activation to their own infant’s cry

    Ablow, Jennifer C.


    This study investigated depression-related differences in primiparous mothers’ neural response to their own infant’s distress cues. Mothers diagnosed with major depressive disorder (n = 11) and comparison mothers with no diagnosable psychopathology (n = 11) were exposed to their own 18-months-old infant’s cry sound, as well as unfamiliar infant’s cry and control sound, during functional neuroimaging. Depressed mothers’ response to own infant cry greater than other sounds was compared to non-depressed mothers’ response in the whole brain [false discovery rate (FDR) corrected]. A continuous measure of self-reported depressive symptoms (CESD) was also tested as a predictor of maternal response. Non-depressed mothers activated to their own infant’s cry greater than control sound in a distributed network of para/limbic and prefrontal regions, whereas depressed mothers as a group failed to show activation. Non-depressed compared to depressed mothers showed significantly greater striatal (caudate, nucleus accumbens) and medial thalamic activation. Additionally, mothers with lower depressive symptoms activated more strongly in left orbitofrontal, dorsal anterior cingulate and medial superior frontal regions. Non-depressed compared to depressed mothers activated uniquely to own infant greater than other infant cry in occipital fusiform areas. Disturbance of these neural networks involved in emotional response and regulation may help to explain parenting deficits in depressed mothers. PMID:21208990

  11. Single Mother Parenting and Adolescent Psychopathology.

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B


    Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.

  12. [Food intakes in breast-feeding mothers].

    Savino, F; Bermond, S; Bonfante, G; Gallo, E; Oggero, R


    The relation between mother's diet and breastmilk composition is still an open issue. Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason breast feeding women usually pay attention about their alimentary practices and about their style of life during breast-feeding period. This research was conducted to verify the adequacy of lactating mother's diet in comparison with the Italian recommended daily assumption levels of nutrients (LARN 1996) for this category. We have also compared food intake of not breast feeding mothers with the LARN, and analyzed the differences between these groups of mothers. Forty-eight healthy infants were selected, 23 bottle fed, 25 breast fed. Mothers's diet in the previous 48 hours was investigated using a structured questionnaire. The data collected were processed using software Dietosystem to obtain the daily nutrient intakes. The wetnurses's diet in comparison with the LARN 1996 resulted hypocaloric and hyperproteic, deficient in Calcium, Iron, folic acid and vitamin E. Surprisingly not breast feeding mothers's intake of nutrients is closer to LARN levels than that of breast feeding mothers. Mothers are not informed enough about their alimentation during lactating period. Pediatricians must improve their knowledge about this subject and give the mothers the information they need to achieve the recommended food requirements.

  13. Mother-Child Interactions of Preterm Toddlers.

    Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Akman, İpek; Kuşçu Orhan, Şebnem; Kuşçu, Kemal; Altuncu, Emel; Karabekiroğlu, Aytül; Yüce, Murat


    We aimed to investigate the mother-toddler relationship in preterm toddlers. The sample consisted of 18 mothers and their preterm toddlers (group 1) and 20 mothers and their fullterm toddlers (group 2). Anxiety and depressive symptom levels, attachment pattern, and parental attitudes of mothers and social-emotional problems and developmental level of the toddlers were explored to assess possible confounding factors in the mother-toddler relationship. Two researchers rated the Parent Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scales (PIRGAS). Both the mothers in group 1 and group 2 had similar Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores. However, the mothers who gave birth before 32 weeks of gestation had higher trait anxiety scores than others (46±2.4 vs. 42.3±5.4, p=0.01). The groups had similar Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Scale (BITSEA) problem and competency scores. The parenting style of group 1 revealed that they had higher scores on the Parenting Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) subscale 5 (excessive discipline) (39.6 vs. 32.1; p=0.02). Mother-toddler interaction and attachment security were found to be similar in fullterm and moderately preterm healthy toddlers. Our findings suggest that not the preterm birth itself but the medical, developmental, and/or neurological consequences of prematurity may affect the mother-toddler interaction. To explore the independent effect of prematurity in mother-toddler dyadic relationship, longitudinally designed studies are warranted.

  14. Communication strategies to reduce cancer disparities: Insights from African-American mother-daughter dyads.

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Wilson Genderson, Maureen; Ports, Katie A; Carlyle, Kellie E


    Mothers and daughters share a powerful and unique bond, which has potential for the dissemination of information on a variety of women's health issues, including the primary and secondary prevention of breast and cervical cancer. This study presents formative research from a long-term project examining the potential of mother-daughter communication in promoting cancer screening among African American women. Thirty-two mother-daughter pairs (N = 64) completed orally administered surveys regarding their cancer knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and barriers to care. This study compares the attitudes and beliefs of low-income, urban, African American mothers and their adolescent daughters regarding cervical and breast cancer screening. Both mothers and daughters had fairly high levels of knowledge about breast and cervical cancer. In addition, there was a high concordance rate between mothers' and daughters' responses, suggesting a potential sharing of health knowledge between mother and daughter. These results have implications for selecting communication strategies to reduce health disparities, and support that the mother-daughter dyad could be a viable unit to disseminate targeted screening information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Youth or disadvantage? The construction of teenage mothers in medical journals.

    Breheny, Mary; Stephens, Christine


    Teenage motherhood is routinely discussed in medical and nursing journals as a cause for concern and a social problem. Taking these accounts as a starting point, this paper uses discursive analysis to understand how the teenage mother is produced as an unsuitable mother. Beginning with a 'Public Health' discourse, early motherhood is understood as a disease requiring surveillance and a public health response. Using an 'Economic' discourse, teenage mothers are positioned as a financial drain on society and early motherhood as a cost to the mothers themselves. An 'Ethnicity' discourse classifies young mothers into ethnic groups and explains differential fertility rates through the resistance of appropriate reproductive technology among minority group members. These understandings are reflected in a 'Eugenics' discourse, which engages metaphors of parenting as a biological priority and highlights the unsuitability of young mothers as parents. An examination of these discourses shows that concern about teenage motherhood is as much about the wrong sort of young women becoming mothers, as mothering too soon.

  16. The effect of self-esteem on parenting attitudes of mothers with infants-For developing self-esteem in children-

    加藤, 悠; 中島, 美那子; Kato, Haruka; Nakajima, Minako; 日本労働者協同組合連合会センター事業団 特定非営利活動法人ワーカーズコープ; 茨城キリスト教大学


    This study attempted to illuminate the relationship to levels of self-esteem and parenting attitudes in mothers with infants. Mothers (N=81) completed the self-esteem scale (10 items) and the parenting attitudes scale (30 items). As a part of the results, the higher group of self-esteem indicated the higher level of parenting attitudes. Other results were that homemaker mothers tended toward lower degree of self-esteem and also indicated lower level of parenting attitudes in comparison with m...

  17. The offspring of epileptic mother.

    Tamer, S K; Misra, S; Jaiswal, S


    The offspring of an epileptic mother is an issue-currently getting attention because of its several implications. A complex interaction between epilepsy during pregnancy and its adverse impact on foetus, labor, neonate, congenital malformation, psychosocial and medico-social concern and treatment challenges of such cases is increasingly being realised. Some of the significant observations has been reviewed extensively in this article. Maternal epilepsy is likely to adversely affect the off-spring at its various stages of development amounting to increased morbidity and mortality. Increased seizure frequency during pregnancy with resultant increased risk is well documented but its mechanism is poorly understood. Low apgar score, increased still birth rates (1.3 to 14%) in offspring of epileptic mother (OEM) is reported. So also, the neonatal and perinatal deaths are twice more common in OEMS than normal control. Small for dates, and prematurity in OEM is reported to be 7 to 10% and 4-11% respectively. Adverse impact on labor and delivery like preclampsia, abruptio placentae, polyhydramnios, assisted delivery, cesarean section and IUGR poses particular challenges to the obstetrician. Pediatrician's alertness is needed to anticipate and deal with the bleeding manifestation due to deficiency of Vit-K dependent clotting factors and various anticonvulsant drug (AED) withdrawal symptoms. Significant risk of developing congenital malformation is the result of epilepsy perse and the AED used during pregnancy. AED exposure leads to other distinct clinical syndromes, the orofacial clefts and cardiac anomalies being the commonest manifestation. Epilepsy in mother but not in father has significant adverse impact. Management strategies in the context of available observation has been discussed.

  18. Mothers' intentions to support children's physical activity related to attention and implicit agreement with advertisements.

    Berry, Tanya R; Craig, Cora L; Faulkner, Guy; Latimer, Amy; Rhodes, Ryan; Spence, John C; Tremblay, Mark S


    ParticipACTION's Think Again campaign targeted mothers who think their children are sufficiently active, yet whose children do not achieve recommended amounts of physical activity. This research examined the relationship of mothers' intentions to support children's physical activity with explicit believability and implicit agreement with the Think Again campaign message, attention paid to the advertisement, involvement with the issue, concern regarding children's inactivity, and attitudes. Participants were mothers from Edmonton, Canada (N = 102) who viewed one Think Again advertisement then completed a measure of implicit agreement with the campaign message and questionnaires. The mothers who paid attention to the message and were concerned for their own children were more likely to intend to act on campaign messages. The majority of participants implicitly agreed that children's physical inactivity was a problem, but there was less agreement that physical inactivity was a problem for their own children. Participants automatically tended to agree with campaign messages when the focus was on children in general, but there was greater disagreement when asked about participant's own children. Why most mothers were not in agreement with the reality of how much physical activity their children needs remains to be determined.

  19. Hematological alterations and thymic function in newborns of HIV-infected mothers receiving antiretroviral drugs.

    Wongnoi, Rotjanee; Penvieng, Nawaporn; Singboottra, Panthong; Kingkeow, Doungnapa; Oberdorfer, Peninnah; Sirivatanapa, Pannee; Pornprasert, Sakorn


    To investigate the effects of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs on hematological parameters and thymic function in HIV-uninfected newborns of HIV-infected mothers. Cross sectional study. Chiang-Mai University Hospital, Chiang-Mai, Thailand. 49 HIV-uninfected and 26 HIV-infected pregnancies. Cord blood samples of newborns from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected mothers were collected. Hematological parameters were measured using automatic blood cell count. T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) levels in cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs), CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were quantified using real-time PCR.. Hemotological parameters and thymic function. Newborn of HIV-infected mother tended to have lower mean levels of hemoglobin than those of HIV-uninfected mother (137 ±22 vs 146 ±17 g/L, P = 0.05). Furthermore, mean of red blood cell (RBC) counts and hematocrit and median of TRECs in CD4+ T-cells in the newborns of the former were significantly lower than those of the latter [3.6 ±0.7 vs 4.8 ±0.6 x 1012 cells/L, P cells) in HIV-uninfected newborns of HIV-infected mothers.

  20. Effects of maternal depressive symptomatology during pregnancy and the postpartum period on infant-mother attachment.

    Ohoka, Harue; Koide, Takayoshi; Goto, Setsuko; Murase, Satomi; Kanai, Atsuko; Masuda, Tomoko; Aleksic, Branko; Ishikawa, Naoko; Furumura, Kaori; Ozaki, Norio


    Postnatal depression has demonstrated long-term consequences on child cognitive and emotional development; however, the link between maternal and child pathology has not been clearly identified. We conducted a prospective study using self-rating questionnaires to clarify the association between bonding disorder and maternal mood during pregnancy and after childbirth. A total of 389 women participated in this study and completed questionnaires. Participants were asked to complete the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale four times during pregnancy and the postpartum period. We found statistically significant weak to moderate correlations (r = 0.14-0.39) between the EPDS and Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale scores at each testing period. Women who experienced low mood tended to have stronger bonding disorder. Furthermore, the effectiveness of attachment between the mother and child was closely related to the mood of the mother as measured by the EPDS. We observed different patterns of bonding and maternal mood. Distinct subtypes regarding maternal mood and formation of mother-to-infant attachment suggests that analysis of bonding disorder should be performed considering the course of maternal depressive symptoms. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  1. Personalized Antenatal Consultations for Preterm Labor: Responding to Mothers' Expectations.

    Gaucher, Nathalie; Nadeau, Sophie; Barbier, Alexandre; Janvier, Annie; Payot, Antoine


    To explore prospective mothers' perspectives regarding antenatal consultations by neonatology teams for threatened preterm delivery. In a prospective multicenter study, women at risk of preterm delivery between 26 and 32 weeks of gestational age were surveyed during the 72 hours following their antenatal consultation. The questionnaire used was developed and validated during a single-center study. Over 18 months, 229 mothers completed the survey (73% response rate), at a median gestational age of 30 weeks. Spouses/partners were present for 49% of consultations. Most women (90%) reported a positive experience. They found it important to discuss the outcomes of prematurity (96%), but 39% of them reported receiving too much information. Women wanted their spouse/partner to be present (71%) and wished to discuss parental concerns: their roles as mother of a premature baby (82%), their integration in their baby's care (83%), and a better understanding of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment, including antenatal NICU visits (69%). The majority (56%) wanted a follow-up consultation: this was less likely if a NICU visit had been offered (P parents with child-centered information. Although clinicians follow these guidelines, mothers want personalized information focusing on their individual concerns and questions, such as what they can do for their baby, how NICUs work, and the integration of their family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tendência secular em estatura: uma revisão da literatura Secular height trend: a literature review

    Gilberto Kac


    Full Text Available Esse trabalho constitui-se em uma revisão de literatura sobre tendência secular em estatura (TSE. Os principais tópicos abordados foram a definição do fenômeno, a utilização de dados históricos de estatura como estratégia alternativa no monitoramento de mudanças econômicas, as principais explicações teóricas sugeridas para a ocorrência do fenômeno, o início da antropometria militar, sua utilização no passado e no presente, e a magnitude da tendência em recrutas e na população infantil. Os principais achados revelaram que a TSE tem sido atribuída, sobretudo, a influências ambientais, em particular, a melhorias nas condições sanitárias, econômicas e sociais. As taxas médias de incremento variaram conforme a idade, o estrato sócio-econômico e o país considerado; portanto, deve-se ter cautela nas comparações interpopulacionais. A Segunda Guerra Mundial reduziu a tendência em diversos países, entre eles o Brasil, mas as taxas de incremento no pós-guerra foram ainda maiores do que as observadas no início do século. Constatou-se, por fim, que dados provenientes da antropometria militar são os mais utilizados para estimativas de TSE.This paper presents a literature review of secular height trends. The principal topics included were definition of the phenomenon, use of historical data sets on height as an alternative approach for monitoring economic changes, the main theoretical explanations of the phenomenon, the beginning of military anthropometry, and past and current use in measuring secular height trends in recruits and children. The most important results showed that the positive secular trend can be attributed to environmental influences, especially improvements in health, economic, and social conditions. The mean reported rates in height increases varied with age, socioeconomic status, and country, so one must exercise caution in drawing inferences. World War II slowed the trend in several countries

  3. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    Amiot Volodymyr


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the

  4. Characteristics of mother-child conflict and child sex predicting resolution.

    Nelson, Jackie A; Boyer, Brittany P; Sang, Samantha A; Wilson, Elizabeth K


    Data from 190 mothers and their 5- to 7-year-old children were used to evaluate how characteristics of mother-child conflict discussions contribute to the likelihood of reaching a compromise, a win-loss resolution, or a standoff. Dyads discussed 2 topics they reported having disagreements about that were emotionally arousing. Coders rated global measurements of mothers' emotional responsiveness, intrusiveness, and negativity; children's negativity; and the frequency of mothers' and children's constructive and oppositional comments. Child sex was examined as a moderator of the relation between discussion characteristics and resolution reached. Results indicated that more constructive comments by mothers and children increased the likelihood of reaching a resolution versus a standoff, but only children's constructive comments differentiated between a compromise and a win-loss resolution favoring mothers. Dyads with more emotionally responsive mothers who made fewer oppositional comments were also more likely to reach a compromise versus a win-loss resolution. A significant interaction with child sex revealed that, for boys, the use of more child oppositional comments was associated with a higher likelihood of reaching a standoff versus a compromise. Girls' oppositional comments did not predict resolution type. These results are discussed in terms of the children's developmental level and parents' socialization goals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. The calcium connection - deficient mothers with normal newborn

    Baig, S.; Hussain, F.; Khan, S.A.


    A cross-sectional study on blood calcium levels of pregnant women of low socioeconomic status was designed to find out the consequences of low levels on the outcome of pregnancy. Blood samples from 52 women and their cord were collected at the time of delivery. Calcium was analyzed calorimetrically in maternal as well as cord blood. For comparative analysis, levels of phosphorus were analyzed on atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results were compared with 24 non- pregnant age matched controls. Calcium levels were significantly low (p < 0.01), in maternal (8.13 +- 0.40 mg/dl) and cord blood (8.69 +- 0.28mg/dl) compared to controls (10.5 +- 0.6 mg/dl) and significantly higher in primiparous mothers (M= 8.2 +- 0.78 mg/dl, C= 8.1 +- 0.50 mg/dl) compared to multiparous (M=6.4 +- 0.59 mg/dl, C= 7.9 +- 0.53 mg/dl). Calcium levels were also found significantly lower in mothers who had a miscarriage (M=7.60 +- 0.37 mg/dl,C=9.1+-0.65 mg/dl) before this pregnancy than the primiparous and the controls. The results on the whole suggest that women tend to develop a marginal calcium deficiency after pregnancy. (author)

  6. Acesso livre à informação científica digital: dificuldades e tendências

    Claudia Regina Ziliotto Bomfá

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a questão do acesso livre à informação científica digital. São discutidos aspectos conceituais do acesso livre e apresentados os principais movimentos nacionais e internacionais em favor do acesso livre. Identificam-se repositórios de pesquisas científicas baseados no movimento de acesso livre e apresentam-se dificuldades e tendências. Conclui-se sinalizando mudanças no processo de comunicação científica, com ênfase na amplitude, rapidez e transparência no acesso livre à informação científica.

  7. Consequence of nanofluid on peristaltic transport of a hyperbolic tangent fluid model in the occurrence of apt (tending) magnetic field

    Akram, Safia; Nadeem, S.


    In the current study, sway of nanofluid on peristaltic transport of a hyperbolic tangent fluid model in the incidence of tending magnetic field has been argued. The governing equations of a nanofluid are first modeled and then simplified under lubrication approach. The coupled nonlinear equations of temperature and nano particle volume fraction are solved analytically using a homotopy perturbation technique. The analytical solution of the stream function and pressure gradient are carried out using perturbation technique. The graphical results of the problem under discussion are also being brought under consideration to see the behavior of various physical parameters. - Highlights: • The main motivation of this work is that we want to see the behavior of nanofluids in peristaltic flows. • In literature few articles are available on this, but no article is available in asymmetric channel on the new fluid model hyperbolic tangent fluid. • So we want to fill the gap in literature studying this

  8. Consequence of nanofluid on peristaltic transport of a hyperbolic tangent fluid model in the occurrence of apt (tending) magnetic field

    Akram, Safia, E-mail: [Department of Basic Sciences, MCS, National University of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi 46000 (Pakistan); Nadeem, S. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)


    In the current study, sway of nanofluid on peristaltic transport of a hyperbolic tangent fluid model in the incidence of tending magnetic field has been argued. The governing equations of a nanofluid are first modeled and then simplified under lubrication approach. The coupled nonlinear equations of temperature and nano particle volume fraction are solved analytically using a homotopy perturbation technique. The analytical solution of the stream function and pressure gradient are carried out using perturbation technique. The graphical results of the problem under discussion are also being brought under consideration to see the behavior of various physical parameters. - Highlights: • The main motivation of this work is that we want to see the behavior of nanofluids in peristaltic flows. • In literature few articles are available on this, but no article is available in asymmetric channel on the new fluid model hyperbolic tangent fluid. • So we want to fill the gap in literature studying this.

  9. Juggling and Struggling: A Preliminary Work-Life Study of Mothers with Adolescents Who Have Developmental Disabilities

    Parish, Susan L.


    A focus group study was conducted to develop an understanding of the experiences of mothers who are trying to balance employment with caring for an adolescent with developmental disabilities. Mothers reported facing considerable difficulties balancing work and caregiving responsibilities because support services rapidly declined when their child…

  10. Relationship between the Broad Autism Phenotype, Social Relationships and Mental Health for Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Pruitt, Megan M.; Rhoden, Madeline; Ekas, Naomi V.


    This study aimed to examine the mechanisms responsible for the association between the broad autism phenotype and depressive symptoms in mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 98 mothers who had a child with autism spectrum disorder between the ages of 2 and 16 years completed assessments of maternal broad autism phenotype,…

  11. Differences between Fathers and Mothers in the Treatment of, and Relationship with, Their Teenage Children: Perceptions of Chinese Adolescents.

    Shek, Daniel T. L.


    Chinese adolescents' perceptions of differences between mothers and fathers in parenting styles, parent-adolescent communication, and quality of the parent-adolescent relationship were assessed. Fathers, as compared with mothers, were perceived to be less responsive, less demanding, demonstrating less concern, and more harsh; and paternal…

  12. Reestruturação produtiva e acidentes de trabalho no Brasil: estrutura e tendências

    Wünsch Filho Victor


    Full Text Available A incidência de acidentes de trabalho no Brasil apresenta tendência decrescente nas duas últimas décadas. A mortalidade também é decrescente, porém de forma menos acentuada. O subregistro tem sido o principal argumento para explanar tal fato. O estudo das séries temporais com base em dados secundários de 1970 a 1995 revela que a incidência de acidentes de trabalho é sensível às flutuações cíclicas da economia e vincula-se, em particular, ao nível de atividade industrial. Detectou-se uma correlação linear positiva (r = 0,80 entre a proporção de pessoas ocupadas na produção industrial e a incidência de acidentes em 14 estados brasileiros. A recessão econômica durante a década de 80 gerou desemprego. A queda da oferta de empregos formais no setor industrial ­ com maiores riscos de acidentes, foi acentuada pelo processo de reestruturação produtiva e a incorporação crescente da informática e da robótica em diferentes processos industriais. Como conseqüência houve o deslocamento de um maior volume de força de trabalho para o setor terciário ­ com menor risco de acidentes. Estes fatos foram determinantes na tendência dos acidentes de trabalho observada neste período de 25 anos.

  13. Reestruturação produtiva e acidentes de trabalho no Brasil: estrutura e tendências

    Victor Wünsch Filho

    Full Text Available A incidência de acidentes de trabalho no Brasil apresenta tendência decrescente nas duas últimas décadas. A mortalidade também é decrescente, porém de forma menos acentuada. O subregistro tem sido o principal argumento para explanar tal fato. O estudo das séries temporais com base em dados secundários de 1970 a 1995 revela que a incidência de acidentes de trabalho é sensível às flutuações cíclicas da economia e vincula-se, em particular, ao nível de atividade industrial. Detectou-se uma correlação linear positiva (r = 0,80 entre a proporção de pessoas ocupadas na produção industrial e a incidência de acidentes em 14 estados brasileiros. A recessão econômica durante a década de 80 gerou desemprego. A queda da oferta de empregos formais no setor industrial com maiores riscos de acidentes, foi acentuada pelo processo de reestruturação produtiva e a incorporação crescente da informática e da robótica em diferentes processos industriais. Como conseqüência houve o deslocamento de um maior volume de força de trabalho para o setor terciário com menor risco de acidentes. Estes fatos foram determinantes na tendência dos acidentes de trabalho observada neste período de 25 anos.

  14. Tendência Pedagógica Progressista Libertária – Uma breve apresentação

    Kathlen Luana de Oliveira


    Full Text Available O presente texto versa sobre a tendência pedagógica progressista libertária. Tem como objetivo apresentar o contexto no qual surgiram os princípios libertários para, então, abordar as críticas e a proposta educacional dessa tendência. Brevemente, será exposta a Pedagogia Libertária norteada pela anarquia, pela crítica institucional, porém com propostas de práticas educativas construídas a partir da autogestão e da solidariedade. Nesse sentido, as contribuições de Lobrot, Tragtenberg serão delineadas frente aos desafios concretos e possíveis da proposta libertária.

  15. A European study on alcohol and drug use among young drivers: the TEND by Night study design and methodology

    Siliquini Roberta


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young individuals are the age group with the highest risk of car accidents. One of main explanations relies on the use of psychoactive substances (alcohol, illegal and medicinal drugs, which are known to be major risk factors of road accidents, and whose consumption is almost universally more common among younger drivers. Although the correlation between psychoactive substances use and decrease in driving performance has been established in controlled experimental or laboratory settings, few studies were conducted in naturalistic circumstances. The TEND by Night project has been designed to evaluate the relationship between driving performance and psychoactive substances assumption in young drivers enrolled at typical places of consumption. Methods/Design The TEND by Night project, endorsed by the European Commission, is a multidisciplinary, multi-centric, cross-sectional study conducted in six European countries (Italy, Belgium/Netherlands, Bulgaria, Spain, Poland and Latvia. The study population consists of 5000 young drivers aged 16-34 years, attending recreational sites during weekend nights. The intervention is based on the portal survey technique and includes several steps at the entrance and exit of selected sites, including the administration of semi-structured questionnaires, breath alcohol test, several drug assumption test, and measurement of the reaction time using a driving simulator. The main outcome is the difference in reaction time between the entrance and exit of the recreation site, and its correlation with psychoactive substances use. As a secondary outcome it will be explored the relationship between reaction time difference and the amount of consumption of each substance. All analyses will be multivariate. Discussion The project methodology should provide some relevant advantages over traditional survey systems. The main strengths of the study include the large and multicentric sample, the objective

  16. When a mother has cancer: strains and resources of affected families from the mother's and father's perspective - a qualitative study.

    Inhestern, Laura; Bergelt, Corinna


    When a mother has cancer, families with minor children are confronted with major challenges for all family members. According to the Family Adjustment and Adaptation Response (FAAR) Model, the (im) balance between strains and resources of families affected by cancer can be an important indicator on the families' adjustment to the situation. Hence, this study aims to explore the strains and resources of families of mothers with cancer from the mother's and father's perspective. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 mothers diagnosed with cancer and ten fathers. The data was transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Both, mothers and fathers, reported a general impact of the disease regarding social and practical changes as well as strong emotional reactions. Parents reported specific strains and stressors regarding their parental role e.g. changes in the self-concept as a parent or fears and concerns about the children. Many mothers additionally experienced feelings of guilt. All fathers reported an increase of responsibilities and pressure. Both, the ill and healthy parent, reported strains and stressors for their children, e.g. parents observed behavioral changes and strong emotional reactions in their children. Families used a variety of resources and coping strategies on external, family and intrapersonal levels to encounter the challenges of the disease. They reported that e.g. support networks, flexible working hours and competent medical staff were helpful. Moreover, on the family level e.g. family time, open communication and the children themselves were considered to be important resources. On the intrapersonal level, parents reported resources such as setting small aims for the future and taking time for oneself. Our findings indicate a high amount and diversity of stressors and strains for the ill and healthy parent and for their children. At the same time, parents use diverse resources and coping strategies on external, family

  17. Signal Analysis by New Mother Wavelets

    Niu Jinbo; Qi Kaiguo; Fan Hongyi


    Based on the general formula for finding qualified mother wavelets [Opt. Lett. 31 (2006) 407] we make wavelet transforms computed with the newly found mother wavelets (characteristic of the power 2n) for some optical Gaussian pulses, which exhibit the ability to measure frequency of the pulse more precisely and clearly. We also work with complex mother wavelets composed of new real mother wavelets, which offer the ability of obtaining phase information of the pulse as well as amplitude information. The analogy between the behavior of Hermite-Gauss beams and that of new wavelet transforms is noticed. (general)

  18. Predicting primate responses to "Stochastic" demographic events.

    Strier, K B


    Comparative approaches in contemporary primate behavioral ecology have tended to emphasize the deterministic properties of stochastic ecological variables. Yet, primate responses to ecological fluctuations may be mediated by the interactions among demographic processes at the levels of individuals, groups, and populations. In this paper I examine long-term data collected from June 1982-July 1998 on one expanding group of muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) at the Estação Biologica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil to explore the demographic and life history correlates of reproductive seasonality and skewed infant sex ratios. Variation in the size of annual birth cohorts (≥2 infants) was positively related to variation in the annual distribution of births (r (s)=0.96,n=10,p<0.01), indicating the importance of considering the effects that the number of reproductive females may have on interpretations of reproductive seasonality. The female-biased infants sex ratio documented from 59 births was attributed exclusively to multiparous mothers. Primiparous mothers produced comparable numbers of sons (n=6) and daughters (n=7), and were increasingly likely to produce daughters with each subsequent reproductive event. Seven of the 11 females that have produced≥3 infants to date exhibited biases in favor of daughters whereas only 1 was biased in favor of sons. Variation in female sensitivity to local resource competition at different stages of their life histories may account for the female-biased infant sex ration in this population.

  19. Mothers Reporting I: For Whom and Why is the Mother-Child Education Program Effective?

    Bekman, Prof. Dr. Sevda; Atmaca Koçak, Aylin


    This article presents the results of the qualitative research conducted with 100 mothers, all participants of Mother-Child Education Program, (from five different countries). The aim was to investigate the characteristics of the participant mothers, their reasons for participation, and why and how the program was effective. Data, collected through in-depth interviews, revealed that participant mothers were determined and open to change. Mothers’ experiences with the group process, the Cogniti...

  20. Postnatal Mother-to-Infant Attachment in Subclinically Depressed Mothers: Dyads at Risk?

    Behrendt, Hannah F; Konrad, Kerstin; Goecke, Tamme W; Fakhrabadi, Roya; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Firk, Christine

    Dyadic interactions between children and depressed mothers have been characterized as less synchronous and with lower maternal sensitivity, fostering an inharmonious, insecure attachment relationship between mother and child. Thus, these children may experience enhanced early life stress and are at higher risk of disturbed socioemotional development. Recently, this association has also been found in women with mild depressive symptoms. However, potential confounding effects of mother's history of own rearing experiences or infant temperament on the link between depressive symptoms and postnatal mother-to-infant attachment have not yet been investigated. Differences in mother-to-infant attachment (e.g. quality of attachment, absence of hostility, and pleasure in interaction) between mothers with and without symptoms of depression 6-8 months postpartum were analyzed in a low-risk community sample (n = 38, 19 per group). Depressive symptomatology was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Depressed mothers indicated mild-to-moderate depressive symptomatology (mean BDI-II 11.26 ± 3.86) but did not fulfill criteria for a major depressive episode and, thus, were referred to as 'subclinically' depressed. Potential confounders, namely maternal history of own rearing experiences and infant temperament, were explored by multivariate AN(C)OVA. Primiparous mothers with subclinical depression differed significantly from healthy control mothers, i.e. showed poorer mother-to-infant attachment and higher infant-related hostility 6-8 months postpartum. As expected, infant temperament and mother's history of own rearing experiences were both associated with mother-to-infant attachment but did not explain the negative effects of subclinical depression on the mother-infant relationship. Given the high prevalence of maternal depression, the current findings give reason for increased concern for the developing mother

  1. Perceived family perceptions of breastfeeding and Chinese new mothers' breastfeeding behaviors.

    Lu, Hong; Li, Hongyan; Ma, Shuqin; Xia, Lijuan; Christensson, Kyllike


    To provide an understanding of Chinese new mothers' breastfeeding behaviors and especially to explore the relationship between the mothers perceived family perception about breastfeeding and the new mothers' breastfeeding behaviors. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Beijing and Yinchuan, the capital of Ning Xia Province, China. 214 new mothers with a baby at the age of 4 months were recruited to the study. The family perception of breastfeeding scale and the new mothers' breastfeeding behavior record were used. The response rate was n=200, 94%. Most of the new mothers perceived positive family perceptions about breastfeeding with an average score of 23.13 using the family perception of breastfeeding scale. Nearly half of the respondents reported that they exclusively breastfed their infants (n=94, 47%). The main reason for breastfeeding difficulty was inadequate lactation (n=56, 69%). The new mothers who breastfed their infants mentioned significantly stronger family perceptions/support compared to those who used mixed feeding or artificial feeding (p0.05) in the types of mothers' feeding behaviors across the different age group, occupation, ethnicity, educational level, mode of delivery, the time of the baby's first suck, bottle feeding before the baby's first suck and the time of having colostrums. It is suggested to develop some strategies, such as family-centered antenatal and postnatal education programmes, to increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding by influencing new mothers' families about breastfeeding. Further research is needed to explore socio-demographic variables associated with new-mothers' breastfeeding behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Barriers to and motivators of handwashing behavior among mothers of neonates in rural Bangladesh.

    Parveen, Shahana; Nasreen, Sharifa; Allen, Jelena V; Kamm, Kelly B; Khan, Shifat; Akter, Shirina; Lopa, Tajnin Marin; Zaman, K; El Arifeen, Shams; Luby, Stephen P; Ram, Pavani K


    To design a maternal handwashing intervention for the newborn period, this qualitative study explored drivers of handwashing among mothers and other caregivers of neonates and infants in two rural areas of Bangladesh. We conducted 40 semi-structured observation sessions to observe handwashing behaviors of primiparous and multiparous mothers of neonates, and to understand the contextual factors that facilitated or hampered those behaviors. We then conducted 64 interviews with mothers of neonates and mothers of infants and 6 group discussions with mothers of infants, other female caregivers and fathers to explore perceptions, beliefs, and practices related to handwashing in the neonatal period. Based on a conceptual model and the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior, we developed a conceptual model a priori, we performed thematic analysis to explain determinants of maternal handwashing behaviors. We conducted 200 h of observation among mothers of neonates. The age range of participating mothers varied between 17 and 25 years and their maximum education was up to 10th grade of schooling. Mothers, other female caregivers and fathers perceived a need to wash hands with or without soap before eating or before feeding a child by hand to prevent diarrhea. Mothers expressed the importance of washing their hands before holding a baby but were rarely observed doing so. All respondents prioritized using soap for visible dirt or feces; otherwise, water alone was considered sufficient. Lack of family support, social norms of infrequent handwashing, perceptions of frequent contact with water as a health threat and mothers' restricted movement during first 40 days of neonate's life, and childcare and household responsibilities adversely impacted handwashing behavior. Addressing emotive drivers of handwashing within existing social norms by engaging family members, ensuring handwashing facilities and clarifying neonatal health threats may improve maternal

  3. Sexual Health Discussions between African-American Mothers and Mothers of Latino Descent and Their Children

    Murray, Ashley; Ellis, Monica U.; Castellanos, Ted; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Sneed, Carl D.


    We examined approaches used by African-American mothers and mothers of Latino descent for informal sex-related discussions with their children to inform sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention development efforts. We recruited mothers (of children aged 12-15) from youth service agencies and a university in southern California.…

  4. Weaving dreamcatchers: mothering among American Indian women who were teen mothers.

    Palacios, Janelle F; Strickland, Carolyn J; Chesla, Catherine A; Kennedy, Holly P; Portillo, Carmen J


    The aim of this study was to explore the mothering experience and practice among reservation-based adult American Indian women who had been adolescent mothers. Adolescent American Indian women are at an elevated risk for teen pregnancy and poor maternal/child outcomes. Identifying mothering practices among this population may help guide intervention development that will improve health outcomes. A collaborative orientation to community-based participatory research approach. Employing interpretive phenomenology, 30 adult American Indian women who resided on a Northwestern reservation were recruited. In-depth, face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted between 2007-2008. Women shared their mothering experience and practice, which encompassed a lifespan perspective grounded in their American Indian cultural tradition. Four themes were identified as follows: mother hen, interrupted mothering and second chances, breaking cycles and mothering a community. Mothering originated in childhood, extended across their lifespan and moved beyond mothering their biological offspring. These findings challenge the Western construct of mothering and charge nurses to seek culturally sensitive interventions that reinforce positive mothering practices and identify when additional mothering support is needed across a woman's lifespan. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Contributing Factors to Older Teen Mothers' Academic Success as Very Young Mothers

    Hernandez, Jennifer; Abu Rabia, Hazza M.


    This qualitative study explores the factors contributed to 13 older teen mothers' academic success as very young mothers. The participants were older teen mothers who were pregnant and gave birth at the age of 16 years old or younger, and who have achieved a college degree from an accredited college or university while they raised their…

  6. Mothers' Experiences with a Mother-Child Education Programme in Five Countries

    Bekman, Sevda; Koçak, Aylin Atmaca


    Although previous quantitative studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the mother-child education programme (MOCEP) that originated in Turkey in 1993, the study reported here uses a qualitative approach to gain an in-depth understanding of mothers' views of the outcomes of the programme. The study was conducted with 100 mothers from five…

  7. Peers and parents: a comparison between neural activation when winning for friends and mothers in adolescence.

    Braams, Barbara R; Crone, Eveline A


    Rewards reliably elicit ventral striatum activity. More recently studies have shown that vicarious rewards elicit similar activation. Ventral striatum responses to rewards for self peak during adolescence. However, it is currently not well understood how ventral striatum responses to vicarious rewards develop. In this study, we test this question using behavioral and fMRI data. A total of 233 participants aged 9-26 years old played a gambling game in the scanner in which they could win or lose money for themselves, their best friend and mother. Participants rated how close they felt to their friend and mother and how much they liked winning for them. These ratings were positively correlated. On the neural level males showed higher responses to winning for a friend, but there were no age differences. In contrast, there was a quadratic effect of age when winning for mother, showing heightened ventral striatum activity in mid-adolescence. Furthermore, there was an interaction between age and sex; for females responses to winning for friends become stronger with age relative to winning for mothers. In conclusion, this study provided evidence for elevated ventral striatum responses for mothers in mid-adolescence, and a shift in ventral striatum responses towards peers in girls. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email:

  8. Circadian activity rhythms for mothers with an infant in ICU

    Shih-Yu eLee


    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms influence sleep and wakefulness. Circadian activity rhythms (CAR are altered in individuals with dementia or seasonal affective disorder. To date, studies exploring CAR and sleep in postpartum women are rare. The purpose of this report is to describe relationships between CAR, sleep disturbance, and fatigue among 72 first-time mothers during their 2nd week postpartum while their newborn remain hospitalized in intensive care unit (ICU. Seventy two mothers were included in this secondary data analysis sample from three separate studies. Participants completed the General Sleep Disturbance Scale (GSDS, Numerical Rating Scale for Fatigue (NRS-F, and a sleep diary. The objective sleep data included total sleep time (TST, wake after sleep onset (WASO, and CAR determined by the circadian quotient (amplitude/mesor averaged from at least 48-hours of wrist actigraphy monitoring. The TST of mothers who self-reported as poor sleepers was 354 minutes (SEM= 21.9, with a mean WASO of 19.5% (SEM= 2.8. The overall sleep quality measured by the GSDS was clinically, significantly disrupted (M= 5.5, SD= 1.2. The mean score for morning fatigue was 5.8 (SD= 2.0, indicating moderate fatigue severity. The CAR was .62 (SEM= .04, indicating poor synchronization. The self-reported good sleepers (GSDS < 3 had better CAR (M= .71, SEM= .02 than poor sleepers (GSDS > 3 (t [70] = 2.0, p< .05. A higher circadian equation was associated with higher TST (r= .83, p<.001, less WASO (r= -.50, p< .001, lower self-reported sleep disturbance scores (r= -.35, p= .01, and less morning fatigue (r= -.26. Findings indicate that mothers with a hospitalized infant have both nocturnal sleep problems and disturbed circadian activity rhythms. Factors responsible for these sleep and rhythm disturbances, the adverse effects on mother’s physical and mental well-being, and mother-infant relationship require further study.

  9. Living with the unknown: Posttraumatic stress disorder in pediatric bone marrow transplantation survivors and their mothers.

    Taskıran, Gülseren; Sürer Adanır, Aslı; Özatalay, Esin


    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is used to treat children with various hematologic, oncologic, and metabolic diseases. Although the treatment can be lifesaving, it is also physically and psychologically demanding for both the child and caregivers. In previous studies, BMT is found to be related with anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and psychosocial problems both in children and parents. The aim of this study was to investigate PTSD in pediatric BMT survivors and their mothers compared with the healthy controls. Twenty-seven BMT survivors and their mothers and 28 healthy peers and their mothers were recruited as the study group and as the comparison group, respectively. All children were interviewed using Child Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-Reaction Index (CPTSD-RI) for assessing posttraumatic stress responses. As for mothers, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) was used. In healthy children and mothers, instead of BMT, the most important traumatic event reported by them was included. All data were analyzed by a neutral statistician from the Department of Biostatistics of the university. The BMT group, both children and mothers, obtained significantly higher PTSD rates than the control group (66.5% and 17.8%, respectively, in children; 57.6% and 7%, respectively, in mothers). However, there was a weak correlation between survivors' and mothers' posttraumatic stress responses. These findings suggest that BMT is a significant stressor for both children and mothers. Clinicians should be aware of psychiatric symptoms of children who underwent such a life-threatening condition. Combination of medical treatment with psychosocial support is imperative.

  10. Neurobiology of mother-infant interactions: experience and central nervous system plasticity across development and generations.

    Fleming, A S; O'Day, D H; Kraemer, G W


    The optimal coordination between the new mammalian mother and her young involves a sequence of behaviors on the part of each that ensures that the young will be adequately cared for and show healthy physical, emotional, and social development. This coordination is accomplished by each member of the relationship having the appropriate sensitivities and responses to cues that characterize the other. Among many mammalian species, new mothers are attracted to their infants' odors and some recognize them based on their odors; they also respond to their infants' vocalizations, thermal properties, and touch qualities. Together these cues ensure that the mother will nurse and protect the offspring and provide them with the appropriate physical and stimulus environment in which to develop. The young, in turn, orient to the mother and show a suckling pattern that reflects a sensitivity to the mothers odor, touch, and temperature characteristics. This article explores the sensory, endocrine, and neural mechanisms that underlie this early mother-young relationship, from the perspective of, first, the mother and, then, the young, noting the parallels between them. It emphasizes the importance of learning and plasticity in the formation and maintenance of the mother-young relationship and mediation of these experience effects by the brain and its neurochemistry. Finally, it discusses ways in which the infants' early experiences with their mothers (or the absence of these experiences) may come to influence how they respond to their own infants when they grow up, providing a psychobiological mechanism for the inter-generational transmission of parenting styles and responsiveness.

  11. The mother-daughter guilt dynamic: effects of type 1 diabetes during life transitions.

    Rasmussen, Bodil; Dunning, Trisha; Cox, Helen; O'Connell, Beverly


    The aim of the study was to explore and describe the strategies young women with type 1 diabetes used to manage life transitions. The paper describes one aspect of how guilt dynamic often operates between mothers and daughters and how the women managed the guilt dynamic to create stability in their lives. When a child is diagnosed with diabetes, major transitional changes occur in the relationships between the mother and her child. The changes affect the psychological and social aspects of their lives and have a major impact on how young women manage their diabetes. A guilt dynamic between mothers and young women with diabetes emerged as a major theme in a larger study that investigated how young women with diabetes managed life transitions. Although the literature indicates that mothers of chronically ill children experience guilt feelings towards their children, little research was identified that addressed the emotional dynamics between mothers and daughters with diabetes. Using grounded theory method, interviews were conducted with 20 women with type 1 diabetes and five mothers during 2002 and 2003. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyse the data and develop an in-depth understanding of the experience of living with diabetes during life transitions. The findings revealed that guilt feelings created a two-way dependency between mothers and their daughters with diabetes. The two-way dependency involved feelings of being a burden to each other, difficulty balancing responsibilities for diabetes management, difficulty relinquishing emotional and social dependency especially during life transitions. In addition, these issues were rarely discussed openly with each other or with health professionals. The findings provide additional information about the human experience of the mother-daughter relationship and the effect on coping with diabetes in the context of life transitions. Understanding the impact diabetes has on the emotional and social well being of

  12. Mother-infant joint attention and sharing: relations to disorganized attachment and maternal disrupted communication.

    Annie Yoon, Seungyeon; Kelso, Gwendolyn A; Lock, Anna; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen


    The normative development of infant shared attention has been studied extensively, but few studies have examined the impact of disorganized attachment and disturbed maternal caregiving on mother-infant shared attention. The authors examined both maternal initiations of joint attention and infants' responses to those initiations during the reunion episodes of the Strange Situation Procedure at 12 and 18 months of infant age. The mothers' initiations of joint attention and three forms of infant response, including shunning, simple joint attention, and sharing attention, were examined in relation to infant disorganized attachment and maternal disrupted communication. Mothers who were disrupted in communication with their infants at 18 months initiated fewer bids for joint attention at 12 months, and, at 18 months, mothers of infants classified disorganized initiated fewer bids. However, the infant' responses were unrelated to either the infant' or the mother' disturbed attachment. At both ages, disorganized infants and infants of disrupted mothers were as likely to respond to maternal bids as were their lower risk counterparts. Our results suggest that a disposition to share experiences with others is robust in infancy, even among infants with adverse attachment experiences, but this infant disposition may depend on adult initiation of bids to be realized.

  13. The interactions of normal and hyperactive children with their mothers in free play and structured tasks.

    Cunningham, C E; Barkley, R A


    Groups of 20 normal and 20 hyperactive boys ranging in age from 6 to 12 years were observed interacting with their mothers in 15-min free-play and 15-min structured-task situations. Using a 15-sec interval coding procedure, 1 observer recorded the mother's response to specific antecedent behaviors of the child while a second observer recorded the child's response to specific behaviors of the mother. Hyperactive boys proved more active, less compliant, and less likely to remain on task than nonhyperactive peers. Mothers of hyperactive boys were less likely to respond positively to the child's social interactions, solitary play activities, or compliant on-task behavior. In addition, mothers of hyperactive boys imposed more structure and control on the child's play, social interactions, and task-oriented activities. It is suggested that the controlling intrusive style observed among the mothers of hyperactive boys, while initially a response to the child's overactive, impulsive, inattentive style, may further contribute to the child's behavioral difficulties.


    Mingo, M Verónica; Easterbrooks, M Ann


    This study explored emotional availability (EA)- an individual's emotional responsiveness and attunement to another's needs and goals (R.N. Emde, 1980)- among a high social risk group of 226 adolescent mothers and their infants (average = 12 months old). The aim was to identify dyadic patterns of EA and to examine their association with multiple indicators of the ecological context. Maternal sensitivity, maternal nonhostility, and child responsiveness were assessed with the Emotional Availability Scales, Third Edition (Z. Biringen, J. Robinson, & R.N. Emde, 1998) during free play and teaching observations at home. Four EA patterns were identified using k-means cluster analysis: (a) "low functioning," (b) "high functioning," (c) "low functioning dyads with nonhostile mothers," and (d) "inconsistently sensitive mother and responsive child." These patterns had distinct associations with (a) mothers' parenting attitudes regarding children's power and independence and parent-child role reversal, (b) mothers' strategies in conflict resolution with their partners and their children, and (c) the dyads' living arrangements. This study makes a contribution to the understanding of the mother-child relationship from a systemic and relational perspective and explores the association of EA patterns with the dyads' relational context. Implications for programs and treatment approaches aimed at supporting dyads at social risk are discussed. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. Resposta humoral ao vírus dengue em mães/filhos: relação com a sequência de Möbius Humoral immune response to dengue virus in mothers/children: relation with Möbius sequence

    Diego Nery Benevides Gadelha


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a resposta humoral para o vírus dengue em pacientes com sequência de Möbius e suas mães, analisando a relação entre a infecção na gestação e o nascimento de portadores da sequência de Möbius. MÉTODOS: Foram revisados os prontuários dos pacientes atendidos em centro de referência. Aplicou-se um questionário estruturado a cada genitora. Sorologia por Elisa para IgG de dengue foi efetuada em 35 pacientes e suas mães. O teste de neutralização por redução em placas foi feito nas que referiram infecção viral na gestação e em seus filhos, para determinar o sorotipo viral causador da infecção. RESULTADOS: Febre, cefaléia e/ou dor retro-orbitária foi referida por 18 (51,4% mães. Três (8,6% referiram dengue no primeiro ou início do segundo trimestre de gestação. Cruzando-se as informações das sorologias das mães e crianças observou-se que em 57,1% dos casos há positividade sorológica para o vírus do dengue na mãe e no filho. Das três mães com infecção na gestação, uma e seu filho, apresentou teste de neutralização por redução em placa positivo para o vírus dengue tipo três (DENV-3, entretanto o sorotipo apenas foi introduzido em Pernambuco em 2002, o que exclui a possibilidade de ter ocorrido transmissão vertical da doença. CONCLUSÃO: As sorologias dos casos que tiveram diagnóstico clínico de dengue na gravidez revelaram-se incompatíveis com a hipótese de ter ocorrido transmissão vertical da doença. Portanto, na amostra estudada, a infecção pelo vírus do dengue não pode ser considerada como fator implicado na gênese da sequência de Möbius.PURPOSE: To investigate the humoral immune response to dengue virus in patients with Möbius sequence and their mothers, assessing the relation between this infection during pregnancy and Möbius sequence. METHODS: The medical records were reviewed, and a questionnaire was answered by each mother. IgG ELISA was performed in 35

  16. Stand tending and root rot in Norway spruce stands - economical effects caused by root rot at different thinning regimes

    Johansson, Mats


    This report is divided into three parts: 1) a literature study describing the most common fungi causing rot in wood and descriptions of various strategies to reduce economic loss from root rot, 2) a check of a model describing the development of butt rot in pure Norway spruce plantations in southern Sweden, and 3) simulated economic effects of root rot in stands with various stand tending. The rot model was used to estimate future rot frequencies in the economic calculations. In order to avoid overestimations of rot frequencies, the calculations were also executed when assuming slower growth of rot than shown in the model. When analysing the economical effects of rot, the following three thinning programmes were used: Program 1: thinning at the ages of 30- and 45 years. Final felling at the ages 50-, 55-, 60-, 65-, and 70 years. Program 2: thinning at the ages of 40- and 60- years. Final felling at the ages 65 and 75 years. Program 3: thinning at the ages of 30-, 40-, 55-, and 70 years. Final felling at the ages 80 and 90 years. With an interest rate of 3%, programme 2 (final felling at the age of 65 years) had the highest value at present. This result was valid when presuming butt rot in the stand as well as when presuming no butt rot in the stand. There was a small difference between the value at present in programme 1 (final felling at the age of 60 years) and in programme 3 (final felling at the age of 80 years). When presuming butt rot in the stand, the value at present in programme 3 decreased somewhat more in comparison to the value at present in programme 1. Compared to no butt rot in the stand, the optimal final felling time appeared five to ten years earlier when assuming butt rot in the stand. Stand tending programme 1 and an interest rate of 3% were used. Interest rates 2 and 4% did not indicate shorter rotation. The calculated optimal time of final felling appeared at the same stand age whether assuming rot preset or not. The results in this study

  17. Mothers' early depressive symptoms and children's first-grade adjustment: a transactional analysis of child withdrawal as a mediator.

    Yan, Ni; Dix, Theodore


    The depression-inhibition hypothesis suggests that mothers' depressive symptoms undermine development because they lead children to withdraw from social contact. To test this, this study examined whether poor first-grade adjustment among children of mothers with depressive symptoms is mediated by the emergence of child withdrawal in early development. Based on 1,364 dyads, four waves of data spanning from 24 months to first grade (7 years) were used to examine paths by which children's withdrawal mediates relations between mothers' early depressive symptoms and three first-grade outcomes: social competence, academic performance, and externalizing behavior problems. Structural equation modeling revealed three principal paths. First, direct relations were observed: Mothers' depressive symptoms predicted early child withdrawal and increases in child withdrawal over time, which predicted poor first-grade adjustment. Second, reciprocal relations were observed: Mothers' depressive symptoms predicted child withdrawal, which predicted increases in depressive symptoms. Third, relations via mother-child mutual responsiveness were observed: Depression-related increases in child withdrawal predicted declines in mutual responsiveness, which predicted poor first-grade adjustment. The findings suggest that, due to its interdependence with maternal depression and low mother-child mutual responsiveness over time, child withdrawal may play an important role in the poor first-grade adjustment of children whose mothers are high in depressive symptoms. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  18. Mothers' knowledge of foetal movements monitoring during ...

    The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge pregnant mothers have on the ... A quantitative research survey design was used to obtain information from pregnant mothers. Simple random probability sampling was used. ... Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  19. Adolescent mothers' knowledge and perceptions of contraceptives ...

    This descriptive quantitative survey attempted to identify reasons why adolescent mothers (aged 19 or younger at the birth of their babies) failed to utilise contraceptive, emergency contraceptive and / or termination of pregnancy (TOP) services. The research population comprised all adolescent mothers in the region, the ...

  20. Postpartum Mental State of Mothers of Twins

    Brantmüller, Éva; Gyúró, Mónika; Galgán, Kitti; Pakai, Annamária


    Twin birth is a relevant risk factor for postnatal depression (PND). The primary objective of our study is to reveal the prevalence of suspected cases of depression and to identify some background factors among mothers of twins. We applied convenience sampling method within a retrospective, quantitative study among mothers given birth to twins for…

  1. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among mothers ...

    Conclusion: This study could help mothers, Ministry of Health and other nongovernmental organisations working with child health programmes, in likely interventions and supporting the ongoing child survival programmes, by taking appropriate steps in enhancing exclusive breastfeeding. As mothers attend antenatal and ...

  2. Life as a Mother-Scientist

    Louis, Lucille


    In this article, the author shares the difficulties she faced as she tried to reach a balance between her career as a scientist and her role as a mother. She speaks of how she often found problems in putting her children into day care centers. She also relates that the confidence mothers have in their academic careers is correlated to the quality…

  3. 75 FR 26875 - Mother's Day, 2010


    ... their careers, or as single parents working to provide for their families. They have carried the torch... daughters and granddaughters. On Mother's Day, we pay tribute to these women who have given so much of.... Nurturing families come in many forms, and children may be raised by two parents, a single mother, two...

  4. Spirituality and Mental Health among Homeless Mothers

    Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.


    Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…

  5. Academic Mothers Finding Rhyme and Reason

    Pillay, Venitha


    In this paper I argue that the "balancing two lives" approach to motherhood and work has particular limitations for academic mothers. I interrogate the perceived oppositionalities in being mother, traditionally associated with nurturing, love and emotion, and being academic, traditionally associated with reason and logic. My purpose is to show…

  6. 76 FR 27601 - Mother's Day, 2011


    ... and elder care, and education. My budget strengthens the Child and Dependent Care Tax Credit to help..., so have the challenges facing women raising families. Many American women are raising children at... extraordinary importance of mothers in our lives. The bond of love and dedication a mother shares with her...

  7. Emotional Competencies and Responsible Decision Making in Pre-Adolescents with the Support from Teachers, Fathers, and Mothers: A Comparative Study in 4th to 6th-Grade Students of Primary Education in Spain

    Concepción Márquez-Cervantes


    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the relationship between emotional competencies and responsible decision making in pre-adolescents, and the support of teachers and parents in this process, which could help students to solve problems and face risk situations in a better way. A quantitative, descriptive correlation and cross-sectional type research was carried out to achieve this aim. 70 students from the 4th, 5th and 6th grades (ages 8-12, three teachers and 12 parents from a public school in the province of Almeria, Spain, participated in the study. Three questionnaires were designed (for students, teachers and parents to collect the information; they were based on theoretical models (Bisquerra & Pérez, 2007 and standardized self-report inventories in emotional competencies (Extremera & Fernández-Berrocal, 2004; Matson et al., 1983. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, a comparison between groups, and a correlation between variables. Among the main results, students reported that they did greater work in strengthening their emotional awareness, followed by emotional regulation and interpersonal relationships. There were no significant differences in emotional management and responsible decision making among students from the three academic years; however, males reported greater emotional control than females. A significant correlation between emotional competencies and responsible decision making in pre-adolescents was found. Teaching staff mentioned having done greater work in the development of students’ emotional awareness and support of their responsible decision making. Parents, in turn, seek to help their sons and daughters to be more self-reliant, in addition to working collaboratively with the school, by documenting or seeking support to contribute to education and personal development of their children.

  8. Mortality in mothers after perinatal loss

    Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Wu, C; Schendel, D


    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether mothers who lost a child from stillbirth or in the first week of life have an increased overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. DESIGN: A population based follow-up study. SETTING: Data from Danish national registers. POPULATION: All mothers in Denmark were...... included in the cohort at time of their first delivery from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2008 and followed until 31 December 2009 or death, whichever came first. METHODS: The association between perinatal loss and total and cause-specific mortality in mothers was estimated with hazard ratios (HR) and 95......% confidence intervals (95% CI) calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 838 331 mothers in the cohort gave birth to one or more children and 7690 mothers (0.92%) experienced...

  9. [Newborn children under phototherapy: the mother's perception].

    Campos, Antonia do Carmo Soares; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão


    Since 1958, phototherapy has been used as a method to cure jaundice, which is still an important disease in newborn children. Supported by a phenomenological and qualitative approach, this study aims to investigate the mothers' perception of the phototherapy treatment their children are submitted to. Research subjects were ten mothers of newborns under phototherapy treatment at the Neonatological Hospitalization Unit of a public maternity in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Data were collected between May and July 2002. We used group meetings with the mothers as suggested by Carl Rogers. Discourse was organized into categories according to Bardin, which revealed themes that were analyzed in view of Paterson's and Zderad's humanistic nursing theory, as follows: mothers' knowledge on phototherapy and concerns about the treatment. We concluded that the analyzed mothers' major concern is related to the babies' vision.

  10. Mothers' perceptions of community health professional support.

    Maunders, Helena; Giles, David; Douglas, Hazel


    This qualitative study aimed to explore mothers' experiences of the support they received from community health professionals. Every third mother was selected from an NHS Trust's database of women whose health visitors had used the Solihull Approach. Forty-two women were sent information packs and consent forms. Nine mothers who returned consent forms were interviewed. The interview transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The results expand on previous research and contribute additional ideas to the existing evidence base. The findings explore the concepts of trust, expertise and understanding within the working partnership. In addition, the results address mothers' need for reliability, and a preference for professionals who understood women's beliefs about what it means to be a 'good mother'. The results and recommendations are pertinent to those community health professionals who work in the area of early childhood intervention, including practitioners who use the Solihull Approach.

  11. Parenting from prison: helping children and mothers.

    Thompson, P J; Harm, N J


    Incarceration of a mother disrupts the mother-child relationship and the child's emotional development. The researchers evaluated a 15-week parenting program in a women's prison that was designed to enhance mother-child interactions during imprisonment. Pre- and postmeasures for the 104 women were Hudson's (1982) Index of Self-Esteem, Bavolek's (1984) Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory, and semistructured questionnaires. Self-esteem and attitudes about expectations of children, corporal punishment, and family roles improved significantly. Empathy and mother-child interactions through visits and letters improved. Participants identified the most helpful components of the program. Those who had been physically, sexually, and emotionally abused and those who had used drugs and alcohol had positive results. Findings support the value of parent education for self-development of incarcerated mothers and for the welfare of their children.

  12. Sistemas ERP: características, custos e tendências ERP systems: characteristics, implementation cost, tendencies

    Thais Cássia Cabral Padilha


    Full Text Available Muitas empresas estão adotando Sistemas ERP devido a várias razões, tais como: decepção com sistemas incompatíveis, incapacidade do Departamento de Tecnologia de Informação em realizar a integração entre os sistemas existentes atualmente na empresa e outros motivos que influenciam diretamente a competitividade da Empresa. Neste contexto, este artigo apresenta as principais características de Sistemas ERP, suas vantagens e desvantagens, bem como os custos envolvidos na sua implementação. Finalmente, as tendências e o futuro de Sistemas ERP são comentados.Several Companies are adopting ERP systems due to different reasons, such as: deceptions with incompatible systems, incapacity of Technology Information Department of doing integration among current systems, and other reasons which have direct influence in Company's competitiveness. In this context, this work presents the main ERP system characteristics, and the advantages, disadvantages and costs involved with its implementation. Besides this, the tendencies and the future for ERP systems are commented.

  13. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge


    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  14. The effects of stress and affiliation on social decision-making: Investigating the tend-and-befriend pattern.

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Engert, Veronika; Linz, Roman; Singer, Tania


    The prevalence of psychosocial stress in Western societies is constantly on the rise. Its influence on social decision-making, however, remains poorly understood. Whereas, it is known that stress triggers psychological and physiological defense mechanisms, indications of such patterns in social decisions are ambivalent. We sought to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of stress-induced social decisions. We recruited 145 men, who were individually exposed to either a psychosocial stressor or a control condition, while primed with affiliation by interacting either with members of an in- or an out-group. We found that stressed participants were less trusting and engaged in less costly punishment compared to the non-stressed control group. Interacting with out-group members led to less reciprocity and more spiteful punishment. There was no interaction between stress and the affiliation conditions in any of the used social-decision-making paradigms. Lastly, while stress-reactive cortisol levels had no effect on trust behavior, higher baseline cortisol was correlated with greater trust. Our findings suggest that previous ambiguities in data reported on the influence of stress on social decisions, namely tend-and-befriend behavior may have arisen through critical social confounds in the induction of stress. When controlling for potential social confounds, stress may trigger fight-or-flight behavior as indicated by increased social anxiety. These findings highlight the considerable context-dependence of psychosocial stress and its effects on social behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Iodine Replete among Populations in Nigeria: Is the Population Tending Towards the Development of Iodine Induced Hyperthyroidism (IIH?

    Onyeaghala A. Augustine


    Full Text Available Iodine is a micronutrient which is required for normal thyroid function. The recommended daily intake for iodine is 150 µg, however in pregnant women; higher levels up to 250 µg could be required. Deficiency of iodine in any given population results in iodine deficiency disorder (IDD. Researchers in Nigeria as far back as 1967 had reported the existence of IDD. To combat this public health problem with its associated medical consequences, a policy to ensure salt iodization was enacted. The Nation’s consistent approach to combat IDD was globally recognized and it was adjudged as the only country in Africa that had achieved the goals of sustained elimination of IDD. Although the health benefits derivable from salt iodization seem to outweigh its risk, yet recent epidemiological data are pointing that populations within the country could be tending toward the development of Iodine Induced Hyperthyroidism (IIH, a common disorder associated with salt iodization following chronic iodine deficiency. The need therefore to use evidence based approach to re-examine the County’s iodization policy as well as investigate the impact of salt iodization on thyroid hormone formation, metabolism and associated pathologies becomes very imperative. This could be very helpful in order to prevent the burden of non- communicable disease in a nation already battling with epidemics of various infectious diseases.

  16. Patients with chronic headache tend to have more psychological symptoms than those with sporadic episodes of pain

    Maria Aparecida Junqueira Zampieri


    Full Text Available There are controversial associations between headaches and psychological symptoms. Objective To design a profile of neuroticism, a term that groups variables related to negative personality traits, in patients with chronic daily headache (CDH when compared to episodic migraine (EM patients, applying the Factorial Scale of Emotional Adjustment/Neuroticism (NFS. Method One hundred adult patients with CDH and forty with EM answered the NFS. Results Comorbidities of subtypes of neuroticism (p=0.006 were more common in chronic daily headache patients, with three or more disorders (p=0.0002: dependent personality disorder (p=0.0001, anxiety, reduced concentration and production (p=0.0008, depression (p<0.0001, suicidal ideation (p=0.0008 and hopelessness even without depression (p<0.0001. Conclusion Patients with CDH tend to have dependent personality disorder, low production and concentration, anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation and hopelessness, superimposing two or more psychological disorders. These factors should be pondered for a better resolution in the treatment of CDH.

  17. Polycystic ovary syndrome patients with high BMI tend to have functional disorders of androgen excess: a prospective study.

    Yuan, Chun; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Mao, Yundong; Diao, Feiyang; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin


    Biochemical or clinical changes of hyperandrogenism are important elements of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). There is currently no consensus on the definition and diagnostic criteria of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. The aim of this study was to investigate the complex symptoms of hyperandrogenic disorders and the correlations between metabolism and hyperandrogenism in patients with PCOS from an outpatient reproductive medicine clinic in China. We conducted a case control study of 125 PCOS patients and 130 controls to evaluate differences in body mass index (BMI), total testosterone (TT), modified Ferriman-Gallwey hirsutism score, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and free androgen index (FAI) between PCOS patients and controls and subgroups of PCOS. The prevalence of acne and hirsutism did not differ significantly between the hyperandrogenic and non-hyperandrogenic subgroup. Patients with signs of hyperandrogenism had significantly higher BMI (P PCOS patients. Our results suggest that PCOS patients with high BMI tend to have functional disorders of androgen excess; therefore, BMI may be a strong predictor of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. © 2016 the Journal of Biomedical Research. All rights reserved.

  18. Follow-up of Mothers with Suspected Postpartum Depression from Pediatrics Clinics

    Nerissa S. Bauer


    Full Text Available PurposePediatric providers are increasingly screening for postpartum depression (PD, yet, it is unknown how often mothers comply with recommendations to seek treatment. The objectives were to describe the rate at which mothers with suspected PD seek treatment and explore factors that predict help-seeking behavior.Design and methodsMothers were recruited from four pediatric clinics after identification using the Child Health Improvement through Computer Automation (CHICA system. Mothers with a positive screen were invited to participate in a telephone interview between January 2012 and December 2014. Mothers reported if they sought treatment or called a community resource.Results73 of 133 eligible mothers participated (55% response rate. Fifty women recalled a recommendation to seek help. Only 43.8% (32/73 made a follow-up appointment with an adult provider and even fewer kept the appointment.ConclusionA majority of mothers suspected of having PD recalled a referral for further intervention; yet, less than half took action. Further investigation of barriers of help-seeking behavior is warranted.

  19. Mother-Newborn Pairs in Malawi Have Similar Antibody Repertoires to Diverse Malaria Antigens.

    Boudová, Sarah; Walldorf, Jenny A; Bailey, Jason A; Divala, Titus; Mungwira, Randy; Mawindo, Patricia; Pablo, Jozelyn; Jasinskas, Algis; Nakajima, Rie; Ouattara, Amed; Adams, Matthew; Felgner, Philip L; Plowe, Christopher V; Travassos, Mark A; Laufer, Miriam K


    Maternal antibodies may play a role in protecting newborns against malaria disease. Plasmodium falciparum parasite surface antigens are diverse, and protection from infection requires allele-specific immunity. Although malaria-specific antibodies have been shown to cross the placenta, the extent to which antibodies that respond to the full repertoire of diverse antigens are transferred from the mother to the infant has not been explored. Understanding the breadth of maternal antibody responses and to what extent these antibodies are transferred to the child can inform vaccine design and evaluation. We probed plasma from cord blood and serum from mothers at delivery using a customized protein microarray that included variants of malaria vaccine target antigens to assess the intensity and breadth of seroreactivity to three malaria vaccine candidate antigens in mother-newborn pairs in Malawi. Among the 33 paired specimens that were assessed, mothers and newborns had similar intensity and repertoire of seroreactivity. Maternal antibody levels against vaccine candidate antigens were the strongest predictors of infant antibody levels. Placental malaria did not significantly impair transplacental antibody transfer. However, mothers with placental malaria had significantly higher antibody levels against these blood-stage antigens than mothers without placental malaria. The repertoire and levels of infant antibodies against a wide range of malaria vaccine candidate antigen variants closely mirror maternal levels in breadth and magnitude regardless of evidence of placental malaria. Vaccinating mothers with an effective malaria vaccine during pregnancy may induce high and potentially protective antibody repertoires in newborns. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Antipsychotic-induced somnolence in mothers with schizophrenia.

    Seeman, Mary V


    Although it is known that many antipsychotic drugs, at the doses prescribed for schizophrenia, are sedative and cause daytime drowsiness, the effect of potentially diminished vigilance on parenting parameters has not been studied. The aim of this paper is to advise clinicians about sedative load in mothers who are prescribed antipsychotic medication. A Medline search was conducted into the sedative effects of antipsychotics, with the following search terms: sleep; sedation; somnolence; wakefulness; antipsychotics; schizophrenia, parenting, maternal behavior, and custody. The results showed that antipsychotic drugs differ in their propensity to induce sedation and do so via their effects on a variety of neurotransmitter systems. It is important to note that mothers with schizophrenia risk losing custody of their infants if they are perceived as potentially neglectful because of excessive daytime sleepiness. Clinicians must choose antipsychotic medications carefully and monitor for sedative effects whenever the patient has important responsibilities that require the maintenance of vigilance.

  1. God-mother-baby: what children think they know.

    Kiessling, Florian; Perner, Josef


    This study tested one hundred and nine 3- to 6-year-old children on a knowledge-ignorance task about knowledge in humans (mother, baby) and God. In their responses, participants not reliably grasping that seeing leads to knowing in humans (pre-representational) were significantly influenced by own knowledge and marginally by question format. Moreover, knowledge was attributed significantly more often to mother than baby and explained by agent-based characteristics. Of participants mastering the task for humans (representational), God was largely conceived as ignorant "man in the sky" by younger and increasingly as "supernatural agent in the sky" by older children. Evidence for egocentrism and for anthropomorphizing God lends support to an anthropomorphism hypothesis. First-time evidence for an agent-based conception of others' knowledge in pre-representational children is presented. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. Impact of Depressive Symptoms on Mother Infant Attachment among Mothers of Preterm Neonates

    Binu Margaret


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the level of depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment among mothers of preterms admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and find the relationship between of depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment. Materials and methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among 100 mothers whose preterm babies were admitted in NICU of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka using purposive sampling. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Mother Infant Attachment Scale were used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mother’s age ranged from 20 to 40 years. The mild depressive symptoms were experienced by 28 (28% mothers, moderate 25(25% and 17 (17% had severe level of depressive symptoms. Majority mothers 77(77% of preterms had good-attachment and 18% had moderate attachment. Mean depressive symptom score and mother-infant-attachment score was 14.36±7.47 and 58.00 ±12.95 respectively. Depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment showed moderate negative correlation, (ρ=--0.506, (p=0.001. Conclusion: Increased levels of depressive symptoms among the mothers of preterm neonates affects the mother–infant-interactions. Interventions to decrease the level of depressive symptoms need to be planned for promoting good mother infant interaction.

  3. My Mother and Me: Why Tiger Mothers Motivate Asian Americans But Not European Americans.

    Fu, Alyssa S; Markus, Hazel Rose


    "Tiger Mother" Amy Chua provoked a culture clash with her claim that controlling parenting in Asian American (AA) contexts produces more successful children than permissive parenting in European American (EA) contexts. At the heart of this controversy is a difference in the normative models of self that guide behavior. Ideas and practices prevalent in AA contexts emphasize that the person is and should be interdependent with one's close others, especially one's mother. In contrast, EA contexts emphasize the person as independent, even from one's mother. We find that AA compared with EA high school students experience more interdependence with their mothers and pressure from them, but that the pressure does not strain their relationship with their mothers. Furthermore, following failure, AAs compared with EAs are more motivated by their mothers, and AAs are particularly motivated by pressure from their mothers when it conveys interdependence. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. Young Mothers, First Time Parenthood and Exclusive Breastfeeding ...


    This paper specifically examines duration of exclusive breastfeeding among young mothers below ... Results show that Eldoret mothers are aware of benefits of breastfeeding; nevertheless, the ... More research on mothering should examine.

  5. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices among mothers of children with epilepsy: A study in a teaching hospital.

    Kolahi, Ali-Asghar; Abbasi-Kangevari, Mohsen; Bakhshaei, Pouya; Mahvelati-Shamsabadi, Farhad; Tonekaboni, Seyed-Hassan; Farsar, Ahmad-Reza


    Knowledge about epilepsy and attitudes towards patients with epilepsy can affect measures taken to manage epilepsy and seizures. Support and understanding of mothers is invaluable in enabling children with epilepsy to develop normal life skills in living with epilepsy. In order to identify the educational needs of mothers of children with epilepsy, their knowledge, attitudes, and practices should be assessed. Therefore, we interviewed a group of mothers of children with epilepsy who were referred to a pediatric neurology clinic in a teaching hospital. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices among mothers of children with epilepsy in order to identify their educational needs. In the period of August 2014 to January 2015, mothers whose children were diagnosed with epilepsy for at least six months participated in this cross sectional study, while returning to the neurology clinic of a pediatric hospital for usual follow-up. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews, held by trained female general practitioners. The interviewer used questions from a questionnaire. The knowledge section of the questionnaire included questions regarding prevalence and general knowledge about epilepsy, its etiology, symptoms, and seizure provoking factors. The attitudes section included statements regarding the mother's attitudes towards epilepsy and patients with the disease. The practice section included questions about first-aid measures taken by mothers who had witnessed generalized seizures by the time of interview. Responses of 206 participants were analyzed. At least 83% of mothers knew that epilepsy is a noncontagious neurological disorder which can be treated by regular drug therapy. In spite of demonstrating good knowledge scores, the majority of mothers felt the need for further training in epilepsy. More than 98% of mothers were against the idea that patients with epilepsy should hide their disease. Though having been referred to

  6. Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads.

    Tovar, Alison; Hennessy, Erin; Pirie, Alex; Must, Aviva; Gute, David M; Hyatt, Raymond R; Kamins, Christina Luongo; Hughes, Sheryl O; Boulos, Rebecca; Sliwa, Sarah; Galvão, Heloisa; Economos, Christina D


    Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children's food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. The children's average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%), Haitian (34%) and Latino (30%). Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother's perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56) with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01). Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing literature that suggests this type of feeding style may be a risk

  7. Mothers' and Fathers' Couple and Family Contextual Influences, Parent Involvement, and School-Age Child Attachment

    Coyl-Shepherd, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.


    Increasingly couples in two-parent families share the dual responsibilities of parenting and providing for their children financially. Parenting is embedded within and shaped by specific family contexts. This study examined 92 mothers' and fathers' responses on indices of couple and family contexts, parent involvement, and child-reported…

  8. Maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviours: A comparison of mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity.

    Haycraft, Emma; Karasouli, Eleni; Meyer, Caroline


    This study aimed to explore differences between mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity in a wide range of their reported child feeding practices and their reports of their children's eating behaviours. Mothers (N = 437) with a 2-6-year-old child participated. They comprised two groups, based on their BMI: healthy weight (BMI of 18.0-24.9, inclusive) or overweight/obese (BMI of 25.0 or more). All mothers provided demographic information and completed self-report measures of their child feeding practices and their child's eating behaviour. In comparison to mothers with healthy weight, mothers with overweight/obesity reported giving their child more control around eating (p obesity reported their children to have a greater desire for drinks (p = 0.003), be more responsive to satiety (p = 0.007), and be slower eaters (p = 0.034). Mothers with overweight/obesity appear to engage in generally less healthy feeding practices with their children than mothers with healthy weight, and mothers with overweight/obesity perceive their children as more avoidant about food but not drinks. Such findings are likely to inform future intervention developments and help health workers and clinicians to better support mothers with overweight/obesity with implementing healthful feeding practices and promoting healthy eating habits in their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anxiety, depression, stress, and cortisol levels in mothers of children undergoing maintenance therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Neu, Madalynn; Matthews, Ellyn; King, Nancy A; Cook, Paul F; Laudenslager, Mark L


    The purpose of this study was to compare anxiety, depression, and stress between mothers of children during maintenance treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and matched controls. Twenty-six mothers were recruited from the hematology unit at a children's hospital, and 26 mothers were recruited from the community. Participants were matched to their child's age and gender. Mothers completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Perceived Stress Sale, and collected salivary cortisol 4 times a day for 3 consecutive days. Compared with mothers of healthy children, anxiety scores did not differ (P=.10), but depression scores were higher (P=.003) in mothers of children with ALL. More mothers in the ALL group scored above the cutoff of 7 indicating clinical anxiety (46%) and depressive symptoms (27%). A trend toward increased stress was found in mothers in the ALL group. No difference was found in overall daily cortisol (area under the curve), daily decrease in cortisol (slope), and cortisol awakening response. Mothers of children with ALL experienced emotional symptoms many months after the initial diagnosis.

  10. Carbon dioxide sensing in the social context: Leaf-cutting ants prefer elevated CO2 levels to tend their brood.

    Römer, Daniela; Bollazzi, Martin; Roces, Flavio


    Social insects show temperature and humidity preferences inside their nests to successfully rear brood. In underground nests, ants also encounter rising CO 2 concentrations with increasing depth. It is an open question whether they use CO 2 as a cue to decide where to place and tend the brood. Leaf-cutting ants do show CO 2 preferences for the culturing of their symbiotic fungus. We evaluated their CO 2 choices for brood placement in laboratory experiments. Workers of Acromyrmex lundii in the process of relocating brood were offered a binary choice consisting of two interconnected chambers with different CO 2 concentrations. Values ranged from atmospheric to high concentrations of 4% CO 2 . The CO 2 preferences shown by workers for themselves and for brood placement were assessed by quantifying the number of workers and relocated brood in each chamber. Ants showed clear CO 2 preferences for brood placement. They avoided atmospheric levels, 1% and 4% CO 2 , and showed a preference for levels of 3%. This is the first report of CO 2 preferences for the maintenance of brood in social insects. The observed preferences for brood location were independent of the workers' own CO 2 preferences, since they showed no clear-cut pattern. Workers' CO 2 preferences for brood maintenance were slightly higher than those reported for fungus culturing, although brood is reared in the same chambers as the fungus in leaf-cutting ant nests. Workers' choices for brood placement in natural nests are likely the result of competing preferences for other environmental factors more crucial for brood survival, aside from those for CO 2 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Whose landscape? - An anthropological perspective on landscape perception in reindeer tending (In Swedish with Summary in English

    Anna Järpe


    Full Text Available When we talk publicly about landscape and land use, both in legal and in popular contexts, the evaluation of our natural environment is usually based on an industrial concept of land and landscape. "Nature" is seen as a resource to be used or managed in different ways. My research originates in a questioning of this assumption: can we take for granted that the same perceptions and evaluations are shared by all concerned parties? In this article, I will use an ecologic anthropological perspective to consider the livelihood of reindeer tending and suggest an alternative to what can be called a scientific understanding of the world. I maintain that the relations that people have with their environment, and the values that they ascribe to it, are perceptions that are shaped and affected in our interactions with the surrounding world, and that these perceptions vary between different groups of people. Land use, land rights, access to fishing waters, and who gets to hunt what; these are not only questions about how we should manage the landscape, but also about whose landscape we are managing. Arguing that the reindeer tenders' landscape is a shifting mosaic of varying conditions that they must relate to rather than an object to be used and controlled by human interests, I want to show how anthropological research can provide an insight into the different perspectives and modes of understanding that we need to consider in the formulation of future policies and laws. At least if we want to resolve land use conflicts in contested areas fairly and on a sustainable long-term basis.

  12. Mortalidade infantil em duas coortes de base populacional no Sul do Brasil: tendências e diferenciais

    Menezes Ana M. B.


    Full Text Available Estudou-se a tendência temporal da mortalidade infantil através de dois estudos de coorte realizados em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, em 1982 e 1993. Ambas coortes incluíram todos os nascimentos hospitalares e óbitos verificados através de visitas regulares aos hospitais, cartórios e cemitérios. As informações sobre a causa de morte foram obtidas através de entrevistas com pediatras, revisão do prontuário, necrópsias e entrevista com os pais das crianças. O coeficiente de mortalidade infantil caiu de 36,4 por mil nascidos vivos para 21,1 na década. As principais causas de mortalidade infantil em 1993 foram as perinatais, malformações congênitas, diarréia e infecções respiratórias. Crianças com baixo peso ao nascer apresentaram mortalidade 12 vezes maior do que crianças com peso adequado, e crianças pré-termo, duas vezes mais do que crianças com retardo de crescimento intra-uterino. Crianças de famílias com renda baixa (um salário mínimo apresentaram mortalidade sete vezes superior àquelas com renda alta (10 salários mínimos. A mortalidade de crianças de baixo peso ao nascer e alta renda familiar decresceu em 67%, contra apenas 36% para as de baixa renda. Conclui-se que, mesmo com uma queda expressiva da mortalidade infantil na década, persistem importantes desigualdades sociais.

  13. Growth Potential of Subdural Hematomas Under Clinical Observation: Which Subdural Hematomas Tend to Grow and Why They Do.

    Asan, Ziya


    To study the prognoses of patients with subdural hematoma (SDH) who were not operated on at the time of the first diagnosis and the causes of enlarged hematomas in some patients during the follow-up period. The records, service files, and radiologic examination results of the patients with diagnoses of SDH were reviewed. The SDH patients were recorded under 5 different categories: acute SDH (ASDH), subacute SDH (SSDH), chronic SDH (CSDH), acute component with chronic SDH (A-CSDH), and subacute component with chronic SDH (S-CSDH). The symptoms, clinical findings, and progression in the patients were correlated with radiologic examinations. A total of 291 patients received diagnoses of SDHs: 80 patients with acute, 29 patients with subacute, and 163 patients with chronic hematoma. Thirty-five patients had diagnoses of SDH with a combination of different components. It was determined that in the follow-up period, patients with A-CSDH showed the greatest increase in hematoma size over time and required surgical intervention the most often. SDHs reveal different prognoses in different age groups. Multicomponent SDHs are within the group that shows the greatest increase in size in the follow-up period. SDHs and CSDHs cause recurrent hemorrhages by sustaining the tension on the bridging veins. The greater the hematoma volume, the greater the growth potential of the hematoma tends to be. CSDHs that do not manifest changes in volume for a long time can be monitored without surgical intervention as long as the clinical picture remains stable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Infant and Young Child Feeding Decision Making and Practices: Malawian Mothers' and Fathers' Roles in the Context of HIV.

    Chintalapudi, Nainisha; Hamela, Gloria; Mofolo, Innocent; Maman, Suzanne; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Hoffman, Irving F; Flax, Valerie L


    Few studies in low- and middle-income countries have examined the roles of couples in infant and young child feeding decision making and practices, and there is no corresponding data in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Research aim: This study aimed to explore mothers' and fathers' perceptions of their roles in feeding decision making and practices. The authors conducted in-depth interviews with 15 mothers and their male partners, recruited from the catchment areas of two urban and two rural government clinics in Lilongwe District, Malawi. The mothers were ≥ 18 years of age, were HIV positive, and had a child < 24 months of age. Twelve of the 15 fathers were also HIV positive. The interviews were analyzed using content analysis. Mothers were responsible for child care, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding. Fathers provided monetary support for purchasing food and offered verbal support to encourage mothers to implement recommended feeding practices. Many fathers found it difficult to support adequate complementary feeding because of household food insecurity. Mothers were advised on child feeding during prevention of mother-to-child transmission clinic visits. No fathers in this study accompanied women to clinic appointments, so they were less well-informed about feeding than mothers. Fathers usually deferred to mothers in feeding decision making. One-third of mothers wanted fathers to be more involved in child feeding. Malawian mothers' and fathers' roles in feeding decision making in the context of HIV align with local gender norms. Strategies are needed to improve fathers' knowledge of and involvement in child feeding, as desired by mothers.

  15. In their own words: the experience of mothering as a survivor of childhood sexual abuse.

    O'Dougherty Wright, Margaret; Fopma-Loy, Joan; Oberle, Katherine


    This article reviews past research on the parenting characteristics of childhood sexual abuse survivors and presents the results of a qualitative study exploring the women's perspectives on mothering as a survivor. Grounded theory was used in the collection and analysis of the data. Data sources included the narrative responses of 79 women (mean age = 38.2 years) and in-depth interviews of a purposive sample of 15 women (mean age = 39 years). They had an average of 2.2 children, ranging in age from 5 months to young adulthood. The theoretical model identified through analysis of data using the constant comparison method was entitled "The Hard Work of Mothering as a Survivor." Processes emerged that described the ways participants managed the work of mothering in light of memories of the abuse and attempts to heal from this earlier trauma. The conditions for committing to the work included becoming aware of and accepting the reality of the abuse and how it affected one's life, and taking on the hard work of developing a mothering self. This included expanding awareness, developing and evaluating a personal model of mothering, navigating typical and abuse salient parenting challenges, mothering through the pain of recovery, and battling for balance. The findings highlighted the dynamic, multifaceted nature of recovery and resilience for these mothers and the need for an increased focus on parenting in counseling with childhood sexual abuse survivors. Provision of anticipatory guidance regarding commonly experienced stressors at varying stages of the child's development and the mother's stage of recovery and methods for coping with these challenges, would benefit these mothers and promote parenting competence. Specific implications for psychotherapy and directions for future research are discussed.

  16. Determination of Mother Centriole Maturation in CPAP-Depleted Cells Using the Ninein Antibody

    Miseon Lee


    Full Text Available BackgroundMutations in centrosomal protein genes have been identified in a number of genetic diseases in brain development, including microcephaly. Centrosomal P4.1-associated protein (CPAP is one of the causal genes implicated in primary microcephaly. We previously proposed that CPAP is essential for mother centriole maturation during mitosis.MethodsWe immunostained CPAP-depleted cells using the ninein antibody, which selectively detects subdistal appendages in mature mother centrioles.ResultsNinein signals were significantly impaired in CPAP-depleted cells.ConclusionThe results suggest that CPAP is required for mother centriole maturation in mammalian cells. The selective absence of centriolar appendages in young mother centrioles may be responsible for asymmetric spindle pole formation in CPAP-depleted cells.

  17. Electrolyte profile of Malaysian mothers' milk.

    Alaudeen, S; Muslim, N; Faridah, K; Azman, A; Arshat, H


    The influence of socioeconomic status (ethnicity, income and parity) on electrolyte composition (sodium and potassium) in human milk is little known. We have thus quantitatively analyzed approximately 700 samples of milk (1-90 days postpartum) obtained from healthy Malaysian mothers' (Malay, Chinese and Indians) of full term infants. Results show that the mean concentration (mmol/l) of sodium is highest (48.2+or-1.7, Mean+or-SEM) in the Malaysian mothers' colostrum and this value decreased by 30% in their transitional milk and remained constant throughout subsequent days of lactation (mature milk). Ethnically, it is found that the level of sodium in colostrum of Malay and Chinese mothers were similar while the Indian mothers' colostrum showed apparently higher value (52.7+or-3.4 mmol/l) that is statistically insignificant. The transitional milk of all 3 ethnic groups studied exhibited similar levels of sodium. On subsequent days of lactation (mature milk) the Malay mothers exhibited lowest concentration (25.9+or-2.6 mmol/l) of sodium that is significantly (P0.05) different from that of Chinese and Indian mothers. Income and parity do not significantly affect the sodium level in Malaysian mothers' milk during all stages of lactation studied. The level of potassium, however did not change significantly with days of lactation. Like sodium, potassium too was not influenced by income and parity. (Author's).

  18. Mothers' night work and children's behavior problems.

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Crosby, Danielle A; Su, Jessica Houston


    Many mothers work in jobs with nonstandard schedules (i.e., schedules that involve work outside of the traditional 9-5, Monday through Friday schedule); this is particularly true for economically disadvantaged mothers. In the present article, we used longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n = 2,367 mothers of children ages 3-5 years) to examine the associations between maternal nonstandard work and children's behavior problems, with a particular focus on mothers' night shift work. We employed 3 analytic strategies with various approaches to adjusting for observed and unobserved selection factors; these approaches provided an upper and lower bound on the true relationship between night shift work and children's behavior. Taken together, the results provide suggestive evidence for modest associations between exposure to maternal night shift work and higher levels of aggressive and anxious or depressed behavior in children compared with children whose mothers who are not working, those whose mothers work other types of nonstandard shifts, and, for aggressive behavior, those whose mothers work standard shifts.

  19. The neural response to maternal stimuli: an ERP study.

    Lili Wu

    Full Text Available Mothers are important to all humans. Research has established that maternal information affects individuals' cognition, emotion, and behavior. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs to examine attentional and evaluative processing of maternal stimuli while participants completed a Go/No-go Association Task that paired mother or others words with good or bad evaluative words. Behavioral data showed that participants responded faster to mother words paired with good than the mother words paired with bad but showed no difference in response to these others across conditions, reflecting a positive evaluation of mother. ERPs showed larger P200 and N200 in response to mother than in response to others, suggesting that mother attracted more attention than others. In the subsequent time window, mother in the mother + bad condition elicited a later and larger late positive potential (LPP than it did in the mother + good condition, but this was not true for others, also suggesting a positive evaluation of mother. These results suggest that people differentiate mother from others during initial attentional stage, and evaluative mother positively during later stage.

  20. Juggling and struggling: a preliminary work-life study of mothers with adolescents who have developmental disabilities.

    Parish, Susan L


    A focus group study was conducted to develop an understanding of the experiences of mothers who are trying to balance employment with caring for an adolescent with developmental disabilities. Mothers reported facing considerable difficulties balancing work and caregiving responsibilities because support services rapidly declined when their child reached adolescence. Service cuts were related to the fact that adolescents are expected to be able to care for themselves, despite the fact that for many adolescents with disabilities, this is not possible. The mothers also reported that the preponderance of the responsibility for arranging care for their children was theirs and was not shouldered by their partners. Policy implications are discussed.

  1. Gaps in the knowledge and skills of Portuguese mothers associated with newborn health care

    Alexandrina Maria Ramos Cardoso


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: assess mothers’ parenting knowledge and skills associated with the parental competence health promotion and monitoring for newborns and infants aged up to six months and determine the key characteristics of mothers who are better prepared for parenting. Method: cross-sectional study conducted in three health centers belonging to a Local Health Unit in the Northern Region of Portugal. Data was collected using clinical interviews conducted with pregnant women or mothers with a child aged up to six months. The tool used contained 21 child health promotion and monitoring indicators associated with different assessment moments: pregnancy, 1st/2nd week, 1st/2nd month, 3rd/4th month, and 5th/6th month. Results: we assessed the knowledge and skills of 629 women. Learning needs were identified for each of the indicators. The mothers who were better prepared for parenting tended to have a higher level of schooling, resided with the child’s father, had other children, had planned pregnancy, and intended to breastfeed. Conclusions: the results showed that knowledge and skills were lacking for each of the periods assessed by this study. First-time single mothers whose pregnancy was unplanned and who did not prepare themselves for parenthood may be considered a vulnerable group.

  2. Does care matter? Care capital and mothers' time to paid employment.

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille G; Hogan, Dennis


    The aim of this study is to introduce the concept of care capital and provide an example of its application in the context of childcare and maternal employment using the currently most suitable American data. We define care capital as the nexus of available, accessible, and experienced resources for care. The American setting is an ideal context to investigate the linkages between child care capital and maternal employment as the patterns of child care use tend to be more diverse compared to other national contexts. In the presented application of care capital, we examine mothers' entry to paid employment during the first 36 weeks following a birth, and its association with the experience of non-parental child care use before labour force entry. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort ( N = 10,400 mothers), results from discrete-time hazard models show that use of non-parental child care prior to employment is independently and positively associated with entry into maternal employment. This finding applies both to first-time mothers ( n = 3,800) and to mothers of multiple children ( n = 6,600). Although data currently available for investigating child care capital are limited with regard to care availability and access, our results suggests that childcare availability, access, and use, understood as a form of capital alongside economic and human capital, should be considered in future studies of maternal employment.

  3. [Health risks in different living circumstances of mothers. Analyses based on a population study].

    Sperlich, Stefanie


    The objective of this study was to determine the living circumstances ('Lebenslagen') in mothers which are associated with elevated health risks. Data were derived from a cross-sectional population based sample of German women (n = 3129) with underage children. By means of a two-step cluster analysis ten different maternal living circumstances were assessed which proved to be distinct with respect to indicators of socioeconomic position, employment status and family-related factors. Out of the ten living circumstances, one could be attributed to higher socioeconomic status (SES), while five were assigned to a middle SES and four to a lower SES. In line with previous findings, mothers with a high SES predominantly showed the best health while mothers with a low SES tended to be at higher health risk with respect to subjective health, mental health (anxiety and depression), obesity and smoking. However, there were important health differences between the different living circumstances within the middle and lower SES. In addition, varying health risks were found among different living circumstances of single mothers, pointing to the significance of family and job-related living conditions in establishing health risks. With this exploratory analysis strategy small-scale living conditions could be detected which were associated with specific health risks. This approach seemed particularly suitable to provide a more precise definition of target groups for health promotion. The findings encourage a more exrensive application of the concept of living conditions in medical sociology research as well as health monitoring.

  4. Mother/child bond in mothers of overweight and eutrophic children: depression and socioeconomic factors

    Patricia Vieira Spada


    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the presence of depression, age, level of schooling, occupation, marital status, number of children and nutritional status (maternal and of the child in mothers of overweight and eutrophic children and relate the data to mother/child bonding. Methods: A total of 120 mothers of children aged up to 10 years participated; 30 of them were overweight and 30 were eutrophic (low-income bracket; 30 were overweight and 30 eutrophic (high-income bracket. The control group was composed of eutrophic children paired according to sex, age, level of schooling, and social condition. Data collection was made through interviews. The assessment instruments were: Mother/Child Bonding Assessment Protocol and Beck Depression Inventory. The nutritional classification was defined by calculation of the body mass index, as per the curves of the World Health Organization. For statistics, McNemar, χ2, and Fisher’s exact tests were used. A 5% level of rejection of the null hypothesis was set. Results: There was no significant result between mother/child bonding and the variables studied, or between the presence of depression and level of schooling, marital status, occupation, and maternal nutritional status. Nevertheless, mothers of eutrophic children (high-income bracket showed less depression than mothers of eutrophic children (low-income bracket. Mothers with three or more children displayed more depression than mothers with less than three children. Mothers under 30 years of age showed more depression than mothers aged 30 years or older. Conclusion: There was no significant result between mother/child bonding and the variables studied, but the bond was compromised in all mothers of the sample. There was a significant result regarding the presence of depression.

  5. The mood variation in mothers of preterm infants in Kangaroo mother care and conventional incubator care.

    de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho; Cruvinel, Fernando; Lukasova, Katerina; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá


    Preterm babies are more prone to develop disorders and so require immediate intensive care. In the conventional neonatal intensive care, the baby is kept in the incubator, separated from the mother. Some actions have been taken in order to make this mother-child separation less traumatic. One of these actions is the Kangaroo mother care (KMC) characterized by skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn. The objective of this study was to compare the mood variation of mothers enrolled in the KMC program to those in the conventional incubator care. In one general hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 90 mothers were evaluated before and after contact with the baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The participants were divided into three groups: 30 mothers of term newborns (TG), 30 mothers of preterm infants included in KMC program (PGK) and 30 preterms with incubator placement (PGI). The Brazilian version of the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) was used for the assessment before and after the infant's visit. Results showed that TG mothers reported fewer occurrences of depressive states than PGK and PGI mothers. A significant mood variation was observed for PGK and PGI after the infant's visit. PGK mothers reported feeling calmer, stronger, well-coordinated, energetic, contented, tranquil, quick-witted, relaxed, proficient, happy, friendly and clear-headed. The only variation showed by PGI mothers was an increase in feeling clumsy. This study shows a positive effect of the KMC on the mood variation of preterm mothers and points to the need of a more humane experience during the incubator care.

  6. Lesbian mothers and their children: a comparison with solo parent heterosexual mothers and their children.

    Green, R; Mandel, J B; Hotvedt, M E; Gray, J; Smith, L


    Two types of single-parent households and their effects on children ages 3-11 years were compared. One type comprised 50 homosexual mothers and their 56 children, and the other was a group of 40 heterosexual mothers and their 48 children. There were 30 daughters and 26 sons of homosexual mothers and 28 daughters and 20 sons of heterosexual mothers. The sexual identity and social relationships of the children were assessed in relation to the sexual orientation of the mothers. The samples consisted of families from rural and urban areas in 10 American states. All have lived without adult males (18 years or older) in the household for a minimum of 2 years (average 4). Families with heterosexual mothers were matched to families with homosexual mothers on age and race of mother; length of mother and child separation from father; educational level and income of mother; and number, age, and sex of children. Data are reported from childrens' tests designed to provide information on general intelligence, core-morphologic sexual identity, gender-role preferences, family and peer group relationships, and adjustment to the single-parent family. No significant differences were found between the two types of households for boys and few significant differences for girls. Concerns that being raised by a homosexual mother might produce sexual identity conflict and peer group stigmatization were not supported by the research findings. Data also revealed more similarities than differences in parenting experiences, marital history, and present living situations of the two groups of mothers. The postulated compromised parental fitness of lesbian mothers, commonly asserted in child custody cases, is not supported by these data.

  7. Mediações e midiatização do consumo alimentar: #taeq e tendência da saudabilidade na rede

    Lívia Silva de Souza


    Full Text Available Na perspectiva das tendências do consumo alimentar conforme Madi et al (2010, observamos os modos como as cinco tendências globais da alimentação (sensorialidade, saudabilidade, sustentabilidade, praticidade e confiabilidade comportam-se na circulação midiática nas redes. Aqui apresentamos os resultados quanto à tendência da saudabilidade, a partir da observação das interações em torno da marca Taeq, por meio da hashtag #taeq na rede social Instagram.

  8. Effects of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System on oxytocin and cortisol blood levels in mothers

    Sabrina Krause


    Full Text Available Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the hormone of affiliation and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post by the significant majority of 73% participants (p = .004 and cortisol decreased by the significant majority of 73% participants (p = .004. Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol, consistent with our hypotheses. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should

  9. Effects of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System on Oxytocin and Cortisol Blood Levels in Mothers.

    Krause, Sabrina; Pokorny, Dan; Schury, Katharina; Doyen-Waldecker, Cornelia; Hulbert, Anna-Lena; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Gündel, Harald; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna


    Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the "hormone of affiliation" and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post in the significant majority of 73% participants ( p = 0.004) and cortisol decreased in the significant majority of 73% participants ( p = 0.004). Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should investigate non-lactating healthy females as well

  10. The Plight of Transnational Latina Mothers: Mothering from a Distance

    Rosa Maria Sternberg


    Full Text Available Economic globalization, trade agreements, and revolutionary changes in transportation and communication have fueled a steady increase in international migration. Foreign-born Latinas, driven by a strong desire to escape poverty and to improve life for their children, face difficult decisions as transnational mothers. These women emigrate from their countries of origin, leaving their children behind with relatives. After overcoming the hardships and dangers involved in a clandestine crossing of the U.S.-Mexico border, they continue to suffer the pain of separation from their children and to hope for eventual family reunification. This study focuses on the experiences of eight Latina transnational mothers and calls for reflection and solidarity by nurses and other health care professionals in order to influence the dynamics of social, economic, and political actions to relieve social suffering.La mondialisation, les accords commerciaux et les évolutions révolutionnaires que connaissent les secteurs des transports et des communications ont favorisé l'augmentation régulière de l’immigration internationale. Motivées par la volonté d’échapper à la pauvreté et d’offrir une vie meilleure à leurs enfants, les mères latino-américaines sont confrontées à des décisions difficiles en tant que mères transnationales. Ces femmes émigrent de leur pays d’origine, laissant leurs enfants à leur famille. Après avoir surmonté les épreuves et les dangers inhérents au passage clandestin de la frontière américano-mexicaine, elles continuent à souffrir du fait de la séparation d’avec leurs enfants et vivent dans l’espoir de se retrouver à nouveau en famille. Cette étude s’intéresse à l’expérience de huit mères latino-américaines vivant aux Etats-Unis et appelle les infirmières et autres professionnels de la santé à réfléchir et à faire preuve de solidarité afin d’influencer une dynamique d’actions sociales,

  11. Measuring parental stress in mothers of infants: A Rasch-based construct validity study

    Nielsen, Tine; Pontoppidan, Maiken; Kristensen, Ingeborg Hedegaard

    of the Danish language version of the PSS in a community sample of 1110 mothers of children aged 0 to 12 months employing the Rasch family of IRT models, and emphasizing the issues of unidimensionality and equal item functioning (no DIF) relative to the age and educational levels of the mothers. No adequate fit......) were found each to fit so-called graphical loglinear Rasch models: The parental stress subscale fit a model adjusted for local response dependence between some item pairs, as well as DIF for one item relative to mothers’ level of education and DIF for another item relative to age and educational level...... of the mothers. The parental satisfaction subscale fit a model adjusted only for local response dependence. The findings are in line with the original interpretation of the PSS. We recommend that the scoring of the PSS is changed to reflect the two subscales and the dichotomization of response categories...

  12. Increased cortisol awakening response after completing the summer treatment program in children with ADHD.

    Okabe, Rumiko; Okamura, Hisayoshi; Egami, Chiyomi; Tada, Yasuhiro; Anai, Chizuru; Mukasa, Akiko; Iemura, Akiko; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Furusho, Junichi; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Yamashita, Yushiro


    Little is known about the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here, we examined the CAR in children with ADHD and their mothers before, immediately after, and 4months after an intensive summer treatment program (STP). Participants were 37 children aged 7-12years who completed the STP in 2009 and 2010, and their mothers. Daily saliva samples for cortisol measurement were collected twice daily at awakening and 30min afterwards at pre-STP, post-STP, and during a follow-up measurement period. ADHD symptom scores were evaluated by parents, and participants completed the Kid-KINDL R QOL questionnaire. CAR was low in children with ADHD before the STP, and increased to the control range 4months after STP. Maternal CAR also tended to increase after STP. Changes in the CAR in children tended to correlate with an improved ADHD inattention scores (p=0.091), physical health (p=0.070), and school life subscales scores in the Kid-KINDL R (p=0.079). We demonstrated that STP improved the behavior and QOL of children with ADHD. Our results indicate that STP could lead to improvements in HPA axis function, as reflected by increased CAR after STP. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Políticas de formação de professores: reflexões e tendências

    Sonia Regina Landini


    Full Text Available No complexo social os valores e as características culturais, produzidos na prática social, expressam a direção a ser dada à formação tendo em vista os processos de reprodução do ser social. No caso do capitalismo, o elemento fundante das relações sociais é a economia, de tempo e na produção de mais-valia. No desenvolvimento cotidiano de suas atividades, os homens, ao buscarem a realização de si mesmos enquanto membros de uma sociedade reagem às formas exploratórias que retiram dos Sujeitos a plena possibilidade de realização. No caso da formação de professores, a tendência de formação de um profissional capaz de lidar com situações singulares. No entanto, a singularidade deve ser compreendida a partir de sua relação com a totalidade social. O desafio que se coloca parece se concentrar no resgate das mediações, dos mecanismos de incorporação e nos de resistência e negação, presentes no cotidiano. In the social complex the cultural values and characteristics, produced in social practice, express the direction to be given to the formation, in view of the processes of reproduction of the social being. In the case of the capitalism, the most important element of the social relations is the economy of time and in the production of plus-value. In the daily development of its activities, the men, when searching the accomplishment of itself as members of a society, react to the exploratórias forms that remove of the Citizens the full possibility of accomplishment. In the case of the teachers formation, the trend of formation means a professional capable to deal with singular situations. However, the singularity must be understood from its relation with the social totality. The challenge seems to be concentrate in the rescue of the mediation, the mechanisms of incorporation, as well as the mechanisms of daily resistance and negation.

  14. Having a child: a penalty or bonus for mother's and father's employment in Europe

    Leila Maron; Danièle Meulders


    In this paper, we aim to study the impact of the presence of young children in the home on mother's and father's employment patterns. The results show that motherhood has an important and negative impact on labour market participation both in terms of part-time and inactivity and the child effect decreases with the age of the youngest child. As far as men are concerned, regression results show that the link between fatherhood and men's hours worked tends to be reversed in comparison with wome...

  15. Comparison outcomes of sick babies born to teenage mothers with those born to adult mothers.

    Chotigeat, Uraiwan; Sawasdiworn, Siraporn


    Adolescent period is the transitional stage of physical and mental development from childhood to adulthood. Pregnancy in teenage girls is generally classified to have a higher risk than those in adults. In many previous studies reported only the outcome of teenage mothers but no comparative outcome between sick babies born to teen mothers and adult mothers, so the authors conducted the present study. To compare the outcomes of sick infants born to teenage mothers with those born to adult mothers (age > or = 20 years). This prospective study was carried out from October 1st, 2006 to September 30th, 2009. The study group consisted of sick babies born to teenage mothers and admitted at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH). These babies were compared to sick babies (control group) born to adult mothers during the same period. The demographic data of mothers and sick babies in both groups were recorded in the designed case record forms. Developmental assessment was done until two years of age. A total of 6,342 deliveries took place in Rajavithi Hospital during the study period of which 697 babies were born to teenage mothers. The incidence of teenage pregnancy was 10.99%. The number of sick babies from teenage mothers and adult mothers were 78 and 147 cases, respectively. There was a significantly higher mortality in the study group (7 cases, 9%) than the control group (4 cases, 2.7%). There was statistically significant difference in most of the demographic characteristics between the teenage and adult mothers except anemia, PROM and MSAF (meconium stain amniotic fluid). Although there was a trend of more cases of anemia and MSAF in teenage mothers than in adult mothers, there was no statistically significant difference. There was a shorter interval time from marriage to pregnancy in teen mothers than in adult mothers and a lower number of antenatal care visits with late antenatal care among the teenage mothers too. On comparing the data in infants

  16. [Being a mother: encounters between mothers of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and nurses in Taiwan].

    Lee, Shu-Li; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chin, Chi-Chun


    The role of "mother" is understood and represented differently by people from different cultures. In traditional Taiwanese society, mothers demonstrate their existence value by giving birth to and raising sons able to continue her husband's familial line. Sons bear the patriarchal name and care for their parents in old age. However, a son stricken, paralyzed and eventually killed by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) can destroy a mother's perceived value in this traditional social context. Mothers are thus soundless sufferers. Nurses have a critical role to play in giving encouragement and hope to mothers of children with DMD. Through their own difficult situation, these mothers can also highlight the value and importance of Taiwan's nurses, who work in conditions marked by overloading, high stress, and under-appreciation. Caring for women in critical need of empathy and support help nurses realize their own positive capacity to empower sufferers.

  17. Mothering and acculturation: experiences during pregnancy and childrearing of Filipina mothers married to Japanese.

    Uayan, Maria Luisa Tumandao; Kobayashi, Sayuri; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Ota, Erika; Haruna, Megumi; Murashima, Sachiyo


    This study aims to describe the lived experiences of Filipina mothers married to Japanese during pregnancy and childrearing. Eight focus group interviews (FGI) were conducted among 39 Filipino mothers who are currently residing in Japan to obtain significant information with regard to their pregnancy and childrearing experiences. Content analysis was used to extract relevant themes that will describe the experiences of this group of migrant mothers. The findings revealed three major themes: 1) cultural barriers during pregnancy and childrearing; 2) mothering at the different stages of childrearing; and 3) positive adjustments to a new role in a new environment. The establishment of means of communication with migrant mothers effectively enabling them to understand important information for promoting healthy pregnancy and childrearing is strongly recommended. Provision of school information in the English language and enhancing the resilient character of the Filipina are important strategies in promoting positive pregnancy and childrearing experiences among Filipina migrant mothers.

  18. Mother is not like mother: concurrent pregnancy reduces lactating guinea pigs' responsiveness to pup calls

    Naguib, M.; Kober, M.; Trillmich, F.


    Offspring signalling can serve to communicate need to the parents and thus influence parental readiness to provide care. Offspring stimuli that affect parental care have been investigated extensively. Yet much less is known about the mechanisms leading to a decline in maternal motivation when

  19. Radionuclide transfer from mother to embryo

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.; Scridon, R.; Toader, M.L.


    The transfer of radionuclides from mother to embryo is still a matter of high interest. Therefore, the relation was investigated between the amount of radionuclides in the embryo and the dietary intake of the mother, this for two scenarios: a recurrent intake of variable amounts of radionuclides, and a long-term intake of a relatively constant amount of radionuclides, the radionuclide being 137 Cs. In the first case, the amount of radionuclides present in the embryo increases with the age of the embryo and with the intake of the mother. In the second case, no correlation could be found between the age of the embryo and its radioactive content; only the correlation between the intake of the mother and the radionuclide content of the embryo remained. (A.K.)

  20. Barriers to physical activity among working mothers.

    Dombrowski, Jill J


    Working mothers experience several barriers to physical activity. If these barriers can be identified by occupational health nurses and they can partner with working mothers to reduce these perceived barriers, the health of these workers can be improved and chronic disease risk prevented. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of self-regulatory efficacy on physical activity among working mothers and to describe specific barriers to physical activity. The Barriers Specific Self-Efficacy Scale (BARSE) and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) were used to measure the variables. Self-regulatory efficacy was found to be a strong predictor of physical activity in a diverse sample of working mothers who did not meet current recommendations for physical activity. Occupational health nurses can use these findings to design programs for groups and for counseling individuals. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Transfer of elements into mother's milk

    Wappelhorst, O.; Kuehn, I.; Heidenreich, H.; Markert, B.


    This research project aimed to determine the factors for the transfer of the elements silver (Ag), cerium (Ce), cobalt (Co), chrome (Cr), gallium (Ga), lanthanum (La), molybdenum (Mo), niobium (Nb), radium (Ra), ruthenium (Ru), antimony (sb), thorium (Th), titanium (Ti) and uranium (U) from food into the mother's milk. This factors will be used as a basic to check and derive activity values for the contamination of food and for radiation protection at working places of suckling women. For this purpose 19 mothers collected samples daily (2-8 weeks), using the duplicate method, of all the food they consumed as well as of their milk. After microwave-assisted digestion the element contents were analysed by mass-spectroscopy with inductive coupled plasma (ICP-MS). The results of the mothers who participate for more than 5 weeks were used to make a time lapse between the intake and transfer of the elements in the mothers milk visible. (orig.) [de

  2. Travel Recommendations for the Nursing Mother

    ... mothers traveling to malarious areas should ensure the antimalarial included is compatible with breastfeeding before beginning travel. ... submit" value="Submit" /> Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & ...

  3. Clinics in Mother and Child Health

    Clinics in Mother and Child Health is a bilingual journal and publishes (in ... Health Care Facility in South-South Nigeria: The Need for Middle Level Health Manpower ... Le syndrome des ovaires micropolykystiques chez les femmes infertiles à ...

  4. factors influencing vitamin a supplementation among mothers


    Apr 4, 2012 ... and awareness among both health workers and mothers. ... remains the lack of recognition of the need for. VAS. ..... of India where only 12.5% had received VAS (11). .... weekly vitamin A supplementation among women.

  5. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    Smith Paige Hall


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have

  6. Mothers' beliefs about emotions, mother-child emotion discourse, and children's emotion understanding in Latino families

    Perez-Rivera, Marie Belle


    The purpose of this study was to better understand associations between acculturation, parental beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in Latino preschool-aged children. Research on Latino families may prove to be important given the little research that has focused on emotion understanding strictly in Latino cultures. Forty Latino mother-child dyads were observed throughout a series of naturalistic observations. Mothers self-reported their acculturation and their belie...

  7. The relationship between mother?s parenting style and social adaptability of adolescent girls in Isfahan

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Solokian, Soheila; Ashouri, Elaheh; Marofi, Maryam


    Background: Social adaptability is an important requirement of the social life of adolescents, which can be affected by their mother?s parenting style (PS). The purpose of this study is to compare the social adaptability in four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful) through which mothers interact with their adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This survey is a cross-sectional and analytical study on 737 adolescents that study in the all girls junior hi...

  8. Lower polyamine levels in breast milk of obese mothers compared to mothers with normal body weight.

    Ali, M Atiya; Strandvik, B; Palme-Kilander, C; Yngve, A


    Obesity is associated with risks for mother and infant, and the mothers' dietary habits influence breast milk composition. Polyamines are secreted in breast milk and are essential for the regulation of intestinal and immune function in newborns and infants. The present study aimed to investigate the level of polyamines in human milk obtained from obese and normal weight mothers at different times of lactation. Breast milk from 50 mothers was obtained at day 3, and at 1 and 2 months after delivery. The mothers had normal body weight [body mass index (BMI) obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2) ). A subgroup of obese mothers participated in a weight reduction programme during pregnancy. Polyamines were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total polyamine content was significantly lower at all times in breast milk from obese mothers compared to milk from controls. Spermine levels did not differ between groups at any time in contrast to the levels of putrescine and spermidine. Putrescine concentrations were highest on day 3 and spermidine and spermine were highest at 1 month of lactation. The obese mothers, who received dietary advice during pregnancy based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, had higher concentrations of putrescine and spermidine in their milk than the obese mothers without any intervention. Polyamine concentrations were lower in breast milk from obese mothers compared to mothers with a normal weight. General dietary intervention in obese mothers increased the polyamine levels, suggesting that the low levels in obesity were at least partly associated with food habits. However, the consistency of spermine suggests a special metabolic function of this polyamine. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Helping mothers survive bleeding after birth

    Nelissen, Ellen; Ersdal, Hege; Ostergaard, Doris


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants, and ambul......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants...

  10. Pregnancy outcomes in mothers with advanced human ...

    2%, p=0.308) and to have low Apgar scores (28% vs. 12%, Apgar score < 4 at 5 minutes p=0.02). Perinatal sepsis and perinatal deaths were more common in infants born to mothers with advanced HIV disease compared to infants born to HIV negative mothers (8 vs. 3, p=0.003 and 14 vs. 5, p=0.025 respectively). External ...

  11. Children of Working Mothers, March 1974.

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Almost 27 million children in the U.S.--or 42 percent of those under age 18--had mothers working or seeking work in March 1974. About one in four of these children (6.1 million) were below regular school age. Since 1970, the number of children whose mothers were in the labor force has risen sharply by 1.2 million, while the total number of…

  12. Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads

    Tovar Alison


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children’s food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Methods Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ were also obtained from the mother. Results The children’s average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%, Haitian (34% and Latino (30%. Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother’s perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56 with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01. Conclusions Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing

  13. Attitudes toward working mothers: accommodating the needs of mothers in the work force.

    Albright, A


    More women, including mothers, are part of the work force than ever before. In the workplace, barriers often exist that restrict promotion and advancement of mothers. Mothers often are penalized in attempting to meet the demands of parent and worker roles. Parenting practices have been considered primarily the domain of mothers. However, nurturing may be done effectively by fathers or other motivated adults. Policies of employers must change to accommodate needs of families. Examples of supportive practices may include flexible working hours, parental leave, and on-site child care.

  14. The Transformation in Who is Expected to Work in the United States and How it Changed the Lives of Single Mothers and People with Disabilities

    Richard V. Burkhauser; Mary C. Daly; Jeff Larrimore; Joyce Kwok


    In the 1990s, social expectations of single mothers shifted towards the notion that most should, could, and would work, if given the proper incentives. This shift in expectations culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, commonly known as welfare reform. As a result, ADFC/TANF caseloads fell along with cash transfers to single mothers who did not work. A decade later the earnings and household income of single mothers are signifi...

  15. Tendências no ensino da epidemiologia no Brasil Trends in the teaching of epidemiology in Brazil

    Rita Barradas Barata


    Full Text Available O ensino da epidemiologia teve início no Brasil na década de 20 e sempre foi voltado para a saúde pública. Na década de 70, o ensino de epidemiologia passou por um crescimento em nível de pós-graduação. Os anos 80 foram marcados pela "epidemiologia social", que incorporava as ciências sociais e seus métodos; a segunda metade da década foi marcada pelo desenvolvimento das técnicas da bioestatística. No momento atual, a definição de diretrizes para o ensino da epidemiologia depende da reflexão acerca de vários pontos, entre os quais a reformulação ou extinção dos programas de residência médica em medicina preventiva, medicina social ou saúde coletiva; implantação de programas de mestrado e doutorado exclusivamente em ; oposição entre formação instrumental e formação teórica; e desenvolvimento de estratégias para o fortalecimento de novos grupos de docentes em instituições de ensino nas regiões mais pobres do país. Existe uma tendência positiva de aproximação entre instituições de ensino e serviços de saúde, tanto para o cumprimento de tarefas de ensino e formação de pessoal, quanto para o assessoramento técnico no planejamento, organização e avaliação de programas. Em relação aos profissionais que atuam em serviços de saúde, a efetividade dos programas em epidemiologia depende da capacidade dos docentes de trabalharem com situações de ensino-aprendizagem que facilitem a apreensão por parte dos alunos nas condições reais de seu trabalho, situações concretas em que a teorização seja uma decorrência natural.The teaching of epidemiology in Brazil began in the 1920s and has always been connected to public health. The 1970s witnessed an expansion in the number of graduate-level courses in epidemiology. The 1980s were characterized by "social epidemiology," which incorporated the social sciences and their methods into epidemiology; the second half of the decade was marked by the

  16. Substance Use among Adolescent Mothers: A Review.

    Chapman, Shawna L Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy


    Maternal substance abuse is a critical problem, and adolescent mothers appear to be at high risk for such behaviors. We review studies on postpartum adolescent substance use to explore the extent of this problem and avenues for new research. Authors screened 1,300 studies, identifying 12 articles on substance use among postpartum adolescent mothers for this review. Adolescent mothers reported greater substance use before pregnancy compared to other adolescent females. Although some adolescents continued substance use during pregnancy, most stopped using only to resume within six months after birth. Comparisons of use to national samples of nulliparous adolescent females showed a higher prevalence of substance use in this population. Substances used often varied by race/ethnicity, with white mothers more likely to smoke cigarettes and use marijuana, and Black mothers more likely than whites to drink and use drugs. Of all identified studies, only one focused on Hispanics. Beliefs about drug use grew less negative as girls transitioned from pregnancy to parenthood. As they transitioned to adulthood, substance use remained prevalent and stable. Psychological distress and low self-esteem appeared to influence continued use. Friends' cigarette smoking predicted early initiation of and persistent smoking, while increased education predicted quitting. Early initiation of substances often predicted problem behaviors. Adolescent mothers are a vulnerable population, implicating use of problem behavior theory or the self-medication hypothesis in future research. Multiple avenues for new studies are needed to help identify effective treatment and intervention for this understudied population.

  17. Stigma in Mothers of Deaf Children

    Hossein Ebrahimi


    Full Text Available Introduction: A deaf child creates a feeling of stigma in many hearing parents. Stigma in mothers can have a negative impact on a child’s treatment and rehabilitation process. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the extent of stigma in mothers with deaf children.  Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 90 mothers with deaf children. The data-collection instrument included the stigma scale in the mothers of children with disabilities. The reliability and validity of the instrument were confirmed through content validity and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α=86%, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software.   Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P

  18. Surrogacy: the experiences of surrogate mothers.

    Jadva, Vasanti; Murray, Clare; Lycett, Emma; MacCallum, Fiona; Golombok, Susan


    This study examined the motivations, experiences and psychological consequences of surrogacy for surrogate mothers. Thirty-four women who had given birth to a surrogate child approximately 1 year previously were interviewed by trained researchers, and the data rated using standardized coding criteria. Information was obtained on: (i) reasons for the woman's decision to become a surrogate mother; (ii) her retrospective view of the relationship with the commissioning couple before the pregnancy, during the pregnancy, and after the birth; (iii) her experiences during and after relinquishing the child; and (iv) how others reacted to her decision to become a surrogate mother. It was found that surrogate mothers do not generally experience major problems in their relationship with the commissioning couple, in handing over the baby, or from the reactions of those around them. The emotional problems experienced by some surrogate mothers in the weeks following the birth appeared to lessen over time. Surrogate mothers do not appear to experience psychological problems as a result of the surrogacy arrangement.

  19. Mother's perceptions of postpartum stress and satisfaction.

    Horowitz, J A; Damato, E G


    To examine mothers' postpartum perceptions of stress and satisfaction. Methodologic triangulation with quantitative and qualitative data in a nonexperimental design. A convenience sample of 95 women was obtained during normally scheduled postpartum appointments at a health maintenance organization. The self-administered questionnaire included the Mothers' Information Tool (MIT), What Being the Parent of a Baby Is Like (WPL-R), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Open-ended MIT items revealed mothers' perceptions of stress and satisfaction. The WPL-R provided maternal satisfaction scores, and the BSI yielded Global Stress Index scores. Content analysis identified the following categories: Roles, Tasks, Resources, and Relationships. Subcategories identified as areas of stress were Work/School, Sleep/Rest, Adjustment/Own Needs, Health/Body Image, Organization of Life, Child Care, Day Care, Housework, Future Challenges, Finances, Housing, Time, Partner, and Family. Subcategories identified as areas of satisfaction were Participating in Relationships, Sharing the Future, Being Proud to Be a Mother, Enjoying a Healthy Baby, and Caring for a Child. Levels of stress and satisfaction of mothers who scored high and low on quantitative measures were compared. The outcomes contribute to the knowledge concerning postpartum women's perceptions of the mothering experience and suggest approaches to nursing assessment and intervention to prevent postpartum adjustment difficulties.

  20. Interpretation and expectations among mothers of children with anxiety disorders: associations with maternal anxiety disorder.

    Orchard, Faith; Cooper, Peter J; Phil, D; Creswell, Cathy


    Models of the development and maintenance of childhood anxiety suggest an important role for parent cognitions: that is, negative expectations of children's coping abilities lead to parenting behaviors that maintain child anxiety. The primary aims of the current study were to (1) compare expectations of child vulnerability and coping among mothers of children with anxiety disorders on the basis of whether or not mothers also had a current anxiety disorder, and (2) examine the degree to which the association between maternal anxiety disorder status and child coping expectations was mediated by how mothers interpreted ambiguous material that referred to their own experience. The association between interpretations of threat, negative emotion, and control was assessed using hypothetical ambiguous scenarios in a sample of 271 anxious and nonanxious mothers of 7- to 12-year-old children with an anxiety disorder. Mothers also rated their expectations when presented with real life challenge tasks. There was a significant association between maternal anxiety disorder status and negative expectations of child coping behaviors. Mothers’ self-referent interpretations were found to mediate this relationship. Responses to ambiguous hypothetical scenarios correlated significantly with responses to real life challenge tasks. Treatments for childhood anxiety disorders in the context of parental anxiety disorders may benefit from the inclusion of a component to directly address parental cognitions. Some inconsistencies were found when comparing maternal expectations in response to hypothetical scenarios with real life challenges. This should be addressed in future research.

  1. Quality of Caregiving in Mothers With Illicit Substance Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Denise Hatzis


    Full Text Available Background: The quality of caregiving in mothers with substance abuse problems appears to be compromised. However, divergent findings, methodological variability, and sample characteristics point to the need for research synthesis. Methods: A comprehensive systematic search was undertaken. Studies were eligible if they (1 compared substance-misusing mothers with non–substance-misusing mothers, (2 involved children from birth to 3 years, and (3 maternal sensitivity and child responsiveness were measured using observational methodology. Results: A global meta-analysis for maternal sensitivity (n = 24 studies and child responsiveness (n = 16 studies on 3433 mother-infant dyads yielded significant population effect sizes and significant heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses found reduced heterogeneity when the meta-analysis was conducted on studies where groups were matched on key demographic characteristics; although the effect size was small, it was still significant for maternal sensitivity but not child responsiveness. Conclusions: Compromised quality of caregiving is found in high-risk, substance-misusing mothers, emphasising the importance of early intervention that draws from attachment-based interventions.

  2. Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in ...

    Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in Manyara and ... E.L Ndau, D. Walters, D. Wu, N. Saleh, T.C.E. Mosha, S. Horton, H.S. Laswai ... for young mothers, 84.6% for middle age mothers and 86.3% for elderly mothers.

  3. Personalization in Mother-Child Emotion Talk across Three Contexts

    Kucirkova, Natalia; Tompkins, Virginia


    An unexplored aspect of contextual variation in emotion talk is the extent to which the emotions mothers and children discuss relate to the child, mother, or another self. To establish the extent to which mothers and children personalize the emotions they discuss, we examined the emotion talk of 40 American mother-child dyads in three…

  4. Post partum emotional distress in mothers of preterm infants: a ...

    More mothers of preterm neonates(27.3%) had GHQ-30 scores which categorised them as having significant emotional distress than mothers of full term normal infants(3.7%). Similarly more mothers of preterm neonates(15.1%) were more depressed than mothers of full term normal infants(3.7%). These differences were ...

  5. Study of Mothers' Anxieties Related to Their Children's Future

    Ilgar, Sengul


    The purpose of this study is to study anxieties of mothers related to their children's future. Qualitative method was used in order to study anxieties of mothers from different socio-economic levels. Sample of the study participants are 129 mothers living in Istanbul. 32 of those mothers are from upper socio-economic level, 57, from middle…

  6. The Impact of Depression on Mothers and Children

    Beardslee, William R.; Gladstone, Tracy R. G.; Diehl, Anne


    Depression in pregnant women and mothers of very young children is a pressing public health issue. Maternal depression is linked to a number of serious difficulties for mothers, their young children, and mother-child relationships. Unrecognized and untreated, it can lead to long-lasting impairment for both mothers and their children. However,…

  7. Children with Autism: Sleep Problems and Mothers' Stress

    Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.; Lopez-Wagner, Muriel C.; Hodge, Danelle; Nam, Cindy Y.; Botts, Betsy H.


    Parenting a child with autism has been associated with maternal stress. The present investigation examined children's sleep difficulties and severity of autism along with mothers' sleep problems in relation to stress levels reported by mothers ( N = 72). Mothers' reports of their children's sleep problems were related to mothers' reports of their…

  8. Social characteristics of a sample of solo mothers.

    Ritchie, J


    In 1978 a sample of 158 solo mothers was interviewed by third year psychology students under the supervision of the author to obtain data both on their child rearing practices (for comparison with data obtained the year before from a sample of dual parents) and on their social circumstances. These data indicate that in the case of women who had previously been married, most aspects of their life, with the exception of finance, are now improved. Freedom from conflict and greater independence are cited as the advantages of being a solo parent; loneliness and responsibility are the major disadvantages. Parents and friends are the chief sources of support.

  9. Life after hospital: trials of a boarding house 'mother'.

    Bailey, M; Brodaty, H


    What is life like for the many psychiatric patients discharged from hospital to boarding houses? The 'mother' of a Sydney boarding house describes how her 'family' has taken root, grown, developed and made a stable home. Many behaviours not tolerated in the community (e.g. public masturbation) are acceptable in the home but there are limits and rules (e.g. not in the dining room). A good home needs the responsible person to be open, honest, understanding and sensitive to changes in guests. Psychiatric services and welfare agencies need to recognise the major contributions of well-run boarding houses and need to liaise more with the proprietors.

  10. Mothers' experiences of parenting a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Peters, Kathleen; Jackson, Debra


    This paper is a report of a study to explore the perceptions and experiences of mothers parenting a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Previous quantitative studies have focussed on parenting styles and treatments, and highlight that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has a negative impact on family functioning. However, fewer researchers have explored maternal experiences of parenting a child with this disorder. A narrative-based feminist approach can provide greater insights into complex issues related to mothering a child with this disorder. Data were collected in 2007 with a volunteer sample of 11 mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder via in-depth interviews. Analysis was completed by listening for self-evaluative statements, paying attention to meta-statements and by identifying both consistencies and incongruities within participant's narratives. Dominant issues identified were: It's been 10 years of being on edge: The caring responsibility as overwhelming; If I had my time over again, I wouldn't tell the truth: Stigmatized, scrutinized and criticized; What have I done? What did I do? How come I've got this child: Guilt and self-blame and He doesn't stand a chance: Mother as advocate. Mothering a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is stressful and demanding, and mothers felt marginalized. Media portrayal of this disorder contributes to confusion related to causes, diagnosis and treatment choices. More education for healthcare professionals is needed to enable them to give appropriate guidance and support to enhance outcomes for children and their parents.

  11. Mother-infant attachment and the intergenerational transmission of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Egeland, Byron; Carlson, Elizabeth; Blood, Emily; Wright, Rosalind J


    Evidence for the intergenerational transmission of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is documented in the literature, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Attachment theory provides a framework for elucidating the ways in which maternal PTSD may increase offspring PTSD vulnerability. The current study utilized two independent prospective data sets to test the hypotheses that (a) maternal PTSD increases the probability of developing an insecure mother-infant attachment relationship and (b) an insecure mother-infant attachment relationship increases the risk of developing PTSD following trauma exposure in later life. In the first study of urban, primarily low-income ethnic/racial minority mothers and infants (N = 45 dyads), elevated maternal PTSD symptoms at 6 months were associated with increased risk for an insecure, particularly disorganized, mother-infant attachment relationship at 13 months. In the second birth cohort of urban, low-income mothers and children (N = 96 dyads), insecure (avoidant or resistant) attachment in infancy was associated in a dose-response manner with increased lifetime risk for a diagnosis of PTSD by adolescence. A history of disorganized attachment in infancy predicted severity of PTSD symptoms, including reexperiencing, avoidance, hyperarousal, and total symptoms, at 17.5 years. In both studies, associations between attachment and PTSD were not attributable to numerous co-occurring risk factors. The findings suggest that promoting positive mother-child relationships in early development, particularly in populations at high risk for trauma exposure, may reduce the incidence of PTSD.

  12. Being in charge - new mothers' perceptions of reflective leadership and motherhood.

    Akerjordet, Kristin; Severinsson, Elisabeth


    To explore new mothers' perceptions of reflective leadership in relation to motherhood. Mindfulness, discovery of a deep personal self, sense of life purpose and authenticity appear to be the essence of self-reflective leadership. In this regard, women may be unprepared for the level of distress associated with the transition to motherhood. This study comprised interviews with ten new mothers on day 2-3 after giving birth conducted between March and May 2005. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and interpreted by a method grounded in hermeneutics. The content of the text was interpreted as one overall theme; the nature of responsibility in motherhood, encompassing the following four sub-themes: 'Being a good mother by reflecting and developing self-identity', 'managing fear, demands and commitments as a mother', 'having the necessary resources to act and lead as a mother' and 'believing and trusting in others and self as a leader'. In the new mother's transformation and growth of self, true strength has to overcome the vulnerability of life by means of caring and courage mediated by reflective leadership anchored in love.

  13. Proteomics analysis for asymmetric inheritance of preexisting proteins between mother and daughter cells in budding yeast.

    Okada, Mitsuhiro; Kusunoki, Shunta; Ishibashi, Yuko; Kito, Keiji


    In budding yeast, a mother cell can produce a finite number of daughter cells over its life. The accumulation of a variety of types of damaged components has an impact on the aging process. Asymmetrical inheritance during cell division causes these aberrant intracellular constituents to be retained in mother cells and prevents them from segregating to daughter cells. However, the understanding of asymmetrical inheritance of individual proteins that are damaged or old age, and their relevance to the aging process, has been limited. The aim of this study is to propose a proteomics strategy for asymmetrical inheritance of preexisting proteins between mother and daughter cells. During synchronous culture for one generation, newly synthesized proteins were labeled with stable isotope amino acids to discriminate preexisting proteins originally expressed in mother cells, followed by separation of mother and daughter cells using a conventional method based on biotin labeling. Isotope incorporation ratios for individual proteins were quantified using mass spectrometry. We successfully identified 21 proteins whose preexisting versions were asymmetrically inherited in mother cells, including plasma membrane transporter involved in the aging process and organelle-anchoring proteins related to the stress response to misfolded proteins. Thus, our approach would be useful for making catalog of asymmetrically inherited proteins. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Comparison of psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normally-hearing children

    Abdollah Ghasempour


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Families who have a child with hearing deficiency deal with different challenges, and mothers have a greater responsibility towards these children because of their traditional role of caregiver; so, they deal with more psychological problems. The aim of this study was to compare the psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normal children.Methods: In this cross-sectional and post event study (causal-comparative method, 30 mothers of deaf students and 30 mothers of normal students from elementary schools of Ardabil, Iran, were selected using available sampling. The Ryff psychological well-being (1989 and Billings and Moos coping styles (1981 questionnaires were used in this study. The data were analyzed using MANOVA test.Results: We found that in mother's of deaf children, psychological well-being and its components was significantly lower than mothers of normal children (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively. There was a significant difference between two groups in terms of cognitive coping style, too (p<0.01. However, mothers of deaf children used less cognitive coping style.Conclusions: It seems that child's hearing loss affects on mothers psychological well-being and coping styles; this effect can be visible as psychological problems and lower use of adaptive coping styles.

  15. Tendències de les publicacions informatives cientificomèdiques en l'era 2.0

    González Pacanowski, Antonio


    Full Text Available En els últims anys ha crescut l'audiència que consulta continguts de salut en publicacions i mitjans a Internet, especialment a Europa i als Estats Units. S'ha passat d'un usuari d'Internet unidireccional en la comunicació a un escenari en el qual la multidireccionalitat i la instantaneïtat són constants. Els nous mitjans i la creació de plataformes d'intercanvi d'informació més especialitzada mostren que els recursos multimèdia i la interactivitat també poden donar-se en mitjans especialitzats i distants del públic general com ara informació sobre biomedicina i salut. Simultàniament, el canvi cap a actituds més solidàries i d'ajuda mútua aflora mitjançant les xarxes socials. Amb l'objectiu de traçar un escenari sobre el comportament de les audiències davant els continguts de caràcter científic, especialment els de tipus sanitari, s'analitzen en aquest treball els perfils i costums dels usuaris utilitzant referències estadístiques tant europees com nord-americanes. De la mateixa manera, s'identifica el mapa actual de cibermitjans relacionats amb la informació cientificomèdica segmentada en mitjans de comunicació generals, especialitzats i els propis del web 2.0, com ara blogs i mitjans cocreatius. Aquesta descripció permet orientar sobre les tendències que seguiran els públics diferents i segmentats, però ara interconnectats per les noves tecnologies, i sobre la transformació de l'arquitectura i les funcionalitats dels mitjans a Internet.En los últimos años ha crecido la audiencia que consulta contenidos de salud en publicaciones y medios en Internet, especialmente en Europa y Estados Unidos. Se ha pasado de un usuario de Internet unidireccional en la comunicación a un escenario en el que la multidireccionalidad y la instantaneidad son constantes. Los nuevos medios y la creación de plataformas de intercambio de información más especializada evidencian que los recursos multimedia y la interactividad tambi

  16. Locating Mothers: How Cultural Debates about Stay-at-Home versus Working Mothers Define Women and Home

    Dillaway, Heather; Pare, Elizabeth


    Most women must decide whether to work for pay while mothering or make mothering their sole social role. Often this decision is portrayed in terms of whether they will be "stay-at-home" and presumably "full-time" mothers, or "working mothers" and therefore ones who prioritize paid work over caregiving. Inferred within this construction is women's…

  17. Are Mothers Really "Gatekeepers" of Children?: Rural Mothers' Perceptions of Nonresident Fathers' Involvement in Low-Income Families

    Sano, Yoshie; Richards, Leslie N.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.


    Guided by symbolic interactionism, this qualitative study based on interviews with 83 rural mothers investigated mothers' perceptions of nonresident fathers' involvement in low-income families. Contrary to some fathers' claims that mothers "gatekeep" their access to children, the majority of mothers in our study wanted increased father…

  18. Role of social workers to support single mothers: A case study of welfare receivers in Iran

    Mohammad Reza Iravani


    Full Text Available The women who lose their partners normally face tremendous challenges among their parents and in society. Women may lose their husbands for different reasons such as divorce, drug addiction, violence and migration. They may often look to build a new life very quickly but will find out that society does not treat them, properly. It is more difficult to find job and even a job opportunity does not provide sufficient pay. In this paper, we study the impact of different affecting parameters on empowering single mothers such as audacity, social responsibility, trouble shooting, flexibility, stress tolerance, etc. We choose 200 single mothers who receive welfare from the government of Iran and distribute a questionnaire among them based on four different questions associated with social, economical, feeling and empowering. The results indicate that audacity and social responsibility are the most important items while being optimistic, independent and flexibility are counted as having the least impact on empowering single mothers.

  19. Engineering Faculty Indicate High Levels of Awareness and Use of the Library but Tend to Consult Google and Google Scholar First for Research Resources

    Elaine Sullo


    Full Text Available A Review of: Zhang, L. (2015. Use of library services by engineering faculty at Mississippi State University, a large land grant institution. Science & Technology Libraries, 34(3, 272-286. Objective – To investigate the engineering faculty’s information-seeking behaviour, experiences, awareness, and use of the university library. Design – Web-based survey questionnaire. Setting – The main campus of a state university in the United States of America. Subjects – 119 faculty members within 8 engineering departments. Methods – An email invitation to participate in a 16-item electronic survey questionnaire, with questions related to library use, was sent in the spring of 2015 to 119 engineering faculty members. Faculty were given 24 days to complete the survey, and a reminder email was sent 10 days after the original survey invitation. Main Results – Thirty-eight faculty members responded to the survey, representing a response rate of 32%. Overall, faculty had a high level of use and awareness of both online and physical library resources and services, although their awareness of certain scholarly communication services, such as data archiving and copyright advisory, was significantly lower. Faculty tend to turn to Google and Google Scholar when searching for information rather than turning to library databases. Faculty do not use social media to keep up with library news and updates. The library website, as well as liaison librarians, were cited as the primary sources for this type of information. Conclusions – The researcher concludes that librarians need to do a better job of marketing library resources, such as discipline-specific databases, as well as other library search tools. Because faculty use web search engines as a significant source of information, the author proposes further research on this behaviour, and suggests more action to educate faculty on different search tools

  20. Association between salivary level of infection with Streptococcus mutans/Lactobacilli and caries-risk factors in mothers.

    Latifi-Xhemajli, B; Véronneau, J; Begzati, A; Bytyci, A; Kutllovci, T; Rexhepi, A


    Understanding factors in mothers associated with high and low salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli is an important strategy for early childhood caries prevention. Aim of the study was to identify the association between salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans/Lactobacillus and potential caries risk factors in mothers. Cross-sectional design used a voluntary sample of 300 mothers of young children. Close-ended questions and observations were used to identify mothers' potential caries risk factors. The presence of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli was determined using the CRT bacteria test (Ivoclar Vivadent). All collected information was converted into frequency and proportion describing the prevalence factor in correlation with Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli cariogenic bacteria levels of infection. Results Sample participants showed a high caries risk based on socioeconomic, behavioural and clinical factors. also showed high levels (>105) of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli infections among 28% of mothers. Three factors were significantly associated with Streptococcus mutans infection: level of education, past caries experiences, and observable dental plaque, whereas, a fourth factor, frequency of daily tooth brushing, was associated to Lactobacilli infection. This study showed that easily collectible informations such as maternal level of education, frequency of daily tooth brushing and past clinical factors tend to be associated with high level of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli infections in caregivers.

  1. Attachment behavior and mother-child conversations as predictors of attachment representations in middle childhood: a longitudinal study.

    Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Cyr, Chantal; Moss, Ellen


    This study examines longitudinal links between mother-child conversations and attachment patterns in early childhood and later attachment representations. It also tests the role of conversations as mediators in the association between behavioral security and attachment representations. Mother-child conversations (snack-time) and attachment behaviors (Separation-Reunion procedure) were assessed for 83 5.5-year-olds while attachment representations (attachment narratives) were measured at 8.5 years of age. Results showed correspondence between attachment behaviors and representations for secure-confident, ambivalent-preoccupied, and disorganized/controlling-frightened groups. Affective quality of mother-child conversations predicted both child attachment behaviors and representations. Secure and confident children showed greater integration of affective information, ambivalent and preoccupied children more affect exaggeration, and disorganized/controlling and frightened children more chaotic conversations. Avoidant children tended to show more affect minimization in conversations. Finally, mother-child conversations centered on the sharing of emotions and thoughts mediated the relation between behavioral and representational attachment security, which underscores the importance of mother-child conversations in the development of attachment representations in childhood.

  2. Influence of Mothers' Nutrition Knowledge and Attitudes on Their Purchase Intention for Infant Cereal with No Added Sugar Claim.

    Chien, Tzu-Yun; Chien, Yi-Wen; Chang, Jung-Su; Chen, Yi Chun


    A higher sugar intake in infancy might result in a predisposition to a higher sugar intake in later childhood. In Taiwan, many commercial infant and toddler foods with nutrition claims have high sugar content. This study explored the influence of mothers' knowledge and attitudes on their purchase intention for infant food with nutrition claims. This study was a cross-sectional survey. An online survey was distributed to 940 mothers who had a child aged between 4 months and 3 years; 40% of mothers tend to misunderstand that "no added sugar" (NAS) indicates no sugar or less sugar content and, thus, that NAS infant cereal is healthy. Approximately 50-70% of mothers believe that NAS infant cereal is more natural, healthier, and contains less sugar. Attitude toward the NAS claim was found to be a mediating variable between sugar-related knowledge and purchase intention. The lower the level of sugar-related knowledge was, the more positive the attitude toward NAS infant cereal and the higher the purchase intention for NAS infant cereal were. In the future, regulation of no added sugar is needed to avoid the misleading information and mothers' sugar-related knowledge need to be improved through nutrition education.

  3. Depression risks in mothers of children with developmental disabilities: a cross-cultural comparison of Brazil, Colombia, Malaysia and Thailand.

    Osada, Hirokazu; Coelho de Amorim, Annibal; Velosa, Andrea; Wan, Wong Poh; Lotrakul, Panpimol; Hara, Hitoshi


    Compared with US or European countries, there are fewer mental health services for mothers of children with developmental disabilities in Latin American and/or Southeast Asian countries. To explore the risk of depression in mothers of children with developmental disabilities in countries with a lack of mental health professionals, we conducted cross-cultural comparisons for four countries: Brazil, Colombia, Malaysia and Thailand. Using the CES-D, we compared the participants' depressive symptoms, by which we also estimated the probability of morbid depression. In every country, participants tended to show depressive symptoms. In the CES-D total scores and the numbers of mothers who were observed to have a high level of depressive symptoms, there were significant differences among countries (F = 4.36, p = .006; χ2 = 10.3, p = .015). Considering cultural models, we could apply evidence-based intervention to depressive mothers of children, and conduct intervention and treatment for those mothers and evaluate ways of providing better mental health services to these individuals.

  4. "I Fell off [the Mothering] Track": Barriers to "Effective Mothering" among Prostituted Women

    Dalla, Rochelle


    Ecological theory and basic assumptions for the promotion of effective mothering among low-income and working-poor women are applied in relation to a particularly vulnerable population: street-level prostitution-involved women. Qualitative data from 38 street-level prostituted women shows barriers to effective mothering at the individual,…

  5. Mother-Child Interactions and Childhood OCD: Effects of CBT on Mother and Child Observed Behaviors

    Schlup, Barbara; Farrell, Lara; Barrett, Paula


    This waitlist-controlled study investigates the impact of a group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy with family involvement (CBT-F) on observed mother and child behaviors in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-four children and adolescents with OCD and their mothers were observed during family discussions before and after…

  6. The "Mother" of All Schemas: Creating Cognitive Dissonance in Children's Fantasy Literature Using the Mother Figure

    Palkovich, Einat Natalie


    Mothers are essential facilitators of early Theory of Mind development and intrinsic to the acquisition, as well as the content, of many basic schemas learnt in infancy. In this article it is argued that the "mother" schema in children's literature can ease a child's transition into literary discourse by exploiting the child's…

  7. Stress in Mothers of Hearing Impaired Children Compared to Mothers of Normal and Other Disabled Children

    Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stress is associated with life satisfaction and also development of some physical diseases. Birth of a disabled child with mental or physical disability (especially deaf or blind children, impose an enormous load of stress on their parents especially the mothers. This study compared stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of normal children or with other disabilities.Methods: In this study, cluster random sampling was performed in Karaj city. 120 mothers in four groups of having a child with mental retardation, low vision, hearing impairment and with normal children were included. Family inventory of life events (FILE of Mc Cubbin et al. was used to determine stress level in four groups of mothers.Results: The results of this research indicated a significant difference (p<0.05 between stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of other disabled and normal children in subscales of intra-family stress, finance and business strains, stress of job transitions, stress of illness and family care and family members "in and out''. There was no difference between compared groups in other subscales.Conclusion: Since deafness is a hidden inability, the child with hearing impairment has a set of social and educational problems causing great stress for parents, especially to mother. In order to decrease mother’s stress, it is suggested to provide more family consultation, adequate social support and to run educational classes for parents to practice stress coping strategies.

  8. Associations of Low-Income Working Mothers' Daily Interactions with Supervisors and Mother-Child Interactions

    Gassman-Pines, Anna


    This study investigated associations of low-income working mothers' daily interactions with supervisors and their interactions with children. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children were asked to report on their interactions with their supervisors at work and their interactions with children for 2 weeks (N = 520 workdays). Results show…

  9. Mothering from Prison: Using Narratives in a Mother-Child Support Program

    Trost, Betty Chamness


    Incarcerated and formerly incarcerated women who participated in the Storybook Project of Iowa told passionate stories of how their understanding of mothering had changed. They spoke of how the Storybook Project strengthened their mothering practices and relationships with their children and families. This study was an opportunity for reflection…

  10. Attitudes toward teen mothers among nursing students and psychometric evaluation of Positivity Toward Teen Mothers scale.

    Kim, Son Chae; Burke, Leanne; Sloan, Chris; Barnett, Shannon


    To prepare future nurses who can deliver high quality nursing care to teen mothers, a better understanding of the nursing students' perception of teen mothers is needed. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 228 nursing students to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Positivity Toward Teen Mothers (PTTM) scale, to explore nursing students' general empathy and attitudes toward teen mothers, and to investigate the predictors of nursing students' attitudes toward teen mothers. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a 19-item PTTM-Revised scale with Non-judgmental and Supportive subscales. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales were 0.84 and 0.69, respectively, and 0.87 for the total scale. Simultaneous multiple regression models showed that general empathy and having a teen mother in the family or as an acquaintance were significant predictors of positive attitudes toward teen mothers, whereas age was a significant negative predictor. The PTTM-Revised scale is a promising instrument for assessing attitudes toward teen mothers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Critical care nurses' experiences of nursing mothers in an ICU after complicated childbirth.

    Engström, Asa; Lindberg, Inger


    Providing nursing care for a critically ill obstetric patient or a patient who has just become a mother after a complicated birth can be a challenging experience for critical care nurses (CCNs). These patients have special needs because of the significant alterations in their physiology and anatomy together with the need to consider such specifics as breastfeeding and mother-child bonding. The aim with this study was to describe CCNs' experience of nursing the new mother and her family after a complicated childbirth. The design of the study was qualitative. Data collection was carried out through focus group discussions with 13 CCNs in three focus groups during spring 2012. The data were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in the formulation of four categories: the mother and her vital functions are prioritized; not being responsible for the child and the father; an environment unsuited to the new family and collaboration with staff in neonatal and maternity delivery wards. When nursing a mother after a complicated birth the CCNs give her and her vital signs high priority. The fathers of the children or partners of the mothers are expected to take on the responsibility of caring for the newborn child and of being the link with the neonatal ward. It is suggested that education about the needs of new families for nursing care would improve the situation and have clinical implications. Whether the intensive care unit is always the best place in which to provide care for mothers and new families is debatable. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  12. Tendência das séries temporais de precipitação da região sul do Brasil

    Adilson Pinheiro


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a presença de tendências nas séries temporais de precipitação no Sul do Brasil. Foram analisadas séries temporais diárias, mensais e anuais de 18 estações pluviométricas. As distribuições de probabilidade normal e de extremos tipo I foram empregadas para análise dos dados. Foi, ainda, aplicado o teste de tendência de Mann-Kendall na detecção de tendências ou de variabilidades climáticas. Os resultados mostram uma tendência positiva dos máximos diários anuais ao longo do tempo, assim como significativa elevação dos totais mensais e anuais na maioria das estações. O teste de tendência de Mann-Kendal mostra mudanças estatisticamente significativas, ao nível de 95%, em 16 das 18 estações pluviométricas analisadas.

  13. Cardiorespiratory disorders of infants of diabetic mothers

    Hrabovski Ivan


    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the characteristics of modern era is the explosion of diabetes in the world. Today more than 400,000,000 people suffer from diabetes in the entire world. During the last decade the number of women with the disorder of glucose homeostasis is six to seven times greater than in the previous period. Therefore, the re-evaluation of the impact of glucose intolerance on the course and outcome of pregnancy is very current. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the data on the influence of mothers’ glucose homeostasis disturbances on the occurrence of cardiorespiratory disorders in newborns, as well as their influence on the perinatal outcome. Methods. Prospective examination included 102 newborns in total - 31 infants of mothers with glucose homeostasis disorder (Group I and 71 infants of healthy mothers (Group II. Average age, body height, body weight, body mass index, parity and illness duration of the pregnant women had been determined, as well as the delivery method. Every newborn was provided with physical examination, Apgar score was calculated, body weight and body length were measured. Also, electrocardiography and brain ultrasound, as well as the basic hematology biochemical and microbiological analysis, were performed within the examinations of the infants. Results. The average weight and obesity incidence with diabetic women was higher than in the control group and their infants were heavier and with lower gestational age. Heart failures were diagnosed in five (16.1% infants of diabetic mothers and in one (1.4% infant of a healthy woman (p<0.01. Respiratory disorders were diagnosed in 48.4% infants of diabetic mothers and in 12.6% of healthy mothers (p<0.01. Forty-two percent of infants of diabetic mothers and 19.7% infants of healthy mothers needed additional oxygen. Conclusion. Congenital anomalies of the cardiovascular system and respiratory disorders in the infants of diabetic mothers were six to eight

  14. [Care of mothers of newborns in intensive care units: experiences, feelings and expectations of the mothers].

    Belli, M A


    The purpose of the study was to examine the experiences, feelings and expectation of mothers of high risk newborns. The population was a group of 20 mothers of high risk newborns of three hospitals in the City of São Paulo. Interview with the mothers was the method of data collection containing opened and structured questions. It was verified that most of the mothers had none or only a little interaction with the newborn after delivery; the eye contact was the most referred during the staying of the newborn in the Intensive Care Unity; all of them demonstrated interest in participating in the care of the newborn and expressed the need of information concerning to the health status of the newborn, the Intensive Care Unity environment and the hospital team. Several were the feelings expressed and the motives that indicated the needs of the mothers.

  15. Mothers understand and can do it (MUAC)

    Blackwell, Nikki; Myatt, Mark; Allafort-Duverger, Thierry


    BACKGROUND: Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) was recently endorsed and recommended for screening for acute malnutrition in the community. The objective of this study was to determine whether a colour-banded MUAC strap would allow minimally trained mothers to screen their own children for malnut......BACKGROUND: Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) was recently endorsed and recommended for screening for acute malnutrition in the community. The objective of this study was to determine whether a colour-banded MUAC strap would allow minimally trained mothers to screen their own children...... for malnutrition, without locating the mid-point of the left upper arm by measurement, as currently recommended. METHODS: A non-randomised non-blinded evaluation of mothers' performance when measuring MUAC after minimal training, compared with trained Community Health Workers (CHW) following current MUAC protocols....... The study was conducted in 2 villages in Mirriah, Zinder region, Niger where mothers classified one of their children (n = 103) aged 6-59 months (the current age range for admission into community malnutrition programs) using the MUAC tape. RESULTS: Mothers' had a sensitivity and specificity...

  16. New mothers' views of weight and exercise.

    Groth, Susan W; David, Tamala


    To describe the attitudes and preferences of ethnically diverse new mothers on weight and exercise. Exploratory, qualitative study. Forty-nine ethnically diverse women were interviewed during the first year following childbirth regarding beliefs about weight, choices of exercise, walking for exercise, perceived benefits, barriers, and facilitators of exercise. Content analysis techniques were used to analyze the data. Weight was a significant concern for women, although the importance varied by race. New mothers reported that they would like to weigh less, and they endorsed walking for exercise. Common barriers to exercise were children and time constraints; health problems were also seen as a barrier to walking as a form of exercise. Scheduling the walk and having a walking partner were factors that women said would facilitate walking for physical activity during the first year after childbirth. Because new mothers perceive walking as a good form of exercise, nurses can use this information to help them plan a daily walking schedule to aid in weight loss and control postpartum. Nurses should also encourage new mothers to look for a walking partner, especially another new mother or a friend, to help them continue their physical activity during the first year after childbirth.

  17. Mothers' and Clinicians' Priorities for Obesity Prevention Among Black, High-Risk Infants.

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Gruver, Rachel S; Gerdes, Marsha; Power, Thomas J; Magge, Sheela N; Shults, Justine; Faerber, Jennifer A; Kalra, Gurpreet K; Bishop-Gilyard, Chanelle T; Suh, Andrew W; Berkowitz, Robert I; Fiks, Alexander G


    Despite many recommended strategies for obesity prevention during infancy, effectively delivering recommendations to parents in clinical settings is challenging, especially among high-risk populations. This study describes and compares mothers' and clinicians' priorities for obesity prevention during infancy, to facilitate more-effective obesity prevention messaging. A discrete choice experiment using maximum difference scaling was administered in 2013 and analyzed in 2013-2014. Twenty-nine low-income, obese mothers of infants and 30 pediatric clinicians from three urban primary care practices rated the relative importance of 16 items relevant to obesity prevention during infancy, in response to this question: Which topic would be most helpful [for new mothers] to learn about to prevent your [their] child from becoming overweight? Response options encompassed the domains of feeding, sleep, parenting (including physical activity and screen time), and maternal self-care. Mothers (all Medicaid-enrolled and black; mean age, 27 years; mean BMI, 35 kg/m(2)) and clinicians (97% female, 87% pediatricians, 13% nurse practitioners) both highly prioritized recognizing infant satiety and hunger cues, and appropriate feeding volume. Mothers rated infant physical activity and maintaining regular routines as 3.5 times more important than clinicians did (presponsive to these priorities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fear acquisition and extinction in offspring of mothers with anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Waters, Allison M; Peters, Rosie-Mae; Forrest, Kylee E; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie


    Maternal anxiety and depression are significant risk factors for the development of these disorders in offspring. The pathways through which risk is conferred remain unclear. This study examined fear acquisition and extinction in 26 children at high risk for emotional disorders by virtue of maternal psychopathology (n=14 with a mother with a principal anxiety disorder and n=12 with a mother with a principal unipolar depressive disorder) and 31 low risk controls using a discriminative Pavlovian conditioning procedure. Participants, aged between 7 and 14 years, completed 16 trials of discriminative conditioning of two geometric figures, with (CS+) and without (CS-) an aversive tone (US), followed by 8 extinction trials (4×CS+, 4×CS-). In the context of comparable discriminative conditioning, children of anxious mothers showed larger skin conductance responses during extinction to the CS+ compared to the CS-, and to both CSs from the first to the second block of extinction trials, in comparison with low risk controls. Compared to low risk controls, children of depressed mothers showed smaller skin conductance responses to the CS+ than the CS- during acquisition. These findings suggest distinct psychophysiological premorbid risk markers in offspring of anxious and depressed mothers. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. From alienation to familiarity: experiences of mothers and fathers of preterm infants.

    Jackson, Karin; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie; Schollin, Jens


    The birth of a preterm infant has a long-term impact on both parents. Mothers report more stress and poor adjustment compared with fathers. Influencing factors, such as family situation and health status of the child, can support or weaken the coping ability of the parents. Studies on experiences of fathers are sparse. The aim of this research was to study how mothers and fathers of preterm infants describe their experiences of parenthood during the infant's first 18 months of life. Seven consecutively selected sets of parents of preterm infants born at mothers and fathers described their parental roles involved concern for the child, insecurity, adjustment and relationship with the child. Regarding differences, mothers experienced having more responsibility and control of the care and a need to be confirmed as a mother, while fathers described confidence in leaving the care to the staff and wanted to find a balance between work and family life. Important turning points in parenthood experiences often occurred when the infant could be removed from the incubator, discharged from the ward, and when the infant looked normal compared to full-term infants. The structure of the phenomenon of parenthood was formed by the integration of the syntheses of alienation, responsibility, confidence and familiarity. The structure seems to be based on the parents' expectations of the parental role, the infant's health condition and the health care environment. These interacting factors are influenced by cultural beliefs.

  20. Increasing Confidence and Ability in Implementing Kangaroo Mother Care Method Among Young Mothers.

    Kenanga Purbasary, Eleni; Rustina, Yeni; Budiarti, Tri

    Mothers giving birth to low birth weight babies (LBWBs) have low confidence in caring for their babies because they are often still young and may lack the knowledge, experience, and ability to care for the baby. This research aims to determine the effect of education about kangaroo mother care (KMC) on the confidence and ability of young mothers to implement KMC. The research methodology used was a controlled-random experimental approach with pre- and post-test equivalent groups of 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the intervention group and 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the control group. Data were collected via an instrument measuring young mothers' confidence, the validity and reliability of which have been tested with a resulting r value of .941, and an observation sheet on KMC implementation. After conducting the education, the confidence score of young mothers and their ability to perform KMC increased meaningfully. The score of confidence of young mothers before education was 37 (p = .1555: and the ability score for KMC Implementation before education was 9 (p = .1555). The median score of confidence of young mothers after education in the intervention group was 87 and in the control group was 50 (p = .001, 95% CI 60.36-75.56), and ability median score for KMC implementation after education in the intervention group was 16 and in the control group was 12 (p = .001, 95% CI 1.50-1.88). KMC education should be conducted gradually, and it is necessary to involve the family, in order for KMC implementation to continue at home. A family visit can be done for LBWBs to evaluate the ability of the young mothers to implement KMC.

  1. Mothers' unresolved trauma blunts amygdala response to infant distress

    While the neurobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder has been extensively researched, much less attention has been paid to the neural mechanisms underlying more covert but pervasive types of trauma (e.g., those involving disrupted relationships and insecure attachment). Here, we report on a neur...

  2. Effect of Early Intervention to Promote Mother - Infant Interaction and Maternal Sensitivity in Japan: A Parenting Support Program based on Infant Mental Health.

    Komoto, Keiko; Hirose, Taiko; Omori, Takahide; Takeo, Naoko; Okamitsu, Motoko; Okubo, Noriko; Okawa, Hiroji


    This study investigated the effects of the Japanese Early Promotion Program (JEPP), which is based on the Infant Mental Health (IMH) program. The JEPP aims to promote mother-infant interactions by enhancing the mother's ability to respond appropriately her child. Mothers in the JEPP group (n = 15) received support from IMH nurses in a pediatric clinic until their infants reached 12 months of age. The nurses provided positive feedback that emphasized strength of parenting, and assisted the mothers in understanding the construct of their infants. Mother-infant interactions and mother's mental health status were assessed at intake (1-3 months), and at 6, 9, and 12 months of infants' age. The JEPP group data were compared with cross-sectional data of the control group (n = 120). Although JEPP dyads were not found to be significantly different from the control group in general dyadic synchrony, both before and after intervention, JEPP mothers significantly improved their ability to understand their infant's cues and to respond promptly. In the JEPP group, unresponsiveness to infants was reduced in mothers, while infants showed reduced passiveness and enhanced responsiveness to the mother. Furthermore, the intervention reduced the mothers' parenting stress and negative emotions, thereby enhancing their self-esteem.

  3. Plant-derived differences in the composition of aphid honeydew and their effects on colonies of aphid-tending ants

    Pringle, Elizabeth G; Novo, Alexandria; Ableson, Ian; Barbehenn, Raymond V; Vannette, Rachel L


    In plant–ant–hemipteran interactions, ants visit plants to consume the honeydew produced by phloem-feeding hemipterans. If genetically based differences in plant phloem chemistry change the chemical composition of hemipteran honeydew, then the plant's genetic constitution could have indirect effects on ants via the hemipterans. If such effects change ant behavior, they could feed back to affect the plant itself. We compared the chemical composition of honeydews produced by Aphis nerii aphid clones on two milkweed congeners, Asclepias curassavica and Asclepias incarnata, and we measured the responses of experimental Linepithema humile ant colonies to these honeydews. The compositions of secondary metabolites, sugars, and amino acids differed significantly in the honeydews from the two plant species. Ant colonies feeding on honeydew derived from A. incarnata recruited in higher numbers to artificial diet, maintained higher queen and worker dry weight, and sustained marginally more workers than ants feeding on honeydew derived from A. curassavica. Ants feeding on honeydew from A. incarnata were also more exploratory in behavioral assays than ants feeding from A. curassavica. Despite performing better when feeding on the A. incarnata honeydew, ant workers marginally preferred honeydew from A. curassavica to honeydew from A. incarnata when given a choice. Our results demonstrate that plant congeners can exert strong indirect effects on ant colonies by means of plant-species-specific differences in aphid honeydew chemistry. Moreover, these effects changed ant behavior and thus could feed back to affect plant performance in the field. PMID:25505534

  4. Bringing work home: the emotional experiences of mothers and fathers.

    Matjasko, Jennifer L; Feldman, Amy F


    Given the salience of work in our society, this study investigated how intrinsic work motivation, work hours, and taking time for self influenced the interplay between the emotional climates of work and home. The authors examined day-to-day emotional transmission between work and home (spillover) for 143 families using the experience sampling method and interview data from the Sloan Center's 500 Family Study (L. J. Waite & B. Schneider, 1997). Intrinsic work motivation, work hours, and taking time for self were used as predictors of spillover. There was evidence of emotional transmission from work to home for mothers' happiness, anger, and anxiety as well as for father's anxiety. Also, fathers scoring higher on intrinsic work motivation tended to report greater overall anxiety at home after the workday. Anxiety from work was less likely to spill over to the home when fathers reported working longer hours. These findings have practice implications for improving worker productivity and the well-being of two-working-parent families. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Membrana de PLDLA-TMC como protetor na regeneração do tendão calcâneo: Estudo in vivo em coelhos

    Julia Rezende Duek


    Full Text Available Um dos maiores problemas da cirurgia restauradora dos tendões flexores é evitar a formação de aderências, pois limita seu deslizamento. Assim, é muito desejável que a cicatrização ocorra o mais rápido possível, restaurando a capacidade de deslizamento dos tendões, sem limitações dos movimentos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a resistência do Tendão calcâneo, utilizando membrana de PLDLA-TMC como protetor da aderência dos tecidos adjacentes após implantes em coelhos New Zeland. Foram utilizados 20 coelhos, divididos em dois grupos, os quais foram submetidos à secção do tendão calcâneo e posterior sutura com técnica de Kessler modificada. No grupo A, logo após sutura o animal foi sacrificado e o tendão foi enviado para ensaio mecânico. Já no grupo B, após três semanas, os animais foram sacrificados e o material foi submetido à análise histológica. Os resultados obtidos a partir do ensaio mecânico mostraram melhora nos valores da resistência à tração dos implantes com a membrana, comparados aos apenas suturados. Na cicatrização da lesão, ocorreu melhor organização das fibras colágenas quando foi utilizado o polímero PLDLA-TMC, além de uma menor aderência cicatricial. Conclui-se que a membrana de PLDLA-TMC é promissora na reparação de lesões tendíneas.

  6. Tendências climáticas e produção de uva na região dos Vales da Uva Goethe

    Álvaro José Back


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar tendências nas séries climáticas e nos índices agroclimáticos para o cultivo da videira na região dos Vales da Uva Goethe, em Santa Catarina. A região apresenta clima mesotérmico úmido. Foram utilizados dados de temperatura máxima e mínima do ar, do período de 1924 a 2010, e de precipitação pluvial, de 1955 a 2010. O teste de Mann‑Kendall foi utilizado para avaliar a tendência nas séries, cuja magnitude foi estimada pela declividade mediana determinada pelo teste de Theil-Sen. Foi observada tendência de aumento nas séries de temperatura mínima do ar, em escala anual, bem como nas estações do ano. Quanto à temperatura máxima, somente houve tendência de aumento na série de verão. Em relação aos índices agrometeorológicos, foi observada tendência de diminuição do número de geadas, diminuição do período entre a brotação e a colheita, aumento da soma térmica e dos índices de Huglin e de frio. Foram evidenciadas tendências de aumento da precipitação pluvial total anual e da precipitação no período de crescimento da videira, bem como aumento do número de dias, com chuva igual ou superior a 20 mm, e aumento na temperatura mínima e noturna.

  7. Research Paper: Determination of the Needs of Mothering Handling Training for Family Caregiving of Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy at Home Based on a Family- Centered Approach

    Hamid Dalvand


    Conclusion The results showed that the highest priority of needs of mothering handling training was self-care, feeding, toileting, and functional mobility. However, the needs of mothering handling training enhanced with increasing severity of fine motor function lesions and age. The simultaneous relationships between age and MACS levels in children with CP have no effect on the priorities of mothering handling training. Organized training of families and caregivers about needs of mothering handling training and proper care of their children are facilitating steps in promoting the education of mothers of children with CP. It seems that the understanding and education of mothering handling for therapists responsible for managing children with CP and the education of their parents can open the way to effective caring and treatment.

  8. Sistemas de recuperação de informações e mecanismos de busca na web: panorama atual e tendências

    Renato Rocha Souza

    Full Text Available Busca-se traçar um panorama das características básicas dos sistemas de recuperação de informações, apresentando seus modelos de recuperação mais comuns. São apresentados com ênfase especial os mecanismos de busca na web, seu estado atual de desenvolvimento e algumas tendências para o futuro. Dentre estas tendências, destacam-se notadamente aquelas introduzidas pelo Google, como o algoritmo pagerank, dentre outras inovações.

  9. Tendências hidrológicas anuais e sazonais na bacia do Rio Paraibuna, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (SP)

    Vilanova,Mateus Ricardo Nogueira


    O presente trabalho avalia a existência de tendências monotônicas em séries anuais e sazonais de vazão e chuva, no trecho da Bacia do Rio Paraibuna localizado entre os Núcleos Cunha e Santa Virgínia, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (SP). O teste de Mann-Kendall foi aplicado a séries destas variáveis, em diversos intervalos no período de 1967 a 2011. Tendências negativas estatisticamente significativas foram detectadas nas séries de c...

  10. The prognostic value of the Tpeak-Tend interval in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    Haarmark, Christian; Hansen, Peter R; Vedel-Larsen, Esben


    INTRODUCTION: The Tpeak-Tend interval (TpTe) has been linked to increased arrhythmic risk. TpTe was investigated before and after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHOD: Patients with first-time STEMI treated...... with pPCI were included (n = 101; mean age 62 years; range 39-89 years; 74% men). Digital electrocardiograms were taken pre- and post-PCI, respectively. Tpeak-Tend interval was measured in leads with limited ST-segment deviation. The primary end point was all-cause mortality during 22 +/- 7 months (mean...

  11. Unified communication to reach vulnerable mothers.

    Tezcan, B; Von Rege, I; Henkson, H; Oteng-Ntim, E


    The feasibility of using a mobile text to reach vulnerable patient groups was assessed in this study. A total of 121 pregnant or postnatal women were randomly asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire was given to them in the antenatal clinic, postnatal ward, antenatal ward or in the day assessment unit at St Thomas' Hospital, London. The forms were collected and analysed using an Excel database. The results of this survey show that mobile technology is readily available for 97% of the obstetric population. In mothers from vulnerable groups and in mothers from deprived areas, 61% possessed 3rd generation mobile technology. The majority of mothers surveyed wanted their care supplemented by the use of their mobile phones.

  12. Child overweight - mothers' competence to take action

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Peitersen, Birgit


    Objective: We investigated mothers' possession and display of action competence to counteract or prevent overweight and eventual obesity in their children. Action competence is defined as a personal resource where the most important aspect is the individual's wish to take action and to believe...... in its benefit. It unfolds within the room for action as experienced by the individual due to action obstacles and action potentials. Methods: In a case-control study, mothers of 111 overweight children (MOC) were compared with mothers of 149 nonoverweight children (MNC). They underwent a semistructured...... interview about action competence, lifestyle, and their 7- to 9-year-old children. Results: Compared to MNC, MOC considered it more important to change habits, both for themselves (p = 0.003) and their children (p

  13. Transport of compounds from mother to foetus

    Bowen, B.M.; Garnett, E.S.; Perrier, D.G.; Prestwich, W.


    This study reviews the literature and investigates the transport of selected radiopharmaceuticals from the mother to the foetus and the distribution of these radiopharmaceuticals in both animals and man. This search emphasizes the placental transport of the drugs from the mother to the foetus and the development of pharmacokinetic models that could describe this transport. An outline of the distribution and/or transport of several radio-pharmaceuticals is presented followed by a description of the factors that regulate the transport of the radiopharmaceuticals from the mother to the foetus. Pharmacokinetic models were designed on the available information in the open literature. The limitation of the literature is discussed and suggestions for future experimental investigation are made

  14. Antenatal smoking and substance-misuse, infant and newborn response to hypoxia

    Ali, Kamal; Rosser, Thomas; Bhat, Ravindra; Wolff, Kim; Hannam, Simon; Rafferty, Gerrard F.; Greenough, Anne


    Objectives: To determine at the peak age for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) the ventilatory response to hypoxia of infants whose mothers substance misused in pregnancy (SM infants), or smoked during pregnancy (S mothers) and controls whose mothers neither substance misused or smoked. In addition, we compared the ventilatory response to hypoxia during the neonatal period and peak age of SIDS. Working hypothesis: Infants of S or SM mothers compared to control infants would have a poorer ve...

  15. Adult outcomes of teen mothers across birth cohorts

    Anne Driscoll


    Full Text Available Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG. Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, single motherhood, poverty, employment of teen, young adult, and older mothers was compared across cohorts and within cohorts. Results: Among teen mothers, the odds of fulltime employment improved across birth cohorts and the odds of educational attainment beyond high school did not vary. Their odds of single motherhood and living in poverty increased across cohorts. The odds of higher education and single motherhood increased across birth cohorts for young adult mothers as did the odds of living in poverty, even if working fulltime. Among older adult mothers, educational attainment and the odds of single motherhood rose for recent cohorts. Conclusions: Comparisons between teen mothers and both young adult and all adult mothers within cohorts suggest that gaps in single motherhood and poverty between teen and adult mothers have widened over time, to the detriment of teen mothers. Teen mothers have become more likely to be single and poor than in the past and compared to older mothers.

  16. Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies: A Compendium of Program Ideas for Serving Low-Income Women.

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition, Washington, DC.

    The Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies survey conducted in spring 1985 drew responses from over 1,500 programs active in maternal and child health efforts directed toward low-income women and their families. The executive summary of this report identifies the major goals, common strategies, and needs of program respondents. Chapter 1 summarizes a…

  17. The Relations of Mothers' Negative Expressivity to Children's Experience and Expression of Negative Emotion

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Fabes, Richard A.; Cumberland, Amanda J.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Spinrad, Tracy L.


    Guided by the heuristic model proposed by Eisenberg et al. [Psychol. Inq. 9 (1998) 241], we examined the relations of mothers' reported and observed negative expressivity to children's (N = 159; 74 girls; M age = 7.67 years) experience and expression of emotion. Children's experience and/or expression of emotion in response to a distressing film…

  18. Multilingual Language Policy and Mother Tongue Education in Timor-Leste: A Multiscalar Approach

    Caffery, Jo; Coronado, Gabriela; Hodge, Bob


    This article looks at multilingual, mother-tongue-based language policies influenced by colonial and postcolonial histories and globalization processes. We use multiscalar analysis to show these policies as creative responses to problems affected by national and international forces. Our study focuses on Timor-Leste, specifically a pilot…

  19. Teen Mothers Parenting their Own Teen Offspring: The Moderating Role of Parenting Support

    Riggs, Laura; Holmbeck, Grayson; Paikoff, Roberta; Bryant, Fred B.


    This study investigated whether parenting support moderated relations between age of mother at childbirth and parental responsiveness and monitoring. The sample included 212 African American families living in urban public housing; offspring were entering adolescence when data were collected. Parenting support was measured by assessing the…

  20. The Role of Parenting and Mother-Adolescent Attachment in the Intergenerational Similarity of Internalizing Symptoms

    Brenning, Katrijn; Soenens, Bart; Braet, Caroline; Bal, Sarah


    Parental depression has been identified as a risk factor for children's and adolescents' internalizing problems. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of maternal parenting behaviors (i.e., responsiveness and autonomy-support) and adolescents' representations of attachment to their mother (i.e., anxiety and avoidance) in the…

  1. Hopelessness, Family Stress, and Depression among Mexican-Heritage Mothers in the Southwest

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kulis, Stephen; Perez, Hilda Garcia; Bermudez-Parsai, Monica


    This article reports on the findings of a study conducted with a sample of 136 Mexican-heritage mothers residing in a large southwestern metropolitan area. From a risk-and-resiliency perspective, hopelessness was approached as a culturally specific response to family stress and other challenges encountered by Mexican immigrants. Although…

  2. Married Thai Working Mothers: Coping with Initial Part-Time Doctoral Study

    Thinnam, Thanit


    Advanced educational attainment can "grow" a career. But acquiring a doctoral qualification adds study to existing work and family responsibilities, especially for women. This phenomenological research explores the experiences of eight Thai working mothers enrolled in the initial stage of part-time doctoral programs in Thailand. A…

  3. Child Immunization Status among a Sample of Adolescent Mothers: Comparing the Validity of Measurement Strategies

    Phillips, Clarissa; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Knight, Margaret; Francis, Judith; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mazerbo, Laurie


    This study of adolescent mothers sought to identify whether a single general question asked by phone or a detailed, vaccine-specific question asked in a self-report questionnaire best captured infant immunization status at 6 months postpartum, by comparing them with immunization record books. Responses to a global question about whether infants…

  4. Reading with Love: Reading of Life Narrative of a Mother of a Child with Cerebral Palsy

    Mercieca, Daniela; Mercieca, Duncan P.


    This paper draws upon Deleuze and Guattari's ideas to suggest a different kind of reading of a narrative of a mother of a child with severe disability, and thus a different kind of ethical response to them. This reading gives readers the possibility of opening up experiences of parents and children with disability, rather than…

  5. Reconciliation of work and care among lone mothers of adults with intellectual disabilities: the role and limits of care capital.

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Kröger, Teppo


    In this study, the concept of social capital is applied to an exploration of Guanxi (social networking to create good relationships) among working lone mothers of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) in Taiwan. Using in-depth interviews, this study explores the role of social capital, here referred to as 'care capital', in making it possible for working lone mothers to combine their roles as family carers and workers. Eleven divorced or widowed mothers combining their paid work with long-term care responsibilities were recruited from a survey or through NGOs and were interviewed at their home between October 2008 and July 2010. An interpretative phenomenological approach was adopted for data analysis. The findings revealed that the mothers' care capital was extremely limited and was lost, gained and lost again during their life-cycles of long-term care-giving. Guanxi, especially in relation to their employers, proved to be the sole source of care capital for these mothers, making reconciliation between work and care responsibilities possible. In the absence of formal or informal support, religion and the mother-child relationship seemed also to become a kind of care capital for these lone mothers, helping them to get by with their life-long care responsibilities. For formal social and healthcare services, not just in Taiwan but in every country, it is important to develop support for lone mothers of adults with ID who have long-term care responsibilities and low levels of care capital and thus face care poverty. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Stigma in Mothers of Deaf Children

    Hossein Ebrahimi


     Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P

  7. Mothers as informal science class teachers

    Katz, Phyllis

    This study explores the participation of mothers as teachers (termed "Adult Leaders") in the Hands On Science Outreach (HOSO) informal science program for pre-kindergarten through sixth grade children. Since women continue to be underrepresented in the sciences (AAUW, 1992; AAUW 1998), there is a need to probe the nature of mothers' choices in science experiences, in the family context, and as role models. Mothers of school age children who choose to lead informal science activities are in a position to teach and learn not only within this alternative setting, but within their homes where values, attitudes, beliefs and motivations are continually cultivated by daily choices (Gordon, 1972; Tamir, 1990; Gerber, 1997). Policy makers recognize that schools are only one environment from many for learning science (National Science Board, 1983; National Research Council, 1996). Using complementary methodology, this study was conducted in two HOSO sessions that extended over six months. Twelve mothers who were HOSO teachers were case study participants. Primary data collection strategies were interviews, journals, and "draw-a-scientist." A larger sample of HOSO mother-teachers (N = 112) also contributed to a surrey, developed from an analysis of the case studies. Informal learning settings must, by their non-compulsory nature, focus on the affective component of learning as a necessity of participation. The framework for the qualitative analysis was from the affective characteristics described by Simpson et al. (1994). The interpretation is informed by sociobiology, science education and adult education theories. The study finds that the twelve mothers began their HOSO teaching believing in science as a way of knowing and valuing the processes and information from its practice. These women perceive their participation as a likely means to increase the success of their child(ren)'s education and are interested in the potential personal gains of leading an informal science

  8. Process of becoming a mother for Iranian surrogacy-commissioning mothers: A grounded theory study.

    Zandi, Mitra; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Mohammadi, Eesa


    Little knowledge is available about the experiences of the commissioning mothers during the process of surrogacy; thus, the present study was conducted in order to explore and analyze this process. This study was conducted in a referral institute in Tehran with a qualitative approach and using grounded theory methodology. The data were collected through 39 unstructured, in-depth interviews that were conducted with 15 gestational commissioning mothers, two of their husbands, four surrogates, and five of the personnel at centers for assisted reproduction (some participants were interviewed more than once). Sampling started purposively and then continued theoretically. The analysis revealed the main concern of these mothers to be the feeling of "insecurity about becoming a mother" and their predominant strategy for dealing with it to be "seeking security about becoming a mother," which emerged as a core concept. The consequences of the mothers' adopted strategies and the effects of the intervening factors included "reaching a state of relative peace," "a continuing threat to one's identity," and "mental and physical exhaustion." Identifying the demands of this group of mothers can help medical personnel, particularly nurses, adopt better plans for the future and to optimize the care they provide to these patients. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  9. Mothering and anxiety: Social support and competence as mitigating factors for first-time mothers.

    Chavis, Llena


    This study investigated anxiety as a phenomenon distinct from depression and evaluated several variables that influence anxiety in first-time mothers. This explored the relationship between maternal sense of competence (both of mothering and efficacy) and perceived social support (from family, friends, and significant others) and first-time mothers' postpartum anxiety, when depression, socioeconomic status (SES), and marital status were controlled for. The population studied were 86 first-time mothers made up of women with children 24 months or younger in two populations of Kentucky and Michigan. The constructs of maternal sense of competence and perceived social support were found to be significant in explaining first-time mothers' anxiety. The study concluded that a combined association of perceived social support and maternal sense of competence were associated with a 34% (change in R-squared = .339) decrease of a first-time mothers' anxiety. However, not all types of social support, or maternal competence appeared to be equally important with regards to maternal anxiety: social support from friends and family and maternal sense of competence in regard to productivity appeared to be most significant. Lastly, some recommendations for health practitioners who work with mothers are provided.

  10. Sizing of "Mother Ship and Catcher" Concepts for LEO Small Debris Capture

    Bacon, John B.


    Most Low Earth Orbit (LEO) debris lies in a limited number of inclination "bands" associated with launch latitudes, or with specific useful orbit inclinations (such as polar orbits). Such narrow inclination bands generally have a uniform spread over all possible Right Ascensions of Ascending Node (RAANs), creating a different orbit plane for nearly every piece of debris. This complicates concept of rendezvous and capture for debris removal. However, a low-orbiting satellite will always phase in RAAN faster than debris objects in higher orbits at the same inclination, potentially solving the problem. Such a base can serve as a single space-based launch facility (a "mother ship") that can tend and then send tiny individual catcher devices for each debris object, as the facility drifts into the same RAAN as the higher object. This presentation will highlight characteristic system requirements of such an architecture, including structural and navigation requirements, power, mass and dV budgets for both the mother ship and the mass-produced common catcher devices that would clean out selected inclination bands. The altitude and inclination regime over which a band is to be cleared, the size distribution of the debris, and the inclusion of additional mission priorities all affect the sizing of the system. It is demonstrated that major LEO hazardous debris reductions can be realized in each band with a single LEO launch of a single mother ship, with simple attached catchers of total mass less than typical commercial LEO launch capability.

  11. Gender bias in mothers' expectations about infant crawling.

    Mondschein, E R; Adolph, K E; Tamis-LeMonda, C S


    Although boys outshine girls in a range of motor skills, there are no reported gender differences in motor performance during infancy. This study examined gender bias in mothers' expectations about their infants' motor development. Mothers of 11-month-old infants estimated their babies' crawling ability, crawling attempts, and motor decisions in a novel locomotor task-crawling down steep and shallow slopes. Mothers of girls underestimated their performance and mothers of boys overestimated their performance. Mothers' gender bias had no basis in fact. When we tested the infants in the same slope task moments after mothers' provided their ratings, girls and boys showed identical levels of motor performance. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. Mother-child language style matching predicts children's and mothers' emotion reactivity.

    Rasmussen, Hannah F; Borelli, Jessica L; Smiley, Patricia A; Cohen, Chloe; Cheung, Ryan Cheuk Ming; Fox, Schuyler; Marvin, Matthew; Blackard, Betsy


    Co-regulation of behavior occurring within parent-child attachment relationships is thought to be the primary means through which children develop the capacity to regulate emotion, an ability that is protective across development. Existing research on parent-child co-regulation focuses predominantly on parent-infant dyads, and operationalizes co-regulation as the matching of facial expressions; however, matching can occur on other behaviors, including vocal tone, body movement, and language. Studies with young children find that greater matching is associated with children's lower emotion reactivity, but with unknown impacts on parents. In this study we examine a recently-developed metric of behavioral matching, language style matching (LSM), a composite measure of the similarity of function word use in spoken or written language between two or more people. We test whether LSM between mothers and their school-aged children is associated with children's and mothers' physiological and subjective emotion reactivity. Children completed a standardized stressor task while their mothers observed; children's and mother's cortisol and cardiovascular reactivity were assessed, as were their subjective reports of emotion reactivity. Following the stressor, children and mothers completed independent interviews about the experience, later assessed for LSM. Higher mother-child LSM was associated with lower emotion reactivity (lower cortisol reactivity, lower reports of negative emotion) for children, and with higher maternal cardiovascular but not cortisol or subjective reactivity. Further, higher LSM was more strongly associated with lower child cortisol reactivity when mothers were more reactive themselves. We conclude that mother-child LSM, thought to reflect a history of co-regulated interaction, confers protective benefits for children, but heightened reactivity for mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Honest People Tend to Use Less—Not More—Profanity : Comment on Feldman et al.’s Study 1

    de Vries, Reinout Everhard; Hilbig, Benjamin E.; Zettler, Ingo; Dunlop, Patrick D.; Holtrop, Djurre; Lee, Kibeom; Ashton, Michael C.


    This article shows that the conclusion of Feldman et al.’s (2017) Study 1 that profane individuals tend to be honest is most likely incorrect. We argue that Feldman et al.’s conclusion is based on a commonly held but erroneous assumption that higher scores on Impression Management Scales, such as

  14. Insights into the 3D architecture of an active caldera ring-fault at Tendürek volcano through modeling of geodetic data

    Vasyura-Bathke, Hannes; Nikkhoo, M.; Holohan, E.P.; Walter, T.R.


    of spatially dense InSAR time-series data, numerical models and sand-box experiments to determine the three-dimensional geometry and kinematics of a sub-surface ring-fault at Tendürek volcano in Turkey. The InSAR data reveal that the area within the ring

  15. Aspectos de imagem do xantoma do tendão calcâneo na ultrassonografia e ressonância magnética

    Eloy de Ávila Fernandes


    Full Text Available O xantoma no tendão calcâneo é uma doença rara e tem uma alta associação com hiperlipidemia primária. O diagnóstico precoce é fundamental para o início do tratamento e para alterar o curso da doença. Os exames de imagem podem auxiliar nesse diagnóstico. Este estudo relata o caso de um homem de 60 anos apresentando nódulos indolores nos cotovelos e tendões calcâneos, sem crises típicas de gota, acompanhado no ambulatório de doenças microcristalinas da Unifesp para esclarecimento diagnóstico. Os testes laboratoriais solicitados apresentavam dislipidemia. Ultrassom (US mostrou espessamento difuso dos tendões calcâneos com áreas hipoecoicas. Ressonância magnética (RM mostrou espessamento difuso dos tendões, com áreas de sinal intermediário e padrão reticulado no interior. Os exames de imagem mostraram aspectos relevantes no diagnóstico de xantoma, auxiliando no diagnóstico diferencial.

  16. A qualitative study of incarcerated mothers' perceptions of the impact of separation on their children.

    Gilham, Jerry Jo M


    Many incarcerated women are mothers, and their children exhibit various responses to the separation that incarceration commands. This exploratory qualitative study examines incarcerated women's perceptions of the consequences of their illegal activity, confinement, and separation from their children on their offspring. The results indicate that although mothers are concerned about their children, they are typically unable to recognize the negative consequences of their actions on their children and their relationship with their children until beginning intensive treatment. Effective treatment must focus on the woman's personal issues along with their parenting abilities and skills to repair these relationships and promote healthy family functioning.

  17. Babushki as Surrogate Wives: How Single Mothers and Grandmothers Negotiate the Division of Labor in Russia

    Utrata, Jennifer


    Much like husbands and wives, single mothers and grandmothers struggle over the sharing of paid work and “second shift†responsibilities. Using in-depth interview and ethnographic data from Russia, this article applies elements of Hochschild’s (1989) framework to illuminate sites of tension and reciprocity among single mothers and their children’s grandmothers, or babushki, demonstrating that women’s negotiations across the generational divide resemble those between husbands and wive...

  18. Tendências de temperaturas mínimas e máximas do ar no Estado de Minas Gerais

    Léo Fernandes Ávila


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar tendências das temperaturas mínimas e máximas no Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram avaliados dados de 43 municípios, tendo-se considerado as escalas anual e sazonal - janeiro, abril, julho e outubro, que representam os meses centrais de verão, outono, inverno e primavera, respectivamente. Séries históricas de temperaturas mínimas e máximas do ar diárias, com extensão mínima de 30 anos, foram analisadas com base no teste de Mann-Kendall e no uso de regressão linear simples. As tendências foram consideradas significativas somente quando ambas as avaliações foram significativas; neste caso, determinaram-se as taxas de alteração das temperaturas. Houve boa concordância entre os testes de significância para a detecção de tendências nas séries históricas, na maioria dos municípios. Observou-se tendência de elevação das temperaturas mínimas em julho de até 1,5ºC por década, com tendências generalizadas de aumento na maior parte do estado, em outubro e janeiro, e também na escala anual. Exceções foram verificadas especialmente em municípios de maiores altitudes, em que as temperaturas mínimas diminuíram no inverno. Há predominância de municípios com tendência significativa de aumento de temperaturas, independentemente da escala de avaliação. Tendências de aumento nas temperaturas são esperadas mais comumente no sentido sul-norte do Estado de Minas Gerais.

  19. Motherhood in adolescent mothers: maternal attachment, mother-infant styles of interaction and emotion regulation at three months.

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro


    Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mothers' parenting stress is associated with salivary cortisol profiles in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Korpa, Terpsichori; Pervanidou, Panagiota; Angeli, Eleni; Apostolakou, Filia; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P; Kolaitis, Gerasimos


    The aim of this study was to explore the relation between mothers' parenting stress and the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), as expressed by daily salivary cortisol concentrations, in their children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Seventy-five children aged 6-11 years diagnosed with ADHD predominant hyperactive-impulsive/combined (ADHD-HI/C, N = 49) and inattentive symptoms (ADHD-I, N = 26) and 45 healthy peers and their mothers participated in the study. Μothers completed measures assessing their children's ADHD status, perceived parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index - Short Form, PSI-SF), mothers' symptoms of psychopathology, social support and socioeconomic status. Children's salivary cortisol samples were collected at six different time points on a single day. Mothers of children with ADHD-HI/C reported higher levels of parenting stress than mothers of children with ADHD-I and controls. All PSI-SF subscales showed significant associations with children's cortisol awakening response (CAR) in both ADHD groups, with the exception of the parental distress subscale in the ADHD-I group. In both ADHD groups, the parent-child dysfunctional interaction subscale, the difficult child subscale and the PSI total score were significantly associated with children's CAR. An interrelation is revealed between mothers' high levels of parenting stress and HPAA functioning in children with ADHD. In this population, CAR has been identified as a sensitive peripheral measure of HPAA functioning in children. Lay summaryThis study showed that in families of children diagnosed with ADHD, there is a complex relation between the mothers' high levels of parenting stress and children's atypical hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning.