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Sample records for responsive evaluation study

  1. Radiological evaluation of tumor response in oncological studies (tumor response evaluation)

    Gebauer, B.; Riess, H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Radiological-morphological response evaluation plays a major role in oncological therapy and studies for approval. Specific criteria have been developed for some tumor entities and chemotherapeutics. Application, limitations and definitions of the most frequently used criteria for tumor response evaluation will be presented. Materials and Methods: Review based on a selective literature research. Results: In clinical oncological therapy studies, WHO and RECIST are the most frequently used criteria to evaluate morphological therapy response. RECIST criteria have been modified recently, especially with respect to the evaluation of lymph nodes, and were published as RECIST 1.1 in 2009. All criteria were originally developed and defined to review clinical multicenter trials for approval. Using these criteria in a clinical situation, certain limitations have to be considered. To evaluate response, a baseline scan before therapy start is mandatory. Special tumor response criteria have been defined for some certain tumor entities. Oncologists and radiologists should define in advance which criteria are used before starting therapy. Conclusion: The use of defined criteria is very important in oncology response evaluation. In-depth knowledge of the criteria and their limits is required for correct usage. (orig.)

  2. Relational responsibilities in responsive evaluation

    Visse, M.A.; Abma, T.A.; Widdershoven, G.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how we can enhance our understanding of the moral responsibilities in daily, plural practices of responsive evaluation. It introduces an interpretive framework for understanding the moral aspects of evaluation practice. The framework supports responsive evaluators to better

  3. Use of field experimental studies to evaluate emergency response models

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Lange, R.; Rodriguez, D.J.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional diagnostic wind field model (MATHEW) and the particle-in-cell atmospheric transport and diffusion model (ADPIC) are used by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability to estimate the environmental consequences of accidental releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere. These models have undergone extensive evaluations against field experiments conducted in a variety of environmental settings ranging from relatively flat to very complex terrain areas. Simulations of tracer experiments conducted in a complex mountain valley setting revealed that 35 to 50% of the comparisons between calculated and measured tracer concentrations were within a factor of 5. This may be compared with a factor of 2 for 50% of the comparisons for relatively flat terrain. This degradation of results in complex terrain is due to a variety of factors such as the limited representativeness of measurements in complex terrain, the limited spatial resolution afforded by the models, and the turbulence parameterization based on sigma/sub theta/ measurements to evaluate the eddy diffusivities. Measurements of sigma/sub theta/ in complex terrain exceed those measured over flat terrain by a factor of 2 to 3 leading to eddy diffusivities that are unrealistically high. The results of model evaluations are very sensitive to the quality and the representativeness of the meteorological data. This is particularly true for measurements near the source. The capability of the models to simulate the dispersion of an instantaneously produced cloud of particulates was illustrated to be generally within a factor of 2 over flat terrain. 19 refs., 16 figs

  4. Study on corporate social responsibility evaluation system based on stakeholder theory

    Ma, J.; Deng, Liming

    2011-10-01

    The issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been attracting the attention from many disciplines such as economics, management, laws, sociality and philosophy since last century. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of CSR on performance and develop a CSR evaluation system. Building on the definition of CSR and Stakeholder theory, this article built a path-relationship model of CSR and business operation performance. The paper also constructed CSR evaluation system based on KLD index, GRJ report, CSR accounting account, SA8000, ISO14000 etc. The research provides a basis for future studies about the relationship between CSR and business performance and shed some light on the evaluation of CSR practices.

  5. Example of emergency response model evaluation of studies using the Mathew/Adpic models

    Dickerson, M.H.; Lange, R.

    1986-04-01

    This report summarizes model evaluation studies conducted for the MATHEW/ADPIC transport and diffusion models during the past ten years. These models support the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability, an emergency response service for atmospheric releases of nuclear material. Field studies involving tracer releases used in these studies cover a broad range of meteorology, terrain and tracer release heights, the three most important aspects of estimating air concentration values resulting from airborne releases of toxic material. Results of these studies show that these models can estimate air concentration values within a factor of 2 20% to 50% of the time and a factor of 5 40% to 80% of the time. As the meterology and terrain become more complex and the release height of the tracer is increased, the accuracy of the model calculations degrades. This band of uncertainty appears to correctly represent the capability of these models at this time. A method for estimating angular uncertainty in the model calculations is described and used to suggest alternative methods for evaluating emergency response models

  6. Evaluation of treatment response in depression studies using a Bayesian parametric cure rate model.

    Santen, Gijs; Danhof, Meindert; Della Pasqua, Oscar

    2008-10-01

    Efficacy trials with antidepressant drugs often fail to show significant treatment effect even though efficacious treatments are investigated. This failure can, amongst other factors, be attributed to the lack of sensitivity of the statistical method as well as of the endpoints to pharmacological activity. For regulatory purposes the most widely used efficacy endpoint is still the mean change in HAM-D score at the end of the study, despite evidence from literature showing that the HAM-D scale might not be a sensitive tool to assess drug effect and that changes from baseline at the end of treatment may not reflect the extent of response. In the current study, we evaluate the prospect of applying a Bayesian parametric cure rate model (CRM) to analyse antidepressant effect in efficacy trials with paroxetine. The model is based on a survival approach, which allows for a fraction of surviving patients indefinitely after completion of treatment. Data was extracted from GlaxoSmithKline's clinical databases. Response was defined as a 50% change from baseline HAM-D at any assessment time after start of therapy. Survival times were described by a log-normal distribution and drug effect was parameterised as a covariate on the fraction of non-responders. The model was able to fit the data from different studies accurately and results show that response to treatment does not lag for two weeks, as is mythically believed. In conclusion, we demonstrate how parameterisation of a survival model can be used to characterise treatment response in depression trials. The method contrasts with the long-established snapshot on changes from baseline, as it incorporates the time course of response throughout treatment.

  7. The influence of the diffusion of responsibility effect on outcome evaluations: electrophysiological evidence from an ERP study.

    Li, Peng; Jia, Shiwei; Feng, Tingyong; Liu, Qiang; Suo, Tao; Li, Hong

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have revealed that personal responsibility has an influence on outcome evaluation, although the way this influence works is still unclear. This study imitated the phenomenon of responsibility diffusion in a laboratory to examine the influence of the effect of responsibility diffusion on the processing of outcome evaluation using the event-related potential (ERP) technique. Participants of the study were required to perform the gambling task individually in the high-responsibility condition and with others in the low-responsibility scenario. Self-rating results showed that the participants felt more responsible for monetary loss and believed that they had more contributions to the monetary gains in the high-responsibility condition than in the low-responsibility situation. Both the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300 were sensitive to the responsibility level, as evidenced by the enhanced amplitudes in the high-responsibility condition for both components. Further correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between FRN amplitudes and subjective rating scores (i.e., the higher the responsibility level, the larger the FRN amplitude). The results probably indicate that the FRN and P300 reflect personal responsibility processing under the social context of diffusion of responsibility. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Evaluation, correction and impact of non-response in studies of childhood obesity].

    Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Malvar, Alberto; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    2017-09-25

    To evaluate and correct the impact of non-response in the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in children aged 6 to 15 years old using silhouette scales. Cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 among 8,145 Galician schoolchildren aged 6-15 years old. The students who agreed to participate were weighed and measured and, based on body mass index, the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was estimated. Teachers rated all students using silhouette scales. The valuations were used to estimate the prevalence corrected by non-response. Using the Bayes theorem, participation rates were estimated according to weight status. The participation rate was 92.3% in the 6 -to 11-year-old group, and 90% in the 12- to 15-year old age group. In both groups, the prevalence of underweight and overweight were similar between participants and non-participants. However, obesity was higher among non-participants, especially at 12 to 15 years of age (6.3% vs. 12.2% ; p < 0.05). The prevalence did not change when corrected by the teacher's valuation. The participation rate of obese students was lower than the overall rate (82% vs. 90% at 12 to 15 years old; p < 0.05). The presence of participation bias, which was greater at 12-15 years old, was confirmed. However, the impact of the bias on prevalence was negligible due to the high participation rate. In obesity studies with objective measures, it is essential to quantify non-participation, as well as to assess its impact and correct it. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Histological evaluations and inflammatory responses of different dental implant abutment materials: A human histology pilot study.

    Sampatanukul, Teeratida; Serichetaphongse, Pravej; Pimkhaokham, Atiphan

    2018-04-01

    Improvements of soft tissue to the abutment surface results in more stable peri-implant conditions, however, few human histological studies have compared soft tissue responses around different abutment materials. To describe the peri-implant tissue around 3 abutment materials; titanium, zirconia, and gold alloy, over an 8-week healing period. Fifteen edentulous sites were treated with implants. Eight weeks later, peri-implant tissue was harvested and processed using a nonseparation resin embedded technique. The tissue attachment characteristics were assessed at clinical stages using the gingival index (GI) score, surgical stage (surgical score), and histological stage (histological attachment percentage). Additionally, the inflammatory responses were evaluated using inflammatory extent and inflammatory cellularity grades. Nonparametrical statistics were used to describe the GI and surgical scores, and analytical statistics were used to analyze the histological attachment percentages as well as the inflammatory extent and cellularity grades amongst the 3 groups. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups for GI score (P = .071) and surgical score (P = .262). Titanium and zirconia exhibited nearly similar mean histological attachment percentages while gold alloy had a significantly lower percentage (P = .004). For the inflammatory extent and cellularity grades, the odds of being one grade higher for gold alloy abutment was 5.18 and 17.8 times that of titanium abutment, respectively. However, for the zirconia abutment, the odds were 0.87 and 7.5 times higher than the titanium group. The tissue around the gold alloy abutments resulted in worse attachment conditions compared with the titanium and zirconia abutments. Inflammation tended to be higher in the tissue around the gold alloy abutments than the titanium and zirconia abutments. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Diagnosis, characterisation and evaluation of treatment response of frostbite using pertechnetate scintigraphy: a prospective study

    Bhatnagar, Aseem; Sawroop, Krishan; Chopra, M.K.; Sinha, Noaline; Kashyap, Ravi [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi (India); Sarker, B.B. [Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Delhi (India)

    2002-02-01

    In the present study, we performed early blood pool scintigraphy with technetium-99m pertechnetate in 20 patients (10-180 days after frostbite injury; 71 clinical lesions) referred for a topical treatment protocol for mild to moderately severe frostbite, and in 22 asymptomatic controls. The aims of the study were to define the ''normal'' microcirculation of the hands and feet, to characterise the appearances of frostbite lesions on scintigraphy and correlate these with the clinical presentation, and to evaluate the usefulness of scintigraphy for assessing the treatment response. Six patients were ''fresh'', 12 had been undergoing conservative treatment (topical homeopathic) for several weeks and two had permanent fibrotic hand phalanges. Nine patients on treatment underwent serial scintigraphy a total of 22 times. Eleven patients were imaged only once, including the two with permanent fixed defects. Three distinct physiological microcirculation patterns were evident in control hands or feet: right- or left-handedness (seven subjects), subclinical inflammatory foci correlating with callosity or pressure points (36 lesions) and distinctly increased pooling of radiotracer at the thenar or hypothenar region (eight subjects). In frostbite patients, 128 lesions (48 inflammatory, 80 ischaemic) were seen on the scan. This number included all 71 lesions identified clinically, the rest being subclinical. Subclinical frostbite lesion as an entity has not been described previously. Microvasculature of normal muscle groups (in the hands, elbow or feet) was shown on scintigraphy to improve after topical treatment. The treatment resulted in improved or normalised perfusion scan in 25 of 45 ischaemic segments with matching clinical improvement, and reduction or normalisation of uptake in inflammatory lesions (n=30). The data confirm the vasodilator and anti-inflammatory action of the topical preparation, and the sensitivity of the

  11. Diagnosis, characterisation and evaluation of treatment response of frostbite using pertechnetate scintigraphy: a prospective study

    Bhatnagar, Aseem; Sawroop, Krishan; Chopra, M.K.; Sinha, Noaline; Kashyap, Ravi; Sarker, B.B.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we performed early blood pool scintigraphy with technetium-99m pertechnetate in 20 patients (10-180 days after frostbite injury; 71 clinical lesions) referred for a topical treatment protocol for mild to moderately severe frostbite, and in 22 asymptomatic controls. The aims of the study were to define the ''normal'' microcirculation of the hands and feet, to characterise the appearances of frostbite lesions on scintigraphy and correlate these with the clinical presentation, and to evaluate the usefulness of scintigraphy for assessing the treatment response. Six patients were ''fresh'', 12 had been undergoing conservative treatment (topical homeopathic) for several weeks and two had permanent fibrotic hand phalanges. Nine patients on treatment underwent serial scintigraphy a total of 22 times. Eleven patients were imaged only once, including the two with permanent fixed defects. Three distinct physiological microcirculation patterns were evident in control hands or feet: right- or left-handedness (seven subjects), subclinical inflammatory foci correlating with callosity or pressure points (36 lesions) and distinctly increased pooling of radiotracer at the thenar or hypothenar region (eight subjects). In frostbite patients, 128 lesions (48 inflammatory, 80 ischaemic) were seen on the scan. This number included all 71 lesions identified clinically, the rest being subclinical. Subclinical frostbite lesion as an entity has not been described previously. Microvasculature of normal muscle groups (in the hands, elbow or feet) was shown on scintigraphy to improve after topical treatment. The treatment resulted in improved or normalised perfusion scan in 25 of 45 ischaemic segments with matching clinical improvement, and reduction or normalisation of uptake in inflammatory lesions (n=30). The data confirm the vasodilator and anti-inflammatory action of the topical preparation, and the sensitivity of the radionuclide method in monitoring treatment

  12. FLT-PET for early response evaluation of colorectal cancer patients with liver metastases: a prospective study.

    Mogensen, Marie Benzon; Loft, Annika; Aznar, Marianne; Axelsen, Thomas; Vainer, Ben; Osterlind, Kell; Kjaer, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Fluoro-L-thymidine (FLT) is a positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) tracer which reflects proliferative activity in a cancer lesion. The main objective of this prospective explorative study was to evaluate whether FLT-PET can be used for the early evaluation of treatment response in colorectal cancer patients (CRC) with liver metastases. Patients with metastatic CRC having at least one measurable (>1 cm) liver metastasis receiving first-line chemotherapy were included. A FLT-PET/CT scan was performed at baseline and after the first treatment. The maximum and mean standardised uptake values (SUV max , SUV mean ) were measured. After three cycles of chemotherapy, treatment response was assessed by CT scan based on RECIST 1.1. Thirty-nine consecutive patients were included of which 27 were evaluable. Dropout was mainly due to disease complications. Nineteen patients (70%) had a partial response, seven (26%) had stable disease and one (4%) had progressive disease. A total of 23 patients (85%) had a decrease in FLT uptake following the first treatment. The patient with progressive disease had the highest increase in FLT uptake in SUV max . There was no correlation between the response according to RECIST and the early changes in FLT uptake measured as SUV max (p = 0.24). No correlation was found between early changes in FLT uptake after the first cycle of treatment and the response evaluated from subsequent CT scans. It seems unlikely that FLT-PET can be used on its own for the early response evaluation of metastatic CRC.

  13. Mechanisms of repetitive retrograde contractions in response to sustained esophageal distension: a study evaluating patients with postfundoplication dysphagia.

    Carlson, Dustin A; Kahrilas, Peter J; Ritter, Katherine; Lin, Zhiyue; Pandolfino, John E

    2018-03-01

    Repetitive retrograde contractions (RRCs) in response to sustained esophageal distension are a distinct contractility pattern observed with functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) panometry that are common in type III (spastic) achalasia. RRCs are hypothesized to be indicative of either impaired inhibitory innervation or esophageal outflow obstruction. We aimed to apply FLIP panometry to patients with postfundoplication dysphagia (a model of esophageal obstruction) to explore mechanisms behind RRCs. Adult patients with dysphagia after Nissen fundoplication ( n = 32) or type III achalasia ( n = 25) were evaluated with high-resolution manometry (HRM) and upper endoscopy with FLIP. HRM studies were assessed for outflow obstruction and spastic features: premature contractility, hypercontractility, and impaired deglutitive inhibition during multiple-rapid swallows. FLIP studies were analyzed to determine the esophagogastric junction (EGJ)-distensibility index and contractility pattern, including RRCs. Barium esophagram was evaluated when available. RRCs were present in 8/32 (25%) fundoplication and 19/25 (76%) achalasia patients ( P esophageal outflow obstruction, as a predictor for RRCs. RRCs in response to sustained esophageal distension appear to be a manifestation of spastic esophageal motility. Although future study to further clarify the significance of RRCs is needed, RRCs on FLIP panometry should prompt evaluation for a major motor disorder. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Repetitive retrograde contractions (RRCs) are a common response to sustained esophageal distension among spastic achalasia patients when evaluated with the functional luminal imaging probe. We evaluated patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, i.e., patients with suspected mechanical obstruction, and found that RRCs occasionally occurred among postfundoplication patients, but often in association with manometric features of esophageal neuromuscular imbalance. Thus, RRCs appear to be a manifestation of

  14. Making the Invisible Visible: A Responsive Evaluation Study of ESL and Spanish Language Services for Immigrants in a Small Rural County in Indiana

    Pawan, Faridah; Thomalla, Therese Groff

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a responsive evaluation study of ESL services and Spanish language services for immigrants in a rural county in Indiana. An ESL specialist led the evaluation of language services in the county from the perspectives of language providers and recipients. The responsive evaluation--a form of action research that uses…

  15. Therapy response evaluation of malignant lymphoma in a multicenter study. Comparison of manual and semiautomatic measurements in CT

    Wessling, J.; Schuelke, C.; Koch, R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Comparison of manual one-/bi-dimensional measurements versus semi-automatically derived one-/bi-dimensional and volumetric measurements for therapy response evaluation of malignant lymphoma during CT follow-up examinations in a multicenter setting. Materials and Methods: MSCT data sets of patients with malignant lymphoma were evaluated before (baseline) and after two cycles of chemotherapy (follow-up) at radiological centers of five university hospitals. The long axis diameter (LAD), the short axis diameter (SAD) and the bi-dimensional WHO of 307 target lymph nodes were measured manually and semi-automatically using dedicated software. Lymph node volumetry was performed semi-automatically only. The therapeutic response was evaluated according to lymphoma-adapted RECIST. Results: Based on a single lymph node, semi-automatically derived multidimensional parameters allowed for significantly more accurate therapy response classification than the manual or the semi-automatic unidimensional parameters. Incorrect classifications were reduced by up to 9.6%. Compared to the manual approach, the influence of the study center on correct therapy classification is significantly less relevant when using semi-automatic measurements. Conclusion: Semi-automatic volumetry and bi-dimensional WHO significantly reduce the number of incorrectly classified lymphoma patients by approximately 9.6% in the multicenter setting in comparison to linear parameters. Semi-automatic quantitative software tools may help to significantly reduce wrong classifications that are associated with the manual assessment approach. (orig.)

  16. Therapy response evaluation of malignant lymphoma in a multicenter study. Comparison of manual and semiautomatic measurements in CT

    Wessling, J.; Schuelke, C. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Koch, R. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Medical Informatics and Biomathematics; and others

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Comparison of manual one-/bi-dimensional measurements versus semi-automatically derived one-/bi-dimensional and volumetric measurements for therapy response evaluation of malignant lymphoma during CT follow-up examinations in a multicenter setting. Materials and Methods: MSCT data sets of patients with malignant lymphoma were evaluated before (baseline) and after two cycles of chemotherapy (follow-up) at radiological centers of five university hospitals. The long axis diameter (LAD), the short axis diameter (SAD) and the bi-dimensional WHO of 307 target lymph nodes were measured manually and semi-automatically using dedicated software. Lymph node volumetry was performed semi-automatically only. The therapeutic response was evaluated according to lymphoma-adapted RECIST. Results: Based on a single lymph node, semi-automatically derived multidimensional parameters allowed for significantly more accurate therapy response classification than the manual or the semi-automatic unidimensional parameters. Incorrect classifications were reduced by up to 9.6%. Compared to the manual approach, the influence of the study center on correct therapy classification is significantly less relevant when using semi-automatic measurements. Conclusion: Semi-automatic volumetry and bi-dimensional WHO significantly reduce the number of incorrectly classified lymphoma patients by approximately 9.6% in the multicenter setting in comparison to linear parameters. Semi-automatic quantitative software tools may help to significantly reduce wrong classifications that are associated with the manual assessment approach. (orig.)

  17. Monitoring T-Cell Responses in Translational Studies: Optimization of Dye-Based Proliferation Assay for Evaluation of Antigen-Specific Responses

    Anja Ten Brinke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive therapy with regulatory T cells or tolerance-inducing antigen (Ag-presenting cells is innovative and promising therapeutic approach to control undesired and harmful activation of the immune system, as observed in autoimmune diseases, solid organ and bone marrow transplantation. One of the critical issues to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for success or failure of these therapies and define the specificity of the therapy is the evaluation of the Ag-specific T-cell responses. Several efforts have been made to develop suitable and reproducible assays. Here, we focus on dye-based proliferation assays. We highlight with practical examples the fundamental issues to take into consideration for implementation of an effective and sensitive dye-based proliferation assay to monitor Ag-specific responses in patients. The most critical points were used to design a road map to set up and analyze the optimal assay to assess Ag-specific T-cell responses in patients undergoing different treatments. This is the first step to optimize monitoring of tolerance induction, allowing comparison of outcomes of different clinical studies. The road map can also be applied to other therapeutic interventions, not limited to tolerance induction therapies, in which Ag-specific T-cell responses are relevant such as vaccination approaches and cancer immunotherapy.

  18. Information Science and Responsive Evaluation

    Stake, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Responsive evaluation builds upon the methods of informal evaluation in disciplined ways: getting personally acquainted with the evaluand, observation of activities, interviewing people who are in different ways familiar with the evaluand, searching documents that reveal what happened in the past or somewhere else. It calls for sustained effort to…

  19. Development and evaluation of a leadership training program for public health emergency response: results from a Chinese study

    Xu Yihua

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the 9/11 attack and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, the development of qualified and able public health leaders has become a new urgency in building the infrastructure needed to address public health emergencies. Although previous studies have reported that the training of individual leaders is an important approach, the systemic and scientific training model need further improvement and development. The purpose of this study was to develop, deliver, and evaluate a participatory leadership training program for emergency response. Methods Forty-one public health leaders (N = 41 from five provinces completed the entire emergency preparedness training program in China. The program was evaluated by anonymous questionnaires and semi-structured interviews held prior to training, immediately post-training and 12-month after training (Follow-up. Results The emergency preparedness training resulted in positive shifts in knowledge, self-assessment of skills for public health leaders. More than ninety-five percent of participants reported that the training model was scientific and feasible. Moreover, the response of participants in the program to the avian influenza outbreak, as well as the planned evaluations for this leadership training program, further demonstrated both the successful approaches and methods and the positive impact of this integrated leadership training initiative. Conclusion The emergency preparedness training program met its aims and objectives satisfactorily, and improved the emergency capability of public health leaders. This suggests that the leadership training model was effective and feasible in improving the emergency preparedness capability.

  20. Ethylenediurea as a potential tool in evaluating ozone phytotoxicity: a review study on physiological, biochemical and morphological responses of plants.

    Tiwari, Supriya

    2017-06-01

    Present-day climate change scenario has intensified the problem of continuously increasing ground-level ozone (O 3 ), which is responsible for causing deleterious effects on growth and development of plants. Studies involving use of ethylenediurea (EDU), a chemical with antiozonant properties, have given some promising results in evaluating O 3 injury in plants. The use of EDU is especially advantageous in developing countries which face a more severe problem of ground-level O 3 , and technical O 3 -induced yield loss assessment techniques like open-top chambers cannot be used. Recent studies have detected a hormetic response of EDU on plants; i.e. treatment with higher EDU concentrations may or may not show any adverse effect on plants depending upon the experimental conditions. Although the mode of action of EDU is still debated, it is confirmed that EDU remains confined in the apoplastic regions. Certain studies indicate that EDU significantly affects the electron transport chain and has positive impact on the antioxidant defence machinery of the plants. However, the mechanism of protecting the yield of plants without significantly affecting photosynthesis is still questionable. This review discusses in details the probable mode of action of EDU on the basis of available data along with the impact of EDU on physiological, biochemical, growth and yield response of plants under O 3 stress. Data regarding the effect of EDU on plant 'omics' is highly insufficient and can form an important aspect of future EDU research.

  1. Evaluation of patient response and recurrence of pigmentation following gingival depigmentation using laser and scalpel technique: A clinical study

    Harpreet Singh Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate patient response and recurrence of pigmentation following gingival depigmentation carried out with a surgical blade and diode laser. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients who were esthetically conscious of their dark gums and requested treatment for the same were selected for this study. Complete phase I therapy was performed for all the patients before performing the gingival depigmentation procedures with laser and scalpel on a split-mouth basis. Patients were evaluated for pain (1 day, 1 week, wound healing and melanin repigmentation (Melanin Pigmentation Index immediately and at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months, respectively. Results: The final results were statistically analyzed and significance was evaluated. The results of this study indicated that both scalpel and laser were efficient for gingival depigmentation. Comparative pain assessment (P = 0.148 and repigmentation scores (P = 0.288 at various time intervals between the two groups did not show any statistical significance. Conclusion: Both the procedures did not result in any post-operative complications and the gingiva healed uneventfully. When compared, both the techniques were found to be equally efficacious. Care must be taken to assess the gingival biotype and the degree of pigmentation in deciding which technique is to be used. Clinical Significance: Various methods of depigmentation are available with comparable efficacies. Depigmentation is not a clinical indication but a treatment of choice where esthetics is a concern and is desired by the patient.

  2. The Japan HOspice and Palliative Care Evaluation Study 3: Study Design, Characteristics of Participants and Participating Institutions, and Response Rates.

    Aoyama, Maho; Morita, Tatsuya; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo; Miyashita, Mitsunori

    2017-08-01

    This article describes the whole picture of Japan HOspice and Palliative Care Evaluation Study 3 (J-HOPE3 Study) including study design and demographic data. The aims of the J-HOPE3 study were to (1) evaluate the process, structure, and outcome of palliative care in the following care settings: acute hospitals, inpatient hospice/palliative care units (PCUs), and home hospice services; (2) examine bereaved family members' self-reported psychosocial conditions, such as grief and depression, as bereavement outcomes; (3) provide data to ensure and improve the quality of care provided by participating institutions through feedback concerning results for each institution; and (4) perform additional studies to explore specific clinical research questions. We conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous, self-report questionnaire survey involving patients' bereaved family members in 20 acute hospitals, 133 PCUs, and 22 home hospice services between May and July 2014. Two types of questionnaires were used: main and specific studies questionnaires. The questionnaire was sent to totally 13 584, and 10 157 returned the questionnaire. The analysis included 9126 family members' questionnaires from acute hospitals, PCUs, and home hospice services. Respondents' average age was 61.6 years, 55% were women, and 40% had been married to the deceased. With respect to the characteristics of participating institutions, most institutions did not have religious affiliations, and most PCUs and home hospice services provided bereavement care. These results of the analysis of common and additional questionnaires could play an important role in clinical settings, quality improvement, research, and public accountability.

  3. An Experimental Study of Satisfaction Response: Evaluation of Online Collaborative Learning

    Cheng, Xusen; Wang, Xueyin; Huang, Jianqing; Zarifis, Alex

    2016-01-01

    On the one hand, a growing amount of research discusses support for improving online collaborative learning quality, and many indicators are focused to assess its success. On the other hand, thinkLets for designing reputable and valuable collaborative processes have been developed for more than ten years. However, few studies try to apply…

  4. Qualitative process evaluation of an Australian alcohol media literacy study: recommendations for designing culturally responsive school-based programs

    Chloe S. Gordon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol media literacy programs seek to mitigate the potentially harmful effects of alcohol advertising on children’s drinking intentions and behaviours through equipping them with skills to challenge media messages. In order for such programs to be effective, the teaching and learning experiences must be tailored to their specific cultural context. Media in the Spotlight is an alcohol media literacy program aimed at 9 to 12 year old Australian children. This study evaluates the process and implementation of the program, outlining the factors that facilitated and inhibited implementation. From this evaluation, a pedagogical framework has been developed for health professionals implementing culturally responsive programs in school settings. Methods Process measures included: semi-structured interviews with teachers before and after the program was implemented (n = 11 interviews, program evaluation questionnaires completed by children (n = 166, lesson observations completed by teachers (n = 35 observations, and reflective journal entries completed by the researcher (n = 44 entries. A thematic analysis approach was used to analyse all of the data sets using NVivo. Inductive coding was used, whereby the findings were derived from the research objectives and multiple readings and interpretations of the data. Results Five key pedagogical considerations were identified that facilitated implementation. These were: connecting to the students’ life worlds to achieve cultural significance; empowering students with real-world skills to ensure relevance; ensuring programs are well structured with strong connections to the school curriculum; creating developmentally appropriate activities while providing a range of assessment opportunities; and including hands-on and interactive activities to promote student engagement. Three potential inhibitors to implementing the alcohol media literacy program in upper

  5. Qualitative process evaluation of an Australian alcohol media literacy study: recommendations for designing culturally responsive school-based programs.

    Gordon, Chloe S; Kervin, Lisa K; Jones, Sandra C; Howard, Steven J

    2017-02-02

    Alcohol media literacy programs seek to mitigate the potentially harmful effects of alcohol advertising on children's drinking intentions and behaviours through equipping them with skills to challenge media messages. In order for such programs to be effective, the teaching and learning experiences must be tailored to their specific cultural context. Media in the Spotlight is an alcohol media literacy program aimed at 9 to 12 year old Australian children. This study evaluates the process and implementation of the program, outlining the factors that facilitated and inhibited implementation. From this evaluation, a pedagogical framework has been developed for health professionals implementing culturally responsive programs in school settings. Process measures included: semi-structured interviews with teachers before and after the program was implemented (n = 11 interviews), program evaluation questionnaires completed by children (n = 166), lesson observations completed by teachers (n = 35 observations), and reflective journal entries completed by the researcher (n = 44 entries). A thematic analysis approach was used to analyse all of the data sets using NVivo. Inductive coding was used, whereby the findings were derived from the research objectives and multiple readings and interpretations of the data. Five key pedagogical considerations were identified that facilitated implementation. These were: connecting to the students' life worlds to achieve cultural significance; empowering students with real-world skills to ensure relevance; ensuring programs are well structured with strong connections to the school curriculum; creating developmentally appropriate activities while providing a range of assessment opportunities; and including hands-on and interactive activities to promote student engagement. Three potential inhibitors to implementing the alcohol media literacy program in upper-elementary school classrooms were identified. These included topic

  6. Psychobiological responses to critically evaluated multitasking.

    Wetherell, Mark A; Craw, Olivia; Smith, Kenny; Smith, Michael A

    2017-12-01

    In order to understand psychobiological responses to stress it is necessary to observe how people react to controlled stressors. A range of stressors exist for this purpose; however, laboratory stressors that are representative of real life situations provide more ecologically valid opportunities for assessing stress responding. The current study assessed psychobiological responses to an ecologically valid laboratory stressor involving multitasking and critical evaluation. The stressor elicited significant increases in psychological and cardiovascular stress reactivity; however, no cortisol reactivity was observed. Other socially evaluative laboratory stressors that lead to cortisol reactivity typically require a participant to perform tasks that involve verbal responses, whilst standing in front of evaluative others. The current protocol contained critical evaluation of cognitive performance; however, this was delivered from behind a seated participant. The salience of social evaluation may therefore be related to the response format of the task and the method of evaluation. That is, the current protocol did not involve the additional vulnerability associated with in person, face-to-face contact, and verbal delivery. Critical evaluation of multitasking provides an ecologically valid technique for inducing laboratory stress and provides an alternative tool for assessing psychological and cardiovascular reactivity. Future studies could additionally use this paradigm to investigate those components of social evaluation necessary for eliciting a cortisol response.

  7. Affective responses to ambivalence are context-dependent : A facial EMG study on the role of inconsistency and evaluative context in shaping affective responses to ambivalence

    Nohlen, H.U.; van Harreveld, F.; Rotteveel, M.; Barends, A.J.; Larsen, J.T.

    It has long been debated whether attitudinal ambivalence elicits negative affect and evidence for such a link is inconclusive. Using facial EMG, we tested the idea that affective responses to ambivalence are dependent on the inconsistency of evaluations in the current situation. In a person

  8. Tumor response evaluation after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma: a prospective, multi-center cohort study

    De Martini, Paolo; Ceresoli, Marco; Mari, Giulio M.; Costanzi, Andrea; Maggioni, Dario; Pugliese, Raffaele; Ferrari, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Background To verify the prognostic value of the pathologic and radiological tumor response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods A total of 67 patients with locally advanced gastric cancer (clinical ≥ T2 or nodal disease and without evidence of distant metastases) underwent perioperative chemotherapy (ECF or ECX regimen) from December 2009 through June 2015 in two surgical units. Histopathological and radiological response to chemotherapy were evaluated by using tumor regression grade (TRG) (Becker’s criteria) and volume change assessed by CT. Results Fifty-one (86%) patients completed all chemotherapy scheduled cycles successfully and surgery was curative (R0) in 64 (97%) subjects. The histopathological analysis showed 19 (29%) specimens with TRG1 (less than 10% of vital tumor left) and 25 (37%) patients had partial or complete response (CR) assessed by CT scan. Median disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 25.70 months (range, 14.52–36.80 months) and 36.60 months (range, 24.3–52.9 months), respectively. The median follow up was 27 months (range, 5.00–68.00 months). Radiological response and TRG were found to be a prognostic factor for OS and DFS, while tumor histology was not significantly related to survival. Conclusions Both radiological response and TRG have been shown as promising survival markers in patients treated with perioperative chemotherapy for locally advanced gastric cancer. Other predictive markers of response to chemotherapy are strongly required. PMID:29299362

  9. ACCOUNTING RESPONSIBILITY FOR BUSINESS EVALUATION

    DORU CÎRNU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the world today the need for improvement the business management quality assumes significant change in organization and mode of business management. Establishing of appropriate level, structure and authority of business management depends in most cases on the size, number of employees, complexness of technological and business process, market position and other factors. Development of a business requires decentralization of operative functions. The decentralization of a business means the increase of operative activities control of greater number of managers in such a business. An important segment that so far was neither sufficiently applied in the romanian practice, not sufficiently treated is a system of responsibility. One of the aims of this research is also stimulation of more intensive activities on initiating the process of accounting modernisation. First of all, on the improvement and more rational legal accounting regulation and motivation of professional accountants organization for quicker development of contemporary accounting principles and standards in compliance with tendencies of the european environment. The known experiences just point to the necessity of more complex perception of place and role of the management accounting and within it of the system of accounting responsibility in preparing of business plans and buget, in creation of development and investment policy. Therefore, the system of accounting responsibility should eneble monitoring and control of actual operational activities of each part of decentralized business. The process of performance evaluation and accounting responsibility in a descentralized business organization represents a significant element of an internal control system and in that sense the emphasis was put on that fact in this paper.

  10. Studies on the seismic buckling design guideline of FBR main vessels. 9. Buckling evaluation under elastic-plastic seismic response

    Hagiwara, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Kohsuke; Kawamoto, Yoji; Nakagawa, Masaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Plastic shear-bending buckling under seismic loadings is one of the major problems in the structural design of FBR main vessels. Pseudo-dynamic and dynamic buckling tests of cylinders were performed in order to study the effects of nonlinear seismic response on buckling strength, ductility, and plastic response reduction. The buckling strength formulae and the rule for ductility factors both derived from static tests were confirmed to be valid for the tests under dynamic loads. The displacement-constant rule for response reduction effect was modified by acceleration amplification factor in order to maintain applicability for various spectral profiles of seismic excitations. The response reduction estimated by the proposed rule was reasonably conservative for all cases of the pseudo-dynamic and the dynamic tests. Finally, a seismic safety assessment rule was proposed for plastic shear-bending buckling of cylinders, which include the proposed response reduction rule. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the inflammatory response induced by different materials in the treatment of perianal fistulas: experimental study in rats

    Mariana Ocampos Galvão

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical literature has no study evaluating the effectiveness of different materials used as setons in the treatment of perianal fistulas; therefore, there is no evidence of availability of a more effective material than others for this purpose. Objective: To evaluate the inflammatory response induced by different materials used as seton in perianal fistulas in rats. Method: Thirty Wistar rats, which were initially submitted for the construction of a perianal fistula by passing transfixing steel wire into the anal canal, were used. The rats were kept for 30 days; after this period, and with confirmation of the formation of the perianal fistula, the setons were introduced (10 rats – cotton thread #0; 10 rats – rubber; and 10 rats – silastic; after 30 days the animals were euthanized, and then the area of the fistula repaired by the seton was resected, and the material retrieved was submitted to histological analysis. The results were analyzed statistically. Results: The mean degree of inflammatory process observed by histological analysis after 30 days was 2.3 for the cotton group; 1 for the rubber group; and 1.2 for the silastic group. Conclusion: A greater inflammatory response was observed in the group treated with a cotton seton. In the remaining groups, a lower inflammatory response, with equal intensity for rubber and silastic-treated rats, was noted. Resumo: Não foram encontrados na literatura médica estudos que avaliassem a eficácia dos diferentes materiais utilizados como sedenho no tratamento de fístulas perianais, portanto, não havendo evidências de que haja um material mais eficaz do que outro para esta finalidade. Objetivo: avaliar a resposta inflamatória induzida por diferentes materiais utilizados como sedenhos em fístulas perianais em ratos. Método: foram utilizados 30 ratos Wistar, os quais foram inicialmente submetidos à criação de fístula perianal pela passagem de fio de aço transfixante no canal anal

  12. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  13. Prospective evaluation of direct approach with a tablet device as a strategy to enhance survey study participant response rate

    Parker Melissa J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigators conduct survey studies for a variety of reasons. Poor participant response rates are common, however, and may limit the generalizability and utility of results. The objective of this study was to determine whether direct approach with a tablet device enhances survey study participant response rate and to assess participants’ experiences with this mode of survey administration. Findings An interventional study nested within a single center survey study was conducted at McMaster Children’s Hospital. The primary outcome was the ability to achieve of a survey study response rate of 70% or greater. Eligible participants received 3 email invitations (Week 0, 2, 4 to complete a web-based (Survey Monkey survey. The study protocol included plans for a two-week follow-up phase (Phase 2 where non-responders were approached by a research assistant and invited to complete an iPad-based version of the survey. The Phase 1 response rate was 48.7% (56/115. Phase 2 effectively recruited reluctant responders, increasing the overall response rate to 72.2% (83/115. On a 7-point Likert scale, reluctant responders highly rated their enjoyment (mean 6.0, sd 0.83 [95% CI: 5.7-6.3] and ease of use (mean 6.7, sd 0.47 [95% CI: 6.5-6.9] completing the survey using the iPad. Reasons endorsed for Phase 2 participation included: direct approach (81%, immediate survey access (62%, and the novelty of completing a tablet-based survey (54%. Most reluctant responders (89% indicated that a tablet-based survey is their preferred method of survey completion. Conclusions Use of a tablet-based version of the survey was effective in recruiting reluctant responders and this group reported positive experiences with this mode of survey administration.

  14. Development of a Technology Transfer Score for Evaluating Research Proposals: Case Study of Demand Response Technologies in the Pacific Northwest

    Estep, Judith

    researcher and recipient relationship, specific to technology transfer. In this research, the evaluation criteria of several research organizations were assessed to understand the extent to which the success attributes that were identified in literature were considered when reviewing research proposals. While some of the organizations included a few of the success attributes, none of the organizations considered all of the attributes. In addition, none of the organizations quantified the value of the success attributes. The effectiveness of the model relies extensively on expert judgments to complete the model validation and quantification. Subject matter experts ranging from senior executives with extensive experience in technology transfer to principal research investigators from national labs, universities, utilities, and non-profit research organizations were used to ensure a comprehensive and cross-functional validation and quantification of the decision model. The quantified model was validated using a case study involving demand response (DR) technology proposals in the Pacific Northwest. The DR technologies were selected based on their potential to solve some of the region's most prevalent issues. In addition, several sensitivity scenarios were developed to test the model's response to extreme case scenarios, impact of perturbations in expert responses, and if it can be applied to other than demand response technologies. In other words, is the model technology agnostic? In addition, the flexibility of the model to be used as a tool for communicating which success attributes in a research proposal are deficient and need strengthening and how improvements would increase the overall technology transfer score were assessed. The low scoring success attributes in the case study proposals (e.g. project meetings, etc.) were clearly identified as the areas to be improved for increasing the technology transfer score. As a communication tool, the model could help a research

  15. Evaluation of Coordination of Emergency Response Team through the Social Network Analysis. Case Study: Oil and Gas Refinery.

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Bastani, Susan; Esaghi, Mahbobeh; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Saee, Ali

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cohesions status of the coordination within response teams in the emergency response team (ERT) in a refinery. For this study, cohesion indicators of social network analysis (SNA; density, degree centrality, reciprocity, and transitivity) were utilized to examine the coordination of the response teams as a whole network. The ERT of this research, which was a case study, included seven teams consisting of 152 members. The required data were collected through structured interviews and were analyzed using the UCINET 6.0 Social Network Analysis Program. The results reported a relatively low number of triple connections, poor coordination with key members, and a high level of mutual relations in the network with low density, all implying that there were low cohesions of coordination in the ERT. The results showed that SNA provided a quantitative and logical approach for the examination of the coordination status among response teams and it also provided a main opportunity for managers and planners to have a clear understanding of the presented status. The research concluded that fundamental efforts were needed to improve the presented situations.

  16. Neutron response study

    Endres, G.W.R.; Fix, J.J.; Thorson, M.R.; Nichols, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    Neutron response of the albedo type dosimeter is strongly dependent on the energy of the incident neutrons as well as the moderating material on the backside of the dosimeter. This study characterizes the response of the Hanford dosimeter for a variety of neutron energies for both a water and Rando phantom (a simulated human body consisting of an actual human skeleton with plastic for body muscles and certain organs). The Hanford dosimeter response to neutrons of different energies is typical of albedo type dosimeters. An approximate two orders of magnitude difference in response is observed between neutron energies of 100 keV and 10 MeV. Methods were described to compensate for the difference in dosimeter response between a laboratory neutron spectrum and the different spectra encountered at various facilities in the field. Generally, substantial field support is necessary for accurate neutron dosimetry

  17. Developing guidelines for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in EIAs. Part II: Case studies and dose-response literature

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This Part II of the report contains full versions of the case studies for air, water and land (Chapters 2-4), which were only summarised in Part I. In addition, during the work the research team has collected a large amount of literature and information on dose response relationships for air and water pollution relevant to China. This information is included as Chapters 5 and 6.

  18. Developing guidelines for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in EIAs. Part II: Case studies and dose-response literature

    2005-01-01

    This Part II of the report contains full versions of the case studies for air, water and land (Chapters 2-4), which were only summarised in Part I. In addition, during the work the research team has collected a large amount of literature and information on dose response relationships for air and water pollution relevant to China. This information is included as Chapters 5 and 6

  19. Evaluation of TV commercials using neurophysiological responses

    Yang, Taeyang; Lee, Do-Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Choi, Jinsook; Kim, Chajoong; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent years, neuroscientific knowledge has been applied to marketing as a novel and efficient means to comprehend the cognitive and behavioral aspects of consumers. A number of studies have attempted to evaluate media contents, especially TV commercials using various neuroimaging techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG). Yet neurophysiological examination of detailed cognitive and affective responses in viewers is still required to provide practical information to market...

  20. Predictive value of early {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT studies for treatment response evaluation to ipilimumab in metastatic melanoma: preliminary results of an ongoing study

    Sachpekidis, Christos; Pan, Leyun; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia [German Cancer Research Center, Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Larribere, Lionel [German Cancer Research Center, Clinical Cooperation Unit Dermato-Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Haberkorn, Uwe [German Cancer Research Center, Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); University of Heidelberg, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Hassel, Jessica C. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Skin Cancer Center, Department of Dermatology, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Tumor Diseases Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-31

    Ipilimumab is a newly approved immunotherapeutic agent that has been shown to provide a survival benefit in patients with metastatic melanoma. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT has demonstrated very satisfying results in detecting melanoma metastases in general. Using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT we monitored patients with metastatic melanoma undergoing ipilimumab therapy during the course of treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT performed after two cycles of ipilimumab in predicting the final response to therapy. In 22 patients suffering from unresectable metastatic melanoma, scheduled for ipilimumab treatment PET/CT scanning was performed before the start of treatment (baseline scan), after two cycles of treatment (early response) and at the end of treatment after four cycles (late response). Evaluation of the patient response to treatment on PET was based on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer 1999 criteria. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) data are presented. After the end of treatment, 15 patients were characterized as having progressive metabolic disease (PMD) and five as having stable metabolic disease (SMD), and two patients showed a partial metabolic response (PMR). Early PET/CT performed after two ipilimumab cycles predicted treatment response in 13 of the 15 PMD patients, in five of the five SMD patients and in neither of the two PMR patients. Both patients with PMR showed pseudoprogression after the second cycle and were therefore wrongly classified. According to the patients' clinical outcome, patients with late PMD had a median PFS of 3.6 months (mean 5.6 months), while patients with late SMD had a median PFS of 9.8 months (mean 9.0 months). In comparison, patients with early PMD had a median PFS of 2.7 months (mean 5.5 months) and patients with early SMD had a median PFS of 6.3 months (mean 7.5 months). The difference in PFS between the two groups was statistically

  1. Evaluation of concurrent peak responses

    Wang, P.C.; Curreri, J.; Reich, M.

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with the problem of combining two or more concurrent responses which are induced by dynamic loads acting on nuclear power plant structures. Specifically, the acceptability of using the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) value of peak values as the combined response is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the establishment of a simplified criterion that is convenient and relatively easy to use by design engineers

  2. Lab-scale impact test to investigate the pipe-soil interaction and comparative study to evaluate structural responses

    Dong-Man Ryu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the dynamic response of a subsea pipeline under an impact load to determine the effect of the seabed soil. A laboratory-scale soil-based pipeline impact test was carried out to investigate the pipeline deformation/strain as well as the interaction with the soil-pipeline. In addition, an impact test was simulated using the finite element technique, and the calculated strain was compared with the experimental results. During the simulation, the pipeline was described based on an elasto-plastic analysis, and the soil was modeled using the Mohr-Coulomb fail-ure criterion. The results obtained were compared with ASME D31.8, and the differences between the analysis results and the rules were specifically investigated. Modified ASME formulae were proposed to calculate the precise structural behavior of a subsea pipeline under an impact load when considering sand- and clay-based seabed soils.

  3. A Ranking Method for Evaluating Constructed Responses

    Attali, Yigal

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a comparative judgment approach for holistically scored constructed response tasks. In this approach, the grader rank orders (rather than rate) the quality of a small set of responses. A prior automated evaluation of responses guides both set formation and scaling of rankings. Sets are formed to have similar prior scores and…

  4. A histological evaluation of bone tissue response to a sealer based on calcium hydroxide: An experimental study

    Nikolić Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. The success of endodontic treatment depends on the effective removal of root content, the elimination of infection, and the hermetical sealing of the root system using a compatible material. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the tissue response to the implant of endodontic material based on calcium hydroxide into the bone in the artificially prepared defect in a rat mandible. Methods. The research was carried out on 40 Wistar rats. The artificial defect was made between the midline and the mental foramen on the left side of the mandible. The prepared defect was left to heal spontaneously in animals of the control group, while among the animals of the experimental group the sealer Apexit (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Lichtenstein was implanted into the experimental defect. The tissue samples consisting of the experimental field and the surrounding bone were microscopically analyzed with a light microscope. Results. During the initial phase, 15 days after the implantation, signs of chronic inflammation were noted and expansion of the Volkmann’s and Haversian canals. On the 30th day after the implantation, osteosynthetic activity and filling with newly-formed bone were noted. Changes were also noted in cement lines in the wider region of the experimental defect. Sixty days following the implantation, the bone was gradually remodeled. Ninety days after the implantation, a restitutio ad integrum was noted. Conclusion. Apexit does not lead to any disruptions in normal reparation processes nor in morphofunctional relations in bone tissue during the remodeling phase. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 175061: The antioxidant protection and potentials for differentiation and regeneration of mesenchymal stem cells from different tissues during the aging process

  5. Evaluating HIV Knowledge Questionnaires Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Multi-Study Item Response Theory Analysis.

    Janulis, Patrick; Newcomb, Michael E; Sullivan, Patrick; Mustanski, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge about the transmission, prevention, and treatment of HIV remains a critical element in psychosocial models of HIV risk behavior and is commonly used as an outcome in HIV prevention interventions. However, most HIV knowledge questions have not undergone rigorous psychometric testing such as using item response theory. The current study used data from six studies of men who have sex with men (MSM; n = 3565) to (1) examine the item properties of HIV knowledge questions, (2) test for differential item functioning on commonly studied characteristics (i.e., age, race/ethnicity, and HIV risk behavior), (3) select items with the optimal item characteristics, and (4) leverage this combined dataset to examine the potential moderating effect of age on the relationship between condomless anal sex (CAS) and HIV knowledge. Findings indicated that existing questions tend to poorly differentiate those with higher levels of HIV knowledge, but items were relatively robust across diverse individuals. Furthermore, age moderated the relationship between CAS and HIV knowledge with older MSM having the strongest association. These findings suggest that additional items are required in order to capture a more nuanced understanding of HIV knowledge and that the association between CAS and HIV knowledge may vary by age.

  6. A dose-response study in animals to evaluate the anticoagulant effect of the stage 2 unfractionated heparin USP monograph change.

    Honchel, R; Carraway, J; Gopee, N; Callicott, R; Chen, J; Patton, R; Xu, Q; Zalkkar, J; Laniyonu, A; Krefting, I; Cato, M; Robie-Suh, K; Rieves, R

    2011-08-01

    The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) monograph for unfractionated heparin (UFH) was revised in October 2009. This revision was anticipated, based upon in vitro tests, to reduce UFH potency by approximately 10%. To study the potential in vivo consequences of the monograph change, we evaluated activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and activated clotting time (ACT) responses in animals. Female mini-pigs and monkeys (n=8/species) were administered intravenously 60, 54, 48, or 42 U/kg and 50, 45, 40, or 35 U/kg "old" (pre-USP revision) UFH, respectively, in a Williams 4×4 crossover design. Blood samples for aPTT and ACT were collected at 15 min after dosing. The same study design was then repeated using "new" (post-USP revision) UFH. Mean "new" UFH aPTT and ACT values were generally lower than those for "old" UFH although individual animal responses varied considerably. The aPTT and ACT response was generally dose-proportional for both "old" and "new" UFH. These studies indicate that the USP monograph alteration for UFH may result in a modest reduction in the anticoagulant response across a population, but the variability in animal responses underscores the importance of individualization of clinical UFH dosing and the importance of anticoagulant test monitoring. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Evaluation of TV commercials using neurophysiological responses.

    Yang, Taeyang; Lee, Do-Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Choi, Jinsook; Kim, Chajoong; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2015-04-24

    In recent years, neuroscientific knowledge has been applied to marketing as a novel and efficient means to comprehend the cognitive and behavioral aspects of consumers. A number of studies have attempted to evaluate media contents, especially TV commercials using various neuroimaging techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG). Yet neurophysiological examination of detailed cognitive and affective responses in viewers is still required to provide practical information to marketers. Here, this study develops a method to analyze temporal patterns of EEG data and extract affective and cognitive indices such as happiness, surprise, and attention for TV commercial evaluation. Twenty participants participated in the study. We developed the neurophysiological indices for TV commercial evaluation using classification model. Specifically, these model-based indices were customized using individual EEG features. We used a video game for developing the index of attention and four video clips for developing indices of happiness and surprise. Statistical processes including one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and the cross validation scheme were used to select EEG features for each index. The EEG features were composed of the combinations of spectral power at selected channels from the cross validation for each individual. The Fisher's linear discriminant classifier (FLDA) was used to estimate each neurophysiological index during viewing four different TV commercials. Post hoc behavioral responses of preference, short-term memory, and recall were measured. Behavioral results showed significant differences for all preference, short-term memory rates, and recall rates between commercials, leading to a 'high-ranked' commercial group and a 'low-ranked' group (P < 0.05). Neural estimation of happiness results revealed a significant difference between the high-ranked and the low-ranked commercials in happiness index (P < 0.01). The order of rankings based on happiness and

  8. Evaluation of the effect of transcytolemmal water exchange analysis for therapeutic response assessment using DCE-MRI: a comparison study.

    Wang, Chunhao; Subashi, Ergys; Liang, Xiao; Yin, Fang-Fang; Chang, Zheng

    2016-07-07

    This study compares the shutter-speed (SS) and the Tofts models as used in assessing therapeutic response in a longitudinal DCE-MRI experiment. Sixteen nu/nu mice with implanted colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (LS-174T) were randomly assigned into treatment/control groups (n  =  8/group) and received bevacizumab/saline twice weekly (Day1/Day4/Day8). All mice were scanned at one pre- (Day0) and two post-treatment (Day2/Day9) time points using a high spatiotemporal resolution DCE-MRI pulse sequence. The CA extravasation rate constant [Formula: see text] from the Tofts/SS model and the mean intracellular water residence time [Formula: see text] from the SS model were analyzed. A biological subvolume (BV) within the tumor was identified based on the [Formula: see text] intensity distribution, and the SS model parameters within the BV ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]) were analyzed. It is found that [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] have a similar spatial distribution in the tumor volume. The Bayesian information criterion results show that the SS model was a better fit for all scans. At Day9, the treatment group had significantly higher tumor mean [Formula: see text] (p  =  0.021), [Formula: see text] (p  =  0.021) and [Formula: see text] (p  = 0.045). When BV from transcytolemmal water exchange analysis was adopted, the treatment group had higher mean [Formula: see text] at both Day2 (p  =  0.038) and Day9 (p  =  0.007). Additionally, at Day9, the treatment group had higher mean [Formula: see text] (p  =  0.045) and higher [Formula: see text] spatial heterogeneity indices (Rényi dimensions) d 1 (p  = 0.010) and d 2 (p  = 0.021). When mean [Formula: see text] and its coefficient of variation (CV) were used to separate treatment/control group samples using supporting vector machine, the accuracy of treatment/control classification was 68.8% at Day2 and 87.5% at Day9; in contrast, the

  9. Evaluating alternative responses to safeguards alarms

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; McCord, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative approach to help evaluate and respond to safeguards alarms. These alarms may be generated internally by a facility's safeguards systems or externally by individuals claiming to have stolen special nuclear material (SNM). This approach can be used to identify the most likely cause of an alarm - theft, hoax, or error - and to evaluate alternative responses to alarms. Possible responses include conducting investigations, initiating measures to recover stolen SNM, and replying to external threats. Based on the results of each alarm investigation step, the evaluation revises the likelihoods of possible causes of an alarm, and uses this information to determine the optimal sequence of further responses. The choice of an optimal sequence of responses takes into consideration the costs and benefits of successful thefts or hoaxes. These results provide an analytical basis for setting priorities and developing contingency plans for responding to safeguards alarms

  10. Moving toward Personalized Medicine in the Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program: A Pilot Study on the Evaluation of Treatment Responses in Taiwan

    Hsin-Ya Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study simultaneously evaluated the effects of various factors, including genetic variations of CYP2B6, CYP2C19, and ABCB1, demographic characteristics, disease states, methadone-drug interactions (MDIs, and poly-substance use, on the treatment responses among non-HIV patients in the methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP in Taiwan. A total of 178 patients were recruited from two major hospitals that provided MMTP services in southern Taiwan, and information regarding concomitant medications and diseases was acquired from the National Health Insurance (NHI program. The results demonstrated that the methadone maintenance dose, CYP2B6 785G allele, and ABCB1 2677T allele have positive effects on the methadone plasma concentration. In contrast, patients with HCV coinfection, alcohol problems, and psychiatric diseases may have a negative response to treatment. Thus, a comprehensive evaluation of treatment responses in the MMTP should include not only genetic polymorphisms in methadone metabolism and transporter proteins, but also concomitant diseases, MDIs, and poly-substance use. The results also suggest that personalized medicine may be indispensable for a better outcome of the MMTP.

  11. SOCIAL RESPONSABILITY AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN EVALUATING

    MIRON VASILE-CRISTIAN-IOACHIM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of an entity's economic performance is often perceived by the public as being limited to the analyses carried based on a component of the annual financial statements or on a component of the profit and loss account. We believe, however, that the current financial reporting system no longer offers an informational potential sufficiently high in the process of assessing the performance of an economic entity, and we sustain the large scale introduction of an additional component of reporting (voluntary or required by legal settlements that must be seen as ethical behavior in reporting. This study aims to bring to light this ethical component of reporting by analyzing the concepts of social responsibility and corporate governance, analyzing specialized literature concerning these concepts, but also how this "ethical behavior" is experienced at the level of the entities that activate in the energy sector. In other words, this approach is not an analysis of the ethics in the research of economic performance of entities, but a research of the ethical side of the performance analysis. However, an important objective of this study is to analyze and assess the extent to which ethical behavior of economic entities (shown here by the application and reporting related to social responsibility and corporate governance can influence the performance of an economic entity, or they represent a consequence of performance. The results of the study show that at the level of the analyzed entities from the energy sector there are different approaches in terms of both applying the concepts of social responsibility and corporate governance, as well as regarding the way of reporting these issues. If in the application of these concepts, we can assume that each economic entity is free to find its own vision, regarding the manner of reporting the application of these concepts, we believe that this should be done in a more unitary way, in order to ensure

  12. Students Prefer Audience Response System for Lecture Evaluation

    Joseph W Turban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Student evaluation of courses is an important component of overall course evaluation. The extent of student participation in the evaluation may be related to the ease of the evaluation process. The standard evaluation format is a paper form. This study examines medical students preference of utilizing Audience Response System compared to a paper method. Methods: Following several medical school lectures, students were queried if they preferred Audience Response System versus a paper method, and if they would prefer using Audience Response System more for future course evaluations. Results: 391 students were queried. Overall response rate was 94%. Using a five point Likert scale, 299 out of 361 (82% responded they agreed, or strongly agreed with the statement “We should use ARS more. . .” When asked which format they preferred to use for evaluation, 299/367 (81% responded Audience Response System, 31 (8% preferred paper, and 37 (10% were not sure, or had no opinion (chi squared = 378.936, df2, p<0.0001. Conclusion: The medical students surveyed showed a strong preference for utilizing Audience Response System as a course evaluation modality, and desired its continued use in medical school. Audience Response System should be pursued as a lecture evaluation modality, and its use in medical school education should be encouraged.

  13. Business Ontology for Evaluating Corporate Social Responsibility

    Ion Smeureanu; Andreea Dioşteanu; Camelia Delcea; Liviu Cotfas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a software solution that is developed to automatically classify companies by taking into account their level of social responsibility. The application is based on ontologies and on intelligent agents. In order to obtain the data needed to evaluate companies, we developed a web crawling module that analyzes the company’s website and the documents that are available online such as social responsibility report, mission statement, employment structure, etc. Based on a predefin...

  14. Evaluation of Corporate Social Responsibility Programme by Application of Balanced Scorecard: A Case Study of Fiat Automobiles’ Cooperárvore Programme

    Osvaldo Maurício de Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to assess Cooperárvore, FIAT Automobiles’ labour corporative project within its “Árvore da Vida” Corporate Social Responsibility Programme, in the city of Betim, in the State of Minas Gerais. This is a descriptive case study whose overall aim is to measure the scope of the automaker’s social actions promoting the development of Jardim Teresópolis neighbourhood, by way of job and income generation, reduction of social vulnerability and economic and human development. Its specific objective is to present an evaluation and monitoring pattern of a social responsibility project by application of the Balanced Scorecard tool (BSC, in order to allow for improving management and inspire other corporate social initiatives. In the theoretical framework, the importance of corporate social responsibility has been studied in sustainable development, as well as concepts and models of evaluation of social projects. The survey was conducted based on documents related to Árvore da Vida and on interviews involving the programme’s managers and beneficiaries, in a qualitative perspective. From data analysis, positive results with significant advances in the beneficiaries and community development can be noticed. However, at some points it can be seen that the cooperative is not yet able to sustain itself, mainly due to its market limitations, depending on financial contributions and participation of the current sponsor in its management. This requires the management team to adopt some strategic definitions in order to implement short and medium term solutions to broaden the cooperative market to ensure their autonomy and sustainability.

  15. Evaluation of hyperglycaemic response to intra-operative dexamethasone administration in patients undergoing elective intracranial surgery: A randomised, prospective study.

    Sethi, Rakesh; Naqash, Imtiaz A; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Dutta, Vikas; Ramzan, Altaf Umar; Zahoor, Syed Amir

    2016-01-01

    The glucocorticoid dexamethasone in a bolus dose of 8-10 mg followed by quarterly dose of 4 mg is commonly used during intracranial surgery so as to reduce oedema and vascular permeability. However, the detrimental hyperglycaemic effects of dexamethasone may override its potentially beneficial effects. The present prospective, randomised study aimed at comparing the degree and magnitude of hyperglycaemia induced by prophylactic administration of dexamethasone in patients undergoing elective craniotomy. Sixty American Society of Anaesthesiologist (ASA) grade-I and II patients were randomly assigned to three groups of 20 patients each. Group-I received dexamethasone during surgery for the first time. Group-II received dexamethasone in addition to receiving it pre-operatively, whereas Group-III (control group) patients were administered normal saline as placebo. Baseline blood glucose (BG) was measured in all the three groups before induction of anaesthesia and thereafter after every hour for 4 h and then two-hourly. Besides intra- and intergroup comparison of BG, peak BG concentration was also recorded for each patient. Statistical analysis was carried out with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student's t-test and value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Baseline BG reading were higher and statistically significant in Group-II as compared with Group-I and Group-III (P < 0.05). However, peak BG levels were significantly higher in Group-I than in Group-II and III (P < 0.05). Similarly, the magnitude of change in peak BG was significantly higher in Group-I as compared to Group-II and III (P < 0.05). Peri-operative administration of dexamethasone during neurosurgical procedures can cause significant increase in BG concentration especially in patients who receive dexamethasone intra-operatively only.

  16. A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part III. Evaluating Four Conceptual Cosmology Surveys: An Item Response Theory Approach

    Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

    2012-01-01

    This is the third of five papers detailing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. In this paper, we use item response theory to analyze students' responses to three out of the four conceptual cosmology surveys we developed. The specific item response theory model we use is…

  17. An Exploratory Study of the Responses and Relationships Involved in the Evaluation of, and in the Intention to Purchase New Rock Music.

    Lacher, Kathleen T; Mizerski, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Recorded music is a multibillion dollar industry, yet little consumer research has addressed the decision-making process behind its purchase. This study examined the responses new rock music creates in the listener and how those responses influenced the intention to later buy the music. Experimental findings revealed that the sensorial, emotional, imaginal, and analytical responses to music all had direct effects on the affective and experimental responses, which in turn influenced purchase i...

  18. [18F] fluoromisonidazole and [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in response evaluation after chemo-/radiotherapy of non-small-cell lung cancer: a feasibility study

    Asadpour Branka

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental and clinical evidence suggest that hypoxia in solid tumours reduces their sensitivity to conventional treatment modalities modulating response to ionizing radiation or chemotherapeutic agents. The aim of the present study was to show the feasibility of determining radiotherapeutically relevant hypoxia and early tumour response by ([18F] Fluoromisonidazole (FMISO and [18F]-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyglucose (FDG PET. Methods Eight patients with non-small-cell lung cancer underwent PET scans. Tumour tissue oxygenation was measured with FMISO PET, whereas tumour glucose metabolism was measured with FDG PET. All PET studies were carried out with an ECAT EXACT 922/47® scanner with an axial field of view of 16.2 cm. FMISO PET consisted of one static scan of the relevant region, performed 180 min after intravenous administration of the tracer. The acquisition and reconstruction parameters were as follows: 30 min emission scanning and 4 min transmission scanning with 68-Ge/68-Ga rod sources. The patients were treated with chemotherapy, consisting of 2 cycles of gemcitabine (1200 mg/m2 and vinorelbine (30 mg/m2 followed by concurrent radio- (2.0 Gy/d; total dose 66.0 Gy and chemotherapy with gemcitabine (300–500 mg/m2 every two weeks. FMISO PET and FDG PET were performed in all patients 3 days before and 14 days after finishing chemotherapy. Results FMISO PET allowed for the qualitative and quantitative definition of hypoxic sub-areas which may correspond to a localization of local recurrences. In addition, changes in FMISO and FDG PET measure the early response to therapy, and in this way, may predict freedom from disease, as well as overall survival. Conclusion These preliminary results warrant validation in larger trials. If confirmed, several novel treatment strategies may be considered, including the early use of PET to evaluate the effectiveness of the selected therapy.

  19. Evaluation of epidemiological studies

    Breckow, J.

    1995-01-01

    The publication is intended for readers with a professional background in radiation protection who are not experts in the field of epidemiology. The potentials and the limits of epidemiology are shown and concepts and terminology of radioepidemilogic studies as well as epidemiology in general are explained, in order to provide the necessary basis for understanding or performing evaluations of epidemiologic studies. (orig./VHE) [de

  20. Modification of evaluation response spectrum by ductility of equipment anchorage

    Choi, I. G.; Jun, Y. S.; Su, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    The failure mode of welded anchorage is assumed as brittle in the seismic capacity evaluation of nuclear power plant equipments. But the welded anchorage has some ductile capacity. This limited displacement capacity can cause the reduction of the effective frequency of high frequency equipments and the increase of the inelastic energy absorption capacity due to the nonlinear behavior. In this study, the uniform hazard spectrum for Korean nuclear power plant site was modified using the response spectrum reduction factor developed by EPRI. The spectral acceleration for various damping ratio was determined by the theoretical method based on the random vibration theory. In conclusion, the high frequency components of evaluation response spectra were greatly reduced due to the consideration of welded anchorage ductility. This reduced response spectra can be used for the development of in-structure response spectra used in the seismic capacity evaluation of high frequency equipments

  1. Association between frequent cardiac resynchronization therapy optimization and long-term clinical response: a post hoc analysis of the Clinical Evaluation on Advanced Resynchronization (CLEAR) pilot study

    Delnoy, Peter Paul; Ritter, Philippe; Naegele, Herbert; Orazi, Serafino; Szwed, Hanna; Zupan, Igor; Goscinska-Bis, Kinga; Anselme, Frederic; Martino, Maria; Padeletti, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Aims The long-term clinical value of the optimization of atrioventricular (AVD) and interventricular (VVD) delays in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) remains controversial. We studied retrospectively the association between the frequency of AVD and VVD optimization and 1-year clinical outcomes in the 199 CRT patients who completed the Clinical Evaluation on Advanced Resynchronization study. Methods and results From the 199 patients assigned to CRT-pacemaker (CRT-P) (New York Heart Association, NYHA, class III/IV, left ventricular ejection fraction failure-related hospitalization, NYHA functional class, and Quality of Life score, at 1 year. Systematic CRT optimization was associated with a higher percentage of improved patients based on the composite endpoint (85% in Group 1 vs. 61% in Group 2, P < 0.001), with fewer deaths (3% in Group 1 vs. 14% in Group 2, P = 0.014) and fewer hospitalizations (8% in Group 1 vs. 23% in Group 2, P = 0.007), at 1 year. Conclusion These results further suggest that AVD and VVD frequent optimization (at implant, at 3 and 6 months) is associated with improved long-term clinical response in CRT-P patients. PMID:23493410

  2. A study of the reliability, validity and responsiveness of the HIV overview of problems evaluation system (HOPES) in assessing the quality of life of patients with AIDS and symptomatic HIV infection

    de Boer, J. B.; Sprangers, M. A.; Aaronson, N. K.; Lange, J. M.; van Dam, F. S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, reliability, validity and responsiveness of the HIV Overview of Problems Evaluation System (HOPES) in a Dutch sample. The HOPES was administered three times in a one-year period to a sample of 106 outpatients with a symptomatic

  3. Long-term anti-HBs antibody persistence following infant vaccination against hepatitis B and evaluation of anamnestic response: a 20-year follow-up study in Thailand.

    Poovorawan, Yong; Chongsrisawat, Voranush; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Crasta, Priya Diana; Messier, Marc; Hardt, Karin

    2013-08-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine has been available worldwide since the mid-1980s. This vaccine was evaluated in a clinical trial in Thailand, conducted on subjects born to hepatitis B surface antigen positive and hepatitis B e-antigen positive mothers and vaccinated according to a 4-dose schedule at 0, 1, 2 and 12 mo of age and a single dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin concomitantly at birth. All enrolled subjects seroconverted and were followed for 20 y to assess the persistence of antibody to the hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) (NCT00240539). At year 20, 64% of subjects had anti-HBs antibody concentrations≥10 milli-international units per milli liter (mIU/ml) and 92% of subjects had detectable levels (≥3.3 mIU/ml) of anti-HBs antibodies. At year 20, subjects with anti-HBs antibody titermemory (NCT00657657). Anamnestic response to the challenge dose was observed in 96.6% of subjects with an 82-fold (13.2 to 1082.4 mIU/ml) increase in anti-HBs antibody geometric mean concentrations. This study confirms the long-term immunogenicity of the 4-dose regimen of the HBV vaccine eliciting long-term persistence of antibodies and immune memory against hepatitis B for up to at least 20 y after vaccination.

  4. Analysis of the Empathic Concern Subscale of the Emotional Response Questionnaire in a Study Evaluating the Impact of a 3D Cultural Simulation.

    Everson, Naleya; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Pitt, Victoria; Lapkin, Samuel; Van Der Riet, Pamela; Rossiter, Rachel; Jones, Donovan; Gilligan, Conor; Courtney Pratt, Helen

    2018-04-25

    Abstract Background Empathic concern has been found to decline in health professional students. Few effective educational programs and a lack of validated scales are reported. Previous analysis of the Empathic Concern scale of the Emotional Response Questionnaire has reported both one and two latent constructs. Aim To evaluate the impact of simulation on nursing students' empathic concern and test the psychometric properties of the Empathic Concern scale. Methods The study used a one group pre-test post-test design with a convenience sample of 460 nursing students. Empathic concern was measured pre-post simulation with the Empathic Concern scale. Factor Analysis was undertaken to investigate the structure of the scale. Results There was a statistically significant increase in Empathic Concern scores between pre-simulation 5.57 (SD = 1.04) and post-simulation 6.10 (SD = 0.95). Factor analysis of the Empathic Concern scale identified one latent dimension. Conclusion Immersive simulation may promote empathic concern. The Empathic Concern scale measured a single latent construct in this cohort.

  5. Politics in evaluation: Politically responsive evaluation in high stakes environments.

    Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret

    2015-12-01

    The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ACE (I/D polymorphism and response to treatment in coronary artery disease: a comprehensive database and meta-analysis involving study quality evaluation

    Kitsios Georgios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism in modifying the response to treatment modalities in coronary artery disease is controversial. Methods PubMed was searched and a database of 58 studies with detailed information regarding ACE I/D polymorphism and response to treatment in coronary artery disease was created. Eligible studies were synthesized using meta-analysis methods, including cumulative meta-analysis. Heterogeneity and study quality issues were explored. Results Forty studies involved invasive treatments (coronary angioplasty or coronary artery by-pass grafting and 18 used conservative treatment options (including anti-hypertensive drugs, lipid lowering therapy and cardiac rehabilitation procedures. Clinical outcomes were investigated by 11 studies, while 47 studies focused on surrogate endpoints. The most studied outcome was the restenosis following coronary angioplasty (34 studies. Heterogeneity among studies (p ACE I/D polymorphism on the response to treatment for the rest outcomes (coronary events, endothelial dysfunction, left ventricular remodeling, progression/regression of atherosclerosis, individual studies showed significance; however, results were discrepant and inconsistent. Conclusion In view of available evidence, genetic testing of ACE I/D polymorphism prior to clinical decision making is not currently justified. The relation between ACE genetic variation and response to treatment in CAD remains an unresolved issue. The results of long-term and properly designed prospective studies hold the promise for pharmacogenetically tailored therapy in CAD.

  7. Textbook Evaluation and Selection: A Professional Responsibility.

    Kachaturoff, Grace

    1982-01-01

    Discusses why teachers must help to review and/or select textbooks on a regular basis and how they can participate in this process. A slightly revised edition of the criteria used by the State of Michigan Social Studies Review Steering Committee illustrates critical factors that must be considered in evaluating textbooks. (SR)

  8. Assessment of treatment response to splint therapy and evaluation of TMJ function using joint vibration analysis in patients exhibiting TMJ disc displacement with reduction: A clinical study

    Jyoti Devi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context, Aim, and Objectives: Diagnosis of temporomandibular joint (TMJ disc displacement with reduction (DDR is difficult. Literature combining different subjective parameters of TMJ function with an objective evaluation of TMJ function using joint vibration analysis (JVA is limited. Hence, the study was planned to diagnose temporomandibular disorder accurately, to do a subjective and objective evaluation of TMJ function, and to assess the effectiveness of different types of splint therapy over the conventional anterior repositioning appliance (ARA group. Design: Single-blind, randomized, comparative clinical trial conducted in thirty patients, 18–55 years of age, allocated to three groups, i.e., ARA conventional group, centric stabilization splint (CSS, and Soft splint (SS groups. Subjects and Methods: Preoperative values of comfortable mouth opening (CMO in mm, maximum mouth opening (MMO in mm, TMJ clicking and tenderness (grading 0–3, visual analog scale pain score (0–10 cm, and total energy (TE integral values of both TMJs using JVA were recorded. Postoperative values were taken at the time of delivery of splint at 1st, 2nd, 6th, and 10th week. Statistical Analysis and Results: Intergroup comparison – Kruskal–Wallis test showed no statistically significant difference in CMO, MMO, and TE values of right TMJs among three groups at any point. No significant difference was seen in TMJ clicking and tenderness among groups at any point of time except at 10 weeks and at 2 weeks, respectively, by Chi-square test. Intragroup comparison - Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed the significance of difference (P < 0.05* in postoperative visits for CMO, MMO, pain score, and TE values. Clinical effect size, extent, consistency, and percentage of cases showing improvement were maximum for CSS group. Conclusions: The study concludes that the use of JVA for diagnosis along with history and clinical examination increases the accuracy of the diagnosis of

  9. MRI assessment of relapsed glioblastoma during treatment with bevacizumab: Volumetric measurement of enhanced and FLAIR lesions for evaluation of response and progression—A pilot study

    Pichler, Josef; Pachinger, Corinna; Pelz, Manuela; Kleiser, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metric that is useful for therapy monitoring in patients with relapsed glioblastoma (GBM) during treatment with the antiangiogenic monoclonal antibody bevacizumab (Bev). We evaluated the feasibility of tumour volume measurement with our software tool in clinical routine and tried to establish reproducible and quantitative parameters for surveillance of patients on treatment with antiangiogenic drugs. Materials and methods: In this retrospective institutional pilot study, 18 patients (11 men, 7 women; mean age 53.5) with recurrent GBM received bevacizumab and irinotecan every two weeks as second line therapy. Follow up scans were assessed every two to four months. Data were collected on a 1.5 T MR System (Siemens, Symphony) with the standard head coil using our standardized tumour protocol. Volumetric measurement was performed with a commercial available software stroketool in FLAIR and T1-c imaging with following procedure: Pre-processing involved cutting noise and electing a Gaussian of 3 × 3 to smooth images, selecting a ROI (region of interest) in healthy brain area of the contra lateral side with quantifying the intensity value, adding 20% to this value to define the threshold level. Only values above this threshold are left corresponding to the tumour lesion. For the volumetric measurement the detected tumour area was circuited in all slices and finally summing up all values and multiplied by slice thickness to get the whole volume. Results: With McDonalds criteria progression was indicated in 14 out of 18 patients. In contrast, volumetric measurement showed an increase of contrast enhancement of >25%, defined as threshold for progression, in 11 patients (78%) and in 12 patients (85%) in FLAIR volume, respectively. 6 patients revealed that volumes in MRI increased earlier than the last scan, which was primarily defined as the date of progression with McDonald criteria, changing PFS after re-evaluation of

  10. MRI assessment of relapsed glioblastoma during treatment with bevacizumab: volumetric measurement of enhanced and FLAIR lesions for evaluation of response and progression--a pilot study.

    Pichler, Josef; Pachinger, Corinna; Pelz, Manuela; Kleiser, Raimund

    2013-05-01

    To develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metric that is useful for therapy monitoring in patients with relapsed glioblastoma (GBM) during treatment with the antiangiogenic monoclonal antibody bevacizumab (Bev). We evaluated the feasibility of tumour volume measurement with our software tool in clinical routine and tried to establish reproducible and quantitative parameters for surveillance of patients on treatment with antiangiogenic drugs. In this retrospective institutional pilot study, 18 patients (11 men, 7 women; mean age 53.5) with recurrent GBM received bevacizumab and irinotecan every two weeks as second line therapy. Follow up scans were assessed every two to four months. Data were collected on a 1.5 T MR System (Siemens, Symphony) with the standard head coil using our standardized tumour protocol. Volumetric measurement was performed with a commercial available software stroketool in FLAIR and T1-c imaging with following procedure: Pre-processing involved cutting noise and electing a Gaussian of 3 × 3 to smooth images, selecting a ROI (region of interest) in healthy brain area of the contra lateral side with quantifying the intensity value, adding 20% to this value to define the threshold level. Only values above this threshold are left corresponding to the tumour lesion. For the volumetric measurement the detected tumour area was circuited in all slices and finally summing up all values and multiplied by slice thickness to get the whole volume. With McDonalds criteria progression was indicated in 14 out of 18 patients. In contrast, volumetric measurement showed an increase of contrast enhancement of >25%, defined as threshold for progression, in 11 patients (78%) and in 12 patients (85%) in FLAIR volume, respectively. 6 patients revealed that volumes in MRI increased earlier than the last scan, which was primarily defined as the date of progression with McDonald criteria, changing PFS after re-evaluation of the tumour volumes from 6.8 to 5.6 months

  11. MRI assessment of relapsed glioblastoma during treatment with bevacizumab: Volumetric measurement of enhanced and FLAIR lesions for evaluation of response and progression—A pilot study

    Pichler, Josef, E-mail: josef.pichler@gespag.at [Wagner Jauregg Weg 15, 4020 Linz, Landesnervenklinik Linz (Austria); Pachinger, Corinna, E-mail: pachingercorinna@gmx.at [Wagner Jauregg Weg 15, 4020 Linz, Landesnervenklinik Linz (Austria); Pelz, Manuela, E-mail: mauela.pelz@gespag.at [Wagner Jauregg Weg 15, 4020 Linz, Landesnervenklinik Linz (Austria); Kleiser, Raimund, E-mail: raimund.kleiser@gespag.at [Wagner Jauregg Weg 15, 4020 Linz, Landesnervenklinik Linz (Austria)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: To develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metric that is useful for therapy monitoring in patients with relapsed glioblastoma (GBM) during treatment with the antiangiogenic monoclonal antibody bevacizumab (Bev). We evaluated the feasibility of tumour volume measurement with our software tool in clinical routine and tried to establish reproducible and quantitative parameters for surveillance of patients on treatment with antiangiogenic drugs. Materials and methods: In this retrospective institutional pilot study, 18 patients (11 men, 7 women; mean age 53.5) with recurrent GBM received bevacizumab and irinotecan every two weeks as second line therapy. Follow up scans were assessed every two to four months. Data were collected on a 1.5 T MR System (Siemens, Symphony) with the standard head coil using our standardized tumour protocol. Volumetric measurement was performed with a commercial available software stroketool in FLAIR and T1-c imaging with following procedure: Pre-processing involved cutting noise and electing a Gaussian of 3 × 3 to smooth images, selecting a ROI (region of interest) in healthy brain area of the contra lateral side with quantifying the intensity value, adding 20% to this value to define the threshold level. Only values above this threshold are left corresponding to the tumour lesion. For the volumetric measurement the detected tumour area was circuited in all slices and finally summing up all values and multiplied by slice thickness to get the whole volume. Results: With McDonalds criteria progression was indicated in 14 out of 18 patients. In contrast, volumetric measurement showed an increase of contrast enhancement of >25%, defined as threshold for progression, in 11 patients (78%) and in 12 patients (85%) in FLAIR volume, respectively. 6 patients revealed that volumes in MRI increased earlier than the last scan, which was primarily defined as the date of progression with McDonald criteria, changing PFS after re-evaluation of

  12. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    Ma, Ookie; Cheung, Kerry; Olsen, Daniel J.; Matson, Nance; Sohn, Michael D.; Rose, Cody M.; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Goli, Sasank; Kiliccote, Sila; Cappers, Peter; MacDonald, Jason; Denholm, Paul; Hummon, Marissa; Jorgenson, Jennie; Palchak, David; Starke, Michael; Alkadi, Nasr; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen; Hernandez, Jaci; Kirby, Brendan; O' Malley, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Demand response and energy storage resources present potentially important sources of bulk power system services that can aid in integrating variable renewable generation. While renewable integration studies have evaluated many of the challenges associated with deploying large amounts of variable wind and solar generation technologies, integration analyses have not yet fully incorporated demand response and energy storage resources. This report represents an initial effort in analyzing the potential integration value of demand response and energy storage, focusing on the western United States. It evaluates two major aspects of increased deployment of demand response and energy storage: (1) Their operational value in providing bulk power system services and (2) Market and regulatory issues, including potential barriers to deployment.

  13. Evaluation of the genotypic prediction of HIV-1 coreceptor use versus a phenotypic assay and correlation with the virological response to maraviroc: the ANRS GenoTropism study.

    Recordon-Pinson, Patricia; Soulié, Cathia; Flandre, Philippe; Descamps, Diane; Lazrek, Mouna; Charpentier, Charlotte; Montes, Brigitte; Trabaud, Mary-Anne; Cottalorda, Jacqueline; Schneider, Véronique; Morand-Joubert, Laurence; Tamalet, Catherine; Desbois, Delphine; Macé, Muriel; Ferré, Virginie; Vabret, Astrid; Ruffault, Annick; Pallier, Coralie; Raymond, Stéphanie; Izopet, Jacques; Reynes, Jacques; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Masquelier, Bernard

    2010-08-01

    Genotypic algorithms for prediction of HIV-1 coreceptor usage need to be evaluated in a clinical setting. We aimed at studying (i) the correlation of genotypic prediction of coreceptor use in comparison with a phenotypic assay and (ii) the relationship between genotypic prediction of coreceptor use at baseline and the virological response (VR) to a therapy including maraviroc (MVC). Antiretroviral-experienced patients were included in the MVC Expanded Access Program if they had an R5 screening result with Trofile (Monogram Biosciences). V3 loop sequences were determined at screening, and coreceptor use was predicted using 13 genotypic algorithms or combinations of algorithms. Genotypic predictions were compared to Trofile; dual or mixed (D/M) variants were considered as X4 variants. Both genotypic and phenotypic results were obtained for 189 patients at screening, with 54 isolates scored as X4 or D/M and 135 scored as R5 with Trofile. The highest sensitivity (59.3%) for detection of X4 was obtained with the Geno2pheno algorithm, with a false-positive rate set up at 10% (Geno2pheno10). In the 112 patients receiving MVC, a plasma viral RNA load of <50 copies/ml was obtained in 68% of cases at month 6. In multivariate analysis, the prediction of the X4 genotype at baseline with the Geno2pheno10 algorithm including baseline viral load and CD4 nadir was independently associated with a worse VR at months 1 and 3. The baseline weighted genotypic sensitivity score was associated with VR at month 6. There were strong arguments in favor of using genotypic coreceptor use assays for determining which patients would respond to CCR5 antagonist.

  14. The Myocardial Ischemia Evaluated by Real-Time Contrast Echocardiography May Predict the Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: A Large Animal Study

    Chen, Yongle; Cheng, Leilei; Yao, Haohua; Chen, Haiyan; Wang, Yongshi; Zhao, Weipeng; Pan, Cuizhen; Shu, Xianhong

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based criteria for applying cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy are still scarce. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictive value of real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (RT-MCE) in a preclinical canine model of ischemic cardiomyopathy who received CRT. Ischemic cardiomyopathy was produced by ligating the first diagonal branch in 20 beagles. Dogs were subsequently divided into two groups that were either treated with bi-ventricular pacing (CRT group) or left untreated (control group). RT-MCE was performed at baseline, before CRT, and 4 weeks after CRT. Two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging was used to evaluate the standard deviation of circumferential (Cir12SD), radial (R12SD), and longitudinal (L12SD) strains of left ventricular segments at basal as well as middle levels. Four weeks later, the Cir12SD, R12SD, and myocardial blood flow (MBF) of the treated group were significantly improved compared to their non-CRT counterparts. Furthermore, MBF values measured before CRT were significantly higher in responders than in non-responders to bi-ventricular pacing. Meanwhile, no significant differences were observed between the responder and non-responder groups in terms of Cir12SD, R12SD, and L12SD. A high degree of correlation was found between MBF values before CRT and LVEF after CRT. When MBF value>24.9 dB/s was defined as a cut-off point before CRT, the sensitivity and specificity of RT-MCE in predicting the response to CRT were 83.3% and 100%, respectively. Besides, MBF values increased significantly in the CRT group compared with the control group after 4 weeks of pacing (49.8±15.5 dB/s vs. 28.5±4.6 dB/s, p<0.05). Therefore, we considered that myocardial perfusion may be superior to standard metrics of LV synchrony in selecting appropriate candidates for CRT. In addition, CRT can improve myocardial perfusion in addition to cardiac synchrony, especially in the setting of ischemic

  15. Curriculum evaluation of ethical reasoning and professional responsibility.

    Christie, Carole R; Bowen, Denise M; Paarmann, Carlene S

    2003-01-01

    This exploratory study evaluated curricular content and evaluation mechanisms related to ethics and professionalism in the baccalaureate dental hygiene program at Idaho State University. Competency-based education requires enhanced student preparation in ethical reasoning, critical thinking, and decision-making. Graduates must integrate concepts, beliefs, principles, and values to fulfill ethical and professional responsibilities. Methods included 1) development of five supporting competencies defining ethics and professionalism to provide a framework for curricular evaluation; 2) assessment of all course content and evaluation methods for each supporting competency; 3) evaluation of students' clinical performance based on professional judgment grades; and 4) survey of junior (n=30) and senior (n=27) students' attitudes about dental hygiene practice related to ethics and professionalism. Results revealed that most courses include content and evaluation related to at least one supporting competency; however, authentic evaluation is weak. Clinical instructors rarely relate evaluations to ethical principles or values. Surveys showed significant differences between junior and senior students' attitudes about ethics and professionalism in six of thirty-four areas (the six were laws and regulations; communication and interpersonal skills; problem solving; professional activities/programs; integrity; and safe work environment). This article shares one approach for evaluating curricular content and evaluation methods designed to develop student competence in ethical reasoning and professionalism. Based upon the study's findings, recommendations are made for curricular enhancement via authentic evaluation and faculty training.

  16. Potential Bedside Utility of the Clock-Drawing Test in Evaluating Rapid Therapeutic Response in the Natural Course of Schizophrenia: A Preliminary Study.

    Ransing, Ramdas Sarjerao; Khairkar, Praveen Homdeorao; Mishra, Kshirod; Sakekar, Gajanan

    2017-01-01

    The Clock-Drawing Test (CDT) is a brief, relatively time-efficient, easy to administer at bedside, and well-proven cognitive screening test that assesses a broad range of cognitive abilities in stroke, delirium, and dementia. However, challenges of comprehensive therapeutic outcome evaluations in schizophrenia can also be potentially overcome using CDT. The authors aimed to measure the therapeutic outcome using CDT in 101 schizophrenia patients, irrespective of their diagnostic subtypes. A repeated measures analysis of variance found that improvements on CDT and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were closely correlated, reflecting critical information about therapeutic response measures in schizophrenia.

  17. Evaluation of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer

    Jia Li; Deng Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy has become the standardized treatment for patients with locally advanced breast cancer. With the wide application of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in clinic, evaluation of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy seems increasingly important. How to evaluate the curative effect of chemotherapy timely, accurately, effectively and noninvasively has become the focus of clinical research. At present, clinical palpation,radiographic measurement and pathological examination are usually used in clinic, and the study of breast cancer biology factor is also rapidly spread. The application status of different evaluation methods of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were reviewed in this article. (authors)

  18. Evaluating Ethical Responsibility in Inverse Decision Support

    Ahmad M. Kabil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision makers have considerable autonomy on how they make decisions and what type of support they receive. This situation places the DSS analyst in a different relationship with the client than his colleagues who support regular MIS applications. This paper addresses an ethical dilemma in “Inverse Decision Support,” when the analyst supports a decision maker who requires justification for a preconceived selection that does not correspond to the best option that resulted from the professional resolution of the problem. An extended application of the AHP model is proposed for evaluating the ethical responsibility in selecting a suboptimal alternative. The extended application is consistent with the Inverse Decision Theory that is used extensively in medical decision making. A survey of decision analysts is used to assess their perspective of using the proposed extended application. The results show that 80% of the respondents felt that the proposed extended application is useful in business practices. 14% of them expanded the usability of the extended application to academic teaching of the ethics theory. The extended application is considered more usable in a country with a higher Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (TICPI than in a country with a lower one.

  19. Angiographic evaluation of response to preoperative chemotherapy in osteosarcoma

    Carrasco, C.H.; Charnsangavej, C.; Richii, W.; Wallace, S.; Chawla, S.P.; Raymond, A.K.; Murray, J.A.; Benjamin, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Preoperative chemotherapy for osteosarcoma facilitates local resection for limb salvage and serves as an in vivo chemosensitivity assay. Arteriograms obtained with each intraarterial course of cisplatin in 79 patients with osteosarcoma were evaluated. Complete remission was defined as complete or nearly complete disappearance of tumor vascularity after treatment. A minimal decrease, no change, or an increase in tumor vascularity was not considered a response. If a complete remission is assumed to represent ≥ 90% histologic tumor necrosis which correlates with prolonged disease-free survival, the sensitivity of an angiographic complete remission was 95%, the specificity was 58%, the predictive value of a negative study was 90%, and the predictive value of a positive study was 75%. Angiography is the best clinical technique for evaluating the therapeutic response in osteosarcoma. Results correlate well with the degree of tumor necrosis, particularly in respect to significant residual viable tumor

  20. Exercises for radiological and nuclear emergency response. Planing - performance - evaluation

    Bayer, A.; Faleschini, J.; Goelling, K.; Stapel, R.; Strobl, C.

    2010-01-01

    The report of the study group emergency response seminar covers the following topics: (A) purpose of exercises and exercise culture: fundamentals and appliances for planning, performance and evaluation; (B) exercises in nuclear facilities; (C) exercises of national authorities and aid organizations on nuclear scenarios; exercises of national authorities and aid organizations on other radiological scenarios; (D) exercises in industrial plants, universities, medical facilities and medical services, and research institutes; (E) transnational exercises, international exercises; (F): exercises on public information.

  1. A Case Study in Corporate Social Responsibility

    Sharon K. Kendrick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This case study promotes analysis through a brief investigation into the role of corporate social responsibility (CSR in the operation of a multinational corporation as evidenced by Google, Inc. The study focuses on a transnational company in order to observe the impact of CSR practice on a global level. The study will present implications of CSR for corporate management, corporate employees, state regulators, shareholders, and customers in general. In addition, the study will discuss consequences of poor CSR compliance for a multinational corporation. Questions for analysis include implications of CSR, employee retention, development of corporate culture, and evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of different CSR approaches. Upon conclusion of the study, suggestions are made for future collaborative efforts in corporate social responsibility as applied to psychological, sociological, and economical motives. Recruiting and training possibilities also present partnership opportunities for best practice sharing in regards to community, civic, and service engagement.

  2. Reliability evaluation of microgrid considering incentive-based demand response

    Huang, Ting-Cheng; Zhang, Yong-Jun

    2017-07-01

    Incentive-based demand response (IBDR) can guide customers to adjust their behaviour of electricity and curtail load actively. Meanwhile, distributed generation (DG) and energy storage system (ESS) can provide time for the implementation of IBDR. The paper focus on the reliability evaluation of microgrid considering IBDR. Firstly, the mechanism of IBDR and its impact on power supply reliability are analysed. Secondly, the IBDR dispatch model considering customer’s comprehensive assessment and the customer response model are developed. Thirdly, the reliability evaluation method considering IBDR based on Monte Carlo simulation is proposed. Finally, the validity of the above models and method is studied through numerical tests on modified RBTS Bus6 test system. Simulation results demonstrated that IBDR can improve the reliability of microgrid.

  3. Response problems in a vacation panel study

    Christine A. Vogt; Susan I. Stewart

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates response problems encountered in a panel study of travel behavior. Though the overall response rate to the three-wave panel study was acceptable (over 60%), three types of response problems were encountered: refusal, non-response, and attrition. In a follow-up phone survey, a sample of individuals from each problem response group was questioned...

  4. Evaluation of toxicological effects induced by tributyltin in clam Ruditapes decussatus using high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Study of metabolic responses in heart tissue and detection of a novel metabolite

    Hanana, H.; Simon, G.; Kervarec, N.; Cérantola, S.

    2014-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a highly toxic pollutant present in many aquatic ecosystems. Its toxicity in mollusks strongly affects their performance and survival. The main purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of TBT toxicity in clam Ruditapes decussatus by evaluating the metabolic responses of heart tissues, using high-resolution magic angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HRMAS NMR), after exposure to TBT (10−9, 10−6 and 10−4 M) during 24 h and 72 h. Results show that response...

  5. OnlineTED.com − a novel web-based audience response system for higher education. A pilot study to evaluate user acceptance

    Kühbeck, Felizian; Engelhardt, Stefan; Sarikas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim: Audience response (AR) systems are increasingly used in undergraduate medical education. However, high costs and complexity of conventional AR systems often limit their use. Here we present a novel AR system that is platform independent and does not require hardware clickers or additional software to be installed. Methods and results: “OnlineTED” was developed at Technische Universität München (TUM) based on Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) with a My Structured Query Language (MySQL)-database as server- and Javascript as client-side programming languages. “OnlineTED” enables lecturers to create and manage question sets online and start polls in-class via a web-browser. Students can participate in the polls with any internet-enabled device (smartphones, tablet-PCs or laptops). A paper-based survey was conducted with undergraduate medical students and lecturers at TUM to compare "OnlineTED" with conventional AR systems using clickers. "OnlineTED" received above-average evaluation results by both students and lecturers at TUM and was seen on par or superior to conventional AR systems. The survey results indicated that up to 80% of students at TUM own an internet-enabled device (smartphone or tablet-PC) for participation in web-based AR technologies. Summary and Conclusion: “OnlineTED” is a novel web-based and platform-independent AR system for higher education that was well received by students and lecturers. As a non-commercial alternative to conventional AR systems it may foster interactive teaching in undergraduate education, in particular with large audiences. PMID:24575156

  6. OnlineTED.com--a novel web-based audience response system for higher education. A pilot study to evaluate user acceptance.

    Kühbeck, Felizian; Engelhardt, Stefan; Sarikas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Audience response (AR) systems are increasingly used in undergraduate medical education. However, high costs and complexity of conventional AR systems often limit their use. Here we present a novel AR system that is platform independent and does not require hardware clickers or additional software to be installed. "OnlineTED" was developed at Technische Universität München (TUM) based on Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) with a My Structured Query Language (MySQL)-database as server- and Javascript as client-side programming languages. "OnlineTED" enables lecturers to create and manage question sets online and start polls in-class via a web-browser. Students can participate in the polls with any internet-enabled device (smartphones, tablet-PCs or laptops). A paper-based survey was conducted with undergraduate medical students and lecturers at TUM to compare "OnlineTED" with conventional AR systems using clickers. "OnlineTED" received above-average evaluation results by both students and lecturers at TUM and was seen on par or superior to conventional AR systems. The survey results indicated that up to 80% of students at TUM own an internet-enabled device (smartphone or tablet-PC) for participation in web-based AR technologies. "OnlineTED" is a novel web-based and platform-independent AR system for higher education that was well received by students and lecturers. As a non-commercial alternative to conventional AR systems it may foster interactive teaching in undergraduate education, in particular with large audiences.

  7. OnlineTED.com − a novel web-based audience response system for higher education. A pilot study to evaluate user acceptance

    Kühbeck, Felizian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background and aim: Audience response (AR systems are increasingly used in undergraduate medical education. However, high costs and complexity of conventional AR systems often limit their use. Here we present a novel AR system that is platform independent and does not require hardware clickers or additional software to be installed.Methods and results: “OnlineTED” was developed at Technische Universität München (TUM based on Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP with a My Structured Query Language (MySQL-database as server- and Javascript as client-side programming languages. “OnlineTED” enables lecturers to create and manage question sets online and start polls in-class via a web-browser. Students can participate in the polls with any internet-enabled device (smartphones, tablet-PCs or laptops. A paper-based survey was conducted with undergraduate medical students and lecturers at TUM to compare "OnlineTED" with conventional AR systems using clickers. "OnlineTED" received above-average evaluation results by both students and lecturers at TUM and was seen on par or superior to conventional AR systems. The survey results indicated that up to 80% of students at TUM own an internet-enabled device (smartphone or tablet-PC for participation in web-based AR technologies.Summary and Conclusion: “OnlineTED” is a novel web-based and platform-independent AR system for higher education that was well received by students and lecturers. As a non-commercial alternative to conventional AR systems it may foster interactive teaching in undergraduate education, in particular with large audiences.

  8. Evaluation of optimum conditions for pachyman encapsulated in poly(D,L-lactic acid nanospheres by response surface methodology and results of a related in vitro study

    Zheng S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sisi Zheng, Li Luo, Ruonan Bo, Zhenguang Liu, Jie Xing, Yale Niu, Yuanliang Hu, Jiaguo Liu, Deyun Wang Institute of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: This study aimed to optimize the preparation conditions of pachyman (PHY-loaded poly(D,L-lactic acid (PLA (PHYP nanospheres by response surface methodology, explore their characteristics, and assess their effects on splenic lymphocytes. Double emulsion solvent evaporation was used to synthesize PHYP nanospheres, and the optimal preparation conditions were identified as a concentration of poloxamer 188 (F68 (w/v of 0.33%, a concentration of PLA of 30 mg/mL, and a ratio of PLA to drug (w/w of 10.25:1 required to reach the highest encapsulation efficiency, which was calculated to be 59.10%. PHYP had a spherical shape with a smooth surface and uniform size and an evident effect of sustained release and relative stability. Splenic lymphocytes are crucial and multifunctional cells in the immune system, and their immunological properties could be enhanced significantly by PHYP treatment. This study confirmed that PHY encapsulated in PLA nanospheres had comparatively steady properties and exerted obvious immune enhancement. Keywords: PHYP, optimal preparation condition, RSM, in vitro study

  9. Writing, Evaluating and Assessing Data Response Items in Economics.

    Trotman-Dickenson, D. I.

    1989-01-01

    Describes some of the problems in writing data response items in economics for use by A Level and General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) students. Examines the experience of two series of workshops on writing items, evaluating them and assessing responses from schools. Offers suggestions for producing packages of data response items as…

  10. Evaluation of Reference Genes for Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR Studies of Physiological Responses in the Ghost Moth, Thitarodes armoricanus (Lepidoptera, Hepialidae.

    Guiqing Liu

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is the sensitive method to quantify the expression levels of target genes on the basis of endogenous control. An appropriate reference gene set for normalization is essential for reliable results. The ghost moth, Thitarodes armoricanus, a host species of a medicinal fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis, is an economically important member of the Lepidoptera. Recent studies have focused on the mechanism of adaptation of this species to its high-altitude environment and host immune response to O. sinensis infection and RT-qPCR is commonly used in these studies to decipher the genetic basis of physiological functions. However, a thorough assessment of candidate reference genes in the genus Thitarodes is lacking. Here, the expression levels of eight candidate reference genes (ACT, EF, EIF4A, GAPDH, G6PDH, RPL13A, TUB and 18S in T. armoricanus at different developmental stages and in different body parts of the seventh instar larvae were analyzed, along with larvae kept under low temperatures, larvae exposed to two fungal infections and larvae fed different diets. Three established software programs-Bestkeeper, geNorm and NormFinder-were employed to calculate variation among the treatments. The results revealed that the best-suited reference genes differed across the treatments, with EF, EIF4A and GAPDH found to be the best suited for the different developmental stages and larvae body parts; EF, EIF4A and RPL13A found to be the best suited for low-temperature challenge; and EF, EIF4A and TUB found to be the best suited for the fungal infections and dietary treatments. This study thus further contributes to the establishment of an accurate method for normalizing RT-qPCR results for T. armoricanus and serves as a reference for gene expression studies of related insect species.

  11. Menses cup evaluation study.

    Cheng, M; Kung, R; Hannah, M; Wilansky, D; Shime, J

    1995-09-01

    To determine whether the menses cup is well tolerated by menstruating women. Prospective descriptive clinical study. Normal human volunteers in an academic research environment. Fifty-one menstruating women recruited between June to December 1991. Each participant was provided with two menses cups and an instruction sheet. Baseline information, including age, occupation, martial status, parity, description of menstrual flow, and current method used to cope with menstrual flow was collected. Subjects were asked to describe their experience with the cup at 1-, 2-, 6-, and 12-month intervals. The proportion of women who found the cup acceptable. The cup was used by 51 subjects for a total of 159 cycles. Overall, 23 women (45%) found the cup an acceptable method for coping with menses. Among 29 (57%) women who used the cup for two or more cycles, 62% found it acceptable. The menses cup may be an acceptable method for some women for coping with menstrual flow.

  12. Neutron response study using PADC

    El-Badry, B.A; Hegazy, T.M; Morsy, A.A.; Zaki, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    The results of an experimental work aimed at improving the performances of the Cr-39 nuclear track detector for neutron dosimetry applications. So, a set of Cr-39 plastic detectors was exposed to 252 Cf neutron source, which has the emission rate of 0.68 x 10 8 s ( -1), and neutron dose equivalent rate 1m apart from the source is equal to 3.8 mrem/h. The detection of fast neutrons performed with Cr-39 detector foils, subsequent chemical etching and evaluation of the etched tracks by an automatic track counting system was studied. It is found that the track density grows with the increase of neutron dose and etching time. These results. are compared with previous work. It is found that there is a matching and good agreement with their investigations

  13. Evaluation of Floor Response Spectrum considering Ductility of Structure

    Park, Junhee; Choi, In-Kil

    2014-01-01

    The FRS (floor response spectrum) is directly influenced by the behavior of structure under the seismic load. If the structure is nonlinear range, the energy dissipation will be occurred by the damage of structure and the maximum force will be reduced. In Zion method, the inelastic energy abortion factor has been used to consider the nonlinearity of structure. This factor was used for the seismic fragility of structure. For the seismic fragility of equipment, the uncertainty of this factor was used differently according to the story level. But this method is not warranted under the strong earthquake leads to the structural damage. Therefore it is needed to evaluate the FRS considering the nonlinear behavior of structure and to assessment the conservatism related to nonlinear behavior of structure in FRS. In this study, the nonlinear analysis was performed for the conservatism of FRS under the damage of structure. The conservatism of FRS by the nonlinear analysis was compared by that proposed by the Zion method. The conservatism of floor acceleration response for the equipment was evaluated by performing the nonlinear analysis. From the nonlinear analysis results, it was showed that the median and β c of FRSR was increased with the ductility of structure and the response of equipment had the resonance effect between the frequency of equipment and structure. The seismic capacity of equipment by the Zion method can be different from the real seismic capacity of equipment because the inelastic structure response factor has nothing to do with the ductility of structure. Therefore the median and COV for FRSR should be defined considering the ductility of structure and the frequency of equipment for more exactly evaluating the seismic capacity of equipment

  14. Evaluation of Floor Response Spectrum considering Ductility of Structure

    Park, Junhee; Choi, In-Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The FRS (floor response spectrum) is directly influenced by the behavior of structure under the seismic load. If the structure is nonlinear range, the energy dissipation will be occurred by the damage of structure and the maximum force will be reduced. In Zion method, the inelastic energy abortion factor has been used to consider the nonlinearity of structure. This factor was used for the seismic fragility of structure. For the seismic fragility of equipment, the uncertainty of this factor was used differently according to the story level. But this method is not warranted under the strong earthquake leads to the structural damage. Therefore it is needed to evaluate the FRS considering the nonlinear behavior of structure and to assessment the conservatism related to nonlinear behavior of structure in FRS. In this study, the nonlinear analysis was performed for the conservatism of FRS under the damage of structure. The conservatism of FRS by the nonlinear analysis was compared by that proposed by the Zion method. The conservatism of floor acceleration response for the equipment was evaluated by performing the nonlinear analysis. From the nonlinear analysis results, it was showed that the median and β{sub c} of FRSR was increased with the ductility of structure and the response of equipment had the resonance effect between the frequency of equipment and structure. The seismic capacity of equipment by the Zion method can be different from the real seismic capacity of equipment because the inelastic structure response factor has nothing to do with the ductility of structure. Therefore the median and COV for FRSR should be defined considering the ductility of structure and the frequency of equipment for more exactly evaluating the seismic capacity of equipment.

  15. Evaluation of riser 14 temperature response

    OGDEN, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    The initial sluicing activities of Project WRSS resulted in a two month increase in temperatures as measured by the Riser 14 thermocouple tree of tank 241-C-106. While this increase was anticipated, the maximum temperature was higher than expected. An evaluation was performed to determine if adequate subcooling exists in the waste to continue sluicing activities. It was determined that a minimum of 10 F subcooling exists in the waste and that the higher Riser 14 temperatures were the result of higher than assumed waste saturation temperature

  16. Response to Haskell's "Academic Freedom ... & Student Evaluation"

    Jeffrey E. Stake

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Haskell (1997 argued that the administrative practice of student evaluation of faculty is a threat to academic freedom. However, before that claim can be substantiated, several prior questions must be addressed: To whom does academic freedom belong? Individual faculty? The academy? Whose actions can violate the right? Can any lines be drawn based on whether the substance or form of classroom behavior is influenced? And still another crucial point is whether a body can violate academic freedom without any intent to interfere with or control the substance of what is said to students.

  17. Systematic evaluations of probabilistic floor response spectrum generation

    Lilhanand, K.; Wing, D.W.; Tseng, W.S.

    1985-01-01

    The relative merits of the current methods for direct generation of probabilistic floor response spectra (FRS) from the prescribed design response spectra (DRS) are evaluated. The explicit probabilistic methods, which explicitly use the relationship between the power spectral density function (PSDF) and response spectra (RS), i.e., the PSDF-RS relationship, are found to have advantages for practical applications over the implicit methods. To evaluate the accuracy of the explicit methods, the root-mean-square (rms) response and the peak factor contained in the PSDF-RS relationship are systematically evaluated, especially for the narrow-band floor spectral response, by comparing the analytical results with simulation results. Based on the evaluation results, a method is recommended for practical use for the direct generation of probabilistic FRS. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of NLDAS 12-km and downscaled 1-km temperature products in New York State for potential use in health exposure response studies

    Estes, M. G., Jr.; Insaf, T.; Crosson, W. L.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Heat exposure metrics (maximum and minimum daily temperatures,) have a close relationship with human health. While meteorological station data provide a good source of point measurements, temporal and spatially consistent temperature data are needed for health studies. Reanalysis data such as the North American Land Data Assimilation System's (NLDAS) 12-km gridded product are an effort to resolve spatio-temporal environmental data issues; the resolution may be too coarse to accurately capture the effects of elevation, mixed land/water areas, and urbanization. As part of this NASA Applied Sciences Program funded project, the NLDAS 12-km air temperature product has been downscaled to 1-km using MODIS Land Surface Temperature patterns. Limited validation of the native 12-km NLDAS reanalysis data has been undertaken. Our objective is to evaluate the accuracy of both the 12-km and 1-km downscaled products using the US Historical Climatology Network station data geographically dispersed across New York State. Statistical methods including correlation, scatterplots, time series and summary statistics were used to determine the accuracy of the remotely-sensed maximum and minimum temperature products. The specific effects of elevation and slope on remotely-sensed temperature product accuracy were determined with 10-m digital elevation data that were used to calculate percent slope and link with the temperature products at multiple scales. Preliminary results indicate the downscaled temperature product improves accuracy over the native 12-km temperature product with average correlation improvements from 0.81 to 0.85 for minimum and 0.71 to 0.79 for maximum temperatures in 2009. However, the benefits vary temporally and geographically. Our results will inform health studies using remotely-sensed temperature products to determine health risk from excessive heat by providing a more robust assessment of the accuracy of the 12-km NLDAS product and additional accuracy gained from

  19. School Response to Violence: A Case Study in Developing Crisis Response Teams

    Walsh, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the perceptions of participants regarding their effectiveness in responding to defiant student violence as a crisis response team, following crisis response team training. The participants were a group of 10 volunteer PK-6 public school educators from western Wisconsin. The study took place during the…

  20. Ecological responsibilities: First evaluation this year

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    Separation and recycling of over 50% of communal waste, connecting towns and villages to the sewerage system and the closure of communal waste damps which do not meet stipulated criteria. This is only a part of the obligations which Slovakia must fulfil within the next two years in order comply with the requirements of its EU accession. Most of the deadlines have already past. Slovakia is now awaiting an evaluation of how it has done in meeting these requirements. What is already clear is that environmental obligations are a problem. The key question is who will pay for more than 30% of the related costs estimated to be 7 bill. EUR. Slovakia has three more years to meet the many technically and financially demanding standards. Structural funds that were expected to represent a major financial support are now just starting up. Already during accession negotiations it was clear that environmental issues would be the most complex ones. In Slovakia due to economic problems caused by the transformation of the economy not much attention was paid to the environment. And that was one of the reasons Slovakia negotiated transition periods for the implementation of about 70 directives and 300 legal documents. At first glance 2012 when the last of the transitions periods will end is far away. But some of the obligations have to be observed continuously. As far as air pollution is concerned, the transition period has already ended. Petrol stations must prevent any leakages of volatile material when storing fuel. Meeting EUR standards had cost more than 1 bill. Sk by the end of 2006. (authors)

  1. Evaluation criteria for emergency response plans in radiological transportation

    Lindell, M.K.; Perry, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper identifies a set of general criteria which can be used as guides for evaluating emergency response plans prepared in connection with the transportation of radiological materials. The development of criteria takes the form of examining the meaning and role of emergency plans in general, reviewing the process as it is used in connection with natural disasters and other nonnuclear disasters, and explicitly considering unique aspects of the radiological transportation setting. Eight areas of critical importance for such response plans are isolated: notification procedures; accident assessment; public information; protection of the public at risk; other protective responses; radiological exposure control; responsibility for planning and operations; and emergency response training and exercises. (Auth.)

  2. Evaluation of the protein biomarkers and the analgesic response to systemic methylene blue in patients with refractory neuropathic pain: a double-blind, controlled study

    Miclescu AA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adriana A Miclescu,1 Martin Svahn,1 Torsten E Gordh1,2 1Multidisciplinary Pain Clinic, Uppsala University Hospital, 2Pain Research, Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Aim: This study was carried out in patients with neuropathic pain in order to assess the analgesic effects and changes in protein biomarkers after the administration of methylene blue (MB, a diaminophenothiazine with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and with inhibitory effects on nitric oxide.Materials and methods: Ten patients with chronic refractory neuropathic pain were randomized to receive either MB (10 mg/mL Methylthioninium chloride 2 mg/kg (MB group or MB 0.02 mg/kg (control group infused over 60 minutes. Sensory function and pain (Numerical Rating Scale were evaluated at baseline and at 60 minutes after the start of the infusion. The patients kept a pain diary during the next 24 hours and for the following 4 days. Plasma and urinary concentrations of 8-isoprostane-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α and plasma protein biomarkers prior to and after the infusions were measured with radioimmunoassay and with proximity extension assay.Results: A decrease of the Numerical Rating Scale at 60 minutes in comparison with baseline was observed in the MB (P=0.047 group. The decrease was significant between the MB and the control group on the day of and day after MB infusion (P=0.04 and P=0.008, respectively. There was no difference in systemic protein expressions between groups except for prolactin (PRL (P=0.02. Three patients demonstrated diminished dynamic mechanical allodynia.Conclusion: MB decreased the pain levels in patients with chronic therapy-resistant neuropathic pain on the first 2 days after administration. Known as an endocrine modulator on the anterior pituitary gland, MB infusion produced a decrease of PRL. The detailed role of PRL effects in chronic neuropathic pain remains undetermined.Keywords: methylene blue, nitric oxide

  3. Practising Political Care Ethics: Can Responsive Evaluation Foster Democratic Care?

    Visse, M.A.; Abma, T.; Widdershoven, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines if and how responsive evaluation as a deliberative approach can serve as a guide for a politically oriented care ethics. A political care ethics puts the assignment of responsibilities and the inclusion of multiple perspectives of people at the centre of care. It honours the

  4. Responsibility and trade emission balances : An evaluation of approaches

    Serrano, Monica; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares two concepts to evaluate the international responsibility of a country with respect to its emissions. Using a multi-regional input-output model, we show that the trade emission balance and the responsibility emission balance yield the same result. In practical work, however, a

  5. EIA and EINP. Evaluation study

    Lande, R.W.I. van der; De Vries, E.F.

    2001-01-01

    The evaluation study on the title subjects concerns two subsidy tools in the Netherlands: the Energy Investment Rebate (EIA, abbreviated in Dutch) and the Subsidy for Energy in the non-profit sector and other special sectors (EINP, abbreviated in Dutch). The central question in the evaluation was to what extent did the EIA and EINP contribute to the original policy targets and at what costs. The evaluation has been carried out by means of a desk study, interviews, and an analysis of bottlenecks and possible solutions. [nl

  6. Evaluation of geophysical borehole studies

    Brotzen, O.; Duran, O.; Magnusson, K.Aa.

    Four studies concerning geophysical investigations and TV inspection in boreholes in connection with KBS studies at Finnsjoe, Karlshamn, Kraakemaala and Stripa and PRAV's studies at Studsvik have been evaluated. This has led to proposals concerning the choice of instruments and methods for future studies and a review of future work required. The evaluation has shown that the following borehole measurements are of primary interest in the continued work: Determinations of temperature and resistivity of the borehole liquid, resistance and resistivity measurements, SP, Sonic, Caliper and VLF. TV inspection, IP and gamma-gamma should also be included in the arsenal of available test methods.(author)

  7. Evaluation Responsibility and Leadership in the Face of Failing Democracies

    McKegg, Kate

    2013-01-01

    In a world faced with unprecedented rising levels of inequality and injustice, is there a responsibility for our evaluation organizations to take on a leadership role in promoting inclusive, evaluative dialog and deliberation about the state of our democracies in relation to key democratic principles and ideals? In this forum, I question whether…

  8. Studies on DNA damage: discordant responses of rate of DNA disentanglement (viscosimetrically evaluated) and alkaline elution rate, obtained for several compounds. Possible explanations of the discrepancies.

    Parodi, S; Balbi, C; Abelmoschi, M L; Pala, M; Russo, P; Santi, L

    1983-12-01

    Alkaline elution is a well-known method for detecting DNA damage. Recently we have developed a viscosimetric method that is even more sensitive than alkaline elution. Here we report that the two methods, although apparently both revealing alkaline DNA fragmentation, can give dramatically different results for a significant series of compounds. We suspect that alkaline elution might reveal not only DNA fragmentation but also the extent of disentanglement of chromatin structure, whereas this DNA disentanglement rate, when evaluated viscosimetrically , is more strictly correlated with the initiation of DNA unwinding.

  9. Fear of negative evaluation modulates electrocortical and behavioral responses when anticipating social evaluative feedback

    Melle J.W. Van Der Molen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive models posit that the fear of negative evaluation (FNE is a hallmark feature of social anxiety. As such, individuals with high FNE may show biased information processing when faced with social evaluation. The aim of the current study was to examine the neural underpinnings of anticipating and processing of social-evaluative feedback, and its correlates with FNE. We used a social judgment paradigm in which female participants (N=31 were asked to indicate whether they believed to be socially accepted or rejected by their peers. Anticipatory attention was indexed by the stimulus preceding negativity (SPN, while the feedback-related negativity and P3 were used to index the processing of social-evaluative feedback. Results provided evidence of an optimism bias in social peer evaluation, as participants more often predicted to be socially accepted than rejected. Participants with high levels of FNE needed more time to provide their judgments about the social-evaluative outcome. While anticipating social-evaluative feedback, SPN amplitudes were larger for anticipated social acceptance than for social rejection feedback. Interestingly, the SPN during anticipated social acceptance was larger in participants with high levels of FNE. None of the feedback-related brain potentials correlated with the FNE. Together, the results provide evidence of biased information processing in individuals with high levels of FNE when anticipating (rather than processing social-evaluative feedback. The delayed response times in high FNE individuals were interpreted to reflect augmented vigilance imposed by the upcoming social evaluative threat. Allegedly, the SPN constitutes a neural marker of this vigilance in females with higher FNE levels, particularly when anticipating social acceptance feedback.

  10. Fear of negative evaluation modulates electrocortical and behavioral responses when anticipating social evaluative feedback

    Van der Molen, Melle J. W.; Poppelaars, Eefje S.; Van Hartingsveldt, Caroline T. A.; Harrewijn, Anita; Gunther Moor, Bregtje; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models posit that the fear of negative evaluation (FNE) is a hallmark feature of social anxiety. As such, individuals with high FNE may show biased information processing when faced with social evaluation. The aim of the current study was to examine the neural underpinnings of anticipating and processing social-evaluative feedback, and its correlates with FNE. We used a social judgment paradigm in which female participants (N = 31) were asked to indicate whether they believed to be socially accepted or rejected by their peers. Anticipatory attention was indexed by the stimulus preceding negativity (SPN), while the feedback-related negativity and P3 were used to index the processing of social-evaluative feedback. Results provided evidence of an optimism bias in social peer evaluation, as participants more often predicted to be socially accepted than rejected. Participants with high levels of FNE needed more time to provide their judgments about the social-evaluative outcome. While anticipating social-evaluative feedback, SPN amplitudes were larger for anticipated social acceptance than for social rejection feedback. Interestingly, the SPN during anticipated social acceptance was larger in participants with high levels of FNE. None of the feedback-related brain potentials correlated with the FNE. Together, the results provided evidence of biased information processing in individuals with high levels of FNE when anticipating (rather than processing) social-evaluative feedback. The delayed response times in high FNE individuals were interpreted to reflect augmented vigilance imposed by the upcoming social-evaluative threat. Possibly, the SPN constitutes a neural marker of this vigilance in females with higher FNE levels, particularly when anticipating social acceptance feedback. PMID:24478667

  11. Evaluation of energy responses for neutron dose-equivalent meters made in Japan

    Saegusa, J.; Yoshizawa, M.; Tanimura, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Yamano, T.; Nakaoka, H.

    2004-01-01

    Energy responses of three types of Japanese neutron dose-equivalent (DE) meters were evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations and measurements. The energy responses were evaluated for thermal neutrons, monoenergetic neutrons with energies up to 15.2 MeV, and also for neutrons from such radionuclide sources as 252 Cf and 241 Am-Be. The calculated results were corroborated with the measured ones. The angular dependence of the response and the DE response were also evaluated. As a result, reliable energy responses were obtained by careful simulations of the proportional counter, moderator and absorber of the DE meters. Furthermore, the relationship between pressure of counting gas and response of the DE meter was discussed. By using the obtained responses, relations between predicted readings of the DE meters and true DE values were studied for various workplace spectra

  12. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma response evaluation with MRI texture classification

    Heinonen Tomi T

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To show magnetic resonance imaging (MRI texture appearance change in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL during treatment with response controlled by quantitative volume analysis. Methods A total of 19 patients having NHL with an evaluable lymphoma lesion were scanned at three imaging timepoints with 1.5T device during clinical treatment evaluation. Texture characteristics of images were analyzed and classified with MaZda application and statistical tests. Results NHL tissue MRI texture imaged before treatment and under chemotherapy was classified within several subgroups, showing best discrimination with 96% correct classification in non-linear discriminant analysis of T2-weighted images. Texture parameters of MRI data were successfully tested with statistical tests to assess the impact of the separability of the parameters in evaluating chemotherapy response in lymphoma tissue. Conclusion Texture characteristics of MRI data were classified successfully; this proved texture analysis to be potential quantitative means of representing lymphoma tissue changes during chemotherapy response monitoring.

  13. PET/CT imaging in response evaluation of patients with small cell lung cancer

    Fischer, Barbara M; Mortensen, Jann; Langer, Seppo W

    2006-01-01

    UNLABELLED: There is an increasing amount of evidence on the usability of PET in response evaluation of non-small cell lung cancer. However, data on SCLC is scarce and mainly retrospective. This prospective study assesses the use of PET (positron emission tomography) and PET/CT in response...... evaluation of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). METHODS: Assignment of early and final response was compared between PET, PET/CT, and CT in 20 patients with SCLC. Final response as assigned by CT (RECIST) served as reference. RESULTS: At response evaluation after one cycle of chemotherapy major...... by PET/CT is feasible, but it is uncertain whether it adds further information to evaluation by RECIST, thus further studies and standardization of methods are needed....

  14. In Vitro Evaluation of Fluorescence Glucose Biosensor Response

    Aloraefy, Mamdouh; Pfefer, T. Joshua; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Sapsford, Kim E.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid, accurate, and minimally-invasive glucose biosensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) for glucose measurement have the potential to enhance diabetes control. However, a standard set of in vitro approaches for evaluating optical glucose biosensor response under controlled conditions would facilitate technological innovation and clinical translation. Towards this end, we have identified key characteristics and response test methods, fabricated FRET-based glucose biosensor...

  15. Study on team evaluation. Team process model for team evaluation

    Sasou Kunihide; Ebisu, Mitsuhiro; Hirose, Ayako

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have been done to evaluate or improve team performance in nuclear and aviation industries. Crew resource management is the typical example. In addition, team evaluation recently gathers interests in other teams of lawyers, medical staff, accountants, psychiatrics, executive, etc. However, the most evaluation methods focus on the results of team behavior that can be observed through training or actual business situations. What is expected team is not only resolving problems but also training younger members being destined to lead the next generation. Therefore, the authors set the final goal of this study establishing a series of methods to evaluate and improve teams inclusively such as decision making, motivation, staffing, etc. As the first step, this study develops team process model describing viewpoints for the evaluation. The team process is defined as some kinds of power that activate or inactivate competency of individuals that is the components of team's competency. To find the team process, the authors discussed the merits of team behavior with the experienced training instructors and shift supervisors of nuclear/thermal power plants. The discussion finds four team merits and many components to realize those team merits. Classifying those components into eight groups of team processes such as 'Orientation', 'Decision Making', 'Power and Responsibility', 'Workload Management', 'Professional Trust', 'Motivation', 'Training' and 'staffing', the authors propose Team Process Model with two to four sub processes in each team process. In the future, the authors will develop methods to evaluate some of the team processes for nuclear/thermal power plant operation teams. (author)

  16. Blue gum gaming machine: an evaluation of responsible gambling features.

    Blaszczynski, Alexander; Gainsbury, Sally; Karlov, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Structural characteristics of gaming machines contribute to persistence in play and excessive losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of five proposed responsible gaming features: responsible gaming messages; a bank meter quarantining winnings until termination of play; alarm clock facilitating setting time-reminders; demo mode allowing play without money; and a charity donation feature where residual amounts can be donated rather than played to zero credits. A series of ten modified gaming machines were located in five Australian gambling venues. The sample comprised 300 patrons attending the venue and who played the gaming machines. Participants completed a structured interview eliciting gambling and socio-demographic data and information on their perceptions and experience of play on the index machines. Results showed that one-quarter of participants considered that these features would contribute to preventing recreational gamblers from developing problems. Just under half of the participants rated these effects to be at least moderate or significant. The promising results suggest that further refinements to several of these features could represent a modest but effective approach to minimising excessive gambling on gaming machines.

  17. Evaluating the success of an emergency response medical information system.

    Petter, Stacie; Fruhling, Ann

    2011-07-01

    STATPack™ is an information system used to aid in the diagnosis of pathogens in hospitals and state public health laboratories. STATPack™ is used as a communication and telemedicine diagnosis tool during emergencies. This paper explores the success of this emergency response medical information system (ERMIS) using a well-known framework of information systems success developed by DeLone and McLean. Using an online survey, the entire population of STATPack™ users evaluated the success of the information system by considering system quality, information quality, system use, intention to use, user satisfaction, individual impact, and organizational impact. The results indicate that the overall quality of this ERMIS (i.e., system quality, information quality, and service quality) has a positive impact on both user satisfaction and intention to use the system. However, given the nature of ERMIS, overall quality does not necessarily predict use of the system. Moreover, the user's satisfaction with the information system positively affected the intention to use the system. User satisfaction, intention to use, and system use had a positive influence on the system's impact on the individual. Finally, the organizational impacts of the system were positively influenced by use of the system and the system's individual impact on the user. The results of the study demonstrate how to evaluate the success of an ERMIS as well as introduce potential changes in how one applies the DeLone and McLean success model in an emergency response medical information system context. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Technology to Improve the Objectivity of Criminal Responsibility Evaluations.

    Vitacco, Michael J; Gottfried, Emily D; Batastini, Ashley B

    2018-03-01

    Criminal responsibility (or insanity) evaluations require forensic clinicians to reconstruct a defendant's decision-making abilities, behavioral control, and emotional state at the time of the criminal act. Forensic evaluators are ultimately tasked to evaluate whether an individual had the capacity to understand right from wrong, and in some jurisdictions, determine whether the defendant lacked substantial capacity to conform his behavior to the requirements of the law as a result of a threshold condition (e.g., mental illness). Insanity evaluations are inherently complex, because they require the clinician to determine someone's mental state at some point in the past (weeks, months, or even years). Recent research on insanity evaluations underscores significant problems with the reliability and validity of these evaluations. However, technological advances including social media (e.g., Facebook and Twitter), mandating that law enforcement videotape interrogations, and the use of body and dashboard cameras can aid clinicians in improving the precision and quality of insanity evaluations. This article discusses practical guidelines and ethics-related concerns regarding the use of technology to improve the objectivity of criminal responsibility evaluations. © 2018 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  19. Molecular evaluation of vitamin D responsiveness of healthy young adults.

    Seuter, Sabine; Virtanen, Jyrki K; Nurmi, Tarja; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Mursu, Jaakko; Voutilainen, Sari; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Neme, Antonio; Carlberg, Carsten

    2017-11-01

    Vitamin D 3 has via its metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25(OH)D 3 ) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ) direct effects on the transcriptome and the epigenome of most human cells. In the VitDbol study we exposed 35 healthy young adults to an oral vitamin D 3 dose (2000μg) or placebo and took blood samples directly before the supplementation as well as at days 1, 2 and 30. Within 24h the vitamin D 3 intake raised the average serum levels of both 25(OH)D 3 and 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 by approximately 20%. However, we observed large inter-individual differences in these serum levels, reflected by the average ratios between 25(OH)D 3 and 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 concentrations ranging from 277 to 1365. Interestingly, average serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels increased at day 1 by some 10% but then decreased within the following four weeks to levels 5% below baseline. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that were isolated at the same time points we determined vitamin D-modulated chromatin accessibility by FAIRE-qPCR at selected genomic loci. This method is well suited to evaluate both short-term and long-term in vivo effects of vitamin D on the epigenome of human subjects. The differential vitamin D responsiveness of the VitDbol study participants was determined via individual changes in their PTH levels or chromatin accessibility in relation to alterations in 25(OH)D 3 concentrations. This led to the segregation of the subjects into 14 high, 11 mid and 10 low responders. In summary, the vitamin D responsiveness classification provides additional information compared to a vitamin D status assessment based on single 25(OH)D 3 serum measurements. The study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02063334). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation bias in objective response rate and disease control rate between blinded independent central review and local assessment: a study-level pooled analysis of phase III randomized control trials in the past seven years.

    Zhang, Jianrong; Zhang, Yiyin; Tang, Shiyan; Liang, Hengrui; Chen, Difei; Jiang, Long; He, Qihua; Huang, Yu; Wang, Xinyu; Deng, Kexin; Jiang, Shuhan; Zhou, Jiaqing; Xu, Jiaxuan; Chen, Xuanzuo; Liang, Wenhua; He, Jianxing

    2017-12-01

    In previous studies, complete-case implementation of blind independent central review has been considered unnecessary based on no sign of systematic bias between central and local assessments. In order to further evaluate its value, this study investigated evaluation status between both assessments in phase III trials of anti-cancer drugs for non-hematologic solid tumors. Eligible trials were searched in PubMed with the date of Jan 1, 2010 to Jun 30, 2017. We compared objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) between central and local assessments by study-level pooled analysis and correlation analysis. In pooled analysis, direct comparison was measured by the odds ratio (OR) of central-assessed response status to local-assessed response status; to investigate evaluation bias between central and local assessments, the above calculated OR between experimental (exp-) and control (con-) arms were compared, measured by the ratio of OR. A total of 28 included trials involving 17,466 patients were included (28 with ORR, 16 with DCR). Pooled analysis showed central assessment reported lower ORR and DCR than local assessment, especially in trials with open-label design, central-assessed primary endpoint, and positive primary endpoint outcome, respectively. However, this finding could be found in both experimental [exp-ORR: OR=0.81 (95% CI: 0.76-0.87), Pevaluation bias between two assessments was indicated through further analysis [ORR: ratio of OR=1.02 (0.97-1.07), P=0.42, I 2 =0%; DCR: ratio of OR=0.98 (0.93-1.03), P=0.37, I 2 =0%], regardless of mask (open/blind), sample size, tumor type, primary endpoint (central-assessed/local-assessed), and primary endpoint outcome (positive/negative). Correlation analysis demonstrated a high-degree concordance between central and local assessments (exp-ORR, con-ORR, exp-DCR, con-DCR: r>0.90, P<0.01). Blind independent central review remained irreplaceable to monitor local assessment, but its complete

  1. Consumers' evaluations of socially responsible activities in retailing

    Herpen, van E.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    2003-01-01

    The authors approached Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a process in which particular CSR activities impact on consumers’ store evaluation and trust. They hypothesized that consumers classify CSR activities along two dimensions: (1) the beneficiary of the activity and (2) the intrinsic

  2. Evaluation of antibody response in mice against avian influenza A

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 39; Issue 3. Evaluation of antibody response in mice against avian influenza A (H5N1) strain neuraminidase expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris. Murugan Subathra Ponsekaran Santhakumar Mangamoori Lakshmi Narasu Syed Sultan Beevi Sunil K Lal. Articles Volume 39 ...

  3. Evaluation of Growth Performance of Tomato in Response to ...

    Sunusi

    ABSTRACT. Field experiment was conducted in 2013 and 2014 to evaluate growth performance of two tomato genotypes in response to biochar application and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) inoculation at the. Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. The experiment was laid out.

  4. Evaluation of Growth Performance of Tomato in Response to ...

    Field experiment was conducted in 2013 and 2014 to evaluate growth performance of two tomato genotypes in response to biochar application and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) inoculation at the Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. The experiment was laid out in a split-split ...

  5. Evaluation of normal tissue responses to high-LET radiations

    Halnan, K.E.

    1979-01-01

    Clinical results presented have been analysed to evaluate normal tissue responses to high-LET radiations. Damage to brain, spinal cord, gut, skin, connective tissue and bone has occurred. A high RBE is probable for brain and possible for spinal cord and gut but other reasons for damage are also discussed. A net gain seems likely. Random controlled trials are advocated. (author)

  6. A new approach to evaluate the response functions for conical and cylindrical collimators

    Gigante, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    A new approach to the evaluation of the conical collimator response function is shown. The basic collimator formulae are reviewed. The collimator response function has been found in a very easy way. An approximate solution has been introduced. Studying the response of a measuring system, the use of this approximation strongly reduces the complexity of the relations to be used; therefore it would provide a useful starting point for a Monte Carlo calculation. The errors introduced are less than 10%. Approximate relations that allow the evaluation of the response of conical and cylindrical collimators to plane and line sources are also given. (orig.)

  7. Radiological evaluation of the response to chemotherapy for osteosarcoma

    Miwa, Shinji; Taki, Junichi; Yamamoto, Norio

    2011-01-01

    Sixty-one patients with osteosarcoma were examined by radiographs, angiograms, MRI, 201 Tl and 99m Tc-methoxyisobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI) scintigram to evaluate their response to preoperative chemotherapy. All patients were classified as either responders or non-responder according based on the imaging findings. The radiographs were evaluated according to the degree of sclerotic change and cortical recovery, and the angiograms were evaluated according to the degree of vascular change. MR images were evaluated according to the rate of extraskeletal mass reduction. The 201 Tl and 99m Tc-MIBI scans were evaluated by the percentage reduction of the uptake ratio. All patients were evaluated on the basis of a pathological examination of the resected specimens. We also devised a combined radiological scoring system according to the predictive power of each type of diagnostic image and investigated the correlation between the radiological evaluation and the pathological evaluation. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 81.0%, 19.0%, and 60.3%, respectively for the radiographs; 77.1%, 20.0%, and 60.0%, respectively, for angiograms; 82.1%, 69.0%, and 75.4%, respectively for MRI; 81.5%, 68.0%, and 75.0%, respectively, for 201 Tl scans; 76.7%, 70.6%, and 74.5% for 99m Tc-MIBI scans; and 88.9%, 84.0%, and 86.9%, respectively, for the combined radiological evaluation. (author)

  8. Evaluation of toxicological effects induced by tributyltin in clam Ruditapes decussatus using high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Study of metabolic responses in heart tissue and detection of a novel metabolite.

    Hanana, H; Simon, G; Kervarec, N; Cérantola, S

    2014-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a highly toxic pollutant present in many aquatic ecosystems. Its toxicity in mollusks strongly affects their performance and survival. The main purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of TBT toxicity in clam Ruditapes decussatus by evaluating the metabolic responses of heart tissues, using high-resolution magic angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HRMAS NMR), after exposure to TBT (10 -9 , 10 -6 and 10 -4 M) during 24 h and 72 h. Results show that responses of clam heart tissue to TBT exposure are not dose dependent. Metabolic profile analyses indicated that TBT 10 -6 M, contrary to the two other doses tested, led to a significant depletion of taurine and betaine. Glycine levels decreased in all clam groups treated with the organotin. It is suggested that TBT abolished the cytoprotective effect of taurine, betaine and glycine thereby inducing cardiomyopathie. Moreover, results also showed that TBT induced increase in the level of alanine and succinate suggesting the occurrence of anaerobiosis particularly in clam group exposed to the highest dose of TBT. Taken together, these results demonstrate that TBT is a potential toxin with a variety of deleterious effects on clam and this organotin may affect different pathways depending to the used dose. The main finding of this study was the appearance of an original metabolite after TBT treatment likely N-glycine-N'-alanine. It is the first time that this molecule has been identified as a natural compound. Its exact role is unknown and remains to be elucidated. We suppose that its formation could play an important role in clam defense response by attenuating Ca 2+ dependent cell death induced by TBT. Therefore this compound could be a promising biomarker for TBT exposure.

  9. In vitro evaluation of fluorescence glucose biosensor response.

    Aloraefy, Mamdouh; Pfefer, T Joshua; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Sapsford, Kim E

    2014-07-08

    Rapid, accurate, and minimally-invasive glucose biosensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) for glucose measurement have the potential to enhance diabetes control. However, a standard set of in vitro approaches for evaluating optical glucose biosensor response under controlled conditions would facilitate technological innovation and clinical translation. Towards this end, we have identified key characteristics and response test methods, fabricated FRET-based glucose biosensors, and characterized biosensor performance using these test methods. The biosensors were based on competitive binding between dextran and glucose to concanavalin A and incorporated long-wavelength fluorescence dye pairs. Testing characteristics included spectral response, linearity, sensitivity, limit of detection, kinetic response, reversibility, stability, precision, and accuracy. The biosensor demonstrated a fluorescence change of 45% in the presence of 400 mg/dL glucose, a mean absolute relative difference of less than 11%, a limit of detection of 25 mg/dL, a response time of 15 min, and a decay in fluorescence intensity of 72% over 30 days. The battery of tests presented here for objective, quantitative in vitro evaluation of FRET glucose biosensors performance have the potential to form the basis of future consensus standards. By implementing these test methods for a long-visible-wavelength biosensor, we were able to demonstrate strengths and weaknesses with a new level of thoroughness and rigor.

  10. In Vitro Evaluation of Fluorescence Glucose Biosensor Response

    Mamdouh Aloraefy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate, and minimally-invasive glucose biosensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET for glucose measurement have the potential to enhance diabetes control. However, a standard set of in vitro approaches for evaluating optical glucose biosensor response under controlled conditions would facilitate technological innovation and clinical translation. Towards this end, we have identified key characteristics and response test methods, fabricated FRET-based glucose biosensors, and characterized biosensor performance using these test methods. The biosensors were based on competitive binding between dextran and glucose to concanavalin A and incorporated long-wavelength fluorescence dye pairs. Testing characteristics included spectral response, linearity, sensitivity, limit of detection, kinetic response, reversibility, stability, precision, and accuracy. The biosensor demonstrated a fluorescence change of 45% in the presence of 400 mg/dL glucose, a mean absolute relative difference of less than 11%, a limit of detection of 25 mg/dL, a response time of 15 min, and a decay in fluorescence intensity of 72% over 30 days. The battery of tests presented here for objective, quantitative in vitro evaluation of FRET glucose biosensors performance have the potential to form the basis of future consensus standards. By implementing these test methods for a long-visible-wavelength biosensor, we were able to demonstrate strengths and weaknesses with a new level of thoroughness and rigor.

  11. Mastering moral misery : Emotional and coping responses to intragroup morality (vs. competence) evaluations

    van der Lee, Romy; Ellemers, Naomi; Scheepers, Daan

    2016-01-01

    In social groups, individuals are often confronted with evaluations of their behaviour by other group members and are motivated to adapt their own behaviour accordingly. In two studies we examine emotional responses towards, and perceived coping abilities with, morality vs. competence evaluations

  12. Reanalysis and evaluation of seismic response of reactor building

    Li Zhongcheng; Li Zhongxian

    2005-01-01

    For the Ling Ao phase-I (LA-I) Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), its' seismic analysis of nuclear island was in accordance with the approaches in RCC-G standard for the model M310 in France, in which the Simplified impedance method was employed for the consideration of SSI. Thanks to the rapid progress being made in upgrading the evaluation technology and the capability of data processing systems, methods and software tools for the SSI analysis have experienced significant development all over the world. Focused on the model of reactor building of the LA-I NPP, in this paper the more sophisticated 3D half-space continuum impedance method based on the Green functions is used to analyze the functions of the soil, and then the seismic responses of the coupled SSI system are calculated and compared with the corresponding design values. It demonstrates that the design method provides a set of conservatively safe results. The conclusions from the study are hopefully to provide some important references to the assessment of seismic safety margin for LA-I NPP. (authors)

  13. Therapy response evaluation with positron emission tomography-computed tomography.

    Segall, George M

    2010-12-01

    Positron emission tomography-computed tomography with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose is widely used for evaluation of therapy response in patients with solid tumors but has not been as readily adopted in clinical trials because of the variability of acquisition and processing protocols and the absence of universal response criteria. Criteria proposed for clinical trials are difficult to apply in clinical practice, and gestalt impression is probably accurate in individual patients, especially with respect to the presence of progressive disease and complete response. Semiquantitative methods of determining tissue glucose metabolism, such as standard uptake value, can be a useful descriptor for levels of tissue glucose metabolism and changes in response to therapy if technical quality control measures are carefully maintained. The terms partial response, complete response, and progressive disease are best used in clinical trials in which the terms have specific meanings and precise definitions. In clinical practice, it may be better to use descriptive terminology agreed upon by imaging physicians and clinicians in their own practice. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Mastering moral misery: Emotional and coping responses to intragroup morality (vs. competence) evaluations.

    van der Lee, Romy; Ellemers, Naomi; Scheepers, Daan

    2016-01-01

    In social groups, individuals are often confronted with evaluations of their behaviour by other group members and are motivated to adapt their own behaviour accordingly. In two studies we examine emotional responses towards, and perceived coping abilities with, morality vs. competence evaluations individuals receive from other in-group members. In Study 1, we show that evaluations of one's immoral behaviour primarily induce guilt, whereas evaluations of incompetent behaviour raise anger. In Study 2, we elaborate on the psychological process associated with these emotional responses, and demonstrate that evaluations of immorality, compared to incompetence, diminish group members' perceived coping abilities, which in turn intensifies feelings of guilt. However, when anticipating an opportunity to restore one's self-image as a moral group member, perceived coping abilities are increased and the experience of guilt is alleviated. Together these studies demonstrate how group members can overcome their moral misery when restoring their self-image.

  15. Building an Evaluation Scale using Item Response Theory.

    Lalor, John P; Wu, Hao; Yu, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Evaluation of NLP methods requires testing against a previously vetted gold-standard test set and reporting standard metrics (accuracy/precision/recall/F1). The current assumption is that all items in a given test set are equal with regards to difficulty and discriminating power. We propose Item Response Theory (IRT) from psychometrics as an alternative means for gold-standard test-set generation and NLP system evaluation. IRT is able to describe characteristics of individual items - their difficulty and discriminating power - and can account for these characteristics in its estimation of human intelligence or ability for an NLP task. In this paper, we demonstrate IRT by generating a gold-standard test set for Recognizing Textual Entailment. By collecting a large number of human responses and fitting our IRT model, we show that our IRT model compares NLP systems with the performance in a human population and is able to provide more insight into system performance than standard evaluation metrics. We show that a high accuracy score does not always imply a high IRT score, which depends on the item characteristics and the response pattern.

  16. Validity of Palestinian University Students' Responses in Evaluating Their Instructors.

    Baker, Ahmad M.

    1986-01-01

    A study of Palestinian university students' evaluations of their teachers' instruction examined the possible biasing effect of their sex, academic class, or expected grade in the course. The results are examined in the context of Arab and Third World higher education and the need to establish standards of evaluation. (MSE)

  17. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants

  18. Evaluation of chlorpyrifos toxicity through a 28-day study: Cholinesterase activity, oxidative stress responses, parent compound/metabolite levels, and primary DNA damage in blood and brain tissue of adult male Wistar rats.

    Kopjar, Nevenka; Žunec, Suzana; Mendaš, Gordana; Micek, Vedran; Kašuba, Vilena; Mikolić, Anja; Lovaković, Blanka Tariba; Milić, Mirta; Pavičić, Ivan; Čermak, Ana Marija Marjanović; Pizent, Alica; Lucić Vrdoljak, Ana; Želježić, Davor

    2018-01-05

    In this 28 day-study, we evaluated the effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos orally administered to Wistar rats at doses 0.160, 0.015, and 0.010 mg/kg b. w./day. Following treatment, total cholinesterase activity and activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) were measured. Oxidative stress responses were evaluated using a battery of endpoints to establish lipid peroxidation, changes in total antioxidant capacity, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) level and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Using HPLC-UV DAD analysis, levels of the parent compound and its main metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in plasma and brain tissue were measured. The genotoxic effect was estimated using alkaline comet assay in leukocytes and brain tissue. The exposure did not result in significant effects on total cholinesterase, AChE and BChE activity in plasma and brain tissue. Lipid peroxidation slightly increased both in plasma and brain tissue. Total antioxidant capacity, ROS and GSH levels were marginally influenced by the exposure. Treatment led to significant increases of GSH-Px activity in blood, SOD activity in erythrocytes and a slight increase of catalase activity in plasma. HPLC-UV DAD analysis revealed the presence of both the parent compound and its main metabolite in the plasma of all of the experimental animals and brain tissue of the animals treated at the two higher doses. All of the tested doses of chlorpyrifos were slightly genotoxic, both to leukocytes and brain tissue. Our results call for further research using other sensitive biomarkers of effect, along with different exposure scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. FLT-PET for early response evaluation of colorectal cancer patients with liver metastases

    Mogensen, Marie Benzon; Loft, Annika; Aznar, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fluoro-L-thymidine (FLT) is a positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) tracer which reflects proliferative activity in a cancer lesion. The main objective of this prospective explorative study was to evaluate whether FLT-PET can be used for the early evaluation...... standardised uptake values (SUVmax, SUVmean) were measured. After three cycles of chemotherapy, treatment response was assessed by CT scan based on RECIST 1.1. RESULTS: Thirty-nine consecutive patients were included of which 27 were evaluable. Dropout was mainly due to disease complications. Nineteen patients...... between the response according to RECIST and the early changes in FLT uptake measured as SUVmax(p = 0.24). CONCLUSIONS: No correlation was found between early changes in FLT uptake after the first cycle of treatment and the response evaluated from subsequent CT scans. It seems unlikely that FLT-PET can...

  20. Physiological and Molecular Response of Prorocentrum minimum to Tannic Acid: An Experimental Study to Evaluate the Feasibility of Using Tannic Acid in Controling the Red Tide in a Eutrophic Coastal Water

    Byungkwan Jeong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay and gene expression experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the growth and physiology of Prorocentrum minimum isolated from a eutrophic coastal water in response to tannic acid. In the bioassay experiments, variations in abundance, chlorophyll (chl a concentration, maximum fluorescence (in vivo Fm, and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm were measured over the course of a seven-day incubation. Moreover, stress-related gene expression in both the control and an experimental (2.5 ppm TA treatment group was observed for 24 h and 48 h. The molecular markers used in this study were the heat shock proteins (Hsp70 and Hsp90 and cyclophilin (CYP. The findings show that P. minimum can thrive and grow at low concentrations (<2.5 ppm of tannic acid, and, above this concentration, cells begin to slow down development. In addition, TA concentration of 10 ppm halted photosynthetic activity. At the molecular level, treatment with tannic acid increased the expression of Hsp70, Hsp90, and CYP, and heat shock proteins are more upregulated than the cyclophilin gene. Exposure to tannic acid increased the expression of stress factors over time (48 h by 10- to 27-fold the expression level of the control group. These results suggest that tannic acid can be used to control harmful algal blooms such as those containing P. minimum in eutrophic coastal waters.

  1. Shallow Depth Geophysical Investigation Through the Application of Magnetic and Electric Resistance Techniques: AN Evaluation Study of the Responses of Magnetic and Electric Resistance Techniques to Archaeogeophysical Prospection Surveys in Greece and Cyprus

    Sarris, Apostolos

    The response characteristics of total intensity and vertical gradient magnetic techniques have been investigated in detail and compared with electric resistivity and other geophysical techniques. Four case studies from archaeological sites of Greece and Cyprus have been used as the experimental basis of this research project. Data from shallow depth geophysical investigations in these sites were collected over a period of four years. Interpretation of the geophysical results was based on the integration of the various prospecting methods. The results of the comparative study between the different techniques showed a strong correlation among all methods allowing the detection of certain features and the determination of their dimensions. The application of a large range of geophysical prospecting techniques in the surveyed archaeological sites has been able to detect the approximate position of the subsurface remains and to compare the different techniques in terms of the information that they reveal. Each one of these techniques has been used to examine the characteristic response of each method to the geophysical anomalies associated with the surveyed sites. Magnetic susceptibility measurements at two frequencies have identified areas and levels of intense human activity. A number of processing techniques such as low, high and band pass filtering in the spatial and frequency domain, computation of the residuals and fast Fourier transformation (FFT) of the magnetic potential data have been applied to the geophysical measurements. The subsequent convolution with filters representing apparent susceptibility, reduction to pole and equator, Gaussian and Butterworth regional and residual distributions, and inverse filtering in terms of spiking deconvolution have revealed a wealth of information necessary to obtain a more accurate picture of the concealed features. Inverse modelling of isolated magnetic anomalies has further enriched the information database of the

  2. Introducing PCTRAN as an evaluation tool for nuclear power plant emergency responses

    Cheng, Yi-Hsiang; Shih, Chunkuan; Chiang, Show-Chyuan; Weng, Tung-Li

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PCTRAN is integrated with an atmospheric dispersion algorithm. ► The improved PCTRAN acts as an accident/incident simulator and a data exchange system. ► The software helps the responsible organizations decide the rescue and protective actions. ► The evaluation results show the nuclear power plant accident and its off-site dose consequences. ► The software can be used for nuclear power plant emergency responses. - Abstract: Protecting the public from radiation exposure is important if a nuclear power plant (NPP) accident occurs. Deciding appropriate protective actions in a timely and effective manner can be fulfilled by using an effective accident evaluation tool. In our earlier work, we have integrated PCTRAN (Personal Computer Transient Analyzer) with the off-site dose calculation model. In this study, we introduce PCTRAN as an evaluation tool for nuclear power plant emergency responses. If abnormal conditions in the plant are monitored or observed, the plant staffs can distinguish accident/incident initiation events. Thus, the responsible personnel can immediately operate PCTRAN and set up those accident/incident initiation events to simulate the nuclear power plant transient or accident in conjunction with off-site dose distributions. The evaluation results consequently help the responsible organizations decide the rescue and protective actions. In this study, we explain and demonstrate the capabilities of PCTRAN for nuclear emergency responses, through applying it to simulate the postulated nuclear power plant accident scenarios.

  3. Responsibility and trade emission balances. An evaluation of approaches

    Serrano, Monica; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares two concepts to evaluate the international responsibility of a country with respect to its emissions. Using a multi-regional input-output model, we show that the trade emission balance and the responsibility emission balance yield the same result. In practical work, however, a lack of data availability implies that the same technology assumption has been commonly adopted. In that case, also a third alternative exists, which simply evaluates the emissions embodied in the trade balance of the country. This third alternative yields the same results as the other two approaches at the aggregate level. At the level of individual products, however, the results are clearly different and it turns out that the third alternative answers a different question. That is, it is appropriate for measuring the emission content of the products that cross the border. In our empirical application, we consider Spain in 1995 and 2000, distinguishing nine different gases: CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, SF 6 , HFCs, PFCs, SO 2 , NO x , and NH 3 . (author)

  4. Evaluating nuclear power plant crew performance during emergency response drills

    Rabin, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) is responsible for the regulation of the health, safety and environmental consequences of nuclear activities in Canada. Recently, the Human Factors Specialists of the AECB have become involved in the assessment of emergency preparedness and emergency response at nuclear facilities. One key contribution to existing AECB methodology is the introduction of Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) to measure crew interaction skills during emergency response drills. This report presents results of an on-going pilot study to determine if the BARS provide a reliable and valid means of rating the key dimensions of communications, openness, task coordination and adaptability under simulated emergency circumstances. To date, the objectivity of the BARS is supported by good inter-rater reliability while the validity of the BARS is supported by the agreement between ratings of crew interaction and qualitative and quantitative observations of crew performance. (author)

  5. Consumer Trust in and Emotional Response to Advertisements on Social Media and their Influence on Brand Evaluation

    Ivanete Schneider Hahn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Social media is becoming an important part of an organization's media strategy. This study examines the effects of trust and consumer emotional response to advertisements on brand evaluation in an online social media context. The study used a survey method, and the studied population consisted of 927 Brazilian social media users (Facebook subscribers. The results showed the following: (1 the emotional response to advertising on social media had a positive influence on brand evaluation; and (2 consumer trust had a positive influence on brand evaluation and emotional response to advertisements on social media. It is possible to conclude that consumer trust is the key variable to a positive emotional response to advertisements on social media and to a positive brand evaluation. Finally, this study demonstrates that companies must measure the emotional response to advertising in their social media activities as a way of enhancing brand evaluation.

  6. Nondestructive Evaluation of Ceramic Candle Filters Using Vibration Response

    Chen, Roger H.L.; Kiriakidis, Alejandro C.; Peng, Steve W.

    1997-01-01

    This study aims at the development of an effective nondestructive evaluation technique to predict the remaining useful life of a ceramic candle filter during a power plant's annual maintenance shutdown. The objective of the present on-going study is to establish the vibration signatures of ceramic candle filters at varying degradation levels due to different operating hours, and to study the various factors involving the establishment of the signatures

  7. Study on radiation-responsive epigenomes

    Kim, Jin Hong; Chung, Byung Yeop; Lee, Seung Sik; Moon, Yu Ran; Lee, Min Hee; Kim, Ji Hong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The purpose of this project is development of world-class headspring techniques of biological science for application of plant genomes/epigenomes through study on radiation- responsive epigenomes and improvement of the national competitiveness in the field of fundamental technology for biological science and industry. Research scope includes 1) Investigation of radiation-responsive epigenomes and elucidation of their relation with phenotypes, 2) Elucidation of interaction and transcription control of epigenomes and epigenetic regulators using ionizing radiation (IR), 3) Investigation of epigenome-mediated traits in plant development, differentiation and antioxidant defense using IR, and 4) Development of application techniques of radiation-responsive epigenomes for eco-monitoring and molecular breeding. Main results are as follow: Setup of conditions for chromatin immunoprecipitation in irradiated plants: investigation of aberrations in DNA methylation after treatment with different IR: elucidation of responses of epigenetic regulators to gamma rays (GR): investigation of aberrations in GR-responsive epigenetic regulators at different developmental stages: elucidation of interactive aberrations of epigenomes and epigenetic regulators after treatment of GR: comparison of functional genomes after treatment of GR or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}: elucidation of relation of epigenomes with GR-induced delay in senescence: elucidation of relation of epigenomes with GR-induced aberrations in pigment metabolism: comparison of antioxidant defense in epigenetic mutants: investigation of senescence-associated changes in epigenomes: investigation of senescence-associated changes in epigenetic regulators: comparison of aberrations in epigenomes at different dose of GR for mutation.

  8. Study on radiation-responsive epigenomes

    Kim, Jin Hong; Chung, Byung Yeop; Lee, Seung Sik; Moon, Yu Ran; Lee, Min Hee; Kim, Ji Hong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project is development of world-class headspring techniques of biological science for application of plant genomes/epigenomes through study on radiation- responsive epigenomes and improvement of the national competitiveness in the field of fundamental technology for biological science and industry. Research scope includes 1) Investigation of radiation-responsive epigenomes and elucidation of their relation with phenotypes, 2) Elucidation of interaction and transcription control of epigenomes and epigenetic regulators using ionizing radiation (IR), 3) Investigation of epigenome-mediated traits in plant development, differentiation and antioxidant defense using IR, and 4) Development of application techniques of radiation-responsive epigenomes for eco-monitoring and molecular breeding. Main results are as follow: Setup of conditions for chromatin immunoprecipitation in irradiated plants: investigation of aberrations in DNA methylation after treatment with different IR: elucidation of responses of epigenetic regulators to gamma rays (GR): investigation of aberrations in GR-responsive epigenetic regulators at different developmental stages: elucidation of interactive aberrations of epigenomes and epigenetic regulators after treatment of GR: comparison of functional genomes after treatment of GR or H 2 O 2 : elucidation of relation of epigenomes with GR-induced delay in senescence: elucidation of relation of epigenomes with GR-induced aberrations in pigment metabolism: comparison of antioxidant defense in epigenetic mutants: investigation of senescence-associated changes in epigenomes: investigation of senescence-associated changes in epigenetic regulators: comparison of aberrations in epigenomes at different dose of GR for mutation

  9. Strategies for Evaluating a Freshman Studies Program.

    Ketkar, Kusum; Bennett, Shelby D.

    1989-01-01

    The study developed an economic model for the evaluation of Seaton Hall University's freshman studies program. Two techniques used to evaluate the economic success of the program are break-even analysis and elasticity coefficient. (Author/MLW)

  10. Crop insurance evaluation in response to extreme events

    Moriondo, Marco; Ferrise, Roberto; Bindi, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Crop yield insurance has been indicated as a tool to manage the uncertainties of crop yields (Sherrick et al., 2004) but the changes in crop yield variability as expected in the near future should be carefully considered for a better quantitative assessment of farmer's revenue risk and insurance values in a climatic change regime (Moriondo et al., 2011). Under this point of view, mechanistic crop growth models coupled to the output of General/Regional Circulation Models (GCMs, RCMs) offer a valuable tool to evaluate crop responses to climatic change and this approach has been extensively used to describe crop yield distribution in response to climatic change considering changes in both mean climate and variability. In this work, we studied the effect of a warmer climate on crop yield distribution of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp durum) in order to assess the economic significance of climatic change in a risk decision context. Specifically, the outputs of 6 RCMs (Tmin, Tmax, Rainfall, Global Radiation) (van der Linden and Mitchell 2009) have been statistically downscaled by a stochastic weather generator over eight sites across the Mediterranean basin and used to feed the crop growth model Sirius Quality. Three time slices were considered i) the present period PP (average of the period 1975-1990, [CO2]=350 ppm), 2020 (average of the period 2010-2030, SRES scenario A1b, [CO2]=415 ppm) and 2040 (average of the period 2030-2050, SRES scenario A1b, [CO2]=480 ppm). The effect of extreme climate events (i.e. heat stress at anthesis stage) was also considered. The outputs of these simulations were used to estimate the expected payout per hectare from insurance triggered when yields fall below a specific threshold defined as "the insured yield". For each site, the threshold was calculated as a fraction (70%) of the median of yield distribution under PP that represents the percentage of median yield above which indemnity payments are triggered. The results

  11. Adolescents' Increasing Stress Response to Social Evaluation: Pubertal Effects on Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase during Public Speaking

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden…

  12. New method for evaluating effective recovery time and single photoelectron response in silicon photomultipliers

    Grodzicka, Martyna, E-mail: m.grodzicka@ncbj.gov.pl; Szczęśniak, Tomasz; Moszyński, Marek; Szawłowski, Marek; Grodzicki, Krystian

    2015-05-21

    The linearity of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) response depends on the number of APD cells and its effective recovery time and it is related to the intensity and duration of the detected light pulses. The aim of this study was to determine the effective recovery time on the basis of the measured SiPM response to light pulses of different durations. A closer analysis of the SiPM response to the light pulses shorter than the effective recovery time of APD cells led to a method for the evaluation of the single photoelectron response of the devices where the single photoelectron peak cannot be clearly measured. This is necessary in the evaluation of the number of fired APD cells (or the number of photoelectrons) in measurements with light pulses of various durations. Measurements were done with SiPMs manufactured by two companies: Hamamatsu and SensL.

  13. 209-E Building -- Response to ventilation failure evaluation

    Foust, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides an evaluation and recommendations for radiological workplace air monitoring and response to ventilation failure for the Critical Mass Laboratory, 209-E Building. The Critical Mass Laboratory, part of the 209-E Building, was designed to provide a heavily shielded room where plutonium and uranium liquid solutions could be brought into various critical configurations under readily controlled and monitored conditions. The facility is contained within a one-story L-shaped concrete block and reinforced concrete building. One wing houses offices, a control room, shops, and a common area while the other wing includes an equipment room, the change room, work areas, and the two-story Critical Assembly Room (CAR). Three of the rooms contain radiologically contaminated equipment and materials

  14. Study on radiation-responsive epigenomes

    Kim, Jin Hong; Lee, Seung Sik; Bae, Hyung Woo; Kim, Ji Hong; Kim, Ji Eun; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Min Hee; Moon, Yu Ran [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The purpose of this project is development of world-class headspring techniques of biological science for application of plant genomes/epigenomes through study on radiation- responsive epigenomes and improvement of the national competitiveness in the field of fundamental technology for biological science and industry. Research scope includes 1) Investigation of radiation-responsive epigenomes and elucidation of their relation with phenotypes, 2) Elucidation of interaction and transcription control of epigenomes and epigenetic regulators using IR, 3) Investigation of epigenome-mediated traits in plant development, differentiation and antioxidant defense using IR, and 4) Development of application techniques of radiation-responsive epigenomes for eco-monitoring and molecular breeding. Main results are as follow: practical application of ChIP in GR-treated Arabidopsis using anti-histone antibodies: mapping of DNA methylomes associated with GR-responsive transcriptomes: setup of methylated DNA quantification using HPLC: elucidation of aberrations in epigenetic regulation induced by low-dose GR using gamma phytotron: comparison of gene expression of histone-modifying enzymes after treatment of GR: elucidation of transcriptomes and physiological alterations associated with delayed senescence of drd1-6 mutant: comparison of gene expression of DNA methylation-related enzymes in GR-treated rice callus and Arabidopsis: investigation of germination capacity, low-temperature, salinity and drought stress-resistance in drd1-6 epigenetic mutant: investigation of aberrations in DNA methylation depending on dose rates of gamma radiation

  15. Study on radiation-responsive epigenomes

    Kim, Jin Hong; Lee, Seung Sik; Bae, Hyung Woo; Kim, Ji Hong; Kim, Ji Eun; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Min Hee; Moon, Yu Ran

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this project is development of world-class headspring techniques of biological science for application of plant genomes/epigenomes through study on radiation- responsive epigenomes and improvement of the national competitiveness in the field of fundamental technology for biological science and industry. Research scope includes 1) Investigation of radiation-responsive epigenomes and elucidation of their relation with phenotypes, 2) Elucidation of interaction and transcription control of epigenomes and epigenetic regulators using IR, 3) Investigation of epigenome-mediated traits in plant development, differentiation and antioxidant defense using IR, and 4) Development of application techniques of radiation-responsive epigenomes for eco-monitoring and molecular breeding. Main results are as follow: practical application of ChIP in GR-treated Arabidopsis using anti-histone antibodies: mapping of DNA methylomes associated with GR-responsive transcriptomes: setup of methylated DNA quantification using HPLC: elucidation of aberrations in epigenetic regulation induced by low-dose GR using gamma phytotron: comparison of gene expression of histone-modifying enzymes after treatment of GR: elucidation of transcriptomes and physiological alterations associated with delayed senescence of drd1-6 mutant: comparison of gene expression of DNA methylation-related enzymes in GR-treated rice callus and Arabidopsis: investigation of germination capacity, low-temperature, salinity and drought stress-resistance in drd1-6 epigenetic mutant: investigation of aberrations in DNA methylation depending on dose rates of gamma radiation

  16. Ovine model for studying pulmonary immune responses

    Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    Anatomical features of the sheep lung make it an excellent model for studying pulmonary immunity. Four specific lung segments were identified which drain exclusively to three separate lymph nodes. One of these segments, the dorsal basal segment of the right lung, is drained by the caudal mediastinal lymph node (CMLN). Cannulation of the efferent lymph duct of the CMLN along with highly localized intrabronchial instillation of antigen provides a functional unit with which to study factors involved in development of pulmonary immune responses. Following intrabronchial immunization there was an increased output of lymphoblasts and specific antibody-forming cells in efferent CMLN lymph. Continuous divergence of efferent lymph eliminated the serum antibody response but did not totally eliminate the appearance of specific antibody in fluid obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. In these studies localized immunization of the right cranial lobe served as a control. Efferent lymphoblasts produced in response to intrabronchial antigen were labeled with 125 I-iododeoxyuridine and their migrational patterns and tissue distribution compared to lymphoblasts obtained from the thoracic duct. The results indicated that pulmonary immunoblasts tend to relocate in lung tissue and reappear with a higher specific activity in pulmonary lymph than in thoracic duct lymph. The reverse was observed with labeled intestinal lymphoblasts. 35 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  17. Ovine model for studying pulmonary immune responses

    Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D.

    1984-11-25

    Anatomical features of the sheep lung make it an excellent model for studying pulmonary immunity. Four specific lung segments were identified which drain exclusively to three separate lymph nodes. One of these segments, the dorsal basal segment of the right lung, is drained by the caudal mediastinal lymph node (CMLN). Cannulation of the efferent lymph duct of the CMLN along with highly localized intrabronchial instillation of antigen provides a functional unit with which to study factors involved in development of pulmonary immune responses. Following intrabronchial immunization there was an increased output of lymphoblasts and specific antibody-forming cells in efferent CMLN lymph. Continuous divergence of efferent lymph eliminated the serum antibody response but did not totally eliminate the appearance of specific antibody in fluid obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. In these studies localized immunization of the right cranial lobe served as a control. Efferent lymphoblasts produced in response to intrabronchial antigen were labeled with /sup 125/I-iododeoxyuridine and their migrational patterns and tissue distribution compared to lymphoblasts obtained from the thoracic duct. The results indicated that pulmonary immunoblasts tend to relocate in lung tissue and reappear with a higher specific activity in pulmonary lymph than in thoracic duct lymph. The reverse was observed with labeled intestinal lymphoblasts. 35 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Student Response to Faculty Instruction (SRFI): An Empirically Derived Instrument to Measure Student Evaluations of Teaching

    Beitzel, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    The Student Response to Faculty Instruction (SRFI) is an instrument designed to measure the student perspective on courses in higher education. The SRFI was derived from decades of empirical studies of student evaluations of teaching. This article describes the development of the SRFI and its psychometric attributes demonstrated in two pilot study…

  19. Toward Diversity-Responsive Medical Education: Taking an Intersectionality-Based Approach to a Curriculum Evaluation

    Muntinga, M. E.; Krajenbrink, V. Q.; Peerdeman, S. M.; Croiset, G.; Verdonk, P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen a rise in the efforts to implement diversity topics into medical education, using either a "narrow" or a "broad" definition of culture. These developments urge that outcomes of such efforts are systematically evaluated by mapping the curriculum for diversity-responsive content. This study was aimed at…

  20. An Evaluation of the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A True Response Inconsistency (TRIN) Scales

    Handel, Richard W.; Arnau, Randolph C.; Archer, Robert P.; Dandy, Kristina L.

    2006-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--Adolescent (MMPI-A) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 (MMPI-2) True Response Inconsistency (TRIN) scales are measures of acquiescence and nonacquiescence included among the standard validity scales on these instruments. The goals of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of…

  1. The effect of online protests and firm responses on shareholder and consumer evaluation

    van den Broek, Tijs; Langley, David; Hornig, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Protests that target firms’ socially irresponsible behavior are increasingly organized via digital media. This study uses two methods to investigate the effects that online protests and mitigating firm responses have on shareholders’ and consumers’ evaluation. The first method is a financial

  2. The Effect of Online Protests and Firm Responses on Shareholder and Consumer Evaluation

    van Den Broek, Tijs; Langley, David; Hornig, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Protests that target firms’ socially irresponsible behavior are increasingly organized via digital media. This study uses two methods to investigate the effects that online protests and mitigating firm responses have on shareholders’ and consumers’ evaluation. The first method is a financial

  3. Extra Credit Micro-Incentives and Response Rates for Online Course Evaluations: Two Quasi-Experiments

    Sundstrom, Eric D.; Hardin, Erin E.; Shaffer, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    To extend prior findings on the motivational value of tiny, nonfinancial incentives, we conducted two quasi-experiments on the relationship of extra credit micro-incentives (ECMIs, worth =1% of course grade) and response rates for online course evaluations. Study 1 involved two advanced undergraduate psychology courses taught by the same…

  4. Earthquake Ground Motion Measures for Seismic Response Evaluation of Structures

    Cho, In-Kil; Ahn, Seong-Moon; Choun, Young-Sun; Seo, Jeong-Moon

    2007-03-15

    This study used the assessment results of failure criteria - base shear, story drift, top acceleration and top displacement - for a PSC containment building subjected to 30 sets of near-fault ground motions to evaluate the earthquake ground motion intensity measures. Seven intensity measures, peak ground acceleration(PGA), peak ground velocity(PGV), spectral acceleration(Sa), velocity(Sv), spectrum intensity for acceleration(SIa), velocity(SIv) and displacement(SId), were used to represent alternative ground motion. The regression analyses of the failure criteria for a PSC containment building were carried out to evaluate a proper intensity measure by using two regression models and seven ground motion parameters. The regression analysis results demonstrate the correlation coefficients of the failure criteria in terms of the candidate IM. From the results, spectral acceleration(Sa) is estimated as the best parameter for a evaluation of the structural safety for a seismic PSA.

  5. Can legal research benefit from evaluation studies?

    Frans L. Leeuw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes what evaluation studies have to offer to legal research. Several cases and types of evaluations are presented, in relation to legal or semi-legal questions. Also, a short overview of the contemporary history of evaluation studies is presented. Finally, it will address the question of how to ensure that in legal research and in legal training attention is paid to theories, designs and methods of evaluation studies.

  6. Evaluation of responsiveness of Oswestry low back pain disability index.

    Changulani, Manish; Shaju, Anthony

    2009-05-01

    To assess the response of Oswestry disability index (ODI) among patients undergoing caudal epidural steroid injections for lumbosacral radicular pain. A total number of 107 consecutive patients were analysed. ODI was obtained at preassessment and then at 6 weeks post-injection. At follow-up, patients were asked to rate their condition on an ordinal scale as compared to pre-injection based on their response to five questions (much better, better, same, worse, much worse). As a measure of responsiveness, the effect size and standardized response mean (SRM) was calculated. The mean age of the cohort was 58 years. The mean duration of symptoms was 11 months. The mean Pre-injection ODI for 107 patients was 49(95% CI 46-52). The mean post-injection ODI at 6 weeks was 32(95% CI 28-35). The mean change in ODI was 16.9(95% CI 14-19). The mean change in ODI for much better or much worse group was 21.98(95% CI 18-25). The mean change in ODI for better or worse group was 15(95% CI 10-19) (P = 0.01). The mean change in ODI for same group was -0.6(95% CI -10 to 11). The effect size for the whole group was 1.05. The responsiveness as measured by SRM for the whole group was 0.84. This study shows that ODI can detect small changes in disability over time in patients undergoing caudal epidural injections for lumbosacral radicular pain. It can also differentiate between small and large changes in the level of disability.

  7. Trait mindfulness modulates neuroendocrine and affective responses to social evaluative threat.

    Brown, Kirk Warren; Weinstein, Netta; Creswell, J David

    2012-12-01

    Individual differences in mindfulness have been associated with numerous self-report indicators of stress, but research has not examined how mindfulness may buffer neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses under controlled laboratory conditions. The present study investigated the role of trait mindfulness in buffering cortisol and affective responses to a social evaluative stress challenge versus a control task. Participants completed measures of trait mindfulness, perceived stress, anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation before being randomized to complete the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum et al., 1993) or a control task. At points throughout the session, participants provided five saliva samples to assess cortisol response patterns, and completed four self-report measures of anxiety and negative affect to assess psychological responses. In accord with hypotheses, higher trait mindfulness predicted lower cortisol responses to the TSST, relative to the control task, as well as lower anxiety and negative affect. These relations remained significant when controlling for the role of other variables that predicted cortisol and affective responses. The findings suggest that trait mindfulness modulates cortisol and affective responses to an acute social stressor. Further research is needed to understand the neural pathways through which mindfulness impacts these responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Next-Generation Metrics: Responsible Metrics & Evaluation for Open Science

    Wilsdon, J.; Bar-Ilan, J.; Peters, I.; Wouters, P.

    2016-07-01

    Metrics evoke a mixed reaction from the research community. A commitment to using data to inform decisions makes some enthusiastic about the prospect of granular, real-time analysis o of research and its wider impacts. Yet we only have to look at the blunt use of metrics such as journal impact factors, h-indices and grant income targets, to be reminded of the pitfalls. Some of the most precious qualities of academic culture resist simple quantification, and individual indicators often struggle to do justice to the richness and plurality of research. Too often, poorly designed evaluation criteria are “dominating minds, distorting behaviour and determining careers (Lawrence, 2007).” Metrics hold real power: they are constitutive of values, identities and livelihoods. How to exercise that power to more positive ends has been the focus of several recent and complementary initiatives, including the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA1), the Leiden Manifesto2 and The Metric Tide3 (a UK government review of the role of metrics in research management and assessment). Building on these initiatives, the European Commission, under its new Open Science Policy Platform4, is now looking to develop a framework for responsible metrics for research management and evaluation, which can be incorporated into the successor framework to Horizon 2020. (Author)

  9. Impacts of Socially Responsible Corporate Activities on Korean Consumers’ Corporate Evaluations in the Agrifood Industry

    Dongmin Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The variety of socially responsible corporate activities employed in the agrifood industry has been broadening. An increasing number of agrifood companies have been employing strategic approaches to socially responsible activities, reinforced by Porter and Kramer’s concept of creating shared value (CSV. This study compares the effects on corporate evaluations of two socially responsible corporate activities: philanthropic giving and CSV. Because prior studies concerning the effects of corporate prosocial behaviors on consumer responses have yielded mixed results, the present study examines the effects of a priori perceptions of companies by using corporate stereotypes as moderators. The results show that the type of socially responsible corporate activity (CSV vs. philanthropic giving does not influence corporate evaluations. However, in cases of CSV (vs. philanthropic giving, consumers evaluate an unwarm but competent company more attractively and place higher value on an incompetent but warm company. This research is important not only for enriching existing literature, but also for providing guidelines to practitioners with respect to selecting appropriate corporate initiatives based on perceived consumer stereotypes.

  10. The Breast Health Intervention Evaluation Study

    Blumenthal, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    The Breast Health Intervention Evaluation (BRIE) Study will evaluate the relative effectiveness of three different approaches to breast health messages--a fear appeal, a positive affect appeal, and an affectively neutral, cognitive appeal...

  11. A Comprehensive Evaluation System for Military Hospitals' Response Capability to Bio-terrorism.

    Wang, Hui; Jiang, Nan; Shao, Sicong; Zheng, Tao; Sun, Jianzhong

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to establish a comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. Literature research and Delphi method were utilized to establish the comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. Questionnaires were designed and used to survey the status quo of 134 military hospitals' response capability to bio-terrorism. Survey indicated that factor analysis method was suitable to for analyzing the comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. The constructed evaluation system was consisted of five first-class and 16 second-class indexes. Among them, medical response factor was considered as the most important factor with weight coefficient of 0.660, followed in turn by the emergency management factor with weight coefficient of 0.109, emergency management consciousness factor with weight coefficient of 0.093, hardware support factor with weight coefficient of 0.078, and improvement factor with weight coefficient of 0.059. The constructed comprehensive assessment model and system are scientific and practical.

  12. Crescent Evaluation : appendix B : state case study evaluation report

    1994-02-01

    The state case study evaluation approach uniquely captured an understanding of the potential of such a system by documenting the experiences, issues, and opportunities of selected key state government personnel from a cross-section of involved agenci...

  13. Study on radiation-responsive epigenomes

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Seung Sik; Chung, Byung Yeoup; and others

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this project is development of world-class head spring techniques of biological science for application of plant genomes/epigenomes through study on radiation-responsive epigenomes and improvement of the national competitiveness in the field of fundamental technology for biological science and industry. Research scope includes 1) Investigation of radiation-responsive epigenomes and elucidation of their relation with phenotypes, 2) Elucidation of interaction and transcription control of epigenomes and epigenetic regulators using IR, 3) Investigation of epigenome-mediated traits in plant development, differentiation and antioxidant defense using IR, and 4) Development of application techniques of radiation-responsive epigenomes for eco-monitoring and molecular breeding. Main results are as follow: investigation of the expression level of histone-modifying enzymes by IR; elucidation of the structural and functional changes of chaperone protein by IR; development of transgenic plant (DRD1-6); investigation of transcription control of epigenetic regulators by IR; investigation of relevance between DNA methylation and miRNA; comparison of gene expression in wild type and cmt mutant from Arabidopsis using gene chip; investigation control of epigenetic regulators in drd1-6 mutant by drought stress; development of transgenic plant using epigenetic regulators.

  14. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    Negrão, Sónia

    2016-10-06

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making it difficult to study in toto. Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant’s response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. Scope and conclusions We discuss how to quantify the impact of salinity on different traits, such as relative growth rate, water relations, transpiration, transpiration use efficiency, ionic relations, photosynthesis, senescence, yield and yield components. We also suggest some guidelines to assist with the selection of appropriate experimental systems, imposition of salinity stress, and obtaining and analysing relevant physiological data using appropriate indices. We illustrate how these indices can be used to identify relationships amongst the proposed traits to identify which traits are the most important contributors to salinity tolerance. Salinity tolerance is complex and involves many genes, but progress has been made in studying the mechanisms underlying a plant’s response to salinity. Nevertheless, several previous studies on salinity tolerance could have benefited from improved experimental design. We hope that this paper will provide pertinent information to researchers on performing proficient assays and interpreting results from salinity tolerance experiments.

  15. Consumer Trust in and Emotional Response to Advertisements on Social Media and their Influence on Brand Evaluation

    Ivanete Schneider Hahn; Flavia Luciane Scherer; Kenny Basso; Marindia Brachak dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Social media is becoming an important part of an organization's media strategy. This study examines the effects of trust and consumer emotional response to advertisements on brand evaluation in an online social media context. The study used a survey method, and the studied population consisted of 927 Brazilian social media users (Facebook subscribers). The results showed the following: (1) the emotional response to advertising on social media had a positive influence on brand evaluation; and ...

  16. FDG-PET/CT response evaluation during EGFR-TKI treatment in patients with NSCLC

    Matthijs; H; van; Gool; Tjeerd; S; Aukema; Koen; J; Hartemink; Renato; A; Valdés; Olmos; Houke; M; Klomp; Harm; van; Tinteren

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years,[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography acquired together with low dose computed tomography(FDG-PET/CT)has proven its role as a staging modality in patients with non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC).The purpose of this review was to present the evidence to use FDG-PET/CT for response evaluation in patients with NSCLC,treated with epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors(TKI).All published articles from 1November 2003 to 1 November 2013 reporting on 18FFDG-PET response evaluation during EGFR-TKI treatment in patients with NSCLC were collected.In total 7studies,including data of 210 patients were eligible for analyses.Our report shows that FDG-PET/CT responseduring EGFR-TKI therapy has potential in targeted treatment for NSCLC.FDG-PET/CT response is associated with clinical and radiologic response and with survival.Furthermore FDG-PET/CT response monitoring can be performed as early as 1-2 wk after initiation of EGFR-TKI treatment.Patients with substantial decrease of metabolic activity during EGFR-TKI treatment will probably benefit from continued treatment.If metabolic response does not occur within the first weeks of EGFR-TKI treatment,patients may be spared(further)unnecessary toxicity of ineffective treatment.Refining FDG-PET response criteria may help the clinician to decide on continuation or discontinuation of targeted treatment.

  17. Evaluating QR Code Case Studies Using a Mobile Learning Framework

    Rikala, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Quick Response (QR) codes and mobile devices in the context of Finnish basic education. The feasibility was analyzed through a mobile learning framework, which includes the core characteristics of mobile learning. The study is part of a larger research where the aim is to develop a…

  18. Appraisal of family doctors: an evaluation study.

    Lewis, M.I.; Elwyn, G.; Wood, F.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Appraisal has evolved to become a key component of workforce management. However, it is not clear from existing proposals for appraisal of doctors whether employers, health authorities or primary care organisations should take responsibility for appraisal processes. AIMS: To evaluate the

  19. Proposal of a method for evaluating tsunami risk using response-surface methodology

    Fukutani, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Information on probabilistic tsunami inundation hazards is needed to define and evaluate tsunami risk. Several methods for calculating these hazards have been proposed (e.g. Løvholt et al. (2012), Thio (2012), Fukutani et al. (2014), Goda et al. (2015)). However, these methods are inefficient, and their calculation cost is high, since they require multiple tsunami numerical simulations, therefore lacking versatility. In this study, we proposed a simpler method for tsunami risk evaluation using response-surface methodology. Kotani et al. (2016) proposed an evaluation method for the probabilistic distribution of tsunami wave-height using a response-surface methodology. We expanded their study and developed a probabilistic distribution of tsunami inundation depth. We set the depth (x1) and the slip (x2) of an earthquake fault as explanatory variables and tsunami inundation depth (y) as an object variable. Subsequently, tsunami risk could be evaluated by conducting a Monte Carlo simulation, assuming that the generation probability of an earthquake follows a Poisson distribution, the probability distribution of tsunami inundation depth follows the distribution derived from a response-surface, and the damage probability of a target follows a log normal distribution. We applied the proposed method to a wood building located on the coast of Tokyo Bay. We implemented a regression analysis based on the results of 25 tsunami numerical calculations and developed a response-surface, which was defined as y=ax1+bx2+c (a:0.2615, b:3.1763, c=-1.1802). We assumed proper probabilistic distribution for earthquake generation, inundation height, and vulnerability. Based on these probabilistic distributions, we conducted Monte Carlo simulations of 1,000,000 years. We clarified that the expected damage probability of the studied wood building is 22.5%, assuming that an earthquake occurs. The proposed method is therefore a useful and simple way to evaluate tsunami risk using a response

  20. Evaluation of therapy response in breast and ovarian cancer patients by positron emission tomography (PET)

    Baum, R. P.; Przetak, C. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Center for PET, Bad Berka (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has the potential to contribute significantly to treatment planning and to the evaluation of response to therapy in patients with cancer. For disease recurrence PET imaging provides information non-invasively. The final goal is to biologically characterize an individual patients' tumor and to predict the response to treatment at the earliest possible time. Quantitative and/or semi-quantitative PET studies yield valuable information in breast cancer regarding prognosis and response to chemohormontherapy in a timely fashion. In ovarian cancer, up to now only few studies have been performed applying PET techniques for the evaluation of treatment response. These preliminary studies indicate that serial assessment of tumor metabolism by FDG-PET early during effective chemotherapy may predict subsequent response to such therapy. PET studies can be repeated without any side-effects and with low radiation exposure and results can be directly correlated with clinical laboratory data and histology. Therapy monitoring by PET could help to optimize neoadjuvant therapy protocols and to avoid ineffective preoperative therapy in non-responders, but this has to be proven in a larger number of patients and in different neoadjuvant settings such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy or a combination of these.

  1. Evaluation of therapy response in breast and ovarian cancer patients by positron emission tomography (PET)

    Baum, R. P.; Przetak, C.

    2001-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has the potential to contribute significantly to treatment planning and to the evaluation of response to therapy in patients with cancer. For disease recurrence PET imaging provides information non-invasively. The final goal is to biologically characterize an individual patients' tumor and to predict the response to treatment at the earliest possible time. Quantitative and/or semi-quantitative PET studies yield valuable information in breast cancer regarding prognosis and response to chemohormontherapy in a timely fashion. In ovarian cancer, up to now only few studies have been performed applying PET techniques for the evaluation of treatment response. These preliminary studies indicate that serial assessment of tumor metabolism by FDG-PET early during effective chemotherapy may predict subsequent response to such therapy. PET studies can be repeated without any side-effects and with low radiation exposure and results can be directly correlated with clinical laboratory data and histology. Therapy monitoring by PET could help to optimize neoadjuvant therapy protocols and to avoid ineffective preoperative therapy in non-responders, but this has to be proven in a larger number of patients and in different neoadjuvant settings such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy or a combination of these

  2. Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece*: Retrospective Evaluation of Doses in the 26-week Tg.rasH2 Mice Carcinogenicity Studies: Recommendation to Eliminate High Doses at Maximum Tolerated Dose in Future Studies. A Response to the Counterpoints.

    Paranjpe, Madhav G; Denton, Melissa D; Vidmar, Tom J; Elbekai, Reem H

    2016-01-01

    We recently conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected from 29 Tg.rasH2 carcinogenicity studies conducted at our facility to determine how successful was the strategy of choosing the high dose of the 26-week studies based on an estimated maximum tolerated dose (MTD). As a result of our publication, 2 counterviews were expressed. Both counterviews illustrate very valid points in their interpretation of our data. In this article, we would like to highlight clarifications based on several points and issues they have raised in their papers, namely, the dose-level selection, determining if MTD was exceeded in 26-week studies, and a discussion on the number of dose groups to be used in the studies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Experimental Evaluation of the Hydrodynamic Response of Crew Boat Hulls

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents the results of an experimental study on 3 different hulls of crew boats intended for service to offshore wind turbines. Their hydrodynamic behaviour has been tested in various sea states representing general wave conditions that could be expected at offshore wind farms. Two...... main setups were used during the tests, corresponding to the hulls being connected to an offshore windmill and being free floating. The following aspects were the main subjects of investigation: • The Response Amplitude Operators of the hulls in two different configurations and with waves coming from 3...... different directions. • The connection forces between the hulls and the wind turbine pile. • The natural frequency of oscillation. For the study, realistic scale models of the hulls of the crew boats were supplied by the client, Hauschildt Marine. The laboratory tests were performed by Arthur Pecher under...

  4. Evaluation of Hydraulic Response of the Wave Dragon

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The present study investigates the hydraulic response of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon. This is done by peforming model tests in a wave tank in the Hydraulics & Coastal Engineering Laboratory at Aalborg University. In the model tests a floating scale model (length scale 1:50) of the Wave...... Dragon is subjected to irregular, long crested irregular and short crested sea conditions corresponding to typical situations under which the Wave Dragon will produce power. Furthermore two situations corresponding to extreme storm conditions are tested. The objective of the study is to determine...... the wave induced forces in the moorings and in the junction between the reflectors and the reservoir part, and motions of the Wave Dragon situated in different sea conditions....

  5. Study design considerations in evaluating environmental impacts

    Stan T. Lebow; Paul A. Cooper; Patricia Lebow

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to make the reader aware of how choices in study parameters may influence the outcome of treated-wood environmental impact evaluations. Evaluation of the leaching and environmental accumulation of preservatives from treated wood is a complex process. and many factors can influence the results of such studies. In laboratory studies, the...

  6. Evaluation of Non-Medical Services’ Responsiveness Using a National Model: Patients’ Viewpoint

    Roohollah Askari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Responsiveness is the main indicator of high performance in every health system. This study was conducted to assess non-medical services’ responsiveness from patients’ viewpoint through applying a localized responsiveness model in Iran. Methods This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study, conducted in three hospitals of Yazd province in 2015. To collect data, a standardized questionnaire was used and data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software package, through applying descriptive statistical tests, T-test, correlation and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results The study findings revealed that a mean score for responsiveness from patients’ viewpoint was 2.48 ± 0.26 at a public hospital, 2.14 ± 0.26 at a private and 2 ± 0.27 at a charity hospital representing an average level for hospitals under study. The highest and lowest mean scores among different aspects of responsiveness belonged to dignity (2.5 ± 0.36 and informed choice (1.9 ± 0.43. Conclusions Given that responsiveness was evaluated at an average level, appropriate policy interventions and necessary reforms are proposed to increase its status in under study hospitals.

  7. Evaluation of toxicological effects induced by tributyltin in clam Ruditapes decussatus using high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Study of metabolic responses in heart tissue and detection of a novel metabolite

    H. Hanana

    2014-01-01

    The main finding of this study was the appearance of an original metabolite after TBT treatment likely N-glycine-N′-alanine. It is the first time that this molecule has been identified as a natural compound. Its exact role is unknown and remains to be elucidated. We suppose that its formation could play an important role in clam defense response by attenuating Ca2+ dependent cell death induced by TBT. Therefore this compound could be a promising biomarker for TBT exposure.

  8. Implicit misattribution of evaluative responses: contingency-unaware evaluative conditioning requires simultaneous stimulus presentations.

    Hütter, Mandy; Sweldens, Steven

    2013-08-01

    Recent research has shown that evaluative conditioning (EC) procedures can change attitudes without participants' awareness of the contingencies between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (Hütter, Sweldens, Stahl, Unkelbach, & Klauer, 2012). We present a theoretical explanation and boundary condition for the emergence of unaware EC effects based on the implicit misattribution of evaluative responses from unconditioned to conditioned stimuli. We hypothesize that such misattribution is only possible when conditioned and unconditioned stimuli are perceived simultaneously. Therefore we manipulate the simultaneity of the stimulus presentations and apply a process dissociation procedure to distinguish contingency-aware from contingency-unaware EC effects. A multinomial model indicates that with sequential presentations, EC effects do not occur without contingency awareness. However, unaware EC effects do occur with simultaneous presentations. The findings support dual-process theories of learning. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. PET/CT evaluation of response to chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer: PET response criteria in solid tumors (PERCIST) versus response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST).

    Ding, Qiyong; Cheng, Xu; Yang, Lu; Zhang, Qingbo; Chen, Jianwei; Li, Tiannv; Shi, Haibin

    2014-06-01

    (18)F-FDG PET/CT is increasingly used in evaluation of treatment response for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). There is a need for an accurate criterion to evaluate the effect and predict the prognosis. The aim of this study is to evaluate therapeutic response in NSCLC with comparing PET response criteria in solid tumors (PERCIST) to response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) criteria on PET/CT. Forty-four NSCLC patients who received chemotherapy but no surgery were studied. Chemotherapeutic responses were evaluated using (18)F-FDG PET and CT according to the RECIST and PERCIST methodologies. PET/CT scans were obtained before chemotherapy and after 2 or 4-6 cycles' chemotherapy. The percentage changes of tumor longest diameters and standardized uptake value (SUV) (corrected for lean body mass, SUL) before and after treatment were compared using paired t-test. The response was categorized into 4 levels according to RECIST and PERCIST: CR (CMR) =1, PR (PMR) =2, SD (SMD) =3, PD (PMD) =4. Pearson chi-square test was used to compare the proportion of four levels in RECIST and PERCIST. Finally the relationship between progression-free survival (PFS) and clinicopathologic parameters (such as TNM staging, percentage changes in diameters and SUL, RECIST and PERCIST results etc.) were evaluated using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression method. The difference of percentage changes between diameters and SUL was not significant using paired t-test (t=-1.69, P=0.098). However the difference was statistically significant in the 40 cases without increasing SUL (t=-3.31, P=0.002). The difference of evaluation results between RECIST and PERCIST was not significant by chi-square test (χ(2)=5.008, P=0.171). If RECIST evaluation excluded the new lesions which could not be found or identified on CT images the difference between RECIST and PERCIST was significant (χ(2)=11.759, P=0.007). Reduction rate of SULpeak (%), RECIST and

  10. Three-dimensional evaluation of chemotherapy response in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Ak, Guntulu [Department of Chest Disease, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Medical Faculty, Eskisehir (Turkey)], E-mail: guntuluak@yahoo.com; Metintas, Muzaffer [Department of Chest Disease, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Medical Faculty, Eskisehir (Turkey); Metintas, Selma [Department of Public Health, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Medical Faculty, Eskisehir (Turkey); Yildirim, Huseyin [Department of Chest Disease, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Medical Faculty, Eskisehir (Turkey); Ozkan, Ragip [Department of Radiology, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Medical Faculty, Eskisehir (Turkey); Ozden, Hilmi [Department of Anatomy, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Medical Faculty, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Objectives: Measurement of tumor response to chemotherapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is problematic because of non-spherical tumor growth patterns and difficulty in choosing target lesion. In this study, we aimed to determine the effectiveness of tumor volume measurement for evaluating chemotherapy response. Methods: Fifty-seven MPM patients were included. Chemotherapy responses were evaluated by computed tomography (CT) using volumetric method, World Health Organization (WHO), and modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor (RECIST). The tumor volume was measured using the Cavalieri principle of stereological approaches. Results: According to the volumetric method, median survival was 10.0 months for progressive disease (PD), 14.0 months for stable disease (SD) and 16.0 months for objective response (OR). According to the WHO method, median survival was 11.3, 14.0, and 13.0 months, respectively. For modified RECIST, median survival was 10.0, 14.0, and 14.0 months, respectively. The correspondence between the WHO and modified RECIST methods was substantial (K = 0.66), as was that between the volumetric and WHO methods (K = 0.64); however the correspondence between the volumetric and modified RECIST methods was only moderate (K = 0.52). Conclusions: The most suitable chemotherapy response measurement technique is the volumetric method because of non-spherical tumor growth patterns in MPM. However, larger studies should be performed to better establish the suitability of this method. We recommend our method for determining the chemotherapy response in mesothelioma cases. However, modified RECIST criteria can also be applied due to favourable prediction of survival, ease of application, and moderate correspondence with the volumetric method.

  11. Social anxiety and the cortisol response to social evaluation in children and adolescents.

    van den Bos, Esther; Tops, Mattie; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2017-04-01

    Contradictory findings have been reported on the relation between social anxiety and the cortisol response to social evaluation in youth. The present longitudinal study aimed to clarify this relation by taking pubertal development into account. Data were collected in two waves, two years apart, for a community sample of 196 participants, aged 8-17 years at Time 1. Pubertal development and social anxiety were assessed with self-report questionnaires. Salivary cortisol was obtained before and after participants completed the Leiden Public Speaking Task. Data were analyzed using regression analysis with clustered bootstrap. The dependent variable was the cortisol area under the curve. Social anxiety and pubertal development scores were decomposed into between- and within-participants components. Between participants, the relation between social anxiety and the cortisol response to public speaking varied with pubertal development: socially anxious individuals showed higher responses at low levels of pubertal development, but lower responses at high levels of pubertal development. Within participants, an increase in social anxiety over time was associated with a lower cortisol response. The results are in line with the suggestion that the responses of socially anxious individuals change from elevated in childhood to attenuated in adolescence and adulthood. Attenuation of the cortisol response is explained by theories proposing that the stress response changes with the duration of the stressor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. STRESS RESPONSE STUDIES USING ANIMAL MODELS

    This presentation will provide the evidence that ozone exposure in animal models induce neuroendocrine stress response and this stress response modulates lung injury and inflammation through adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors.

  13. Experimental study of structural response to earthquakes

    Clough, R.W.; Bertero, V.V.; Bouwkamp, J.G.; Popov, E.P.

    1975-01-01

    The objectives, methods, and some of the principal results obtained from experimental studies of the behavior of structures subjected to earthquakes are described. Although such investigations are being conducted in many laboratories throughout the world, the information presented deals specifically with projects being carried out at the Earthquake Engineering Research Center (EERC) of the University of California, Berkeley. A primary purpose of these investigations is to obtain detailed information on the inelastic response mechanisms in typical structural systems so that the experimentally observed performance can be compared with computer generated analytical predictions. Only by such comparisons can the mathematical models used in dynamic nonlinear analyses be verified and improved. Two experimental procedures for investigating earthquake structural response are discussed: the earthquake simulator facility which subjects the base of the test structure to acceleration histories similar to those recorded in actual earthquakes, and systems of hydraulic rams which impose specified displacement histories on the test components, equivalent to motions developed in structures subjected to actual'quakes. The general concept and performance of the 20ft square EERC earthquake simulator is described, and the testing of a two story concrete frame building is outlined. Correlation of the experimental results with analytical predictions demonstrates that satisfactory agreement can be obtained only if the mathematical model incorporates a stiffness deterioration mechanism which simulates the cracking and other damage suffered by the structure

  14. Will They Like Me? Adolescents' Emotional Responses to Peer Evaluation

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Caouette, Justin D.; Lee, Clinton C.; Ruiz, Sarah K.

    2014-01-01

    Relative to children and adults, adolescents are highly focused on being evaluated by peers. This increased attention to peer evaluation has implications for emotion regulation in adolescence, but little is known about the characteristics of the evaluatee and evaluator that influence emotional reactions to evaluative outcomes. The present study…

  15. Evaluating Evaluation Systems: Policy Levers and Strategies for Studying Implementation of Educator Evaluation. Policy Snapshot

    Matlach, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation studies can provide feedback on implementation, support continuous improvement, and increase understanding of evaluation systems' impact on teaching and learning. Despite the importance of educator evaluation studies, states often need support to prioritize and fund them. Successful studies require expertise, time, and a shared…

  16. PET-CT in Staging, Response Evaluation, and Surveillance of Lymphoma.

    Thanarajasingam, Gita; Bennani-Baiti, Nabila; Thompson, Carrie A

    2016-05-01

    Lymphoma represents a broad spectrum of diseases with diverse biology, clinical behavior, and imaging features. Functional imaging with 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET-CT) is widely recognized as the most sensitive and specific imaging modality for patients with lymphoma and is used as part of staging, response evaluation, and surveillance in patients with Hodgkin (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Recent efforts at standardizing the conduct and consensus interpretation of PET-CT have facilitated its use in patients on clinical studies and beyond. The role of PET-CT has been affirmed in some clinical situations, such as staging and end-of-treatment evaluation in Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and in the evaluation of aggressive transformation of an indolent lymphoma. However, the role of functional imaging in other histologies and clinical settings is not as clear given the higher rate of false positive results and the costs inherent to PET-CT. There is little evidence to suggest its utility or impact on outcome in most indolent lymphomas, or in the setting of post-treatment surveillance. In addition, there remains controversy about the value of PET-CT in early response assessment during active therapy, particularly in DLBCL. This review will evaluate the evidence surrounding the role of PET-CT in staging, response evaluation and surveillance of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  17. Social evaluative threat with verbal performance feedback alters neuroendocrine response to stress.

    Phan, Jenny M; Schneider, Ekaterina; Peres, Jeremy; Miocevic, Olga; Meyer, Vanessa; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A

    2017-11-01

    Laboratory stress tasks such as the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) have provided a key piece to the puzzle for how psychosocial stress impacts the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, other stress-responsive biomarkers, and ultimately wellbeing. These tasks are thought to work through biopsychosocial processes, specifically social evaluative threat and the uncontrollability heighten situational demands. The present study integrated an experimental modification to the design of the TSST to probe whether additional social evaluative threat, via negative verbal feedback about speech performance, can further alter stress reactivity in 63 men and women. This TSST study confirmed previous findings related to stress reactivity and stress recovery but extended this literature in several ways. First, we showed that additional social evaluative threat components, mid-task following the speech portion of the TSST, were still capable of enhancing the psychosocial stressor. Second, we considered stress-reactive hormones beyond cortisol to include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone, and found these hormones were also stress-responsive, and their release was coupled with one another. Third, we explored whether gain- and loss-framing incentive instructions, meant to influence performance motivation by enhancing the personal relevance of task performance, impacted hormonal reactivity. Results showed that each hormone was stress reactive and further had different responses to the modified TSST compared to the original TSST. Beyond the utility of showing how the TSST can be modified with heightened social evaluative threat and incentive-framing instructions, this study informs about how these three stress-responsive hormones have differential responses to the demands of a challenge and a stressor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Women's Studies Collections: A Checklist Evaluation

    Bolton, Brooke A.

    2009-01-01

    A checklist evaluation on thirty-seven Women's Studies programs conducted using the individual institutions' online public access catalogs (OPACs) is presented. Although Women's Studies collections are very difficult to build, an evaluation of existing programs shows that collections, for the most part, have managed substantial coverage of the…

  19. A randomised trial and economic evaluation of the effect of response mode on response rate, response bias, and item non-response in a survey of doctors

    Witt Julia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveys of doctors are an important data collection method in health services research. Ways to improve response rates, minimise survey response bias and item non-response, within a given budget, have not previously been addressed in the same study. The aim of this paper is to compare the effects and costs of three different modes of survey administration in a national survey of doctors. Methods A stratified random sample of 4.9% (2,702/54,160 of doctors undertaking clinical practice was drawn from a national directory of all doctors in Australia. Stratification was by four doctor types: general practitioners, specialists, specialists-in-training, and hospital non-specialists, and by six rural/remote categories. A three-arm parallel trial design with equal randomisation across arms was used. Doctors were randomly allocated to: online questionnaire (902; simultaneous mixed mode (a paper questionnaire and login details sent together (900; or, sequential mixed mode (online followed by a paper questionnaire with the reminder (900. Analysis was by intention to treat, as within each primary mode, doctors could choose either paper or online. Primary outcome measures were response rate, survey response bias, item non-response, and cost. Results The online mode had a response rate 12.95%, followed by the simultaneous mixed mode with 19.7%, and the sequential mixed mode with 20.7%. After adjusting for observed differences between the groups, the online mode had a 7 percentage point lower response rate compared to the simultaneous mixed mode, and a 7.7 percentage point lower response rate compared to sequential mixed mode. The difference in response rate between the sequential and simultaneous modes was not statistically significant. Both mixed modes showed evidence of response bias, whilst the characteristics of online respondents were similar to the population. However, the online mode had a higher rate of item non-response compared

  20. Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis

    Manoj Kumar Jha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS. Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices.

  1. N-Springs expedited response action performance evaluation report

    Mukherjee, B.B.

    1996-07-01

    Groundwater in the 100-NR-2 Operable Unit (OU) has been contaminated with various radionuclides, metals, and ionic constituents because of waste water disposal practices and spills associated with I 00-N Reactor operations. Of primary concern are the presence of high levels of strontium-90 in the groundwater and the discharge of 90 Sr contaminated groundwater to the nearby Columbia River through historic river bank seeps known as 'N-Springs'. In accordance with the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), remediation alternatives are currently being evaluated to address the hazardous substances and constituents in the soil and groundwater at the 100-NR-1/100-NR-2 OUs. Because of concern regarding the release of 90 Sr to the river, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued an action memorandum on September 23, 1994, to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), to take immediate actions consisting of a combination of a groundwater pump-and-treat system and a sheet pile barrier wall at N-Springs. By letter, dated March 23, 1995, Ecology and EPA agreed that a sheet pile construction test in December 1994 showed that the installation of the jointed hinge sheet pile wall could not be achieved in the manner specified. Ecology and EPA directed RL to proceed with the installation of the Expedited Response Action (ERA) pump-and-treat system and to (1) continue assessing accurately the flux of strontium to the river, (2) further characterize geologic and hydrologic conditions, and (3) assess design and installation alternatives related to modified barriers and expected performance

  2. Dynamic response characteristics evaluation of hydrostatic bearing in hydraulic piston pump/motor

    Ham, Young Bog; Yun, So Nam; Kim, Dong Soo; Choi, Byoung Oh; Kim, Sung Dong

    2001-01-01

    In swash plate type axial piston hydraulic pump and motor, the piston shoe is periodically pressurized with square function shape by supply pressure load as rotation of cylinder barrel. Therefore the recess pressure ono bottom part of piston shoe is suddenly increase through orifice in the piston shoe. In this study, we simulated that the frequency response of the recess pressure against with change of supply pressure with analysis tool. Also, we evaluate the dynamic response characteristics of overbalanced hydrostatic bearing with change of the orifice diameter

  3. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Hearing-Related Demand and Evaluative Threat.

    Mackersie, Carol L; Kearney, Lucia

    2017-10-12

    This paper consists of 2 parts. The purpose of Part 1 was to review the potential influence of internal (person-related) factors on listening effort. The purpose of Part 2 was to present, in support of Part 1, preliminary data illustrating the interactive effects of an external factor (task demand) and an internal factor (evaluative threat) on autonomic nervous system measures. For Part 1, we provided a brief narrative review of motivation and stress as modulators of listening effort. For Part 2, we described preliminary data from a study using a repeated-measures (2 × 2) design involving manipulations of task demand (high, low) and evaluative threat (high, low). The low-demand task consisted of repetition of sentences from a narrative. The high-demand task consisted of answering questions about the narrative, requiring both comprehension and recall. During the high evaluative threat condition, participants were filmed and told that their video recordings would be evaluated by a panel of experts. During the low evaluative threat condition, no filming occurred; participants were instructed to "do your best." Skin conductance (sympathetic nervous system activity) and heart rate variability (HRV, parasympathetic activity) were measured during the listening tasks. The HRV measure was the root mean square of successive differences of adjacent interbeat intervals. Twelve adults with hearing loss participated. Skin conductance increased and HRV decreased relative to baseline (no task) for all listening conditions. Skin conductance increased significantly with an increase in evaluative threat, but only for the more demanding task. There was no significant change in HRV in response to increasing evaluative threat or task demand. Listening effort may be influenced by factors other than task difficulty, as reviewed in Part 1. This idea is supported by the preliminary data indicating that the sympathetic nervous system response to task demand is modulated by social evaluative

  4. Error evaluation of inelastic response spectrum method for earthquake design

    Paz, M.; Wong, J.

    1981-01-01

    Two-story, four-story and ten-story shear building-type frames subjected to earthquake excitaion, were analyzed at several levels of their yield resistance. These frames were subjected at their base to the motion recorded for north-south component of the 1940 El Centro earthquake, and to an artificial earthquake which would produce the response spectral charts recommended for design. The frames were first subjected to 25% or 50% of the intensity level of these earthquakes. The resulting maximum relative displacement for each story of the frames was assumed to be yield resistance for the subsequent analyses at 100% of intensity for the excitation. The frames analyzed were uniform along their height with the stiffness adjusted as to result in 0.20 seconds of the fundamental period for the two-story frame, 0.40 seconds for the four-story frame and 1.0 seconds for the ten-story frame. Results of the study provided the following conclusions: (1) The percentage error in floor displacement for linear behavior was less than 10%; (2) The percentage error in floor displacement for inelastic behavior (elastoplastic) could be as high as 100%; (3) In most of the cases analyzed, the error increased with damping in the system; (4) As a general rule, the error increased as the modal yield resistance decreased; (5) The error was lower for the structures subjected to the 1940 E1 Centro earthquake than for the same structures subjected to an artificial earthquake which was generated from the response spectra for design. (orig./HP)

  5. Handbook for evaluation studies in virtual reality

    Livatino, Salvatore; Koeffel, Christina

    2006-01-01

    of human behavior including aspects of perception, action, and task-performance. The evaluation issue calls for multi- and interdisciplinary research activities, where technical expertise is combined with humanistic knowledge and methodology. Several experts in the field of VR as well as in the field...... in evaluation studies as well as students. The aim is also to facilitate multi-disciplinary activities through the use of an evaluation handbook which would be simple and focused on VR. The applicability of this guideline has been tested in two pilot studies, which showed how this handbook could successfully...... be employed to carry out pilot (and formal) evaluations....

  6. Performance Evaluation of Residential Demand Response Based on a Modified Fuzzy VIKOR and Scalable Computing Method

    Jun Dong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For better utilizing renewable energy resources and improving the sustainability of power systems, demand response is widely applied in China, especially in recent decades. Considering the massive potential flexible resources in the residential sector, demand response programs are able to achieve significant benefits. This paper proposes an effective performance evaluation framework for such programs aimed at residential customers. In general, the evaluation process will face multiple criteria and some uncertain factors. Therefore, we combine the multi-criteria decision making concept and fuzzy set theory to accomplish the model establishment. By introducing trapezoidal fuzzy numbers into the Vlsekriterijumska Optimizacijia I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR method, the evaluation model can effectively deal with the subjection and fuzziness of experts’ opinions. Furthermore, we ameliorate the criteria weight determination procedure of traditional models via combining the fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Shannon entropy method, which can incorporate objective information and subjective judgments. Finally, the proposed evaluation framework is verified by the empirical analysis of five demand response projects in Chinese residential areas. The results give a valid performance ranking of the five alternatives and indicate that more attention should be paid to the criteria affiliated with technology level and economy benefits. In addition, a series of sensitivity analyses are conducted to examine the validity and effectiveness of the established evaluation framework and results. The study improves traditional multi-criteria decision making method VIKOR by introducing trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and combination weighing technique, which can provide an effective mean for performance evaluation of residential demand response programs in a fuzzy environment.

  7. HRCT evaluation of microtia: A retrospective study

    Aruna R Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine external, middle, and inner ear abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT of temporal bone in patients with microtia and to predict anatomic external and middle ear anomalies as well as the degree of functional hearing impairment based on clinical grades of microtia. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective study conducted on Indian population. Fifty-two patients with microtia were evaluated for external, middle, and inner ear anomalies on HRCT of temporal bone. Clinical grading of microtia was done based on criteria proposed by Weerda et al. in 37 patients and degree of hearing loss was assessed using pure tone audiometry or brainstem-evoked response in 32 patients. Independent statistical correlations of clinical grades of micotia with both external and middle ear anomalies detected on HRCT and the degree of hearing loss were finally obtained. Results: The external, middle, and inner ear anomalies were present in 93.1%, 74.5%, and 2.7% patients, respectively. Combined cartilaginous and bony external auditory canal atresia (EAC was the most common anatomic abnormality in our group of microtia patients. Hypoplastic mesotympanum represented the commonest middle ear anomaly. The incidence of combined ossicular dysplasia and facial canal anomalies was lower as compared to other population groups; however, we recorded a greater incidence of cholesteatoma. Both these factors can have a substantial impact on outcome of patients planned for surgery. We found no significant association between grades of microtia and external or middle ear anomalies. Similarly, no significant association was found between lower grades of microtia (grade I and II and degree of hearing loss. However, association between grade III microtia and degree of hearing loss was significant. A significant association between congenital cholesteatoma and degree of pneumatization of atretic plate and mastoid process not previously studied

  8. HRCT evaluation of microtia: A retrospective study

    Patil, Aruna R; Bhalla, Ashu; Gupta, Pankaj; Goyal, Deepali; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Ramavat, Anurag; Sharma, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    To determine external, middle, and inner ear abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of temporal bone in patients with microtia and to predict anatomic external and middle ear anomalies as well as the degree of functional hearing impairment based on clinical grades of microtia. It was a retrospective study conducted on Indian population. Fifty-two patients with microtia were evaluated for external, middle, and inner ear anomalies on HRCT of temporal bone. Clinical grading of microtia was done based on criteria proposed by Weerda et al. in 37 patients and degree of hearing loss was assessed using pure tone audiometry or brainstem-evoked response in 32 patients. Independent statistical correlations of clinical grades of micotia with both external and middle ear anomalies detected on HRCT and the degree of hearing loss were finally obtained. The external, middle, and inner ear anomalies were present in 93.1%, 74.5%, and 2.7% patients, respectively. Combined cartilaginous and bony external auditory canal atresia (EAC) was the most common anatomic abnormality in our group of microtia patients. Hypoplastic mesotympanum represented the commonest middle ear anomaly. The incidence of combined ossicular dysplasia and facial canal anomalies was lower as compared to other population groups; however, we recorded a greater incidence of cholesteatoma. Both these factors can have a substantial impact on outcome of patients planned for surgery. We found no significant association between grades of microtia and external or middle ear anomalies. Similarly, no significant association was found between lower grades of microtia (grade I and II) and degree of hearing loss. However, association between grade III microtia and degree of hearing loss was significant. A significant association between congenital cholesteatoma and degree of pneumatization of atretic plate and mastoid process not previously studied was also recorded in our study

  9. Depersonalization disorder: disconnection of cognitive evaluation from autonomic responses to emotional stimuli.

    Matthias Michal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD typically complain about emotional detachment. Previous studies found reduced autonomic responsiveness to emotional stimuli for DPD patients as compared to patients with anxiety disorders. We aimed to investigate autonomic responsiveness to emotional auditory stimuli of DPD patients as compared to patient controls. Furthermore, we examined the modulatory effect of mindful breathing on these responses as well as on depersonalization intensity. METHODS: 22 DPD patients and 15 patient controls balanced for severity of depression and anxiety, age, sex and education, were compared regarding 1 electrodermal and heart rate data during a resting period, and 2 autonomic responses and cognitive appraisal of standardized acoustic affective stimuli in two conditions (normal listening and mindful breathing. RESULTS: DPD patients rated the emotional sounds as significantly more neutral as compared to patient controls and standardized norm ratings. At the same time, however, they responded more strongly to acoustic emotional stimuli and their electrodermal response pattern was more modulated by valence and arousal as compared to patient controls. Mindful breathing reduced severity of depersonalization in DPD patients and increased the arousal modulation of electrodermal responses in the whole sample. Finally, DPD patients showed an increased electrodermal lability in the rest period as compared to patient controls. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrated that the cognitive evaluation of emotional sounds in DPD patients is disconnected from their autonomic responses to those emotional stimuli. The increased electrodermal lability in DPD may reflect increased introversion and cognitive control of emotional impulses. The findings have important psychotherapeutic implications.

  10. Evaluation of Clinical and Pathological Response after Two Cycles ...

    Results: The clinical response rate was 83%; 11 patients (11.2%) had a complete clinical remission (cCR); 71 had a partial remission (72.4%); 13 had stable disease (13.3%), and 3 had progressive disease (3.1%). Seven patients had complete pathological response. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy can achieve a ...

  11. Quantitative PCR evaluation of cellular immune responses in Kenyan children vaccinated with a candidate malaria vaccine.

    Jedidah Mwacharo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The T-cell mediated immune response plays a central role in the control of malaria after natural infection or vaccination. There is increasing evidence that T-cell responses are heterogeneous and that both the quality of the immune response and the balance between pro-inflammatory and regulatory T-cells determines the outcome of an infection. As Malaria parasites have been shown to induce immunosuppressive responses to the parasite and non-related antigens this study examined T-cell mediated pro-inflammatory and regulatory immune responses induced by malaria vaccination in children in an endemic area to determine if these responses were associated with vaccine immunogenicity.Using real-time RT- PCR we profiled the expression of a panel of key markers of immunogenecity at different time points after vaccination with two viral vector vaccines expressing the malaria TRAP antigen (FP9-TRAP and MVA-TRAP or following rabies vaccination as a control.The vaccine induced modest levels of IFN-gamma mRNA one week after vaccination. There was also an increase in FoxP3 mRNA expression in both TRAP stimulated and media stimulated cells in the FFM ME-TRAP vaccine group; however, this may have been driven by natural exposure to parasite rather than by vaccination.Quantitative PCR is a useful method for evaluating vaccine induced cell mediated immune responses in frozen PBMC from children in a malaria endemic country. Future studies should seek to use vaccine vectors that increase the magnitude and quality of the IFN-gamma immune response in naturally exposed populations and should monitor the induction of a regulatory T cell response.

  12. Evaluation of cell responses toward adhesives with different photoinitiating systems.

    Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Krifka, Stephanie; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Bolay, Carola; Waha, Claudia; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Schmalz, Gottfried; Schweikl, Helmut

    2015-08-01

    The photoinitiator diphenyl-(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide (TPO) is more reactive than a camphorquinone/amine (CQ) system, and TPO-based adhesives obtained a higher degree of conversion (DC) with fewer leached monomers. The hypothesis tested here is that a TPO-based adhesive is less toxic than a CQ-based adhesive. A CQ-based adhesive (SBU-CQ) (Scotchbond Universal, 3M ESPE) and its experimental counterpart with TPO (SBU-TPO) were tested for cytotoxicity in human pulp-derived cells (tHPC). Oxidative stress was analyzed by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by the expression of antioxidant enzymes. A dentin barrier test (DBT) was used to evaluate cell viability in simulated clinical circumstances. Unpolymerized SBU-TPO was significantly more toxic than SBU-CQ after a 24h exposure, and TPO alone (EC50=0.06mM) was more cytotoxic than CQ (EC50=0.88mM), EDMAB (EC50=0.68mM) or CQ/EDMAB (EC50=0.50mM). Cultures preincubated with BSO (l-buthionine sulfoximine), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, indicated a minor role of glutathione in cytotoxic responses toward the adhesives. Although the generation of ROS was not detected, a differential expression of enzymatic antioxidants revealed that cells exposed to unpolymerized SBU-TPO or SBU-CQ are subject to oxidative stress. Polymerized SBU-TPO was more cytotoxic than SBU-CQ under specific experimental conditions only, but no cytotoxicity was detected in a DBT with a 200μm dentin barrier. Not only DC and monomer-release determine the biocompatibility of adhesives, but also the cytotoxicity of the (photo-)initiator should be taken into account. Addition of TPO rendered a universal adhesive more toxic compared to CQ; however, this effect could be annulled by a thin dentin barrier. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The care of Filipino juvenile offenders in residential facilities evaluated using the risk-need-responsivity model

    Spruit, A.; Wissink, I.B.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    According to the risk-need-responsivity model of offender, assessment and rehabilitation treatment should target specific factors that are related to re-offending. This study evaluates the residential care of Filipino juvenile offenders using the risk-need-responsivity model. Risk analyses and

  14. Complex patterns of response to oral hygiene instructions: longitudinal evaluation of periodontal patients.

    Amoo-Achampong, Felice; Vitunac, David E; Deeley, Kathleen; Modesto, Adriana; Vieira, Alexandre R

    2018-05-02

    Oral hygiene instruction is an intervention widely practiced but increased knowledge about oral health does not necessarily dramatically impact oral disease prevalence in populations. We aimed to measure plaque and bleeding in periodontal patients over time to determine patterns of patient response to oral hygiene instructions. Longitudinal plaque and bleeding index data were evaluated in 227 periodontal patients to determine the impact of oral hygiene instructions. Over multiple visits, we determined relative plaque accumulation and gingival bleeding for each patient. Subsequently, we grouped them in three types of oral hygiene status in response to initial instructions, using the longitudinal data over the period they were treated and followed for their periodontal needs. These patterns of oral hygiene based on the plaque and gingival bleeding indexes were evaluated based on age, sex, ethnic background, interleukin 1 alpha and beta genotypes, diabetes status, smoking habits, and other concomitant diseases. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to determine if any differences between these variables were statistically significant with alpha set at 0.05. Three patterns in response to oral hygiene instructions emerged. Plaque and gingival bleeding indexes improved, worsened, or fluctuated over time in the periodontal patients studied. Out of all the confounders considered, only ethnic background showed statistically significant differences. White individuals more often than other ethnic groups fluctuated in regards to oral hygiene quality after instructions. There are different responses to professional oral hygiene instructions. These responses may be related to ethnicity.

  15. Validity and responsiveness of a self-administered foot evaluation questionnaire in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Yano, Koichiro; Ikari, Katsunori; Ochi, Kensuke; Ishida, Osamu; Sakuma, Yu; Yoshida, Shinji; Koyama, Takuma; Koenuma, Naoko; Momohara, Shigeki

    2015-05-01

    A self-administered foot evaluation questionnaire (SAFE-Q) was developed by the Japanese Society for Surgery of the Foot (JSSF). The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity and responsiveness of the SAFE-Q in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In total, 180 patients with RA answered the SAFE-Q. Of 180 patients, 34 answered the SAFE-Q twice, preoperatively and postoperatively, to assess responsiveness. Construct validity was tested by comparing the 5 SAFE-Q subscales and the JSSF standard rating system for the RA foot and ankle scale (JSSF-RA), a Japanese version of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (JHAQ), disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28), simplified disease activity index (SDAI), and clinical disease activity index (CDAI). Responsiveness was examined by calculating the standardized response mean (SRM) and effect size (ES) 3 months after surgery. There were moderate correlations between the SAFE-Q and the JSSF-RA and JHAQ. Conversely, a low correlation was observed between the SAFE-Q and DAS28, SDAI, and CDAI. The responsiveness was high, with an SRM of 0.9 and ES of 0.7 for pain subscales. SAFE-Q is a useful tool for assessing the foot and ankle in RA patients.

  16. Using Item Response Theory to Evaluate LSCI Learning Gains

    Schlingman, Wayne M.; Prather, E. E.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the data from the recent national study using the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI), this project uses Item Response Theory (IRT) to investigate the learning gains of students as measured by the LSCI. IRT provides a theoretical model to generate parameters accounting for students’ abilities. We use IRT to measure changes in students’ abilities to reason about light from pre- to post-instruction. Changes in students’ abilities are compared by classroom to better understand the learning that is taking place in classrooms across the country. We compare the average change in ability for each classroom to the Interactivity Assessment Score (IAS) to provide further insight into the prior results presented from this data set. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  17. Optimizing Usability Studies by Complementary Evaluation Methods

    Schmettow, Martin; Bach, Cedric; Scapin, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines combinations of complementary evaluation methods as a strategy for efficient usability problem discovery. A data set from an earlier study is re-analyzed, involving three evaluation methods applied to two virtual environment applications. Results of a mixed-effects logistic

  18. Evaluation of the detector response function digital conventional radiology

    Arino Gil, A.; Hernandez Rodriguez, J.; Mateos Salvador, P.; Rodriguez Lopez, B.; Font Gelabert, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain the response function that relates the air kerma at the entrance of the detector and pixel value, for a series of digital detectors of conventional Radiology model Optimus DigitalDiagnost Philips () and 6000 Definium General Electric. From the set of measurements is obtained a response function for each reference type of detector, and compared with those published in the literature for these teams. (Author)

  19. Defibrotide for the treatment of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome: evaluation of response to therapy and patient outcomes.

    Coutsouvelis, John; Avery, Sharon; Dooley, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Carl; Spencer, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Defibrotide is an agent used to treat sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS/VOD) in patients undergoing haemopoietic stem cell transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of defibrotide used within institutional guidelines for the treatment of SOS/VOD in patients undergoing haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Data for 23 patients was retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the effectiveness of defibrotide and the utility of response criteria to direct therapy as specified within institution guidelines. Patients met institutional criteria for a diagnosis of SOS/VOD based on predominantly Baltimore criteria and received defibrotide. Stabilisation or improvement in symptoms and biochemical markers was required for continuation of therapy with defibrotide. Overall, 14 patients responded to therapy. Survival at day 100 post HSCT was 70%. Median serum (total) bilirubin concentrations in all evaluable patients had decreased at days 5 and 10 (p defibrotide, there was a decrease in the proportion of patients exhibiting hepatomegaly (p = 0.02), ascites (p Defibrotide to treat SOS/VOD and continued based on attainment of early response was effective management of this condition. Defibrotide should be considered in any consensus protocol providing guidance on the management of SOS/VOD, with future studies considered to assess appropriate time points for response to therapy during treatment.

  20. Are Auditory Steady-State Responses Useful to Evaluate Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss in Children?

    Grasel, Signe Schuster; de Almeida, Edigar Rezende; Beck, Roberto Miquelino de Oliveira; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valéria Schmidt; Ramos, Henrique Faria; Rossi, Amanda Costa; Koji Tsuji, Robinson; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; de Brito, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate Auditory Steady-State Responses (ASSR) at high intensities in pediatric cochlear implant candidates and to compare the results to behavioral tests responses. This prospective study evaluated 42 children with suspected severe-to-profound hearing loss, aged from 3 to 72 months. All had absent ABR and OAE responses. ASSR were evoked using binaural single frequency stimuli at 110 dB HL with a 10 dB down-seeking procedure. ASSR and behavioral test results were compared. Forty-two subjects completed both ASSR and behavioral evaluation. Eleven children (26.2%) had bilateral responses. Four (9.5%) showed unilateral responses in at least two frequencies, all confirmed by behavioral results. Overall 61 ASSR responses were obtained, most (37.7%) in 500 Hz. Mean thresholds were between 101.3 and 104.2 dB HL. Among 27 subjects with absent ASSR, fifteen had no behavioral responses. Seven subjects showed behavioral responses with absent ASSR responses. No spurious ASSR responses were observed at 100 or 110 dB HL. ASSR is a valuable tool to detect residual hearing. No false-positive ASSR results were observed among 42 children, but in seven cases with absent ASSR, the test underestimated residual hearing as compared to the behavioral responses.

  1. Are Auditory Steady-State Responses Useful to Evaluate Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss in Children?

    Signe Schuster Grasel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate Auditory Steady-State Responses (ASSR at high intensities in pediatric cochlear implant candidates and to compare the results to behavioral tests responses. Methods. This prospective study evaluated 42 children with suspected severe-to-profound hearing loss, aged from 3 to 72 months. All had absent ABR and OAE responses. ASSR were evoked using binaural single frequency stimuli at 110 dB HL with a 10 dB down-seeking procedure. ASSR and behavioral test results were compared. Results. Forty-two subjects completed both ASSR and behavioral evaluation. Eleven children (26.2% had bilateral responses. Four (9.5% showed unilateral responses in at least two frequencies, all confirmed by behavioral results. Overall 61 ASSR responses were obtained, most (37.7% in 500 Hz. Mean thresholds were between 101.3 and 104.2 dB HL. Among 27 subjects with absent ASSR, fifteen had no behavioral responses. Seven subjects showed behavioral responses with absent ASSR responses. No spurious ASSR responses were observed at 100 or 110 dB HL. Conclusion. ASSR is a valuable tool to detect residual hearing. No false-positive ASSR results were observed among 42 children, but in seven cases with absent ASSR, the test underestimated residual hearing as compared to the behavioral responses.

  2. Semiautomated volumetric response evaluation as an imaging biomarker in superior sulcus tumors

    Vos, C.G.; Paul, M.A.; Dahele, M.; Soernsen de Koste, J.R. van; Senan, S.; Bahce, I.; Smit, E.F.; Thunnissen, E.; Hartemink, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Volumetric response to therapy has been suggested as a biomarker for patient-centered outcomes. The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether the volumetric response to induction chemoradiotherapy was associated with pathological complete response (pCR) or survival in patients with superior sulcus tumors managed with trimodality therapy. The secondary aim was to evaluate a semiautomated method for serial volume assessment. In this retrospective study, treatment outcomes were obtained from a departmental database. The tumor was delineated on the computed tomography (CT) scan used for radiotherapy planning, which was typically performed during the first cycle of chemotherapy. These contours were transferred to the post-chemoradiotherapy diagnostic CT scan using deformable image registration (DIR) with/without manual editing. CT scans from 30 eligible patients were analyzed. Median follow-up was 51 months. Neither absolute nor relative reduction in tumor volume following chemoradiotherapy correlated with pCR or 2-year survival. The tumor volumes determined by DIR alone and DIR + manual editing correlated to a high degree (R 2 = 0.99, P < 0.01). Volumetric response to induction chemoradiotherapy was not correlated with pCR or survival in patients with superior sulcus tumors managed with trimodality therapy. DIR-based contour propagation merits further evaluation as a tool for serial volumetric assessment. (orig.)

  3. An empirical comparison of effective concentration estimators for evaluating aquatic toxicity test responses

    Bailer, A.J.; Hughes, M.R.; Denton, D.L.; Oris, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    Aquatic toxicity tests are statistically evaluated by either hypothesis testing procedures to derive a no-observed-effect concentration or by inverting regression models to calculate the concentration associated with a specific reduction from the control response. These latter methods can be described as potency estimation methods. Standard US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) potency estimation methods are based on two different techniques. For continuous or count response data, a nominally nonparametric method that assumes monotonic decreasing responses and piecewise linear patterns between successive concentration groups is used. For quantal responses, a probit regression model with a linear dose term is fit. These techniques were compared with a recently developed parametric regression-based estimator, the relative inhibition estimator, RIp. This method is based on fitting generalized linear models, followed by estimation of the concentration associated with a particular decrement relative to control responses. These estimators, with levels of inhibition (p) of 25 and 50%, were applied to a series of chronic toxicity tests in a US EPA region 9 database of reference toxicity tests. Biological responses evaluated in these toxicity tests included the number of young produced in three broods by the water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and germination success and tube length data from the giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). The greatest discrepancy between the RIp and standard US EPA estimators was observed for C. dubia. The concentration-response pattern for this biological endpoint exhibited nonmonotonicity more frequently than for any of the other endpoint. Future work should consider optimal experimental designs to estimate these quantities, methods for constructing confidence intervals, and simulation studies to explore the behavior of these estimators under known conditions.

  4. Purchasing social responsibility : a conceptual study

    Mørk, Eirik; Solheim, Kristian Hauge

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on Purchasing Social Responsibility (PSR). Suppliers play an important role in the overall corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts of the purchasing firm. The purpose of this paper is to explore potential firm performance effects from PSR, which contributes to an area of research that is limited at this point. The aim is to develop a survey instrument based on a set of formulated hypotheses and a conceptual framework. These are grounded in a literature review of core ...

  5. Evaluation of stroke volume variation obtained by arterial pulse contour analysis to predict fluid responsiveness intraoperatively.

    Lahner, D; Kabon, B; Marschalek, C; Chiari, A; Pestel, G; Kaider, A; Fleischmann, E; Hetz, H

    2009-09-01

    Fluid management guided by oesophageal Doppler monitor has been reported to improve perioperative outcome. Stroke volume variation (SVV) is considered a reliable clinical predictor of fluid responsiveness. Consequently, the aim of the present trial was to evaluate the accuracy of SVV determined by arterial pulse contour (APCO) analysis, using the FloTrac/Vigileo system, to predict fluid responsiveness as measured by the oesophageal Doppler. Patients undergoing major abdominal surgery received intraoperative fluid management guided by oesophageal Doppler monitoring. Fluid boluses of 250 ml each were administered in case of a decrease in corrected flow time (FTc) to 10%. The ability of SVV to predict fluid responsiveness was assessed by calculation of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Twenty patients received 67 fluid boluses. Fifty-two of the 67 fluid boluses administered resulted in fluid responsiveness. SVV achieved an area under the ROC curve of 0.512 [confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.70]. A cut-off point for fluid responsiveness was found for SVV > or =8.5% (sensitivity: 77%; specificity: 43%; positive predictive value: 84%; and negative predictive value: 33%). This prospective, interventional observer-blinded study demonstrates that SVV obtained by APCO, using the FloTrac/Vigileo system, is not a reliable predictor of fluid responsiveness in the setting of major abdominal surgery.

  6. EVALUATION ON THE SEISMIC RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF A ROAD EMBANKMENT BASED ON THE MODERATE EARTHQUAKE OBSERVATION AND THE MICROTREMOR MEASUREMENT

    Hata, Yoshiya; Ichii, Koji; Yamada, Masayuki; Tokida, Ken-Ichi; Takezawa, Koichiro; Shibao, Susumu; Mitsushita, Junji; Murata, Akira; Furukawa, Aiko; Koizumi, Keigo

    Accurate evaluation on the seismic response characteristics of a road embankment is very important for the rational seismic assessment. However, in a lot of previous studies, the seismic response characteristics of an embankment were evaluated based on the results of shaking table test, centrifuge model test and dynamic FEM analysis. In this study, the transfer function and the shear wave velocity of a road embankment were evaluated based on the in-situ records of moderate earthquake observation and microtremor measurement. Test results show the possibility that the shear wave velocity of an embankment can be estimated by the earthquake observation or the microtremor measurement and the dynamic linear FEM analysis.

  7. Adolescents' increasing stress response to social evaluation: pubertal effects on cortisol and alpha-amylase during public speaking.

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C; Bokhorst, Caroline L; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden Public Speaking Task twice, with a 2-year interval (N = 217; age at Time 1: 8-17 years). The results support an increase in sensitivity to social evaluation during adolescence. The overall cortisol and alpha-amylase responses increased-both between and within participants-and were more strongly related to self-reported pubertal development than to age. The cortisol response shifted from speech delivery toward anticipation. The alpha-amylase response increased in both phases. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. [Connection between the evaluation of positive or negative valence and verbal responses to a lexical decision making task].

    Brouillet, Thibaut; Syssau, Arielle

    2005-12-01

    Evaluation of the positive or negative valence of a stimulus is an activity that is part of any emotional experience that has been mostly studied using the affective priming paradigm. When the prime and the target have the same valence (e.g. positive prime and positive target), the target response is facilitated as a function of opposing valence conditions (e.g. negative prime and positive target). These studies show that this evaluation is automatic but depends on the nature of the task's implied response because the priming effects are only observed for positive responses, not for negative responses. This result was explained in automatic judgmental tendency model put forth by Abelson and Rosenberg (1958) and Klauer and Stern (1992). In this model, affective priming assumes there is an overlap between both responses, the first response taking precedence as a function of the prime-target valence, and the second response one that is required by the task. We are assuming that another type of response was not foreseen under this model. In fact, upon activating the valence for each of the prime-target elements, two preliminary responses would be activated before the response on the prime-target valence relationship. These responses are directly linked to the prime and target evaluation independently of the prime-target relationship. This hypothesis can be linked to the larger hypothesis whereby the evaluative process is related to two distinct motivational systems corresponding to approach and avoidance behaviour responses (Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1990; Neuman & Strack, 2000; Cacciopo, Piester & Bernston, 1993). In this study, we use the hypothesis that when a word leads to a positive valence evaluation, this favours a positive verbal response and inversely, a negative valence word favours a negative response. We are testing this hypothesis outside the affective priming paradigm to study to what extent evaluating a word, even when it is not primed, activates both

  9. Evaluation of the pathological response and prognosis following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in molecular subtypes of breast cancer

    Zhao Y

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yue Zhao,1 Xiaoqiu Dong,2 Rongguo Li,1 Xiao Ma,1 Jian Song,1 Yingjie Li,3 Dongwei Zhang1 1Department of General Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 2Department of Ultrasonography, Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 3Department of Pathology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, People’s Republic of China Background: The pathological complete response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer correlates with the prognosis for survival. Tumors may have different prognoses according to their molecular subtypes. This study was performed to evaluate the relevance of the pathological response and prognosis following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the molecular subtypes of breast cancer.Methods: A consecutive series of 88 patients with operable breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy was analyzed. Patients were classified into four molecular subtypes based on the immunohistochemistry profile of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2, and Ki-67. The histological response was assessed according to Miller-Payne grading (MPG and Residual Disease in Breast and Nodes (RDBN.Results: Ten patients (11.4% achieved a pathological complete response, assessed according to RDBN. The pathological complete response rate was 13.6% according to MPG. Patients with the triple-negative subtype were more likely to achieve a pathological complete response than those with luminal A breast cancer (P=0.03. MPG and RDBN are independent predictors of distant disease-free survival and local recurrence-free survival, but do not predict overall survival. Ki-67, size of invasive carcinoma, lymph nodes, molecular subtypes, MPG, and RDBN are important predictors of distant disease-free survival, local recurrence-free survival, and overall survival.Conclusion: MPG and RDBN were similarly related to the patient’s prognosis. MPG was more suitable for evaluation of distant disease

  10. Characterization and evaluation studies on some JAERI dosimetry systems

    Kojima, T.; Sunaga, H.; Tachibana, H.; Takizawa, H.; Tanaka, R.

    2000-01-01

    Characterization and evaluation studies were carried out on some JAERI dosimetry systems, mainly alanine-ESR, in terms of the influence on the dose response of parameters such as orientation at ESR analysis, and the temperature during irradiation and analysis. Feasibility study for application of these dosimetry systems to electrons with energies lower than 4 MeV and bremsstrahlung (X rays) was also performed parallel to their reliability check through international dose intercomparison. (author)

  11. Stimulation of demand response through evaluation and training

    Encinas, N.; Alfonso, D.; Alvarez, C.; Mendez, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Gabaldon, A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of Demand Response is to enhance customer choice opportunities by means of price-responsive mechanisms in contrast to direct load control practices and associated revenues based on fixed incentives. In this way, the new approach complements the traditional concept of Demand Side Management by including the voluntary nature to customer participation. This voluntary feature implies a change in customers' traditional behaviour and therefore stimulation and training is needed to achieve an optimal participation. This paper presents a methodology developed to stimulate and train customers for Demand Response practices as well as to identify the suitable products for different customers. Finally, the paper includes an example of the methodology considering a university as a customer. (au)

  12. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Project Technologies: Demand Response

    Fuller, Jason C.; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of a limited number of demand response technologies and implementations deployed in the SGIG projects.

  13. Evaluation of random temperature fluctuation problems with frequency response approach

    Lejeail, Yves; Kasahara, Naoto

    2000-01-01

    Since thermal striping is a coupled thermohydraulic and thermomechanical phenomenon, sodium mock-up tests were usually required to confirm structural integrity. Authors have developed the frequency response function to establish design-by-analysis methodology for this phenomenon. Applicability of this method to sinusoidal fluctuation was validated through two benchmark problems with FAENA and TIFFSS facilities under EJCC contract. This report describes the extension of the frequency response method to random fluctuations. As an example of application, fatigue strength of a Tee junction of PHENIX secondary piping system was investigated. (author)

  14. 3DSRT evaluation responses of Alzheimer type dementia to donepezil hydrochloride therapy

    Higashiyama, Shigeaki; Kawabe, Joji; Hashimoto, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) has been diagnosed objectively by using single photon emission tomography (SPECT). Donepezil hydrochloride (donepezil) is available for the symptomatic treatment of DAT. In a quantitative evaluation of therapeutic response in DAT, to compare with regional cerebral blood flows (rCBF) of various lesions before and after treatment, uptake in some sorts of cerebral regions of interests (ROIs) were used to be measured. But ROI analysis has problems such as poor reproducibility and lack of objectivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the evaluation of therapeutic response by three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template (3DSRT), fully automated ROI analysis software, which can objectively estimate rCBF. SPECT studies and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale Japan cognitive Subscale function test ADAS-Jcog, as recognitive function test were performed for 22 patients (16 females, 6 males mean age=73.6 years) who were diagnosed as DAT. On 3DSRT, we compared ratios of the rCBF values of the parietal lobes, temporo-occipital lobes, hippocampus, corpus callosum and the frontal lobes/cerebellar hemispheres before and after medical treatment. To determine a cut-off number of areas exhibiting improved blood flow optimal as an indicator of improvement in cognitive function in response to treatment, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis of number of areas improved blood flow was performed. The number of cases exhibiting changes in cognitive function was greatest when the cut-off number of areas exhibiting improved blood flow was set at 5. The possibility of evaluation of therapeutic response to Donepezil in patients with DAT using 3DSRT was thus demonstrated by our study. (author)

  15. Reliability Evaluation of Bridges Based on Nonprobabilistic Response Surface Limit Method

    Xuyong Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to many uncertainties in nonprobabilistic reliability assessment of bridges, the limit state function is generally unknown. The traditional nonprobabilistic response surface method is a lengthy and oscillating iteration process and leads to difficultly solving the nonprobabilistic reliability index. This article proposes a nonprobabilistic response surface limit method based on the interval model. The intention of this method is to solve the upper and lower limits of the nonprobabilistic reliability index and to narrow the range of the nonprobabilistic reliability index. If the range of the reliability index reduces to an acceptable accuracy, the solution will be considered convergent, and the nonprobabilistic reliability index will be obtained. The case study indicates that using the proposed method can avoid oscillating iteration process, make iteration process stable and convergent, reduce iteration steps significantly, and improve computational efficiency and precision significantly compared with the traditional nonprobabilistic response surface method. Finally, the nonprobabilistic reliability evaluation process of bridge will be built through evaluating the reliability of one PC continuous rigid frame bridge with three spans using the proposed method, which appears to be more simple and reliable when lack of samples and parameters in the bridge nonprobabilistic reliability evaluation is present.

  16. Calcium hydroxide associated with a new vehicle: Psidium cattleianum leaf extracts. Tissue response evaluation

    Diego VALENTIM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate edemogenic activity and subcutaneous inflammatory reaction induced by Psidium cattleianum leaf extracts associated with Ca(OH2. Thirty male Wistar rats, split equally into three groups [aqueous extract + Ca(OH2; ethanolic extract + Ca(OH2; and propylene glycol + Ca(OH2], were assessed every 3 h or 6 h (five animals in each period. Under general anesthesia, 0.2 mL of 1% Evans blue per 100 g of body weight was injected into the penile vein and each combination to be evaluated was subcutaneously injected into the dorsal region 30 min thereafter. Edemogenic activity was analyzed by spectrophotometry (λ=630 nm. For inflammatory reaction analysis, 50 rats received four polyethylene tubes (three experimental groups and an empty tube (control group. The assessments were made at 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days, followed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and by the assignment of scores for evaluation of tissue response intensity. Ethanolic extract + Ca(OH2 yielded the largest edemogenic activity at 3 h. Intergroup differences at 6 h were not significant. The histological analysis showed progressive repair over time (p<0.05 and aqueous and ethanolic extracts produced similar responses to those of the control and Ca(OH2 + propylene glycol groups. Psidium cattleianum leaf extracts used as Ca(OH2 vehicles evoked similar tissue response when compared to Ca(OH2 associated with propylene glycol.

  17. Associations between maternal negative affect and adolescent's neural response to peer evaluation

    Tan, Patricia Z.; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Dahl, Ronald E.; Nelson, Eric E.; Stroud, Laura J.; Siegle, Greg J.; Morgan, Judith K.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Parenting is often implicated as a potential source of individual differences in youths’ emotional information processing. The present study examined whether parental affect is related to an important aspect of adolescent emotional development, response to peer evaluation. Specifically, we examined relations between maternal negative affect, observed during parent–adolescent discussion of an adolescent-nominated concern with which s/he wants parental support, and adolescent neural responses to peer evaluation in 40 emotionally healthy and depressed adolescents. We focused on a network of ventral brain regions involved in affective processing of social information: the amygdala, anterior insula, nucleus accumbens, and subgenual anterior cingulate, as well as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Maternal negative affect was not associated with adolescent neural response to peer rejection. However, longer durations of maternal negative affect were associated with decreased responsivity to peer acceptance in the amygdala, left anterior insula, subgenual anterior cingulate, and left nucleus accumbens. These findings provide some of the first evidence that maternal negative affect is associated with adolescents’ neural processing of social rewards. Findings also suggest that maternal negative affect could contribute to alterations in affective processing, specifically, dampening the saliency and/or reward of peer interactions during adolescence. PMID:24613174

  18. Associations between maternal negative affect and adolescent's neural response to peer evaluation

    Patricia Z. Tan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Parenting is often implicated as a potential source of individual differences in youths’ emotional information processing. The present study examined whether parental affect is related to an important aspect of adolescent emotional development, response to peer evaluation. Specifically, we examined relations between maternal negative affect, observed during parent–adolescent discussion of an adolescent-nominated concern with which s/he wants parental support, and adolescent neural responses to peer evaluation in 40 emotionally healthy and depressed adolescents. We focused on a network of ventral brain regions involved in affective processing of social information: the amygdala, anterior insula, nucleus accumbens, and subgenual anterior cingulate, as well as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Maternal negative affect was not associated with adolescent neural response to peer rejection. However, longer durations of maternal negative affect were associated with decreased responsivity to peer acceptance in the amygdala, left anterior insula, subgenual anterior cingulate, and left nucleus accumbens. These findings provide some of the first evidence that maternal negative affect is associated with adolescents’ neural processing of social rewards. Findings also suggest that maternal negative affect could contribute to alterations in affective processing, specifically, dampening the saliency and/or reward of peer interactions during adolescence.

  19. Evaluation of the national secondary standard response of radiodiagnosis

    Peixoto, Jose Guilherme P.; Villalobos, Josefa P.; Carlos, Marcia T.

    1996-01-01

    Before calibration in Germany Primary Laboratory / PTB the Radcal diagnostic ionization chamber repeatability was tested in the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI), Brazil. Response of the chamber during experiment for repeatability demonstrate a variance in the range of 0.1%

  20. Regret and Responsibility Resolved? Evaluation Ordonez and Connolly's Conclusions.

    Zeelenberg, M.; van Dijk, W.W.; Manstead, A.S.R.

    2000-01-01

    T. Connolly, L. D. Ordo;aan;atez, and R. Coughlan (1997, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 70, 73-85) argued, on the basis of 5 experiments, that regret need not be related to a sense of responsibility for the regretted outcome. We (M. Zeelenberg, W. W. van Dijk, & A. S. R.

  1. Evaluation of response matrix of a multisphere neutron spectrometer ...

    Abstract. Neutron energy responses of water sphere spectrometers (WSS) to 30 MeV have been calculated by means of Monte Carlo calculations, using the computer code MCNP4C with ENDF/. B-VI.0 neutron cross-section. The calculations have been performed for 3He detector (typical SP9) placed inside 2, 3, 5, 8, ...

  2. Minimally Invasive Radiation Biodosimetry and Evaluation of Organ Responses

    2016-10-01

    and time. The levels of circulating miR-150 was found reduced in a dose and time dependent manner , while that of miRNA-574 was found increasing after...radiation in dose and time dependent manner . Additional putative biomarkers exhibiting dose-time response have been identified, which need

  3. Value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in evaluating response ...

    Objective. To determine whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value obtained by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) can be used as a reliable detector of response of carcinoma of the cervix treated with chemoradiotherapy, compared with conventional. T2-weighted MRI. Design.

  4. A Systemic Approach to Culturally Responsive Assessment Practices and Evaluation

    Slee, June

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier paper, Slee and Keenan demonstrated that it was possible for tertiary education institutions to design culturally responsive assessment procedures that complied with standardised assessment policy. The authors' paper described "Growing Our Own," an initiative between Charles Darwin University and Northern Territory Catholic…

  5. Hand function evaluation: a factor analysis study.

    Jarus, T; Poremba, R

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate hand function evaluations. Factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to assess the fundamental characteristics of the items included in the Jebsen Hand Function Test and the Smith Hand Function Evaluation. The study sample consisted of 144 subjects without disabilities and 22 subjects with Colles fracture. Results suggest a four factor solution: Factor I--pinch movement; Factor II--grasp; Factor III--target accuracy; and Factor IV--activities of daily living. These categories differentiated the subjects without Colles fracture from the subjects with Colles fracture. A hand function evaluation consisting of these four factors would be useful. Such an evaluation that can be used for current clinical purposes is provided.

  6. Evaluation of adding item-response theory analysis for evaluation of the European Board of Ophthalmology Diploma examination.

    Mathysen, Danny G P; Aclimandos, Wagih; Roelant, Ella; Wouters, Kristien; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Ringens, Peter J; Hawlina, Marko; Tassignon, Marie-José

    2013-11-01

    To investigate whether introduction of item-response theory (IRT) analysis, in parallel to the 'traditional' statistical analysis methods available for performance evaluation of multiple T/F items as used in the European Board of Ophthalmology Diploma (EBOD) examination, has proved beneficial, and secondly, to study whether the overall assessment performance of the current written part of EBOD is sufficiently high (KR-20≥ 0.90) to be kept as examination format in future EBOD editions. 'Traditional' analysis methods for individual MCQ item performance comprise P-statistics, Rit-statistics and item discrimination, while overall reliability is evaluated through KR-20 for multiple T/F items. The additional set of statistical analysis methods for the evaluation of EBOD comprises mainly IRT analysis. These analysis techniques are used to monitor whether the introduction of negative marking for incorrect answers (since EBOD 2010) has a positive influence on the statistical performance of EBOD as a whole and its individual test items in particular. Item-response theory analysis demonstrated that item performance parameters should not be evaluated individually, but should be related to one another. Before the introduction of negative marking, the overall EBOD reliability (KR-20) was good though with room for improvement (EBOD 2008: 0.81; EBOD 2009: 0.78). After the introduction of negative marking, the overall reliability of EBOD improved significantly (EBOD 2010: 0.92; EBOD 2011:0.91; EBOD 2012: 0.91). Although many statistical performance parameters are available to evaluate individual items, our study demonstrates that the overall reliability assessment remains the only crucial parameter to be evaluated allowing comparison. While individual item performance analysis is worthwhile to undertake as secondary analysis, drawing final conclusions seems to be more difficult. Performance parameters need to be related, as shown by IRT analysis. Therefore, IRT analysis has

  7. Evaluation of the dose-response and fate in the lung and pleura of chrysotile-containing brake dust compared to chrysotile or crocidolite asbestos in a 28-day quantitative inhalation toxicology study.

    Bernstein, D M; Toth, B; Rogers, R A; Sepulveda, R; Kunzendorf, P; Phillips, J I; Ernst, H

    2018-04-26

    This study provides an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake-dust (brakes manufactured with chrysotile). The design included a 28-day repeated multi-dose inhalation exposure (6 h/d, 5 d/wk, 4 wks) followed by 28-days without exposure. Fiber control groups included a similar grade chrysotile as used in the brakes and a commercial crocidolite asbestos. Aerosol fiber distributions of the chrysotile and crocidolite were similar (fiber-length > 20 μm/cm 3 : Chrysotile-low/high 42/62; Crocidolite-low/high 36/55; WHO-fibers/cm 3 : Chrysotile-low/high 192/219; Crocidolite-low/high 211/255). The total number of aerosol particles/cm 3 in the brake-dust was similar to that in the chrysotile (Brake-dust 710-1065; Chrysotile 532-1442). Brake-dust at particle exposure levels equal to or greater than chrysotile or crocidolite caused no indication of microgranulomas, epithelial hyperplasia, or fibrosis (Wagner score brake-dust and chrysotile-HD groups or in thickness of visceral or parietal pleural. The crocidolite exposure resulted in extensive inflammatory response, collagen development and adhesions between the visceral and parietal surfaces with double the surface thickness. These results provide essential information for the design of a subsequent subchronic study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Organizational evaluation of an interprofessional study unit

    Jensen, Didde Cramer; Nørgaard, Birgitte; Draborg, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article presents results from an organizational evaluation of an interprofessional clinical study unit (ICS) in Denmark. The aim of this study was to test whether the ICS was based on a durable organizational concept and to identify the prerequisites for the unit to be successful...

  9. PHYSIOTHERAPY FOR CLUMSY CHILDREN - AN EVALUATION STUDY

    SCHOEMAKER, MM; HIJLKEMA, MGJ; KALVERBOER, AF

    This study reports the findings of an effect-evaluation study of physiotherapy for clumsy children. 18 children were identified by school doctors as having poor motor co-ordination. They were followed for three months in order to exclude spontaneous improvement of motor problems; none spontaneously

  10. Understanding the Effect of Response Rate and Class Size Interaction on Students Evaluation of Teaching in a Higher Education

    Al Kuwaiti, Ahmed; AlQuraan, Mahmoud; Subbarayalu, Arun Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the interaction between response rate and class size and its effects on students' evaluation of instructors and the courses offered at a higher education Institution in Saudi Arabia. Study Design: A retrospective study design was chosen. Methods: One thousand four hundred and forty four different courses…

  11. Evaluating an interactive voice response system for persons with disabilities

    Greeff, M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available -evaluated before the next iteration. During the re-evaluation its current fitness value is compared with its previous fitness value, i.e. its fitness value after the previous iteration. If the two values differ more than a specified value, 2922 978... when the true POF is unknown. The size of the non-dominated solution set can also be used to measure an algorithm’s performance [18]. Ca´mara et al. proposed measures of accuracy, stability and reaction capacity of an algorithm, that are based...

  12. Adolescents' responses to online peer conflict: How self-evaluation and ethnicity matter.

    Novin, Sheida; Bos, Marieke G N; Stevenson, Claire E; Rieffe, Carolien

    2018-01-01

    For parents, online platforms where their children interact with others often feel like a "black box" in terms of what exactly is happening. In this study, we developed an ecologically valid online computer game in which a (computer-generated) peer teammate tried to provoke frustration, in order to examine (a) adolescents' responses and (b) how indices of self-evaluation (i.e., sense of coherence and self-esteem) and demographic variables (i.e., gender and ethnicity) matter to these responses. Like gender, being a member of a minority or majority group may influence how provocations by peers are interpreted, influencing how one responds. Fifteen-year-old Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch adolescents (N = 167) completed self-reports and played the online computer game. The game indeed elicited frustration, with increased self-reported anger. Moreover, expressions of displeasure were much more common during and after provocation than before provocation. Crucially, perceived self-evaluation mattered; higher levels of sense of coherence but lower levels of self-esteem (only in Moroccan-Dutch group) contributed to fewer expressions of displeasure. Gender did not play a moderating role. Our findings provide initial insights into individual differences in adolescents' responses in an online peer-conflict situation. We studied Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch adolescents' responses during online peer provocation and how self-evaluation and demographic variables matter.Provocation by the (computer-generated) peer teammate increased expressions of displeasure.More sense of coherence but less self-esteem was associated with fewer expressions of displeasure, but ethnicity moderated the effect with self-esteem.

  13. Adolescents' responses to online peer conflict: How self‐evaluation and ethnicity matter

    Bos, Marieke G.N.; Stevenson, Claire E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract For parents, online platforms where their children interact with others often feel like a “black box” in terms of what exactly is happening. In this study, we developed an ecologically valid online computer game in which a (computer‐generated) peer teammate tried to provoke frustration, in order to examine (a) adolescents' responses and (b) how indices of self‐evaluation (i.e., sense of coherence and self‐esteem) and demographic variables (i.e., gender and ethnicity) matter to these responses. Like gender, being a member of a minority or majority group may influence how provocations by peers are interpreted, influencing how one responds. Fifteen‐year‐old Dutch and Moroccan‐Dutch adolescents (N = 167) completed self‐reports and played the online computer game. The game indeed elicited frustration, with increased self‐reported anger. Moreover, expressions of displeasure were much more common during and after provocation than before provocation. Crucially, perceived self‐evaluation mattered; higher levels of sense of coherence but lower levels of self‐esteem (only in Moroccan‐Dutch group) contributed to fewer expressions of displeasure. Gender did not play a moderating role. Our findings provide initial insights into individual differences in adolescents' responses in an online peer‐conflict situation. Highlights We studied Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch adolescents' responses during online peer provocation and how self-evaluation and demographic variables matter.Provocation by the (computer-generated) peer teammate increased expressions of displeasure.More sense of coherence but less self-esteem was associated with fewer expressions of displeasure, but ethnicity moderated the effect with self-esteem. PMID:29780286

  14. Evaluation of early imaging response criteria in glioblastoma multiforme

    Gladwish, Adam; Koh, Eng-Siew; Hoisak, Jeremy; Lockwood, Gina; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Mason, Warren; Yu, Eugene; Laperriere, Normand J; Ménard, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Early and accurate prediction of response to cancer treatment through imaging criteria is particularly important in rapidly progressive malignancies such as Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM). We sought to assess the predictive value of structural imaging response criteria one month after concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) in patients with GBM. Thirty patients were enrolled from 2005 to 2007 (median follow-up 22 months). Tumor volumes were delineated at the boundary of abnormal contrast enhancement on T1-weighted images prior to and 1 month after RT. Clinical Progression [CP] occurred when clinical and/or radiological events led to a change in chemotherapy management. Early Radiologic Progression [ERP] was defined as the qualitative interpretation of radiological progression one month post-RT. Patients with ERP were determined pseudoprogressors if clinically stable for ≥6 months. Receiver-operator characteristics were calculated for RECIST and MacDonald criteria, along with alternative thresholds against 1 year CP-free survival and 2 year overall survival (OS). 13 patients (52%) were found to have ERP, of whom 5 (38.5%) were pseudoprogressors. Patients with ERP had a lower median OS (11.2 mo) than those without (not reached) (p < 0.001). True progressors fared worse than pseudoprogressors (median survival 7.2 mo vs. 19.0 mo, p < 0.001). Volume thresholds performed slightly better compared to area and diameter thresholds in ROC analysis. Responses of > 25% in volume or > 15% in area were most predictive of OS. We show that while a subjective interpretation of early radiological progression from baseline is generally associated with poor outcome, true progressors cannot be distinguished from pseudoprogressors. In contrast, the magnitude of early imaging volumetric response may be a predictive and quantitative metric of favorable outcome

  15. The Practice of Evaluation in Public Sector Contexts: A Response

    Chouinard, Jill Anne

    2013-01-01

    In the original paper, it was argued that while there is an array of methods and methodologies available, their use is delimited by the culture of accountability that prevails in public sector institutions, a fact that is particularly problematic given the complexity and diversity of evaluation contexts today. This short rejoinder, to responses…

  16. Flood Response System—A Case Study

    Yogesh Kumar Singh; Upasana Dutta; T. S. Murugesh Prabhu; I. Prabu; Jitendra Mhatre; Manoj Khare; Sandeep Srivastava; Subasisha Dutta

    2017-01-01

    Flood Response System (FRS) is a network-enabled solution developed using open-source software. The system has query based flood damage assessment modules with outputs in the form of spatial maps and statistical databases. FRS effectively facilitates the management of post-disaster activities caused due to flood, like displaying spatial maps of area affected, inundated roads, etc., and maintains a steady flow of information at all levels with different access rights depending upon the critica...

  17. Evaluation of a sudden brake warning system: effect on the response time of the following driver.

    Isler, Robert B; Starkey, Nicola J

    2010-07-01

    This study used a video-based braking simulation dual task to carry out a preliminary evaluation of the effect of a sudden brake warning system (SBWS) in a leading passenger vehicle on the response time of the following driver. The primary task required the participants (N=25, 16 females, full NZ license holders) to respond to sudden braking manoeuvres of a lead vehicle during day and night driving, wet and dry conditions and in rural and urban traffic, while concurrently performing a secondary tracking task using a computer mouse. The SBWS in the lead vehicle consisted of g-force controlled activation of the rear hazard lights (the rear indicators flashed), in addition to the standard brake lights. Overall, the results revealed that responses to the braking manoeuvres of the leading vehicles when the hazard lights were activated by the warning system were 0.34 s (19%) faster compared to the standard brake lights. The SBWS was particularly effective when the simulated braking scenario of the leading vehicle did not require an immediate and abrupt braking response. Given this, the SBWS may also be beneficial for allowing smoother deceleration, thus reducing fuel consumption. These preliminary findings justify a larger, more ecologically valid laboratory evaluation which may lead to a naturalistic study in order to test this new technology in 'real world' braking situations. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stochastic evaluation of the dynamic response and the cumulative damage of nuclear power plant piping

    Suzuki, Kohei; Aoki, Shigeru; Hanaoka, Masaaki

    1981-01-01

    This report deals with a fundamental study concerning an evaluation of uncertainties of the nuclear piping response and cumulative damage under excess-earthquake loadings. The main purposes of this study cover following several problems. (1) Experimental estimation analysis of the uncertainties concerning the dynamic response and the cumulative failure by using piping test model. (2) Numerical simulation analysis by Monte Carlo method under the assumption that relation between restoring force and deformation is characterized by perfectly elasto-plastic one. (Checking the mathematical model.) (3) Development of the conventional uncertainty estimating method by introducing a perturbation technique based on an appropriate equivalently linearized approach. (Checking the estimation technique.) (4) An application of this method to more realistical cases. Through above mentioned procedures some important results are obtained as follows; First, fundamental statistical properties of the natural frequencies and the number of cycle to failure crack initiation are evaluated. Second, the effect of the frequency fluctuation and the yielding fluctuation are estimated and examined through Monte Carlo simulation technique. It has become clear that the yielding fluctuation gives significant effect on the piping power response up to its failure initiation. Finally some results through proposed perturbation technique are discussed. Statistical properties estimated coincide fairly well with those through numerical simulation. (author)

  19. Evaluation of food emergency response laboratories' capability for 210Po analysis using proficiency test material with verifiable traceability

    Zhongyu Wu; Zhichao Lin; Mackill, P.; Cong Wei; Noonan, J.; Cherniack, J.; Gillis-Landrum, D.

    2009-01-01

    Measurement capability and data comparability are essential for emergency response when analytical data from cooperative laboratories are used for risk assessment and post incident decision making. In this study, the current capability of food emergency response laboratories for the analysis of 210 Po in water was evaluated using a proficiency test scheme in compliance with ISO-43 and ILAC G13 guidelines, which comprises a test sample preparation and verification protocol and an insightful statistical data evaluation. The results of performance evaluations on relative bias, value trueness, precision, false positive detection, minimum detection limit, and limit of quantification, are presented. (author)

  20. Evaluating research recruitment strategies to improve response rates amongst South African nurses

    Natasha Khamisa

    2014-03-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate three research recruitment methods for their impact on recruitment and participation rates amongst South African nurses. Motivation for the study: A limited number of studies exist that formally evaluates different recruitment strategies to improve participation in research amongst nurses within developing contexts, especially South Africa. Research approach, design and method: Participants were recruited using three different methods. Of the 250 nurses randomly selected and invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey, 201 agreed and 162 (81% returned the questionnaires. Main findings: Nursing management participation in the recruitment and data collection process produces more favourable response rates. Reminders and the use of shorter questionnaires also aid higher response rates. Practical/managerial implications: Reminders as well as face-to-face recruitment strategies (especially by a familiar person successfully improved participation rates amongst South African nurses in this study. Contribution/value-add: This study identifies some strategies that could be used more widely to increase the recruitment and participation of South African nurses in research whilst potentially improving their work situation.

  1. A responsive evaluation of mental health treatment in Cambodia: Intentionally addressing poverty to increase cultural responsiveness in therapy.

    Seponski, Desiree M; Lewis, Denise C; Megginson, Maegan C

    2014-01-01

    Mental health issues are significant contributors to the global burden of disease with the highest incidence in resource poor countries; 90% of those in need of mental health treatment reside in low resource countries but receive only 10% of the world's resources. Cambodia, the eighth least developed country in the world, serves as one example of the need to address mental health concerns in low-income, resource poor countries. The current study utilises responsive evaluation methodology to explore how poverty-stricken Cambodian clients, therapists and supervisors experience Western models of therapy as culturally responsive to their unique needs. Quantitative and qualitative data were triangulated across multiple stakeholders using numerous methods including a focus group, interviews, surveys, case illustrations and live supervision observation and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Emerging findings suggest that poverty, material needs, therapy location and financial situations greatly impact the daily lives and mental health conditions of Cambodians and hinder clients' therapeutic progress. The local community needs and context of poverty greatly hinder clients' therapeutic progress in therapy treatment and when therapy does not directly address the culture of poverty, clients did not experience therapy as valuable despite some temporary decreases in mental health symptoms.

  2. Compensatory stepping responses in individuals with stroke: a pilot study.

    Lakhani, Bimal; Mansfield, Avril; Inness, Elizabeth L; McIlroy, William E

    2011-05-01

    Impaired postural control and a high incidence of falls are commonly observed following stroke. Compensatory stepping responses are critical to reactive balance control. We hypothesize that, following a stroke, individuals with unilateral limb dyscontrol will be faced with the unique challenge of controlling such rapid stepping reactions that may eventually be linked to the high rate of falling. The objectives of this exploratory pilot study were to investigate compensatory stepping in individuals poststroke with regard to: (1) choice of initial stepping limb (paretic or non-paretic); (2) step characteristics; and (3) differences in step characteristics when the initial step is taken with the paretic vs. the non-paretic limb. Four subjects following stroke (38-165 days post) and 11 healthy young adults were recruited. Anterior and posterior perturbations were delivered by using a weight drop system. Force plates recorded centre-of-pressure excursion prior to the onset of stepping and step timing. Of the four subjects, three only attempted to step with their non-paretic limb and one stepped with either limb. Time to foot-off was generally slow, whereas step onset time and swing time were comparable to healthy controls. Two of the four subjects executed multistep responses in every trial, and attempts to force stepping with the paretic limb were unsuccessful in three of the four subjects. Despite high clinical balance scores, these individuals with stroke demonstrated impaired compensatory stepping responses, suggesting that current clinical evaluations might not accurately reflect reactive balance control in this population.

  3. Inelastic response evaluation of steel frame structure subjected to near-fault ground motions

    Choi, In Kil; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2004-04-01

    A survey on some of the Quaternary fault segments near the Korean nuclear power plants is ongoing. It is likely that these faults would be identified as active ones. If the faults are confirmed as active ones, it will be necessary to reevaluate the seismic safety of nuclear power plants located near the fault. This study was performed to acquire overall knowledge of near-fault ground motions and evaluate inealstic response characteristics of near-fault ground motions. Although Korean peninsular is not located in the strong earthquake region, it is necessary to evaluate seismic safety of NPP for the earthquakes occurred in near-fault area with characteristics different from that of general far-fault earthquakes in order to improve seismic safety of existing NPP structures and equipment. As a result, for the seismic safety evaluation of NPP structures and equipment considering near-fault effects, this report will give many valuable information. In order to improve seismic safety of NPP structures and equipment against near-fault ground motions, it is necessary to consider inelastic response characteristics of near-fault ground motions in current design code. Also in Korea where these studies are immature yet, in the future more works of near-fault earthquakes must be accomplished.

  4. Response tree evaluation: experimental assessment of an expert system for nuclear reactor operators

    Nelson, W.R.; Blackman, H.S.

    1985-09-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsored a project performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to evaluate different display concepts for use in nuclear reactor control rooms. Included in this project was the evaluation of the response tree computer-based decision aid and its associated displays. The response tree evaluation task was deisgned to (1) assess the merit of the response tree decision aid and (2) develop a technical basis for recommendations, guidelines, and criteria for the design and evaluation of computerized decision aids for use in reactor control rooms. Two major experiments have been conducted to evaluate the response tree system. This report emphasizes the conduct and results of the second experiment. An enhanced version of the response tree system, known as the automated response tree system, was used in a controlled experiment using trained reactor operators as test subjects. This report discusses the automated response tree system, the design of the evaluation experiment, and the quantitative results of the experiment. The results of the experiment are compared to the results of the previous experiment to provide an integrated perspective of the response tree evaluation project. In addition, a subjective assessment of the results addresses the implications for the use of advanced, ''intelligent'' decision aids in the reactor control room

  5. Application and evaluation of training for response to emergency situations

    Kidwell, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    At Washington Gas Light Co., a magnetic situation-simulation board has become an effective tool for training field personnel in emergency procedures and decisionmaking. Class participants use magnetic disks - symbolizing physical features and components of the distribution system and service equipment - to visually describe the step-by-step procedures applied to specific emergency scenarios. A manually operated clock keeps a running account of the time estimated for each step, emphasizing the need for quick response. Situation-board programs of typical problems, complete with script and drawings, are available to all training foremen to ensure uniform training throughout the department.

  6. Evaluation of the sheet mechanical response to laser welding processes

    Carmignani, B.; Daneri, A.; Toselli, G.; Bellei, M.

    1995-07-01

    The simulation of the mechanical response of steel sheets, due to the heating during welding processes by a laser source beam, obtained by Abaqus standard code, is discussed. Different hypotheses for the material behaviour at temperatures greater than the fusion one have been tested and compared; in particular, some tests have been made taking the annealing effect into account by means of an user routine UMAT developed ad hoc. This work was presented at the 8th international Abaqus Users' conference at Paris, 31 May - 2 June 1995

  7. Development and Evaluation of a Responsive Building Envelope

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Foged, Isak Worre

    2011-01-01

    . The general scopes of this paper are to present the development and evaluation of a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure. This reconfigurable structure can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two...... of a secondary environmental system to a primary structural system joint into a collective behavioural system equipment with an actuator system is presented....

  8. A quantitative evaluation of the public response to climate engineering

    Wright, Malcolm J.; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Feetham, Pamela M.

    2014-02-01

    Atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations continue to increase, with CO2 passing 400 parts per million in May 2013. To avoid severe climate change and the attendant economic and social dislocation, existing energy efficiency and emissions control initiatives may need support from some form of climate engineering. As climate engineering will be controversial, there is a pressing need to inform the public and understand their concerns before policy decisions are taken. So far, engagement has been exploratory, small-scale or technique-specific. We depart from past research to draw on the associative methods used by corporations to evaluate brands. A systematic, quantitative and comparative approach for evaluating public reaction to climate engineering is developed. Its application reveals that the overall public evaluation of climate engineering is negative. Where there are positive associations they favour carbon dioxide removal (CDR) over solar radiation management (SRM) techniques. Therefore, as SRM techniques become more widely known they are more likely to elicit negative reactions. Two climate engineering techniques, enhanced weathering and cloud brightening, have indistinct concept images and so are less likely to draw public attention than other CDR or SRM techniques.

  9. Evaluation of the Emergency Response Command Center. Development of a method for evaluating the performance of the ERCC during exercises

    Groth, M.

    1997-02-01

    The report describes the development of a structured method for evaluation and analysis of staff performance in the Emergency Response Command Centre (ERCC) during exercises. A comprehensive literature search including current research and theoretical bases in the area of group dynamics has been carried out. To supplement this, ERCC activities during an emergency exercise were observed and responsible staff individuals and others involved were interviewed. From this material, two evaluation instruments were constructed: An Evaluation form for the function of ERCC, which addresses: Activation, information handling, teamwork and overall critique of the exercise; and an Evaluation form for responsible personnel in ERCC, which addresses: Activation, procedures-checklists etc, information handling, teamwork, personnel qualifications, and overall critique of the exercise. The method has been tested in two actual exercises at Ringhals NPP and has been found to effectively fulfill its purpose. 7 refs

  10. Typical Responses in Giving Evaluation: An Analysis of High and Low Context Culture Communication

    Ferany Arifin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing high and low context in responses given by the students to evaluate their friend’s impromptu speech performance. The study focuses on the characteristics of high and low context represented specifically on (1 direct-indirect (2 simple-complex response, and (3 relationship orientation. The study is based on the analysis of ten responses given by ten students with different sexes. Classroom observation followed by transcription analysis is used. The data were collected naturally at undergraduate campus. The result shows that using indirect and complex responses can maintain harmonious relationship with others. The basic asumption is that the students tend to communicate in high level context. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membahas konteks tinggi dan rendah dalam mengevaluasi performansi pidato tanpa persiapan temannya. Penelitian ini memusatkan perhatian pada ciri konteks tinggi dan rendah yang direpresentasikan oleh (1 tanggapan langsung-tak langsung (2 sederhana-kompleks, dan (3 orientasi hubungan. Penelitian ini didasarkan pada sepuluh tanggapan yang diberikan oleh sepuluh mahasiswa pria dan wanita. Pengamatan kelas yang diikuti dengan analisis transkripsi digunakan untuk pengumpulan data. Data dikumpulkan di kampus diploma. Analisis menunjukkan bahwa siswa cenderung menggunakan tanggapan kompleks dan tak langsung agar dapat menjaga keharmonisan hubungan dengan temannya. Oleh karena itu asumsi dasarnya adalah bahwa siswa cenderung berkomunikasi dalam konteks level tinggi.

  11. Neurophysiological Study of Vector Responses to Repellents.

    1980-08-01

    hexanoic acid by the migratory locust and the honey bee . J. Comp. Physiol. 87, 277-284 (1973). Mctver, S. B.: Fine structure of antennal grooved pegs of the...and replace those receptor proteins undergoing normal or accelerated turnover. Half-times of 10 to 30 hr are associated with these processes. In the... Substitution for the a-hydroxyl of lactic acid by -SH, -Br, -NH2, =0, -CU13, or -H produced responses of varying degrees of effectiveness from strong (-SH, =0

  12. Active teaching methods, studying responses and learning

    Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2010-01-01

    Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed.......Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed....

  13. Active teaching methods, studying responses and learning

    Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching.......Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching....

  14. Early warning systems and rapid response to the deteriorating patient in hospital: A realist evaluation.

    McGaughey, Jennifer; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Sam; Trinder, John; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-12-01

    To test the Rapid Response Systems programme theory against actual practice components of the Rapid Response Systems implemented to identify those contexts and mechanisms which have an impact on the successful achievement of desired outcomes in practice. Rapid Response Systems allow deteriorating patients to be recognized using Early Warning Systems, referred early via escalation protocols and managed at the bedside by competent staff. Realist evaluation. The research design was an embedded multiple case study approach of four wards in two hospitals in Northern Ireland which followed the principles of Realist Evaluation. We used various mixed methods including individual and focus group interviews, observation of nursing practice between June-November 2010 and document analysis of Early Warning Systems audit data between May-October 2010 and hospital acute care training records over 4.5 years from 2003-2008. Data were analysed using NiVivo8 and SPPS. A cross-case analysis highlighted similar patterns of factors which enabled or constrained successful recognition, referral and response to deteriorating patients in practice. Key enabling factors were the use of clinical judgement by experienced nurses and the empowerment of nurses as a result of organizational change associated with implementation of Early Warning System protocols. Key constraining factors were low staffing and inappropriate skill mix levels, rigid implementation of protocols and culturally embedded suboptimal communication processes. Successful implementation of Rapid Response Systems was dependent on adopting organizational and cultural changes that facilitated staff empowerment, flexible implementation of protocols and ongoing experiential learning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A signal detection-item response theory model for evaluating neuropsychological measures.

    Thomas, Michael L; Brown, Gregory G; Gur, Ruben C; Moore, Tyler M; Patt, Virginie M; Risbrough, Victoria B; Baker, Dewleen G

    2018-02-05

    Models from signal detection theory are commonly used to score neuropsychological test data, especially tests of recognition memory. Here we show that certain item response theory models can be formulated as signal detection theory models, thus linking two complementary but distinct methodologies. We then use the approach to evaluate the validity (construct representation) of commonly used research measures, demonstrate the impact of conditional error on neuropsychological outcomes, and evaluate measurement bias. Signal detection-item response theory (SD-IRT) models were fitted to recognition memory data for words, faces, and objects. The sample consisted of U.S. Infantry Marines and Navy Corpsmen participating in the Marine Resiliency Study. Data comprised item responses to the Penn Face Memory Test (PFMT; N = 1,338), Penn Word Memory Test (PWMT; N = 1,331), and Visual Object Learning Test (VOLT; N = 1,249), and self-report of past head injury with loss of consciousness. SD-IRT models adequately fitted recognition memory item data across all modalities. Error varied systematically with ability estimates, and distributions of residuals from the regression of memory discrimination onto self-report of past head injury were positively skewed towards regions of larger measurement error. Analyses of differential item functioning revealed little evidence of systematic bias by level of education. SD-IRT models benefit from the measurement rigor of item response theory-which permits the modeling of item difficulty and examinee ability-and from signal detection theory-which provides an interpretive framework encompassing the experimentally validated constructs of memory discrimination and response bias. We used this approach to validate the construct representation of commonly used research measures and to demonstrate how nonoptimized item parameters can lead to erroneous conclusions when interpreting neuropsychological test data. Future work might include the

  16. Evaluation of an Online Study Skills Course

    Pryjmachuk, Steven; Gill, Anita; Wood, Patricia; Olleveant, Nicola; Keeley, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of an online study skills course unit designed, using evidence-based principles, to support undergraduate students. A mixed-methods approach was employed to establish the extent to which the unit was (a) fit for purpose and (b) effective. Data were obtained from an online survey (n = 63) conducted on entry to…

  17. Evaluation of response following irradiation of juvenile angiofibromas

    Robinson, A.C.R.; Khoury, G.G.; Ash, D.V.; Daly, B.D.

    1989-03-01

    Ten case of angiofibroma treated by irradiation are reported. Relief of symptons occurred by the end of treatment in eight patients. Objective regression was much slower, six having visible disease for greater than 6 months and four for at least 1 year. Only one was symptomatic. Radiological resolution lagged behind clinical improvement and was complete in only one of three asymptomatic patients evaluated by computed tomography (CT) at between 2 and 3 years after treatment. The significance of these residual masses seen on CT is unclear.

  18. Letter to the editor regarding "Study design of 'Friends for Life': a process and effect evaluation of an indicated school-based prevention program": response to Lima et al

    Kösters MP

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mia P Kösters,1 Mai JM Chinapaw,2 Marieke Zwaanswijk,3 Marcel F van der Wal,1 Hans M Koot4,51Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, Public Health Service of Amsterdam (GGD, Amsterdam, 2Department of Public and Occupational Health, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, 3NIVEL, Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, 4Department of Developmental Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, VU University, Amsterdam, 5EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsWe would like to respond to the paper "Childhood depression: a systematic review", recently published in Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment by Lima et al.1 The aforementioned paper presents a systematic review of childhood depression and refers several times to our paper, "Study design of ‘FRIENDS for Life’: a process and effect evaluation of an indicated school-based prevention programme for childhood anxiety and depression", published in BMC Public Health by Kösters et al.2 Unfortunately we noted a number of erroneous statements about our paper. We will address these in order of appearance.View original paper by Lima and colleagues.

  19. Use of microRNAs in directing therapy and evaluating treatment response in colorectal cancer

    Andreoli, Silmara Cristiane da Silveira; Gasparini, Nina Jardim [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Carvalho, Gisele Pereira de [Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Garicochea, Bernardo [Centro de Oncologia Sírio Libanês, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pogue, Robert Edward; Andrade, Rosângela Vieira de [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Survival and prognosis depend on tumor stage upon diagnosis, and in more than 50% of cases, the tumor has already invaded adjacent tissues or metastasis has occurred. Aiming to improve diagnosis, clinical prognosis and treatment of patients with colorectal cancer, several studies have investigated microRNAs as molecular markers of the disease due to their potential regulatory functions on tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. This review aimed to summarize the main topics related to the use of microRNAs in diagnosis, clinical prognosis and evaluating treatment response in colorectal cancer.

  20. Use of microRNAs in directing therapy and evaluating treatment response in colorectal cancer

    Andreoli, Silmara Cristiane da Silveira; Gasparini, Nina Jardim; Carvalho, Gisele Pereira de; Garicochea, Bernardo; Pogue, Robert Edward; Andrade, Rosângela Vieira de

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Survival and prognosis depend on tumor stage upon diagnosis, and in more than 50% of cases, the tumor has already invaded adjacent tissues or metastasis has occurred. Aiming to improve diagnosis, clinical prognosis and treatment of patients with colorectal cancer, several studies have investigated microRNAs as molecular markers of the disease due to their potential regulatory functions on tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. This review aimed to summarize the main topics related to the use of microRNAs in diagnosis, clinical prognosis and evaluating treatment response in colorectal cancer

  1. Monitoring and evaluation of disaster response efforts undertaken by local health departments: a rapid realist review.

    Gossip, Kate; Gouda, Hebe; Lee, Yong Yi; Firth, Sonja; Bermejo, Raoul; Zeck, Willibald; Jimenez Soto, Eliana

    2017-06-29

    inter-agency learning, evaluation reports should use standardised formats and terminology. Lastly, to increase commitment to improvement processes, local health department leaders should possess positive leadership attributes and encourage shared decision making. This study is among the first to conduct a synthesis of the CMO configurations which facilitate or hinder M&E efforts aimed at improving future disaster responses. It makes a significant contribution to the disaster literature and provides an evidence base that can be used to provide pragmatic guidance for improving M&E efforts of local health departments. PROSPERO 2015: CRD42015023526 .

  2. Activating teaching methods, studying responses and learning

    Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin E.; Thomsen, Erik; Szabo, Peter; Horsewell, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed. Peer Reviewed

  3. DETERMINATION OF IMPORTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE SUBSURFACE EXPLORATORY STUDIES FACILITY

    Clark, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) East-West Cross Drift Starter Tunnel (to approximate ECRB Station 0+26 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas in the TS Loop. This evaluation applies to the construction, operation, and maintenance of these excavations. A more detailed description of these items is provided in Section 6.0. Testing activities are not evaluated in this DIE. Certain construction activities with respect to testing activities are evaluated; but the testing activities themselves are not evaluated. The DIE for ESF Subsurface Testing Activities (BAJ3000000-01717-2200-000111) (CRWMS M and O 1998a) evaluates Subsurface ESF Testing activities. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the TS Loop niches and alcove slot cuts is evaluated herein and is also discussed in CRWMS M and O 1998a. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the Busted Butte subsurface test area in support of the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test is evaluated in CRWMS M and O 1998a. Potential test-to-test interference and the waste isolation impacts of testing activities are evaluated in the ESF Subsurface Testing Activities DIE and other applicable evaluation(s) for the Job Package (JP), Test Planning Package (TPP), and/or Field Work Package (FWP). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether the Subsurface ESF TS Loop and associated excavations, including activities associated with their construction and operation, potentially impact site characterization testing or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified. The validity and veracity of the individual tests, including data collection, are the

  4. DETERMINATION OF IMPORTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE SUBSURFACE EXPORATORY STUDIES FACILITY

    W.J. Clark

    1999-06-28

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) East-West Cross Drift Starter Tunnel (to approximate ECRB Station 0+26 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas in the TS Loop. This evaluation applies to the construction, operation, and maintenance of these excavations. A more detailed description of these items is provided in Section 6.0. Testing activities are not evaluated in this DIE. Certain construction activities with respect to testing activities are evaluated; but the testing activities themselves are not evaluated. The DIE for ESF Subsurface Testing Activities (BAJ3000000-01717-2200-00011 Rev 01) (CRWMS M&O 1998a) evaluates Subsurface ESF Testing activities. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the TS Loop niches and alcove slot cuts is evaluated herein and is also discussed in CRWMS M&O 1998a. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the Busted Butte subsurface test area in support of the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test is evaluated in CRWMS M&O 1998a. Potential test-to-test interference and the waste isolation impacts of testing activities are evaluated in the ESF Subsurface Testing Activities DIE and other applicable evaluation(s) for the Job Package (JP), Test Planning Package (TPP), and/or Field Work Package (FWP). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether the Subsurface ESF TS Loop and associated excavations, including activities associated with their construction and operation, potentially impact site characterization testing or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified. The validity and veracity of the individual tests, including data collection, are the responsibility

  5. Susceptibility of functional impairment scales to noncredible responses in the clinical evaluation of adult ADHD.

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Oliver; Koerts, Janneke; Butzbach, Marah; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Lara

    2018-05-01

    A growing body of research questions the reliance of symptom self-reports in the clinical evaluation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. A recent study suggested that also impairment reports are vulnerable to noncredible responses, as derived from a simulation design using a global functional impairment scale. The present study aims to add evidence to this issue, by using an ADHD specific impairment scale in a simulation design on large samples. Impairment ratings on the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale (WFIRS) of 62 patients with ADHD were compared to 142 healthy individuals who were instructed to show normal behavior. Furthermore, impairment ratings of patients with ADHD were compared to ratings of 330 healthy individuals who were randomly assigned to one of four simulation conditions that were instructed to complete the scale as if they had ADHD. Patients with ADHD reported higher levels of impairment than the healthy control group in all domains of life. Furthermore, individuals instructed to feign ADHD indicated higher levels of impairments in most domains of life compared to control participants and genuine patients with ADHD. The group differences between individuals feigning ADHD and individuals with genuine ADHD, however, were only small to moderate. Further analyses revealed that the WFRIS was not useful to successfully differentiate genuine from feigned ADHD. The present study confirms the conclusion that self-reported impairments are susceptible to noncredible responses and should be used with caution in the clinical evaluation of adult ADHD.

  6. Evaluating Drug Cost per Response with SGLT2 Inhibitors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Lopez, Janice M S; Macomson, Brian; Ektare, Varun; Patel, Dipen; Botteman, Marc

    2015-09-01

    The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, which include canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin, represent a new class of antihyperglycemic agents. Few studies have assessed their cost per response, with "cost per response" being the total cost of a select drug, divided by the resulting change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. To examine the drug cost of SGLT2 inhibitors per a reduction in placebo-adjusted 1% HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who received treatment during 26 weeks with canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin. The drug cost per response for each of the 3 agents individually was assessed based on data from a subset of clinical trials discussed in the prescribing information for each drug that were all placebo-controlled studies evaluating each drug as monotherapy, dual therapy (combined with metformin), and triple therapy (combined with metformin and a sulfonylurea) in patients with uncontrolled, type 2 diabetes mellitus. The US 2015 wholesale acquisition cost for each drug was used to calculate each drug's treatment costs over 26 weeks. The average cost per response for each drug was defined as the prescription drug cost of each SGLT2 inhibitor, divided by the average, placebo-adjusted HbA1c reduction at 26 weeks. The drug cost per unit dose was the same for canagliflozin (100 mg or 300 mg), dapagliflozin (5 mg or 10 mg), and empagliflozin (10 mg or 25 mg), at $11.43. The drug cost per placebo-adjusted 1% HbA1c reduction varied by agent and by dose, as a result of the differences in the treatment responses for each of the 3 drugs. The costs per response for canagliflozin 100 mg as monotherapy, dual therapy, and triple therapy regimens ranged from $2286 to $3355, and for canagliflozin 300 mg, from $1793 to $2702. The costs per response for dapagliflozin 5 mg as monotherapy and dual therapy (triple therapy was not available at the time of the study) ranged from $4161 to $5201; the cost for dapagliflozin

  7. Evaluation of energy response of neutron rem monitor applied to high-energy accelerator facilities

    Nakane, Yoshihiro; Harada, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    A neutron rem monitor was newly developed for applying to the high-intensity proton accelerator facility (J-PARC) that is under construction as a joint project between the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. To measure the dose rate accurately for wide energy range of neutrons from thermal to high-energy region, the neutron rem monitor was fabricated by adding a lead breeder layer to a conventional neutron rem monitor. The energy response of the monitor was evaluated by using neutron transport calculations for the energy range from thermal to 150 MeV. For verifying the results, the response was measured at neutron fields for the energy range from thermal to 65 MeV. The comparisons between the energy response and dose conversion coefficients show that the newly developed neutron rem monitor has a good performance in energy response up to 150 MeV, suggesting that the present study offered prospects of a practical fabrication of the rem monitor applicable to the high intensity proton accelerator facility. (author)

  8. Flood Response System—A Case Study

    Yogesh Kumar Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Flood Response System (FRS is a network-enabled solution developed using open-source software. The system has query based flood damage assessment modules with outputs in the form of spatial maps and statistical databases. FRS effectively facilitates the management of post-disaster activities caused due to flood, like displaying spatial maps of area affected, inundated roads, etc., and maintains a steady flow of information at all levels with different access rights depending upon the criticality of the information. It is designed to facilitate users in managing information related to flooding during critical flood seasons and analyzing the extent of damage. The inputs to FRS are provided using two components: (1 a semi-automated application developed indigenously, to delineate inundated areas for Near-Real Time Flood Monitoring using Active Microwave Remote Sensing data and (2 a two-dimensional (2D hydrodynamic river model generated outputs for water depth and velocity in flooded areas for an embankment breach scenario. The 2D Hydrodynamic model, CCHE2D (Center for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering Two-Dimensional model, was used to simulate an area of 600 km2 in the flood-prone zone of the Brahmaputra basin. The resultant inundated area from the model was found to be 85% accurate when validated with post-flood optical satellite data.

  9. FDG PET evaluation of therapeutic response and toxicity after radiotherapy for NSCLC

    Hicks, R.J.; MacManus, M.P.; Matthews, J.P.; Rischin, D.; Binns, D.; McKenzie, A.F.; Ball, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Positron emission tomography (PET) using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is recognised for staging and therapeutic planning of patients with non-small cell carcinoma of the lung (NSCLC). The potential for this technique to be used in the assessment of therapeutic response has also been highlighted but may be limited by false positive results due to inflammatory response, particularly early after radiotherapy (RT). To evaluate the utility of FEX PET for therapeutic monitoring early (<12 weeks) after completion of radical RT we prospectively evaluated metabolic response and radiation toxicity using a standardised scoring system in 73 consecutive patients. All 73 had evaluable PET scans but 6 of the CT scan results were considered non-evaluable for therapeutic response using WHO criteria. PET therapeutic response category differed from that by CT in 40/67 (60%) cases and in 80% of such cases suggested a more marked response than suggested by CT (p 0.0002). Multifactor analysis including PET response, CT response, performance status, weight loss and stage revealed that PET response was the only significant predictor of survival (p 0.0001). Radiation toxicity scores were inversely related to therapeutic response on both PET (p = 0.022) and CT (p =0.029). In particular, more severe (grade 2 or 3) radiotoxicity scores on PET were associated with a greater proportion of partial or complete responses on both PET and CT than were lower (grade 0 and 1) scores (p =0.0044 and 0.041 respectively) consistent with the known relationship between the radiosensitivity of normal host and tumoral tissues. Early after completion of radiotherapy for NSCLC, PET response provides better prognostic stratification than CT response. PET can also identify typical radiation toxicity changes which are associated with response to treatment. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  10. JUSTICE IN EDUCATION: EVALUATING THE SATZ-ANDERSON RESPONSE

    Valentin Stoian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to evaluate the reply offered by philosophers of educational justice Elizabeth Anderson and Debra Satz to the challenge posed by Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift. According to the latter two authors, the positional character of education undermines the application of sufficientarian principles to the distribution of educational resources. In the Brighouse-Swift view, a good is positional when its crucial characteristic is how much one possesses of it in relation to others. The two philosophers argue that education has this characteristic. Satz and Anderson reply that sufficientarianism can also survive in education, as the current educational structure should be modified. They maintain that the argument for an adequate minimum can diffuse the positionality objection and that by modifying the social structure to allow for other avenues of social mobility one can put less stress on formal education. The paper rejects the two claims and argues against sufficientarianism in education. Firstly, it puts forward the idea that any minimum is politically debatable and not an adequate reply to the positionality objection. The paper then rejects the second claim by arguing that it requires too much social engineering and that education under conditions of equality fits the purpose of social mobility much better

  11. The evaluation of distributed damage in concrete based on sinusoidal modeling of the ultrasonic response.

    Sepehrinezhad, Alireza; Toufigh, Vahab

    2018-05-25

    Ultrasonic wave attenuation is an effective descriptor of distributed damage in inhomogeneous materials. Methods developed to measure wave attenuation have the potential to provide an in-site evaluation of existing concrete structures insofar as they are accurate and time-efficient. In this study, material classification and distributed damage evaluation were investigated based on the sinusoidal modeling of the response from the through-transmission ultrasonic tests on polymer concrete specimens. The response signal was modeled as single or the sum of damping sinusoids. Due to the inhomogeneous nature of concrete materials, model parameters may vary from one specimen to another. Therefore, these parameters are not known in advance and should be estimated while the response signal is being received. The modeling procedure used in this study involves a data-adaptive algorithm to estimate the parameters online. Data-adaptive algorithms are used due to a lack of knowledge of the model parameters. The damping factor was estimated as a descriptor of the distributed damage. The results were compared in two different cases as follows: (1) constant excitation frequency with varying concrete mixtures and (2) constant mixture with varying excitation frequencies. The specimens were also loaded up to their ultimate compressive strength to investigate the effect of distributed damage in the response signal. The results of the estimation indicated that the damping was highly sensitive to the change in material inhomogeneity, even in comparable mixtures. In addition to the proposed method, three methods were employed to compare the results based on their accuracy in the classification of materials and the evaluation of the distributed damage. It is shown that the estimated damping factor is not only sensitive to damage in the final stages of loading, but it is also applicable in evaluating micro damages in the earlier stages providing a reliable descriptor of damage. In addition

  12. Evaluating the role of prefrontal and parietal cortices in memory-guided response with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Hamidi, Massihullah; Tononi, Giulio; Postle, Bradley R.

    2008-01-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) plays an important role in working memory, including the control of memory-guided response. In this study, with 24 subjects, we used high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to evaluate the role of the dlPFC in memory-guided response to two different types of spatial working memory tasks: one requiring a recognition decision about a probe stimulus (operationalized with a yes/no button press), another requiring direct recall ...

  13. Watershed Evaluation and Habitat Response to Recent Storms : Annual Report for 1999.

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Huntington, Charles W.

    2000-02-01

    Large and powerful storm systems moved through the Pacific Northwest during the wet season of 1995--96, triggering flooding, mass erosion, and, alteration of salmon habitats in affected watersheds. This project study was initiated to assess whether watershed conditions are causing damage, triggered by storm events, to salmon habitat on public lands in the Snake River basin. The storms and flooding in 1995--96 provide a prime opportunity to examine whether habitat conditions are improving, because the effects of land management activities on streams and salmon habitat are often not fully expressed until triggered by storms and floods. To address these issues, they are studying the recent storm responses of watersheds and salmon habitat in systematically selected subbasins and watersheds within the Snake River system. The study watersheds include several in the Wenaha and Tucannon subbasins in Washington and Oregon, and the watersheds of Squaw Creek (roaded) and Weir Creek (unroaded) in the Lochsa River subbasin, Idaho. The study was designed to examine possible differences in the effects of the storms in broadly comparable watersheds with differing magnitudes or types of disturbance. Watershed response is examined by comparing storm response mechanisms, such as rates of mass failure, among watersheds with similar attributes, but different levels of land management. The response of salmon habitat conditions is being examined by comparing habitat conditions before and after the storms in a stream and among streams in watersheds with similar attributes but different levels of land management. If appropriate to the results, the study will identify priority measures for reducing the severity of storm responses in watersheds within the Snake River Basin with habitat for at-risk salmon. This annual report describes the attributes of the study watersheds and the criteria and methods used to select them. The report also describes the watershed and fish habitat attributes

  14. Watershed evaluation and habitat response to recent storms; annual report for 1999

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Huntington, Charles W.

    2000-01-01

    Large and powerful storm systems moved through the Pacific Northwest during the wet season of 1995--96, triggering flooding, mass erosion, and, alteration of salmon habitats in affected watersheds. This project study was initiated to assess whether watershed conditions are causing damage, triggered by storm events, to salmon habitat on public lands in the Snake River basin. The storms and flooding in 1995--96 provide a prime opportunity to examine whether habitat conditions are improving, because the effects of land management activities on streams and salmon habitat are often not fully expressed until triggered by storms and floods. To address these issues, they are studying the recent storm responses of watersheds and salmon habitat in systematically selected subbasins and watersheds within the Snake River system. The study watersheds include several in the Wenaha and Tucannon subbasins in Washington and Oregon, and the watersheds of Squaw Creek (roaded) and Weir Creek (unroaded) in the Lochsa River subbasin, Idaho. The study was designed to examine possible differences in the effects of the storms in broadly comparable watersheds with differing magnitudes or types of disturbance. Watershed response is examined by comparing storm response mechanisms, such as rates of mass failure, among watersheds with similar attributes, but different levels of land management. The response of salmon habitat conditions is being examined by comparing habitat conditions before and after the storms in a stream and among streams in watersheds with similar attributes but different levels of land management. If appropriate to the results, the study will identify priority measures for reducing the severity of storm responses in watersheds within the Snake River Basin with habitat for at-risk salmon. This annual report describes the attributes of the study watersheds and the criteria and methods used to select them. The report also describes the watershed and fish habitat attributes

  15. Vibration Response Imaging: evaluation of rater agreement in healthy subjects and subjects with pneumonia

    Bartziokas, Konstantinos; Daenas, Christos; Preau, Sebastien; Zygoulis, Paris; Triantaris, Apostolos; Kerenidi, Theodora; Makris, Demosthenes; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Daniil, Zoe

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated pulmonologists variability in the interpretation of Vibration response imaging (VRI) obtained from healthy subjects and patients hospitalized for community acquired pneumonia. The present is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary university hospital. Twenty healthy subjects and twenty three pneumonia cases were included in this study. Six pulmonologists blindly analyzed images of normal subjects and pneumonia cases and evaluated different aspects of VRI images related to the quality of data aquisition, synchronization of the progression of breath sound distribution and agreement between the maximal energy frame (MEF) of VRI (which is the maximal geographical area of lung vibrations produced at maximal inspiration) and chest radiography. For qualitative assessment of VRI images, the raters' evaluations were analyzed by degree of consistency and agreement. The average value for overall identical evaluations of twelve features of the VRI image evaluation, ranged from 87% to 95% per rater (94% to 97% in control cases and from 79% to 93% per rater in pneumonia cases). Inter-rater median (IQR) agreement was 91% (82-96). The level of agreement according to VRI feature evaluated was in most cases over 80%; intra-class correlation (ICC) obtained by using a model of subject/rater for the averaged features was overall 0.86 (0.92 in normal and 0.73 in pneumonia cases). Our findings suggest good agreement in the interpretation of VRI data between different raters. In this respect, VRI might be helpful as a radiation free diagnostic tool for the management of pneumonia

  16. Vibration Response Imaging: evaluation of rater agreement in healthy subjects and subjects with pneumonia

    Makris Demosthenes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated pulmonologists variability in the interpretation of Vibration response imaging (VRI obtained from healthy subjects and patients hospitalized for community acquired pneumonia. Methods The present is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary university hospital. Twenty healthy subjects and twenty three pneumonia cases were included in this study. Six pulmonologists blindly analyzed images of normal subjects and pneumonia cases and evaluated different aspects of VRI images related to the quality of data aquisition, synchronization of the progression of breath sound distribution and agreement between the maximal energy frame (MEF of VRI (which is the maximal geographical area of lung vibrations produced at maximal inspiration and chest radiography. For qualitative assessment of VRI images, the raters' evaluations were analyzed by degree of consistency and agreement. Results The average value for overall identical evaluations of twelve features of the VRI image evaluation, ranged from 87% to 95% per rater (94% to 97% in control cases and from 79% to 93% per rater in pneumonia cases. Inter-rater median (IQR agreement was 91% (82-96. The level of agreement according to VRI feature evaluated was in most cases over 80%; intra-class correlation (ICC obtained by using a model of subject/rater for the averaged features was overall 0.86 (0.92 in normal and 0.73 in pneumonia cases. Conclusions Our findings suggest good agreement in the interpretation of VRI data between different raters. In this respect, VRI might be helpful as a radiation free diagnostic tool for the management of pneumonia.

  17. Abstinence-Only Sex Education: College Students' Evaluations and Responses

    Gardner, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the abstinence-only sex education experiences of a small group of young adults in the southeastern USA. Most participants felt that their abstinence-only sex education had mixed value and low overall impact in their lives. Perceptions about abstinence, virginity, and marriage varied significantly from those stressed…

  18. Evaluation of geometrically personalized THUMS pedestrian model response against sedan-pedestrian PMHS impact test data.

    Chen, Huipeng; Poulard, David; Forman, Jason; Crandall, Jeff; Panzer, Matthew B

    2018-07-04

    Evaluating the biofidelity of pedestrian finite element models (PFEM) using postmortem human subjects (PMHS) is a challenge because differences in anthropometry between PMHS and PFEM could limit a model's capability to accurately capture cadaveric responses. Geometrical personalization via morphing can modify the PFEM geometry to match the specific PMHS anthropometry, which could alleviate this issue. In this study, the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) PFEM (Ver 4.01) was compared to the cadaveric response in vehicle-pedestrian impacts using geometrically personalized models. The AM50 THUMS PFEM was used as the baseline model, and 2 morphed PFEM were created to the anthropometric specifications of 2 obese PMHS used in a previous pedestrian impact study with a mid-size sedan. The same measurements as those obtained during the PMHS tests were calculated from the simulations (kinematics, accelerations, strains), and biofidelity metrics based on signals correlation (correlation and analysis, CORA) were established to compare the response of the models to the experiments. Injury outcomes were predicted deterministically (through strain-based threshold) and probabilistically (with injury risk functions) and compared with the injuries reported in the necropsy. The baseline model could not accurately capture all aspects of the PMHS kinematics, strain, and injury risks, whereas the morphed models reproduced biofidelic response in terms of trajectory (CORA score = 0.927 ± 0.092), velocities (0.975 ± 0.027), accelerations (0.862 ± 0.072), and strains (0.707 ± 0.143). The personalized THUMS models also generally predicted injuries consistent with those identified during posttest autopsy. The study highlights the need to control for pedestrian anthropometry when validating pedestrian human body models against PMHS data. The information provided in the current study could be useful for improving model biofidelity for vehicle-pedestrian impact scenarios.

  19. Using realist evaluation to assess primary healthcare teams' responses to intimate partner violence in Spain.

    Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel; Marchal, Bruno; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Few evaluations have assessed the factors triggering an adequate health care response to intimate partner violence. This article aimed to: 1) describe a realist evaluation carried out in Spain to ascertain why, how and under what circumstances primary health care teams respond to intimate partner violence, and 2) discuss the strengths and challenges of its application. We carried out a series of case studies in four steps. First, we developed an initial programme theory (PT1), based on interviews with managers. Second, we refined PT1 into PT2 by testing it in a primary healthcare team that was actively responding to violence. Third, we tested the refined PT2 by incorporating three other cases located in the same region. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected and thick descriptions were produced and analysed using a retroduction approach. Fourth, we analysed a total of 15 cases, and identified combinations of contextual factors and mechanisms that triggered an adequate response to violence by using qualitative comparative analysis. There were several key mechanisms -the teams' self-efficacy, perceived preparation, women-centred care-, and contextual factors -an enabling team environment and managerial style, the presence of motivated professionals, the use of the protocol and accumulated experience in primary health care- that should be considered to develop adequate primary health-care responses to violence. The full application of this realist evaluation was demanding, but also well suited to explore a complex intervention reflecting the situation in natural settings. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative evaluation of atenolol and clonidine premedication on cardiovascular response to nasal speculum insertion during trans-sphenoid surgery for resection of pituitary adenoma: A prospective, randomised, double-blind, controlled study

    Devendra Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe cardiovascular responses in the form of tachycardia and hypertension following nasal speculum insertion occur during sublabial rhinoseptal trans-sphenoid approach for resection of small pituitary tumours. We compare the effects of preoperative administration of clonidine (α-2 agonist and atenolol (α-blocker over haemodynamic response, caused by speculum insertion during trans-sphenoid pituitary resection. We enrolled 66 patients in age range 18-65 years, of ASA I-II, and of either sex undergoing elective sublabial rhinoseptal trans-sphenoidal hypophysectomy. Group I (control received placebo, group II (clonidine received tablet clonidine 5 μg/kg, and group III (atenolol received tablet atenolol 0.5 mg/kg. The heart rate increased on speculum insertion and 5 and 10 minutes following speculum insertion as compared to the pre-speculum values in the control group, while no change in the heart rate was observed in other groups (P<0.05. There was a rise in the mean arterial pressure during and 5, 10, and 15 minutes after nasal speculum insertion in the control group, whereas it was not seen in other groups (P<0.05. We therefore suggest that oral clonidine and oral atenolol (given 2 hours prior to surgery is an equally effective and safe method of attenuating haemodynamic response caused by nasal speculum insertion during trans-sphenoid pituitary resection.

  1. Evaluating the effectiveness of personal response system technology on millennial student learning.

    McCurry, Mary K; Hunter Revell, Susan M

    2011-08-01

    As nurse educators, we must explore new technologies that capitalize on the characteristics of millennial learners. One such technology, the personal response system (PRS), is an effective way to promote active learning and increase comprehension. Few nursing studies have examined the benefits of PRS technology on student outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of PRS technology on learning outcomes in two sections of an undergraduate nursing research course. A crossover design compared class quiz averages between and within groups. Findings related to between and within class quiz scores were mixed, whereas the effectiveness of in-class PRS questions on paper-and-pencil quiz scores and PRS-targeted quiz items was significant. Knowledge gained from this study can be used to enhance our ability to actively engage our technologically savvy undergraduate students. By threading technology into the undergraduate curriculum, learning outcomes may be improved. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Teleconsultation in paediatric orthopaedics in Djibouti: evaluation of response performance.

    Bertani, A; Launay, F; Candoni, P; Mathieu, L; Rongieras, F; Chauvin, F

    2012-11-01

    Djibouti has no paediatric orthopaedics department and three options are available for difficult cases: transfer of the patient to another country; overseas mission transfer to Djibouti by a specialised surgical team; and management by a local orthopaedic surgeon receiving guidance from an expert. The extreme poverty of part of the population of Djibouti often precludes the first two options. Telemedecine can allow the local orthopaedic surgeon to receive expert advice. HYPOTHESES AND STUDY DESIGN: We prospectively recorded all the paediatric orthopaedics teleconsultations that occurred between November 2009 and November 2011. Our objective was to assess the performance of the teleconsultations. We hypothetized that this option was influential in decision making. We assessed the influence of the teleconsultation on patient management (i.e., change in the surgical indication and/or procedure). We then used the electronic patient records to compare the actual management to that recommended retrospectively by two independent orthopaedic surgeon consultants who had experience working overseas. Finally, we assessed the clinical outcomes in the patients. Of 48 teleconsultations for 39 patients, 13 dealt with diagnostic problems and 35 with therapeutic problems. The teleconsultation resolved the diagnostic uncertainties in 90% of cases. Advice from the expert modified the management in 37 (77%) teleconsultations; the change was related to the surgical indication in 18 cases, the surgical technique in 13 cases, and both in six cases. Agreement between the advice from the independent consultants and the treatment delivered by the local surgeon was 2.2/3. Clinical outcomes were good or very good in 31 (81%) of the 38 treated patients. This study establishes the feasibility and usefulness of paediatric orthopaedics teleconsultations in Djibouti. The introduction of telemedicine has changed our approach to challenges raised by patients in remote locations or precarious

  3. Evaluation for Moroccan dynamically downscaled precipitation from GCM CHAM5 and its regional hydrologic response

    Tsou Jaw

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: Morocco (excluding Western Sahara. Study focus: This study evaluated Moroccan precipitation, dynamically downscaled (0.18-degree from three runs of the studied GCM ECHAM5/MPI-OM, under the present-day (1971–2000/20C3M and future (2036–2065/A1B climate scenarios. The spatial and quantitative properties of the downscaled precipitation were evaluated by a verified, fine-resolution reference. The effectiveness of the hydrologic responses, driven by the downscaled precipitation, was further evaluated for the study region over the upstream watershed of Oum er Rbia River located in Central Morocco. New hydrological insights for the region: The raw downscaling runs reasonably featured the spatial properties but quantitatively misrepresented the mean and extreme intensities of present-day precipitation. Two proposed bias correction approaches, namely stationary Quantile-Mapping (QM and non-stationary Equidistant CDF Matching model (EDCDFm, successfully reduced the system biases existing in the raw downscaling runs. However, both raw and corrected runs projected great diversity in terms of the quantity of future precipitation. Hydrologic simulations performed by a well-calibrated Variable Infiltration Capacity model successfully reproduced the present-day streamflow. The driven flows were identified highly correlated with the effectiveness of the downscaled precipitation. The future flows were projected to be markedly diverse, mainly due to the varied precipitation projections. Two of the three flow simulation runs projected slight to severe drying scenarios, while another projected an opposite trend for the evaluated future period. Keywords: Dynamical downscaling, Moroccan precipitation, Regional hydrology

  4. Community structure analysis of rejection sensitive personality profiles: A common neural response to social evaluative threat?

    Kortink, Elise D; Weeda, Wouter D; Crowley, Michael J; Gunther Moor, Bregtje; van der Molen, Melle J W

    2018-06-01

    Monitoring social threat is essential for maintaining healthy social relationships, and recent studies suggest a neural alarm system that governs our response to social rejection. Frontal-midline theta (4-8 Hz) oscillatory power might act as a neural correlate of this system by being sensitive to unexpected social rejection. Here, we examined whether frontal-midline theta is modulated by individual differences in personality constructs sensitive to social disconnection. In addition, we examined the sensitivity of feedback-related brain potentials (i.e., the feedback-related negativity and P3) to social feedback. Sixty-five undergraduate female participants (mean age = 19.69 years) participated in the Social Judgment Paradigm, a fictitious peer-evaluation task in which participants provided expectancies about being liked/disliked by peer strangers. Thereafter, they received feedback signaling social acceptance/rejection. A community structure analysis was employed to delineate personality profiles in our data. Results provided evidence of two subgroups: one group scored high on attachment-related anxiety and fear of negative evaluation, whereas the other group scored high on attachment-related avoidance and low on fear of negative evaluation. In both groups, unexpected rejection feedback yielded a significant increase in theta power. The feedback-related negativity was sensitive to unexpected feedback, regardless of valence, and was largest for unexpected rejection feedback. The feedback-related P3 was significantly enhanced in response to expected social acceptance feedback. Together, these findings confirm the sensitivity of frontal midline theta oscillations to the processing of social threat, and suggest that this alleged neural alarm system behaves similarly in individuals that differ in personality constructs relevant to social evaluation.

  5. Differential Effects of Motor Efference Copies and Proprioceptive Information on Response Evaluation Processes

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Wascher, Edmund; Beste, Christian

    2013-01-01

    It is well-kown that sensory information influences the way we execute motor responses. However, less is known about if and how sensory and motor information are integrated in the subsequent process of response evaluation. We used a modified Simon Task to investigate how these streams of information are integrated in response evaluation processes, applying an in-depth neurophysiological analysis of event-related potentials (ERPs), time-frequency decomposition and sLORETA. The results show that response evaluation processes are differentially modulated by afferent proprioceptive information and efference copies. While the influence of proprioceptive information is mediated via oscillations in different frequency bands, efference copy based information about the motor execution is specifically mediated via oscillations in the theta frequency band. Stages of visual perception and attention were not modulated by the interaction of proprioception and motor efference copies. Brain areas modulated by the interactive effects of proprioceptive and efference copy based information included the middle frontal gyrus and the supplementary motor area (SMA), suggesting that these areas integrate sensory information for the purpose of response evaluation. The results show how motor response evaluation processes are modulated by information about both the execution and the location of a response. PMID:23658624

  6. Piezoelectric Response Evaluation of ZnO Thin Film Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Cheng Da-Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important parameter of piezoelectric materials is piezoelectric coefficient (d33. In this study, the piezoelectric ZnO thin films were deposited on the SiNx/Si substrate. The 4 inches substrate is diced into 8 cm× 8 cm piece. During the deposition process, a zinc target (99.999 wt% of 2 inches diameter was used. The vertical distance between the target and the substrate holder was fixed at 5 cm. The piezoelectric response of zinc oxide (ZnO thin films were obtained by using a direct measurement system. The system adopts a mini impact tip to generate an impulsive force and read out the piezoelectric signals immediately. Experimentally, a servo motor is used to produce a fixed quantity of force, for giving an impact against to the piezoelectric film. The ZnO thin films were deposited using the reactive radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering method. The electric charges should be generated because of the material’s extrusion. This phenomenon was investigated through the oscilloscope by one shot trigger. It was apparent that all ZnO films exhibit piezoelectric responses evaluated by our measurement system, however, its exhibit a significant discrepancy. The piezoelectric responses of ZnO thin film at various deposition positions were measured and the crystal structures of the sputtering pressure were also discussed. The crystalline characteristics of ZnO thin films are investigated through the XRD and SEM. The results show the ZnO thin film exhibits good crystalline pattern and surface morphology with controlled sputtering condition. The ZnO thin films sputtered using 2 inches target present various piezoelectric responses. With the exactly related position, a best piezoelectric response of ZnO thin film can be achieved.

  7. Evaluating physical and perceptual responses to exergames in Chinese children.

    Lau, Patrick W C; Liang, Yan; Lau, Erica Y; Choi, Choung-Rak; Kim, Chang-Gyun; Shin, Myung-Soo

    2015-04-13

    The primary objective of this study was to examine whether exergames could help children reach the recommendations for PA and cardiorespiratory fitness regarding exercise intensity. Differences in perceived physical exertion, EE, VO2, and HR between normal weight (NW) and overweight (OW) children participating in exergames were also examined. Twenty-one children (age: 10.45 ± 0.88) were assessed for EE, VO2 and HR during rest, in a maximal treadmill test, and while playing different exergames. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) (category range: 0 to 10) were also measured during exergaming. Three types of exergames were examined: running, table tennis, and dancing. These games were either performed on a Chinese game console, I-Dong, or another well-developed Western game console (Sony PlayStation 3 or Nintendo Wii). Exergaming resulted in EE (kcal/min) from 2.05-5.14, VO2 (mL/kg/min) from 9.98-25.54, and HR (beats per minute) from 98.05-149.66. Children reported RPE ranging from 1.29 to 5.29. The Chinese exergame, I-Dong Running, was the only game in which children reached a moderate intensity and met the recommended minimum VO2reserve (50%) for cardiorespiratory fitness. Exergames could provide alternative opportunities to enhance children's physical activity. They could be used as light-to-moderate PA, and with exergames, children can even reach the recommended intensity for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness.

  8. Study on IAEA international emergency response exercise convEx-3

    Yamamoto, Kazuya

    2007-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) carried out a large-scale international emergency response exercise in 2005 under the designated name of ConvEx-3(2005), at Romania. This review report summarizes a study about ConvEx-3(2005) based on several related open literature. The ConvEx-3 was conducted in accordance with Agency's safety standard series and requirements in the field of Emergency Preparedness and Response. The study on the preparation, conduct and evaluation of ConvEx-3(2005) exercise is expected to provide very useful knowledge for development of drills and educational programs conducted by Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT). Especially, study on the exercise evaluations is instrumental in improving evaluations of drills planned by the national government and local governments. As international cooperation among Asian countries in the field of nuclear emergency preparedness and response is going to realize, it is very useful to survey and consider scheme and methodology about international emergency preparedness, response and exercise referring the knowledge of this ConvEx-3 study. The lessons learned from this study of ConvEx-3(2005) are summarized in four chapters; methodology of exercises and educational programs, exercise evaluation process, amendments/verification of the emergency response plan of NEAT, and technical issues of systems for emergency response and assistance of NEAT relevant to interface for international emergency communication. (author)

  9. A change in inflammatory footprint precedes plaque instability: a systematic evaluation of cellular aspects of the adaptive immune response in human atherosclerosis

    van Dijk, R. A.; Duinisveld, A. J. F.; Schaapherder, A. F.; Mulder-Stapel, A.; Hamming, J. F.; Kuiper, J.; de Boer, O. J.; van der Wal, A. C.; Kolodgie, F. D.; Virmani, R.; Lindeman, J. H. N.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies characterize adaptive immune response as a critical factor in the progression and complications of atherosclerosis. Yet, it is unclear whether these observations translate to the human situation. This study systematically evaluates cellular components of the adaptive immune

  10. Emotional responses to a romantic partner's imaginary rejection: the roles of attachment anxiety, covert narcissism, and self-evaluation.

    Besser, Avi; Priel, Beatriz

    2009-02-01

    These studies tested the associations between responses to an induced imaginary romantic rejection and individual differences on dimensions of attachment and covert narcissism. In Study 1 (N=125), we examined the associations between attachment dimensions and emotional responses to a vignette depicting a scenario of romantic rejection, as measured by self-reported negative mood states, expressions of anger, somatic symptoms, and self-evaluation. Higher scores on attachment anxiety, but not on attachment avoidance, were associated with stronger reactions to the induced rejection. Moreover, decreased self-evaluation scores (self-esteem and pride) were found to mediate these associations. In Study 2 (N=88), the relative contributions of covert narcissism and attachment anxiety to the emotional responses to romantic rejection were explored. Higher scores on covert narcissism were associated with stronger reactions to the induced rejection. Moreover, covert narcissism seemed to constitute a specific aspect of attachment anxiety.

  11. Evaluating Physical and Perceptual Responses to Exergames in Chinese Children

    Lau, Patrick W. C.; Liang, Yan; Lau, Erica Y.; Choi, Choung-Rak; Kim, Chang-Gyun; Shin, Myung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether exergames could help children reach the recommendations for PA and cardiorespiratory fitness regarding exercise intensity. Differences in perceived physical exertion, EE, VO2, and HR between normal weight (NW) and overweight (OW) children participating in exergames were also examined. Methods: Twenty-one children (age: 10.45 ± 0.88) were assessed for EE, VO2 and HR during rest, in a maximal treadmill test, and while playing different exergames. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) (category range: 0 to 10) were also measured during exergaming. Three types of exergames were examined: running, table tennis, and dancing. These games were either performed on a Chinese game console, I-Dong, or another well-developed Western game console (Sony PlayStation 3 or Nintendo Wii). Results: Exergaming resulted in EE (kcal/min) from 2.05–5.14, VO2 (mL/kg/min) from 9.98–25.54, and HR (beats per minute) from 98.05–149.66. Children reported RPE ranging from 1.29 to 5.29. The Chinese exergame, I-Dong Running, was the only game in which children reached a moderate intensity and met the recommended minimum VO2reserve (50%) for cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion: Exergames could provide alternative opportunities to enhance children’s physical activity. They could be used as light-to-moderate PA, and with exergames, children can even reach the recommended intensity for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:25872015

  12. Evaluating Physical and Perceptual Responses to Exergames in Chinese Children

    Patrick W. C. Lau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether exergames could help children reach the recommendations for PA and cardiorespiratory fitness regarding exercise intensity. Differences in perceived physical exertion, EE, VO2, and HR between normal weight (NW and overweight (OW children participating in exergames were also examined. Methods: Twenty-one children (age: 10.45 ± 0.88 were assessed for EE, VO2 and HR during rest, in a maximal treadmill test, and while playing different exergames. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE (category range: 0 to 10 were also measured during exergaming. Three types of exergames were examined: running, table tennis, and dancing. These games were either performed on a Chinese game console, I-Dong, or another well-developed Western game console (Sony PlayStation 3 or Nintendo Wii. Results: Exergaming resulted in EE (kcal/min from 2.05–5.14, VO2 (mL/kg/min from 9.98–25.54, and HR (beats per minute from 98.05–149.66. Children reported RPE ranging from 1.29 to 5.29. The Chinese exergame, I-Dong Running, was the only game in which children reached a moderate intensity and met the recommended minimum VO2reserve (50% for cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion: Exergames could provide alternative opportunities to enhance children’s physical activity. They could be used as light-to-moderate PA, and with exergames, children can even reach the recommended intensity for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness.

  13. Using the /phi/resund experimental data to evaluate the ARAC emergency response models

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Gryning, S.E.

    1988-07-01

    A series of meteorological and tracer experiments, was conducted during May and June 1984 over the 20-km wide /O/resund strait between Denmark and Sweden for the purpose of studying atmospheric dispersion processes over cold water and warm land surfaces and providing the data needed to evaluate meso-scale models in a coastal environment. In concert with these objectives the data from these experiments have been used as part of a continuing effort to evaluate the capability of the three-dimensional MATHEW/ADPIC (M/A) atmospheric dispersion models to simulate pollutant transport and diffusion characteristics of the atmospheric during a wide variety of meteorological conditions. Since previous studies have focused primarily on M/A model evaluations over rolling and complex terrain at inland sites, the /O/resund experiments provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the models in a coastal environment. The M/A models are used by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, for performing real-time assessments of the environmental consequences of potential or actual releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere. These assessments include estimation of radiation doses to nearby population centers and of the extent of surface contamination. Model evaluations, using field experimental data such as those generated by the /O/resund experiments, serve as a basis for providing emergency response managers with estimated of the uncertainties associated with accident consequence assessments. This report provides a brief description of the /O/resund experiments, the current understanding of the meteorological processes governing pollutant dispersion over the /O/resund strait, and the results of the M/A model simulations of these experiments. 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  14. Using Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory to Evaluate the LSCI

    Schlingman, Wayne M.; Prather, E. E.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    Analyzing the data from the recent national study using the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI), this project uses both Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) to investigate the LSCI itself in order to better understand what it is actually measuring. We use Classical Test Theory to form a framework of results that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of individual questions at measuring differences in student understanding and provide further insight into the prior results presented from this data set. In the second phase of this research, we use Item Response Theory to form a theoretical model that generates parameters accounting for a student's ability, a question's difficulty, and estimate the level of guessing. The combined results from our investigations using both CTT and IRT are used to better understand the learning that is taking place in classrooms across the country. The analysis will also allow us to evaluate the effectiveness of individual questions and determine whether the item difficulties are appropriately matched to the abilities of the students in our data set. These results may require that some questions be revised, motivating the need for further development of the LSCI. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  15. Evaluation of the Dutch version of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS): Responsiveness and Minimally Important Change

    Sierevelt, I. N.; van Eekeren, I. C. M.; Haverkamp, D.; Reilingh, M. L.; Terwee, C. B.; Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and provide data on the Minimally Important Change (MIC) in patients 1 year after hindfoot and ankle surgery. Prospective pre-operative and 1 year post-operative FAOS scores were collected from 145

  16. Definition of simulated driving tests for the evaluation of drivers' reactions and responses.

    Bartolozzi, Riccardo; Frendo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at identifying the most significant measures in 2 perception-response (PR) tests performed at a driving simulator: a braking test and a lateral skid test, which were developed in this work. Forty-eight subjects (26 females and 22 males) with a mean age of 24.9 ± 3.0 years were enrolled for this study. They were asked to perform a drive on the driving simulator at the University of Pisa (Italy) following a specific test protocol, including 8-10 braking tests and 8-10 lateral skid tests. Driver input signals and vehicle model signals were recorded during the drives and analyzed to extract measures such as the reaction time, first response time, etc. Following a statistical procedure (based on analysis of variance [ANOVA] and post hoc tests), all test measures (3 for the braking test and 8 for the lateral skid test) were analyzed in terms of statistically significant differences among different drivers. The presented procedure allows evaluation of the capability of a given test to distinguish among different drivers. In the braking test, the reaction time showed a high dispersion among single drivers, leading to just 4.8 percent of statistically significant driver pairs (using the Games-Howell post hoc test), whereas the pedal transition time scored 31.9 percent. In the lateral skid test, 28.5 percent of the 2 × 2 comparisons showed significantly different reaction times, 19.5 percent had different response times, 35.2 percent had a different second peak of the steering wheel signal, and 33 percent showed different values of the integral of the steering wheel signal. For the braking test, which has been widely employed in similar forms in the literature, it was shown how the reaction time, with respect to the pedal transition time, can have a higher dispersion due to the influence of external factors. For the lateral skid test, the following measures were identified as the most significant for application studies: the reaction time for the reaction

  17. Evaluation of roentgenologic study of the stomach

    Suh, Jung Ho; Choi, Byung So

    1972-01-01

    In order to achieve more correct diagnosis of gastric lesion, further progress in the technique of diagnosis is much desired. And so, in pursuing the more ideal study, about 7,500 cases of U. G. I. studies taken in Severance Hospital in the past 29 months from May 1969 to September 1971, have been reviewed to evaluate how the following factors will affect the demonstrability of gastric lesion in upper G. I. series. (1) Introduction of air into the stomach by nasogastric tube. (2) Kinds and concentration of barium. (3) Demonstrability according to the position of the patient. (4) Use of antispasmodics. The results may be briefly summarized as follows: 1. The intubation of nasogastric tube gives discomfort temporarily to the patient: however, it has an advantage that the amount of air required for ideal insufflation of the stomach can be controlled under the fluoroscopy. 2. About concentration and type of barium. a) Mikabarium in 90% seems to give the best result in filling study, mucosal relief study and double contrast study. b) Mikabarium in higher concentration adheres to the mucosa better, thus resulting in good double contrast: however, it tends to coagulate each other in the high concentration. c) Micropaque powder of 110% solution produces good double contrast, but it has the disadvantage of making air bubbles. d) When water is given prior to barium ingestion, the anterior wall of stomach is better demonstrated with mucosal relief study. e) To get better result in contrast study, the selection of barium is important as well as rapid and proper positioning of the patient and abdominal respiratory movement. 3. Demonstrability of the stomach lesion according to the position. a) The small lesion either in pylorus or in antrum can be best demonstrated by compression technique of double contrast method in supine position. b) The mucosal relief study in prone by adequate air insufflation was proper to demonstrate the lesion of anterior wall. c) In the lesion of the

  18. Dose response evaluation of a low-density normoxic polymer gel dosimeter using MRI

    Haraldsson, P [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Department of Radiation Physics, Finsen Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Karlsson, A [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Wieslander, E [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Gustavsson, H [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Baeck, S A J [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden)

    2006-02-21

    A low-density ({approx}0.6 g cm{sup -3}) normoxic polymer gel, containing the antioxidant tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosponium (THP), has been investigated with respect to basic absorbed dose response characteristics. The low density was obtained by mixing the gel with expanded polystyrene spheres. The depth dose data for 6 and 18 MV photons were compared with Monte Carlo calculations. A large volume phantom was irradiated in order to study the 3D dose distribution from a 6 MV field. Evaluation of the gel was carried out using magnetic resonance imaging. An approximately linear response was obtained for 1/T2 versus dose in the dose range of 2 to 8 Gy. A small decrease in the dose response was observed for increasing concentrations of THP. A good agreement between measured and Monte Carlo calculated data was obained, both for test tubes and the larger 3D phantom. It was shown that a normoxic polymer gel with a reduced density could be obtained by adding expanded polystyrene spheres. In order to get reliable results, it is very important to have a uniform distribution of the gel and expanded polystyrene spheres in the phantom volume.

  19. Dose response evaluation of a low-density normoxic polymer gel dosimeter using MRI

    Haraldsson, P.; Karlsson, A.; Wieslander, E.; Gustavsson, H.; Bäck, S. Å. J.

    2006-02-01

    A low-density (~0.6 g cm-3) normoxic polymer gel, containing the antioxidant tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosponium (THP), has been investigated with respect to basic absorbed dose response characteristics. The low density was obtained by mixing the gel with expanded polystyrene spheres. The depth dose data for 6 and 18 MV photons were compared with Monte Carlo calculations. A large volume phantom was irradiated in order to study the 3D dose distribution from a 6 MV field. Evaluation of the gel was carried out using magnetic resonance imaging. An approximately linear response was obtained for 1/T2 versus dose in the dose range of 2 to 8 Gy. A small decrease in the dose response was observed for increasing concentrations of THP. A good agreement between measured and Monte Carlo calculated data was obained, both for test tubes and the larger 3D phantom. It was shown that a normoxic polymer gel with a reduced density could be obtained by adding expanded polystyrene spheres. In order to get reliable results, it is very important to have a uniform distribution of the gel and expanded polystyrene spheres in the phantom volume.

  20. Quantitative Evaluation of Tumor Early Response to a Vascular-Disrupting Agent with Dynamic PET.

    Guo, Ning; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Guo, Jinxia; Lang, Lixin; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Niu, Gang; Li, Quanzheng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the early response of tumors to a vascular-disrupting agent (VDA) VEGF121/recombinant toxin gelonin (rGel) using dynamic [(18)F]FPPRGD2 positron emission tomography (PET) and kinetic parameter estimation. Two tumor xenograft models: U87MG (highly vascularized) and A549 (moderately vascularized), were selected, and both were randomized into treatment and control groups. Sixty-minute dynamic PET scans with [(18)F]FPPRGD2 that targets to integrin αvβ3 were performed at days 0 (baseline), 1, and 3 since VEGF121/rGel treatment started. Dynamic PET-derived binding potential (BPND) and parametric maps were compared with tumor uptake (%ID/g) and the static PET image at 1 h after the tracer administration. The growth of U87MG tumor was obviously delayed upon VEGF121/rGel treatment. A549 tumor was not responsive to the same treatment. BPND of treated U87MG tumors decreased significantly at day 1 (p dynamic PET with [(18)F]FPPRGD2 shows advantages in distinguishing effective from ineffective treatment during the course of VEGF121/rGel therapy at early stage and is therefore more sensitive in assessing therapy response than static PET.

  1. Using the Bayes Factors to Evaluate Person Fit in the Item Response Theory

    Pan, Tianshu; Yin, Yue

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we propose using the Bayes factors (BF) to evaluate person fit in item response theory models under the framework of Bayesian evaluation of an informative diagnostic hypothesis. We first discuss the theoretical foundation for this application and how to analyze person fit using BF. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach,…

  2. Setting standards and detecting intrajudge inconsistency using interdependent evaluation of response alternatives

    Chang, Lei; van der Linden, Willem J.; Vos, Hendrik J.

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces a new test-centered standard-setting method as well as a procedure to detect intrajudge inconsistency of the method. The standard-setting method that is based on interdependent evaluations of alternative responses has judges closely evaluate the process that examinees use to

  3. An Exploratory Study of Patients' Perceptions of Responsiveness of ...

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... How to cite this article: Ughasoro MD, Okanya OC, Uzochukwu B,. Onwujekwe OE. ... 0.024), prompt attention (P = 0.003), and quality of basic amenities (P = 0.015) ... satisfaction metrics will be important platforms for health-care reform .... Figure 1: Framework for the evaluation of responsiveness in tertiary.

  4. Prospective evaluation of the International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) and the International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria (INRC) in a multicentre setting.

    Castel, V; García-Miguel, P; Cañete, A; Melero, C; Navajas, A; Ruíz-Jiménez, J I; Navarro, S; Badal, M D

    1999-04-01

    The aim of this study was to classify prospectively a series of neuroblastoma tumours according to the International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) and the International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria (INRC) and to evaluate the difficulties and pitfalls involved in a multicentre setting. Each hospital provided their data for central review. The surgical procedures and their complications were reported. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival and event-free survival were calculated according to stage and response to therapy. From June 1992 to December 1996, 194 patients were included in the study, with a mean age of 2 years. Initial studies were performed according to INSS recommendations without major problems. INSS stage was correctly applied to all patients except for 9 (95%). Post-operative complications were observed in 15 patients (8.3%). Response to therapy (INRC) was studied in 63 stage 4 patients, 11 of whom were not classified correctly (17%). Differences in survival according to stage (INSS) and group of response to therapy (INRC) were statistically significant (P INSS was easy to use and separated different prognostic groups. Surgical complications and mortality did not increase in this series because of using the INSS. The feasibility of INRC was evaluated in a small series of stage 4 patients and the designation of response was problematic in a relatively high proportion of cases. The prognostic value of the different responses was highly significant, but less informative than had been hoped for.

  5. Expermental Studies of quantitative evaluation using HPLC

    Ki Rok Kwon

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods : This study was conducted to carry out quantitative evaluation using HPLC Content analysis was done using HPLC Results : According to HPLC analysis, each BVA-1 contained approximately 0.36㎍ melittin, and BVA-2 contained approximately 0.54㎍ melittin. But the volume of coating was so minute, slight difference exists between each needle. Conclusion : Above results indicate that the bee venom acupuncture can complement shortcomings of syringe usage as a part of Oriental medicine treatment, but extensive researches should be done for further verification.

  6. Review of extended producer responsibility: A case study approach.

    Gupt, Yamini; Sahay, Samraj

    2015-07-01

    Principles of extended producer responsibility have been the core of most of the recent policies and legislation dealing with the end-of-life management of recyclable goods. This article makes an exploratory review of 27 cases of extended producer responsibility from developed and developing economies with and without informal recycling, to ascertain the most important aspect of extended producer responsibility. A comparative analysis of the cases with respect to role of stakeholders in the upstream and downstream stages of the extended producer responsibility has been carried out. Further, the study uses exploratory factor analysis to determine the important aspects of the extended producer responsibility in practice using 13 variables identified from the review. Findings of the comparative analysis reveal that financial responsibility of the producers and separate collecting and recycling agencies contributed significantly to the success of the extended producer responsibility-based environmental policies. Regulatory provisions, take-back responsibility and financial flow come out to be the three most important aspects of the extended producer responsibility. Presence of informal sector had a negative impact on the regulatory provisions. The outcomes of this study could serve as a guideline for designing of effective extended producer responsibility-based policies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Participant evaluation results for two indoor air quality studies

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Dudney, C.S.; Cohen, M.A.; Spengler, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    After two surveys for indoor air pollutants (radon and other chemicals) the homeowners were surveyed for their reactions. The results of these participant evaluation surveys, assuming that the participants that responded to the survey were representative, indicate that homeowners will accept a significant level of monitoring activity as part of an indoor air quality field study. Those participants completing surveys overwhelmingly enjoyed being in the studies and would do it again. We believe that the emphasis placed on positive homeowner interactions and efforts made to inform participants throughout our studies were positive factors in this result. There was no substantial differences noted in the responses between the 70-house study, which included a homeowner compensation payment of $100, and the 300-house study, which did not include a compensation payment. These results provide encouragement to conduct future complex, multipollutant indoor air quality studies when they are scientifically sound and cost effective

  8. Evaluating User Response to In-Car Haptic Feedback Touchscreens Using the Lane Change Test

    Matthew J. Pitts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Touchscreen interfaces are widely used in modern technology, from mobile devices to in-car infotainment systems. However, touchscreens impose significant visual workload demands on the user which have safety implications for use in cars. Previous studies indicate that the application of haptic feedback can improve both performance of and affective response to user interfaces. This paper reports on and extends the findings of a 2009 study conducted to evaluate the effects of different combinations of touchscreen visual, audible, and haptic feedback on driving and task performance, affective response, and subjective workload; the initial findings of which were originally published in (M. J. Pitts et al., 2009. A total of 48 non-expert users completed the study. A dual-task approach was applied, using the Lane Change Test as the driving task and realistic automotive use case touchscreen tasks. Results indicated that, while feedback type had no effect on driving or task performance, preference was expressed for multimodal feedback over visual alone. Issues relating to workload and cross-modal interaction were also identified.

  9. In vitro extracellular matrix model to evaluate stroma cell response to transvaginal mesh.

    Wu, Ming-Ping; Huang, Kuan-Hui; Long, Cheng-Yu; Yang, Chau-Chen; Tong, Yat-Ching

    2014-04-01

    The use of surgical mesh for female pelvic floor reconstruction has increased in recent years. However, there is paucity of information about the biological responses of host stroma cells to different meshes. This study was aimed to establish an in vitro experimental model to study the micro-environment of extracellular matrix (ECM) with embedded mesh and the stroma cell behaviors to different synthetic meshes. Matrigel multi-cellular co-culture system with embedded mesh was used to evaluate the interaction of stroma cells and synthetic mesh in a simulated ECM environment. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and NIH3T3 fibroblasts were inoculated in the system. The established multi-cellular Matrigel co-culture system was used to detect stroma cell recruitment and tube formation ability for different synthetic meshes. HUVEC and NIH3T3 cells were recruited into the mesh interstices and organized into tube-like structures in type I mesh material from Perigee, Marlex and Prolift 24 hr after cell inoculation. On the contrary, there was little recruitment of HUVEC and NIH3T3 cells into the type III mesh of intra-vaginal sling (IVS). The Matrigel multi-cellular co-culture system with embedded mesh offers a useful in vitro model to study the biological behaviors of stroma cells in response to different types of synthetic meshes. The system can help to select ideal mesh candidates before actual implantation into the human body. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A multicentre, clinical evaluation of a hydro-responsive wound dressing: the Glasgow experience.

    Hodgson, H; Davidson, D; Duncan, A; Guthrie, J; Henderson, E; MacDiarmid, M; McGown, K; Pollard, V; Potter, R; Rodgers, A; Wilson, A; Horner, J; Doran, M; Simm, S; Taylor, R; Rogers, A; Rippon, M G; Colgrave, M

    2017-11-02

    Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of hydro-responsive wound dressing (HRWD) in debridement and wound bed preparation of a variety of acute and chronic wounds that presented with devitalised tissue needing removal so that healing may proceed. This was a non-comparative evaluation of acute and chronic wounds that required debridement as part of their normal treatment regimen. Clinicians recorded wound changes including a subjective assessment level of devitalised tissue and wound bed preparation, presence of pain, wound status (e.g., wound size) and periwound skin condition. Data was also collected from clinicians and patients to provide information on clinical performance of the dressing. We recruited 100 patients with a variety of wound types into the study. Over 90% of the clinicians reported removal of devitalised tissue to enable a healing response in both chronic and acute wounds. Specifically, over the course of the evaluation period, levels of devitalised tissue (necrosis and slough) reduced from 85.5% to 26.3%, and this was accompanied by an increase in wound bed granulation from 12.0% to 33.7%. Correspondingly, there was a 40% reduction in wound area, hence a clinically relevant healing response was seen upon treatment with HRWD. It is also noteworthy that this patient population included a significant proportion of chronic wounds (51.4%) that showed no signs of wound progression within debridement process (£8.05), larval therapy (£306.39) and mechanical pad debridement (£11.46). HRWD was well tolerated and was demonstrated to be an efficient debridement tool providing rapid, effective and pain free debridement in a variety of wound types.

  11. The neural response to maternal stimuli: an ERP study.

    Lili Wu

    Full Text Available Mothers are important to all humans. Research has established that maternal information affects individuals' cognition, emotion, and behavior. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs to examine attentional and evaluative processing of maternal stimuli while participants completed a Go/No-go Association Task that paired mother or others words with good or bad evaluative words. Behavioral data showed that participants responded faster to mother words paired with good than the mother words paired with bad but showed no difference in response to these others across conditions, reflecting a positive evaluation of mother. ERPs showed larger P200 and N200 in response to mother than in response to others, suggesting that mother attracted more attention than others. In the subsequent time window, mother in the mother + bad condition elicited a later and larger late positive potential (LPP than it did in the mother + good condition, but this was not true for others, also suggesting a positive evaluation of mother. These results suggest that people differentiate mother from others during initial attentional stage, and evaluative mother positively during later stage.

  12. Evaluation of the immune responses of the brown mussel Perna perna as indicators of fecal pollution.

    Silva Dos Santos, Fernanda; Neves, Raquel Almeida Ferrando; Carvalho, Wanderson Fernandes de; Krepsky, Natascha; Crapez, Mirian Araújo Carlos

    2018-06-01

    The mussel Perna perna is an intertidal bivalve that is widely distributed, cultivated and consumed in South Africa, Brazil and Venezuela. Among marine resources, bivalve mollusks are one of the most impacted by anthropogenic pollution, as they can accumulate pathogenic bacteria and water pollutants. Hemocytes are molluscan defense cells, and their abundance and functions can be affected in response to contaminants, such as bacterial load. However, no previous study has investigated the immune response of P. perna hemocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate several immune parameters in P. perna as indicators of fecal pollution in mussel hemolymph and in seawater. We collected mussels and adjacent seawater from beaches with different levels of fecal contamination in Rio de Janeiro state (Brazil): Vermelha Beach (VB); Icaraí Beach (IB); Urca Beach (UB); and Jurujuba Beach (JB). Hemocyte parameters (density, morphology, phagocytic activity and production of Reactive Oxygen Species - ROS) were evaluated using flow cytometry. We quantified Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) in seawater by the multiple tubes technique for each beach and for hemolymph by the spread-plate technique. In agreement with historical evaluation of fecal contamination levels, UB presented the highest FIB abundance in seawater (thermotolerant coliforms, TEC = 1600 NMP 100 mL -1 ), whereas VB exhibited the lowest (TEC = 17 NMP 100 mL -1 ). UB mussels had six and eight times higher hemocyte density and phagocytic activity, respectively, than mussels from VB. Mussels from VB and IB presented a significantly lower number of total coliforms in hemolymph and a significantly higher relative internal complexity of hemocytes than those from UB and JB (p ≤ 0.01, PERMANOVA). ROS production by hemocytes was significantly lower in mussels from VB compared to those from JB (p = 0.04, ANOVA). Our results indicate a significant relationship between the level of fecal contamination in

  13. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF THERAPEUTIC RESPONSE BY FDG PET-CT IN METASTATIC BREAST CANCER

    Dorothée eGOULON

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To assess the therapeutic response for metastatic breast cancer with 18F-FDG PET, this retrospective study aims to compare the performance of 6 different metabolic metrics with PERCIST, PERCIST with optimal thresholds and an image-based parametric approach.MethodsThirty six metastatic breast cancer patients underwent 128 PET scans and 123 lesions were identified. In a per-lesion and per-patient analysis, the performance of 6 metrics: SUVmax (maximum Standardized Uptake Value, SUVpeak, SAM (Standardized Added Metabolic activity, SUVmean, metabolic volume (MV, TLG (total lesion glycolysis and a parametric approach (SULTAN were determined and compared to the gold standard (defined by clinical assessment and biological and conventional imaging according RECIST 1.1. The evaluation was performed using PERCIST thresholds (for per-patient analysis only and optimal thresholds (determined by the Youden criterion from the Receiver Operating Characteristic curves.ResultsIn the per-lesion analysis, 210 pairs of lesion evolutions were studied. Using the optimal thresholds, SUVmax, SUVpeak, SUVmean, SAM and TLG were significantly correlated with the gold standard. SUVmax, SUVpeak and SUVmean reached the best sensitivity (91 %, 88 % and 83% respectively, specificity (93%, 95% and 97% respectively and negative predictive value (NPV, 90%, 88% and 83% respectively. For the per-patient analysis, 79 pairs of PET were studied. The optimal thresholds compared to the PERCIST threshold did not improve performance for SUVmax, SUVpeak and SUVmean. Only SUVmax, SUVpeak, SUVmean and TLG were correlated with the gold standard. SULTAN also performed equally: 83% sensitivity, 88% specificity and NPV 86%.ConclusionsThis study showed that SUVmax and SUVpeak were the best parameters for PET evaluation of metastatic breast cancer lesions. Parametric imaging is helpful in evaluating serial studies.

  14. Full-scale Mark II CRT program: dynamic response evaluation test of pressure transducers

    Kukita, Yutaka; Namatame, Ken; Takeshita, Isao; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1982-12-01

    A dynamic response evaluation test of pressure transducers was conducted in support of the JAERI Full-Scale Mark II CRT (Containment Response Test) Program. The test results indicated that certain of the cavity-type transducers used in the early blowdown test had undesirable response characteristics. The transducer mounting scheme was modified to avoid trapping of air bubbles in the pressure transmission tubing attached to the transducers. The dynamic response of the modified transducers was acceptable within the frequency range of 200 Hz. (author)

  15. Pilot Evaluation of Angiogenesis Signaling Factor Response after Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Ronald, James; Nixon, Andrew B; Marin, Daniele; Gupta, Rajan T; Janas, Gemini; Chen, Willa; Suhocki, Paul V; Pabon-Ramos, Waleska; Sopko, David R; Starr, Mark D; Brady, John C; Hurwitz, Herbert I; Kim, Charles Y

    2017-10-01

    Purpose To identify changes in a broad panel of circulating angiogenesis factors after bland transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), a purely ischemic treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods This prospective HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board. Informed written consent was obtained from all participants prior to entry into the study. Twenty-five patients (21 men; mean age, 61 years; range, 30-81 years) with Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System category 5 or biopsy-proven HCC and who were undergoing TAE were enrolled from October 15, 2014, through December 2, 2015. Nineteen plasma angiogenesis factors (angiopoietin 2; hepatocyte growth factor; platelet-derived growth factor AA and BB; placental growth factor; vascular endothelial growth factor A and D; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, 2, and 3; osteopontin; transforming growth factor β1 and β2; thrombospondin 2; intercellular adhesion molecule 1; interleukin 6 [IL-6]; stromal cell-derived factor 1; tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1; and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 [VCAM-1]) were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays at 1 day, 2 weeks, and 5 weeks after TAE and were compared with baseline levels by using paired Wilcoxon tests. Tumor response was assessed according to modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST). Angiogenesis factor levels were compared between responders and nonresponders by mRECIST criteria by using unpaired Wilcoxon tests. Results All procedures were technically successful with no complications. Fourteen angiogenesis factors showed statistically significant changes following TAE, but most changes were transient. IL-6 was upregulated only 1 day after the procedure, but showed the largest increases of any factor. Osteopontin and VCAM-1 demonstrated sustained upregulation at all time points following TAE. At 3-month follow-up imaging, 11 patients had responses to TAE

  16. SU-E-J-275: Review - Computerized PET/CT Image Analysis in the Evaluation of Tumor Response to Therapy

    Lu, W; Wang, J; Zhang, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To review the literature in using computerized PET/CT image analysis for the evaluation of tumor response to therapy. Methods: We reviewed and summarized more than 100 papers that used computerized image analysis techniques for the evaluation of tumor response with PET/CT. This review mainly covered four aspects: image registration, tumor segmentation, image feature extraction, and response evaluation. Results: Although rigid image registration is straightforward, it has been shown to achieve good alignment between baseline and evaluation scans. Deformable image registration has been shown to improve the alignment when complex deformable distortions occur due to tumor shrinkage, weight loss or gain, and motion. Many semi-automatic tumor segmentation methods have been developed on PET. A comparative study revealed benefits of high levels of user interaction with simultaneous visualization of CT images and PET gradients. On CT, semi-automatic methods have been developed for only tumors that show marked difference in CT attenuation between the tumor and the surrounding normal tissues. Quite a few multi-modality segmentation methods have been shown to improve accuracy compared to single-modality algorithms. Advanced PET image features considering spatial information, such as tumor volume, tumor shape, total glycolytic volume, histogram distance, and texture features have been found more informative than the traditional SUVmax for the prediction of tumor response. Advanced CT features, including volumetric, attenuation, morphologic, structure, and texture descriptors, have also been found advantage over the traditional RECIST and WHO criteria in certain tumor types. Predictive models based on machine learning technique have been constructed for correlating selected image features to response. These models showed improved performance compared to current methods using cutoff value of a single measurement for tumor response. Conclusion: This review showed that

  17. SU-E-J-275: Review - Computerized PET/CT Image Analysis in the Evaluation of Tumor Response to Therapy

    Lu, W; Wang, J; Zhang, H [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To review the literature in using computerized PET/CT image analysis for the evaluation of tumor response to therapy. Methods: We reviewed and summarized more than 100 papers that used computerized image analysis techniques for the evaluation of tumor response with PET/CT. This review mainly covered four aspects: image registration, tumor segmentation, image feature extraction, and response evaluation. Results: Although rigid image registration is straightforward, it has been shown to achieve good alignment between baseline and evaluation scans. Deformable image registration has been shown to improve the alignment when complex deformable distortions occur due to tumor shrinkage, weight loss or gain, and motion. Many semi-automatic tumor segmentation methods have been developed on PET. A comparative study revealed benefits of high levels of user interaction with simultaneous visualization of CT images and PET gradients. On CT, semi-automatic methods have been developed for only tumors that show marked difference in CT attenuation between the tumor and the surrounding normal tissues. Quite a few multi-modality segmentation methods have been shown to improve accuracy compared to single-modality algorithms. Advanced PET image features considering spatial information, such as tumor volume, tumor shape, total glycolytic volume, histogram distance, and texture features have been found more informative than the traditional SUVmax for the prediction of tumor response. Advanced CT features, including volumetric, attenuation, morphologic, structure, and texture descriptors, have also been found advantage over the traditional RECIST and WHO criteria in certain tumor types. Predictive models based on machine learning technique have been constructed for correlating selected image features to response. These models showed improved performance compared to current methods using cutoff value of a single measurement for tumor response. Conclusion: This review showed that

  18. Brief mindfulness meditation training alters psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social evaluative stress.

    Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Lindsay, Emily K; Brown, Kirk Warren

    2014-06-01

    To test whether a brief mindfulness meditation training intervention buffers self-reported psychological and neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in young adult volunteers. A second objective evaluates whether pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness moderate the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on stress reactivity. Sixty-six (N=66) participants were randomly assigned to either a brief 3-day (25-min per day) mindfulness meditation training or an analytic cognitive training control program. All participants completed a standardized laboratory social-evaluative stress challenge task (the TSST) following the third mindfulness meditation or cognitive training session. Measures of psychological (stress perceptions) and biological (salivary cortisol, blood pressure) stress reactivity were collected during the social evaluative stress-challenge session. Brief mindfulness meditation training reduced self-reported psychological stress reactivity but increased salivary cortisol reactivity to the TSST, relative to the cognitive training comparison program. Participants who were low in pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness and then received mindfulness meditation training had the greatest cortisol reactivity to the TSST. No significant main or interactive effects were observed for systolic or diastolic blood pressure reactivity to the TSST. The present study provides an initial indication that brief mindfulness meditation training buffers self-reported psychological stress reactivity, but also increases cortisol reactivity to social evaluative stress. This pattern may indicate that initially brief mindfulness meditation training fosters greater active coping efforts, resulting in reduced psychological stress appraisals and greater cortisol reactivity during social evaluative stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Attention to eye contact in the West and East: autonomic responses and evaluative ratings.

    Akechi, Hironori; Senju, Atsushi; Uibo, Helen; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Hietanen, Jari K

    2013-01-01

    Eye contact has a fundamental role in human social interaction. The special appearance of the human eye (i.e., white sclera contrasted with a coloured iris) implies the importance of detecting another person's face through eye contact. Empirical studies have demonstrated that faces making eye contact are detected quickly and processed preferentially (i.e., the eye contact effect). Such sensitivity to eye contact seems to be innate and universal among humans; however, several studies suggest that cultural norms affect eye contact behaviours. For example, Japanese individuals exhibit less eye contact than do individuals from Western European or North American cultures. However, how culture modulates eye contact behaviour is unclear. The present study investigated cultural differences in autonomic correlates of attentional orienting (i.e., heart rate) and looking time. Additionally, we examined evaluative ratings of eye contact with another real person, displaying an emotionally neutral expression, between participants from Western European (Finnish) and East Asian (Japanese) cultures. Our results showed that eye contact elicited stronger heart rate deceleration responses (i.e., attentional orienting), shorter looking times, and higher ratings of subjective feelings of arousal as compared to averted gaze in both cultures. Instead, cultural differences in the eye contact effect were observed in various evaluative responses regarding the stimulus faces (e.g., facial emotion, approachability etc.). The rating results suggest that individuals from an East Asian culture perceive another's face as being angrier, unapproachable, and unpleasant when making eye contact as compared to individuals from a Western European culture. The rating results also revealed that gaze direction (direct vs. averted) could influence perceptions about another person's facial affect and disposition. These results suggest that cultural differences in eye contact behaviour emerge from differential

  20. Attention to eye contact in the West and East: autonomic responses and evaluative ratings.

    Hironori Akechi

    Full Text Available Eye contact has a fundamental role in human social interaction. The special appearance of the human eye (i.e., white sclera contrasted with a coloured iris implies the importance of detecting another person's face through eye contact. Empirical studies have demonstrated that faces making eye contact are detected quickly and processed preferentially (i.e., the eye contact effect. Such sensitivity to eye contact seems to be innate and universal among humans; however, several studies suggest that cultural norms affect eye contact behaviours. For example, Japanese individuals exhibit less eye contact than do individuals from Western European or North American cultures. However, how culture modulates eye contact behaviour is unclear. The present study investigated cultural differences in autonomic correlates of attentional orienting (i.e., heart rate and looking time. Additionally, we examined evaluative ratings of eye contact with another real person, displaying an emotionally neutral expression, between participants from Western European (Finnish and East Asian (Japanese cultures. Our results showed that eye contact elicited stronger heart rate deceleration responses (i.e., attentional orienting, shorter looking times, and higher ratings of subjective feelings of arousal as compared to averted gaze in both cultures. Instead, cultural differences in the eye contact effect were observed in various evaluative responses regarding the stimulus faces (e.g., facial emotion, approachability etc.. The rating results suggest that individuals from an East Asian culture perceive another's face as being angrier, unapproachable, and unpleasant when making eye contact as compared to individuals from a Western European culture. The rating results also revealed that gaze direction (direct vs. averted could influence perceptions about another person's facial affect and disposition. These results suggest that cultural differences in eye contact behaviour emerge from

  1. Evaluation of treatment response for breast cancer: are we entering the era of "biological complete remission"?

    Li Bian; Tao Wang; Yi Liu; Hui-Qiang Zhang; Jin-Jie Song; Shao-Hua Zhang; Shi-Kai Wu; San-Tai Song; Ze-Fei Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women.The post-operative recurrence and metastasis are the leading causes of breast cancer-related mortality.In this study,we tried to explore the role of circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection combination PET/CT technology evaluating the prognosis and treatment response of patients with breast cancer; meanwhile,we attempted to assess the concept of "biological complete remission" (bCR) in this regard.A 56-year-old patient with breast cancer (T2N1M1,stage Ⅳ left breast cancer,with metastasis to axillary lymph nodes and lungs) received 6 cycles of salvage treatment with albumin-bound paclitaxel plus capecitabine and trastuzumab.Then,she underwent CTC detection and PET/CT for efficacy evaluation.CTC detection combination PET/CT is useful for the evaluation of the biological efficacy of therapies for breast cancer.The bCR of the patient appeared earlier than the conventional clinical imaging complete remission and promised the histological (pathological) complete remission.The integrated application of the concepts including bCR,imageological CR,and histological CR can achieve the early and accurate assessment of biological therapeutic reponse and prognosis of breast cancer.

  2. Evaluating the Training, Responsibilities, and Practices of P&T Committee Members and Nonmember Contributors.

    Rodriguez, Ryan; Kelly, Brett J; Moody, Mary

    2017-08-01

    Pharmacy and therapeutics (P&T) committees are responsible for managing drug formularies in numerous health care settings. Although pharmacy practice and health care organizations provide general recommendations of responsibilities and skills for members and nonmember contributors of P&T committees, the study investigators hypothesized that there is diversity in the training, responsibilities, and practices of these members and contributors. To describe the training, responsibilities, and practices of members and nonmember contributors of P&T committees in a variety of health care settings, using an online survey. In December 2015, an online survey was delivered to clinicians who were considered likely to be involved in P&T committee service from hospitals ranked by U.S. News & World Report and a convenience sample of clinicians practicing in managed care settings. The survey instrument was designed to assess various domains and perceptions of P&T committee processes. Sixty-nine respondents representing various health care delivery settings in the United States were eligible for and completed the survey. The majority of the respondents were pharmacists (94.2%), and 72.5% of the respondents were P&T committee members. The remainder of the respondents were nonmember P&T committee contributors. Approximately 60% of the respondents had served in P&T committee roles for ≥ 10 years. Specialized postgraduate training incorporating literature evaluation and formulary management was possessed by 21.7% and 17.4% of the respondents, respectively; however, most of the respondents received on-the-job training. Approximately half of the respondents were responsible for preparation of P&T committee documents, and 58% reported that nonmember contributors typically write and prepare these documents. Skill in literature evaluation was the most important criterion in selecting authors of P&T committee documents, while 10.1% of the respondents indicated that their committees did not

  3. Evaluation of management of communication in the actions of preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological emergencies

    Mello Filho, Mauro Otto de Cavalcanti; Beserra, Marcela Tatiana Fernandes, E-mail: maurootto@cefet-rj.br, E-mail: maurootto@gmail.com, E-mail: mbeserra@cefet-rj.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Celso Sucknow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica Vergara, E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Julio Cesar de Faria Alvim, E-mail: geowass@vm.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The use of practices involving the use of ionizing radiation in diverse areas of knowledge increases every day. This growth warning about the increased probability of accidents, radiological and nuclear emergencies, with possible consequences for the public, workers and the environment. Within this scenario, it is clear that studies and reassessments of the emergency response actions, receive proposals for continuous improvement. The achievement of the objectives of the response must be sustained by tactical, operation and logistics optimized processes. The articulation through communication between the teams involved in the response must be adaptable to each accident or emergency, respecting its size. The objectives of this study is to perform an assessment on the management of communication in the actions of Preparedness and Response to Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies. This assessment is supported by best practices of the Incident Command System (ICS) and the Institute of Project Management (Project Management Institute-PMI). For this purpose, based on models referred were established performance indicators supported by the BSC (Balanced Scorecard). These indicators allowed to evaluate more objectively the performance of the communication processes associated with each phase of the response. The study resulted in the proposed model documents aiming to assist planning of communications exercises in preparation and response actions, supported and adapted the best practices of PMI. These methodologies were evaluated by real cases selected from radiological and nuclear emergencies published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  4. Evaluation of management of communication in the actions of preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological emergencies

    Mello Filho, Mauro Otto de Cavalcanti; Beserra, Marcela Tatiana Fernandes; Wasserman, Maria Angelica Vergara; Wasserman, Julio Cesar de Faria Alvim

    2013-01-01

    The use of practices involving the use of ionizing radiation in diverse areas of knowledge increases every day. This growth warning about the increased probability of accidents, radiological and nuclear emergencies, with possible consequences for the public, workers and the environment. Within this scenario, it is clear that studies and reassessments of the emergency response actions, receive proposals for continuous improvement. The achievement of the objectives of the response must be sustained by tactical, operation and logistics optimized processes. The articulation through communication between the teams involved in the response must be adaptable to each accident or emergency, respecting its size. The objectives of this study is to perform an assessment on the management of communication in the actions of Preparedness and Response to Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies. This assessment is supported by best practices of the Incident Command System (ICS) and the Institute of Project Management (Project Management Institute-PMI). For this purpose, based on models referred were established performance indicators supported by the BSC (Balanced Scorecard). These indicators allowed to evaluate more objectively the performance of the communication processes associated with each phase of the response. The study resulted in the proposed model documents aiming to assist planning of communications exercises in preparation and response actions, supported and adapted the best practices of PMI. These methodologies were evaluated by real cases selected from radiological and nuclear emergencies published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  5. Evaluation of static and dynamic MRI for assessing response of bone sarcomas to preoperative chemotherapy: Correlation with histological necrosis

    Amit, Priyadarshi; Malhotra, Atul; Kumar, Rahul; Kumar, Lokesh; Patro, Dilip Kumar; Elangovan, Sundar

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative chemotherapy plays a key role in management of bone sarcomas. Postoperative evaluation of histological necrosis has been the gold standard method of assessing response to preoperative chemotherapy. This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of static and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing response preoperatively. Our study included 14 patients (12 osteosarcomas and 2 malignant fibrous histiocytomas) with mean age of 21.8 years, treated with preoperative chemotherapy followed by surgery. They were evaluated with static and dynamic MRI twice, before starting chemotherapy and again prior to surgery. Change in tumor volume and slope of signal intensity - time curve were calculated and correlated with percentage of histological necrosis using Pearson correlation test. The change in dynamic MRI slope was significant (P = 0.001). Also, ≥60% reduction in slope of the curve proved to be an indicator of good histological response [positive predictive value (PPV) =80%]. Change in tumor volume failed to show significant correlation (P = 0.071). Although it showed high negative predictive value (NPV = 85.7%), PPV was too low (PPV = 57.14%). Dynamic MRI correctly predicts histological necrosis after administration of preoperative chemotherapy to bone sarcomas. Hence, it can be used as a preoperative indicator of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. On the other hand, volumetric assessment by static MRI is not an effective predictor of histological necrosis. This study proves the superiority of dynamic contrast-enhanced study over volumetric study by MRI

  6. Evaluating care from a care ethical perspective:: A pilot study.

    Kuis, Esther E; Goossensen, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Care ethical theories provide an excellent opening for evaluation of healthcare practices since searching for (moments of) good care from a moral perspective is central to care ethics. However, a fruitful way to translate care ethical insights into measurable criteria and how to measure these criteria has as yet been unexplored: this study describes one of the first attempts. To investigate whether the emotional touchpoint method is suitable for evaluating care from a care ethical perspective. An adapted version of the emotional touchpoint interview method was used. Touchpoints represent the key moments to the experience of receiving care, where the patient recalls being touched emotionally or cognitively. Participants and research context: Interviews were conducted at three different care settings: a hospital, mental healthcare institution and care facility for older people. A total of 31 participants (29 patients and 2 relatives) took part in the study. Ethical considerations: The research was found not to be subject to the (Dutch) Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act. A three-step care ethical evaluation model was developed and described using two touchpoints as examples. A focus group meeting showed that the method was considered of great value for partaking institutions in comparison with existing methods. Reflection and discussion: Considering existing methods to evaluate quality of care, the touchpoint method belongs to the category of instruments which evaluate the patient experience. The touchpoint method distinguishes itself because no pre-defined categories are used but the values of patients are followed, which is an essential issue from a care ethical perspective. The method portrays the insider perspective of patients and thereby contributes to humanizing care. The touchpoint method is a valuable instrument for evaluating care; it generates evaluation data about the core care ethical principle of responsiveness.

  7. Role of MRI in osteosarcoma for evaluation and prediction of chemotherapy response: correlation with histological necrosis

    Bajpai, Jyoti; Bakhshi, Sameer [Dr. B. R. A. Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Gamnagatti, Shivanand [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Kumar, Rakesh; Malhotra, Arun [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Biostatistics, New Delhi (India); Sharma, Mehar Chand; Safaya, Rajni [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pathology, New Delhi (India); Khan, Shah Alam; Rastogi, Shishir [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Orthopedics, New Delhi (India)

    2011-04-15

    Histological necrosis, the current standard for response evaluation in osteosarcoma, is attainable after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. To establish the role of surrogate markers of response prediction and evaluation using MRI in the early phases of the disease. Thirty-one treatment-naive osteosarcoma patients received three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery during 2006-2008. All patients underwent baseline and post-chemotherapy conventional, diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Taking histological response (good response {>=}90% necrosis) as the reference standard, various parameters of MRI were compared to it. A tumor was considered ellipsoidal; volume, average tumor plane and its relative value (average tumor plane relative/body surface area) was calculated using the standard formula for ellipse. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to assess best threshold and predictability. After deriving thresholds for each parameter in univariable analysis, multivariable analysis was carried out. Both pre-and post-chemotherapy absolute and relative-size parameters correlated well with necrosis. Apparent diffusion coefficient did not correlate with necrosis; however, on adjusting for volume, significant correlation was found. Thus, we could derive a new parameter: diffusion per unit volume. In osteosarcoma, chemotherapy response can be predicted and evaluated by conventional and diffusion-weighted MRI early in the disease course and it correlates well with necrosis. Further, newly derived parameter diffusion per unit volume appears to be a sensitive substitute for response evaluation in osteosarcoma. (orig.)

  8. Role of MRI in osteosarcoma for evaluation and prediction of chemotherapy response: correlation with histological necrosis

    Bajpai, Jyoti; Bakhshi, Sameer; Gamnagatti, Shivanand; Kumar, Rakesh; Malhotra, Arun; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Safaya, Rajni; Khan, Shah Alam; Rastogi, Shishir

    2011-01-01

    Histological necrosis, the current standard for response evaluation in osteosarcoma, is attainable after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. To establish the role of surrogate markers of response prediction and evaluation using MRI in the early phases of the disease. Thirty-one treatment-naive osteosarcoma patients received three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery during 2006-2008. All patients underwent baseline and post-chemotherapy conventional, diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Taking histological response (good response ≥90% necrosis) as the reference standard, various parameters of MRI were compared to it. A tumor was considered ellipsoidal; volume, average tumor plane and its relative value (average tumor plane relative/body surface area) was calculated using the standard formula for ellipse. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to assess best threshold and predictability. After deriving thresholds for each parameter in univariable analysis, multivariable analysis was carried out. Both pre-and post-chemotherapy absolute and relative-size parameters correlated well with necrosis. Apparent diffusion coefficient did not correlate with necrosis; however, on adjusting for volume, significant correlation was found. Thus, we could derive a new parameter: diffusion per unit volume. In osteosarcoma, chemotherapy response can be predicted and evaluated by conventional and diffusion-weighted MRI early in the disease course and it correlates well with necrosis. Further, newly derived parameter diffusion per unit volume appears to be a sensitive substitute for response evaluation in osteosarcoma. (orig.)

  9. Biomechanical responses of PMHS in moderate-speed rear impacts and development of response targets for evaluating the internal and external biofidelity of ATDS.

    Kang, Yun-Seok; Bolte, John H; Moorhouse, Kevin; Donnelly, Bruce; Herriott, Rodney; Mallory, Ann

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain biomechanical responses of post mortem human subjects (PMHS) by subjecting them to two moderate-speed rear impact sled test conditions (8.5g, 17 km/h; 10.5g, 24 km/h) while positioned in an experimental seat system, and to create biomechanical targets for internal and external biofidelity evaluation of rear impact ATDs. The experimental seat was designed to measure external loads on the head restraint (4 load cells), seat back (6 load cells), and seat pan (4 load cells) such that subject dynamic interaction with the seat could be evaluated. This seat system was capable of simulating the dynamic characteristics of modern vehicle seat backs by considering the moment-rotation properties of a typical passenger vehicle, thus providing a more realistic test environment than using a rigid seat with a non-rotating seat back as done in previous studies. Instrumentation used to measure biomechanical responses of the PMHS included both accelerometers and angular rate sensors (ARS). A total of fourteen sled tests using eight PMHS (males 175.8 ± 6.2 cm of stature and 78.4 ± 7.2 kg of weight) provided data sets of seven PMHS for both test conditions. The biomechanical responses are described at both speeds, and cervical spine injuries are documented. Biomechanical targets are also created for internal and external biofidelity evaluation of rear impact anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs).

  10. Answering Fixed Response Items in Chemistry: A Pilot Study.

    Hateley, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a pilot study on student thinking in chemistry. Verbal comments of a group of six college students were recorded and analyzed to identify how each student arrives at the correct answer in fixed response items in chemisty. (HM)

  11. Investigating Assessment Bias for Constructed Response Explanation Tasks: Implications for Evaluating Performance Expectations for Scientific Practice

    Federer, Meghan Rector

    Assessment is a key element in the process of science education teaching and research. Understanding sources of performance bias in science assessment is a major challenge for science education reforms. Prior research has documented several limitations of instrument types on the measurement of students' scientific knowledge (Liu et al., 2011; Messick, 1995; Popham, 2010). Furthermore, a large body of work has been devoted to reducing assessment biases that distort inferences about students' science understanding, particularly in multiple-choice [MC] instruments. Despite the above documented biases, much has yet to be determined for constructed response [CR] assessments in biology and their use for evaluating students' conceptual understanding of scientific practices (such as explanation). Understanding differences in science achievement provides important insights into whether science curricula and/or assessments are valid representations of student abilities. Using the integrative framework put forth by the National Research Council (2012), this dissertation aimed to explore whether assessment biases occur for assessment practices intended to measure students' conceptual understanding and proficiency in scientific practices. Using a large corpus of undergraduate biology students' explanations, three studies were conducted to examine whether known biases of MC instruments were also apparent in a CR instrument designed to assess students' explanatory practice and understanding of evolutionary change (ACORNS: Assessment of COntextual Reasoning about Natural Selection). The first study investigated the challenge of interpreting and scoring lexically ambiguous language in CR answers. The incorporation of 'multivalent' terms into scientific discourse practices often results in statements or explanations that are difficult to interpret and can produce faulty inferences about student knowledge. The results of this study indicate that many undergraduate biology majors

  12. Handling time in economic evaluation studies.

    Permsuwan, Unchalee; Guntawongwan, Kansinee; Buddhawongsa, Piyaluk

    2014-05-01

    The discount rates and time horizons used in a health technology assessment (HTA) can have a significant impact on the results, and thus the prioritization of technologies. Therefore, it is important that clear guidance be provided on the appropriate discount rates for cost and health effect and appropriate time horizons. In this paper we conduct a review of relevant case studies and guidelines and provide guidance for all researchers conducting economic evaluations of health technologies in the Thai context. A uniform discount rate of 3% is recommended for both costs and health effects in base case analyses. A sensitivity analysis should also be conducted, with a discount range of 0-6%. For technologies where the effects are likely to sustain for at least 30y ears, a rate of 4% for costs and 2% for health effects is recommended. The time horizon should be long enough to capture the full costs and effects of the programs.

  13. Physiological and emotional responses to subjective social evaluative threat in daily life.

    Lehman, Barbara J; Cane, Arianna C; Tallon, Shannon J; Smith, Stephanie F

    2015-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and delayed emotional and cardiovascular correlates of naturally occurring experiences with subjective social evaluative threat (SSET) and tested whether individual differences in social interaction anxiety moderated those associations. Sixty-eight participants wore ambulatory blood pressure monitors for three days. Following each blood pressure reading, participants reported on SSET and negative emotions, yielding 1770 momentary measures. Multilevel modeling suggested that reports of greater SSET uniquely predicted elevations in anxiety and embarrassment, with elevations in anxiety, embarrassment, and shame extending to the hour following SSET. Reports of concurrent and previous-hour SSET also predicted cardiovascular elevations. Linkages between SSET and anxiety and shame, but not cardiovascular measures, were moderated by social interaction anxiety. Those higher in social interaction anxiety showed especially strong associations between SSET and both concurrent and delayed anxiety and greater delayed shame. This research suggests an important role for anxiety, embarrassment, and shame as emotional consequences of naturally occurring evaluative threat, especially for those who are more socially anxious. Further, this work replicates other naturalistic studies that have documented increased blood pressure at times of SSET and extends that work by documenting cardiovascular responses into the following hour.

  14. Evaluation of corneal biomechanical properties following penetrating keratoplasty using ocular response analyzer

    Vanathi Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate corneal biomechanical properties in eyes that has undergone penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study in a tertiary care centre. Data recorded included ocular response analyzer (ORA values of normal and post-keratoplasty eyes [corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg, and cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc], corneal topography, and central corneal thickness (CCT. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to analyze the difference in ORA parameter between post-PK eyes and normal eyes. Correlation between parameters was evaluated with Spearman′s rho correlation. Results: The ORA study of 100 eyes of 50 normal subjects and 54 post-keratoplasty eyes of 51 patients showed CH of 8.340 ± 1.85 and 9.923 ± 1.558, CRF of 8.846 ± 2.39 and 9.577 ± 1.631 in post-PK eyes and normal eyes, respectively. CH and CRF did not correlate with post-keratoplasty astigmatism (P = 0.311 and 0.276, respectively while a significant correlation was observed with IOPg (P = 0.004 and IOPcc (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Biomechanical profiles were significantly decreased in post-keratoplasty eyes with significant correlation with higher IOP as compared with that in normal eyes.

  15. Evaluation of Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine among Malnourished Children in Yemen

    Fuad A. A. Alssamei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the coverage rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV vaccine and to evaluate the immune response to HBV vaccine by measuring hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs among malnourished un-der-five-year old children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Yemen; Al-Sabeen Maternity and Child Hospital in Sana’a and the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital in Taiz city in the period from March 2014 to Dec. 2014. The target population was malnourished children aged from 6 to 59 months old with a histo-ry of three HBV vaccine doses in infancy. According to the World Health Organization’s definition of malnu-trition, 121 malnourished children were enrolled in the study. Data of malnourished children were collect-ed using a pre-designed, pre-tested questionnaire. Two milliliters of venous blood were taken, and anti-HBs was then tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. An anti-HBs level of at least 10 IU/L was considered a successful response to the vaccine. Results: The coverage rate of HBV vaccine among malnourished children was 89.3%, being higher among girls (52.1% than boys (37.2%. Response to HBV vaccine (≥10 IU/L was observed in 72.2% (78/108 of children while 27.8% (30/108 of children failed to respond to the vaccine, with a statistically significant difference (p <0.001. Conclusions: A good HBV vaccine coverage rate was found among malnourished Yemeni children, with a moderate rate of protection. Therefore, re-vaccination or administration of booster doses to a substantial proportion of vaccinated children should be considered.

  16. Avisalmvac: evaluation studies of stability and toxicity

    Daniela Botus,

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In Pasteur Institute laboratories there was developed AVISALMVAC, a vaccine against avian Salmonella, a biological product that contains S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium bacterin, with oil adjuvant. This paper presents the results of the studies regarding the stability and toxicity evaluation of this vaccine stored under conditions recommended by the manufacturer (2-80C at the end of the period of validity. The vaccine stability was assessed by serological and histopathological analysis of samples from SPF chickens vaccinated with the product at the end of the period of validity. The study of Avisalmvac toxicity was carried out by inoculation of the product or its components on Vero cell monolayer, and the effects were microscopically recorded or by MTT test, applied at 6 days post-inoculation. Antibody titers recorded at 2 and 3 weeks post vaccination demonstrated the vaccine ability (used after an year since manufacture to induce synthesis of specific antibodies and therefore, the product stability was proven. Histopathological examinations carried out on samples taken at 18 days post vaccinationfrom the vaccination site (skeletal muscle and skin and spleen, did not show any lesions associated to vaccination with Avisalmvac. The cytotoxicity analysis made by inoculating the vaccine or its components on Vero cell monolayer and the microscopic examination did not record visible cytopathic effects for any vaccine dilutions or vaccine components. The cell metabolism evaluation by MTT assay made at 6 days after vaccine/vaccine components inoculation on Vero monolayer, shown the ability of the vaccine and oil adjuvant to stimulate cell metabolism, and a certain degree of toxicity / inhibition of dehydrogenase metabolism associated to one of emulsifier but at dilutions higher than those used in the vaccine formula.

  17. Mathematical model for evaluation of dose-rate effect on biological responses to low dose γ-radiation

    Ogata, H.; Kawakami, Y.; Magae, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: To evaluate quantitative dose-response relationship on the biological response to radiation, it is necessary to consider a model including cumulative dose, dose-rate and irradiation time. In this study, we measured micronucleus formation and [ 3 H] thymidine uptake in human cells as indices of biological response to gamma radiation, and analyzed mathematically and statistically the data for quantitative evaluation of radiation risk at low dose/low dose-rate. Effective dose (ED x ) was mathematically estimated by fitting a general function of logistic model to the dose-response relationship. Assuming that biological response depends on not only cumulative dose but also dose-rate and irradiation time, a multiple logistic function was applied to express the relationship of the three variables. Moreover, to estimate the effect of radiation at very low dose, we proposed a modified exponential model. From the results of fitting curves to the inhibition of [ 3 H] thymidine uptake and micronucleus formation, it was obvious that ED 50 in proportion of inhibition of [ 3 H] thymidine uptake increased with longer irradiation time. As for the micronuclei, ED 30 also increased with longer irradiation times. These results suggest that the biological response depends on not only total dose but also irradiation time. The estimated response surface using the three variables showed that the biological response declined sharply when the dose-rate was less than 0.01 Gy/h. These results suggest that the response does not depend on total cumulative dose at very low dose-rates. Further, to investigate the effect of dose-rate within a wider range, we analyzed the relationship between ED x and dose-rate. Fitted curves indicated that ED x increased sharply when dose-rate was less than 10 -2 Gy/h. The increase of ED x signifies the decline of the response or the risk and suggests that the risk approaches to 0 at infinitely low dose-rate

  18. Investigating Heuristic Evaluation: A Case Study.

    Goldman, Kate Haley; Bendoly, Laura

    When museum professionals speak of evaluating a web site, they primarily mean formative evaluation, and by that they primarily mean testing the usability of the site. In the for-profit world, usability testing is a multi-million dollar industry, while non-profits often rely on far too few dollars to do too much. Hence, heuristic evaluation is one…

  19. Evaluation of response factors for seismic probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    Ebisawa, K.; Abe, K.; Muramatsu, K.; Itoh, M.; Kohno, K.; Tanaka, T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating 'response factors' of components in nuclear power plants for use in a seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The response factor here is a measure of conservatism included in response calculations in seismic design analysis of components and is defined as a ratio of conservative design resonse to actual response. This method has the following characteristic features: (1) The components are classified into several groups based on the differences in their location and in the vibration models used in design response analyses; (2) the response factors are decomposed into subfactors corresponding to the stages of the seismic response analyses in the design practices; (3) the response factors for components are calculated as products of subfactors; (4) the subfactors are expressed either as a single value or as a function of parameters that influence the response of components. This paper describes the outline of this method and results from an application to a sample problem in which response factors were quantified for examples of components selected from the groups. (orig.)

  20. Is PET/CT efficient tool to evaluate the response after stereotactic radiation therapy for pancreas cancer?

    Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo

    2005-01-01

    In pancreas cancer, to evaluate the efficacy of PET/CT as tool to check the response after stereotactic radiation therapy and to define functional imaging role of PET/CT as alterative tool of computed tomography. From November 2003 to December 2004, among locally advanced pancreas cancer patients treated by stereotactic radiation therapy using CyberKnife(CK), 14 were evaluated by PET/CT before and after treatment. Four patients took PET/CT one month after CK, 4 patients 2 months after CK, and 6 patients 3 months after CK as the first evaluation of treatment. All of patients were also evaluated by CT or CA19-9 tumor antigen with the range of 1-2 months after CK. In addition of PET/CT to CT, lymph node metastasis were revealed as positive in 4 patients who had negative finding on CT. Furthermore, patients who showed partial or complete response on PET/CT findings that checked within 3 months after CK have significantly longer median survival time than patients who showed no response or disease progression(13 months and 9 months, respectively). Responses based on CA19-9 tumor antigen or CT, however, showed no significant difference in terms of median survival time. PET/CT can provide more information for lymph node metastasis compared to CT alone. It is very helpful for delineation of tumor extent for CK planning. And initial response on PET/CT scan could be a significant prognostic factor rather than response on CA19-9 level or CT. In the future, more study is necessary to evaluate if PET/CT could substitute CT and finally CT could be omitted during follow-up period after CK

  1. Comparison of quantitative methods on FDG PET/CT for treatment response evaluation of metastatic colorectal cancer

    Bang, Ji In; Paeng, Jin Chul; Park, So Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-06-15

    FDG PET is effective in treatment response evaluation of cancer. However, there is no standard method for quantitative evaluation of FDG PET, particularly regarding cytostatic drugs. We compared various FDG PET quantitative methods in terms of response determination. A total of 39 refractory metastatic colorectal cancer patients who received a multikinase inhibitor treatment were included. Baseline and posttreatment FDG PET/CT scans were performed before and two cycles after treatment. Standardized uptake value (SUV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) values using various margin thresholds (30–70 % of maximum SUV with increment 10 %, twice mean SUV of blood pool, SUV 3.0, and SUV 4.0) were measured, with measurement target of the hottest lesion or a maximum of five hottest lesions. Treatment response by the PERCIST criteria was also determined. Predictive values of the PET indexes were evaluated in terms of the treatment response determined by the RECIST 1.1 criteria. The agreement rate was 38 % between response determined by the PERCIST and the RECIST criteria (κ = 0.381). When patients were classified into disease control group (PR, SD) and non-control group (PD) by the RECIST criteria, percent changes of TLG with various margin thresholds (particularly, 30–50 % of maximum SUV) exhibited significant differences between the two groups, and high diagnostic power for the response by the RECIST criteria. TLG-based criteria, which used a margin threshold of 50 % of maximum SUV, exhibited a high agreement with the RECIST criteria compared with the PERCIST criteria (κ = 0.606). In metastatic colorectal cancer, FDG PET/CT could be effective for treatment response evaluation by using TLG measured by margin thresholds of 30–50 % of maximum SUV. Further studies are warranted regarding the optimal cutoff values for this method.

  2. Formulation and Evaluation of Cookies Containing Germinated Pigeon Pea, Fermented Sorghum and Cocoyam Flour Blends using Mixture Response Surface Methodology

    Laura C. Okpala; Eric C. Okoli

    2011-01-01

    Cookies were produced from blends of germinated pigeon pea, fermented sorghum and cocoyam flours. The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of varying the proportions of these components on the sensory and protein quality of the cookies. The sensory attributes studied were colour, taste, texture, crispiness and general acceptability while the protein quality indices were Biological Value (BV) and Net Protein Utilization (NPU). Mixture response surface methodology was used to model the...

  3. FXG dosimeter response for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy using different evaluation techniques

    Cavinato, Christianne C.; Campos, Leticia L.; Souza, Benedito H.; Carrete Junior, Henrique; Daros, Kellen A.C.; Medeiros, Regina B.; Giordani, Adelmo J.

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to compare the dose-response of the Fricke xylenol gel (FXG) dosimeter developed at IPEN using 270 Bloom gelatin from porcine skin made in Brazil evaluated using the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique with the dosimetric response evaluated using the optical absorption (OA) spectrophotometry technique, in order to verify the possibility of quality assurance (QA) and reproducibility of FXG dosimeter to be carried out routinely using the OA technique for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) application using a 6 MV photons linear accelerator. The response in function of the absorbed dose of FXG dosimeter developed at IPEN presents linear behavior in clinical interest dose range when irradiated with Co-60 gamma radiation and 6 MV photons and evaluated using the MRI and OA techniques. The results indicate that the optical technique can be used for QA of FXG dosemeter when used in the possible application in QA of 3DCRT. (author)

  4. FXG dosimeter response for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy using different evaluation techniques

    Cavinato, Christianne C.; Campos, Leticia L., E-mail: ccavinato@ipen.b, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza, Benedito H.; Carrete Junior, Henrique; Daros, Kellen A.C.; Medeiros, Regina B., E-mail: bhsouza@unifesp.b, E-mail: daros.kellen@unifesp.b, E-mail: rbitel-li.ddi@epm.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Giordani, Adelmo J. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia

    2011-07-01

    This work aims to compare the dose-response of the Fricke xylenol gel (FXG) dosimeter developed at IPEN using 270 Bloom gelatin from porcine skin made in Brazil evaluated using the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique with the dosimetric response evaluated using the optical absorption (OA) spectrophotometry technique, in order to verify the possibility of quality assurance (QA) and reproducibility of FXG dosimeter to be carried out routinely using the OA technique for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) application using a 6 MV photons linear accelerator. The response in function of the absorbed dose of FXG dosimeter developed at IPEN presents linear behavior in clinical interest dose range when irradiated with Co-60 gamma radiation and 6 MV photons and evaluated using the MRI and OA techniques. The results indicate that the optical technique can be used for QA of FXG dosemeter when used in the possible application in QA of 3DCRT. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Fourier and Response Spectra at Ichihasama and Koromogawa Seismic Intensity Observation Sites During the Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake in 2008

    Nishikawa, Hayato; Miyajima, Masakatsu

    In this study, we evaluate an acceleration Fourier and response spectra at Ichihasama and Koromogawa seismic intensity observation sites which observed JMA seismic intensity of 6 upper but seismic waveform records don't exist during the Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake in 2008. Firstly, formula to evaluate acceleration Fourier and response spectra are developed using peak ground acceleration, JMA seismic intensity and predominant period of earthquake spectra based on records obtained from crustal earthquakes with Magnitude of 6 to 7. Acceleration Fourier and response spectra are evaluated for another local government site which are not chosen for development of the formula. The evaluated values mostly agree with the observed ones. Finally, acceleration Fourier and response spectra are evaluated for Ichihasama and Koromogawa observation sites. It is clarified that short period below 1 second was predominated in the evaluated spectra.

  6. Development and evaluation of fixed phrase registration function for disaster response management system

    Suzuki, Takeyasu; Tsuda, Teppei

    2012-01-01

    It is important that three elements such as what happened, how it will advance, and how people should act are intelligibly transferred in disaster information from administrative organs to local residents. In this paper, authors developed the fixed phrase registration function and it was implemented in disaster response management system authors have previously developed. The system was applied to disaster response exercise in Mitsuke City, Niigata prefecture and the function was highly evaluated by employees of Mitsuke City. (author)

  7. Comprehensive evaluation of the acoustic impulse-response of apples as a measure of fruit quality

    Landahl, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    The acoustic impulse-response technique is a means to evaluate apple quality. In this work the effect of physiological changes in the fruit on the physical measurements of fruit quality are examined. In the acoustic impulse-response technique the fruit is mechanically excited by an impact force and starts to vibrate at its own natural frequency. The resulting sound waves are then recorded and analysed. It is a fast method and yields a produce-averaged value: the stiffness factor. Experimen...

  8. In vitro studies of cellular response to DNA damage induced by boron neutron capture therapy

    Perona, M.; Pontiggia, O.; Carpano, M.; Thomasz, L.; Thorp, S.; Pozzi, E.; Simian, M.; Kahl, S.; Juvenal, G.; Pisarev, M.; Dagrosa, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate the mechanisms of cellular response to DNA damage induced by BNCT. Thyroid carcinoma cells were incubated with 10 BPA or 10 BOPP and irradiated with thermal neutrons. The surviving fraction, the cell cycle distribution and the expression of p53 and Ku70 were analyzed. Different cellular responses were observed for each irradiated group. The decrease of Ku70 in the neutrons +BOPP group could play a role in the increase of sensitization to radiation.

  9. Management Process of a Frequency Response Flight Test for Rotorcraft Flying Qualities Evaluation

    João Otávio Falcão Arantes Filho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the frequency response methodology to characterize and analyze the flying qualities of longitudinal and lateral axes of a rotary-wing aircraft, AS355-F2. Using the results, it is possible to check the suitability of the aircraft in accordance with ADS-33E-PRF standard, whose flying qualities specifications criteria are based on parameters in the frequency domain. The key steps addressed in the study involve getting, by means of flight test data, the closed-loop dynamic responses including the design of the instrumentation and specification of the sensors to be used in the flight test campaign, the definition of the appropriate maneuvers characteristics for excitation of the aircraft, the planning and execution of the flight test to collect the data, and the proper data treatment, processing and analysis after the flight. After treatment of the collected data, single input-single output spectral analysis is performed. The results permit the analysis of the flying qualities characteristics, anticipation of the demands to which the pilot will be subjected during closed-loop evaluations and check of compliance with the aforementioned standard, within the range of consistent excitation frequencies for flight tests, setting the agility level of the test aircraft.

  10. Students' approaches to learning in a clinical practicum: A psychometric evaluation based on item response theory.

    Zhao, Yue; Kuan, Hoi Kei; Chung, Joyce O K; Chan, Cecilia K Y; Li, William H C

    2018-07-01

    The investigation of learning approaches in the clinical workplace context has remained an under-researched area. Despite the validation of learning approach instruments and their applications in various clinical contexts, little is known about the extent to which an individual item, that reflects a specific learning strategy and motive, effectively contributes to characterizing students' learning approaches. This study aimed to measure nursing students' approaches to learning in a clinical practicum using the Approaches to Learning at Work Questionnaire (ALWQ). Survey research design was used in the study. A sample of year 3 nursing students (n = 208) who undertook a 6-week clinical practicum course participated in the study. Factor analyses were conducted, followed by an item response theory analysis, including model assumption evaluation (unidimensionality and local independence), item calibration and goodness-of-fit assessment. Two subscales, deep and surface, were derived. Findings suggested that: (a) items measuring the deep motive from intrinsic interest and deep strategies of relating new ideas to similar situations, and that of concept mapping served as the strongest discriminating indicators; (b) the surface strategy of memorizing facts and details without an overall picture exhibited the highest discriminating power among all surface items; and, (c) both subscales appeared to be informative in assessing a broad range of the corresponding latent trait. The 21-item ALWQ derived from this study presented an efficient, internally consistent and precise measure. Findings provided a useful psychometric evaluation of the ALWQ in the clinical practicum context, added evidence to the utility of the ALWQ for nursing education practice and research, and echoed the discussions from previous studies on the role of the contextual factors in influencing student choices of different learning strategies. They provided insights for clinical educators to measure

  11. Effective summary evaluators for deep nuclear waste repositories: geohydrologic response function

    Nelson, R.W.; Dove, F.H.

    1981-03-01

    Useful insight has been gained over the past four years as hydrologic system modeling has been applied to evaluate hypothetical, waste-repository sites in various geologic media. The Geohydrologic Response Functions, described in this paper, are shown to: blend extensive results of technical analysis into simple summary relationships, and to potentially help the public and decision makers to evaluate the magnitude of any loss in repository integrity

  12. Endobronchial valves in severe emphysematous patients: CT evaluation of lung fissures completeness, treatment radiological response and quantitative emphysema analysis

    Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel, E-mail: marcelk46@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marcelk46@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina; Paula, Wagner Diniz de [University of Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Brasilia University Hospital; Gompelmann, Daniela [University of Heidelberg (Germany). Department of Pneumology and Respiratory Medicine of the Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University of Heidelberg (Germany). Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Heussel, Claus Peter; Puderbach, Michael [University of Heidelberg (Germany). Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine of the Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik)

    2013-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate lung fissures completeness, post-treatment radiological response and quantitative CT analysis (QCTA) in a population of severe emphysematous patients submitted to endobronchial valves (EBV) implantation. Materials and Methods: Multi-detectors CT exams of 29 patients were studied, using thin-section low dose protocol without contrast. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed all images in consensus; fissures completeness was estimated in 5% increments and post-EBV radiological response (target lobe atelectasis/volume loss) was evaluated. QCTA was performed in pre and post-treatment scans using a fully automated software. Results: CT response was present in 16/29 patients. In the negative CT response group, all 13 patients presented incomplete fissures, and mean oblique fissures completeness was 72.8%, against 88.3% in the other group. QCTA most significant results showed a reduced post-treatment total lung volume (LV) (mean 542 ml), reduced EBV-submitted LV (700 ml) and reduced emphysema volume (331.4 ml) in the positive response group, which also showed improved functional tests. Conclusion: EBV benefit is most likely in patients who have complete interlobar fissures and develop lobar atelectasis. In patients with no radiological response we observed a higher prevalence of incomplete fissures and a greater degree of incompleteness. The fully automated QCTA detected the post-treatment alterations, especially in the treated lung analysis. (author)

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of treatment response of lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    Savnik, Anette; Jensen, Bente; Noerregaard, Jesper; Danneskiold-Samsoee, Bente; Bliddal, Henning; Egund, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the treatment response in lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) by MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained in 30 patients with clinical symptoms of lateral epicondylitis of the elbow using T1-, T2- and T2-weighted fat-saturated (FS) sequences. The patients were randomised to either i.m. corticosteroid injection (n=16) or immobilisation in a wrist splint (n=14). Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow was performed on a 1.5-T MR system at baseline and after 6 weeks. The extensor carpi radialis (ECRB) tendon, the radial collateral ligament, lateral humerus epicondyle at tendon insertion site, joint fluid and signal intensity changes within brachio-radialis and anconeus muscles were evaluated on the MR unit's workstation before and after 6 weeks of treatment. The MRI was performed once in 22 healthy controls for comparison and all images evaluated by an investigator blinded to the clinical status of the subjects. The MR images showed thickening with separation of the ECRB tendon from the radial collateral ligament and abnormal signal change in 25 of the 30 patients on the T1-weighted sequences at inclusion. The signal intensity of the ECRB tendon was increased in 24 of the 30 patients with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow on the T2-weighted FS sequences. (orig.)

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of treatment response of lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    Savnik, Anette [Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Hovmarksvej 39, 2920, Charlottenlund (Denmark); Jensen, Bente; Noerregaard, Jesper; Danneskiold-Samsoee, Bente; Bliddal, Henning [Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Egund, Niels [Department of Radiology, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000, Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the treatment response in lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) by MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained in 30 patients with clinical symptoms of lateral epicondylitis of the elbow using T1-, T2- and T2-weighted fat-saturated (FS) sequences. The patients were randomised to either i.m. corticosteroid injection (n=16) or immobilisation in a wrist splint (n=14). Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow was performed on a 1.5-T MR system at baseline and after 6 weeks. The extensor carpi radialis (ECRB) tendon, the radial collateral ligament, lateral humerus epicondyle at tendon insertion site, joint fluid and signal intensity changes within brachio-radialis and anconeus muscles were evaluated on the MR unit's workstation before and after 6 weeks of treatment. The MRI was performed once in 22 healthy controls for comparison and all images evaluated by an investigator blinded to the clinical status of the subjects. The MR images showed thickening with separation of the ECRB tendon from the radial collateral ligament and abnormal signal change in 25 of the 30 patients on the T1-weighted sequences at inclusion. The signal intensity of the ECRB tendon was increased in 24 of the 30 patients with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow on the T2-weighted FS sequences. (orig.)

  15. [Positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography in the initial evaluation and response assessment in primary central nervous system lymphoma].

    Mercadal, Santiago; Cortés-Romera, Montserrat; Vélez, Patricia; Climent, Fina; Gámez, Cristina; González-Barca, Eva

    2015-06-08

    To evaluate the role of positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET-CT) in the initial evaluation and response assessment in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Fourteen patients (8 males) with a median age 59.5 years diagnosed of PCNSL. A brain PET-CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed in the initial evaluation. In 7 patients a PET-CT after treatment was performed. PET-CT showed at diagnosis 31 hypermetabolic focuses and MRI showed 47 lesions, with a good grade of concordance between both (k = 0.61; P = .005). In the response assessment, correlation between both techniques was good, and PET-CT was helpful in the appreciation of residual MRI lesions. Overall survival at 2 years of negative vs. positive PET-CT at the end of treatment was 100 vs. 37.5%, respectively (P = .045). PET-CT can be useful in the initial evaluation of PCNSL, and especially in the assessment of response. Despite the fact that PET-CT detects less small lesions than MRI, a good correlation between MRI and PET-CT was observed. It is effective in the evaluation of residual lesions. Prospective studies are needed to confirm their possible prognostic value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative study for methods to determine the seismic response of NPP structures

    Varpasuo, P.

    1995-01-01

    There are many different important problem areas in evaluating the seismic response of structures. In this study the effort is concentrated on three of these areas. The first task is the mathematical formulation of earthquake excitation. The random vibration theory is taken as the tool in this task. The second area of interest in this study is the soil-structure interaction analysis. The approach of impedance functions is chosen and the focal point of interest is the significance of frequency dependent impedance functions. The third area of interest is the methods to determine the structural response. The following three methods were tested: the mode superposition time history method; the complex frequency response method; the response spectrum method. The comparison was made with the aid of MSC/NASTRAN code. The three methods gave for outer containment building response results which were in good agreement with each other. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs

  17. Studies on adaptive responses in Chinese hamster cells

    Michelin, S.C.; Perez, M.R. Del; Dubner, D.; Gisone, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    For many years the possibility has been considered of low doses of radiation inducing adaptive responses in cells and organisms against the mutagenic effects of radiation. Currently, a number of experimental data appraise the existence of an adaptive response that is characterized by a decrease of radiation induced genetic damages. The understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in this phenomenon permits to estimate the effects and risks of low dose exposure. In this work, preliminary results of studies on the induction of adaptive response in cells subjected to different doses of ionizing radiation are presented

  18. TH-E-202-03: PET for Tumor Response Evaluation

    Lu, W.

    2016-01-01

    PET/CT is a very important imaging tool in the management of oncology patients. PET/CT has been applied for treatment planning and response evaluation in radiation therapy. This educational session will discuss: Pitfalls and remedies in PET/CT imaging for RT planning The use of hypoxia PET imaging for radiotherapy PET for tumor response evaluation The first presentation will address the issue of mis-registration between the CT and PET images in the thorax and the abdomen. We will discuss the challenges of respiratory gating and introduce an average CT technique to improve the registration for dose calculation and image-guidance in radiation therapy. The second presentation will discuss the use of hypoxia PET Imaging for radiation therapy. We will discuss various hypoxia radiotracers, the choice of clinical acquisition protocol (in particular a single late static acquisition versus a dynamic acquisition), and the compartmental modeling with different transfer rate constants explained. We will demonstrate applications of hypoxia imaging for dose escalation/de-escalation in clinical trials. The last presentation will discuss the use of PET/CT for tumor response evaluation. We will discuss anatomic response assessment vs. metabolic response assessment, visual evaluation and semi-quantitative evaluation, and limitations of current PET/CT assessment. We will summarize clinical trials using PET response in guiding adaptive radiotherapy. Finally, we will summarize recent advancements in PET/CT radiomics and non-FDG PET tracers for response assessment. Learning Objectives: Identify the causes of mis-registration of CT and PET images in PET/CT, and review the strategies to remedy the issue. Understand the basics of PET imaging of tumor hypoxia (radiotracers, how PET measures the hypoxia selective uptake, imaging protocols, applications in chemo-radiation therapy). Understand the basics of dynamic PET imaging, compartmental modeling and parametric images. Understand the

  19. TH-E-202-03: PET for Tumor Response Evaluation

    Lu, W. [University of Maryland School of Medicine (United States)

    2016-06-15

    PET/CT is a very important imaging tool in the management of oncology patients. PET/CT has been applied for treatment planning and response evaluation in radiation therapy. This educational session will discuss: Pitfalls and remedies in PET/CT imaging for RT planning The use of hypoxia PET imaging for radiotherapy PET for tumor response evaluation The first presentation will address the issue of mis-registration between the CT and PET images in the thorax and the abdomen. We will discuss the challenges of respiratory gating and introduce an average CT technique to improve the registration for dose calculation and image-guidance in radiation therapy. The second presentation will discuss the use of hypoxia PET Imaging for radiation therapy. We will discuss various hypoxia radiotracers, the choice of clinical acquisition protocol (in particular a single late static acquisition versus a dynamic acquisition), and the compartmental modeling with different transfer rate constants explained. We will demonstrate applications of hypoxia imaging for dose escalation/de-escalation in clinical trials. The last presentation will discuss the use of PET/CT for tumor response evaluation. We will discuss anatomic response assessment vs. metabolic response assessment, visual evaluation and semi-quantitative evaluation, and limitations of current PET/CT assessment. We will summarize clinical trials using PET response in guiding adaptive radiotherapy. Finally, we will summarize recent advancements in PET/CT radiomics and non-FDG PET tracers for response assessment. Learning Objectives: Identify the causes of mis-registration of CT and PET images in PET/CT, and review the strategies to remedy the issue. Understand the basics of PET imaging of tumor hypoxia (radiotracers, how PET measures the hypoxia selective uptake, imaging protocols, applications in chemo-radiation therapy). Understand the basics of dynamic PET imaging, compartmental modeling and parametric images. Understand the

  20. Study of social responsibilities of Hubei seed enterprises

    Gangren Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the current development situation of social responsibilities of Hubei seed enterprises in accordance with the specific features of them. Furthermore, it will also propose countermeasures and suggestions to improve the social responsibility level of Hubei seed enterprises. This study mainly applied document research method and questionnaire survey approach as the means to analyze the reason why there’s lack of social responsibilities among seed enterprises in Hubei. It also reached conclusions about how to improve the social responsibility level of Hubei seed enterprises from four aspects: enterprise, laws & regulations, social supervision, and government guidance & supervision, so as to provide theoretical reference for better development of Hubei seed industry.

  1. Proteomic studies of drought stress response in Fabaceae

    Tanja ZADRAŽNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a serious threat to crop production that influences plant growth and development and subsequently causes reduced quantity and quality of the yield. Plant stress induces changes in cell metabolism, which includes differential expression of proteins. Proteomics offer a powerful approach to analyse proteins involved in drought stress response of plants. Analyses of changes in protein abundance of legumes under drought stress are very important, as legumes play an important role in human and animal diet and are often exposed to drought. The presented results of proteomic studies of selected legumes enable better understanding of molecular mechanisms of drought stress response. The study of drought stress response of plants with proteomic approach may contribute to the development of potential drought-response markers and to the development of drought-tolerant cultivars of different legume crop species.

  2. Early Prediction and Evaluation of Breast Cancer Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Using Quantitative DCE-MRI

    Alina Tudorica

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to compare quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE magnetic resonance imaging (MRI metrics with imaging tumor size for early prediction of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT and evaluation of residual cancer burden (RCB. Twenty-eight patients with 29 primary breast tumors underwent DCE-MRI exams before, after one cycle of, at midpoint of, and after NACT. MRI tumor size in the longest diameter (LD was measured according to the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors guidelines. Pharmacokinetic analyses of DCE-MRI data were performed with the standard Tofts and Shutter-Speed models (TM and SSM. After one NACT cycle the percent changes of DCE-MRI parameters Ktrans (contrast agent plasma/interstitium transfer rate constant, ve (extravascular and extracellular volume fraction, kep (intravasation rate constant, and SSM-unique τi (mean intracellular water lifetime are good to excellent early predictors of pathologic complete response (pCR vs. non-pCR, with univariate logistic regression C statistics value in the range of 0.804 to 0.967. ve values after one cycle and at NACT midpoint are also good predictors of response, with C ranging 0.845 to 0.897. However, RECIST LD changes are poor predictors with C = 0.609 and 0.673, respectively. Post-NACT Ktrans, τi, and RECIST LD show statistically significant (P < .05 correlations with RCB. The performances of TM and SSM analyses for early prediction of response and RCB evaluation are comparable. In conclusion, quantitative DCE-MRI parameters are superior to imaging tumor size for early prediction of therapy response. Both TM and SSM analyses are effective for therapy response evaluation. However, the τi parameter derived only with SSM analysis allows the unique opportunity to potentially quantify therapy-induced changes in tumor energetic metabolism.

  3. Evaluation of treatment response to autologous transplantation of noncultured melanocyte/keratinocyte cell suspension in patients with stable vitiligo.

    Ramos, Mariana Gontijo; Ramos, Daniel Gontijo; Ramos, Camila Gontijo

    2017-01-01

    Vitiligo is a chronic disease characterized by the appearance of achromic macules caused by melanocyte destruction. Surgical treatments with melanocyte transplantation can be used for stable vitiligo cases. To evaluate treatment response to the autologous transplantation of noncultured epidermal cell suspension in patients with stable vitiligo. Case series study in patients with stable vitiligo submitted to noncultured epidermal cell suspension transplantation and evaluated at least once, between 3 and 6 months after the procedure, to observe repigmentation and possible adverse effects. The maximum follow-up period for some patients was 24 months. Of the 20 patients who underwent 24 procedures, 25% showed an excellent rate of repigmentation, 50% good repigmentation, 15% regular, and 10% poor response. The best results were observed in face and neck lesions, while the worst in extremity lesions (88% and 33% of satisfactory responses, respectively). Patients with segmental vitiligo had a better response (84%) compared to non-segmental ones (63%). As side effects were observed hyperpigmentation of the treated area and the appearance of Koebner phenomenon in the donor area. Some limitations of the study included the small number of patients, a subjective evaluation, and the lack of long-term follow-up on the results. CONCLUSION: Noncultured epidermal cell suspension transplantation is efficient and well tolerated for stable vitiligo treatment, especially for segmental vitiligo on the face and neck.

  4. Histologic evaluation of pulpal response to MTA and capsaicin in cats

    Zahrasadat Madani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In direct pup capping, the exposed pulp is directly capped with a capping material to provoke a dentinal bridge formation to seal the exposed area.The aim of this study was to evaluate the pulpal response to MTA and capsaicin in cats. Methods: The sample for this experimental study consisted of 24 canines of cats, weighed approximately 3-4kg. After sedation, the teeth were cut and exposed at 3mm above cementoenamel junction, then divided into two groups: 1 direct pulp capping with MTA 2 direct pulp capping with Capsaicin. The cavities were filled with glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX. The cats were sacrificed in the first, second, and fourth weeks 4 canine teeth were extracted for the purpose of histologic analysis. 6Serial sections were cut parallel to the longitudinal axis of the canines. The sections were stained with hematoxylin & eosin, and were observed and analyzed using a light microscope. Results: In both groups treated with MTA and capsaicin, the inflammation decreased during weeks1, 2, and 4. Less inflammation was seen in MTA group but there was no statistical difference between the two groups (p=0.22. In the group treated with capsaicin, necrosis was observed in every 12 samples, but in the other group treated with MTA, only 1 pulp necrosis was seen in the first week (p=0.000. There was no significant difference in dentinal barrier formation, inflammatory response, and soft tissue changes between the two groups. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that capsaicin can decrease the severity of inflammation, but it is ineffective in dentinal barrier formation.

  5. Economic evaluation of CISM : a pilot study

    Vogt, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    air traffic controllers, critical incident stress management, CISM, critical incidents, critical incident stress, cost-benefit-analysis, economic evaluation, efficiency, return on investment......air traffic controllers, critical incident stress management, CISM, critical incidents, critical incident stress, cost-benefit-analysis, economic evaluation, efficiency, return on investment...

  6. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of donkeys responses to immunization by rabbits' IgG

    Hassan, A. M. E.; Saeed, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    In this study two apparently healthy donkeys were immunized with highly pure rabbit's 1gG using a revised protocol. Qualitative test using the same immuno gen was done as a primary test to eva lute the immune system response. However, the same 1gG was iodinated with 1 25I using chloramine T method and the labeled 1gG was used to quantitatively study the immune response. The two donkeys showed good response with the younger one having the best response. The obtained donkey anti rabbit sera was used as separating agent for RIA assay for human PRL. (Author)

  7. Evaluation of the serum free light chain (sFLC) analysis in prediction of response in symptomatic multiple myeloma patients

    Toftmann Hansen, Charlotte; Pedersen, Per T; Nielsen, Lars C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational data from clinical studies indicate that the goal of first-line therapy in newly diagnosed patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM) should be very good partial response (VGPR) or better, preferably before high-dose treatment. We evaluated the value of early...... patients with no response to treatment. The mean per cent reduction in iFLC 3 d after start of treatment was 52.3% and 23.6% (P = 0.021) in patients achieving ≥VGPR and PR, respectively. The mean per cent reduction in M-protein in patients achieving ≥VGPR and PR was not significantly different in the 6-wk...

  8. Evaluation of bone tissue response to a sealer containing mineral trioxide aggregate.

    Assmann, Eloísa; Böttcher, Daiana Elisabeth; Hoppe, Carolina Bender; Grecca, Fabiana Soares; Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed bone tissue reactions to MTA Fillapex (Ângelus Industria de Produtos Odontológicos Ltda, Londrina, Brazil) compared with an epoxy resin-based material in the femur of Wistar rats. Bone tissue reactions were evaluated in 15 animals after 7, 30, and 90 days (n = 5 per period). Three surgical cavities were prepared on the femur and filled with 0.2 mL MTA Fillapex, AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany), or no sealer (negative control). By the end of each experimental period, 5 animals were randomly euthanized. The samples were histologically processed and analyzed using a light microscope. The presence of inflammatory cells, fibers, and hard tissue barrier formation was evaluated. Differences among the groups and between the 3 experimental periods were evaluated by using 2-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test (P ≤ .05). MTA Fillapex scored significantly higher for neutrophils at 7 days than at 90. At 7 days, the same occurred when comparing MTA Fillapex with AH Plus. The presence of lymphocytes/plasmocytes significantly decreased over time in all groups. Macrophages, giant cells, eosinophils, and fiber condensation presented no differences among groups and periods. Within 90 days, all groups presented complete hard tissue barrier formation. The presence of mineral trioxide aggregate in MTA Fillapex composition did not improve the bone tissue repair. The presence of sealers provided the re-establishment of the original bone tissue structure and the inflammatory response decreased over time, so they can be considered biocompatible. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    The restoration of wetland salmon habitat in the tidal portion of the Columbia River is occurring at an accelerating pace and is anticipated to improve habitat quality and effect hydrological reconnection between existing and restored habitats. Currently multiple groups are applying a variety of restoration strategies in an attempt to emulate historic estuarine processes. However, the region lacks both a standardized means of evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects as well as methods for determining the cumulative effects of all restoration projects on a regional scale. This project is working to establish a framework to evaluate individual and cumulative ecosystem responses to restoration activities in order to validate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities designed to benefit salmon through improvements to habitat quality and habitat opportunity (i.e. access) in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the ocean. The review and synthesis of approaches to measure the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects focused on defining methods and metrics of relevance to the CRE, and, in particular, juvenile salmon use of this system. An extensive literature review found no previous study assessing the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects on the fundamental processes and functions of a large estuarine system, although studies are underway in other large land-margin ecosystems including the Florida Everglades and the Louisiana coastal wetlands. Literature from a variety of scientific disciplines was consulted to identify the ways that effects can accumulate (e.g., delayed effects, cross-boundary effects, compounding effects, indirect effects, triggers and thresholds) as well as standard and innovative tools and methods utilized in cumulative effects analyses: conceptual models, matrices, checklists, modeling, trends analysis, geographic information systems, carrying capacity analysis, and ecosystem analysis. Potential

  10. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of mucoadhesive controlled release matrix tablets of flurbiprofen using response surface methodology

    Ikrima Khalid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to formulate mucoadhesive controlled release matrix tablets of flurbiprofen and to optimize its drug release profile and bioadhesion using response surface methodology. Tablets were prepared via a direct compression technique and evaluated for in vitro dissolution parameters and bioadhesive strength. A central composite design for two factors at five levels each was employed for the study. Carbopol 934 and sodium carboxymethylcellulose were taken as independent variables. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy studies were performed to observe the stability of the drug during direct compression and to check for a drug-polymer interaction. Various kinetic models were applied to evaluate drug release from the polymers. Contour and response surface plots were also drawn to portray the relationship between the independent and response variables. Mucoadhesive tablets of flurbiprofen exhibited non-Fickian drug release kinetics extending towards zero-order, with some formulations (F3, F8, and F9 reaching super case II transport, as the value of the release rate exponent (n varied between 0.584 and 1.104. Polynomial mathematical models, generated for various response variables, were found to be statistically significant (P<0.05. The study also helped to find the drug's optimum formulation with excellent bioadhesive strength. Suitable combinations of two polymers provided adequate release profile, while carbopol 934 produced more bioadhesion.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System for accident site salvage operations

    Trujillo, J.M.; Morse, W.D.; Jones, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates operational experiences with the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) during simulated accident site salvage operations which might involve nuclear weapons. The ARMMS is based upon a teleoperated mobility platform with two Schilling Titan 7F Manipulators

  12. Evaluation of the Emergency Education Response for Syrian Refugee Children and Host Communities in Jordan

    Culbertson, S.; Ling, T.; Henham, M.L.; Corbett, J.; Karam, R.; Pankowska, P.K.P.; Saunders, C.L.; Bellasio, J.; Baruch, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Emergency Education Response Programme (EER), launched by UNICEF, the Government of Jordan and partners in 2012, aims to provide free public formal education, as well as safe and appropriate supportive educational services, for Syrian refugee children living in Jordan. RAND's evaluation

  13. Negative affectivity in cardiovascular disease: Evaluating Type D personality assessment using item response theory

    Emons, Wilco H.M.; Meijer, R.R.; Denollet, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)—referred to as type-D personality—are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The

  14. An Evaluation of Three Methods of Saying "No" to Avoid an Escalating Response Class Hierarchy

    Mace, F. Charles; Pratt, Jamie L.; Prager, Kevin L.; Pritchard, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of three different methods of denying access to requested high-preference activities on escalating problem behavior. Functional analysis and response class hierarchy (RCH) assessment results indicated that 4 topographies of problem behaviors displayed by a 13-year-old boy with high-functioning autism constituted an RCH…

  15. Appraisal, Coping, Task Performance, and Cardiovascular Responses during the Evaluated Speaking Task.

    Baggett, H. Lane; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Appraisal, coping, task performance, and cardiovascular responses were examined among men high and low in speech anxiety who prepared and performed a speech under evaluative conditions. Speech-anxious men saw the task as more threatening. They were more stressed, anxious, distracted, and aware of their emotions, focused on the passage of time, and…

  16. A model for photothermal responses of flowering in rice. II. Model evaluation.

    Yin, X.; Kropff, M.J.; Nakagawa, H.; Horie, T.; Goudriaan, J.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed nonlinear model, the 3s-Beta model, for photothermal responses of flowering in rice (Oryza sativa L.) was evaluated for predicting rice flowering date in field conditions. This model was compared with other three models: a three-plane linear model and two nonlinear models, viz, the

  17. The design of a contextualized responsive evaluation framework for fishery management in Benin

    Kouevi, T.A.; Mierlo, van B.; Leeuwis, C.; Vodouhè, S.

    2013-01-01

    The main question addressed by this article is how to adapt the responsive evaluation (RE) approach to an intervention context characterized by repetition of ineffective interventions, ambiguous intervention action theories among stakeholders, and high complexity. The context is Grand-Popo, a

  18. Using the Item Response Theory (IRT) for Educational Evaluation through Games

    Euzébio Batista, Marcelo Henrique; Victória Barbosa, Jorge Luis; da Rosa Tavares, João Elison; Hackenhaar, Jonathan Luis

    2013-01-01

    This article shows the application of Item Response Theory (IRT) for educational evaluation using games. The article proposes a computational model to create user profiles, called Psychometric Profile Generator (PPG). PPG uses the IRT mathematical model for exploring the levels of skills and behaviors in the form of items and/or stimuli. The model…

  19. Evaluation of noise pollution level based upon community exposure and response data

    Edmiston, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results and procedures are reported from an evaluation of noise pollution level as a predictor of annoyance, based on aircraft noise exposure and community response data. The measures of noise exposure presented include composite noise rating, noise exposure forecast, noise and number index. A proposed measure as a universal noise exposure measure for noise pollution level (L sub NP) is discussed.

  20. Further Evaluation of Response Interruption and Redirection as Treatment for Stereotypy

    Ahrens, Erin N.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Kodak, Tiffany; Worsdell, April S.; Keegan, Courtney

    2011-01-01

    The effects of 2 forms of response interruption and redirection (RIRD)--motor RIRD and vocal RIRD--were examined with 4 boys with autism to evaluate further the effects of this intervention and its potential underlying mechanisms. In Experiment 1, the effects of motor RIRD and vocal RIRD on vocal stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were…

  1. Evaluating the effectiveness of burned area emergency response (BAER) efforts after the 2003 wildfires, southern California

    Peter M. Wohlgemuth; Ken R. Hubbert; Jan L. Beyers; David R. Weise

    2007-01-01

    Wildfires burned approximately 300,000 hectares (750,000 acres) across southern California in the fall of 2003. Over 10 million dollars were spent on Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) treatments following these fires. To support the BAER efforts, we designed a comprehensive strategy with standardized protocols to evaluate the effectiveness of various erosion...

  2. A longitudinal study in youth of heart rate variability at rest and in response to stress

    Li, Zhibin; Snieder, Harold; Su, Shaoyong; Ding, Xiuhua; Thayer, Julian F.; Treiber, Frank A.; Wang, Xiaoling

    Background: Few longitudinal studies have examined ethnic and sex differences, predictors and tracking stabilities of heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and in response to stress in youths and young adults. Methods: Two evaluations were performed approximately 1.5 years apart on 399 youths and

  3. A Randomized Control Study of Responsive Teaching with Young Turkish Children and Their Mothers

    Karaaslan, Ozcan; Diken, Ibrahim H.; Mahoney, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    A randomized control study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of responsive teaching (RT) with a sample of 19 Turkish preschool-age children with disabilities and their mothers over a 6-months period. RT is an early intervention curriculum that attempts to promote children's development by encouraging parents to engage in highly…

  4. Evaluating multi-level models to test occupancy state responses of Plethodontid salamanders

    Kroll, Andrew J.; Garcia, Tiffany S.; Jones, Jay E.; Dugger, Catherine; Murden, Blake; Johnson, Josh; Peerman, Summer; Brintz, Ben; Rochelle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Plethodontid salamanders are diverse and widely distributed taxa and play critical roles in ecosystem processes. Due to salamander use of structurally complex habitats, and because only a portion of a population is available for sampling, evaluation of sampling designs and estimators is critical to provide strong inference about Plethodontid ecology and responses to conservation and management activities. We conducted a simulation study to evaluate the effectiveness of multi-scale and hierarchical single-scale occupancy models in the context of a Before-After Control-Impact (BACI) experimental design with multiple levels of sampling. Also, we fit the hierarchical single-scale model to empirical data collected for Oregon slender and Ensatina salamanders across two years on 66 forest stands in the Cascade Range, Oregon, USA. All models were fit within a Bayesian framework. Estimator precision in both models improved with increasing numbers of primary and secondary sampling units, underscoring the potential gains accrued when adding secondary sampling units. Both models showed evidence of estimator bias at low detection probabilities and low sample sizes; this problem was particularly acute for the multi-scale model. Our results suggested that sufficient sample sizes at both the primary and secondary sampling levels could ameliorate this issue. Empirical data indicated Oregon slender salamander occupancy was associated strongly with the amount of coarse woody debris (posterior mean = 0.74; SD = 0.24); Ensatina occupancy was not associated with amount of coarse woody debris (posterior mean = -0.01; SD = 0.29). Our simulation results indicate that either model is suitable for use in an experimental study of Plethodontid salamanders provided that sample sizes are sufficiently large. However, hierarchical single-scale and multi-scale models describe different processes and estimate different parameters. As a result, we recommend careful consideration of study questions

  5. Evaluating Multi-Level Models to Test Occupancy State Responses of Plethodontid Salamanders.

    Andrew J Kroll

    Full Text Available Plethodontid salamanders are diverse and widely distributed taxa and play critical roles in ecosystem processes. Due to salamander use of structurally complex habitats, and because only a portion of a population is available for sampling, evaluation of sampling designs and estimators is critical to provide strong inference about Plethodontid ecology and responses to conservation and management activities. We conducted a simulation study to evaluate the effectiveness of multi-scale and hierarchical single-scale occupancy models in the context of a Before-After Control-Impact (BACI experimental design with multiple levels of sampling. Also, we fit the hierarchical single-scale model to empirical data collected for Oregon slender and Ensatina salamanders across two years on 66 forest stands in the Cascade Range, Oregon, USA. All models were fit within a Bayesian framework. Estimator precision in both models improved with increasing numbers of primary and secondary sampling units, underscoring the potential gains accrued when adding secondary sampling units. Both models showed evidence of estimator bias at low detection probabilities and low sample sizes; this problem was particularly acute for the multi-scale model. Our results suggested that sufficient sample sizes at both the primary and secondary sampling levels could ameliorate this issue. Empirical data indicated Oregon slender salamander occupancy was associated strongly with the amount of coarse woody debris (posterior mean = 0.74; SD = 0.24; Ensatina occupancy was not associated with amount of coarse woody debris (posterior mean = -0.01; SD = 0.29. Our simulation results indicate that either model is suitable for use in an experimental study of Plethodontid salamanders provided that sample sizes are sufficiently large. However, hierarchical single-scale and multi-scale models describe different processes and estimate different parameters. As a result, we recommend careful consideration of

  6. Study of system safety evaluation on LTO of national project. Thermal fatigue evaluation of piping systems

    Kasahara, Naoto; Itoh, Takamoto; Okazaki, Masakazu; Okuda, Yukihiko; Kamaya, Masayuki; Nakamura, Akira; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Machida, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear piping has various kinds of thermal fatigue failure modes. Main causes of thermal loads are structural responses to fluid temperature changes during plant operation. These phenomena have complex mechanisms and so many patterns, that their problems still occur even though well-known issues. To prevent thermal fatigue due to above thermal loads, the JSME guideline is adopted. Both thermal load and fatigue failure mechanism have been investigated and summarized into the knowledgebase. Numerical simulation methods for thermal fatigue evaluation were studied to replace structural tests. Theses knowledge was utilized to validate and justify the JSME guideline. Furthermore, new studies have been launched to apply above knowledge to enhance plant system safety. (author)

  7. Abstinence, Social Norms, and Drink Responsibly Messages: A Comparison Study

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Kruger, Jessica Sloan; Deakins, Bethany A.; Paprzycki, Peter; Blavos, Alexis A.; Hutzelman, Erin N.; Diehr, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine which type of prevention message (abstinence, social norms, or responsible drinking) was most effective at reducing alcohol consumption. Participants: The subjects from this study included 194 college students from a public university. Methods: Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design,…

  8. Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations: Ground Motion Prediction Equations and Site Response

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide the state-of-the-art practice and detailed technical elements related to ground motion evaluation by ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and site response in the context of seismic hazard assessments as recommended in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-9, Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. The publication includes the basics of GMPEs, ground motion simulation, selection and adjustment of GMPEs, site characterization, and modelling of site response in order to improve seismic hazard assessment. The text aims at delineating the most important aspects of these topics (including current practices, criticalities and open problems) within a coherent framework. In particular, attention has been devoted to filling conceptual gaps. It is written as a reference text for trained users who are responsible for planning preparatory seismic hazard analyses for siting of all nuclear installations and/or providing constraints for anti-seismic design and retrofitting of existing structures

  9. Implementation Plan for a Common Nordic Retail Market. Evaluation of the responses on the public consultation

    2010-09-15

    Draft implementation plan for a common Nordic Retail Market was developed in close cooperation with relevant stakeholders in the Nordic electricity market during winter and spring 2010. The implementation plan outlines what should be done, by whom and when in order to create a common Nordic end user market over the coming years. NordREG organised a public consultation on the draft implementation plan from the end of June until the beginning of the August, 2010 and received 25 responses from stakeholders. This evaluation report includes summary of stakeholders' responses and NordREG comments on stakeholders' views. The evaluation of the responses has been taken into account during the finalization of the implementation plan

  10. Evaluation of the level of social responsibility of the state in the field of employment

    Chernobay Liana Ivanivna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of public authorities in the development of society was grounded in terms of the Welfare State. The priority of employment policies was proved to ensure a sufficient level of social responsibility of the state. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of human resources were investigated at the current stage of development of Ukraine. Evaluation of the efficiency of the social state was proposed by means of the Social Responsibility Index (SRI. The method of selection of state policy was developed in the light of the evaluation of the social responsibility of the state in employment using the SRI and The Map of states of partial indicators. Measures were proposed on the base of method to enhance the functioning of Ukraine as a Social State.

  11. A Tentative Study on the Evaluation of Community Health Service Quality*

    Ma, Zhi-qiang; Zhu, Yong-yue

    Community health service is the key point of health reform in China. Based on pertinent studies, this paper constructed an indicator system for the community health service quality evaluation from such five perspectives as visible image, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and sympathy, according to service quality evaluation scale designed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry. A multilevel fuzzy synthetical evaluation model was constructed to evaluate community health service by fuzzy mathematics theory. The applicability and maneuverability of the evaluation indicator system and evaluation model were verified by empirical analysis.

  12. Study of the immune response to thyroglobulin through a model of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis

    Santos Castro, M. dos.

    1981-01-01

    The cellular and humoral immune response to thyroglobulin of different species was studied in guinea pigs. The experiments described suggested that the immune system can be activated against self-determinants. Human and pork thyroglobulin were able to induce the experimental thyroiditis as well as some immune responses, such as in vitro proliferative response, delayed hypersensitivity and antibodies. Although guinea pig thyroglobulin was unable to induce specific T-lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, delayed hypersensitivity response and antibodies, it was very efficient in inducing the autoimmune thyroiditis. On the contrary, bovine thyroglobulin did not induce experimental autoimmune thyroiditis despite producing good responses as determined by similar in vitro proliferative response, delayed hypersensitivity and on the humoral level. These results suggest that the assays utilised were not able to evaluate the relevant immune response to genesis of the thyroiditis. The determinant selection mechanisms operating in these immune responses are probably selecting determinants not responsible for self-recognition in vivo. It was suggested that the macrophage could be the cell responsible for the presentation of these determinants to the lymphocyte in an immunogenic form. (Author) [pt

  13. The Case For Corporate Responsibility: An Exploratory Study

    Lucy da Piedade

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder demands and the introduction of the ‘triple bottom line’ as a means of reporting corporate performance, make it critical that South African companies assess why they should undertake corporate responsibility initiatives. This exploratory study (part two of a two-part study investigated the issues that are being or should be addressed by companies under the banner of corporate responsibility and the reasons for this. The views of a convenience snowball sample of consultants, academics and practitioners of corporate responsibility, was gained by means of a Delphi technique. Content analysis was employed to categorise the views into themes. The findings indicate the need for corporate responsibility action in the areas of ecology, the environment, health and well-being, building human capital and in the encouragement of economic development. Cost benefit and defensive arguments dominate the case for corporate responsibility. There is little indication that organisations have identified the opportunity of corporate responsibility initiatives to increase innovation and organisational learning and its contribution to risk management. Recommendations are made regarding the assessment of investment in this area.

  14. Evaluating response modification factor (R for some types of steel structure

    Doralba Valencia Restrepo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Response modification factor (R, tabulated in the Colombian Design Code as NSR-98, is used in this paper for eva-luating internal member forces produced by design earthquake action on steel structures and the inconsistencies pre-sent when designing structures when 1% drift limits must be complied with. The article presents the design of 45 frames corresponding to the seismic resistance system of 5 buildings: 15 special moment frames (SMF, 15 special concentrically-braced frames (CBF and 15 eccentrically-braced frames (EBF. External loads and their combination were used in estimating internal loads and rigidity demands (1% drift were evaluated in line with NSR-98 requi-rements. Member strength requirements were evaluated by using the AISC-2005 seismic provisions for steel structu-red buildings. Modal pushover analysis was used for evaluating the response modification factor for the 45 given frames at different structural performance levels. It was found that this factor was not constant for any of the three structural systems (SMF, CBF and EBF suggested by NSR-98 and that the values of the response modification factor found in the present investigation were smaller than those tabulated in this design code governing everyday structural design. This would lead to significant errors being made in evaluating design forces, not only in the structures but in the support elements (base-plates, foundations, shear walls and any structures attached to buildings constructed in line with the seismic resistance system.

  15. Histological and morphological evaluation of condylar cartilage of young rats in response to stimulation of mandibular protrusion

    Milena Peixoto Nogueira de Sá; Adilson Luiz Ramos; Jacqueline Nelises Zanoni; Fabrício Dias de Souza; Daniele Esteves Pepelascov; Raquel Sano Suga Terada

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the histogical and morphological aspects of the condyle in response to mandibular protrusion induced by composite resin occlusal planes. Thirty five-week-old male Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided in two groups. One group received a composite resin type of oclusal plane that induced mandibular protrusion, and the other was the control group, without treatment. Animals were euthanized after experimental time intervals of 7, 21 and 30 days. For...

  16. Characterization and evaluation of controls on post-fire streamflow response across western US watersheds

    Saxe, Samuel; Hogue, Terri S.; Hay, Lauren

    2018-02-01

    This research investigates the impact of wildfires on watershed flow regimes, specifically focusing on evaluation of fire events within specified hydroclimatic regions in the western United States, and evaluating the impact of climate and geophysical variables on response. Eighty-two watersheds were identified with at least 10 years of continuous pre-fire daily streamflow records and 5 years of continuous post-fire daily flow records. Percent change in annual runoff ratio, low flows, high flows, peak flows, number of zero flow days, baseflow index, and Richards-Baker flashiness index were calculated for each watershed using pre- and post-fire periods. Independent variables were identified for each watershed and fire event, including topographic, vegetation, climate, burn severity, percent area burned, and soils data. Results show that low flows, high flows, and peak flows increase in the first 2 years following a wildfire and decrease over time. Relative response was used to scale response variables with the respective percent area of watershed burned in order to compare regional differences in watershed response. To account for variability in precipitation events, runoff ratio was used to compare runoff directly to PRISM precipitation estimates. To account for regional differences in climate patterns, watersheds were divided into nine regions, or clusters, through k-means clustering using climate data, and regression models were produced for watersheds grouped by total area burned. Watersheds in Cluster 9 (eastern California, western Nevada, Oregon) demonstrate a small negative response to observed flow regimes after fire. Cluster 8 watersheds (coastal California) display the greatest flow responses, typically within the first year following wildfire. Most other watersheds show a positive mean relative response. In addition, simple regression models show low correlation between percent watershed burned and streamflow response, implying that other watershed factors

  17. Characterization and evaluation of controls on post-fire streamflow response across western US watersheds

    S. Saxe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the impact of wildfires on watershed flow regimes, specifically focusing on evaluation of fire events within specified hydroclimatic regions in the western United States, and evaluating the impact of climate and geophysical variables on response. Eighty-two watersheds were identified with at least 10 years of continuous pre-fire daily streamflow records and 5 years of continuous post-fire daily flow records. Percent change in annual runoff ratio, low flows, high flows, peak flows, number of zero flow days, baseflow index, and Richards–Baker flashiness index were calculated for each watershed using pre- and post-fire periods. Independent variables were identified for each watershed and fire event, including topographic, vegetation, climate, burn severity, percent area burned, and soils data. Results show that low flows, high flows, and peak flows increase in the first 2 years following a wildfire and decrease over time. Relative response was used to scale response variables with the respective percent area of watershed burned in order to compare regional differences in watershed response. To account for variability in precipitation events, runoff ratio was used to compare runoff directly to PRISM precipitation estimates. To account for regional differences in climate patterns, watersheds were divided into nine regions, or clusters, through k-means clustering using climate data, and regression models were produced for watersheds grouped by total area burned. Watersheds in Cluster 9 (eastern California, western Nevada, Oregon demonstrate a small negative response to observed flow regimes after fire. Cluster 8 watersheds (coastal California display the greatest flow responses, typically within the first year following wildfire. Most other watersheds show a positive mean relative response. In addition, simple regression models show low correlation between percent watershed burned and streamflow response, implying that

  18. Online and Paper Evaluations of Courses: A Literature Review and Case Study

    Morrison, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on comparing online and paper course evaluations in higher education and provides a case study of a very large randomised trial on the topic. It presents a mixed but generally optimistic picture of online course evaluations with respect to response rates, what they indicate, and how to increase them. The paper…

  19. Nuclear plant power up-rate study: feedwater heater evaluations

    Svensson, Eric; Catapano, Michael; Coakley, Michael; Thomas, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Given today's nuclear industry business climate, it has become common for Utility companies to consider increasing unit capacities through turbine replacement and power up-rates. An integral part of the studies conducted by many towards this end, involve the generation of a set of turbine cycle heat balances with predicted performance parameters for the up-rated condition. Once these tentative operating values are established, it becomes necessary to evaluate the suitability of the existing components within each system to ensure they are capable of continued safe and reliable operation. The ultimate cost for the up-rate, including the cost for any major required modifications or significant replacements is weighed against increased revenue generated from the up-rate over time. Exelon's Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is currently planning for an Extended Power up-rate (EPU) for both units. To ensure the existing Feedwater Heaters (FWH) could maintain the operating and transient response margins at the EPU condition, an engineering study was conducted. Powerfect Inc. in conjunction with SPX Heat Transfer LLC were contracted to provide engineering services to analyze the design, thermal performance, reliability and operating conditions at projected EPU conditions. Specifically, to address the following with regard to the station's Feedwater Heaters (FWHs): 1. Evaluate Drain Cooler (DC) Velocities - including zone inlet velocity, cross and window velocities and outlet velocities. 2. Evaluate Drain Cooler Zone Pressure Drop for effect on drain cooler margins to flashing. 3. Evaluate differential pressure allowable across the pass partition plate. 4. Evaluate Drain Cooler Tube Vibration Potential. 5. Perform detailed steam dome velocity calculations. The goal of the study was to identify the most susceptible areas within the heaters for problems and potential failures when operating at the higher duty of the EPU condition for the remaining life

  20. The effectiveness of a monetary incentive offer on survey response rates and response completeness in a longitudinal study.

    Yu, Shengchao; Alper, Howard E; Nguyen, Angela-Maithy; Brackbill, Robert M; Turner, Lennon; Walker, Deborah J; Maslow, Carey B; Zweig, Kimberly C

    2017-04-26

    Achieving adequate response rates is an ongoing challenge for longitudinal studies. The World Trade Center Health Registry is a longitudinal health study that periodically surveys a cohort of ~71,000 people exposed to the 9/11 terrorist attacks in New York City. Since Wave 1, the Registry has conducted three follow-up surveys (Waves 2-4) every 3-4 years and utilized various strategies to increase survey participation. A promised monetary incentive was offered for the first time to survey non-respondents in the recent Wave 4 survey, conducted 13-14 years after 9/11. We evaluated the effectiveness of a monetary incentive in improving the response rate five months after survey launch, and assessed whether or not response completeness was compromised due to incentive use. The study compared the likelihood of returning a survey for those who received an incentive offer to those who did not, using logistic regression models. Among those who returned surveys, we also examined whether those receiving an incentive notification had higher rate of response completeness than those who did not, using negative binomial regression models and logistic regression models. We found that a $10 monetary incentive offer was effective in increasing Wave 4 response rates. Specifically, the $10 incentive offer was useful in encouraging initially reluctant participants to respond to the survey. The likelihood of returning a survey increased by 30% for those who received an incentive offer (AOR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.4), and the incentive increased the number of returned surveys by 18%. Moreover, our results did not reveal any significant differences on response completeness between those who received an incentive offer and those who did not. In the face of the growing challenge of maintaining a high response rate for the World Trade Center Health Registry follow-up surveys, this study showed the value of offering a monetary incentive as an additional refusal conversion strategy. Our

  1. Human performance evaluation: The procedures of ultimate response guideline for nuclear power plants

    Liu, Kang-Hung, E-mail: alvinks@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Engery Council, No. 1000, Whenhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Sheue-Ling, E-mail: slhwang@ie.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • This study adopts SPAR-H to evaluate HEPs in the URG procedures. • The involvement of URG procedures could reduce CDF significantly. • Upgrading the training level of staff will enhance the reliability effectively. • Aiding the plant manager in making URG decision will enhance the reliability. - Abstract: In the nuclear accident which occurred in Japan on March 11, 2011, several units of Fukushima conventional BWR experienced a total loss of power and water supply triggered by a heavy earthquake and subsequent Tsunami which were outside design models. In the past, when an accident occurred, operators in nuclear power plants (NPP) followed emergency operating procedures (EOPs) or severe accident management guidance (SAMG). However, EOP and SAMG are symptom-based procedures to cope with severe transients and accidents, depending on real-time operational parameters. Ultimate response guidelines (URG), a plant specific interim remedy action plan, was developed to manage accidents caused by compound disasters which exceed design models. The URG guides the plant operators’ conduct of reactor depressurization, core cooling water injection, and containment venting. This study adopts NUREG/CR-6883 (Standardized Plant Analysis Risk Human Reliability Analysis, SPAR-H) to evaluate human error probabilities (HEPs) of action and diagnosis in the current URG procedures. We found the human reliability of URG procedures analyzed by SPAR-H is about 85% (depending on different decision makers). Upgrading the training level of staff or enhancing plant managers ability to decide whether to execute URG will enhance the human reliability of URG procedures.

  2. Evaluation of the tip-bending response in clinically used endoscopes

    Rozeboom, Esther; Reilink, Rob; Schwartz, Matthijs P.; Fockens, Paul; Broeders, Ivo Adriaan Maria Johannes

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic interventions require accurate and precise control of the endoscope tip. The endoscope tip response depends on a cable pulling system, which is known to deliver a significantly nonlinear response that eventually reduces control. It is unknown whether the current

  3. Evaluation of the tip-bending response in clinically used endoscopes

    Rozeboom, Esther D.; Reilink, Rob; Schwartz, Matthijs P.; Fockens, Paul; Broeders, Ivo A. M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic interventions require accurate and precise control of the endoscope tip. The endoscope tip response depends on a cable pulling system, which is known to deliver a significantly nonlinear response that eventually reduces control. It is unknown whether the current

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility in Malaysian Apparel Manufacturing Industry: A Study on Corporate Social Responsibility Website Reporting

    Ramakrishnan, Suresh; Hishan, Sanil S.; Kanjanapathy, Malini

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:A well planned and implemented Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programs could give any company a competitive advantage over its competitors. However, the way it is communicated to its stakeholders will be one of the deciding factors. This study examines how the WRAP certified apparel manufacturers in Malaysia communicate their CSR programs on their company website. This study identifies the dimensions of CSR they focus while they communicate their CSR initiatives to their stake...

  5. Comparison of EORTC criteria and PERCIST for PET/CT response evaluation of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan and cetuximab

    Skougaard, Kristin; Nielsen, Dorte; Jensen, Benny Vittrup

    2013-01-01

    The study aim was to compare European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria with PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (PERCIST) for response evaluation of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with a combination of the chemotherapeutic drug irinotecan an...... and the monoclonal antibody cetuximab....

  6. Characterization of the immune response and evaluation of the protective capacity of rSsnA against Streptococcus suis infection in pigs

    Gómez-Gascón, Lidia; Cardoso-Toset, Fernando; Tarradas, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    were evaluated. Moreover the composition of peripheral blood leukocyte populations was studied in infected animals. The results show that the immunization of piglets with rSsnA elicits a significant humoral antibody response. However, the antibody response is not reflected in protection of pigs...

  7. Development and evaluation of fully automated demand response in large facilities

    Piette, Mary Ann; Sezgen, Osman; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Shockman, Christine; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-03-30

    This report describes the results of a research project to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve electric grid reliability, manage electricity costs, and ensure that customers receive signals that encourage load reduction during times when the electric grid is near its capacity. The two main drivers for widespread demand responsiveness are the prevention of future electricity crises and the reduction of electricity prices. Additional goals for price responsiveness include equity through cost of service pricing, and customer control of electricity usage and bills. The technology developed and evaluated in this report could be used to support numerous forms of DR programs and tariffs. For the purpose of this report, we have defined three levels of Demand Response automation. Manual Demand Response involves manually turning off lights or equipment; this can be a labor-intensive approach. Semi-Automated Response involves the use of building energy management control systems for load shedding, where a preprogrammed load shedding strategy is initiated by facilities staff. Fully-Automated Demand Response is initiated at a building or facility through receipt of an external communications signal--facility staff set up a pre-programmed load shedding strategy which is automatically initiated by the system without the need for human intervention. We have defined this approach to be Auto-DR. An important concept in Auto-DR is that a facility manager is able to ''opt out'' or ''override'' an individual DR event if it occurs at a time when the reduction in end-use services is not desirable. This project sought to improve the feasibility and nature of Auto-DR strategies in large facilities. The research focused on technology development, testing

  8. Twice the negativity bias and half the positivity offset: Evaluative responses to emotional information in depression.

    Gollan, Jackie K; Hoxha, Denada; Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Kallio; Norris, Catherine J; Rosebrock, Laina; Sankin, Lindsey; Cacioppo, John

    2016-09-01

    Humans have the dual capacity to assign a slightly pleasant valence to neutral stimuli (the positivity offset) to encourage approach behaviors, as well as to assign a higher negative valence to unpleasant images relative to the positive valence to equally arousing and extreme pleasant images (the negativity bias) to facilitate defensive strategies. We conducted an experimental psychopathology study to examine the extent to which the negativity bias and the positivity offset differ in participants with and without major depression.. Forty-one depressed and thirty-six healthy participants were evaluated using a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, questionnaires, and a computerized task designed to measure implicit affective responses to unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant stimuli. The negativity bias was significantly higher and the positivity offset was significantly lower in depressed relative to healthy participants.. Entry criteria enrolling medication-free participants with minimal DSM-IV comorbidity may limit generalizability of the findings. This study advances our understanding of the positive and negative valence systems in depression, highlighting the irregularities in the positive valence system.. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Emergency response guide-B ECCS guideline evaluation analyses for N reactor

    Chapman, J.C.; Callow, R.A.

    1989-07-01

    INEL conducted two ECCS analyses for Westinghouse Hanford. Both analyses will assist in the evaluation of proposed changes to the N Reactor Emergency Response Guide-B (ERG-B) Emergency Core System (ECCS) guideline. The analyses were a sensitivity study for reduced-ECCS flow rates and a mechanistically determined confinement steam source for a delayed-ECCS LOCA sequence. The reduced-ECCS sensitivity study established the maximum allowable reduction in ECCS flow as a function of time after core refill for a large break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) sequence in the N Reactor. The maximum allowable ECCS flow reduction is defined as the maximum flow reduction for which ECCS continues to provide adequate core cooling. The delayed-ECCS analysis established the liquid and steam break flows and enthalpies during the reflood of a hot core following a delayed ECCS injection LOCA sequence. A simulation of a large, hot leg manifold break with a seven-minute ECCS injection delay was used as a representative LOCA sequence. Both analyses were perform using the RELAP5/MOD2.5 transient computer code. 13 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Comparison study of time history and response spectrum responses for multiply supported piping systems

    Wang, Y.K.; Subudhi, M.; Bezler, P.

    1983-01-01

    In the past decade, several investigators have studied the problem of independent support excitation of a multiply supported piping system to identify the real need for such an analysis. This approach offers an increase in accuracy at a small increase in computational costs. To assess the method, studies based on the response spectrum approach using independent support motions for each group of commonly connected supports were performed. The results obtained from this approach were compared with the conventional envelope spectrum and time history solutions. The present study includes a mathematical formulation of the independent support motion analysis method suitable for implementation into an existing all purpose piping code PSAFE2 and a comparison of the solutions for some typical piping system using both Time History and Response Spectrum Methods. The results obtained from the Response Spectrum Methods represent the upper bound solution at most points in the piping system. Similarly, the Seismic Anchor Movement analysis based on the SRP method over predicts the responses near the support points and under predicts at points away from the supports

  11. Evaluation of detector responses to natural environmental and fall-out gamma radiation

    Arvela, H.

    1988-01-01

    Instrument responses to the thorium, uranium and potassium components of the natural environmental as well as the fall-out radiation field were evaluated. The responses to the 137 Cs fall-out radiation field differ by less than 6% from the response at 0.662 MeV, except for that of the NaI scintillator. Differences of more than 30% were found in the responses of two energy compensated instruments to normal natural background radiation and to radiation from fresh fall-out. The best estimate of the terrestrial component of the dose rate measured was obtained by carrying out the following corrections of the measured readings: cosmic ray contribution and internal background subtraction with response correction, including 137 Cs calibration correction. After the Chernobyl accident the dose rate levels due to 137 Cs and 134 Cs fall-out were comparable to the natural background gamma radiation. The responses calculated as well as the results from measurements of the low level environmental exposure levels caused by the Chernobyl fall-out, confirmed the need to take into account the instrument response to natural as well as fall-out radiation fields. (author)

  12. Iranian nurses' perceptions of social responsibility: a qualitative study.

    Faseleh-Jahromi, Mohsen; Moattari, Marzieh; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    Social responsibility is intertwined with nursing; however, perceptions of Iranian nurses about social responsibility has not been explored yet. This study, as part of a larger qualitative grounded theory approach study, aims to explore Iranian nurses' perception of social responsibility. The study participants included 10 nurses with different job levels. The study data were generated through semi-structured interviews. The participants were selected through purposeful sampling approach, which was then followed by theoretical sampling until reaching the point of data saturation. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Positive human characteristics, professional competencies, professional values, solution-focused nursing care, and deployment of professional performance are five categories obtained from the study. The participants believed socially responsible nurses to have positive personality characteristics as well as the necessary skills to do their duties accurately. Such nurses also respect the values, observe the professional principles, and take major steps toward promotion and deployment of the nursing profession in the society.

  13. Evaluation of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors: Is there a role for positron emission tomography?

    Matteo Bauckneht; Roberta Piva; Gianmario Sambuceti; Francesco Grossi; Silvia Morbelli

    2017-01-01

    Strategies targeting intracellular negative regulators such as immune checkpoint inhibitors(ICPIs) have demonstrated significant antitumor activity across a wide range of solid tumors. In the clinical practice, the radiological effect of immunotherapeutic agents has raised several more relevant and complex challenges for the determination of their imaging-based response at single patient level. Accordingly, it has been suggested that the conventional Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors assessment alone, based on dimensional evaluation provided by computed tomography(CT), tends to underestimate the benefit of ICPIs at least in a subset of patients, supporting the need of immunerelated response criteria. Different from CT, very few data are available for the evaluation of immunotherapy by means of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography(FDG-PET). Moreover, since the antineoplastic activity of ICPIs is highly related to the activation of T cells against cancer cells, FDG accumulation might cause false-positive findings. Yet, discrimination between benign and malignant processes represents a huge challenge for FDG-PET in this clinical setting. Consequently, it might be of high interest to test the complex and variegated response to ICPIs by means of PET and thus it is worthwhile to ask if a similar introduction of immune-related PET-based criteria could be proposed in the future. Finally, PET might offer a new insight into the biology and pathophysiology of ICPIs thanks to a growing number of non-invasive immunediagnostic approaches based on non-FDG tracers.

  14. Criteria for evaluating response and outcome in clinical trials for children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Niemeyer, Charlotte M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare myeloproliferative disease in young children. While hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative therapeutic option for most patients, children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia increasingly receive novel agents in phase I-II clinical trials as pre-transplant therapy or therapy for relapse after transplantation. However, response criteria or definitions of outcome for standardized evaluation of treatment effect in patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia are currently lacking. Here we propose criteria to evaluate the response to the non-transplant therapy and definitions of remission status after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. For the evaluation of non-transplant therapy, we defined 6 clinical variables (white blood cell count, platelet count, hematopoietic precursors and blasts in peripheral blood, bone marrow blast percentage, spleen size and extramedullary disease) and 3 genetic variables (cytogenetic, molecular and chimerism response) which serve to describe the heterogeneous picture of response to therapy in each individual case. It is hoped that these criteria will facilitate the comparison of results between clinical trials in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

  15. Radiological evaluation of response to treatment: Application to metastatic renal cancers receiving anti-angiogenic treatment

    Ammari, S.; Hernigou, A.; Grataloup, C.; Thiam, R.; Cuenod, C.A.; Siauve, N.; Fournier, L.S.; Oudard, S.; Medioni, J.

    2014-01-01

    Targeted therapies have considerably improved the prognosis of patients with metastatic renal cancer (mRCC) but there are no reliable response assessment criteria reflecting the clinical benefits, because there is no regression in size, or it is delayed. Such criteria would help early identification of non-responders, who would then benefit from a change of treatment, and would avoid their being subjected to unnecessary side effects related to the treatment. We will review the imaging techniques currently available for evaluating tumour response in mRCC patients, including the response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (RECIST), the Choi criteria, the modified Choi criteria, and the CT size and attenuation criteria (SACT). We will also discuss functional imaging techniques, which are based on the physiological characteristics of the tumours, such as perfusion CT, magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound (DCE-CT, DCE-MRI, DCE-US), diffusion MRI, BOLD MRI and new positron emission tomography (PET) tracers. It is not possible at present to propose a unanimously acknowledged criterion for evaluating tumour response to targeted therapy. However, there is a real need for this according to oncologists and the pharmaceutical industry, and radiologists need to be involved in reflecting on the subject. (authors)

  16. Tit-For-Tat Strategy for Increasing Medical Student Evaluation Response Rates

    Matthew G. Malone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducation It is essential for faculty to receive feedback on their teaching for the purpose of improvement as well as promotion. It can be challenging to motivate students to provide feedback to preceptors and fill out evaluation forms when not a clerkship requirement. Furthermore, there is concern that making the evaluations a requirement can compromise the quality of the feedback. The objective of this study was to identify an increase in the number of faculty and resident evaluations completed by students rotating through their Emergency Medicine clerkship following the implementation of a tit-for-tat incentive strategy. Method Prior to the implementation of Tit-for-Tat, students rotating through their emergency medicine clerkship were asked to fill out evaluations of residents and faculty members with whom they worked. These were encouraged but voluntary. Beginning in the 2014–2015 academic year, a tit-for-tat strategy was employed whereby students had to complete a resident or faculty evaluation in order to view the student assessment completed by that resident or faculty preceptor. Results Students submitted 1101 evaluations in the control, with a mean of 3.60 evaluations completed per student and 3.77 evaluations received per preceptor. Following the implementation of tit-for-tat, students submitted 2736 evaluations, with a mean of 8.19 evaluations completed per student and 7.52 evaluations received per preceptor. Both the increase in evaluations completed per student and evaluations received per preceptor were statistically significant with p-value <0.001. Conclusion The tit-for-tat strategy significantly increased the number of evaluations submitted by students rotating through their emergency medicine clerkship. This has served as an effective tool to increase the overall number of evaluations completed, the number of evaluations each instructor received on average and the proportion of students that completed evaluations

  17. How to use PET/CT in the evaluation of response to radiotherapy.

    Decazes, Pierre; Thureau, Sébastien; Dubray, Bernard; Vera, Pierre

    2017-11-28

    Radiotherapy is a major treatment modality for many cancers. Tumor response after radiotherapy determines the subsequent steps of the patient's management (surveillance, adjuvant or salvage treatment and palliative care). Tumor response assessed during radiotherapy offers a promising opportunity to adapt the treatment plan to reduced / increased target volume, to specifically target sub-volumes with relevant biological characteristics (metabolism, hypoxia, proliferation ...) and to further spare the organs at risk. In addition to its role in the diagnosis and the initial staging, Positron Emission Tomography combined with a Computed Tomography (PET/CT) provides functional information and is therefore attractive to evaluate tumor response. To review the published data addressing PET/CT as an evaluation tool in irradiated tumors. Reports on PET/CT acquired at various times (during radiotherapy, after initial (chemo-)radiotherapy, after definitive radiotherapy and during posttreatment follow-up) in solid tumors (lung, head-and-neck, cervix, esophagus, prostate and rectum) were collected and reviewed. Various tracers and technical are also discussed. 18F-FDG PET/CT has a well-established role in clinical routine after definitive chemo-radiotherapy for locally advanced head-and-neck cancers. 18F-choline PET/CT is indicated in prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure. 18F-FDG PET/CT is optional in many others circumstances and the clinical benefits of assessing tumor response with PET/CT remain a field of very active research. The combination of PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET/MRI) may prove to be valuable in irradiated rectal and cervix cancers. Tumor response can be evaluated by PET/CT with clinical consequences in multiple situations, notably in head and neck and prostate cancers, after radiotherapy. Further clinical evaluation for most cancers is still needed, possibly in association to MRI.

  18. Complementary Evaluation of Iron Deficiency Root Responses to Assess the Effectiveness of Different Iron Foliar Applications for Chlorosis Remediation

    Marta Fuentes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency in plants is caused by a low availability of iron in the soil, and its main visual symptom is leaf yellowing due to a decrease in chlorophyll content, along with a reduction in plant growth and fruit quality. Foliar sprays with Fe compounds are an economic alternative to the treatment with expensive synthetic Fe-chelates applied to the soil, although the efficacy of foliar treatments is rather limited. Generally, plant response to Fe-foliar treatments is monitored by measuring chlorophyll content (or related parameters as SPAD index. However, different studies have shown that foliar Fe sprays cause a local regreening and that translocation of the applied Fe within the plant is quite low. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar applications of different Fe compounds [FeSO4, Fe(III-EDTA, and Fe(III-heptagluconate] on Fe-deficient cucumber plants, by studying the main physiological plant root responses to Fe deficiency [root Fe(III chelate reductase (FCR activity; acidification of the nutrient solution; and expression of the Fe deficiency responsive genes encoding FCR, CsFRO1, Fe(II root transporter CsIRT1, and two plasma membrane H+-ATPases, CsHA1 and CsHA2], along with SPAD index, plant growth and Fe content. The results showed that the overall assessment of Fe-deficiency root responses improved the evaluation of the efficacy of the Fe-foliar treatments compared to just monitoring SPAD indexes. Thus, FCR activity and expression of Fe-deficiency response genes, especially CsFRO1 and CsHA1, preceded the trend of SPAD index and acted as indicators of whether the plant was sensing or not metabolically active Fe due to the treatments. Principal component analysis of the data also provided a graphical tool to evaluate the evolution of plant responses to foliar Fe treatments with time.

  19. Comprehensive Angular Response Study of LLNL Panasonic Dosimeter Configurations and Artificial Intelligence Algorithm

    Stone, D. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-30

    In April of 2016, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory External Dosimetry Program underwent a Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) on-site assessment. The assessment reported a concern that the study performed in 2013 Angular Dependence Study Panasonic UD-802 and UD-810 Dosimeters LLNL Artificial Intelligence Algorithm was incomplete. Only the responses at ±60° and 0° were evaluated and independent data from dosimeters was not used to evaluate the algorithm. Additionally, other configurations of LLNL dosimeters were not considered in this study. This includes nuclear accident dosimeters (NAD) which are placed in the wells surrounding the TLD in the dosimeter holder.

  20. An evaluation of the 'criteria for tumor response after radiotherapy in esophageal cancer' of the Japanese Society for Esophageal Disease

    Morita, Kozo; Yamada, Tetsuya; Takagi, Iwao

    1991-01-01

    The criteria covering tumor response after radiotherapy for an esophageal cancer proposed by the Japanese Society for Esophageal Diseases in March, 1989, has been evaluated in a study of 300 patients who were irradiated preoperatively or radically for an esophageal cancer. Results have revealed that the appearance that of EF-3, meaning no or few residual tumor cells in the esophageal specimen after resection, in the CR, PR, and NC Groups were 88.9%, 58.5%, and 30.3%, respectively, these differences among the groups considered highly significant (p<0.001). Thus, it has been concluded that this criteria can be clinically applied to evaluate the tumor response after radiotherapy. (author)

  1. WMC Database Evaluation. Case Study Report

    Palounek, Andrea P. T [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-29

    The WMC Database is ultimately envisioned to hold a collection of experimental data, design information, and information from computational models. This project was a first attempt at using the Database to access experimental data and extract information from it. This evaluation shows that the Database concept is sound and robust, and that the Database, once fully populated, should remain eminently usable for future researchers.

  2. An Evaluative Study of Clinical Preceptorship.

    Kaviani, Nayer; Stillwell, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    A training institute to prepare nurses to serve as preceptors of undergraduate clinical experience was evaluated by focus groups of 6 preceptors, 13 students, and 2 nurse managers. Formal preceptorship training enhanced student learning and promoted positive relationships between nurse educators and practitioners. (SK)

  3. Study on the radiation-induced biological responses based on the analysis of metabolites

    Jo, Sungkee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Haeran; Roh, Changhyun; Shin, Heejune; Ryu, Dongkyoung

    2013-01-15

    1. Objectives □ Establishment of basis of biological radiation response study by metabolite analysis 2. Project results □ Establishment of analytical basis of radiation-responsive metabolites in biological samples - Large scale collection of tissue samples from irradiated animal for radiation metabolomics research - Establishment of mass spectromety (GC MS, LC MS-MS) analysis methods of biological samples - 3 Standard Operation Protocols (SOP) for ultra high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS, Q-TOF MS) analysis of metabolites from biological samples - Establishment of database for radiation metabolites □ Basic research on radiation-responsive metabolites and the interpretation of their functions - Validation of spermidine as a candidate biomarker of acute radiation response in mouse blood - Verification of 5 radiation-responsive steroid hormones and alteration of their metabolic enzyme activities in mouse blood - Verification of 13 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain -Verification of 10 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain - Verification of 74 radiation-responsive metabolites in whole rat brain by ultra high resolution FT-ICR MS and Q-TOF MS analysis 3. Expected benefits and plan of application □ Establishment of research basis of radiation metabolomics in Korea □ Provision of core technology in radiation bioscience and safety field by application of radiation metabolomics results to the technology development in radiation biodosimetry, and radiation response evaluation and modulation.

  4. Study on the radiation-induced biological responses based on the analysis of metabolites

    Jo, Sungkee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Haeran; Roh, Changhyun; Shin, Heejune; Ryu, Dongkyoung

    2013-01-01

    1. Objectives □ Establishment of basis of biological radiation response study by metabolite analysis 2. Project results □ Establishment of analytical basis of radiation-responsive metabolites in biological samples - Large scale collection of tissue samples from irradiated animal for radiation metabolomics research - Establishment of mass spectromety (GC MS, LC MS-MS) analysis methods of biological samples - 3 Standard Operation Protocols (SOP) for ultra high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS, Q-TOF MS) analysis of metabolites from biological samples - Establishment of database for radiation metabolites □ Basic research on radiation-responsive metabolites and the interpretation of their functions - Validation of spermidine as a candidate biomarker of acute radiation response in mouse blood - Verification of 5 radiation-responsive steroid hormones and alteration of their metabolic enzyme activities in mouse blood - Verification of 13 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain -Verification of 10 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain - Verification of 74 radiation-responsive metabolites in whole rat brain by ultra high resolution FT-ICR MS and Q-TOF MS analysis 3. Expected benefits and plan of application □ Establishment of research basis of radiation metabolomics in Korea □ Provision of core technology in radiation bioscience and safety field by application of radiation metabolomics results to the technology development in radiation biodosimetry, and radiation response evaluation and modulation

  5. RAMAN SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY ON PREDICTION OF TREATMENT RESPONSE IN CERVICAL CANCERS

    S. RUBINA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT is the choice of treatment for locally advanced cervical cancers; however, tumors exhibit diverse response to treatment. Early prediction of tumor response leads to individualizing treatment regimen. Response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST, the current modality of tumor response assessment, is often subjective and carried out at the first visit after treatment, which is about four months. Hence, there is a need for better predictive tool for radioresponse. Optical spectroscopic techniques, sensitive to molecular alteration, are being pursued as potential diagnostic tools. Present pilot study aims to explore the fiber-optic-based Raman spectroscopy approach in prediction of tumor response to CCRT, before taking up extensive in vivo studies. Ex vivo Raman spectra were acquired from biopsies collected from 11 normal (148 spectra, 16 tumor (201 spectra and 13 complete response (151 CR spectra, one partial response (8 PR spectra and one nonresponder (8 NR spectra subjects. Data was analyzed using principal component linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO-CV. Findings suggest that normal tissues can be efficiently classified from both pre- and post-treated tumor biopsies, while there is an overlap between pre- and post-CCRT tumor tissues. Spectra of CR, PR and NR tissues were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA and a tendency of classification was observed, corroborating previous studies. Thus, this study further supports the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy in prediction of tumor radioresponse and prospective noninvasive in vivo applications.

  6. Validation study of genetic biomarkers of response to TNF inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Rosario Lopez-Rodriguez

    Full Text Available Genetic biomarkers are sought to personalize treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, given their variable response to TNF inhibitors (TNFi. However, no genetic biomaker is yet sufficiently validated. Here, we report a validation study of 18 previously reported genetic biomarkers, including 11 from GWAS of response to TNFi. The validation was attempted in 581 patients with RA that had not been treated with biologic antirheumatic drugs previously. Their response to TNFi was evaluated at 3, 6 and 12 months in two ways: change in the DAS28 measure of disease activity, and according to the EULAR criteria for response to antirheumatic drugs. Association of these parameters with the genotypes, obtained by PCR amplification followed by single-base extension, was tested with regression analysis. These analyses were adjusted for baseline DAS28, sex, and the specific TNFi. However, none of the proposed biomarkers was validated, as none showed association with response to TNFi in our study, even at the time of assessment and with the outcome that showed the most significant result in previous studies. These negative results are notable because this was the first independent validation study for 12 of the biomarkers, and because they indicate that prudence is needed in the interpretation of the proposed biomarkers of response to TNFi even when they are supported by very low p values. The results also emphasize the requirement of independent replication for validation, and the need to search protocols that could increase reproducibility of the biomarkers of response to TNFi.

  7. University-Community Engagement: Case Study of University Social Responsibility

    Chile, Love M.; Black, Xavier M.

    2015-01-01

    Corporatisation of universities has drawn parallels between contemporary universities and business corporations, and extended analysis of corporate social responsibility to universities. This article reports on a case study of university-community engagement with schools and school communities through youth engagement programmes to enhance…

  8. Racing risk, gendering responsibility: a qualitative study of how ...

    Individuals' perceptions of risk have implications for whether and how they engage with protective strategies. This study investigated how sexual risk, specifically HIV and pregnancy and responsibility for these risks were constructed in discussions across five groups of youth in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The qualitative ...

  9. A preliminary study on growth response of broiler finishers fed ...

    A preliminary study on growth response of broiler finishers fed processed mottle Mucuna beans ( Mucuna pruriens var. utilis ) ... They were fed diets (20% CP, 13 MJME/kg) incorporating 0%, 5% and 10% processed mottle “Mucuna” beans. A completely randomized design was used. Feed and water were supplied and ...

  10. An exploratory study of consumers' attitude towards unethical corporate\\ud practices and the concept of consumer social responsibility

    Ajayi, Festus Adeolu

    2014-01-01

    2014 dissertation for MSc in International Business Management. Selected by academic staff as a good example of a masters level dissertation. This study is an exploration of consumers’ attitudes towards unethical\\ud corporate practices and the concept of consumer social responsibility. The\\ud study among other things evaluated the concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR), consumers’ social responsibility (CNSR) and sought to\\ud understand the relationship between both concepts. Havin...

  11. A Non-Parametric Item Response Theory Evaluation of the CAGE Instrument Among Older Adults.

    Abdin, Edimansyah; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Picco, Louisa; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2018-02-23

    The validity of the CAGE using item response theory (IRT) has not yet been examined in older adult population. This study aims to investigate the psychometric properties of the CAGE using both non-parametric and parametric IRT models, assess whether there is any differential item functioning (DIF) by age, gender and ethnicity and examine the measurement precision at the cut-off scores. We used data from the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly study to conduct Mokken scaling analysis (MSA), dichotomous Rasch and 2-parameter logistic IRT models. The measurement precision at the cut-off scores were evaluated using classification accuracy (CA) and classification consistency (CC). The MSA showed the overall scalability H index was 0.459, indicating a medium performing instrument. All items were found to be homogenous, measuring the same construct and able to discriminate well between respondents with high levels of the construct and the ones with lower levels. The item discrimination ranged from 1.07 to 6.73 while the item difficulty ranged from 0.33 to 2.80. Significant DIF was found for 2-item across ethnic group. More than 90% (CC and CA ranged from 92.5% to 94.3%) of the respondents were consistently and accurately classified by the CAGE cut-off scores of 2 and 3. The current study provides new evidence on the validity of the CAGE from the IRT perspective. This study provides valuable information of each item in the assessment of the overall severity of alcohol problem and the precision of the cut-off scores in older adult population.

  12. Evaluating the variation of response of ionizing chamber type pencil for different collimators

    Andrade, Lucio das Chagas de; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The pencil ionization chamber is used in dosimetric procedures for X-ray beams in the energy range of a scanner. Calibration of such camera is still being extensively studied because the procedure is different from the others. To study the variation of response of the camera for different collimators was analyzed three different collimators. It was found that among the other showed the best response was the opening of 30 mm. (author)

  13. CD68+ cell count, early evaluation with PET and plasma TARC levels predict response in Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Cuccaro, Annarosa; Annunziata, Salvatore; Cupelli, Elisa; Martini, Maurizio; Calcagni, Maria L; Rufini, Vittoria; Giachelia, Manuela; Bartolomei, Francesca; Galli, Eugenio; D'Alò, Francesco; Voso, Maria T; Leone, Giuseppe; Giordano, Alessandro; Larocca, Luigi M; Hohaus, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Early response evaluation with [(18) F]fluordeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography after 2 cycles of chemotherapy (interim PET) has been indicated as the strongest predictor for outcome in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). We studied the prognostic role of the number of tumor-infiltrating CD68+ cells and of the plasma levels of TARC (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine) in the context of interim PET in 102 patients with classical HL treated with Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine (ABVD). After 2 ABVD cycles, interim PET according to Deauville criteria was negative (score 0-3) in 85 patients and positive (score 4-5) in 15 patients (2 patients technically not evaluable). TARC levels were elevated in 89% of patients at diagnosis, and decreased after 2 cycles in 82% of patients. Persistently elevated TARC levels in 18% of patients were significantly associated with a positive PET result (P = 0.007). Strong predictors for progression-free survival (PFS) were a negative interim PET (85% vs. 28%, P evaluation had no prognostic role. In multivariate analysis, interim PET, CD68+ cell counts and presence of B-symptoms were independently associated with PFS. We conclude that although TARC levels are a biomarker for early response evaluation, they cannot substitute for interim PET as outcome predictor in HL. The evaluation of CD68 counts and B-symptoms at diagnosis may help to identify low-risk patients regardless positive interim PET. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of the therapeutic response to donepezil in patients with dat by 3DSRT

    Shigeaki Higashiyama; Terue Okamura; Koichi Koyama Yuichi Inoue; Joji kawabe; Kenji Torii; Susumu Shiomi; Hiroshi Hashimoto; Hisanori Akiyama; Kouki Inoue; Nobuo Kiriike

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive impairment of memory and cognitive function associated with loss of presynaptic cholinergic function. It has recently been hypothesized that cholinergic agents such as cholinesterase inhibitors or cholinergic agonists may have the potential to improve these symptoms. One such compound is donepezil hydrochloride (Donepezil), which acts by blocking acetylcholinesterase and butyl cholinesterase, which hydoryze acetylcholine. In the diagnosis of AD, brain perfusion scintigraphy is an objective of visualization of brain perfusion. Up to the present, AD has been diagnosed objectively and quantitatively using brain perfusion single photon emission tomography (SPECT). In a quantitative evaluation of therapeutic response of Donepezil in AD, for comparison with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in various lesions before and after treatment, uptake in various cerebral regions of interests (ROIs), such as the frontal lobes, temporo-occipital lobes, parietal lobes and cerebellar hemispheres, were used to be measured, The aim of this study was to investigate the accuratelity of therapeutic response of three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template (3DSRT), fully automated ROI analysis software, which can objectively estimate rCBF in patients undergoing Donepezil therapy. We compare the effect of therapeutic response of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). 3D-SSP is an image-processing and statistical program allowing pixel-by-pixel analysis of cerebral perfusion, provides a reliable and objective means of evaluation of severity of AD. On 3D-SSP images, we assessed the extent of abnormal region in each segment (rate of coordinates with a Z-value exceeding the.threshold value, of all coordinates within a segment) Methods: Twenty-one patients (15 females, 6 males;age range, 66-83 years old; mean age=69.4 years) diagnosed with AD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

  15. EVALUATION OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION IN BOGOR PDAM TIRTA PAKUAN, WEST JAVA PROVINCE

    Ismartaya Ismartaya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine whether the evaluation corporate social responsibility program implementation in Bogor PDAM Tirta Pakuan has been implemented in accordance with the vision, mission, and objectives of the company. PDAM Tirta Pakuan has a vision of CSR as a pioneer in the implementation of social responsibility in Bogor city especially and Indonesia in general. Through this vision, PDAM Tirta Pakuan Bogor city, would really seriously on the implementation of the CSR programs. Based on these purposes, this research is done by evaluating the CSR programs which implemented by PDAM Tirta Pakuan Bogor city and use CIPP evaluation model to conduct an evaluation of the program. The type which used on this research is evaluation research with using a qualitative approach. The source of information used is the Chief Executive of CSR PDAM Tirta Pakuan Bogor. Data collected by the observation, interview and documentation. Test validity of this research by using triangulation technique, while data analysis is done by reducing the data, presenting and concluding. The result shows that the program Tirta Pakuan care as the company’s strategy goes according to the purposes and plans that have been made by the company.

  16. IMAGE-GUIDED EVALUATION AND MONITORING OF TREATMENT RESPONSE IN PATIENTS WITH DRY EYE DISEASE

    Hamrah, Pedram

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is one of the most common ocular disorders worldwide. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development of DED are not well understood and thus treating DED has been a significant challenge for ophthalmologists. Most of the currently available diagnostic tests demonstrate low correlation to patient symptoms and have low reproducibility. Recently, sophisticated in vivo imaging modalities have become available for patient care, namely, in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). These emerging modalities are powerful and non-invasive, allowing real-time visualization of cellular and anatomical structures of the cornea and ocular surface. Here we discuss how, by providing both qualitative and quantitative assessment, these techniques can be used to demonstrate early subclinical disease, grade layer-by-layer severity, and allow monitoring of disease severity by cellular alterations. Imaging-guided stratification of patients may also be possible in conjunction with clinical examination methods. Visualization of subclinical changes and stratification of patients in vivo, allows objective image-guided evaluation of tailored treatment response based on cellular morphological alterations specific to each patient. This image-guided approach to DED may ultimately improve patient outcomes and allow studying the efficacy of novel therapies in clinical trials. PMID:24696045

  17. Evaluation of multiplex assay platforms for detection of influenza hemagglutinin subtype specific antibody responses.

    Li, Zhu-Nan; Weber, Kimberly M; Limmer, Rebecca A; Horne, Bobbi J; Stevens, James; Schwerzmann, Joy; Wrammert, Jens; McCausland, Megan; Phipps, Andrew J; Hancock, Kathy; Jernigan, Daniel B; Levine, Min; Katz, Jacqueline M; Miller, Joseph D

    2017-05-01

    Influenza hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus microneutralization assays (MN) are widely used for seroprevalence studies. However, these assays have limited field portability and are difficult to fully automate for high throughput laboratory testing. To address these issues, three multiplex influenza subtype-specific antibody detection assays were developed using recombinant hemagglutinin antigens in combination with Chembio, Luminex ® , and ForteBio ® platforms. Assay sensitivity, specificity, and subtype cross-reactivity were evaluated using a panel of well characterized human sera. Compared to the traditional HI, assay sensitivity ranged from 87% to 92% and assay specificity in sera collected from unexposed persons ranged from 65% to 100% across the platforms. High assay specificity (86-100%) for A(H5N1) rHA was achieved for sera from exposed or unexposed to hetorosubtype influenza HAs. In contrast, assay specificity for A(H1N1)pdm09 rHA using sera collected from A/Vietnam/1204/2004 (H5N1) vaccinees in 2008 was low (22-30%) in all platforms. Although cross-reactivity against rHA subtype proteins was observed in each assay platform, the correct subtype specific responses were identified 78%-94% of the time when paired samples were available for analysis. These results show that high throughput and portable multiplex assays that incorporate rHA can be used to identify influenza subtype specific infections. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. POST-OCCUPACY EVALUATION AND SOCIAL RESPONSABILITY: A RELATIONSHIP TO BE (RE DISCUSSED ALWAYS

    Gleice Virginia Medeiros de Azambuja Elali

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Now a day, the importance of research activities for the development of all fields of the knowledge creates a preoccupation with ethical and social responsibility issues, aspects that cannot be ignored by researchers. Based on this context, this article focuses on researches of Post-Occupation Evaluation (POE, which are more and more present in Architecture and Urbanism, with the objective of subsidizing modification of buildings and new projects. In general, the paper shows the importance of the area to invest in the consolidation of the ethical positioning of researchers, position that will influence all stages of the research work, since the definition of the thematic cut-outs and the methods/techniques for accomplishment of the empirical studies, until presentation of results. Finally, the paper defends the necessity to value/strengthen the role of universities and research institutions’ ethics committees in the regulation of scientific inquiry process. It also points out the importance of defining sensible subcommittees to the specificities of Architecture and Urbanism field.

  19. Experimental Evaluation of Grid Support Enabled PV Inverter Response to Abnormal Grid Conditions: Preprint

    Nelson, Austin; Martin, Gregory; Hurtt, James

    2017-05-08

    As revised interconnection standards for grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) inverters address new advanced grid support functions (GSFs), there is increasing interest in inverter performance in the case of abnormal grid conditions. The growth of GSF-enabled inverters has outpaced the industry standards that define their operation, although recently published updates to UL1741 with Supplement SA define test conditions for GSFs such as volt-var control, frequency-watt control, and volt-age/frequency ride-through, among others. A comparative experimental evaluation has been completed on four commercially available, three-phase PV inverters in the 24.0-39.8 kVA power range on their GSF capability and the effect on abnormal grid condition response. This study examines the impact particular GSF implementations have on run-on times during islanding conditions, peak voltages in load rejection overvoltage scenarios, and peak currents during single-phase and three-phase fault events for individual inverters. This report reviews comparative test data, which shows that GSFs have little impact on the metrics of interest in most tests cases.

  20. Development and process evaluation of a Web-based responsible beverage service training program.

    Danaher, Brian G; Dresser, Jack; Shaw, Tracy; Severson, Herbert H; Tyler, Milagra S; Maxwell, Elisabeth D; Christiansen, Steve M

    2012-09-22

    Responsible beverage service (RBS) training designed to improve the appropriate service of alcohol in commercial establishments is typically delivered in workshops. Recently, Web-based RBS training programs have emerged. This report describes the formative development and subsequent design of an innovative Web-delivered RBS program, and evaluation of the impact of the program on servers' knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. Formative procedures using focus groups and usability testing were used to develop a Web-based RBS training program. Professional alcohol servers (N = 112) who worked as servers and/or mangers in alcohol service settings were recruited to participate. A pre-post assessment design was used to assess changes associated with using the program. Participants who used the program showed significant improvements in their RBS knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. Although the current study did not directly observe and determine impact of the intervention on server behaviors, it demonstrated that the development process incorporating input from a multidisciplinary team in conjunction with feedback from end-users resulted in creation of a Web-based RBS program that was well-received by servers and that changed relevant knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. The results also help to establish a needed evidence base in support of the use of online RBS training, which has been afforded little research attention.

  1. Analysis and evaluation of seismic response of reactor building for Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant

    Li Zhongcheng; China Guangdong Nuclear Power Company, Shenzhen; Li Zhongxian

    2005-01-01

    Daya Bay NPP has been operating safely and stably over 10 years since 1994, and its' seismic analysis of nuclear island was in accordance with the approaches in RCC-G standard for the model M310, in which the Simplified Impedance Matrix Method (SIMM) was employed for the consideration of SSI. Thanks to the rapid progress being made in upgrading the evaluation technology and the capability of data processing systems, methods and software tools for the SSI analysis have experienced significant development all over the world. Focused on the model of reactor building of the Daya Bay NPP, in his paper the more sophisticated 3D half-space continuum impedance method based on the Green functions is used to analyze the functions of the soil, and then the seismic responses of the coupled SSI system are calculated and compared with the corresponding design values. It demonstrates that the design method provides a set of conservatively safe results. The conclusions from the study is hopefully to provide some important references to the assessment of seismic safety margin for the operating NPPs. (authors)

  2. SU-F-T-557: Evaluation of Detector Response in Rectangular Small Field Dosimetry

    Qureshi, A [University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio (United States); Tanny, S [SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse NY (United States); Parsai, E; Sperling, N [University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: As stereotactic treatment modalities grow towards becoming the standard of care, the need for accurate dose computation in small fields is becoming increasingly essential. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the response of different detectors, intended for small field dosimetry, in jaw defined small rectangular fields by analyzing output factors from a stereotactic clinical accelerator. Methods: Two Dosimeters, the Exradin A26 Microionization Chamber (Standard Imaging) and Edge Diode Detector (Sun Nuclear) were used to measure output factors taken on the Varian Edge Stereotactic Linear accelerator. Measurements were taken at 6MV and 6FFF at 10cm depth, 100cm SSD in a 48×48×40cm3 Welhoffer BluePhantom2 (IBA) with X and Y jaws set from 0.6 to 2.0cm. Output factors were normalized to a 5×5cm2 machine-specific reference field. Measurements were made in the vertical orientation for the A26 and horizontal orientation for both the A26 and Edge. Output factors were measured as: OF{sub FS} = M{sub FS}/M{sub ref} where M{sub FS} and M{sub ref} are the measured signals for the clinical field and the reference field, respectively. Measured output factors were then analyzed to establish relative responses of the detectors in small fields. Results: At 6MV the Edge detector exhibited a variation in output factors dependent on jaw positioning (X-by-Y vs Y-by-X) of 5.7% of the 5×5cm reference output and a variation of 3.33% at 6FFF. The A26 exhibited variation of output factor dependent on jaw positioning of upto 7.7% of the 5×5cm reference field at 6MV and upto 5.33% at 6FFF. Conclusion: Both the Edge detector and A26 responded as expected at small fields however a dependence on the jaw positioning was noted. At 6MV and 6FFF the detector response showed an increased dependence on the positioning of the X jaws as compared to the positioning of the Y jaws.

  3. Vasoconstrictor response to cold in forestry workers: a prospective study

    Olsen, N; Nielsen, S L

    1988-01-01

    In a five year prospective study of the vasoconstrictor response to cold 37 forestry workers were investigated in 1978 and again in 1983. The subjects were classified into three groups: group A (n = 13): no subjective finger symptoms in 1978 and continued sawing until 1983; group B (n = 12......): no symptoms in 1978 and stopped sawing before 1983; group C (n = 12): vibration induced white finger (VWF) in 1978. A cold provocation test measuring the finger systolic blood pressure with a cuff and strain gauge technique during combined body cooling and finger cooling to 30 degrees, 15 degrees, and 6...... degrees C was applied to all subjects at both investigations. In 1978 all groups had an increased cold response when compared with that of 20 non-exposed controls (p less than 0.05), and the response was more exaggerated in group C than in groups A and B (p less than 0.01). From 1978 to 1983...

  4. Experimental study of plastic responses of pipe elbows

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    Load-deflection responses were determined experimentally for sixteen 152.4-mm (6-in.) (nominal) commercial carbon steel pipe elbows and four 152.4-mm (6-in.) stainless steel elbows. Each specimen was loaded with an external force of sufficient magnitude to produce predominantly plastic response. The influences of bend radius and wall thickness were studied, as well as the effect of internal prssure on load-deflection behavior. Comparisons of results from stainless steel and from carbon steel elbows indicate differences in responses attributable to material differences. The results were interpreted in terms of limit analysis concepts, and collapse loads were determined. Trends given by the collapse loads are identified and discussed

  5. Evaluation of multi-outcome longitudinal studies

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of intervention effects on multiple outcomes is a common scenario in clinical studies. In longitudinal studies, such evaluation is a challenge if one wishes to adequately capture simultaneous data behavior. In this situation, a common approach is to analyze each outcome separately...... conservative conclusions. We propose an alternative approach for multiplicity adjustment that incorporates dependence between outcomes, resulting in an appreciably less conservative evaluation. The ability of the proposed method to control the familywise error rate is evaluated in a simulation study...

  6. Response evaluation in nuclear medicine. Criteria, results and pitfalls; Nuklearmedizinische Responsebeurteilung. Kriterien, Ergebnisse und Pitfalls

    Hoffend, J. [Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen am Rhein gGmbH, Onkologische Diagnostik/PET-CT, Zentralinstitut fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Sachpekidis, C. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg, Klinische Kooperationseinheit Nuklearmedizin, Forschungsschwerpunkt Bildgebung und Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiologie, Forschungsschwerpunkt Bildgebung und Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, A. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg, Klinische Kooperationseinheit Nuklearmedizin, Forschungsschwerpunkt Bildgebung und Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    Established criteria to categorize metabolic tumor response to cytotoxic chemotherapies may not be suited to capture the effects of therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) or with kinase inhibitors (KI), such as BRAF or MEK inhibitors. To assess the metabolic response to cytotoxic chemotherapy by positron emission tomography (PET) with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), the criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the positron emission tomography response criteria in solid tumors (PERCIST) were conceived. The salient features of both criteria are detailed in a comparative way. To date only retrospective data exist for the evaluation of therapies with either ICI or KI. They show that response to ICI cannot be reliably determined using the established criteria. Employing the EORTC criteria the responses to KI can be adequately ascertained so that the metabolic tumor response in FDG-PET is regarded as a surrogate marker for the efficacy of these drugs. Tumor response to therapy with ICI cannot at present be assessed with FDG-PET. Responses to BRAF and MEK inhibitors are, however, assessable using the criteria that were originally developed to evaluate responses to cytotoxic chemotherapy. (orig.) [German] Bisherige Kriterien, welche das metabolische Ansprechen von Tumoren auf zytotoxische Chemotherapien klassifizieren, lassen sich moeglicherweise nur bedingt verwenden, um ein Ansprechen auf Immuncheckpointinhibitoren (ICI) und Kinasehemmer (KI) wie BRAF- und MEK-Inhibitoren zu erfassen. Um das Ansprechen unter Chemotherapie durch die Positronenemissionstomographie (PET) mit {sup 18}F-Fluordesoxyglukose (FDG) zu erfassen, wurden Kriterien der European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) und die Positron Emission Tomography Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (PERCIST) entwickelt. Die wesentlichen Merkmale beider Kriterien werden vergleichend beschrieben. Bisher liegen sowohl fuer ICI als auch KI

  7. Meditation and the startle response: a case study.

    Levenson, Robert W; Ekman, Paul; Ricard, Matthieu

    2012-06-01

    The effects of two kinds of meditation (open presence and focused) on the facial and physiological aspects of the defensive response to an aversive startle stimulus were studied in a Buddhist monk with approximately 40 years of meditation experience. The participant was exposed to a 115-db, 100-ms acoustic startle stimulus under the 2 meditation conditions, a distraction condition (to control for cognitive and attentional load) and an unanticipated condition (startle presented without warning or instruction). A completely counterbalanced 24-trial, single-subject design was used, with each condition repeated 6 times. Most aspects of the participant's responses in the unanticipated condition did not differ from those of a comparison group of 12 age-matched male controls. Both kinds of meditation produced physiological and facial responses to the startle that were smaller than in the distraction condition. Within meditation conditions, open presence meditation produced smaller physiological and facial responses than focused meditation. These results from a single highly expert meditator indicate that these 2 kinds of meditation can differentially alter the magnitude of a primitive defensive response.

  8. Meditation and the Startle Response: A Case Study

    Levenson, Robert W.; Ekman, Paul; Ricard, Matthieu

    2013-01-01

    The effects of two kinds of meditation (open presence and focused) on the facial and physiological aspects of the defensive response to an aversive startle stimulus were studied in a Buddhist monk with approximately 40 years of meditation experience. The participant was exposed to a 115 db, 100 ms acoustic startle stimulus under the two meditation conditions, a distraction condition (to control for cognitive and attentional load) and an unanticipated condition (startle presented without warning or instruction). A completely counterbalanced 24-trial single-subject design was used, with each condition repeated six times. Most aspects of the participant’s responses in the unanticipated condition did not differ from those of a comparison group of 12 age-matched male controls. Both kinds of meditation produced physiological and facial responses to the startle that were smaller than in the distraction condition. Within meditation conditions, open presence meditation produced smaller physiological and facial responses than focused meditation. These results from a single highly expert meditator indicate that these two kinds of meditation can differentially alter the magnitude of a primitive defensive response. PMID:22506498

  9. Evaluation of personal inhalable aerosol samplers with different filters for use during anthrax responses.

    Grinshpun, Sergey A; Weber, Angela M; Yermakov, Michael; Indugula, Reshmi; Elmashae, Yousef; Reponen, Tiina; Rose, Laura

    2017-08-01

    Risk of inhalation exposure to viable Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) spores has primarily been assessed using short-term, stationary sampling methods which may not accurately characterize the concentration of inhalable-sized spores reaching a person's breathing zone. While a variety of aerosol sampling methods have been utilized during previous anthrax responses, no consensus has yet been established for personal air sampling. The goal of this study was to determine the best sampler-filter combination(s) for the collection and extraction of B. anthracis spores. The study was designed to (1) evaluate the performance of four filter types (one mixed cellulose ester, MCE (pore size = 3 µm), two polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE (1 and 3 µm), and one polycarbonate, PC (3 µm)); and (2) evaluate the best performing filters in two commercially available inhalable aerosol samplers (IOM and Button). Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki [Bt(k)], a simulant for B. anthracis, served as the aerosol challenge. The filters were assessed based on criteria such as ability to maintain low pressure drop over an extended sampling period, filter integrity under various environmental conditions, spore collection and extraction efficiencies, ease of loading and unloading the filters into the samplers, cost, and availability. Three of the four tested collection filters-except MCE-were found suitable for efficient collection and recovery of Bt(k) spores sampled from dry and humid as well as dusty and clean air environments for up to 8 hr. The PC (3 µm) filter was identified as the best performing filter in this study. The PTFE (3 µm) demonstrated a comparable performance, but it is more expensive. Slightly higher concentrations were measured with the IOM inhalable sampler which is the preferred sampler's performance criterion when detecting a highly pathogenic agent with no established "safe" inhalation exposure level. Additional studies are needed to address the effects of

  10. PET/CT in staging and treatment response evaluation in lymphomas

    Bochev, P.

    2015-01-01

    Full text:The introduction of positron emission tomography (PET) and especially PET/CT with FDG in 2001 resulted in new concepts of overall management of patients with lymphoma and changed significantly the staging process and treatment response assessment. The considerable amount of literature and clinical trial data allowed leading cancer organizations like NCCN to incorporate in their current guidelines FDG-PET as a sole imaging modality in the management of Hodgkin‘s lymphoma, and an essential one in the management of FDG avid non-Hodgkin lymphoma (where indications vary based on particular histology). Main indications of FDG PET/CT in lymphoma are initial staging, restaging upon completion of therapy (EOT PET) and treatment response assessment. While staging with FDG and EOT PET restaging alone or combined with CECT have a straight-forward advantage over CT in evaluating small and borderline sized lymph nodes, bone marrow involvement and residual masses, treatment response assessment is rather challenging. By now and after long term trial evaluations, the response assessment is based on a visual assessment five point scale – Deauvillae criteria for response evaluation in HD and combined lugano criteria for NHL. The scale defines PET negative and PET positive cases as a presentation of responders versus non-responders which directly affects management. Although ESMO restricts the use of FDG-PET response evaluation in clinical trials only, NCCN go further, and bases its treatment recommendations on FDG-PET (Interim PET). Nowadays PET/CT is extensively used also in radiotherapy planning, which, in lymphoma patients include initial staging scans on a flat table, in order to assure similar position of future involved sites RT. Despite the extensive use of FDG with the above mentioned indications, neither evidence based guidelines, nor routine clinical practice could recommend follow up of lymphoma patients with FDG-PET. An exception could be made for ositive or

  11. A study on the frictional response of reptilian shed skin

    Abdel-Aal, H A; Vargiolu, R; Zahouani, H; Mansori, M El

    2011-01-01

    Deterministic surfaces are constructs of which profile, topography and textures are integral to the function of the system they enclose. They are designed to yield a predetermined tribological response. Developing such entities relies on controlling the structure of the rubbing interface so that, not only the surface is of optimized topography, but also is able to self-adjust its tribological behaviour according to the evolution of sliding conditions. In seeking inspirations for such designs, many engineers are turning toward the biological world to study the construction and behaviour of bio-analogues, and to probe the role surface topography assumes in conditioning of frictional response. That is how a bio-analogue can self-adjust its tribological response to adapt to habitat constraints. From a tribological point of view, Squamate Reptiles, offer diverse examples where surface texturing, submicron and nano-scale features, achieves frictional regulation. In this paper, we study the frictional response of shed skin obtained from a snake (Python regius). The study employed a specially designed tribo-acoustic probe capable of measuring the coefficient of friction and detecting the acoustical behavior of the skin in vivo. The results confirm the anisotropy of the frictional response of snakes. The coefficient of friction depends on the direction of sliding: the value in forward motion is lower than that in the backward direction. Diagonal and side winding motion induces a different value of the friction coefficient. We discuss the origin of such a phenomenon in relation to surface texturing and study the energy constraints, implied by anisotropic friction, on the motion of the reptile.

  12. A study on the frictional response of reptilian shed skin

    Abdel-Aal, H A [Arts et Metier ParisTech, Rue Saint Dominique BP 508, 51006 Chalons-en-Champagne (France); Vargiolu, R; Zahouani, H [Laboratoire de Tribology et Dynamique des Systemes, UMR CNRS 5513, ENI Saint Etienne - Ecole Centrale de Lyon -36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69131 Ecully cedex. France (France); Mansori, M El, E-mail: Hisham.abdel-aal@ensam.eu [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Arts et Metiers, 2, cours des Arts et Metiers - 13617 Aix en Provence cedex 1 (France)

    2011-08-19

    Deterministic surfaces are constructs of which profile, topography and textures are integral to the function of the system they enclose. They are designed to yield a predetermined tribological response. Developing such entities relies on controlling the structure of the rubbing interface so that, not only the surface is of optimized topography, but also is able to self-adjust its tribological behaviour according to the evolution of sliding conditions. In seeking inspirations for such designs, many engineers are turning toward the biological world to study the construction and behaviour of bio-analogues, and to probe the role surface topography assumes in conditioning of frictional response. That is how a bio-analogue can self-adjust its tribological response to adapt to habitat constraints. From a tribological point of view, Squamate Reptiles, offer diverse examples where surface texturing, submicron and nano-scale features, achieves frictional regulation. In this paper, we study the frictional response of shed skin obtained from a snake (Python regius). The study employed a specially designed tribo-acoustic probe capable of measuring the coefficient of friction and detecting the acoustical behavior of the skin in vivo. The results confirm the anisotropy of the frictional response of snakes. The coefficient of friction depends on the direction of sliding: the value in forward motion is lower than that in the backward direction. Diagonal and side winding motion induces a different value of the friction coefficient. We discuss the origin of such a phenomenon in relation to surface texturing and study the energy constraints, implied by anisotropic friction, on the motion of the reptile.

  13. Heart rate responses provide an objective evaluation of human disturbance stimuli in breeding birds.

    Ellenberg, Ursula; Mattern, Thomas; Seddon, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Intuition is a poor guide for evaluating the effects of human disturbance on wildlife. Using the endangered Yellow-eyed penguin, Megadyptes antipodes, as an example, we show that heart rate responses provide an objective tool to evaluate human disturbance stimuli and encourage the wider use of this simple and low-impact approach. Yellow-eyed penguins are a flagship species for New Zealand's wildlife tourism; however, unregulated visitor access has recently been associated with reduced breeding success and lower first year survival. We measured heart rate responses of Yellow-eyed penguins via artificial eggs to evaluate a range of human stimuli regularly occurring at their breeding sites. We found the duration of a stimulus to be the most important factor, with elevated heart rate being sustained while a person remained within sight. Human activity was the next important component; a simulated wildlife photographer, crawling slowly around during his stay, elicited a significantly higher heart rate response than an entirely motionless human spending the same time at the same distance. Stimuli we subjectively might perceive as low impact, such as the careful approach of a 'wildlife photographer', resulted in a stronger response than a routine nest-check that involved lifting a bird up to view nest contents. A single, slow-moving human spending 20 min within 2 m from the nest may provoke a response comparable to that of 10 min handling a bird for logger deployment. To reduce cumulative impact of disturbance, any human presence in the proximity of Yellow-eyed penguins needs to be kept at a minimum. Our results highlight the need for objective quantification of the effects of human disturbance in order to provide a sound basis for guidelines to manage human activity around breeding birds.

  14. A Reduced-Order Model for Evaluating the Dynamic Response of Multilayer Plates to Impulsive Loads

    2016-04-12

    A REDUCED-ORDER MODEL FOR EVALUATING THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF MULTILAYER PLATES TO IMPULSIVE LOADS Weiran Jiang, Alyssa Bennett, Nickolas...innovative multilayer materials or structures to optimize the dynamic performance as a mechanism to absorb and spread energy from an impulsive load...models. • Optimizing the structural weight and levels of protection of the multilayer plates with a good combination of materials. Technical Approach 2016

  15. Evaluation of prescriber responses to pharmacogenomics clinical decision support for thiopurine S-methyltransferase testing.

    Ubanyionwu, Samuel; Formea, Christine M; Anderson, Benjamin; Wix, Kelly; Dierkhising, Ross; Caraballo, Pedro J

    2018-02-15

    Results of a study of prescribers' responses to a pharmacogenomics-based clinical decision support (CDS) alert designed to prompt thiopurine S -methyltransferase (TPMT) status testing are reported. A single-center, retrospective, chart review-based study was conducted to evaluate prescriber compliance with a pretest CDS alert that warned of potential thiopurine drug toxicity resulting from deficient TPMT activity due to TPMT gene polymorphism. The CDS alert was triggered when prescribers ordered thiopurine drugs for patients whose records did not indicate TPMT status or when historical thiopurine use was documented in the electronic health record. The alert pop-up also provided a link to online educational resources to guide thiopurine dosing calculations. During the 9-month study period, 500 CDS alerts were generated: in 101 cases (20%), TPMT phenotyping or TPMT genotyping was ordered; in 399 cases (80%), testing was not ordered. Multivariable regression analysis indicated that documentation of historical thiopurine use was the only independent predictor of test ordering. Among the 99 patients tested subsequent to CDS alerts, 70 (71%) had normal TPMT activity, 29 (29%) had intermediate activity, and none had deficient activity. The online resources provided thiopurine dosing recommendations applicable to 24 patients, but only 3 were prescribed guideline-supported doses after CDS alerts. The pretest CDS rule resulted in a large proportion of neglected alerts due to poor alerting accuracy and consequent alert fatigue. Prescriber usage of online thiopurine dosing resources was low. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the humoral immune response to human leukocyte antigens in Brazilian renal transplant candidates.

    Patricia Keiko Saito

    Full Text Available Pre-transplant sensitization to human leukocyte antigens (HLA is a risk factor for graft failure. Studies of the immunological profile related to anti-HLA antibodies in Brazilian renal transplant candidates are few. In this study, we evaluated the humoral immune response to HLA antigens in 269 renal transplant candidates, in Paraná State, Brazil. The HLA typing was performed by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotide method (PCR-SSO combined with Luminex technology, using an SSO-LABType commercial kit (One Lambda, Inc., Canoga Park, CA, USA. The percentages of panel-reactive antibodies (PRA and the specificity of anti-HLA antibodies were determined using the LS1PRA and LS2PRA commercial kits (One Lambda, Inc.. The PRA-positive group consisted of 182 (67.7% patients, and the PRA-negative group of 87 (32.3% patients. The two groups differed significantly only with respect to gender. Females were the most sensitized. Among the 182 patients with PRA- positive, 62 (34.1% were positive for class I and negative for class II, 39 (21.4% were negative for class I and positive for class II, and 81 (44.5% were positive for both classes I and II. The HLA-A*02, A*24, A*01, B*44, B*35, B*15, DRB1*11, DRB1*04 and DRB1*03 allele groups were the most frequent. The specificities of anti-HLA antibodies were more frequent: A34, B57, Cw15, Cw16, DR51, DQ8 and DP14. This study documented the profile of anti-HLA antibodies in patients with chronic renal failure who were on waiting lists for an organ in Paraná, and found high sensitization to HLA antigens in the samples.

  17. Evaluation of the Humoral Immune Response to Human Leukocyte Antigens in Brazilian Renal Transplant Candidates

    Saito, Patricia Keiko; Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Aparecida, Erica Pereira; da Silva Júnior, Waldir Verissimo; Borelli, Sueli Donizete

    2014-01-01

    Pre-transplant sensitization to human leukocyte antigens (HLA) is a risk factor for graft failure. Studies of the immunological profile related to anti-HLA antibodies in Brazilian renal transplant candidates are few. In this study, we evaluated the humoral immune response to HLA antigens in 269 renal transplant candidates, in Paraná State, Brazil. The HLA typing was performed by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotide method (PCR-SSO) combined with Luminex technology, using an SSO-LABType commercial kit (One Lambda, Inc., Canoga Park, CA, USA). The percentages of panel-reactive antibodies (PRA) and the specificity of anti-HLA antibodies were determined using the LS1PRA and LS2PRA commercial kits (One Lambda, Inc.). The PRA-positive group consisted of 182 (67.7%) patients, and the PRA-negative group of 87 (32.3%) patients. The two groups differed significantly only with respect to gender. Females were the most sensitized. Among the 182 patients with PRA- positive, 62 (34.1%) were positive for class I and negative for class II, 39 (21.4%) were negative for class I and positive for class II, and 81 (44.5%) were positive for both classes I and II. The HLA-A*02, A*24, A*01, B*44, B*35, B*15, DRB1*11, DRB1*04 and DRB1*03 allele groups were the most frequent. The specificities of anti-HLA antibodies were more frequent: A34, B57, Cw15, Cw16, DR51, DQ8 and DP14. This study documented the profile of anti-HLA antibodies in patients with chronic renal failure who were on waiting lists for an organ in Paraná, and found high sensitization to HLA antigens in the samples. PMID:24927116

  18. New Approaches to the Study of Students' Response to Science

    Krogh, Lars

    2011-01-01

    of science and school science. In this chapter I describe two new approaches to the study of students’ responses to school science, both pragmatic by nature, and combining perspectives from cultural research with a quantitative or a Mixed Methods methodology. The approaches have been applied to studies......’Students’ responses’ to science include their attitudes and internalization of science (e.g. valueing, identifying) as well as their choices and actions related to science. This broader conception has advantages over attitudes alone, when it comes to understanding students’ paths in and out...... of Physics in Danish upper secondary school, and though these targeted different aspects of students’ responses and applied highly different methods the results were found to complement each other. A study using the first approach related students’ attitudes towards physics to various types of Cultural...

  19. Evaluating mood changes in response to anthropogenic noise with a response-slowing task in three species of zoo-housed primates

    Katherine A. Cronin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the zoo environment, anthropogenic noise is common as sound levels fluctuate due to visitors, construction, habitat design, and special events. In this study, changes in the mood of three species of zoo-housed primates in response to a loud annual event were evaluated with the response-slowing paradigm. In this paradigm, animals experiencing anxiety slow responses on simple cognitive tasks when emotional content is displayed. Following a previously validated approach, we measured latencies to touch potentially threatening (conspecific faces with directed gaze and non-threatening (conspecific faces with averted gaze images overlaid on a grey square, relative to neutral control images (grey squares only on a touchscreen. In Experiment 1, four Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata were tested in two conditions: during a baseline (non-stressful period and opportunistically during three days during which loud jets frequently flew overhead. Results indicated a significant effect of condition, with an increase in latency to touch images of conspecific faces relative to control images during the days of the loud event. In Experiment 2, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, n = 4 and western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla, n = 2 were tested during the same loud event following a similar methodology. The results revealed subtle changes across conditions; however, this was likely driven by the apes increasing their response speed to face stimuli relative to control stimuli over time (habituation. These findings suggest that the macaques, but not the apes, underwent detectable affective changes during the loud event. With additional development, this relatively simple paradigm may be an effective and feasible way to evaluate real-time changes in the mood of zoo-housed animals.

  20. Evaluation of the Inertial Response of Variable-Speed Wind Turbines Using Advanced Simulation: Preprint

    Scholbrock, Andrew K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scholbrock, Andrew K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Xiao [Northeastern University; Gao, Wenzhong [University of Denver; Yan, Weihang [University of Denver; Wang, Jianhui [Northeastern University

    2017-08-09

    In this paper, we focus on the temporary frequency support effect provided by wind turbine generators (WTGs) through the inertial response. With the implemented inertial control methods, the WTG is capable of increasing its active power output by releasing parts of the stored kinetic energy when the frequency excursion occurs. The active power can be boosted temporarily above the maximum power points, but the rotor speed deceleration follows and an active power output deficiency occurs during the restoration of rotor kinetic energy. In this paper, we evaluate and compare the inertial response induced by two distinct inertial control methods using advanced simulation. In the first stage, the proposed inertial control methods are analyzed in offline simulation. Using an advanced wind turbine simulation program, FAST with TurbSim, the response of the researched wind turbine is comprehensively evaluated under turbulent wind conditions, and the impact on the turbine mechanical components are assessed. In the second stage, the inertial control is deployed on a real 600-kW wind turbine, the three-bladed Controls Advanced Research Turbine, which further verifies the inertial control through a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Various inertial control methods can be effectively evaluated based on the proposed two-stage simulation platform, which combines the offline simulation and real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The simulation results also provide insights in designing inertial control for WTGs.

  1. Evaluation of response function of moderating-type neutron detector and application to environmental neutron measurement

    Kosako, Toshiso; Nakamura, Takashi; Iwai, Satoshi; Katsuki, Shinji; Kamata, Masashi.

    1983-08-01

    The energy-dependent response function of a multi-cylinder moderating-type BF 3 counter, so-called Bonner counter, was calculated by the time-dependent multi-group Monte Carlo code, TMMCR. The calculated response function was evaluated experimentally for neutron energy below about 50 keV down to epithermal energy by the time-of-flight method combining with a large lead pile at the Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo and also above 50 keV by using the monoenergetic neutron standard field a t the Electrotechnical Laboratory. The time delay in the polyethylene moderator of the Bonner counter due to multiple collisions with hydrogen was analyzed by the TMMCR code and used for the time-spectrum analysis of the time-of-flight measurement. The response function obtained by these two experiments showed good agreement with the calculated results. This Bonner counter having a response function evaluated from thermal to MeV energy range was used for spectrometry and dosimetry of environmental neutrons around some nuclear facilities. The neutron spectra and dose measured in the environment around a 252 Cf fission source, fast neutron source reactor and electron synchrotron were all in good agreement with the calculated results and the measured results with other neutron detectors. (author)

  2. Bronchoalveolar lavage is an ideal tool in evaluation of local immune response of pigs vaccinated with Pasteurella multocida bacterin vaccine

    Shiney George

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL technique in evaluating the local immune response of pig immunized with Pasteurella multocida bacterin vaccine. Materials and Methods: Weaned piglets were immunized with formalin-inactivated P52 strain of P. multocida bacterin and evaluated for pulmonary immune response in BAL fluid. BAL was performed before vaccination and at different post vaccination days. The BAL fluid was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study the development of P. multocida specific antibody isotypes and also evaluated for different cell populations using standard protocol. Results: The average recovery percentage of BAL fluid varies from 58.33 to 61.33 in vaccinated and control group of piglets. The BAL fluid of vaccinated pigs showed increase in antibody titer up to 60th days post vaccination (8.98±0.33, IgG being the predominant isotype reached maximum titer of 6.12±0.20 on 45th days post vaccination, followed by IgM and a meager concentration of IgA could be detected. An increased concentration of the lymphocyte population and induction of plasma cells was detected in the BAL fluid of vaccinated pigs. Conclusion: Though intranasal vaccination with P. multocida plain bacterin vaccine could not provoke a strong immune response, but is promising as lymphocyte population was increased and plasma cells were detected. BAL can be performed repeatedly up to 3/4 months of age in pigs to study pulmonary immune response without affecting their health.

  3. Evaluation of Degradation Kinetic of Tomato Paste Color in Heat Processing and Modeling of These Changes by Response Surface Methodology

    M. Ganjeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Color is an important qualitative factor in tomato products such as tomato paste which is affected by heat processing. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the degradation kinetics of tomato paste color during heat processing by Arrhenius equation and modeling of these changes by response surface methodology (RSM. Considering this purpose, tomato paste was processed at three temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 °C for 25-100 minutes and by three main color indices including L, a and b, a/b ratio, total color difference (TCD, Saturation index (SI and hue angle (HU was analyzed. Degradation kinetics of these parameters was evaluated by Arrhenius equation and their changing trends were modeled by RSM. All parameters except TCA (zero order followed a first order reaction. The b index by highest and TCA and a/b by least activation energies had the maximum and minimum sensitivity to the temperature changes, respectively. Also, TCD and b had the maximum and minimum changing rates, respectively. All responses were influenced by independent parameters (the influence of temperature was more than time and RSM was capable of modeling and predicting these responses. In general, Arrhenius equation was appropriate to evaluate degradation kinetics of tomato paste color changes and RSM was able to estimate independent and interaction effects of time and temperature so that quadratic models were capable to predict these changes by a high accuracy (R2 > 0.95.

  4. Evaluation of the effect of the degree of acetylation on the inflammatory response to 3D porous chitosan scaffolds.

    Barbosa, Judite N; Amaral, Isabel F; Aguas, Artur P; Barbosa, Mário A

    2010-04-01

    The effect of the degree of acetylation (DA) of 3D chitosan (Ch) scaffolds on the inflammatory reaction was investigated. Chitosan porous scaffolds with DAs of 4 and 15% were implanted using a subcutaneous air-pouch model of inflammation. The initial acute inflammatory response was evaluated 24 and 48 h after implantation. To characterize the initial response, the recruitment and adhesion of inflammatory cells to the implant site was studied. The fibrous capsule formation and the infiltration of inflammatory cells within the scaffolds were evaluated for longer implantation times (2 and 4 weeks). Chitosan with DA 15% attracted the highest number of leukocytes to the implant site. High numbers of adherent inflammatory cells were also observed in this material. For longer implantation periods Ch scaffolds with a DA of 15% induced the formation of a thick fibrous capsule and a high infiltration of inflammatory cells within the scaffold. Our results indicate that the biological response to implanted Ch scaffolds was influenced by the DA. Chitosan with a DA of 15% induce a more intense inflammatory response when compared with DA 4% Ch. Because inflammation and healing are interrelated, this result may provide clues for the relative importance of acetyl and amine functional groups in tissue repair and regeneration.

  5. Evaluation of Social Studies Curriculum on Compassion ...

    This study examined the impact of social studies curriculum on the affective dispositions of students of Colleges of Education in North-West Zone of Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to determine the level of NCE I and NCE III students' affective dispositions in the area of compassion. One research question and one ...

  6. Evaluating the responsiveness of the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS: Group and individual level analysis

    Maheswaran Hendramoorthy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental well-being now features prominently in UK and international health policy. However, progress has been hampered by lack of valid measures that are responsive to change. The objective of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS at both the individual and group level. Methods Secondary analysis of twelve different interventional studies undertaken in different populations using WEMWBS as an outcome measure. Standardised response mean (SRM, probability of change statistic (P̂ and standard error of measurement (SEM were used to evaluate whether WEMWBS detected statistically important changes at the group and individual level, respectively. Results Mean change in WEMWBS score ranged from −0.6 to 10.6. SRM ranged from −0.10 (95% CI: -0.35, 0.15 to 1.35 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.64. In 9/12 studies the lower limit of the 95% CI for P̂ was greater than 0.5, denoting responsiveness. SEM ranged from 2.4 to 3.1 units, and at the threshold 2.77 SEM, WEMWBS detected important improvement in at least 12.8% to 45.7% of participants (lower limit of 95% CI>5.0%. Conclusions WEMWBS is responsive to changes occurring in a wide range of mental health interventions undertaken in different populations. It offers a secure base for research and development in this rapidly evolving field. Further research using external criteria of change is warranted.

  7. Evaluation of the ability of standardized supports to improve public health response to syndromic surveillance for respiratory diseases in Canada

    Laura A. Rivera

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite widespread implementation of syndromic surveillance systems within public health agencies, previous studies of the implementation and use of these systems have indicated that the functions and responses taken in response to syndromic surveillance data vary widely according to local context and preferences. The objective of the Syndromic Surveillance Evaluation Study was to develop and implement standardized supports in local public health agencies in Ontario, Canada, and evaluate the ability of these supports to affect actions taken as part of public health communicable disease control programs. Methods Local public health agencies (LPHA in Ontario, which used syndromic surveillance based on emergency department visits for respiratory disease, were recruited and randomly allocated to the study intervention or control group. The intervention group health agencies received standardized supports in terms of a standardized aberrant event detection algorithm and a response protocol dictating steps to investigate and assess the public health significance of syndromic surveillance alerts. The control group continued with their pre-existing syndromic surveillance infrastructure and processes. Outcomes were assessed using logbooks, which collected quantitative and qualitative information about alerts received, investigation steps taken, and public health responses. The study was conducted prospectively for 15 months (October 2013 to February 2015. Results Fifteen LPHAs participated in the study (n = 9 intervention group, n = 6 control group. A total of 1,969 syndromic surveillance alerts were received by all LPHAs. Variations in the types and amount of responses varied by LPHA, in particularly differences were noted by the size of the health unit. Smaller health units had more challenges to both detect and mount a response to any alerts. LPHAs in the control group were more likely to declare alerts to have public

  8. Resting lateralized activity predicts the cortical response and appraisal of emotions: an fNIRS study.

    Balconi, Michela; Grippa, Elisabetta; Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2015-12-01

    This study explored the effect of lateralized left-right resting brain activity on prefrontal cortical responsiveness to emotional cues and on the explicit appraisal (stimulus evaluation) of emotions based on their valence. Indeed subjective responses to different emotional stimuli should be predicted by brain resting activity and should be lateralized and valence-related (positive vs negative valence). A hemodynamic measure was considered (functional near-infrared spectroscopy). Indeed hemodynamic resting activity and brain response to emotional cues were registered when subjects (N = 19) viewed emotional positive vs negative stimuli (IAPS). Lateralized index response during resting state, LI (lateralized index) during emotional processing and self-assessment manikin rating were considered. Regression analysis showed the significant predictive effect of resting activity (more left or right lateralized) on both brain response and appraisal of emotional cues based on stimuli valence. Moreover, significant effects were found as a function of valence (more right response to negative stimuli; more left response to positive stimuli) during emotion processing. Therefore, resting state may be considered a predictive marker of the successive cortical responsiveness to emotions. The significance of resting condition for emotional behavior was discussed. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Influence of gender, parity, and caloric load on gastrorectal response in healthy subjects: a barostat study.

    Sloots, Cornelius E J; Felt-Bersma, Richelle J F; Meuwissen, Stephan G M; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2003-03-01

    The gastrocolonic response consists of a prompt increase in colonic tone after a meal. With a barostat and a high compliant air-filled bag, it is possible to measure rectal tone by recording changes in volume at a constant intrabag pressure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastrorectal response in males and females as well as the effect of different caloric loads on the gastrorectal response. In 33 volunteers a barostat procedure during basal conditions and after a 600-kcal meal was performed. In 26 volunteers the procedure was repeated with a 1000-kcal meal. A meal response was defined as a decrease in volume of more than 10%. Phasic volume events (PVE) were defined as a 10% decrease in volume of 15-60 sec duration. After a 600-kcal meal, the decrease in volume after 1 hr was 28 +/- 7% (mean +/- SEM, P parity should be made when results are compared.

  10. Evaluation of time integration methods for transient response analysis of nonlinear structures

    Park, K.C.

    1975-01-01

    Recent developments in the evaluation of direct time integration methods for the transient response analysis of nonlinear structures are presented. These developments, which are based on local stability considerations of an integrator, show that the interaction between temporal step size and nonlinearities of structural systems has a pronounced effect on both accuracy and stability of a given time integration method. The resulting evaluation technique is applied to a model nonlinear problem, in order to: 1) demonstrate that it eliminates the present costly process of evaluating time integrator for nonlinear structural systems via extensive numerical experiments; 2) identify the desirable characteristics of time integration methods for nonlinear structural problems; 3) develop improved stiffly-stable methods for application to nonlinear structures. Extension of the methodology for examination of the interaction between a time integrator and the approximate treatment of nonlinearities (such as due to pseudo-force or incremental solution procedures) is also discussed. (Auth.)

  11. Evaluation of an educational exhibition on global issues and consumer responsibility: From involvement to hopelessness

    Jan Činčera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the evaluation of an interactive exhibition for secondary education students (15-19 years old, focusing on global problems and consumer responsibility. The evaluation was conducted in three schools. Data were obtained from interviews with teachers (N=3 and questionnaires (N=204 distributed among students after the exhibition. For the analysis, both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used. The results suggest that the exhibition was successful in terms of involving students and increasing their awareness of the problems. Some students evaluated the exhibition as manipulative. An unintended effect of the exhibition was students’ feeling of hopelessness. This article discusses the results and suggests a change in strategy when dealing with global problems in schools.

  12. Evaluation of acetazolamine response in patients with cerebellar ataxia using dynamic quantitative F-18-FDG PET

    Kim, Y. K.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, M. H.; Lee, K. M.; Yeo, J. S.; Chung, J. K.; Lee, M. C.

    2001-01-01

    Cerebellar Ataxia (CA) usually shows dramatic response to acetazolamide treatment. But few cases of acetazolamide unresponse CA were reported recently. Using dynamic FDG PET, we tried to evaluate the metabolic abnormality and its drug response in CA. Quantitative F-18-FDG PET was performed prior and after treatment of acetazolamide (250 mg qid for 10 days) in two patient suspected episodic cerebellar ataxia. Using Model-based clustering method, the regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate (rCMRglu) was calculated. Two patients showed different treatment response to acetazolamide. In one patient who showed markedly reduced frequency of the ataxic attack after treatment. FDG PET showed that mean cerebellar glucose metabolism was increased after treatment (ΔrCMRglu:9%). However, in the other who showed poor response to acetazolamide, FDG PET showed the more decrease metabolism in cerebellar metabolism after treatment (ΔrCMRglu:-17%). The change of the cerebellar glucose metabolism on FDG PET reflected the symptomatic improvement after acetazolamide in these two CA patients. We could expected that FDG PET might be a very useful tool to quantitatively predict the treatment response in CA and other neurologic disorder

  13. Sensitivity Study on Analysis of Reactor Containment Response to LOCA

    Chung, Ku Young; Sung, Key Yong

    2010-01-01

    As a reactor containment vessel is the final barrier to the release of radioactive material during design basis accidents (DBAs), its structural integrity must be maintained by withstanding the high pressure conditions resulting from DBAs. To verify the structural integrity of the containment, response analyses are performed to get the pressure transient inside the containment after DBAs, including loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs). The purpose of this study is to give regulative insights into the importance of input variables in the analysis of containment responses to a large break LOCA (LBLOCA). For the sensitivity study, a LBLOCA in Kori 3 and 4 nuclear power plant (NPP) is analyzed by CONTEMPT-LT computer code

  14. Sensitivity Study on Analysis of Reactor Containment Response to LOCA

    Chung, Ku Young; Sung, Key Yong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    As a reactor containment vessel is the final barrier to the release of radioactive material during design basis accidents (DBAs), its structural integrity must be maintained by withstanding the high pressure conditions resulting from DBAs. To verify the structural integrity of the containment, response analyses are performed to get the pressure transient inside the containment after DBAs, including loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs). The purpose of this study is to give regulative insights into the importance of input variables in the analysis of containment responses to a large break LOCA (LBLOCA). For the sensitivity study, a LBLOCA in Kori 3 and 4 nuclear power plant (NPP) is analyzed by CONTEMPT-LT computer code

  15. CT versus FDG-PET/CT response evaluation in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan and cetuximab

    Skougaard, Kristin; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth; Nielsen, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    included in a phase II trial and treated with cetuximab and irinotecan every second week. They underwent FDG-PET/CT examination at baseline and after every fourth treatment cycle. Response evaluation was performed prospectively according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1...

  16. Biological and Theoretical Studies of Adaptive Networks: The Conditioned Response.

    1992-06-30

    suggest experimental tests and provide direction for physiological studies. 14 SU~la TIPO ~IS- NIJUMS Of PAGIS 17. @1d-ftA ITY CLASSIPtCATICON...mancte suditioned inhibition of the rabbit’s nictitating membrane response, CI tasks require the active suppression of CRs in the Bull . Psychon. Soc., 20... Bull ., 84 (1977) encephalon and mesencephalon26. 690-711. Several lines of evidence suggest that the septal and 8 Evans,J.A.C. and Thornton, E.W

  17. Contrasting motivational orientation and evaluative coding accounts: On the need to differentiate the effectors of approach/avoidance responses

    Julia eKozlik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several emotion theorists suggest that valenced stimuli automatically trigger motivational orientations and thereby facilitate corresponding behavior. Positive stimuli were thought to activate approach motivational circuits which in turn primed approach-related behavioral tendencies whereas negative stimuli were supposed to activate avoidance motivational circuits so that avoidance-related behavioral tendencies were primed (motivational orientation account. However, recent research suggests that typically observed affective stimulus–response compatibility phenomena might be entirely explained in terms of theories accounting for mechanisms of general action control instead of assuming motivational orientations to mediate the effects (evaluative coding account. In what follows, we explore to what extent this notion is applicable. We present literature suggesting that evaluative coding mechanisms indeed influence a wide variety of affective stimulus–response compatibility phenomena. However, the evaluative coding account does not seem to be sufficient to explain affective S–R compatibility effects. Instead, several studies provide clear evidence in favor of the motivational orientation account that seems to operate independently of evaluative coding mechanisms. Implications for theoretical developments and future research designs are discussed.

  18. Contrasting motivational orientation and evaluative coding accounts: on the need to differentiate the effectors of approach/avoidance responses.

    Kozlik, Julia; Neumann, Roland; Lozo, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Several emotion theorists suggest that valenced stimuli automatically trigger motivational orientations and thereby facilitate corresponding behavior. Positive stimuli were thought to activate approach motivational circuits which in turn primed approach-related behavioral tendencies whereas negative stimuli were supposed to activate avoidance motivational circuits so that avoidance-related behavioral tendencies were primed (motivational orientation account). However, recent research suggests that typically observed affective stimulus-response compatibility phenomena might be entirely explained in terms of theories accounting for mechanisms of general action control instead of assuming motivational orientations to mediate the effects (evaluative coding account). In what follows, we explore to what extent this notion is applicable. We present literature suggesting that evaluative coding mechanisms indeed inf