WorldWideScience

Sample records for responses resultant products

  1. Human antibody responses to Schistosoma mansoni: does antigen directed, isotype restriction result in the production of blocking antibodies?

    David W. Dunne

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available After treatment young Kenyan schoolchildren are highly susceptible to reinfection with Schistosoma mansoni. Older children and adults are resistant to reinfection. There is no evidence that this age related resistance is due to a slow development of protective immunological mechanisms, rather, it appears that young children are susceptible because of the presence of blocking antibodies which decline with age, thus allowing the expression of protective responses. Correlations between antibody responses to different stages of the parasite life-cycle suggest that, in young children, antigen directed, isotype restriction of the response against cross-reactive polysaccharide egg antigens results in an ineffectual, or even blocking antibody response to the schistosomulum.

  2. RESULTS, RESPONSIBILITY, FAULT AND CONTROL

    Evgeniy Stoyanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the responsibility arising from the registered financial results. The analysis of this responsibility presupposes its evaluation and determination of the role of fault in the formation of negative results. The search for efficiency in this whole process is justified by the understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the behavior of economic actors.

  3. CELLO results on multiparticle production

    Podobrin, O.

    1991-10-01

    In this talk result from CELLO on multiparticle production in e + e - annihilation are presented. The three-dimensional distribution of charged particles, and its one- and two-dimensional projections, are extensively studied through the bin-size dependence of their factorial moments. The data are found to have an excellent description by standard Monte Carlo models. This implies an explanation of the observed intermittency behaviour in terms of known physics. The study is extended by an analysis of two-particle rapidity correlations. (orig.)

  4. Synergistic immune responses induced by endogenous retrovirus and herpesvirus antigens result in increased production of inflammatory cytokines in multiple sclerosis patients

    Brudek, T; Christensen, T; Hansen, H J

    2008-01-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) and herpesviruses are increasingly associated with the pathogenesis of the neurological inflammatory disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Herpesviruses are capable of HERV activation and simultaneous presence of HERV and herpesvirus antigens have a synergistic...... effect on cell-mediated immune responses, which tend to be higher in MS patients in comparison with healthy individuals. Here, we investigate whether these synergistic immune responses are reflected in changes in the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...

  5. T-Cell-Specific Loss of the PI-3-Kinase p110α Catalytic Subunit Results in Enhanced Cytokine Production and Antitumor Response

    Laura Aragoneses-Fenoll

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K catalytic subunits p110α and p110δ are targets in cancer therapy expressed at high levels in T lymphocytes. The role of p110δ PI3K in normal or pathological immune responses is well established, yet the importance of p110α subunits in T cell-dependent immune responses is not clear. To address this problem, mice with p110α conditionally deleted in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes (p110α−/−ΔT were used. p110α−/−ΔT mice show normal development of T cell subsets, but slightly reduced numbers of CD4+ T cells in the spleen. “In vitro,” TCR/CD3 plus CD28 activation of naive CD4+ and CD8+ p110α−/−ΔT T cells showed enhanced effector function, particularly IFN-γ secretion, T-bet induction, and Akt, Erk, or P38 activation. Tfh derived from p110α−/−ΔT cells also have enhanced responses when compared to normal mice, and IL-2 expanded p110α−/−ΔT CD8+ T cells had enhanced levels of LAMP-1 and Granzyme B. By contrast, the expansion of p110α−/−ΔT iTreg cells was diminished. Also, p110α−/−ΔT mice had enhanced anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH IFN-γ, or IL-4 responses and IgG1 and IgG2b anti-KLH antibodies, using CFA or Alum as adjuvant, respectively. When compared to WT mice, p110α−/−ΔT mice inoculated with B16.F10 melanoma showed delayed tumor progression. The percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes was higher and the percentage of Treg cells lower in the spleen of tumor-bearing p110α−/−ΔT mice. Also, IFN-γ production in tumor antigen-activated spleen cells was enhanced. Thus, PI3K p110α plays a significant role in antigen activation and differentiation of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes modulating antitumor immunity.

  6. Recent ATLAS Results in Charmonium Production

    Reznicek, Pavel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Recent results of production of charmonium in pp and heavy-ion collisions at ATLAS. Production of $J/\\psi$ and $\\psi$(2S) in 7 and 8 TeV pp collisions. Production of $J/\\psi$, $\\psi$(2S) and $\\Upsilon$(nS) in 5.02 TeV pp and p+Pb collisions.

  7. Recent ATLAS Results in Charmonium Production

    Reznicek, Pavel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Production of heavy flavoured hadrons can serve as a probe of QCD processes and, in the case of production in heavy ion collisions, also as a probe of the properties of deconfined quark-gluon plasma. This paper describes the latest results in the production of charmonium at the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The presented analyses include production of $J/\\psi$ and $\\psi$(2S) in $pp$ collisions and $\\sqrt{s} =$7, 8 and 13 TeV, and production of $J/\\psi$, $\\psi$(2S) and $\\Upsilon$(nS) in $pp$ and $p$+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$5.02 TeV. In both the analyses prompt and non-prompt production is disentangled. In the latter analysis production suppression in $p$+Pb with respect to $pp$ collisions is measured and emphasis is put on the collision centrality dependence.

  8. Planck 2015 results: I. Overview of products and scientific results

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration released the second set of cosmology products based ondata from the entire Planck mission, including both temperature and polarization, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the main characteristics of the data...... and the data products in the release, as well as the associated cosmological and astrophysical science results and papers. The data products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, diffuse foregrounds in temperature and polarization, catalogues of compact...... against the Planck data is described, along with a CMB lensing likelihood. Scientific results include cosmological parameters derived from CMB power spectra, gravitational lensing, and cluster counts, as well as constraints on inflation, non-Gaussianity, primordial magnetic fields, dark energy...

  9. New experimental results on strangeness production

    Sapozhnikov, M.G.

    1998-01-01

    New experimental results on the production of φ and f 2 ' (1525) mesons in the annihilation of stopped antiprotons are discussed. The explanation of these facts in the framework of the polarized strangeness model is considered

  10. Planck 2015 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Alves, M.I.R.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Casaponsa, B.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Chluba, J.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Eisenhardt, P.R.M.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Farhang, M.; Feeney, S.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Feroz, F.; Finelli, F.; Florido, E.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Genova-Santos, R.T.; Gerbino, M.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Giusarma, E.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Grainge, K.J.B.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Handley, W.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Ilic, S.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jin, T.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Karakci, A.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J.P.; Lellouch, E.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lindholm, V.; Liu, H.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Ma, Y.Z.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Mak, D.S.Y.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Marinucci, D.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J.D.; McGehee, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moreno, R.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Mottet, S.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nastasi, A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Olamaie, M.; Oppermann, N.; Orlando, E.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Peel, M.; Peiris, H.V.; Pelkonen, V.M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrott, Y.C.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Romelli, E.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; d'Orfeuil, B.Rouille; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rumsey, C.; Rusholme, B.; Said, N.; Salvatelli, V.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Sanghera, H.S.; Santos, D.; Saunders, R.D.E.; Sauve, A.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B.M.; Schammel, M.P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shimwell, T.W.; Shiraishi, M.; Smith, K.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L.D.; Spinelli, M.; Stanford, S.A.; Stern, D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A.W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Tristram, M.; Troja, A.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vassallo, T.; Vidal, M.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I.K.; Welikala, N.; Weller, J.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J.P.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched 14~May 2009 and scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12~August 2009 and 23~October 2013. In February~2015, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the second set of cosmology products based on data from the entire Planck mission, including both temperature and polarization, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the main characteristics of the data and the data products in the release, as well as the associated cosmological and astrophysical science results and papers. The science products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, and diffuse foregrounds in temperature and polarization, catalogues of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources (including separate catalogues of Sunyaev-Zeldovich clusters and Galactic col...

  11. Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bowyer, J.W.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carr, R.; Casale, M.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Foley, S.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Freschi, M.; Fromenteau, S.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Gallegos, J.; Gandolfo, B.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Haissinski, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lowe, S.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McDonald, A.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miniscalco, R.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Smoot, G.F.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Taylor, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Tuttlebee, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Watson, C.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The ESA's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early universe, was launched on May 2009 and has been surveying the microwave and submillimetre sky since August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration publicly released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.5 months of Planck operations, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper describes the mission and its performance, and gives an overview of the processing and analysis of the data, the characteristics of the data, the main scientific results, and the science data products and papers in the release. Scientific results include robust support for the standard, six parameter LCDM model of cosmology and improved measurements for the parameters that define this model, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum. The Planck values for some of these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different fr...

  12. Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    , and the science data products and papers in the release. Scientific results include robust support for the standard, six parameter LCDM model of cosmology and improved measurements for the parameters that define this model, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power......The ESA's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early universe, was launched on May 2009 and has been surveying the microwave and submillimetre sky since August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration publicly released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.......5 months of Planck operations, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper describes the mission and its performance, and gives an overview of the processing and analysis of the data, the characteristics of the data, the main scientific results...

  13. Theoretical Results in Heavy Flavour Production

    Kramer, G.

    2011-01-01

    We review one-particle inclusive production of heavy-flavoured hadrons in a framework which resums the large collinear logarithms through the evolution of the FFs and PDFs and retains the dependence on the heavy-quark mass. We focus on presenting results for the inclusive cross section for the production of charmed mesons in pp-bar collisions and the comparison with CDF data as well as on inclusive B-meson production and comparison with recent CDF data, for which in both new determined fragmentation functions have been used. We asses the sensitivity of CDF data of D 0 inclusive production to the internal charm parametrization given by Pumplin et al. [J. Pumplin, H. L. Lai and W. K. Tung, Phys. Rev. D75, 054029 (2007)].

  14. Consumers' physiological and verbal responses towards product packages: Could these responses anticipate product choices?

    Vila-López, Natalia; Küster-Boluda, Inés

    2018-03-03

    Today, it is a priority to predict what consumers will choose at the point of sale where there are more and more competing brands. But what kind of consumers' information can be used for that purpose? This paper compares the power of physiological responses (unconscious responses) and self-report/verbal responses (conscious responses) towards product packages, as a means of predicting product choices. To this end, six different packaging designs were created by combining three different colors (blue, red and black) and two different messages (simple and reinforced). Eighty-three young consumers were exposed to each of the six designs. In one phase of our investigation, unconscious electrodermal activity (EDA) for each participant and each packaging type was recorded. In another phase, conscious verbal opinions for each packaging type were collected in a questionnaire. Our results show that the blue packaging with a reinforced message was most often selected. For this packaging consumers' electrodermal values (unconscious responses) were lower, and verbal opinions (conscious responses) were higher. Thus, both data sets could be used to anticipate product choice. However, for the other five packages, only unconscious responses were related to product choices. In contrast, higher opinions in a questionnaire did not correspond to selection of packages. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. New results on flavor production at PEP

    Barbaro-Galtieri, A.

    1984-05-01

    This report includes results from five PEP detectors: DELCO, HRS, MAC, MARK II and TPC. All, except the TPC, are presently taking data at PEP. The TPC is being upgraded: a new superconducting coil is being installed and other improvements are being implemented. The results discussed here are either new or improved since the Cornell Conference. New results on Particle Searches and a limit on neutrino generations are discussed. New data are included on weak couplings of c and b quarks. Various new results on hadron production are reported. All data were obtained in e +- collisions with total energy √s=29 GeV. 54 references

  16. Production LHC HTS power lead test results

    Tartaglia, M; Fehér, S; Huang, Y; Orris, D F; Pischalnikov, Y; Rabehl, Roger Jon; Sylvester, C D; Zbasnik, J

    2005-01-01

    The Fermilab Magnet test facility has built and operated a test stand to characterize the performance of HTS power leads. We report here the results of production tests of 20 pairs of 7.5 kA HTS power leads manufactured by industry for installation in feed boxes for the LHC Interaction Region quadrupole strings. Included are discussions of the thermal, electrical, and quench characteristics under "standard" and "extreme" operating conditions, and the stability of performance across thermal cycles.

  17. Production LHC HTS power lead test results

    Tartaglia, M.A.; Carcagno, R.H.; Feher, S.; Huang, Y.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Rabehl, R.J.; Sylvester, C.; Zbasnik, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Fermilab Magnet test facility has built and operated a test stand to characterize the performance of HTS power leads. We report here the results of production tests of 20 pairs of 7.5 kA HTS power leads manufactured by industry for installation in feed boxes for the LHC Interaction Region quadrupole strings. Included are discussions of the thermal, electrical, and quench characteristics under ''standard'' and ''extreme'' operating conditions, and the stability of performance across thermal cycles

  18. ATLAS results on diffraction and exclusive production

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00224260; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Various aspects of forward physics have been studied by the ATLAS collaboration using data from Run I at the LHC. In this text, main results of three published analyses are summarized, based on data from proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ or 8 TeV collected between 2010 and 2012. One analysis deals with diffractive signature with at least two jets in the final state, the other two study exclusive production of a pair of leptons or W bosons.

  19. Note: How Does Product Proliferation Affect Responsiveness?

    Diwakar Gupta; Mandyam M. Srinivasan

    1998-01-01

    In this note we consider some strategies that a manufacturing firm may use to deal with an increase in the variety of products it offers. We indicate how alternate strategies for dealing with product proliferation impact the firm's responsiveness, measured in terms of average production lead time and average work-in-process inventory. Focusing on the make-to-order environment and using queueing models, we derive conditions under which an increase in product variety can improve both individual...

  20. Production capability: ERDA methods and results

    Klemenic, J.

    1977-01-01

    Production centers are categorized into four classes, according to the relative certainty of future production. A ''forward cost'' basis is used to establish both the resource base and to define the acceptable production centers. The first phase of the work is called the ''Could'' capability. Resources are assigned to existing production centers, or new production centers are postulated based on adequate resources to support a mill for a reasonable economic life. A production schedule is developed for each center. The last step in the ''Could'' study is to aggregate the capital and operating costs. The final step in the Production Capability study is the rescheduling of the production from the ''Could'' to produce only sufficient U concentrate to meet the feed requirements of enrichment facilities operated at the announced transaction tails assay plans. The optimized production schedules are called the ''Need'' production capability. A separate study was also performed of industry production plans. 4 tables, 7 figs

  1. Recent ALICE results on hadronic resonance production

    Badalà, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Hadronic resonances are a valuable tool to study the properties of the medium formed in heavy-ion collisions. In particular, they can provide information on particle-formation mechanisms and on the properties of the medium at chemical freeze-out. Furthermore they contribute to the systematic study of parton energy loss and quark recombination. Measurements of resonances in pp and in p-Pb collisions provide a necessary baseline for heavy-ion data and help to disentangle initial-state effects from medium-induced effects. In this paper the latest ALICE results on mid-rapidity K*(892)^0 and {\\phi}(1020) production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at LHC energies are presented

  2. Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; North, C; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Santos, D; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) spectral response was determined through a series of ground based tests conducted with the HFI focal plane in a cryogenic environment prior to launch. The main goal of the spectral transmission tests was to measure the relative spectral response (including out-of-band signal rejection) of all HFI detectors. This was determined by measuring the output of a continuously scanned Fourier transform spectrometer coupled with all HFI detectors. As there is no on-board spectrometer within HFI, the ground-based spectral response experiments provide the definitive data set for the relative spectral calibration of the HFI. The spectral response of the HFI is used in Planck data analysis and component separation, this includes extraction of CO emission observed within Planck bands, dust emission, Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources, and intensity to polarization leakage. The HFI spectral response data have also been used to provide unit conversion and colour correction analysis tools. Ver...

  3. Extended Producer Responsibility and Product Stewardship for Tobacco Product Waste.

    Curtis, Clifton; Collins, Susan; Cunningham, Shea; Stigler, Paula; Novotny, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews several environmental principles, including Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), Product Stewardship (PS), the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP), and the Precautionary Principle, as they may apply to tobacco product waste (TPW). The review addresses specific criteria that apply in deciding whether a particular toxic product should adhere to these principles; presents three case studies of similar approaches to other toxic and/or environmentally harmful products; and describes 10 possible interventions or policy actions that may help prevent, reduce, and mitigate the effects of TPW. EPR promotes total lifecycle environmental improvements, placing economic, physical, and informational responsibilities onto the tobacco industry, while PS complements EPR, but with responsibility shared by all parties involved in the tobacco product lifecycle. Both principles focus on toxic source reduction, post-consumer take-back, and final disposal of consumer products. These principles when applied to TPW have the potential to substantially decrease the environmental and public health harms of cigarette butts and other TPW throughout the world. TPW is the most commonly littered item picked up during environmental, urban, and coastal cleanups globally.

  4. Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    -of-band signal rejection) of all HFI detectors to a known source of electromagnetic radiation individually. This was determined by measuring the output of all detection channels for radiation propagated through a continuously scanned polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer. As there is no on-board spectrometer......, dust emission, Sunyaev Zeldovich sources, and intensity to polarization leakage. The HFI spectral response data have also been used to provide unit conversion and colour correction analysis tools. While previous papers have already described the pre-flight experiments conducted on the Planck HFI...

  5. Method for Developing Descriptions of Hard-to-Price Products: Results of the Telecommunications Product Study

    Conrad, F.; Tonn, B.

    1999-05-01

    This report presents the results of a study to test a new method for developing descriptions of hard-to-price products. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is responsible for collecting data to estimate price indices such as the Consumers Price Index (BLS) is responsible for collecting data to estimate price indices such as the Consumers Price Index (CPI). BLS accomplishes this task by sending field staff to places of business to price actual products. The field staff are given product checklists to help them determine whether products found today are comparable to products priced the previous month. Prices for non-comparable products are not included in the current month's price index calculations. A serious problem facing BLS is developing product checklists for dynamic product areas, new industries, and the service sector. It is difficult to keep checklists up-to-date and quite often simply to develop checklists for service industry products. Some people estimates that upwards of 50 % of US economic activity is not accounted for in the CPI

  6. Results of the Fermilab wire production program

    Strauss, B.P.; Remsbottom, R.H.; Reardon, P.J.; Curtis, C.W.; McDonald, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    In examining the various schedules of wire drawing and heat treating, the Critchlow type of schedule provided the highest and most uniform data from billet to billet. It consists of a long anneal at 400 +- 20 0 C at a cold work point giving about 99 percent reduction in area from the extrusion size. Several quick copper anneals at 300 0 C may be interspersed to aid in fabrication. A final anneal at finished size both peaks up the resistivity ratio of the copper as well as the critical current of the alloy by moving dislocations to subcell walls. Using this method, critical currents of 1.7 x 10 5 A/cm 2 could be maintained in all billets. The copper cladding and sinking method looks promising and should save production costs. In spite of this, it was important to attain good packing density in the billets to assure uniform filament pattern and reduce breakage in wire drawing. Overall, a procedure was found for fabricating wire in large production lots that would be acceptable for constructing dipole magnets. It is felt that this method could be peaked up with time

  7. Resveratrol products resulting by free radical attack

    Bader, Yvonne; Quint, R.M. [Section Radiation Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, UZAII, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Getoff, Nikola [Section Radiation Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, UZAII, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.at

    2008-06-15

    Trans-resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), which is contained in red wine and many plants, is one of the most relevant and extensively investigated stilbenes with a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among other duties, RES has been reported to have anti-carcinogenetic activities, which could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. The degradation of RES was studied under various conditions. The products (aldehydes, carboxylic acids, etc.) generated from RES by the attack of free radicals were registered as a function of the radical concentration (absorbed radiation dose). Based on the obtained data it appears that the OH radicals are initiating the rather complicated process, which involves of the numerous consecutive reactions. A possible starting reaction mechanism is presented.

  8. PHENIX results on open heavy flavor production

    Hachiya, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    PHENIX measures the open heavy flavor productions in p + p, Cu+Au, and Au+Au collisions at = 200 and 510 GeV using the silicon tracking detectors for mid- and forward rapidities. In Au+Au collisions, the nuclear modification of single electrons from bottom and charm hadron decays are measured for minimum bias and most central collisions. It is found that bottoms are less suppressed than charms in pT=3-5 GeV/c and charms in most central collisions are more suppressed than that in minimum bias collisions. In p + p and Cu+Au collisions, J/ψ from B meson decays are measured at forward and backward rapidities. The nuclear modification of B mesons in Cu+Au collisions is consistent with unity.

  9. UI Review Results and NARAC Response

    Fisher, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eme, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kim, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fischer, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Donetti, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-08

    This report describes the results of an inter-program design review completed February 16th, 2017, during the second year of a FY16-FY18 NA-84 Technology Integration (TI) project to modernize the core software system used in DOE/NNSA's National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC, narac.llnl.gov). This review focused on the graphical user interfaces (GUI) frameworks. Reviewers (described in Appendix 2) were selected from multiple areas of the LLNL Computation directorate, based on their expertise in GUI and Web technologies.

  10. Productivity results of nuclear information systems

    Groves, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The information necessary to manage a nuclear generation station and multiple stations is greater today than ever before. The management of the processes necessary to develop information from data requires professional management and a programmatic approach. The cost is not insignificant. But the cost of not facing this challenge squarely is greater. The San Onofre Nuclear Generation Plant has developed the Nuclear Information Services function to assist management and professionals at all levels with their information needs. Often, this is merely giving them the tools they need to do it themselves. Herein contains a selection of specific examples that urges officer and senior level management to review the concept of the Nuclear Information Services function in more depth to determine the appropriateness of such an approach within their organizations. The establishment of on line computerized systems for the majority of the work flow processes and administrative process has resulted in an estimate 190 less people needed. The Health Physics Automated Access Control System (AACS) implementation resulted in a savings of $800,000 a year. The implementation of a Site Procedures Information Network (SPIN) has saved $160,000 per year

  11. Neural Synchrony during Response Production and Inhibition

    Müller, Viktor; Anokhin, Andrey P.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of irrelevant information (conflict monitoring) and/or of prepotent actions is an essential component of adaptive self-organized behavior. Neural dynamics underlying these functions has been studied in humans using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited in Go/NoGo tasks that require a speeded motor response to the Go stimuli and withholding a prepotent response when a NoGo stimulus is presented. However, averaged ERP waveforms provide only limited information about the neuronal mechanisms underlying stimulus processing, motor preparation, and response production or inhibition. In this study, we examine the cortical representation of conflict monitoring and response inhibition using time-frequency analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings during continuous performance Go/NoGo task in 50 young adult females. We hypothesized that response inhibition would be associated with a transient boost in both temporal and spatial synchronization of prefrontal cortical activity, consistent with the role of the anterior cingulate and lateral prefrontal cortices in cognitive control. Overall, phase synchronization across trials measured by Phase Locking Index and phase synchronization between electrode sites measured by Phase Coherence were the highest in the Go and NoGo conditions, intermediate in the Warning condition, and the lowest under Neutral condition. The NoGo condition was characterized by significantly higher fronto-central synchronization in the 300–600 ms window, whereas in the Go condition, delta- and theta-band synchronization was higher in centro-parietal regions in the first 300 ms after the stimulus onset. The present findings suggest that response production and inhibition is supported by dynamic functional networks characterized by distinct patterns of temporal and spatial synchronization of brain oscillations. PMID:22745691

  12. Neural synchrony during response production and inhibition.

    Viktor Müller

    Full Text Available Inhibition of irrelevant information (conflict monitoring and/or of prepotent actions is an essential component of adaptive self-organized behavior. Neural dynamics underlying these functions has been studied in humans using event-related brain potentials (ERPs elicited in Go/NoGo tasks that require a speeded motor response to the Go stimuli and withholding a prepotent response when a NoGo stimulus is presented. However, averaged ERP waveforms provide only limited information about the neuronal mechanisms underlying stimulus processing, motor preparation, and response production or inhibition. In this study, we examine the cortical representation of conflict monitoring and response inhibition using time-frequency analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG recordings during continuous performance Go/NoGo task in 50 young adult females. We hypothesized that response inhibition would be associated with a transient boost in both temporal and spatial synchronization of prefrontal cortical activity, consistent with the role of the anterior cingulate and lateral prefrontal cortices in cognitive control. Overall, phase synchronization across trials measured by Phase Locking Index and phase synchronization between electrode sites measured by Phase Coherence were the highest in the Go and NoGo conditions, intermediate in the Warning condition, and the lowest under Neutral condition. The NoGo condition was characterized by significantly higher fronto-central synchronization in the 300-600 ms window, whereas in the Go condition, delta- and theta-band synchronization was higher in centro-parietal regions in the first 300 ms after the stimulus onset. The present findings suggest that response production and inhibition is supported by dynamic functional networks characterized by distinct patterns of temporal and spatial synchronization of brain oscillations.

  13. Natural products as radiation response modifiers

    Colin Seymour; Carmel Mothersill

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Protection of cells and organisms against low doses of radiation is a complex issue which must be considered at the level of cells, tissues and organisms. 'Protection' at one level, for example, prevention of cell death, may be adverse at another level, if it allows a damaged cell to survive and form a malignant tumour. Conversely, death of a cell carrying damage can be protective for the organism if it eliminates a damaged cell. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in protection against radiation damage at several hierarchical levels. The use of natural products as radiation response modifiers is very attractive. Many of these compounds are readily available and their function and pharmacology is well understood. Some derive from venoms or natural defenses and are currently used in medicine, others include vitamins, antioxidants or cofactors, which are tried and tested nutritional supplements. Radiation effects may be targeted or untargeted. Radiation may interact directly within a cell causing a direct DNA lesion or it may elicit a bystander response from the irradiated cell. A bystander effect is produced when the irradiated cell apparently exhibits no damage from the radiation, but passes on a biochemical signal which induces neighbouring cells to apoptose or undergo a number of other responses usually associated with irradiation such as mutation induction, transformation, induction of ROS responses etc.. Effects induced in progeny of non-targeted cells in receipt of bystander signals include genetic instability, mini and microsatellite mutations and carcinogenesis. A key characteristic of these non targeted effects is that they occur at very low acute doses (of the order of 5mGy) and saturate so that effective prevention requires an agent which can effectively shut off the mechanism. While the mechanism is not fully known, it is thought to involve signals from irradiated cells communicating via

  14. The results of medical surveillance of beryllium production personnel

    Koviazin, A.; Urikh, A.; Kovianzina, L.

    2004-01-01

    The report presents results of surveillance of 1836 workers of beryllium production of Ulba Metallurgical Plant JSC with the acute and chronic forms of occupation diseases for 52 years of its operation. The dependence of acute and chronic occupation lesions on the protection degree is shown. It has been found out that, the risk of getting an occupation disease increases sharply at the moments of experimental works and at the time of reconstruction and some other extreme conditions in the production, that is supported by fixed lesions of eye mucous coat, skin and lung lesions. In this case, the readiness of people for their work in deleterious conditions and their personal responsibility for following the regulations of safety occupational standards plays a definite role. Therefore, the issues of protection are of paramount importance in prophylaxis both of acute and chronic exposure to beryllium. An influence of duration of service and occupation on chronic beryllium diseases is shown. A parallel between the lung beryllium disease and skin lesions by insoluble beryllium compounds is drawn for the first time. (author)

  15. The Reconfiguration of Service Production Systems in Response to Offshoring

    Brandl, Kristin; Mol, Michael J.; Petersen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A service production system has a structure composed of task execution, agents performing tasks and a resulting service output. The purpose of this paper is to understand how such a service production system changes as a consequence of offshoring.Design/methodology/approach: Drawing...... of a service production system in response to change ignited by offshoring. The authors find recurring effects between structures that enable and constrain agents and agents who shape the structure of the production system. Research limitations/implications: The paper offers a novel contribution to the service...... operations management literature by applying practice theory. Moreover, the authors propose a detailed, activity-driven view of service production systems and service offshoring. The authors contribute to practice theory by extending its domain to operations management.Practical implications...

  16. Barn Owl Productivity Response to Variability of Vole Populations.

    Petr Pavluvčík

    Full Text Available We studied the response of the barn owl annual productivity to the common vole population numbers and variability to test the effects of environmental stochasticity on their life histories. Current theory predicts that temporal environmental variability can affect long-term nonlinear responses (e.g., production of young both positively and negatively, depending on the shape of the relationship between the response and environmental variables. At the level of the Czech Republic, we examined the shape of the relationship between the annual sum of fledglings (annual productivity and vole numbers in both non-detrended and detrended data. At the districts' level, we explored whether the degree of synchrony (measured by the correlation coefficient and the strength of the productivity response increase (measured by the regression coefficient in areas with higher vole population variability measured by the s-index. We found that the owls' annual productivity increased linearly with vole numbers in the Czech Republic. Furthermore, based on district data, we also found that synchrony between dynamics in owls' reproductive output and vole numbers increased with vole population variability. However, the strength of the response was not affected by the vole population variability. Additionally, we have shown that detrending remarkably increases the Taylor's exponent b relating variance to mean in vole time series, thereby reversing the relationship between the coefficient of variation and the mean. This shift was not responsible for the increased synchrony with vole population variability. Instead, we suggest that higher synchrony could result from high food specialization of owls on the common vole in areas with highly fluctuating vole populations.

  17. Dynamic strategic responses among advertisers: the case of meat products

    Jeffrey Hyde; Brent Gloy

    2007-01-01

    The case of strategic advertising response is examined for branded and generic meat products (beef, pork, and poultry). A dynamic conceptual model is developed to identify the determinants of advertising expenditures. A time-series model is then used to examine the competitive behavior of branded and generic meat advertisers. The results identify two types of advertising strategies those based upon changes in revenues and those based upon changes in competitor advertising expenditures. Most g...

  18. Results from CERN experiment NA36 on strangeness production

    1991-12-01

    Measurements of the production of strange particles in the reactions S + Pb and S + S at beam momentum 200GeV/c per nucleon are presented. A short description of CERN experiment NA36 and the methods of raw data analysis, is followed by physics results concentrating on the dependence of strange particle production on multiplicity. Transverse momentum distributions are also presented

  19. A physiological production model for cacao : results of model simulations

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    CASE2 is a physiological model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growth and yield. This report introduces the CAcao Simulation Engine for water-limited production in a non-technical way and presents simulation results obtained with the model.

  20. Recent experimental results on Coherent Pion production in neutrino interactions

    Camilleri, L. [Columbia University, Nevis Labs Irvington on Hudson, New York 10533 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Recent experimental results on charged current ({pi}{sup +}) coherent production by KEK and SciBooNE and neutral current ({pi}{sup 0}) production by MiniBooNE, SciBooNE and NOMAD will be discussed. The NOMAD results are at an average neutrino energy of 25 GeV whereas the energies of the other experiments are in an average energy range of 1-2 GeV. A comparison with some theoretical models will be presented.

  1. Results on QCD jet production at ATLAS and CMS

    Meyer, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    The production of jets at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at √(s)=7 TeV is summarized, including results from both ATLAS and CMS detectors. Current jet performance is described, followed by inclusive jet and multi-jet measurements in various final state configurations. Finally some results on heavy flavour and jet substructure are presented. (author)

  2. Optimization of soybean \\'dawadawa\\' production, using response ...

    dawadawa\\'. Response surface experimental design with 53 combinations in replicate was used to optimize the six processing variables. This was used to determine the optimum combinations of five processing variables that will produce the most ...

  3. Comprehensive Evaluation of Algal Biofuel Production: Experimental and Target Results

    Colin M. Beal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, algal biofuel research and development efforts have focused on increasing the competitiveness of algal biofuels by increasing the energy and financial return on investments, reducing water intensity and resource requirements, and increasing algal productivity. In this study, analyses are presented in each of these areas—costs, resource needs, and productivity—for two cases: (1 an Experimental Case, using mostly measured data for a lab-scale system, and (2 a theorized Highly Productive Case that represents an optimized commercial-scale production system, albeit one that relies on full-price water, nutrients, and carbon dioxide. For both cases, the analysis described herein concludes that the energy and financial return on investments are less than 1, the water intensity is greater than that for conventional fuels, and the amounts of required resources at a meaningful scale of production amount to significant fractions of current consumption (e.g., nitrogen. The analysis and presentation of results highlight critical areas for advancement and innovation that must occur for sustainable and profitable algal biofuel production can occur at a scale that yields significant petroleum displacement. To this end, targets for energy consumption, production cost, water consumption, and nutrient consumption are presented that would promote sustainable algal biofuel production. Furthermore, this work demonstrates a procedure and method by which subsequent advances in technology and biotechnology can be framed to track progress.

  4. 7 CFR 760.812 - Production losses; participant responsibility.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production losses; participant responsibility. 760.812....812 Production losses; participant responsibility. (a) Where available and determined accurate by FSA, RMA loss records will be used for insured crops. (b) If RMA loss records are not available, or if the...

  5. Retail Structured Products for Socially Responsible Investments

    Jessen, Pernille

    Institutional investors are the main drivers of demand for socially responsible investment (SRI). Preferences for non- nancial goals such as social and environmental sustainability are also held by small retail agents who, nonetheless, are almost non-existent in the market. This paper studies how...... and when it can be utility enhancing to engage in SRI: It proposes a quantitative method to incorporate responsibility into the investment decision and investigates how structured financial instruments can facilitate access to SRI for small retail agents. The goal is to demonstrate market potential...

  6. Adolescents' Responses to Sports Figure Product Endorsement.

    McDermott, Steven T.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reports a survey of sixth, eighth, and tenth graders to assess the relationship between exposure to television advertisements containing sports celebrity endorsements of smokeless tobacco products with attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions about the use of smokeless tobacco. Reports that a simple exposure model does not explain the effects of…

  7. New results from PETRA on fragmentation and neutral particles production

    Fournier, Daniel.

    1981-10-01

    New results on the neutral component of jets are presented, including first measurements of π 0 production. Then a short review is made of the description of multihadronic events by first order QCD and fragmentation models, and some differences between the Lund and Feynman-Field models are analyzed

  8. Latest Results On Jet Production and Properties from the LHC

    Jones, G

    2012-01-01

    Investigations of jets performed by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations using collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV are described. To pics of interest are jet performance, production and the precision measurement of their properties. Comparison of the results to theoretical predictions are discussed and areas with poor agreement identified.

  9. ψ -ontology result without the Cartesian product assumption

    Myrvold, Wayne C.

    2018-05-01

    We introduce a weakening of the preparation independence postulate of Pusey et al. [Nat. Phys. 8, 475 (2012), 10.1038/nphys2309] that does not presuppose that the space of ontic states resulting from a product-state preparation can be represented by the Cartesian product of subsystem state spaces. On the basis of this weakened assumption, it is shown that, in any model that reproduces the quantum probabilities, any pair of pure quantum states |ψ >,|ϕ > with ≤1 /√{2 } must be ontologically distinct.

  10. Recent results on new particle production at SPEAR

    Schwitters, R.

    1977-08-01

    Evidence for and properties of the charmed mesons D 0 , D/sup +-/, and their excited states is considered. Some very recent results on the structure of R, the ratio of the total cross section for hadron production by e + e - annihilation to the point-like muon pair cross section, in the center-of-mass energy region near 4 GeV are discussed. Evidence for D states, mass, spin, mixing, production cross sections, decay properties, and the observation of the psi (3772) are discussed. 38 references

  11. Latest results on Z boson production from LHCb

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Recent measurements of Z boson production using data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV by the LHCb experiment are presented. These measurements test QCD and electroweak theory and can provide constraints on the proton parton distribution functions. Inclusive and differential cross-section measurements for Z bosons, decaying into di-muon, di-electron, and di-tau final states, and a measurement of the production of jets of particles in association with a Z boson are presented. The results are found to be in agreement with theoretical predictions with recently calculated parton distribution functions.

  12. LHCf: physics results on forward particle production at LHC

    Adriani, O

    2013-01-01

    The LHCf experiment is dedicated to the measurement of very forward particle production in the high energy hadron-hadron collisions at LHC, with the aim of improving the cosmic-ray air shower developments models. The detector has taken data in p-p collisions at $\\sqrt s$ = 900 GeV, 2.76 TeV and 7 TeV, and in p/Pb collisions at $\\sqrt s$ = 5 TeV. The results of forward production spectra of photons, neutral pions and neutrons, compared with the models most widely used in the High Energy Cosmic Ray physics, are presented in this paper.

  13. Recent ATLAS results on inclusive and differential top quark production

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Recent results from measurements of top quark pair and single top production by the ATLAS experiment are presented. Final inclusive and differential results from Run 1 are shown along with a first look at the 13 TeV data. Measurements of single top quark production in all three possible modes have been performed at ATLAS at 8 TeV. The first 13 TeV data was used to measure the t-channel production cross section, showing good agreement with the prediction. The Run 1 data was used to measure particle and parton level differential cross sections in top-pair events over a wide range of phase-space up to high masses, high momentum or high jet multiplicity. These results are compared to state-of-the-art NLO Monte Carlo predictions. A number of parton level results are compared to recent NNLO differential distributions, which show good agreement with the data. Results in both the lepton-plus-jets and dilepton channels are shown. The 2015 data at 13 TeV has allowed us to measure the additional jet multiplicity in dile...

  14. Technology benefits resulting from accelerator production of tritium

    1998-01-01

    One of the early and most dramatic uses of nuclear transformations was in development of the nuclear weapons that brought World War II to an end. Despite that difficult introduction, nuclear weapons technology has been used largely as a deterrent to war throughout the latter half of the twentieth century. The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) offers a clean, safe, and reliable means of producing the tritium (a heavy form of hydrogen) needed to maintain the nuclear deterrent. Tritium decays away naturally at a rate of about 5.5% per year; therefore, the tritium reservoirs in nuclear weapons must be periodically replenished. In recent years this has been accomplished by recycling tritium from weapons being retired from the stockpile. Although this strategy has served well since the last US tritium production reactor was shut down in 1988, a new tritium production capability will be required within ten years. Some benefits will result from direct utilization of some of the APT proton beam; others could result from advances in the technologies of particle accelerators and high power spallation targets. The APT may save thousands of lives through the production of medical isotopes, and it may contribute to solving the nation's problem in disposing of long-lived nuclear wastes. But the most significant benefit may come from advancing the technology, so that the great potential of accelerator applications can be realized during our lifetimes

  15. Results from oil spill response research - an update

    Tennyson, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent large oil spills from tankers have reaffirmed the need for continuing technology assessment and research to improve oil spill response capabilities. This paper discusses Minerals Management Service concerns, as reinforced by the acceleration of its research program in 1990. It briefly assesses current state-of-the-art technology for major aspects of spill response, including remote sensing, open-ocean containment and recovery, in-situ burning, use of chemical treating agents, beachline cleanup, and oil behavior. Specific research projects have begun to yield information that will improve detection and at-sea equipment performance; current projects include the development of an airborne laser-fluorosensor to determine whether apparent slicks contain oil. Additional projects involve the development of improved strategies for responding to oil in broken-ice conditions, for gaining an improved understanding of the fate and behavior of spilled oil as it affects response strategies, and for defining the capabilities of available dispersants and development of improved formulations. Recently, progress has been made on the development of safe and environmentally acceptable strategies to burn spilled oil in situ. The Ohmsett facility has been reopened and will be used to test prospective improvements in chemical treating agents and to develop standard procedures for testing and evaluating response equipment. Results of research published since the last Oil Spill Conference are discussed

  16. Parents' responses to their children's wishes for advertised products

    Polona Gradišek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In our study we investigated how children express their wishes for products advertised on television and how parents respond to their children's wishes. 133 parents of children between 3 and 9 years of age filled in three questionnaires: Questionnaire on children's and parents' response to television advertising, Parental control of children's television viewing (an adapted version and Family functioning scales. Results have shown that children usually tell their parents about their wishes or ask for a specific product several times. They rarely nag with the intention of getting a product. Parents react differently to their children's wishes: most of them usually explain to their children that they cannot get everything they want or they reconsider whether the child really needs a certain product. They rarely come up with excuses. We have found significant correlations between parents' purchasing styles and their reactions to children's requests. Those parents who tend to buy items which they were not planning to get, comply their children's wishes more often than those who stick to what they intended to purchase in the first place. Findings of the study were used to prepare a list of useful strategies for parents and teachers – how to discuss the effects of advertising with children.

  17. Exposures resulting from nuclear power production. Annex F

    1982-01-01

    This Annex assesses the releases of radioactive materials from the nuclear fuel cycle and their resulting dose commitments to the public. The nuclear fuel cycle includes the mining and milling of uranium ores, conversion to nuclear fuel materials, fabrication of fuel elements, production of power in the nuclear reactor, reprocessing of irradiated fuel and recycling of fissile and fertile nuclides recovered, and disposal of radioactive wastes. This Annex also reviews reactor accidents which have led to unplanned releases of activity into the environment, together with estimates of the resulting collective doses.

  18. Recent results on dimuon production from the NA38 experiment

    Lourenco, C.

    1995-01-01

    We report on the production of intermediate and high mass muon pairs in p-A and S-U collisions, as measured by the NA38 experiment at the CERN SPS. The ratio between ψ' and J/ψ cross-sections is found to be constant in p-A interactions but decreases from p-A to S-U and as the released transverse energy, E T , increases. While the p-A intermediate mass continuum is well explained by the superposition of Drell-Yan and charm contributions, the signal observed in the S-U data is larger than the linear extrapolation of the proton-nucleus results. No correlation is seen between dimuon and direct photon production. (orig.)

  19. Optimization of lysine production in Corynebacteriumglutamicum ATCC15032 by Response surface methodology

    Mehrnaz Haghi

    2017-03-01

    Discussion and conclusion: According to the results, the proposed culture media by response surface methodology causes 1400 times increase in the lysine production compared with M9 culture media and methionine had an important role in the production of lysine, probably by inhibiting the other metabolic pathway which has common metabolic precursor with lysine production metabolic pathway.

  20. Production response of lambs receiving creep feed while grazing ...

    The aim of the study was to determine the production responses of lambs receiving either creep feed or not while grazing two different pastures. The production of ewes within each treatment was also recorded. The study was conducted at both the Kromme Rhee and Langgewens Research Farms. At Kromme Rhee, sheep ...

  1. First ALICE results on quarkonium production at Run 2 energies

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Quarkonium production in hadronic collisions (either proton-proton or heavy ions) has been extensively studied in both fixed target and collider experiments. It is understood as the production of a heavy quark pair (ccbar or bbar depending on the quarkonium state) in a hard scattering process which occurs early in the collision, followed by the evolution of this quark pair into a colorless bound state. While the production of the quark pair is reasonably well described by perturbative QCD calculations, its evolution into the bound state is inherently non-perturbative and is studied experimentally in pp collisions. In heavy ion collisions on the other hand, quarkonia are used to probe the properties of the medium formed in the collision and in particular that of the quark-gluon plasma, via competing mechanisms such as color screening, thermal dissociation or recombination, as well as so-called cold nuclear matter effects such as shadowing, gluon saturation or energy loss. The first ALICE results on quarkonium...

  2. Production Facility Prototype Blower 1000 Hour Test Results II

    Wass, Alexander Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalmas, Dale Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-08

    Long duration tests of the Aerzen GM 12.4 roots style blower in a closed loop configuration provides valuable data and lessons learned for long-term operation at the Mo-99 production facility. The blower was operated in a closed loop configuration with the flow conditions anticipated in plant operation with a Mo-100 target inline. The additional thermal energy generated from beam heating of the Mo-100 disks were not included in these tests. Five 1000 hour tests have been completed since the first test was performed in January of 2016. All five 1000 hour tests have proven successful in exposing preventable issues related to oil and helium leaks. All blower tests to this date have resulted in stable blower performance and consistency. A summary of the results for each test, including a review of the first and second tests, are included in this report.

  3. Calcium carbonate production response to future ocean warming and acidification

    A. J. Pinsonneault

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions are acidifying the ocean, affecting calcification rates in pelagic organisms, and thereby modifying the oceanic carbon and alkalinity cycles. However, the responses of pelagic calcifying organisms to acidification vary widely between species, contributing uncertainty to predictions of atmospheric CO2 and the resulting climate change. At the same time, ocean warming caused by rising CO2 is expected to drive increased growth rates of all pelagic organisms, including calcifiers. It thus remains unclear whether anthropogenic CO2 emissions will ultimately increase or decrease pelagic calcification rates. Here, we assess the importance of this uncertainty by introducing a dependence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 production on calcite saturation state (ΩCaCO3 in an intermediate complexity coupled carbon-climate model. In a series of model simulations, we examine the impact of several variants of this dependence on global ocean carbon cycling between 1800 and 3500 under two different CO2 emissions scenarios. Introducing a calcification-saturation state dependence has a significant effect on the vertical and surface horizontal alkalinity gradients, as well as on the removal of alkalinity from the ocean through CaCO3 burial. These changes result in an additional oceanic uptake of carbon when calcification depends on ΩCaCO3 (of up to 270 Pg C, compared to the case where calcification does not depend on acidification. In turn, this response causes a reduction of global surface air temperature of up to 0.4 °C in year 3500. Different versions of the model produced varying results, and narrowing this range of uncertainty will require better understanding of both temperature and acidification effects on pelagic calcifiers. Nevertheless, our results suggest that alkalinity observations can be used

  4. Willingness to pay for fair trade products: Results from a discrete choice experiment

    Peyer, Mathias; Balderjahn, Ingo; Scholderer, Joachim

    under the assumption that a fair trade label was included on the product package. It is concluded that fair trade certification may result yield real competitive advantage for producers of consumer goods, and that the generality of the observed effects should be investigated in other product categories...... awareness of fair trade labels and prior experience with fair trade products as individual-differences variables. Results indicated that consumer willingness to pay for fair trade labels was significant and positive under virtually all experimental conditions, and increased further when the fair trade label...... was combined with a strong manufacturer brand, when participants had prior experience with fair-trade products, and when participants had high prior awareness of fair trade labels. Based on the parameter estimates, price response functions were fitted, and changes in market shares were predicted for each brand...

  5. Glycaemic response of proso millet-based (Panicum miliaceum) products.

    McSweeney, Matthew B; Ferenc, Agota; Smolkova, Katarina; Lazier, Alexander; Tucker, Amy; Seetharaman, Koushik; Wright, Amanda; Duizer, Lisa M; Ramdath, D Dan

    2017-11-01

    The glycaemic response of millet foods and the effect of processing are not known. Therefore, decorticated proso millet was used to produce four types of common food products (biscuits, couscous, porridge and an extruded snack). Postprandial blood glucose response of these products (all containing 50 g of total starch) was compared to the same foods produced with refined corn, in a crossover human study with 12 healthy male participants (age 26.3 ± 3.8 yr; BMI 23.3 ± 2.8 kg/m 2 ). Capillary blood samples were collected and glycaemic response was determined; differences were assessed using repeat measures ANOVA. Overall, the mean (±SEM) incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (mmol min/l) of the proso millet products was different from the corn products, but individual products (couscous = 66.7 ± 11.6, biscuit = 82.6 ± 13.7, extrudate = 198.7 ± 20.9, porridge = 40.1 ± 5.8) were not significantly lower (couscous = 43.5 ± 5.8, biscuit = 102.0 ± 10.3, extrudate = 198.7 ± 20.9, porridge = 52.2 ± 8.1) (p > .05). Glycaemic response of the products was not dependent on the grain type, but rather product matrix.

  6. ECONOMICS RESULTS OF WHEAT PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE WAYS

    J. Kanisek

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat consumption in the world increases and its importers are some European countries too. The present price of wheat grain will make selling at the market difficult for manufactures from the Republic of Croatia. Conditions and results of four year organizational - economical investigations of conventional and four ways of reduced soil tillage at wheat production are displayed in this paper. Total of 9.35 hours/ha of machinery work and 114.3 l/ha of fuel are consumed at conventional soil tillage. Total costs are 1660 DM/ha. Price of grain is 276.71 DM/t and profit amounts to 187.83 DM/ha. If the soil tillage is done by a disk harrow costs of the machinery work reduce to 471.36 DM/ha and profitability amounts to 16.5%. When soil tillage is done by multitiller with classical sowing, a yield of 5.65 t/ha st price of 273.37 DM/t and investment profitability 12.7% are obtained. Direct sowing by a Rotosem, without previous tillage, requires 11.66 hours/ha of human work and 7.18 hours/ha of machinery work. to meet the total costs 4.9 t/ha of grains need. In order to get equipment, 98 t of grains from land of 17.5 ha should be given annually during the period of 8 years. Plughing and sowing by Rotosem give 5.9 t/ha grains at price of 279.36 DM/t. Total energy cost at conventional production is 30085 and at reduced one it is 27972 MJ/ha.

  7. IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY DISCLOSURE ON GLOBAL PRODUCTION NETWORK

    Le Bo; Dan Shen; Jin Jun Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss effectiveness of social responsibility disclosure in promoting global production network. Through a critical review on the theoretical development from supply chain to global production network, the global supply chain management of Apple Inc., as a case, is investigated, with focus on corporate and NGOs’ social disclosure on the environmental and labor rights' issues of its suppliers in China. The paper concludes that effectiveness of corporate social disclosure on...

  8. The response of maize production in Kenya to economic incentives

    Onono, P.A.,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural development policy in Kenya has emphasised the use of incentives towards increased production and therefore self-sufficiency in maize which is a basic staple for most households. The channels used to provide incentives to maize farmers over the years include setting higher producer prices; subsidisation of inputs; provision of agricultural credit, research and extension services; construction and maintenance of roads, development of irrigation and water systems; legislative, institutional and macroeconomic reforms. Despite these efforts outputof maize has remained below domestic requirements in most years and the country continues to rely on imports to meet the deficits. Studies have assessed the responsiveness of maize to output price and reported inelastic responses and have recommended policies targeting non-price incentives to complement prices for the required increased production of maize. The studies, however, did not analyse the influence of the non-price incentives on the production of the crop. The findings of those studies are therefore deficient in explaining the relative importance of different non-price incentives and how they complement prices in influencing maize production in Kenya. This study investigated the response of maize production to both price and non-price incentives. The aim of this study was to ascertain the relative importance of non-price factors in influencing production of the crops as well as complementarity between price and non-price incentives. The findings show that maize production responds positively to its output price, development expenditures in agriculture, maize sales to marketing boards, growth in per capita GDP, liberalisation and governance reforms. However, maize production responds negatively to fertiliser price and unfavourable weather conditions. The response of maize output to its price is lower with rising inflation and grain market liberalisation.

  9. Dynamical Response of Networks Under External Perturbations: Exact Results

    Chinellato, David D.; Epstein, Irving R.; Braha, Dan; Bar-Yam, Yaneer; de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.

    2015-04-01

    We give exact statistical distributions for the dynamic response of influence networks subjected to external perturbations. We consider networks whose nodes have two internal states labeled 0 and 1. We let nodes be frozen in state 0, in state 1, and the remaining nodes change by adopting the state of a connected node with a fixed probability per time step. The frozen nodes can be interpreted as external perturbations to the subnetwork of free nodes. Analytically extending and to be smaller than 1 enables modeling the case of weak coupling. We solve the dynamical equations exactly for fully connected networks, obtaining the equilibrium distribution, transition probabilities between any two states and the characteristic time to equilibration. Our exact results are excellent approximations for other topologies, including random, regular lattice, scale-free and small world networks, when the numbers of fixed nodes are adjusted to take account of the effect of topology on coupling to the environment. This model can describe a variety of complex systems, from magnetic spins to social networks to population genetics, and was recently applied as a framework for early warning signals for real-world self-organized economic market crises.

  10. Can Differentiated Production Planning and Control enable both Responsiveness and Efficiency in Food Production?

    Anita Romsdal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the complex production planning and control (PPC challenges in food supply chains. The study illustrates how food producers' traditional make‐to‐stock (MTS approach is not well suited to meet the trends of increasing product variety, higher demand uncertainty, increasing sales of fresh food products and more demanding customers. The paper proposes a framework for differentiated PPC that combines MTS with make‐to‐order (MTO.The framework matches products with the most appropriate PPC approaches and buffering techniques depending on market and product characteristics. The core idea is to achieve more volume flexibility in the production system by exploiting favourable product and market characteristics (high demand predictability, long customer order leadtime allowances and low product perishability. A case study is used to demonstrate how the framework can enable food producers to achieve efficiency in production, inventory and PPC processes – and simultaneously be responsive to market requirements.

  11. Effects of blood products on inflammatory response in endothelial cells in vitro.

    Martin Urner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transfusing blood products may induce inflammatory reactions within the vascular compartment potentially leading to a systemic inflammatory response. Experiments were designed to assess the inflammatory potential of different blood products in an endothelial cell-based in vitro model and to compare baseline levels of potentially activating substances in transfusion products. METHODS: The inflammatory response from pre-activated (endotoxin-stimulated and non-activated endothelial cells as well as neutrophil endothelial transmigration in response to packed red blood cells (PRBC, platelet concentrates (PC and fresh frozen plasma (FFP was determined. Baseline inflammatory mediator and lipid concentrations in blood products were evaluated. RESULTS: Following incubation with all blood products, an increased inflammatory mediator release from endothelial cells was observed. Platelet concentrates, and to a lesser extent also FFP, caused the most pronounced response, which was accentuated in already pre-stimulated endothelial cells. Inflammatory response of endothelial cells as well as blood product-induced migration of neutrophils through the endothelium was in good agreement with the lipid content of the according blood product. CONCLUSION: Within the group of different blood transfusion products both PC and FFP have a high inflammatory potential with regard to activation of endothelial cells. Inflammation upon blood product exposure is strongly accentuated when endothelial cells are pre-injured. High lipid contents in the respective blood products goes along with an accentuated inflammatory reaction from endothelial cells.

  12. New results for t anti t production at hadron colliders

    Langenfeld, U.; Moch, S.; Uwer, P.

    2009-07-01

    We present new theoretical predictions for the t anti t production cross section at NNLO at the Tevatron and the LHC. We discuss the scale uncertainty and the errors due to the parton distribution functions (PDFs). For the LHC, we present a fit formula for the pair production cross section as a function of the center of mass energy and we provide predictions for the pair production cross section of a hypothetical heavy fourth generation quark t'. (orig.)

  13. PRODUCTION PROGRAM OPTIMIZATION – RESPONSIBLE MANAGEMENT METHOD OF LOGGING

    Severian Vlăduț IACOB

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aggression of any kind on the environment and especially uncontrolled exploitation of forests has generated mixed reaction among the public and politicians, but especially in the academic sphere where actually were fired early warning signs of the effects of these actions. Reduction of Earth's forested areas was discussed by specialists as continuous and highly accelerated, especially in the last century when reserve "green gold" of mankind has halved. As a result, the conservation of forests and prevention of environmental degradation have become great concerns of each nation, but the need for global action required the transformation into strategic objectives of regional and international bodies. They have designed policies and measures generally available and have created favorable framework implementation in the Member States and beyond. One of the projects that came to life and expanded worldwide was the sustainable development today, basically there are no area where the activity is not subrogated to achieve a balance between the components of economic, social and environmental. From this perspective forestry and forestry exploitation is the place where really have achieved sustainability. Achieving this requirement becomes an obligation, both for woodland owners and operators seeking to obtain profit from logging. Compliance and ensuring responsible management are certainly prerequisites of sustainability in this sector. Scientific planning of production is a method of management responsible. This study takes into account, on the one hand, highlighting the effects generated by uncontrolled deforestation and the importance of sustainable forest exploitation, and on the other hand, presenting the need to use scientific methods to practice responsible management.

  14. Stigma in Canada: Results From a Rapid Response Survey

    Stuart, Heather; Patten, Scott B; Koller, Michelle; Modgill, Geeta; Liinamaa, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our paper presents findings from the first population survey of stigma in Canada using a new measure of stigma. Empirical objectives are to provide a descriptive profile of Canadian’s expectations that people will devalue and discriminate against someone with depression, and to explore the relation between experiences of being stigmatized in the year prior to the survey among people having been treated for a mental illness with a selected number of sociodemographic and mental health–related variables. Method: Data were collected by Statistics Canada using a rapid response format on a representative sample of Canadians (n = 10 389) during May and June of 2010. Public expectations of stigma and personal experiences of stigma in the subgroup receiving treatment for a mental illness were measured. Results: Over one-half of the sample endorsed 1 or more of the devaluation discrimination items, indicating that they believed Canadians would stigmatize someone with depression. The item most frequently endorsed concerned employers not considering an application from someone who has had depression. Over one-third of people who had received treatment in the year prior to the survey reported discrimination in 1 or more life domains. Experiences of discrimination were strongly associated with perceptions that Canadians would devalue someone with depression, younger age (12 to 15 years), and self-reported poor general mental health. Conclusions: The Mental Health Experiences Module reflects an important partnership between 2 national organizations that will help Canada fulfill its monitoring obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and provide a legacy to researchers and policy-makers who are interested in monitoring changes in stigma over time. PMID:25565699

  15. Superovulation response and in vivo embryo production potential of ...

    Boran (n=25) and Boran*Holstein (n=11) cows were superovullatedFSH with three doses level (300, 250 and 200IU) divided in to morning and afternoon decreasing doses over 4 daysto study the superovulatory response and embryo production potential. Time to estrus, duration of estrus, and CL count were used to ...

  16. Rural Women\\'s Response To Selected Crop Production ...

    The study centered on rural women's response to selected crop production technologies in Imo State with a view to making policy recommendations. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were administered through the assistance of extension agents to 258 randomly sampled rural women farmers from the three ...

  17. Dynamics of ethylene production in response to compatible Nod factor

    Reid, Dugald; Liu, Huijun; Kelly, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Establishment of symbiotic nitrogen-fixation in legumes is regulated by the plant hormone ethylene, but it has remained unclear whether and how its biosynthesis is regulated by the symbiotic pathway. We established a sensitive ethylene detection system for Lotus japonicus and found that ethylene...... production increased as early as six hours after inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti. This ethylene response was dependent on Nod factor production by compatible rhizobia. Analyses of nodulation mutants showed that perception of Nod factor was required for ethylene emission, while downstream transcription...... factors including CYCLOPS, NIN and ERN1 were not required for this response. Activation of the nodulation signalling pathway in spontaneously nodulating mutants was also sufficient to elevate ethylene production. Ethylene signalling is controlled by EIN2, which is duplicated in L. japonicus. We obtained...

  18. Planck 2013 results. VII. HFI time response and beams

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bowyer, J W; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Haissinski, J; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hou, Z; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; MacTavish, C J; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matsumura, T; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polegre, A M; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Sauvé, A; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper characterizes the effective beams,the effective beam window functions and the associated errors for the Planck HFI detectors. The effective beam is the angular response including the effect of the optics,detectors,data processing and the scan strategy. The window function is the representation of this beam in the harmonic domain which is required to recover an unbiased measurement of the CMB angular power spectrum. The HFI is a scanning instrument and its effective beams are the convolution of: (a) the optical response of the telescope and feeds;(b)the processing of the time-ordered data and deconvolution of the bolometric and electronic time response; and (c) the merging of several surveys to produce maps. The time response functions are measured using observations of Jupiter and Saturn and by minimizing survey difference residuals. The scanning beam is the post-deconvolution angular response of the instrument, and is characterized with observations of Mars. The main beam solid angles are determin...

  19. Sentinel-1A Product Geolocation Accuracy: Commissioning Phase Results

    Adrian Schubert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel-1A (S1A is an Earth observation satellite carrying a state-of-the-art Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imaging instrument. It was launched by the European Space Agency (ESA on 3 April 2014. With the end of the in-orbit commissioning phase having been completed at the end of September 2014, S1A data products are already consistently providing highly accurate geolocation. StripMap (SM mode products were acquired regularly and tested for geolocation accuracy and consistency during dedicated corner reflector (CR campaigns. At the completion of this phase, small geometric inconsistencies had been understood and mitigated, with the high quality of the final product geolocation estimates reflecting the mission’s success thus far. This paper describes the measurement campaign, the methods used during geolocation estimation, and presents best estimates of the product Absolute Location Error (ALE available at the beginning of S1A’s operational phase.

  20. U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Young, Scott J.; Yang, Hung-Chia; Long, Timothy; Beraki, Bereket; Price, Sarah K.; Pratt, Stacy; Willem, Henry; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2013-11-14

    Amazon Mechanical Turk was used, for the first time, to collect statistically representative survey data from U.S. households on the presence, number, type and usage of refrigerators, freezers, and various “miscellaneous” refrigeration products (wine/beverage coolers, residential icemakers and non-vapor compression refrigerators and freezers), along with household and demographic information. Such products have been poorly studied to date, with almost no information available about shipments, stocks, capacities, energy use, etc. A total of 9,981 clean survey responses were obtained from five distinct surveys deployed in 2012. General refrigeration product survey responses were weighted to demographics in the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2009 dataset. Miscellaneous refrigeration product survey responses were weighted according to demographics of product ownership found in the general refrigeration product surveys. Model number matching for a portion of miscellaneous refrigeration product responses allowed validation of refrigeration product characteristics, which enabled more accurate estimates of the penetrations of these products in U.S. households. We estimated that there were 12.3±1.0 million wine/beverage coolers, 5.5(–3.5,+3.2) million residential icemakers and 4.4(–2.7,+2.3) million non-vapor compression refrigerators in U.S. households in 2012. (All numerical results are expressed with ranges indicating the 95% confidence interval.) No evidence was found for the existence of non-vapor compression freezers. Moreover, we found that 15% of wine/beverage coolers used vapor compression cooling technology, while 85% used thermoelectric cooling technology, with the vast majority of thermoelectric units having capacities of less than 30 wine bottles (approximately 3.5 cubic feet). No evidence was found for the existence of wine/beverage coolers with absorption cooling technology. Additionally, we estimated

  1. U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Young, Scott J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Long, Timothy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Beraki, Bereket [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pratt, Stacy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Amazon Mechanical Turk was used, for the first time, to collect statistically representative survey data from U.S. households on the presence, number, type and usage of refrigerators, freezers, and various “miscellaneous” refrigeration products (wine/beverage coolers, residential icemakers and non-vapor compression refrigerators and freezers), along with household and demographic information. Such products have been poorly studied to date, with almost no information available about shipments, stocks, capacities, energy use, etc. A total of 9,820 clean survey responses were obtained from four distinct surveys deployed in 2012. General refrigeration product survey responses were weighted to demographics in the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2009 dataset. Miscellaneous refrigeration product survey responses were weighted according to demographics of product ownership found in the general refrigeration product surveys. Model number matching for a portion of miscellaneous refrigeration product responses allowed validation of refrigeration product characteristics, which enabled more accurate estimates of the penetrations of these products in U.S. households. We estimated that there were 12.3±1.0 million wine/beverage coolers, 5.5(–3.5,+3.2) million residential icemakers and 2.9(–2.5,+4.5) million non-vapor compression refrigerators in U.S. households in 2012. (All numerical results are expressed with ranges indicating the 95% confidence interval.) No evidence was found for the existence of non-vapor compression freezers. Moreover, we found that 15% of wine/beverage coolers used vapor compression cooling technology, while 85% used thermoelectric cooling technology, with the vast majority of thermoelectric units having capacities of less than 30 wine bottles (approximately 3.5 cubic feet). No evidence was found for the existence of wine/beverage coolers with absorption cooling technology. Additionally, we estimated

  2. Planck 2013 results. VII. HFI time response and beams

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper characterizes the effective beams, the effective beam window functions (EBWF) and the associated errors for the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) detectors. The effective beam is the angular response including the effect of the optics, detectors, data processing and the scan strat...

  3. Financial results achieved in short-day strawberry production

    Galić Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In South-western Ontario's continental climate (short days, hot summers and very cold winters the matted-row system was the dominant production system to grow short-day strawberries. Varieties-staggered production (planting a combination of early, mid and late-season varieties provides strawberry harvest from five to seven weeks. Short-day strawberries are vegetative grown in the first year, and harvested for two consecutive years. The total cost of short-day strawberry production was 54,370 $CAD/ha. The production and harvest costs in the first and second years were 20,812 $CAD/ha and 16,930 $CAD/ ha, respectively, and accounted for 69.42% of the total. Pre-plans operations were the least expensive procedures costing 8.13%, while planting and care of young plants made up 22.45% of the total costs. The total income of growing short-day strawberries under a matted-row system was 76,671 $CAD/ha (the first and second production years 41,330 $CAD/ha and 35,341 $CAD/ha, respectively. The short-day strawberries in matted-row system, with average yield of 15,722 kg/ha, generated a net revenue of 22,300 $CAD/ha.

  4. QCD results for small x and for heavy flavor production

    Collins, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Two areas of perturbative quantum chromodynamics are reviewed. The first is hard collisions of partons whose momentum is a small fraction, named x, of the total center-of-mass energy of the momenta of their parent hadrons. The second is production of heavy strongly-interacting particles, such as ordinary heavy quarks, squarks, or gluinos. The discussion of the small x problem includes Monte Carlo calculations of multiple scattering and theoretical calculations of parton-parton shadowing effects. As for heavy flavor production, it is shown that ordinary perturbative methods should apply. 22 refs., 7 figs

  5. Early results of experiments with responsive open learning environments

    Friedrich, M.; Wolpers, M.; Shen, R.; Ullrich, C.; Klamma, R.; Renzel, D.; Richert, A.; Heiden, B. von der

    2011-01-01

    Responsive open learning environments (ROLEs) are the next generation of personal learning environments (PLEs). While PLEs rely on the simple aggregation of existing content and services mainly using Web 2.0 technologies, ROLEs are transforming lifelong learning by introducing a new infrastructure on a global scale while dealing with existing learning management systems, institutions, and technologies. The requirements engineering process in highly populated test-beds is as important as the t...

  6. Sustainable production. The ultimate result of a continuous improvement

    Ron, de A.J.

    1998-01-01

    To fulfil market requirements, companies have introduced cost awareness, quality programs and techniques to become flexible. These items should be handled as a continuous process of improvement. The cost awareness implies that e.g. material waste is avoided during production, the quality programs

  7. Exploring the Dynamics of Responses to Food Production Shocks

    Aled Jones

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Food production shocks can lead to food crises where access to appropriate quantities and quality of food become inadequate, unaffordable, or unreliable on a major scale. While the physical causes of food production shocks are well researched, the dynamics of responses to them are less well understood. This paper reviews those dynamics and includes evidence gathered via interviews of 44 expert practitioners sourced globally from academia, government, industry, think-tanks, and development/relief organizations. The paper confirms that policy interventions are often prioritised for national interests and poorly coordinated at regional and global scales. The paper acknowledges future compounding trends such as climate change and demographic shifts and suggests that while there are signs of incremental progress in better managing the impacts of shock events, coordinated responses at scale will require a paradigm shift involving major policy, market, and technological advancements, and a wide range of public and private sector stakeholders.

  8. Issues resulting from separation of production and facilities interests

    Park, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, Canadian oil and gas producers have had full control over the exploration, production, marketing, processing and transportation aspects of their business. The disadvantages and recent changes to this traditional structure were discussed. It was shown how the deregulation of gas markets and prices in the 1980s led to some major changes in the industry. The separation of production interests from the processing and gathering facilities required a new focus by both producers and owners of the facilities. The concerns of both sides (i.e. producers and processors) were outlined. The importance of the Petroleum Joint Venture Agreement (PJVA) in defining obligations in plant expansion and development, and the jurisdictional issues over gathering and processing were described

  9. Preliminary Results for Ways to Increase Meat Production in Cattle

    Doina Popa; Dorina Cotarlea; Doina Sprinjean

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the quality and quantity of meat production in cattle in the ICDM Cristian institute and two private farms, Beef Technology and Artificial Insemination was applied. Artificial Insemination was performed with semen from bulls of meat breeds (Charolaise, Bleu Belge, Aberdeen Angus). The average daily gains obtained were between 0.40-1.30 kg / head / day, varying based on race, sex, technology applied, etc.

  10. Preliminary Results for Ways to Increase Meat Production in Cattle

    Doina Popa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the quality and quantity of meat production in cattle in the ICDM Cristian institute and two private farms, Beef Technology and Artificial Insemination was applied. Artificial Insemination was performed with semen from bulls of meat breeds (Charolaise, Bleu Belge, Aberdeen Angus. The average daily gains obtained were between 0.40-1.30 kg / head / day, varying based on race, sex, technology applied, etc.

  11. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 2: Modeling Demand Response in a Production Cost Model

    Hummon, Marissa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olsen, Daniel J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Matson, Nance [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rose, Cody [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dudley, Junqiao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ma, Ookie [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is one of a series stemming from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study. This study is a multi-national-laboratory effort to assess the potential value of demand response (DR) and energy storage to electricity systems with different penetration levels of variable renewable resources and to improve our understanding of associatedmarkets and institutions. This report implements DR resources in the commercial production cost model PLEXOS.

  12. Transforming Water: Social Influence Moderates Psychological, Physiological, and Functional Response to a Placebo Product.

    Crum, Alia J; Phillips, Damon J; Goyer, J Parker; Akinola, Modupe; Higgins, E Tory

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how social influence can alter physiological, psychological, and functional responses to a placebo product and how such responses influence the ultimate endorsement of the product. Participants consumed a product, "AquaCharge Energy Water," falsely-labeled as containing 200 mg of caffeine but which was actually plain spring water, in one of three conditions: a no social influence condition, a disconfirming social influence condition, and a confirming social influence condition. Results demonstrated that the effect of the product labeling on physiological alertness (systolic blood pressure), psychological alertness (self-reported alertness), functional alertness (cognitive interference), and product endorsement was moderated by social influence: participants experienced more subjective, physiological and functional alertness and stronger product endorsement when they consumed the product in the confirming social influence condition than when they consumed the product in the disconfirming social influence condition. These results suggest that social influence can alter subjective, physiological, and functional responses to a faux product, in this case transforming the effects of plain water.

  13. Does Green Feed Result in Healthier Dairy Products?

    Werner, Louise Bruun

    Lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus are a growing problem in the Western world. Consequently, attempts are made to prevent and reduce the complications of these diseases and one strategy is the use of bioactive agents in foods. Phytanic acid (PA), produced...... nutritional value. The objective of the second part of this PhD thesis was to elucidate the role of dairy products in overall nutrition and furthermore to clarify the effects of dietary choices on GHGE, and, furthermore to estimate nutrient density in relation to climate impact for difference solid food items....

  14. Intracellular response to process optimization and impact on productivity and product aggregates for a high-titer CHO cell process.

    Handlogten, Michael W; Lee-O'Brien, Allison; Roy, Gargi; Levitskaya, Sophia V; Venkat, Raghavan; Singh, Shailendra; Ahuja, Sanjeev

    2018-01-01

    A key goal in process development for antibodies is to increase productivity while maintaining or improving product quality. During process development of an antibody, titers were increased from 4 to 10 g/L while simultaneously decreasing aggregates. Process development involved optimization of media and feed formulations, feed strategy, and process parameters including pH and temperature. To better understand how CHO cells respond to process changes, the changes were implemented in a stepwise manner. The first change was an optimization of the feed formulation, the second was an optimization of the medium, and the third was an optimization of process parameters. Multiple process outputs were evaluated including cell growth, osmolality, lactate production, ammonium concentration, antibody production, and aggregate levels. Additionally, detailed assessment of oxygen uptake, nutrient and amino acid consumption, extracellular and intracellular redox environment, oxidative stress, activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) expression, and heavy and light chain mRNA expression provided an in-depth understanding of the cellular response to process changes. The results demonstrate that mRNA expression and UPR activation were unaffected by process changes, and that increased PDI expression and optimized nutrient supplementation are required for higher productivity processes. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate the role of extra- and intracellular redox environment on productivity and antibody aggregation. Processes using the optimized medium, with increased concentrations of redox modifying agents, had the highest overall specific productivity, reduced aggregate levels, and helped cells better withstand the high levels of oxidative stress associated with increased productivity. Specific productivities of different processes positively correlated to average intracellular values of total glutathione. Additionally

  15. Recent financial crisis in Malaysia: response, results, challenges

    Hasan, Zubair

    1999-01-01

    This paper was one of the first writings that appeared on the subject and presented at a local conference while pending publication with the Indian Economic Journal.After a brief Introduction, Section 2 discusses broadly the process used for generating the data used for analysis as also the position of Malaysian economy during the crisis. Section 3 deals with controls as a tool for managing the financial turmoil. Section 4 argues, on the basis of results, that for Malaysia the imposition of ...

  16. First results on dilepton production at the Bevalac

    Roche, G.; Claesson, G.; Hendrie, D.

    1987-12-01

    We report on preliminary results of direct electron pair measurements in p+Be at 4.9 GeV and 2.1 GeV and Ca+Ca at 1.95 GeVA collisions at the Bevalac. The results are compared to existing data in p+Be at 12.1 GeV and π - p at 15.9 and 16.9 GeV

  17. Preliminary results of neutron production in Sahand plasma focus device

    Siahpoush, V.; Mohammadi, M.A.; Khorram, S.; Shabani, I.; Borhanian, J.; Ashrafi, S.; Naghshara, H.; Moslehi-Fard, M.; Sobhanian, S.

    2004-01-01

    We report in this paper the preliminary results of neutron generation during fusion reaction in deuterium in the Sahand Filipov type plasma focus, recently installed and put in operation at Tabriz University. The special calibration procedure for neutron detection system, using activation method is described

  18. Responsibility versus Profit: The Motives of Food Firms for Healthy Product Innovation

    Jilde Garst

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In responsible research and innovation (RRI, innovation is seen as a way in which humankind finds solutions for societal issues. However, studies on commercial innovation show that firms respond in a different manner and at a different speed to the same societal issue. This study investigates what role organizational motives play in the product innovation processes of firms when aiming for socially responsible outcomes. Methods: This multiple-case study investigates the motives of food firms for healthier product innovation by interviewing firms about the organizational motives behind product reformulation and innovation. Results: This study highlights the importance of having both instrumental and moral motives in the innovation process when aiming for socially responsible outcomes, and how both these motives interact and contribute to responsible innovation in industry. Furthermore, the study results question the nature of relational motives as a separate category from the other two categories of motives, as suggested by corporate social responsibility (CSR scholars. Conclusions: If commercial innovation needs to contribute to solutions for societal issues, the importance of moral motives has to be stressed without annihilating the instrumental objectives of firms. Both motives contribute to the success factors of responsible product innovation in industry.

  19. The landscape of particle production: results from PHOBOS

    Steinberg, Peter; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-08-01

    Recent results from the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC are presented, both from Au+Au collisions from the 2001 run and p+p and d+Au collisions from 2003. The centrality dependence of the total charged-particle multiplicity in p+p and d+Au shows features, such as Npart scaling and limiting fragmentation, similar to p+A collisions at lower energies. Multiparticle physics in Au+Au is found to be local in (pseudo)rapidity, both when observed by HBT correlations and by forward-backward pseudorapidity correlations. The shape of elliptic flow in Au+Au, measured over the full range of pseudorapidity, appears to have a very weak centrality dependence. Identified particle ratios in d+Au reactions show little difference between the shape of proton and anti-proton spectra, while the absolute yields show an approximate mT scaling. Finally, results on RdAu as a function of pseudorapidity show that this ratio decreases monotonically with η, even between 0.2 < η < 1.4.

  20. String production as a result of thermal fluctuations

    Guerra Junior, J.M.; Marques, G.C.; Rodrigues, S.J.

    1989-06-01

    Based on the analysis of the free energies of topological defects the study of phase transitions in field theory at finite temperature, was developed. In the case of strings, it is shown one can get, in dilute gas approximation, explicit expressions for the lenght of the string as well as the density contrast in terms of the free energy per unit lenght of the string. In the high temperature limit one can get explicit expressions for all revelant quantities up to one-loop approximation. When applied to the SO(10) model, good phenomenological results are obtained. In particular, the scale Independent Zel'dovich spectrum with the right order of magnitude, is derived in a simple manner. (author) [pt

  1. Perturbations in carotenoid and porphyrin status result in differential photooxidative stress signaling and antioxidant responses.

    Park, Joon-Heum; Jung, Sunyo

    2018-02-12

    We examined differential photooxidative stress signaling and antioxidant responses in rice plants treated with norflurazon (NF) and oxyfluorfen (OF), which are inhibitors of carotenoid and porphyrin biosynthesis, respectively. Plants treated with OF markedly increased levels of cellular leakage and malondialdehyde, compared with NF-treated plants, showing that OF plants suffered greater oxidative damage with respect to membrane integrity. The enhanced production of H 2 O 2 in response to OF, but not NF, indicates the important role of H 2 O 2 in activation of photooxidative stress signaling in OF plants. In response to NF and OF, the increased levels of free salicylic acid as well as maintenance of the redox ratio of ascorbate and glutathione pools to a certain level are considered to be crucial factors in the protection against photooxidation. Plants treated with OF greatly up-regulated catalase (CAT) activity and Cat transcript levels, compared with NF-treated plants. Interestingly, NF plants showed no noticeable increase in oxidative metabolism, although they did show considerable increases in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase activities and transcript levels of APX, as in OF plants. Our results suggest that perturbations in carotenoid and porphyrin status by NF and OF can be sensed by differential photooxidative stress signaling, such as that involving H 2 O 2 , redox state of ascorbate and glutathione, and salicylic acid, which may be responsible for at least part of the induction of ROS-scavenging enzymes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hybrid Aspen Response to Shearing in Minnesota: Implications for Biomass Production

    Grant M. Domke; Andrew J. David; Anthony W. D' Amato; Alan R. Ek; Gary W. Wycoff

    2011-01-01

    There is great potential for the production of woody biomass feedstocks from hybrid aspen stands; however, little is known about the response of these systems to silvicultural treatments, such as shearing. We sought to address this need by integrating results from more than 20 years of individual tree and yield measurements in hybrid aspen (Populus tremuloides Mich. ×...

  3. High productivity of wheat intercropped with maize is associated with plant architectural responses

    Zhu, J.; Werf, van der W.; Vos, J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Evers, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed cultivation of crops often results in increased production per unit land area, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Plants in intercrops grow differently from plants in single crops; however, no study has shown the association between plant plastic responses and the yield

  4. Response to comments on "Productivity is a poor predictor of plant species richness"

    Grace, James B.; Adler, Peter B.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hautier, Yann; Hector, Andy; Harpole, W. Stanley; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Collins, Scott L.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Crawley, Michael J.; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Fay, Philip A.; Firn, Jennifer; Gruner, Daniel S.; Hagenah, Nicole; Jin, Virginia L.; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Lambrinos, John G.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Morgan, John W.; Orrock, John L.; Prover, Suzanne M.; Stevens, Carly J.; Wragg, Peter D.; Yang, Louie H.

    2012-01-01

    Pan et al. claim that our results actually support a strong linear positive relationship between productivity and richness, whereas Fridley et al. contend that the data support a strong humped relationship. These responses illustrate how preoccupation with bivariate patterns distracts from a deeper understanding of the multivariate mechanisms that control these important ecosystem properties.

  5. Governing Schools for Productivity. The Productivity for Results Series No. 4

    Hill, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    The lack of productivity of school systems stems from a number of reasons, including the way in which schools are governed. The author explains in this paper that policies from on high often work against campuses being more productive. His list includes state policies that stop districts from hiring experts to teach subjects that other educators…

  6. Nutrient Content and Nutritional Water Productivity of Selected Grain Legumes in Response to Production Environment.

    Chibarabada, Tendai Polite; Modi, Albert Thembinkosi; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe

    2017-10-26

    There is a need to incorporate nutrition into aspects of crop and water productivity to tackle food and nutrition insecurity (FNS). The study determined the nutritional water productivity (NWP) of selected major (groundnut, dry bean) and indigenous (bambara groundnut and cowpea) grain legumes in response to water regimes and environments. Field trials were conducted during 2015/16 and 2016/17 at three sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (Ukulinga, Fountainhill and Umbumbulu). Yield and evapotranspiration (ET) data were collected. Grain was analysed for protein, fat, Ca, Fe and Zn nutrient content (NC). Yield, ET and NC were then used to compute NWP. Overall, the major legumes performed better than the indigenous grain legumes. Groundnut had the highest NWP fat . Groundnut and dry bean had the highest NWP protein . For NWP Fe, Zn and Ca , dry bean and cowpea were more productive. Yield instability caused fluctuations in NWP. Water treatments were not significant ( p > 0.05). While there is scope to improve NWP under rainfed conditions, a lack of crop improvement currently limits the potential of indigenous grain legumes. This provides an initial insight on the nutrient content and NWP of a limited number of selected grain legumes in response to the production environment. There is a need for follow-up research to include cowpea data. Future studies should provide more experimental data and explore effects of additional factors such as management practices (fertiliser levels and plant density), climate and edaphic factors on nutrient content and NWP of crops.

  7. Production of matrix metalloproteinases in response to mycobacterial infection.

    Quiding-Järbrink, M; Smith, D A; Bancroft, G J

    2001-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a large family of enzymes with specificity for the various proteins of the extracellular matrix which are implicated in tissue remodeling processes and chronic inflammatory conditions. To investigate the role of MMPs in immunity to mycobacterial infections, we incubated murine peritoneal macrophages with viable Mycobacterium bovis BCG or Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and assayed MMP activity in the supernatants by zymography. Resting macrophages secreted only small amounts of MMP-9 (gelatinase B), but secretion increased dramatically in a dose-dependent manner in response to either BCG or M. tuberculosis in vitro. Incubation with mycobacteria also induced increased MMP-2 (gelatinase A) activity. Neutralization of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-alpha), and to a lesser extent interleukin 18 (IL-18), substantially reduced MMP production in response to mycobacteria. Exogenous addition of TNF-alpha or IL-18 induced macrophages to express MMPs, even in the absence of bacteria. The immunoregulatory cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), IL-4, and IL-10 all suppressed BCG-induced MMP production, but through different mechanisms. IFN-gamma treatment increased macrophage secretion of TNF-alpha but still reduced their MMP activity. Conversely, IL-4 and IL-10 seemed to act by reducing the amount of TNF-alpha available to the macrophages. Finally, infection of BALB/c or severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice with either BCG or M. tuberculosis induced substantial increases in MMP-9 activity in infected tissues. In conclusion, we show that mycobacterial infection induces MMP-9 activity both in vitro and in vivo and that this is regulated by TNF-alpha, IL-18, and IFN-gamma. These findings indicate a possible contribution of MMPs to tissue remodeling processes that occur in mycobacterial infections.

  8. Analysis of skin conductance response during evaluation of preferences for cosmetic products

    Ohira, Hideki; Hirao, Naoyasu

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed skin conductance response (SCR) as a psychophysiological index to evaluate affective aspects of consumer preferences for cosmetic products. To examine the test-retest reliability of association between preferences and SCR, we asked 33 female volunteers to complete two experimental sessions approximately 1 year apart. The participants indicated their preferences in a typical paired comparison task by choosing the better option from a combination of two products among four products. We measured anticipatory SCR prior to expressions of the preferences. We found that the mean amplitude of the SCR elicited by the preferred products was significantly larger than that elicited by the non-preferred products. The participants' preferences and corresponding SCR patterns were well preserved at the second session 1 year later. Our results supported cumulating findings that SCR is a useful index of consumer preferences that has future potential, both in laboratory and marketing settings. PMID:25709593

  9. Oil product sales in 2010 - Results per product and per district

    Korman, Bernard; Lauverjat, Jean

    2011-11-01

    This document proposes tables of data corresponding to sales of different oil products (super unleaded petrol, Diesel fuel, domestic heating oil, heavy fuels) in metropolitan France in 2011, in the French districts and regions, and in the coastal districts and regions for the maritime sector (fishing activity, ships).

  10. Ontogeny of swift fox Vulpes velox vocalizations: production, usage and response

    Darden, Safi-Kirstine Klem; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2006-01-01

    Three processes, production, usage, and response, can be used to describe vocal ontogeny. They may develop independently of each other for a given vocalization and a given species as a result of the different selective pressures associated with each process. We have investigated vocal ontogeny in...... with their first appearance in the juvenile repertoire. The results indicate that there is variation in the degree (in terms of the number of vocal types) of modification over time among the three processes....

  11. Optimization of media composition for Nattokinase production by Bacillus subtilis using response surface methodology.

    Deepak, V; Kalishwaralal, K; Ramkumarpandian, S; Babu, S Venkatesh; Senthilkumar, S R; Sangiliyandi, G

    2008-11-01

    Response surface methodology and central composite rotary design (CCRD) was employed to optimize a fermentation medium for the production of Nattokinase by Bacillus subtilis at pH 7.5. The four variables involved in this study were Glucose, Peptone, CaCl2, and MgSO4. The statistical analysis of the results showed that, in the range studied; only peptone had a significant effect on Nattokinase production. The optimized medium containing (%) Glucose: 1, Peptone: 5.5, MgSO4: 0.2 and CaCl2: 0.5 resulted in 2-fold increased level of Nattokinase (3194.25U/ml) production compared to initial level (1599.09U/ml) after 10h of fermentation. Nattokinase production was checked with fibrinolytic activity.

  12. Microbial nitrogen cycling response to forest-based bioenergy production.

    Minick, Kevan J; Strahm, Brian D; Fox, Thomas R; Sucre, Eric B; Leggett, Zakiya H

    2015-12-01

    Concern over rising atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases due to fossil fuel combustion has intensified research into carbon-neutral energy production. Approximately 15.8 million ha of pine plantations exist across the southeastern United States, representing a vast land area advantageous for bioenergy production without significant landuse change or diversion of agricultural resources from food production. Furthermore, intercropping of pine with bioenergy grasses could provide annually harvestable, lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks along with production of traditional wood products. Viability of such a system hinges in part on soil nitrogen (N) availability and effects of N competition between pines and grasses on ecosystem productivity. We investigated effects of intercropping loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) on microbial N cycling processes in the Lower Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA. Soil samples were collected from bedded rows of pine and interbed space of two treatments, composed of either volunteer native woody and herbaceous vegetation (pine-native) or pure switchgrass (pine-switchgrass) in interbeds. An in vitro 15N pool-dilution technique was employed to quantify gross N transformations at two soil depths (0-5 and 5-15 cm) on four dates in 2012-2013. At the 0-5 cm depth in beds of the pine-switchgrass treatment, gross N mineralization was two to three times higher in November and February compared to the pine-native treatment, resulting in increased NH4(+) availability. Gross and net nitrification were also significantly higher in February in the same pine beds. In interbeds of the pine-switchgrass treatment, gross N mineralization was lower from April to November, but higher in February, potentially reflecting positive effects of switchgrass root-derived C inputs during dormancy on microbial activity. These findings indicate soil N cycling and availability has increased in pine beds of the pine

  13. Production of Metabolites as Bacterial Responses to the Marine Environment

    Pedro Fernandes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in marine environments are often under extreme conditions of e.g., pressure, temperature, salinity, and depletion of micronutrients, with survival and proliferation often depending on the ability to produce biologically active compounds. Some marine bacteria produce biosurfactants, which help to transport hydrophobic low water soluble substrates by increasing their bioavailability. However, other functions related to heavy metal binding, quorum sensing and biofilm formation have been described. In the case of metal ions, bacteria developed a strategy involving the release of binding agents to increase their bioavailability. In the particular case of the Fe3+ ion, which is almost insoluble in water, bacteria secrete siderophores that form soluble complexes with the ion, allowing the cells to uptake the iron required for cell functioning. Adaptive changes in the lipid composition of marine bacteria have been observed in response to environmental variations in pressure, temperature and salinity. Some fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids, have only been reported in prokaryotes in deep-sea bacteria. Cell membrane permeability can also be adapted to extreme environmental conditions by the production of hopanoids, which are pentacyclic triterpenoids that have a function similar to cholesterol in eukaryotes. Bacteria can also produce molecules that prevent the attachment, growth and/or survival of challenging organisms in competitive environments. The production of these compounds is particularly important in surface attached strains and in those in biofilms. The wide array of compounds produced by marine bacteria as an adaptive response to demanding conditions makes them suitable candidates for screening of compounds with commercially interesting biological functions. Biosurfactants produced by marine bacteria may be helpful to increase mass transfer in different industrial processes and in the bioremediation of

  14. Asymmetric responses of primary productivity to precipitation extremes: A synthesis of grassland precipitation manipulation experiments.

    Wilcox, Kevin R; Shi, Zheng; Gherardi, Laureano A; Lemoine, Nathan P; Koerner, Sally E; Hoover, David L; Bork, Edward; Byrne, Kerry M; Cahill, James; Collins, Scott L; Evans, Sarah; Gilgen, Anna K; Holub, Petr; Jiang, Lifen; Knapp, Alan K; LeCain, Daniel; Liang, Junyi; Garcia-Palacios, Pablo; Peñuelas, Josep; Pockman, William T; Smith, Melinda D; Sun, Shanghua; White, Shannon R; Yahdjian, Laura; Zhu, Kai; Luo, Yiqi

    2017-10-01

    Climatic changes are altering Earth's hydrological cycle, resulting in altered precipitation amounts, increased interannual variability of precipitation, and more frequent extreme precipitation events. These trends will likely continue into the future, having substantial impacts on net primary productivity (NPP) and associated ecosystem services such as food production and carbon sequestration. Frequently, experimental manipulations of precipitation have linked altered precipitation regimes to changes in NPP. Yet, findings have been diverse and substantial uncertainty still surrounds generalities describing patterns of ecosystem sensitivity to altered precipitation. Additionally, we do not know whether previously observed correlations between NPP and precipitation remain accurate when precipitation changes become extreme. We synthesized results from 83 case studies of experimental precipitation manipulations in grasslands worldwide. We used meta-analytical techniques to search for generalities and asymmetries of aboveground NPP (ANPP) and belowground NPP (BNPP) responses to both the direction and magnitude of precipitation change. Sensitivity (i.e., productivity response standardized by the amount of precipitation change) of BNPP was similar under precipitation additions and reductions, but ANPP was more sensitive to precipitation additions than reductions; this was especially evident in drier ecosystems. Additionally, overall relationships between the magnitude of productivity responses and the magnitude of precipitation change were saturating in form. The saturating form of this relationship was likely driven by ANPP responses to very extreme precipitation increases, although there were limited studies imposing extreme precipitation change, and there was considerable variation among experiments. This highlights the importance of incorporating gradients of manipulations, ranging from extreme drought to extreme precipitation increases into future climate change

  15. Identifying Industry-Specific Components of Product Liability Response System Using Delphi-AHP Method

    Seo JunHyeok

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available PL (product liability response system is an enterprise-wide system that prevents company’s financial loss due to PL-related accidents. Existing researches on PL response system are mainly focused on preventive and/or defense strategies for the companies. Also, it is obvious that each industry has their original characteristics related on PL issues. It means industry-specific characteristics should be considered to adopt PL response strategies. Thus, this paper aims to discuss industry-specific PL response system and their components. Based on prior researches, we tried to reveal the possibility of its application to manufacturing companies of existing PL response strategies using Delphi method with PL experts. Based on first round results, we tried to classify existing PL strategies of manufacturing companies into several categories. To validate our suggestion for essential components of PL response system, second round Delphi method are applied. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP technique will be applied to identify a prioritized list of each components and strategies. Existing PL response strategies could be categorized with six components – strategy, technology, investment, training, awareness, and organization. Among six components, Technology – it represents the technology needed for improving the safety of all products – is the most important components to prepare PL accidents. The limitation of this paper is on the size of survey and variety of examples. However, the future study will enhance the potential of the proposed method. Regardless of rich research efforts to identify PL response strategies, there is no effort to categorize these strategies and prioritized them. Well-coordinated and actionable PL response strategies and their priorities could help small-and-medium sized enterprise (SME to develop their own PL response system with their limited resources.

  16. Nitrogen starvation of cyanobacteria results in the production of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine.

    Downing, S; Banack, S A; Metcalf, J S; Cox, P A; Downing, T G

    2011-08-01

    β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine, an unusual amino acid implicated in neurodegenerative disease, has been detected in cultures of nearly all genera of environmentally ubiquitous cyanobacteria tested. The compound is present within cyanobacterial cells in free and protein-associated forms, with large variations occurring in the concentration of these pools between species as well as within single strains. With a lack of knowledge and supporting data on the regulation of BMAA production and the role of this compound in cyanobacteria, the association between BMAA and cyanobacteria is still subject to debate. In this study we investigated the biosynthesis of BMAA in axenic non-diazotrophic cyanobacterial cultures using the stable isotope ¹⁵N. Nitrogen starvation of nutritionally replete cells resulted in an increase in free cellular ¹⁵N BMAA suggesting that BMAA may be the result of catabolism to provide nitrogen or that BMAA is synthesised to serve a functional role in the cell in response to nitrogen deprivation. The addition of NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ to the culture medium following starvation resulted in a decrease of free cellular BMAA without a corresponding increase in the protein-associated fraction. The use of ammonia as a nitrogen source resulted in a more rapid reduction of BMAA when compared to nitrate. This study provides the first data regarding the regulation of intracellular BMAA concentrations in cyanobacteria with results conclusively showing the production of ¹⁵N BMAA by an axenic cyanobacterial culture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: ruminant production and metabolic responses to heat stress.

    Baumgard, L H; Rhoads, R P

    2012-06-01

    Heat stress compromises efficient animal production by marginalizing nutrition, management, and genetic selection efforts to maximize performance endpoints. Modifying farm infrastructure has yielded modest success in mitigating heat stress-related losses, yet poor production during the summer remains arguably the costliest issue facing livestock producers. Reduced output (e.g., milk yield and muscle growth) during heat stress was traditionally thought to result from decreased nutrient intake (i.e., a classic biological response shared by all animals during environmental-induced hyperthermia). Our recent observations have begun to challenge this belief and indicate heat-stressed animals employ novel homeorhetic strategies to direct metabolic and fuel selection priorities independently of nutrient intake or energy balance. Alterations in systemic physiology support a shift in carbohydrate metabolism, evident by increased basal and stimulated circulating insulin concentrations. Perhaps most intriguing given the energetic shortfall of the heat-stressed animal is the apparent lack of basal adipose tissue mobilization coupled with a reduced responsiveness to lipolytic stimuli. Thus, the heat stress response markedly alters postabsorptive carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism independently of reduced feed intake through coordinated changes in fuel supply and utilization by multiple tissues. Interestingly, the systemic, cellular, and molecular changes appear conserved amongst different species and physiological states. Ultimately, these changes result in the reprioritization of fuel selection during heat stress, which appears to be primarily responsible for reduced ruminant animal productivity during the warm summer months.

  18. Influential Factors and Strategy of Sustainable Product Development under Corporate Social Responsibility in Taiwan

    Jui-Che Tu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to adopt the perspective of corporate social responsibility (CSR to explore the intention of sustainable product development in Taiwan, as well as leading to the creation of influential factors that affect corporate sustainable product development intention. In this research, the induction analysis was conducted to understand the implementation of sustainable product development, and this was supplemented with questionnaire surveys and in-depth interviews to evaluate developmental intention. In addition, principal component analysis was used for factor analysis and content analysis in the 6 W expression method, leading to the creation of the influential factors. The research results have demonstrated that the factors affecting the intention of corporate sustainable product development include having a sustainable design and a development purpose, a corporate development purpose, sustainable development concepts, a sustainable design value, a sustainability concept, and a manufacturing process quality. For sustainable product development, corporate social responsibility needs to be most concerned with the added value of products, regulation requirements, and accommodation of the industrial chain, costs, and quality.

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF EXTRACELLULAR TANNASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER VAN TIEGHEM USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Hamada Abou-Bakr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the production of tannase by a newly isolate of Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem using rotatable central composite design (RCCD. This statistical optimization process was carried out involving four of quantitative growth parameters (variables, namely tannic acid concentration, nitrogen source concentration, initial pH of the medium and inoculum size. A mathematical model expressing the production process of tannase by submerged fermentation (SmF technique was generated statistically in the form of a second order polynomial equation. The model indicated the presence of significant linear, quadratic and interaction effects of the studied variables on tannase production by the fungal isolate. The results showed maximum tannase production (580 U/50 ml medium at 2% tannic acid, 4 g/l sodium nitrate, pH 4 and inoculum size of 5×107 spores/50 ml medium, which was also verified by experimental data.

  20. Metal stress in zooplankton diapause production: post-hatching response.

    Aránguiz-Acuña, Adriana; Pérez-Portilla, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    Aquatic organisms commonly respond to harsh conditions by forming diapausing stages, which enable populations to survive adverse periods forming egg banks. Production of diapausing eggs is frequently observed in monogonont rotifers, previously changing from asexual to partial sexual reproduction (mixis). In despite that zooplankton are frequently used in ecotoxicological assessment because of their sensitivity to various toxicants and their important role in the ecosystems, toxicity evaluations often consider the directly exposed population produced by parthenogenetic reproduction, exclusively. We assessed experimentally effects of exposure to metals on mixis delay and fitness of hatchlings of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis obtained from a brackish water lagoon with high metal content, especially copper. We show that sub-lethal concentrations of copper affected traits related to sexual reproduction and diapausing egg production in the rotifer. Copper addition did not delay the start of mixis, suggesting that rapid initiation of mixis is promoted in risky environments, according to the hypothesis of mixis as an escape strategy. Higher investment in mixis was obtained when individuals were exposed to metal. Addition of copper negatively affected the hatching success of diapausing eggs and performance of hatchlings. Nevertheless, these effects were greater for individuals formed in non-metal conditions, suggesting an adaptive advantage of populations from natural sediments exposed to copper. These results highlight the ecological and evolutionary consequences of the presence of metals in freshwater environments by modulating diapause adaptive efficacy and the selective process in egg banks.

  1. In planta production of ELPylated spidroin-based proteins results in non-cytotoxic biopolymers.

    Hauptmann, Valeska; Menzel, Matthias; Weichert, Nicola; Reimers, Kerstin; Spohn, Uwe; Conrad, Udo

    2015-02-19

    Spider silk is a tear-resistant and elastic biopolymer that has outstanding mechanical properties. Additionally, exiguous immunogenicity is anticipated for spider silks. Therefore, spider silk represents a potential ideal biomaterial for medical applications. All known spider silk proteins, so-called spidroins, reveal a composite nature of silk-specific units, allowing the recombinant production of individual and combined segments. In this report, a miniaturized spidroin gene, named VSO1 that contains repetitive motifs of MaSp1 has been synthesized and combined to form multimers of distinct lengths, which were heterologously expressed as elastin-like peptide (ELP) fusion proteins in tobacco. The elastic penetration moduli of layered proteins were analyzed for different spidroin-based biopolymers. Moreover, we present the first immunological analysis of synthetic spidroin-based biopolymers. Characterization of the binding behavior of the sera after immunization by competitive ELISA suggested that the humoral immune response is mainly directed against the fusion partner ELP. In addition, cytocompatibility studies with murine embryonic fibroblasts indicated that recombinant spidroin-based biopolymers, in solution or as coated proteins, are well tolerated. The results show that spidroin-based biopolymers can induce humoral immune responses that are dependent on the fusion partner and the overall protein structure. Furthermore, cytocompatibility assays gave no indication of spidroin-derived cytotoxicity, suggesting that recombinant produced biopolymers composed of spider silk-like repetitive elements are suitable for biomedical applications.

  2. Simulating browse production and response of Acacia karroo to ...

    Even if it is possible to reduce stock in times of drought, this was shown to be of very little benefit. Keywords: acacia karroo; browse production; browsing; defoliation; drought; eastern cape; goats; growth; management; management strategy; model; number of camps; production; productivity; simulation model; south africa; ...

  3. Remotely Sensed Northern Vegetation Response to Changing Climate: Growing Season and Productivity Perspective

    Ganguly, S.; Park, Taejin; Choi, Sungho; Bi, Jian; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation growing season and maximum photosynthetic state determine spatiotemporal variability of seasonal total gross primary productivity of vegetation. Recent warming induced impacts accelerate shifts on growing season and physiological status over Northern vegetated land. Thus, understanding and quantifying these changes are very important. Here, we first investigate how vegetation growing season and maximum photosynthesis state are evolved and how such components contribute on inter-annual variation of seasonal total gross primary productivity. Furthermore, seasonally different response of northern vegetation to changing temperature and water availability is also investigated. We utilized both long-term remotely sensed data to extract larger scale growing season metrics (growing season start, end and duration) and productivity (i.e., growing season summed vegetation index, GSSVI) for answering these questions. We find that regionally diverged growing season shift and maximum photosynthetic state contribute differently characterized productivity inter-annual variability and trend. Also seasonally different response of vegetation gives different view of spatially varying interaction between vegetation and climate. These results highlight spatially and temporally varying vegetation dynamics and are reflective of biome-specific responses of northern vegetation to changing climate.

  4. Tobacco and e-cigarette products initiate Kupffer cell inflammatory responses.

    Rubenstein, David A; Hom, Sarah; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Yin, Wei

    2015-10-01

    -cigarette products or the formulation of the cigarette product). These results indicate that Kupffer cells are responsive to classical cardiovascular risk factors and that an inflammatory response is initiated that may pass into the general systemic circulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Setup, tests and results for the ATLAS TileCal Read Out Driver production

    Valero, Alberto; Castillo, V; Cuenca, C; Ferrer, A; Fullana, E; González, V; Higón, E; Munar, A; Poveda, J; Ruiz-Martínez, A; Salvachúa, B; Sanchís, E; Solans, C; Soret, J; Torres, J; Valls, J A

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe the performance and test results of the production of the 38 ATLAS TileCal Read Out Drivers (RODs). We first describe the basic hardware specifications and firmware functionality of the modules, the test-bench setup used for production and the test procedure to qualify the boards. We then finally show and discuss the performance results.

  6. Response diversity, functional redundancy, and post-logging productivity in northern temperate and boreal forests.

    Correia, David Laginha Pinto; Raulier, Frédéric; Bouchard, Mathieu; Filotas, Élise

    2018-04-19

    The development of efficient ecosystem resilience indicators was identified as one of the key research priorities in the improvement of existing sustainable forest management frameworks. Two indicators of tree diversity associated with ecosystem functioning have recently received particular attention in the literature: functional redundancy (FR) and response diversity (RD). We examined how these indicators could be used to predict post-logging productivity in forests of Québec, Canada. We analysed the relationships between pre-logging FR and RD, as measured with sample plots, and post-logging productivity, measured as seasonal variation in enhanced vegetation index obtained from MODIS satellite imagery. The effects of the deciduous and coniferous tree components in our pre-disturbance diversity assessments were isolated in order to examine the hypothesis that they have different impacts on post-disturbance productivity. We also examined the role of tree species richness and species identity effects. Our analysis revealed the complementary nature of traditional biodiversity indicators and trait-based approaches in the study of biodiversity-ecosystem-functioning relationships in dynamic ecosystems. We report a significant and positive relationship between pre-disturbance deciduous RD and post-disturbance productivity, as well as an unexpected significant negative effect of coniferous RD on productivity. This negative relationship with post-logging productivity likely results from slower coniferous regeneration speeds and from the relatively short temporal scale examined. Negative black-spruce-mediated identity effects were likely associated with increased stand vulnerability to paludification and invasion by ericaceous shrubs that slow down forest regeneration. Response diversity outperformed functional redundancy as a measure of post-disturbance productivity most likely due to the stand-replacing nature of the disturbance considered. To the best of our knowledge

  7. Improvement of production layout based on optimum production balancing scale results by using Moodie Young and Comsoal method

    Ikhsan, Siregar; Ulina Anastasia Sipangkar, Tri; Prasetio, Aji

    2017-09-01

    This research was conducted at a make to order production system company which is engaged in the car body of the vehicle. One of the products produced is dump truck which is one kind of transportation for the transport of goods equipped with hydraulics to facilitate goods’ loading and unloading process. The company has 7 work stations with different cycle times. Companies often experience delays in order delivery. The production process on the production floor has not been done optimally where there is a build up of work in process in some work centres. The build up of work in process (WIP) products is seen in the welding and painting stations. Stacking that occurs on the production line may cause the company to be liable for damages due to delays in product completion. The WIP occurs due to unbalanced paths can be seen from the variance of cycle time of each station is very diverse. The time difference of each work element is due to the allocation of work elements to each work centre unevenly. On the basis of the allocation of uneven work elements, the dump truck assembly line is made. The analysis is done by using Moodie Young and Comsoal method to do the balancing of production line. The result of layout improvement by using systematic layout planning (SLP) method is change the composition of the work centre from 7 into 4 work centre which enables the movement of material to be more effective and efficient so that it can get an efficient and effective production trajectory and can solve existing problems. The result of the track balancing is then used as a guide in constructing a new layout based on the balancing result with the most optimum method.

  8. Productivity response of calcareous nannoplankton to Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2

    M. Dedert

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Early Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 at ~53.7 Ma is one of multiple hyperthermal events that followed the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma. The negative carbon excursion and deep ocean carbonate dissolution which occurred during the event imply that a substantial amount (103 Gt of carbon (C was added to the ocean-atmosphere system, consequently increasing atmospheric CO2(pCO2. This makes the event relevant to the current scenario of anthropogenic CO2 additions and global change. Resulting changes in ocean stratification and pH, as well as changes in exogenic cycles which supply nutrients to the ocean, may have affected the productivity of marine phytoplankton, especially calcifying phytoplankton. Changes in productivity, in turn, may affect the rate of sequestration of excess CO2 in the deep ocean and sediments. In order to reconstruct the productivity response by calcareous nannoplankton to ETM2 in the South Atlantic (Site 1265 and North Pacific (Site 1209, we employ the coccolith Sr/Ca productivity proxy with analysis of well-preserved picked monogeneric populations by ion probe supplemented by analysis of various size fractions of nannofossil sediments by ICP-AES. The former technique of measuring Sr/Ca in selected nannofossil populations using the ion probe circumvents possible contamination with secondary calcite. Avoiding such contamination is important for an accurate interpretation of the nannoplankton productivity record, since diagenetic processes can bias the productivity signal, as we demonstrate for Sr/Ca measurements in the fine (<20 μm and other size fractions obtained from bulk sediments from Site 1265. At this site, the paleoproductivity signal as reconstructed from the Sr/Ca appears to be governed by cyclic changes, possibly orbital forcing, resulting in a 20–30% variability in Sr/Ca in dominant genera as obtained by ion probe. The ~13 to 21

  9. Recent Results on Quarkonium and Beauty Production in pp collisions with the ATLAS Detector

    Walder, James; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The latest results from ATLAS on heavy flavour and quarkonium production, including exotic states, are presented. This talk includes the measurement of B-hadron pair production, presented as a function of a variety kinematic variables between the two B-hadrons, providing important inputs to modelling of production via gluon splitting. Additional Insight into QCD models of quarkonium production and double parton scattering is also presented, through the production cross-section measurement of di-Jpsi and effective cross-section from double parton scattering.

  10. Investigation and analytical results of bituminized products in drums at filing room

    Shibata, Atsuhiro; Kato, Yoshiyuki; Sano, Yuichi; Kitajima, Takafumi; Fujita, Hideto

    1999-09-01

    This report describes the results of investigation of the bituminized products in drums, liquid waste in the receiving tank V21 and the bituminized mixture in the extruder. The investigation of the products in drums showed most of the unburned products filled after 28B had abnormality, such as hardened surfaces, caves and porous brittle products. The particle sizes of the salt fixed in bituminized products depended neither on batch number nor on feed rate. It indicates the fining of the salt particle caused by the decreased feed rate did not occur. The measured concentrations of metals and anions in the bituminized products showed no abnormality. The catalytic content was not recognized in the products. The infrared absorption spectra obtained with the bituminized products show the oxidation at the incident occurred without oxygen. There was no organic phase on the surface of liquid waste in V21. Chemical analysis and thermal analysis on the precipitate in V21 showed no abnormality. Concentration of sodium nitrate/nitrite in the mixture collected from the extruder was lower than normal products. These results show no chemical activation of the bituminized products. It can be concluded that the chemical characteristics of the products had little abnormality even around the incident. (author)

  11. Optimization of Protease Production by Psychrotrophic Rheinheimera sp. with Response Surface Methodology

    Mrayam Mahjoubin-Tehran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Psychrotrophic bacteria can produce enzymes at low temperatures; this provides a wide biotechnological potential, and offers numerous economical advantages over the use of mesophilic bacteria. In this study, extracellular protease production by psychrotrophic Rheinheimera sp. (KM459533 was optimized by the response surface methodology.Materials and Methods: The culture medium was tryptic soy broth containing 1% (w v -1 skim milk. First, the effects of variables were independently evaluated on the microbial growth and protease production by one-factor-at-a-time method within the following ranges: incubation time 24-120 h, temperature 15-37°C, pH 6- 11, skim milk concentration 0-2% (w v -1 , and inoculum size 0.5-3% (v v -1 . The combinational effects of the four major variable including temperature, pH, skim milk concentration, and inoculum size were then evaluated within 96 h using response surface methodology through 27 experiments.Results and Conclusion: In one-factor-at-a-time method, high cell density was detected at 72h, 20°C, pH 7, skim milk 2% (w v -1 , and inoculum size 3% (v v -1 , and maximum enzyme production (533.74 Uml-1 was achieved at 96h, 20°C, pH 9, skim milk 1% (w v -1 , and inoculum size 3% (v v -1 . The response surface methodology study showed that pH is the most effective factor in enzyme production, and among the other variables, only temperature had significant interaction with pH and inoculum size. The determination coefficient (R2 =0.9544 and non-significant lack of fit demonstrated correlation between the experimental and predicted values. The optimal conditions predicted by the response surface methodology for protease production were defined as: 22C, pH 8.5, skim milk 1.1% (w v -1 , and inoculum size 4% (v v -1 . Protease production under these conditions reached to 567.19 Uml-1 . The use of response surface methodology in this study increased protease production by eight times as

  12. Exploration and production environment. Preserving the future our responsibility

    2004-01-01

    This document presents the Total Group commitments to manage natural resources in a rational way, to preserve biodiversity for future generations and protect the environment. It contains the health, safety, environment and quality charter of Total, the 12 exploration and production health, safety and environment rules and the exploration and production environmental policy. (A.L.B.)

  13. Barcoded pyrosequencing reveals that consumption of galactooligosaccharides results in a highly specific bifidogenic response in humans.

    Lauren M G Davis

    Full Text Available Prebiotics are selectively fermented ingredients that allow specific changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota that confer health benefits to the host. However, the effects of prebiotics on the human gut microbiota are incomplete as most studies have relied on methods that fail to cover the breadth of the bacterial community. The goal of this research was to use high throughput multiplex community sequencing of 16S rDNA tags to gain a community wide perspective of the impact of prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (GOS on the fecal microbiota of healthy human subjects. Fecal samples from eighteen healthy adults were previously obtained during a feeding trial in which each subject consumed a GOS-containing product for twelve weeks, with four increasing dosages (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 gram of GOS. Multiplex sequencing of the 16S rDNA tags revealed that GOS induced significant compositional alterations in the fecal microbiota, principally by increasing the abundance of organisms within the Actinobacteria. Specifically, several distinct lineages of Bifidobacterium were enriched. Consumption of GOS led to five- to ten-fold increases in bifidobacteria in half of the subjects. Increases in Firmicutes were also observed, however, these changes were detectable in only a few individuals. The enrichment of bifidobacteria was generally at the expense of one group of bacteria, the Bacteroides. The responses to GOS and the magnitude of the response varied between individuals, were reversible, and were in accordance with dosage. The bifidobacteria were the only bacteria that were consistently and significantly enriched by GOS, although this substrate supported the growth of diverse colonic bacteria in mono-culture experiments. These results suggest that GOS can be used to enrich bifidobacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract with remarkable specificity, and that the bifidogenic properties of GOS that occur in vivo are caused by selective fermentation as well as by

  14. The influence of product- and person-related factors on consumer hedonic responses to soy products

    Fenko, Anna; Backhaus, Birte W.; van Hoof, Joris Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Consumers in Western countries increasingly appreciate health benefits of soy products. However, several barriers prevent full acceptance of these products. This study investigates the effects of product-related factors (perceived familiarity and expected healthiness) and person-related factors

  15. Media optimization for laccase production by Trichoderma harzianum ZF-2 using response surface methodology.

    Gao, Huiju; Chu, Xiang; Wang, Yanwen; Zhou, Fei; Zhao, Kai; Mu, Zhimei; Liu, Qingxin

    2013-12-01

    Trichoderma harzianum ZF-2 producing laccase was isolated from decaying samples from Shandong, China, and showed dye decolorization activities. The objective of this study was to optimize its culture conditions using a statistical analysis of its laccase production. The interactions between different fermentation parameters for laccase production were characterized using a Plackett-Burman design and the response surface methodology. The different media components were initially optimized using the conventional one-factor-at-a-time method and an orthogonal test design, and a Plackett-Burman experiment was then performed to evaluate the effects on laccase production. Wheat straw powder, soybean meal, and CuSO4 were all found to have a significant influence on laccase production, and the optimal concentrations of these three factors were then sequentially investigated using the response surface methodology with a central composite design. The resulting optimal medium components for laccase production were determined as follows: wheat straw powder 7.63 g/l, soybean meal 23.07 g/l, (NH4)2SO4 1 g/l, CuSO4 0.51 g/l, Tween-20 1 g/l, MgSO4 1 g/l, and KH2PO4 0.6 g/l. Using this optimized fermentation method, the yield of laccase was increased 59.68 times to 67.258 U/ml compared with the laccase production with an unoptimized medium. This is the first report on the statistical optimization of laccase production by Trichoderma harzianum ZF-2.

  16. Fungi regulate response of N2O production to warming and grazing in a Tibetan grassland

    Zhong, Lei; Wang, Shiping; Xu, Xingliang; Wang, Yanfen; Rui, Yichao; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Shen, Qinhua; Wang, Jinzhi; Jiang, Lili; Luo, Caiyun; Gu, Tianbao; Ma, Wenchao; Chen, Guanyi

    2018-03-01

    Lack of understanding of the effects of warming and winter grazing on soil fungal contribution to nitrous oxide (N2O) production has limited our ability to predict N2O fluxes under changes in climate and land use management, because soil fungi play an important role in driving terrestrial N cycling. Here, we examined the effects of 10 years' warming and winter grazing on soil N2O emissions potential in an alpine meadow. Our results showed that soil bacteria and fungi contributed 46 % and 54 % to nitrification, and 37 % and 63 % to denitrification, respectively. Neither warming nor winter grazing affected the activity of enzymes responsible for overall nitrification and denitrification. However, warming significantly increased the enzyme activity of bacterial nitrification and denitrification to 53 % and 55 %, respectively. Warming significantly decreased enzyme activity of fungal nitrification and denitrification to 47 % and 45 %, respectively, while winter grazing had no such effect. We conclude that soil fungi could be the main source for N2O production potential in the Tibetan alpine grasslands. Warming and winter grazing may not affect the potential for soil N2O production potential, but climate warming can alter biotic pathways responsible for N2O production. These findings indicate that characterizing how fungal nitrification/denitrification contributes to N2O production, as well as how it responds to environmental and land use changes, can advance our understanding of N cycling. Therefore, our results provide some new insights about ecological controls on N2O production and lead to refine greenhouse gas flux models.

  17. Optimization of Medium Using Response Surface Methodology for Lipid Production by Scenedesmus sp.

    Yang, Fangfang; Long, Lijuan; Sun, Xiumei; Wu, Hualian; Li, Tao; Xiang, Wenzhou

    2014-01-01

    Lipid production is an important indicator for assessing microalgal species for biodiesel production. In this work, the effects of medium composition on lipid production by Scenedesmus sp. were investigated using the response surface methodology. The results of a Plackett–Burman design experiment revealed that NaHCO3, NaH2PO4·2H2O and NaNO3 were three factors significantly influencing lipid production, which were further optimized by a Box–Behnken design. The optimal medium was found to contain 3.07 g L−1 NaHCO3, 15.49 mg L−1 NaH2PO4·2H2O and 803.21 mg L−1 NaNO3. Using the optimal conditions previously determined, the lipid production (304.02 mg·L−1) increased 54.64% more than that using the initial medium, which agreed well with the predicted value 309.50 mg L−1. Additionally, lipid analysis found that palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) dominantly constituted the algal fatty acids (about 60% of the total fatty acids) and a much higher content of neutral lipid accounted for 82.32% of total lipids, which strongly proved that Scenedesmus sp. is a very promising feedstock for biodiesel production. PMID:24663113

  18. The vaccine adjuvant alum promotes IL-10 production that suppresses Th1 responses.

    Oleszycka, Ewa; McCluskey, Sean; Sharp, Fiona A; Muñoz-Wolf, Natalia; Hams, Emily; Gorman, Aoife L; Fallon, Padraic G; Lavelle, Ed C

    2018-04-01

    The effectiveness of many vaccines licensed for clinical use relates to the induction of neutralising antibodies, facilitated by the inclusion of vaccine adjuvants, particularly alum. However, the ability of alum to preferentially promote humoral rather than cellular, particularly Th1-type responses, is not well understood. We demonstrate that alum activates immunosuppressive mechanisms following vaccination, which limit its capacity to induce Th1 responses. One of the key cytokines limiting excessive immune responses is IL-10. Injection of alum primed draining lymph node cells for enhanced IL-10 secretion ex vivo. Moreover, at the site of injection, macrophages and dendritic cells were key sources of IL-10 expression. Alum strongly enhanced the transcription and secretion of IL-10 by macrophages and dendritic cells. The absence of IL-10 signalling did not compromise alum-induced cell infiltration into the site of injection, but resulted in enhanced antigen-specific Th1 responses after vaccination. In contrast to its decisive regulatory role in regulating Th1 responses, there was no significant change in antigen-specific IgG1 antibody production following vaccination with alum in IL-10-deficient mice. Overall, these findings indicate that injection of alum promotes IL-10, which can block Th1 responses and may explain the poor efficacy of alum as an adjuvant for inducing protective Th1 immunity. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Endemic diseases and agricultural productivity: Challenges and policy response

    Martine AUDIBERT

    2008-01-01

    Contrary to Asian countries, the agricultural sector in Africa had not benefited from the green revolution success. After a long time of disinterest in the agriculture sector in Africa, several voices arise now in favour of greater efforts towards this sector. Several studies tend to show the crucial role of agriculture in African countries' growth and highlight the huge need of increasing the productivity in this sector. If increase in agriculture productivity requires both an expansion of i...

  20. New analytical results in the electromagnetic response of composite superconducting wire in parallel fields

    Niessen, E.M.J.; Niessen, E.M.J.; Zandbergen, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Analytical results are presented concerning the electromagnetic response of a composite superconducting wire in fields parallel to the wire axis, using the Maxwell equations supplemented with constitutive equations. The problem is nonlinear due to the nonlinearity in the constitutive equation

  1. 78 FR 34340 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...

    2013-06-07

    ... Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011... tube products (welded pipe and tube) from Turkey.\\2\\ The period of review is May 1, 2011, to April 30... A.S. (BMB) had reviewable sales during this period of review. DATES: As of June 7, 2013. FOR FURTHER...

  2. New results on multi-muon production in 250 GeV μ+ Fe interactions

    Best, C.H.

    1981-05-01

    Preliminary results on the contribution to the nucleon structure function F 2 from charm particle production are presented. The data consist of dimuon and trimuon events from a high statistics experiment for a beam energy of 250 GeV. Exotic trimuon events have been observed and are compared to predictions from BETABETA and tautau production and decay. (author)

  3. Beer production enteprises corporate social responsibility research in colleges

    Išoraitė, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the concept of corporate social responsibility, more importantly, corporate social responsibility in Lithuanian politics. Many references are given according to the main reasons why CSR issues are of strategic importance: it is a natural stage of development organizations in the light of changing public expectations; exhaustion of natural resources have become the limiting factor in the development activities; environmental problems have become global in scale; there is a...

  4. Salix response to different flow regimes in controlled experiments: first results

    Gorla, Lorenzo; Signarbieux, Constant; Buttler, Alexandre; Perona, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Dams and water management for hydropower production, agriculture and other human activities alter the natural flow regime of rivers. The new river hydrograph components depend on the type of impoundment and the policy of regulation but such a different flow regime will likely affect the riparian environment. The main challenge in order to define sustainable flow releases is to quantify hydrological effects in terms of geomorphology and ecosystem response. A considerable lack of knowledge still affects the link hydrology-ecology and inadequate flow rules (e.g., minimal or residual flows) are consequently still widespread: further research in this direction is urgently required. We present an experiment, which aims to investigate the effects of different water stage regimes on riparian vegetation (salix Viminalis cuttings) development in a temperate region (Switzerland). This work describes the installation setup, together with the first results concerning the first of the two scheduled seasons of campaign. Sixty Salix cuttings were planted in non-cohesive sandy-gravel sediment within 1 meter tall plastic pots installed outside in the EPFL campus. After grouping them in three batteries, the water level within them has been varying following three river regimes simulated by adjusting the water level within the pots by means of an automatic hydraulic system. The three water level regimes reproduce a natural flow regime, a minimum residual flow policy, which only conserves peaks during flooding conditions, and an artificial regime conserving only low frequencies (e.g., seasonality) of the natural dynamic. The natural flow regime of the first battery has been applied for two months to the entire system; the three regimes above said started in June 2012. This triggered a plant response transitory regime, which we monitored by measuring plant growth, soil and atmospheric variables. Particularly, measures concern with branches development leaves photosynthesis and

  5. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Korpilahti, A. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  6. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Korpilahti, A [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  7. Impact of overactive bladder on work productivity in the United States: results from EpiLUTS.

    Sexton, Chris C; Coyne, Karin S; Vats, Vasudha; Kopp, Zoe S; Irwin, Debra E; Wagner, Todd H

    2009-03-01

    Little research has focused on the impact of overactive bladder (OAB) on work productivity. Consequently, the impact of OAB and other lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) on work productivity was evaluated in employed men and women aged 40 to 65 in the United States. Data from a population-based, cross-sectional Internet survey were used to examine the impact of OAB symptoms on work productivity. US participants aged 40 to 65 working full- or part-time were included in the analysis. Participants were asked about the incidence of OAB and other LUTS and a series of questions about work productivity. Descriptive statistics and linear and logistic regressions were used to evaluate outcome differences for men and women by the OAB groups of no/minimal symptoms, continent OAB, and incontinent OAB. The response rate was 60%, and a total of 2876 men and 2820 women were analyzed. Men and women with incontinent OAB reported the lowest levels of work productivity and highest rates of daily work interference. Storage symptoms associated with OAB were most consistently associated with work productivity outcomes; however, significant associations were also found for other storage, voiding, and postmicturition LUTS. In this large US population-based study, OAB was highly prevalent and was associated with lower levels of work productivity. These findings add to the literature documenting the burden of OAB and other LUTS, underscoring the need for increased screening and treatment.

  8. Interleukin production by neonatal spleen cells during and as a result of antigen presentation: The effect of ultraviolet light

    Levin, D.; Gershon, H.

    1989-01-01

    Antigen presentation by neonatal murine spleen cells and the production of lymphokines and interleukins involved in the stimulation of a T-helper-2 (TH2) cell line (D10-G4.1) were studied as were the effects of ultra violet (UV)-irradiation on this system. Neonatal spleen cells are less capable than adult cells of performing the initial steps of the immune response required for antigen dependent activation of TH2 cells. These steps include soluble antigen processing and presentation and as a result reduced production of IL-4 and IL-1-Inducer Factor (IL-1-IF) by the T-helper cells and reduced production of IL-1 and IL-2 by the antigen presenting cell population. Spontaneous membrane IL-1 activity is low in the neonate, however, when exposed to IL-1-IF they can express adult levels. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of the antigen presenting population has a damaging effect on all the above mentioned processes. Antigen processing and presentation, induction of D10 IL-4 production and proliferation, and IL-2 production demonstrate two different age related patterns of UV-irradiation induced damage: a dose dependent inhibition when adult cells are irradiated and an inverse effect in which low doses of irradiation were more inhibitory than higher doses when neonatal cells are irradiated. However, the secretion and membrane expression of IL-1 by both age groups are directly and totally inhibited by the range of UV-irradiation doses used and cannot be reinduced with a supplement of a crude IL-1-IF. While the capacity to produced IL-1 is totally destroyed by UV-irradiation, the ability to produce IL-2 remains intact and remains responsive to an IL-2-Inducer activity during proper antigen presentation. The low responses of neonatal antigen presenting spleen cell populations and the damaging effect of UV on both neonatal and adult responses are not due to the induction of suppressor factors

  9. Green technology foresight of products and materials - some reflections and results from an ongoing Danish project

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pedersen, Thomas Thoning; Falch, Morten

    2005-01-01

    The article presents some methodological and theoretical reflections and some preliminary results from a Danish Green Technology Foresight project about environmental friendly products and materials, where the environmental potentials and risks from three technology areas are analysed: nano- bio...

  10. Recent results on D decays and lepton, photon, (and hadron) production of charm

    Nash, T.

    1983-09-01

    After a brief introduction to the experiments with results included in this review, we will discuss, in turn, production of psi and psi', production of open charm in lepton and photon beams, D decays, and give a brief token mention of recent hadroproduction results. Emphasis will be on results reported since the Paris conference (August, 1982), but we will try to include all results since the last Lepton Photon Conference at Bonn (August, 1981) as well as earlier results when necessary for comparison. 42 references

  11. [Evolution of maize climate productivity and its response to climate change in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    Li, Xiu Fen; Zhao, Hui Ying; Zhu, Hai Xia; Wang, Ping; Wang, Qiu Jing; Wang, Ming; Li, Yu Guang

    2016-08-01

    Under the background of climate change, revealing the change trend and spatial diffe-rence of maize climate productivity in-depth and understanding the regularity of maize climatic resources utilization can provide scientific basis for the macro-decision of agricultural production in Heilongjiang Province. Based on the 1981-2014 meteorological data of 72 weather stations and the corresponding maize yield data in Heilongjiang Province, by the methods of step by step revisal, spatial interpolation and linear trend analysis, this paper studied the photosynthetic productivity (PP), light-temperature productivity (LTP), and climatic productivity (CP) of spring maize, and their temporal and spatial variation characteristics, main influencing factors and light energy utilization efficiency, and evaluated the maize climate productivities under different climate scenarios in the future. The results showed that during the study period, the mean PP, LTP and CP in Heilongjiang Province were 26558, 19953, 18742 kg·hm -2 , respectively. Maize PP, LTP and CP were high in plains and low in mountains, and gradually decreased from southwest to northeast. PP, LTP and CP presented significantly increasing trends, and the increase rates were 378, 723 and 560 kg·hm -2 ·(10 a) -1 , respectively. The increase of radiation and temperature had positive effect on maize production in Heilongjiang Province. The potential productivity of maize presented significant response to climate change. The decrease of solar radiation led to the decline of PP in western Songnen Plain, but the increased temperature compensated the negative effect of solar radiation, so the downward trend of LTP was slowed. The response to climate warming was particularly evident in North and East, and LTP was significantly increased, which was sensitive to the change of precipitation in southwest of Songnen Plain and part of Sanjiang Plain. The average ratio of maize actual yield to its climate productivity was only 24

  12. Agricultural sectoral demand and crop productivity response across the world

    Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Cassidy, E. S.; Foley, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, humans will need to roughly double agricultural production by 2050. Continued yield growth forms the foundation of all future strategies aiming to increase agricultural production while slowing or eliminating cropland expansion. However, a recent analysis by one of our co-authors has shown that yield trends in many important maize, wheat and rice growing regions have begun stagnating or declining from the highs seen during the green revolution (Ray et al. 2013). Additional research by our group has shown that nearly 50% of new agricultural production since the 1960s has gone not to direct human consumption, but instead to animal feed and other industrial uses. Our analysis for GLP looks at the convergence of these two trends by examining time series utilization data for 16 of the biggest crops to determine how demand from different sectors has shaped our land-use and intensification strategies around the world. Before rushing headlong into the next agricultural doubling, it would be prudent to first consult our recent agricultural history to better understand what was driving past changes in production. Using newly developed time series dataset - a fusion of cropland maps with historic agricultural census data gathered from around the world - we can examine yield and harvested area trends over the last half century for 16 top crops. We combine this data with utilization rates from the FAO Food Balance Sheet to see how demand from different sectors - food, feed, and other - has influenced long-term growth trends from the green revolution forward. We will show how intensification trends over time and across regions have grown or contracted depending on what is driving the change in production capacity. Ray DK, Mueller ND, West PC, Foley JA (2013) Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66428. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066428

  13. Operation results and investigations on decommissioning of the molybdenum-99 production plant Rossendorf - AMOR-I

    Bernhard, G.; Friedrich, H.; Boessert, W.; Eckardt, A.

    1993-01-01

    Original fuel elements of a research reactor were reprocessed for fission molybdenum production in the facility AMOR-I. In a 10 years operation 8.5*10 15 Bq Mo-99 were produced in more than 400 runs. The production results and many experiences were described in this report. Further a view is given on the strategy of decommissioning. There are shown results of fission product adsorption on and desorption from material surfaces. Possibilities of decontamination are described. The simultaneous effect of corrosion and radioactive radiation on different materials is discussed. This paper is a basis of the licence procedure for decommissioning of the AMOR-I-plant. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Attributing Asymmetric Productivity Responses to Internal Ecosystem Dynamics and External Drivers Using Probabilistic Models

    Parolari, A.; Goulden, M.

    2017-12-01

    A major challenge to interpreting asymmetric changes in ecosystem productivity is the attribution of these changes to external climate forcing or to internal ecophysiological processes that respond to these drivers (e.g., photosynthesis response to drying soil). For example, positive asymmetry in productivity can result from either positive skewness in the distribution of annual rainfall amount or from negative curvature in the productivity response to annual rainfall. To analyze the relative influences of climate and ecosystem dynamics on both positive and negative asymmetry in multi-year ANPP experiments, we use a multi-scale coupled ecosystem water-carbon model to interpret field experimental results that span gradients of rainfall skewness and ANPP response curvature. The model integrates rainfall variability, soil moisture dynamics, and net carbon assimilation from the daily to inter-annual scales. From the underlying physical basis of the model, we compute the joint probability distribution of the minimum and maximum ANPP for an annual ANPP experiment of N years. The distribution is used to estimate the likelihood that either positive or negative asymmetry will be observed in an experiment, given the annual rainfall distribution and the ANPP response curve. We estimate the total asymmetry as the mode of this joint distribution and the relative contribution attributable to rainfall skewness as the mode for a linear ANPP response curve. Applied to data from several long-term ANPP experiments, we find that there is a wide range of observed ANPP asymmetry (positive and negative) and a spectrum of contributions from internal and external factors. We identify the soil water holding capacity relative to the mean rain event depth as a critical ecosystem characteristic that controls the non-linearity of the ANPP response and positive curvature at high rainfall. Further, the seasonal distribution of rainfall is shown to control the presence or absence of negative

  15. Policy options to reduce consumer waste to zero: comparing product stewardship and extended producer responsibility for refrigerator waste.

    Nicol, Scott; Thompson, Shirley

    2007-06-01

    Today, over-consumption, pollution and resource depletion threaten sustainability. Waste management policies frequently fail to reduce consumption, prevent pollution, conserve resources and foster sustainable products. However, waste policies are changing to focus on lifecycle impacts of products from the cradle to the grave by extending the responsibilities of stakeholders to post-consumer management. Product stewardship and extended producer responsibility are two policies in use, with radically different results when compared for one consumer product, refrigerators. North America has enacted product stewardship policies that fail to require producers to take physical or financial responsibility for recycling or for environmentally sound disposal, so that releases of ozone depleting substances routinely occur, which contribute to the expanding the ozone hole. Conversely, Europe's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive requires extended producer responsibility, whereby producers collect and manage their own post-consumer waste products. WEEE has resulted in high recycling rates of greater than 85%, reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances and other toxins, greener production methods, such as replacing greenhouse gas refrigerants with environmentally friendly hydrocarbons and more reuse of refrigerators in the EU in comparison with North America.

  16. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results From the National Young Adult Health Survey.

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-34 years; n = 2,871, including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to noncombustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22% and 33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes, and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and nonusers of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being "less risky" and rate cigars and SLT as being "more risky" than older young adults. Conclusion The public's views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type and age-group. While "less risky" perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are "more risky" than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  17. Young adults’ risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to cigarettes – results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Methods We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (ages 18–34)(n=2871)(including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to non-combustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22–33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and non-users of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being “less risky” and rate cigars and SLT as being “more risky” than older young adults. Conclusion The public’s views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type, and age group. While “less risky” perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are “more risky” than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use. PMID:26304709

  18. Barn owl productivity response to variability of vole populations

    Pavluvčík, P.; Poprach, K.; Machar, I.; Losík, J.; Gouveia, A.; Tkadlec, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 12 (2015), e0145851 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : animal experiment * correlation coefficient * Czech Republic * fledgling * life history * nonhuman * productivity * specialization * stochastic model * theoretical model * time series analysis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  19. Consumer and purchasing agent response to terms used to describe forest products from southeast Alaska

    Allen M. Brackley; Valerie Barber

    2007-01-01

    This study surveys 204 consumers and purchasing agents and reports their reaction to terms used to describe forest products from southeast Alaska. Although 67 percent of the respondents would purchase products from old-growth trees, purchasing agents were more likely to refuse to purchase such products (negative response from 12 percent of consumers vs. 29 percent for...

  20. Who is responsible for the team’s results? Media framing of sports actors’ responsibility in major sports competitions

    Diana Luiza Dumitriu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Media are no longer just a witness to sports events, facilitating our access to them, but have become the most powerful judging platform for sports competitions, serving as a guide for their interpretation and evaluation. The present study focuses on media framing of sports actors’ responsibility when it comes to major sports competitions. Who is responsible for the team’s performance and results? In analysing media discourse, framing effects of sports events coverage will be examined from two inter-correlated dimensions, textually and visually. Based on an event-related corpus of on-line press articles from four national newspapers, this case study covers two major sports events: 2010 European Women’s Handball Championship and 2011 World Women’s Handball Championship. The discursive analysis of the press articles shows that, if winning competitive settings favour the emergence of a personification effect, building up sports heroes on both textual and visual dimensions, the responsibility of failure is rather diffused towards a collective referent. However, the visual component of press articles, along with the indirect strategy of addressing the responsibility issue throughout reported speech techniques, works as an alternative to the personification effect.

  1. Dynamic extrafloral nectar production: the timing of leaf damage affects the defensive response in Senna mexicana var. chapmanii (Fabaceae).

    Jones, Ian M; Koptur, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    • Extrafloral nectar (EFN) mediates food for protection mutualisms between plants and defensive insects. Understanding sources of variation in EFN production is important because such variations may affect the number and identity of visitors and the effectiveness of plant defense. We investigated the influence of plant developmental stage, time of day, leaf age, and leaf damage on EFN production in Senna mexicana var. chapmanii. The observed patterns of variation in EFN production were compared with those predicted by optimal defense theory.• Greenhouse experiments with potted plants were conducted to determine how plant age, time of day, and leaf damage affected EFN production. A subsequent field study was conducted to determine how leaf damage, and the resulting increase in EFN production, affected ant visitation in S. chapmanii.• More nectar was produced at night and by older plants. Leaf damage resulted in increased EFN production, and the magnitude of the response was greater in plants damaged in the morning than those damaged at night. Damage to young leaves elicited a stronger defensive response than damage to older leaves, in line with optimal defense theory. Damage to the leaves of S. chapmanii also resulted in significantly higher ant visitation in the field.• Extrafloral nectar is an inducible defense in S. chapmanii. Developmental variations in its production support the growth differentiation balance hypothesis, while within-plant variations and damage responses support optimal defense theory. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  2. Employing response surface methodology (RSM) to improve methane production from cotton stalk.

    Zhang, Han; Khalid, Habiba; Li, Wanwu; He, Yanfeng; Liu, Guangqing; Chen, Chang

    2018-03-01

    China is the largest cotton producer with the cotton output accounting for 25% of the total world's cotton production. A large quantity of cotton stalk (CS) waste is generated which is burned and causes environmental and ecological problems. This study investigated the anaerobic digestibility of CS by focusing on improving the methane yield by applying central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). The purpose of this study was to determine the best level of factors to optimize the desired output of methane production from CS. Thus, it was necessary to describe the relationship of many individual variables with one or more response values for the effective utilization of CS. The influences of feed to inoculum (F/I) ratio and organic loading (OL) on methane production were investigated. Results showed that the experimental methane yield (EMY) and volatile solid (VS) removal were calculated to be 70.22 mL/gVS and 14.33% at F/I ratio of 0.79 and organic loading of 25.61 gVS/L, respectively. Characteristics of final effluent showed that the anaerobic system was stable. This research laid a foundation for future application of CS to alleviate the problems of waste pollution and energy output.

  3. Removal of radon decay products with ion generators - comparison of experimental results with theory

    Maher, E.F.; Rudnick, S.N.; Moeller, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of ion generators to remove radon decay products from the airspace of residences or mines was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. A positive ion generator, producing an air ion current of less than 2 μA and operated in a 78 m 3 chamber with air exchange rates ranging from 0.2 to 0.8-hr -1 and relative humidities ranging from 20 to nearly 100%, reduced the concentrations of airborne radon decay products by as much as 85%. A negative ion generator, operated under the same range of conditions, was less effective, producing airborne radon decay product removals up to 67%. Experimental results compared favorably with a simple theoretical model that hypothesizes a three-part process: 1) radon decay products, as well as aerosol particles to which some of these decay products attach, are charged by diffusion of the air ions produced by the generator; 2) the air ions also produce a nonuniform space charge in the chamber that results in an electric field gradient radially outwards from the generator to the chamber surfaces; and 3) because of the influence of this electric field, the charged decay products and particles migrate toward nearby surfaces where they plate out. The net benefit of unipolar space charging is a substantial decrease in the steady-state radon decay product concentrations in the airspace with a corresponding reduction in the lung dose equivalent to the occupants

  4. Recent results from LHCb on W, Z and low mass Drell-Yan production

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Recent results from the LHCb experiment are presented that test QCD and the electroweak theory. Inclusive and differential cross-sections, as well as cross-section ratios and asymmetries, for W and Z boson production are measured and compared to next-to-next-to-leading order QCD predictions using the most recent parton distribution functions.  In addition, differential cross-sections for low mass Drell-Yan production are presented in the di-muon mass range 5production of jets of particles in association with a Z boson is presented.

  5. Specific elements of communication on agri-food products resulting from EU legislation

    Laura Timiras

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union a significant number of regulations aimed at agricultural and food sector thus creating the legal framework regarding the mode of production, pricing, distribution and communication in relation to agri-food products. Specificity agri-food marketing communication at EU level resulting in most of the measures taken with regard to ensuring consumer protection, food safety and security, some of them, in force in early 2012, referring to the labeling, presentation and advertising of agri-food products, sponsorship and distinctive signs of quality are shown in this paper.

  6. Response Surface Modelling of Noradrenaline Production in Hairy Root Culture of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.

    Mehdi Ghorbani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is an annual plant as one of the natural sources for noradrenaline hormone. In this research, hairy root culture of purslane was established by using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834. In the following, Box-Behnken model of response surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize B5 medium for the growth of P. oleracea L. hairy root line. According to the results, modelling and optimization conditions, including sucrose, CaCl2.H2O, H2PO4 and NO3-/NH4+ concentrations on maximum dry weight (0.155 g and noradrenaline content (0.36 mg.g-1 DW was predicted. These optimal conditions predicted by RSM were confirmed the enhancement of noradrenaline production as an application potential for production by hairy root cultures.

  7. Shock Protection of Portable Electronic Products: Shock Response Spectrum, Damage Boundary Approach, and Beyond

    Suresh Goyal

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The pervasive shock response spectrum (SRS and damage boundary methods for evaluating product fragility and designing external cushioning for shock protection are described in detail with references to the best available literature. Underlying assumptions are carefully reviewed and the central message of the SRS is highlighted, particularly as it relates to standardized drop testing. Shortcomings of these methods are discussed, and the results are extended to apply to more general systems. Finally some general packaging and shock-mounting strategies are discussed in the context of protecting a fragile disk drive in a notebook computer, although the conclusions apply to other products as well. For example, exterior only cushioning (with low restitution to reduce subsequent impacts will provide a slenderer form factor than the next best strategy: interior cushioning with a “dead” hard outer shell.

  8. The Impact of Different HRM Regimes on Labour Productivity: National Results and a Regional Perspective

    Hodgkinson, Ann

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses AWIRS 95 and IRWIRS 96-7 data to test whether workplaces which used ‘soft’ versus ‘hard’ Human Resource Management (HRM) policies and practices experienced significant differences in labour productivity improvements. Generally, the results support the proposition that management attitudes, policies and practices which aim to develop workforce skills, commitment and motivation were positively associated with improvements in labour productivity. Very few ‘hard’ practices other t...

  9. Mental health first aid responses of the public: results from an Australian national survey

    Kitchener Betty A

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of mental disorders is so high that members of the public will commonly have contact with someone affected. How they respond to that person (the mental health first aid response may affect outcomes. However, there is no information on what members of the public might do in such circumstances. Methods In a national survey of 3998 Australian adults, respondents were presented with one of four case vignettes and asked what they would do if that person was someone they had known for a long time and cared about. There were four types of vignette: depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, early schizophrenia, and chronic schizophrenia. Verbatim responses to the open-ended question were coded into categories. Results The most common responses to all vignettes were to encourage professional help-seeking and to listen to and support the person. However, a significant minority did not give these responses. Much less common responses were to assess the problem or risk of harm, to give or seek information, to encourage self-help, or to support the family. Few respondents mentioned contacting a professional on the person's behalf or accompanying them to a professional. First aid responses were generally more appropriate in women, those with less stigmatizing attitudes, and those who correctly identified the disorder in the vignette. Conclusions There is room for improving the range of mental health first aid responses in the community. Lack of knowledge of mental disorders and stigmatizing attitudes are important barriers to effective first aid.

  10. Possibilities for using plant extracts added to ruminant feed aimed at improving production results

    Grdović Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with the objective of improving production results and the quality of food articles of animal origin is an area which is acquiring increasing scientific importance. Numerous investigations carried out so far on ruminants and other species of domestic animals have been aimed at examining specific bioactive matter of plants. The results of these investigations have demonstrated a positive influence on the production results. A large number of data indicate that plant extracts added to animal feed contribute to increasing overall productivity. Furthermore, plant extracts as additives in animal feed have a positive effect also on the health condition of the animals. A large number of plants have characteristics which potentially improve consumption, digestibility and conversion of food, and also growth. Examinations have been performed of the effects of different plant extracts on food consumption, wool growth, growth and composition of the trunk, milk production, reproductive parameters, agents for wool shearing, preventing bloat, methane production, as well as the influence of plants on curbing nematode infestations of ruminants. This work presents a review of scientific investigations of different plant species and their effects on the production characteristics of ruminants. .

  11. Social responsibility of the hospitals in Isfahan city, Iran: Results from a cross-sectional survey

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization’s practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. Results: The mean score of hospitals’ social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals’ ownership (public or private). Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. Conclusion: It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals’ social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff’s working environment. PMID:26340391

  12. Looking Past Primary Productivity: Benchmarking System Processes that Drive Ecosystem Level Responses in Models

    Cowdery, E.; Dietze, M.

    2017-12-01

    As atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide levels continue to increase, it is critical that terrestrial ecosystem models can accurately predict ecological responses to the changing environment. Current predictions of net primary productivity (NPP) in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration are highly variable and contain a considerable amount of uncertainty. Benchmarking model predictions against data are necessary to assess their ability to replicate observed patterns, but also to identify and evaluate the assumptions causing inter-model differences. We have implemented a novel benchmarking workflow as part of the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer (PEcAn) that is automated, repeatable, and generalized to incorporate different sites and ecological models. Building on the recent Free-Air CO2 Enrichment Model Data Synthesis (FACE-MDS) project, we used observational data from the FACE experiments to test this flexible, extensible benchmarking approach aimed at providing repeatable tests of model process representation that can be performed quickly and frequently. Model performance assessments are often limited to traditional residual error analysis; however, this can result in a loss of critical information. Models that fail tests of relative measures of fit may still perform well under measures of absolute fit and mathematical similarity. This implies that models that are discounted as poor predictors of ecological productivity may still be capturing important patterns. Conversely, models that have been found to be good predictors of productivity may be hiding error in their sub-process that result in the right answers for the wrong reasons. Our suite of tests have not only highlighted process based sources of uncertainty in model productivity calculations, they have also quantified the patterns and scale of this error. Combining these findings with PEcAn's model sensitivity analysis and variance decomposition strengthen our ability to identify which processes

  13. Thermal Responses of Growth and Toxin Production in Four Prorocentrum Species from the Central Red Sea

    Aynousah, Arwa

    2017-06-01

    Harmful algae studies, in particular toxic dinoflagellates, and their response to global warming in the Red Sea are still limited. This study was aimed to be the first to characterize the identity, thermal responses and toxin production of four Prorocentrum strains isolated from the Central Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis identified the strains as P. elegans, P. rhathymum and P. emarginatum. However, the identity of strain P. sp.6 is currently unresolved, albeit sharing close affinity with P. leve. Growth experiments showed that all species could grow at 24-32°C, but only P. sp.6 survived the 34°C treatment. The optimum temperatures (Topt) estimated from the Gaussian model corresponded to 27.17, 29.33, 26.87, and 27.64°C for P. sp.6, P. elegans, P. rhathymum and P. emarginatum, respectively. However, some discrepancy with the Topt derived from the growth performance were observed for P. elegans and P. emarginatum, as thermal responses differed from the typical Gaussian fit. The Prorocentrum species examined showed a sharp decrease after the optimum temperature resulting in very high activation energies for the fall slope, especially for P. elegans and P. emarginatum. The minimum critical temperature limit for growth was not detected within the range of temperatures examined. Subsequently, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis revealed all species as non okadaic acid (OA, common toxin of the Prorocentrum genus) producers at any temperature treatment. However, other forms of toxin (i.e. fast acting toxins) not examined here could be produced. Therefore, further investigations are required. The results of this study provided significant contribution to our knowledge regarding the presence, thermal response and toxin production of four Prorocentrum species from the Central Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

  14. The Catch-22 of responsible luxury: effects of luxury product characteristics on consumers' perception of fit with corporate social responsibility

    Janssen, Catherine; Vanhamme, Joëlle; Lindgreen, Adam; Lefebvre, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    The notion of “responsible luxury” may appear as a contradiction in terms. This article investigates the influence of two defining characteristics of luxury products—scarcity and ephemerality—on consumers’ perception of the fit between luxury and corporate social responsibility (CSR), as well as how this perceived fit affects consumers’ attitudes toward luxury products. A field experiment reveals that ephemerality moderates the positive impact of scarcity on consumers’ perception of fit betwe...

  15. Smokeless and flavored tobacco products in the U.S.: 2009 Styles survey results.

    Regan, Annette K; Dube, Shanta R; Arrazola, René

    2012-01-01

    A number of noncigarette tobacco products, including some novel products, recently have been marketed by the tobacco industry, which raises concerns from tobacco control authorities. This study aimed to assess current popularity of several noncigarette tobacco products in the U.S. In 2009, a total of 10,587 adults completed a consumer mail-in survey (ConsumerStyles). Based on survey results, the weighted percentages of adults who heard and tried snus, dissolvable tobacco products, flavored little cigars, and flavored cigarettes were computed in 2010. A subset of this sample (n=4556) completed the HealthStyles survey, which included items about health perceptions of these products and use in the past 30 days. The percentage of U.S. adults in the sample who were aware of these products ranged from 10.4% (dissolvable tobacco) to 44.6% (flavored little cigars). One third of adults who had heard of flavored little cigars tried them and 10.1% had used them in the past 30 days; among those who had heard of them, 27.4% tried flavored cigarettes and 12.6% tried snus. In general, young adults, men, and smokers were most likely to have heard of each product. At least one third of adults were uncertain if these products were as harmful as cigarettes (range=37.3% [snus] to 50.3% [dissolvable tobacco]). The awareness of these tobacco products in this sample varied. Groups with a higher prevalence of smoking and tobacco use (e.g., men, people with low levels of education) may be a target audience for marketing and promotions. As availability of products change, continued surveillance is warranted in the U.S. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. A fast-response production-inventory model for deteriorating seasonal products with learning in set-ups

    Ibraheem Abdul

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical production-inventory model assumes that both demand and set-up costs are constant. However, in real manufacturing environment, managers usually embark on continuous improvement programmes that often lead to more effective use of tools and machineries and consequently reduction in set-up costs. In fact, constant emphasis on reduction of set-up costs is usually cited as one of the factors responsible for the efficiency of Japanese manufacturing methods. On the other hand, the demand for seasonal product is often characterized by a mixture of time-dependent patterns over the entire season. This paper investigates the effect of learning-based reduction in set-up costs on the optimal schedules and costs of a production-inventory system for deteriorating seasonal products. The demand pattern is a general three-phase ramp-type demand function that represents the various phases of demand commonly observed in many seasonal products in the market. A two-parameter Weibull-distribution function is used for the deterioration of items in order to make the model more generalized and realistic. The study further presents two different multi-period production strategies that can ensure a fast-response to customers’ demand and compare them with the usual single period strategy. The Numerical example and sensitivity analysis shows that learning-based reduction in set-up costs leads to higher production frequency and shorter production runs which are vital aspects of the just-in-time (JIT philosophy.

  17. Ethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse through process optimization using response surface methodology.

    Lavudi, Saida; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu

    2017-08-01

    In this study, comparative evaluation of acid- and alkali pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) was carried out for sugar production after enzymatic hydrolysis. Results indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of alkali-pretreated SSB resulted in higher production of glucose, xylose and arabinose, compared to the other alkali concentrations and also acid-pretreated biomass. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was, therefore, used to optimize parameters, such as alkali concentration, temperature and time of pretreatment prior to enzymatic hydrolysis to maximize the production of sugars. The independent variables used during RSM included alkali concentration (1.5-4%), pretreatment temperature (125-140 °C) and pretreatment time (10-30 min) were investigated. Process optimization resulted in glucose and xylose concentration of 57.24 and 10.14 g/L, respectively. Subsequently, second stage optimization was conducted using RSM for optimizing parameters for enzymatic hydrolysis, which included substrate concentration (10-15%), incubation time (24-60 h), incubation temperature (40-60 °C) and Celluclast concentration (10-20 IU/g-dwt). Substrate concentration 15%, (w/v) temperature of 60 °C, Celluclast concentration of 20 IU/g-dwt and incubation time of 58 h led to a glucose concentration of 68.58 g/l. Finally, simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) as well as separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) was evaluated using Pichia kudriavzevii HOP-1 for production of ethanol. Significant difference in ethanol concentration was not found using either SSF or SHF; however, ethanol productivity was higher in case of SSF, compared to SHF. This study has established a platform for conducting scale-up studies using the optimized process parameters.

  18. Organizational rationality, performance, and social responsibility: results from the hospital industry.

    Becker, Edmund R; Potter, Sharyn J

    2002-01-01

    Drawing on stakeholder theory and Weber's distinction between formal and substantive rationality, we posit that: (1) for-profit organizations manage stakeholders in ways that result in the organization being more efficient and less socially responsible than organizations that are not as profit oriented, and (2) organizations with major corporate relationships that are not local manage stakeholders in a manner that results in the organization being more efficient and less socially responsible than organizations without such arrangements. We test these hypotheses with 1994 data on 4,705 of the nation's short-term general hospitals using two measures of hospital efficiency and four measures of social responsibility. Results confirm that for-profit hospitals and hospitals lacking local ties are managing stakeholder relationships in ways that increases the efficiency of these hospitals but decreases their social responsiveness. We conclude by speculating that organizational efficiency and social responsibility may be inversely related and then summarize some of the academic, managerial, and policy implications, with emphasis on the implications for stakeholder theory.

  19. Ethical Responsibility for the Social Production of Tuberculosis.

    Yamada, Seiji; Riklon, Sheldon; Maskarinec, Gregory G

    2016-03-01

    Approximately one in two hundred persons in the Marshall Islands have active tuberculosis (TB). We examine the historical antecedents of this situation in order to assign ethical responsibility for the present situation. Examining the antecedents in terms of Galtung's dialectic of personal versus structural violence, we can identify instances in the history of the Marshall Islands when individual subjects made decisions (personal violence) with large-scale ecologic, social, and health consequences. The roles of medical experimenters, military commanders, captains of the weapons industry in particular, and industrial capitalism in general (as the cause of global warming) are examined. In that, together with Lewontin, we also identify industrial capitalism as the cause of tuberculosis, we note that the distinction between personal versus structural violence is difficult to maintain. By identifying the cause of the tuberculosis in the Marshall Islands, we also identify what needs be done to treat and prevent it.

  20. Asymmetric Responses of Primary Productivity to Altered Precipitation Simulated by Land Surface Models across Three Long-term Grassland Sites

    Wu, D.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.; Knapp, A.; Wilcox, K.; Bahn, M.; Smith, M. D.; Ito, A.; Arneth, A.; Harper, A. B.; Ukkola, A.; Paschalis, A.; Poulter, B.; Peng, C.; Reick, C. H.; Hayes, D. J.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Reinthaler, D.; Chen, G.; Tian, H.; Helene, G.; Zscheischler, J.; Mao, J.; Ingrisch, J.; Nabel, J.; Pongratz, J.; Boysen, L.; Kautz, M.; Schmitt, M.; Krohn, M.; Zeng, N.; Meir, P.; Zhang, Q.; Zhu, Q.; Hasibeder, R.; Vicca, S.; Sippel, S.; Dangal, S. R. S.; Fatichi, S.; Sitch, S.; Shi, X.; Wang, Y.; Luo, Y.; Liu, Y.; Piao, S.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in precipitation variability including the occurrence of extreme events strongly influence plant growth in grasslands. Field measurements of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in temperate grasslands suggest a positive asymmetric response with wet years resulting in ANPP gains larger than ANPP declines in dry years. Whether land surface models used for historical simulations and future projections of the coupled carbon-water system in grasslands are capable to simulate such non-symmetrical ANPP responses remains an important open research question. In this study, we evaluate the simulated responses of grassland primary productivity to altered precipitation with fourteen land surface models at the three sites of Colorado Shortgrass Steppe (SGS), Konza prairie (KNZ) and Stubai Valley meadow (STU) along a rainfall gradient from dry to wet. Our results suggest that: (i) Gross primary production (GPP), NPP, ANPP and belowground NPP (BNPP) show nonlinear response curves (concave-down) in all the models, but with different curvatures and mean values. In contrast across the sites, primary production increases and then saturates along increasing precipitation with a flattening at the wetter site. (ii) Slopes of spatial relationships between modeled primary production and precipitation are steeper than the temporal slopes (obtained from inter-annual variations). (iii) Asymmetric responses under nominal precipitation range with modeled inter-annual primary production show large uncertainties, and model-ensemble median generally suggests negative asymmetry (greater declines in dry years than increases in wet years) across the three sites. (iv) Primary production at the drier site is predicted to more sensitive to precipitation compared to wetter site, and median sensitivity consistently indicates greater negative impacts of reduced precipitation than positive effects of increased precipitation under extreme conditions. This study implies that most models

  1. Transcriptomic Changes in Response to Putrescine Production in Metabolically Engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Zhen Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Putrescine is widely used in industrial production of bioplastics, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and surfactants. Although engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum has been successfully used to produce high levels of putrescine, the overall cellular physiological and metabolic changes caused by overproduction of putrescine remains unclear. To reveal the transcriptional changes that occur in response to putrescine production in an engineered C. glutamicum strain, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was carried out. Overproduction of putrescine resulted in transcriptional downregulation of genes involved in glycolysis; the TCA cycle, pyruvate degradation, biosynthesis of some amino acids, oxidative phosphorylation; vitamin biosynthesis (thiamine and vitamin 6, metabolism of purine, pyrimidine and sulfur, and ATP-, NAD-, and NADPH-consuming enzymes. The transcriptional levels of genes involved in ornithine biosynthesis and NADPH-forming related enzymes were significantly upregulated in the putrescine producing C. glutamicum strain PUT-ALE. Comparative transcriptomic analysis provided some genetic modification strategies to further improve putrescine production. Repressing ATP- and NADPH-consuming enzyme coding gene expression via CRISPRi enhanced putrescine production.

  2. Transcriptomic Changes in Response to Putrescine Production in Metabolically Engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Li, Zhen; Liu, Jian-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Putrescine is widely used in industrial production of bioplastics, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and surfactants. Although engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum has been successfully used to produce high levels of putrescine, the overall cellular physiological and metabolic changes caused by overproduction of putrescine remains unclear. To reveal the transcriptional changes that occur in response to putrescine production in an engineered C. glutamicum strain, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was carried out. Overproduction of putrescine resulted in transcriptional downregulation of genes involved in glycolysis; the TCA cycle, pyruvate degradation, biosynthesis of some amino acids, oxidative phosphorylation; vitamin biosynthesis (thiamine and vitamin 6), metabolism of purine, pyrimidine and sulfur, and ATP-, NAD-, and NADPH-consuming enzymes. The transcriptional levels of genes involved in ornithine biosynthesis and NADPH-forming related enzymes were significantly upregulated in the putrescine producing C. glutamicum strain PUT-ALE. Comparative transcriptomic analysis provided some genetic modification strategies to further improve putrescine production. Repressing ATP- and NADPH-consuming enzyme coding gene expression via CRISPRi enhanced putrescine production. PMID:29089930

  3. ANALYSIS OF SUPPLY RESPONSE AND PRICE RISK ON RICE PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA

    Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available  Nigeria, like most African countries, has engaged in agricultural liberalization since 1986 in the hope that reforms emphasizing price incentives will encourage producers to respond. Thus far, the reforms seem to have introduced greater uncertainty into the market given increasing rates of price volatility. This study amongst other things therefore seeks to determine and model the responsiveness of rice supply to price risk in Nigeria. Statistical information on domestic and imported quantities of rice was obtained for 41 years (1970 to 2011 from various sources, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO database, Federal Ministry of Agriculture statistical bulletins, Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletins and National Bureau of Statistic (NBS. Data were analyzed using equilibrium output supply function, co-integration models, and vector autoregressive distributed lag model. Rice importation was statistically significant and changes in output were also responsive to changes in price. The results indicate that producers are more responsive not only to price and non-price factor but also to price risk and exchange rate. It is therefore imperative to reduce the effects of price risk as to increase the response of producer to supply by bridging the gap in production

  4. New results on charmed D, F+- and F* production and decay from the Mark III

    Schindler, R.H.

    1986-09-01

    Results on charmed meson production and decay are presented from the Mark III at SPEAR. F anti F* associated production is observed allowing a direct measurement of the F* mass. A search for the decay D + → μ + nu/sub μ/ in the recoil of hadronically tagged D +- decays provides a stringent limit on the pseudoscalar decay constant f/sub D/. New results on D 0 anti D 0 mixing from semileptonic D 0 decays and evidence for a nonresonant component in D/sub e4/ decays are also presented

  5. Social responsibility of the hospitals in Isfahan city, Iran: Results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-02-12

    Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization's practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. The mean score of hospitals' social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals' ownership (public or private). Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals' social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff's working environment. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  6. When parents disclose BRCA1/2 test results: their communication and perceptions of offspring response.

    Bradbury, Angela R; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Egleston, Brian L; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Daly, Mary B; Moore, Cynthia W; Sands, Colleen B; Schmidheiser, Helen; Kondamudi, Preethi K; Feigon, Maia; Ibe, Comfort N; Daugherty, Christopher K

    2012-07-01

    BRCA1/2 testing is not recommended for children, as risk reduction measures and screening are not generally recommended before 25 years old (YO). Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of parent communication to offspring and how offspring respond to this communication. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents who had BRCA1/2 testing and at least 1 child parents completed interviews (61% response rate), reporting on 505 offspring. Twenty-nine percent of parents were BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Three hundred thirty-four (66%) offspring learned of their parent's test result. Older offspring age (P ≤ .01), offspring gender (female, P = .05), parents' negative test result (P = .03), and parents' education (high school only, P = .02) were associated with communication to offspring. The most frequently reported initial offspring responses were neutral (41%) or relief (28%). Thirteen percent of offspring were reported to experience concern or distress (11%) in response to parental communication of their test results. Distress was more frequently perceived among offspring learning of their parent's BRCA1/2 positive or variant of uncertain significance result. Many parents communicate their BRCA1/2 test results to young offspring. Parents' perceptions of offspring responses appear to vary by offspring age and parent test result. A better understanding of how young offspring respond to information about hereditary risk for adult cancer could provide opportunities to optimize adaptive psychosocial responses to risk information and performance of health behaviors, in adolescence and throughout an at-risk life span. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  7. Medium optimization for the production of recombinant nattokinase by Bacillus subtilis using response surface methodology.

    Chen, Po Ting; Chiang, Chung-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng

    2007-01-01

    Nattokinase is a potent fibrinolytic enzyme with the potential for fighting cardiovascular diseases. Most recently, a new Bacillus subtilis/Escherichia coli (B. subtilis/E. coli) shuttle vector has been developed to achieve stable production of recombinant nattokinase in B. subtilis (Chen; et al. 2007, 23, 808-813). With this developed B. subtilis strain, the design of an optimum but cost-effective medium for high-level production of recombinant nattokinase was attempted by using response surface methodology. On the basis of the Plackett-Burman design, three critical medium components were selected. Subsequently, the optimum combination of selected factors was investigated by the Box-Behnken design. As a result, it gave the predicted maximum production of recombinant nattokinase with 71 500 CU/mL for shake-flask cultures when the concentrations of soybean hydrolysate, potassium phosphate, and calcium chloride in medium were at 6.100, 0.415, and 0.015%, respectively. This was further verified by a duplicated experiment. Moreover, the production scheme based on the optimum medium was scaled up in a fermenter. The batch fermentation of 3 L was carried out by controlling the condition at 37 degrees C and dissolved oxygen reaching 20% of air saturation level while the fermentation pH was initially set at 8.5. Without the need for controlling the broth pH, recombinant nattokinase production with a yield of 77 400 CU/mL (corresponding to 560 mg/L) could be obtained in the culture broth within 24 h. In particular, the recombinant B. subtilis strain was found fully stable at the end of fermentation when grown on the optimum medium. Overall, it indicates the success of this experimental design approach in formulating a simple and cost-effective medium, which provides the developed strain with sufficient nutrient supplements for stable and high-level production of recombinant nattokinase in a fermenter.

  8. The Influence of Purchasing Context and Reversibility of Choice on Consumer Responses Toward Personalized Products and Standardized Products.

    Choi, Jieun; Lee, Doo-Hee; Taylor, Charles R

    2016-04-01

    Existing research on personalization has found that consumers generally prefer personalized products over standardized ones. This study argued that consumer preference for personalized products is dependent on purchasing context and reversibility of choice. Results of an experiment conducted in this study found that consumers preferred personalized products when purchasing an item for personal use but preferred standardized products when purchasing an item as a gift. However, the effects of purchasing context were negated when consumers were given the assurance that personalized products could be returned (reversibility of choice); when presented with reversibility of choice, consumers preferred personalized products over standardized products regardless of purchasing context. Theoretical and managerial implications of these results were discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Results of the International Energy Agency Round Robin on Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil Production

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Meier, Dietrich; Oasmaa, Anja; van de Beld, Bert; Bridgwater, Anthony V.; Marklund, Magnus

    2017-04-06

    An international round robin study of the production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil was undertaken. Fifteen institutions in six countries contributed. Three biomass samples were distributed to the laboratories for processing in fast pyrolysis reactors. Samples of the bio-oil produced were transported to a central analytical laboratory for analysis. The round robin was focused on validating the pyrolysis community understanding of production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil by providing a common feedstock for bio-oil preparation. The round robin included: •distribution of 3 feedstock samples from a common source to each participating laboratory; •preparation of fast pyrolysis bio-oil in each laboratory with the 3 feedstocks provided; •return of the 3 bio-oil products (minimum 500 ml) with operational description to a central analytical laboratory for bio-oil property determination. The analyses of interest were: density, viscosity, dissolved water, filterable solids, CHN, S, trace element analysis, ash, total acid number, pyrolytic lignin, and accelerated aging of bio-oil. In addition, an effort was made to compare the bio-oil components to the products of analytical pyrolysis through GC/MS analysis. The results showed that clear differences can occur in fast pyrolysis bio-oil properties by applying different reactor technologies or configurations. The comparison to analytical pyrolysis method suggested that Py-GC/MS could serve as a rapid screening method for bio-oil composition when produced in fluid-bed reactors. Furthermore, hot vapor filtration generally resulted in the most favorable bio-oil product, with respect to water, solids, viscosity, and total acid number. These results can be helpful in understanding the variation in bio-oil production methods and their effects on bio-oil product composition.

  10. Rain forest nutrient cycling and productivity in response to large-scale litter manipulation.

    Wood, Tana E; Lawrence, Deborah; Clark, Deborah A; Chazdon, Robin L

    2009-01-01

    Litter-induced pulses of nutrient availability could play an important role in the productivity and nutrient cycling of forested ecosystems, especially tropical forests. Tropical forests experience such pulses as a result of wet-dry seasonality and during major climatic events, such as strong El Niños. We hypothesized that (1) an increase in the quantity and quality of litter inputs would stimulate leaf litter production, woody growth, and leaf litter nutrient cycling, and (2) the timing and magnitude of this response would be influenced by soil fertility and forest age. To test these hypotheses in a Costa Rican wet tropical forest, we established a large-scale litter manipulation experiment in two secondary forest sites and four old-growth forest sites of differing soil fertility. In replicated plots at each site, leaves and twigs (forest floor. We analyzed leaf litter mass, [N] and [P], and N and P inputs for addition, removal, and control plots over a two-year period. We also evaluated basal area increment of trees in removal and addition plots. There was no response of forest productivity or nutrient cycling to litter removal; however, litter addition significantly increased leaf litter production and N and P inputs 4-5 months following litter application. Litter production increased as much as 92%, and P and N inputs as much as 85% and 156%, respectively. In contrast, litter manipulation had no significant effect on woody growth. The increase in leaf litter production and N and P inputs were significantly positively related to the total P that was applied in litter form. Neither litter treatment nor forest type influenced the temporal pattern of any of the variables measured. Thus, environmental factors such as rainfall drive temporal variability in litter and nutrient inputs, while nutrient release from decomposing litter influences the magnitude. Seasonal or annual variation in leaf litter mass, such as occurs in strong El Niño events, could positively

  11. CONSIDERATION OF "VISUAL PRODUCT" AS A NEW PRODUCT EXCEPT FROM ECONOMIC AND GOOD QUALITY IN THE RESPONSIBILITY OF SPORTING PRODUCTS

    Abdurrahman Kepoğlu

    2017-01-01

    As it is known, economical products are divided into two main components (goods/services). The developing technology has restructured its geographical position. The storage capability of sporting products makes it necessary to define the concept of "visual product". In our study, the general scanning model, which is one of the descriptive research methods, is used (Karasar 2009). In the frame of this descriptive scanning method, a theoretical-analytical method has been used focusing on writin...

  12. Population exposure resulting from the presence of radioactivity in consumer products

    Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.

    1978-01-01

    Population exposure to radiation resulting from the manufacture and use of consumer products has been the subject of a recent symposium and an NCRP report along with numerous papers and reports. This paper contains updated data on this subject and is based on the papers presented at a symposium entitled 'Public Health Aspects of Radioactivity in Consumer Products' in Atlanta, Georgia, February 2-4,1977. The paper concludes that the population exposure from consumer products is small but significant. A more important conclusion relates to large fluctuations in the exposure resulting from changes in the market, raw materials and regulations. Since this type of population exposure is unnecessary and proper data is not available to determine the population exposure, it is suggested by the authors that a monitoring program could be instituted to provide the necessary information. (author)

  13. A CRE1- regulated cluster is responsible for light dependent production of dihydrotrichotetronin in Trichoderma reesei.

    Alberto Alonso Monroy

    Full Text Available Changing light conditions, caused by the rotation of earth resulting in day and night or growth on the surface or within a substrate, result in considerably altered physiological processes in fungi. For the biotechnological workhorse Trichoderma reesei, regulation of glycoside hydrolase gene expression, especially cellulase expression was shown to be a target of light dependent gene regulation. Analysis of regulatory targets of the carbon catabolite repressor CRE1 under cellulase inducing conditions revealed a secondary metabolite cluster to be differentially regulated in light and darkness and by photoreceptors. We found that this cluster is involved in production of trichodimerol and that the two polyketide synthases of the cluster are essential for biosynthesis of dihydrotrichotetronine (syn. bislongiquinolide or bisorbibutenolide. Additionally, an indirect influence on production of the peptaibol antibiotic paracelsin was observed. The two polyketide synthetase genes as well as the monooxygenase gene of the cluster were found to be connected at the level of transcription in a positive feedback cycle in darkness, but negative feedback in light, indicating a cellular sensing and response mechanism for the products of these enzymes. The transcription factor TR_102497/YPR2 residing within the cluster regulates the cluster genes in a light dependent manner. Additionally, an interrelationship of this cluster with regulation of cellulase gene expression was detected. Hence the regulatory connection between primary and secondary metabolism appears more widespread than previously assumed, indicating a sophisticated distribution of resources either to degradation of substrate (feed or to antagonism of competitors (fight, which is influenced by light.

  14. Results of expert response when forming an exhaustive list of potential risks of constructions projects using energy efficient technologies

    Ryzhkova Anastasiya Igorevna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with the most widely used methods of risk events identification. The expert response method is most applicable for construction projects using energy efficient technologies. The article presents the results of an opinion poll of the professional expert community using expert response method, which is aimed to identify the most likely potential “pure” risk of construction projects with energy-efficient technologies in use. 74 experts representing different levels of the construction process were polled: customers and directors of construction companies, project managers, risk managers, advisors. The answers were collected during private talks and also using a special website Survey Monkey. Experts from different countries took part: Russia, Great Britain, Austria, Luxemburg, Switzerland and Norway. Also the article presents the expert evaluation of the “effect” of risk implementation on the cost of a project, implementation time, the product quality, the environment and safety on the construction site.

  15. The impact of respiration and oxidative stress response on recombinant α-amylase production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Martínez, José L; Meza, Eugenio; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-12-01

    Studying protein production is important for fundamental research on cell biology and applied research for biotechnology. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive workhorse for production of recombinant proteins as it does not secrete many endogenous proteins and it is therefore easy to purify a secreted product. However, recombinant production at high rates represents a significant metabolic burden for the yeast cells, which results in oxidative stress and ultimately affects the protein production capacity. Here we describe a method to reduce the overall oxidative stress by overexpressing the endogenous HAP1 gene in a S. cerevisiae strain overproducing recombinant α-amylase. We demonstrate how Hap1p can activate a set of oxidative stress response genes and meanwhile contribute to increase the metabolic rate of the yeast strains, therefore mitigating the negative effect of the ROS accumulation associated to protein folding and hence increasing the production capacity during batch fermentations.

  16. Combined results on b-hadron production rates, lifetimes, oscillations and semileptonic decays

    Abbaneo, D.; Andreev, V.; Barberio, E.; Battaglia, M.; Blyth, S.; Boix, G.; Bourdarios, C.; Calvi, M.; Checchia, P.; Coyle, P.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Gagnon, P.; Hawkings, R.; Hayes, O.; Henrard, P.; Hessing, T.; Jimack, M.; Kroll, I.J.; Leroy, O.; Lucchesi, D.; Margoni, M.; Mele, S.; Moser, H.G.; Muheim, F.; Palla, F.; Pallin, D.; Parodi, F.; Paulini, M.; Piotto, E.; Privitera, P.; Rosnet, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rousseau, D.; Schneider, O.; Schwick, C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Simonetto, F.; Spagnolo, P.; Stocchi, A.; Su, D.; Usher, T.; Weiser, C.; Wells, P.; Wicklund, B.; Willocq, Stephane

    2000-01-01

    Combined results on b-hadron lifetimes, b-hadron production rates, B&0_d - Bbar^0_d and B^0_s - Bbar^0_s oscillations, the decay width difference between the mass eigenstates of the B^s0_s - Bbar^0_s system, and the values of the CKM

  17. Consumer decision-making with regard to organic food products: Results from the CONDOR project

    Thøgersen, John

    Based on a survey in eight European countries, a model of consumer decision making and behaviour with regard to organic food is presented as well as comparative results. It is found that the reasons given and the reasoning behind choosing organic products are quite similar across countries...

  18. The grand illusion? corporate social responsibility in global garment production networks

    Starmanns, M

    2010-01-01

    This PhD aims to generate a better understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in global production networks. CSR is an umbrella term that deals with voluntary activities undertaken by companies and that indicate an ethos to act responsibly in society. This research focuses on CSR practices that aim towards improving working conditions in outsourced production factories by implementing so-called social standards, which often derive from core norms of the International Labour Organi...

  19. Medium optimization for ε-poly-L-lysine production by Streptomyces diastatochromogenes using response surface methodology.

    Guo, F; Zheng, H; Cheng, Y; Song, S; Zheng, Z; Jia, S

    2018-02-01

    Poly-ε-L-lysine is a natural homo-polyamide of L-lysine with excellent antimicrobial properties, which can be used as a novel preservative and has a wide range of applications. In this paper, the fermentation medium for ε-PL production by Streptomyces diastatochromogenes 6#-7 was optimized by Response Surface Methodology. The results of Plackett-Burman design showed that glucose, yeast extract and (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 were the major influencing factors in ε-PL production of S. diastatochromogenes 6#-7. The optimal concentrations of glucose, yeast extract and (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 were determined to be 60, 7·5 and 7·5 g l -1 according to Box-Behnken experiment and regression analysis, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the ε-PL yield in shake-flask fermentation was 0·948 ± 0·030 g l -1 , which was in good agreement with the predicted value of 0·970 g l -1 . The yield was improved by 43·1% from that with the initial medium. In 5 l jar-fermenter the ε-PL yield reached 25·5 g l -1 , which was increased by 56·4% from the original medium. In addition, the fermentation time was reduced from 174 to 120 h. Medium optimization is a very practical and valuable tool for fermentation industry to improve product yield and minimize by-products as well as reduce overall manufacturing costs. The response surface methodology is not new, but it is still a very effective method in medium optimization research. This study used ε-polylysine fermentation as an example to demonstrate how the product yield can be significantly increased by medium optimization through surface response methodology. Similar approach can be used in other microbial fermentations such as in pharmaceutical, food, agricultural and energy industries. As an example, ε-polylysine is one of a few newly approved natural food-grade antimicrobials for food and beverages preservations. Yield improvement is economically beneficial to not only ε-polylysine manufacturers but also to their users and

  20. Geomechanical response of permafrost-associated hydrate deposits to depressurization-induced gas production

    Rutqvist, J.; Moridis, G.J.; Grover, T.; Collett, T.

    2009-01-01

    In this simulation study, we analyzed the geomechanical response during depressurization production from two known hydrate-bearing permafrost deposits: the Mallik (Northwest Territories, Canada) deposit and Mount Elbert (Alaska, USA) deposit. Gas was produced from these deposits at constant pressure using horizontal wells placed at the top of a hydrate layer (HL), located at a depth of about 900??m at the Mallik site and 600??m at the Mount Elbert site. The simulation results show that general thermodynamic and geomechanical responses are similar for the two sites, but with substantially higher production and more intensive geomechanical responses at the deeper Mallik deposit. The depressurization-induced dissociation begins at the well bore and then spreads laterally, mainly along the top of the HL. The depressurization results in an increased shear stress within the body of the receding hydrate and causes a vertical compaction of the reservoir. However, its effects are partially mitigated by the relatively stiff permafrost overburden, and compaction of the HL is limited to less than 0.4%. The increased shear stress may lead to shear failure in the hydrate-free zone bounded by the HL overburden and the downward-receding upper dissociation interface. This zone undergoes complete hydrate dissociation, and the cohesive strength of the sediment is low. We determined that the likelihood of shear failure depends on the initial stress state as well as on the geomechanical properties of the reservoir. The Poisson's ratio of the hydrate-bearing formation is a particularly important parameter that determines whether the evolution of the reservoir stresses will increase or decrease the likelihood of shear failure.

  1. Progesterone production is affected by unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling during the luteal phase in mice.

    Park, Hyo-Jin; Park, Sun-Ji; Koo, Deog-Bon; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kong, Il-Keun; Ryoo, Jae-Woong; Park, Young-Il; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2014-09-15

    We examined whether the three unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathways, which are activated in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress, are involved in progesterone production in the luteal cells of the corpus luteum (CL) during the mouse estrous cycle. The luteal phase of C57BL/6 female mice (8 weeks old) was divided into two stages: the functional stage (16, 24, and 48 h) and the regression stage (72 and 96 h). Western blotting and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR were performed to analyze UPR protein/gene expression levels in each stage. We investigated whether ER stress affects the progesterone production by using Tm (0.5 μg/g BW) or TUDCA (0.5 μg/g BW) through intra-peritoneal injection. Our results indicate that expressions of Grp78/Bip, p-eIF2α/ATF4, p50ATF6, and p-IRE1/sXBP1 induced by UPR activation were predominantly maintained in functional and early regression stages of the CL. Furthermore, the expression of p-JNK, CHOP, and cleaved caspase3 as ER-stress mediated apoptotic factors increased during the regression stage. Cleaved caspase3 levels increased in the late-regression stage after p-JNK and CHOP expression in the early-regression stage. Additionally, although progesterone secretion and levels of steroidogenic enzymes decreased following intra-peritoneal injection of Tunicamycin, an ER stress inducer, the expression of Grp78/Bip, p50ATF6, and CHOP dramatically increased. These results suggest that the UPR signaling pathways activated in response to ER stress may play important roles in the regulation of the CL function. Furthermore, our findings enhance the understanding of the basic mechanisms affecting the CL life span. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Previous 60-Co radiation from Paratrygon aiereba mucus induces the production of highly responsive antibodies and a better immune response in mice

    Thomazi, Gabriela Ortega Coelho; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Turíbio, Thompson de Oliveira; Rocha, André Moreira; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Jácome, Larissa Barros Silvestre; Spencer, Patrick Jack, E-mail: gabiortegacoelho@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Costa, Andrea da; Rodrigues, Jaqueline Pollizeli; Galisteo Júnior, Andrés Jimenez; Andrade Júnior, Heitor Franco de, E-mail: hfandrad@usp.br, E-mail: raquelaires@itpacporto.com.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratório de Protozoologia; Seibert, Carla Simone, E-mail: seibertcs@uft.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Porto Nacional, TO (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Wounds from stinging freshwater stingrays are painful, difficult to heal and cause extensive necrosis and systemic phenomena. The treatment is symptomatic, of low efficiency and there is no therapy, which causes more suffering to the injured. This study aimed to evaluate the immune response induced by the native or irradiated by 60-Co gamma from Paratrygon aiereba mucus. IPEN’s Committee on Ethics in the Use of Animals (n.º126/2013) and lanes captured under license from the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (n.º6781-1/2014) approved this research. For the assays, sera from Swiss mice previously immunized against native or irradiated mucus were used. The proliferation of splenic B cells in response to mucus was evaluated by the In Vitro Induced Antibody Production method and serum and splenic cytokines were also quantified. Our data demonstrate that the irradiated mucus of P. aiereba induces greater production of antibodies and more immunological memory in the mice. Spleen cells from animals immunized against irradiated mucus produced IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10, and serum TNF-α (immunized group against irradiated mucus) and IL-6 and IL-17 (immunized group against native mucus). The results corroborate the use of ionizing radiation, with production of highly responsive antibodies and better immune response, besides proving that Paratrygon aiereba mucus is capable of stimulating cellular and humoral adaptive immune response, contributing to the continuity of associated investigations. (author)

  3. Previous 60-Co radiation from Paratrygon aiereba mucus induces the production of highly responsive antibodies and a better immune response in mice

    Thomazi, Gabriela Ortega Coelho; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Turíbio, Thompson de Oliveira; Rocha, André Moreira; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Jácome, Larissa Barros Silvestre; Spencer, Patrick Jack

    2017-01-01

    Wounds from stinging freshwater stingrays are painful, difficult to heal and cause extensive necrosis and systemic phenomena. The treatment is symptomatic, of low efficiency and there is no therapy, which causes more suffering to the injured. This study aimed to evaluate the immune response induced by the native or irradiated by 60-Co gamma from Paratrygon aiereba mucus. IPEN’s Committee on Ethics in the Use of Animals (n.º126/2013) and lanes captured under license from the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (n.º6781-1/2014) approved this research. For the assays, sera from Swiss mice previously immunized against native or irradiated mucus were used. The proliferation of splenic B cells in response to mucus was evaluated by the In Vitro Induced Antibody Production method and serum and splenic cytokines were also quantified. Our data demonstrate that the irradiated mucus of P. aiereba induces greater production of antibodies and more immunological memory in the mice. Spleen cells from animals immunized against irradiated mucus produced IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10, and serum TNF-α (immunized group against irradiated mucus) and IL-6 and IL-17 (immunized group against native mucus). The results corroborate the use of ionizing radiation, with production of highly responsive antibodies and better immune response, besides proving that Paratrygon aiereba mucus is capable of stimulating cellular and humoral adaptive immune response, contributing to the continuity of associated investigations. (author)

  4. Interferon production and immune response induction in pathogenic rabies virus-infected mice

    Marcovistz, R; Leal, E C; De Souza Matos, D C [Departamento de Immunologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Caixa Postal 926, 21045 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tsiang, H [Service Rage, Istitut Pasteur, Paris (France)

    1994-08-01

    Pathogenic parental rabies virus strain CVS (challenge virus standard) and its apathogenic variant RV194-2 were shown to differ in their ability to induce interferon (IFN) and immune response of the host. After intracerebral inoculation. IFN and antibody production was higher in the RV194-2 virus-infected mice than in the CVS infection. The enhancement of 2-5A synthetase activity, an IFN-mediated enzyme marker, showed biochemical evidence that IFN is active in both apathogenic and pathogenic infections. On the other hand, spontaneous proliferation in vitro of thymocytes and splenocytes from CVS virus-infected mice was strongly inhibited in contrast to the RV194-2 infection. In the CVS infection, the thymocyte proliferation However, in the RV194-2 infection, the thymocyte proliferation was higher than of the splenocytes. These results suggest a better performance of T-cell response to the RV194-2 infection. This fact can be critical for an enhancement of antibody production in the apathogenic infection and subsequent virus clearance from the brain of RV194-2 virus-infected mice. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs., 32 refs.

  5. Low Latency DESDynI Data Products for Disaster Response, Resource Management and Other Applications

    Doubleday, Joshua R.; Chien, Steve A.; Lou, Yunling

    2011-01-01

    We are developing onboard processor technology targeted at the L-band SAR instrument onboard the planned DESDynI mission to enable formation of SAR images onboard opening possibilities for near-real-time data products to augment full data streams. Several image processing and/or interpretation techniques are being explored as possible direct-broadcast products for use by agencies in need of low-latency data, responsible for disaster mitigation and assessment, resource management, agricultural development, shipping, etc. Data collected through UAVSAR (L-band) serves as surrogate to the future DESDynI instrument. We have explored surface water extent as a tool for flooding response, and disturbance images on polarimetric backscatter of repeat pass imagery potentially useful for structural collapse (earthquake), mud/land/debris-slides etc. We have also explored building vegetation and snow/ice classifiers, via support vector machines utilizing quad-pol backscatter, cross-pol phase, and a number of derivatives (radar vegetation index, dielectric estimates, etc.). We share our qualitative and quantitative results thus far.

  6. Burn injury triggered dysfunction in dendritic cell response to TLR9 activation and resulted in skewed T cell functions.

    Haitao Shen

    Full Text Available Severe trauma such as burn injury is often associated with a systemic inflammatory syndrome characterized by a hyperactive innate immune response and suppressed adaptive immune function. Dendritic cells (DCs, which sense pathogens via their Toll-like receptors (TLRs, play a pivotal role in protecting the host against infections. The effect of burn injury on TLR-mediated DC function is a debated topic and the mechanism controlling the purported immunosuppressive response remains to be elucidated. Here we examined the effects of burn injury on splenic conventional DC (cDC and plasmacytoid DC (pDC responses to TLR9 activation. We demonstrate that, following burn trauma, splenic cDCs' cytokine production profile in response to TLR9 activation became anti-inflammatory dominant, with high production of IL-10 (>50% increase and low production of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-12p70 (∼25-60% reduction. CD4+ T cells activated by these cDCs were defective in producing Th1 and Th17 cytokines. Furthermore, burn injury had a more accentuated effect on pDCs than on cDCs. Following TLR9 activation, pDCs displayed an immature phenotype with an impaired ability to secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-α, IL-6 and TNF-α and to activate T cell proliferation. Moreover, cDCs and pDCs from burn-injured mice had low transcript levels of TLR9 and several key molecules of the TLR signaling pathway. Although hyperactive innate immune response has been associated with severe injury, our data show to the contrary that DCs, as a key player in the innate immune system, had impaired TLR9 reactivity, an anti-inflammatory phenotype, and a dysfunctional T cell-priming ability. We conclude that burn injury induced impairments in DC immunobiology resulting in suppression of adaptive immune response. Targeted DC immunotherapies to promote their ability in triggering T cell immunity may represent a strategy to improve immune defenses against infection following burn injury.

  7. Answers to Health Questions: Internet Search Results Versus Online Health Community Responses.

    Kanthawala, Shaheen; Vermeesch, Amber; Given, Barbara; Huh, Jina

    2016-04-28

    About 6 million people search for health information on the Internet each day in the United States. Both patients and caregivers search for information about prescribed courses of treatments, unanswered questions after a visit to their providers, or diet and exercise regimens. Past literature has indicated potential challenges around quality in health information available on the Internet. However, diverse information exists on the Internet-ranging from government-initiated webpages to personal blog pages. Yet we do not fully understand the strengths and weaknesses of different types of information available on the Internet. The objective of this research was to investigate the strengths and challenges of various types of health information available online and to suggest what information sources best fit various question types. We collected questions posted to and the responses they received from an online diabetes community and classified them according to Rothwell's classification of question types (fact, policy, or value questions). We selected 60 questions (20 each of fact, policy, and value) and the replies the questions received from the community. We then searched for responses to the same questions using a search engine and recorded the Community responses answered more questions than did search results overall. Search results were most effective in answering value questions and least effective in answering policy questions. Community responses answered questions across question types at an equivalent rate, but most answered policy questions and the least answered fact questions. Value questions were most answered by community responses, but some of these answers provided by the community were incorrect. Fact question search results were the most clinically valid. The Internet is a prevalent source of health information for people. The information quality people encounter online can have a large impact on them. We present what kinds of questions people ask

  8. Vitiligo inducing phenols activate the unfolded protein response in melanocytes resulting in upregulation of IL6 and IL8

    Toosi, Siavash; Orlow, Seth J.; Manga, Prashiela

    2012-01-01

    Vitiligo is characterized by depigmented skin patches due to loss of epidermal melanocytes. Oxidative stress may play a role in vitiligo onset, while autoimmunity contributes to disease progression. In this study we sought to identify mechanisms that link disease triggers and spreading of lesions. A hallmark of melanocytes at the periphery of vitiligo lesions is dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We hypothesized that oxidative stress results in redox disruptions that extend to the ER, causing accumulation of misfolded peptides, which activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). We used 4-tertiary butyl phenol (4-TBP) and monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone (MBEH), known triggers of vitiligo. We show that expression of key UPR components, including the transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), are increased following exposure of melanocytes to phenols. XBP1 activation increases production of immune mediators interleukin-6 (IL6) and IL8. Co-treatment with XBP1 inhibitors reduced IL6 and IL8 production induced by phenols, while over-expression of XBP1 alone increased their expression. Thus, melanocytes themselves produce cytokines associated with activation of an immune response following exposure to chemical triggers of vitiligo. These results expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying melanocyte loss in vitiligo and pathways linking environmental stressors and autoimmunity. PMID:22696056

  9. Vitiligo-inducing phenols activate the unfolded protein response in melanocytes resulting in upregulation of IL6 and IL8.

    Toosi, Siavash; Orlow, Seth J; Manga, Prashiela

    2012-11-01

    Vitiligo is characterized by depigmented skin patches caused by loss of epidermal melanocytes. Oxidative stress may have a role in vitiligo onset, while autoimmunity contributes to disease progression. In this study, we sought to identify mechanisms that link disease triggers and spreading of lesions. A hallmark of melanocytes at the periphery of vitiligo lesions is dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We hypothesized that oxidative stress results in redox disruptions that extend to the ER, causing accumulation of misfolded peptides, which activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). We used 4-tertiary butyl phenol and monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone, known triggers of vitiligo. We show that expression of key UPR components, including the transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1), is increased following exposure of melanocytes to phenols. XBP1 activation increases production of immune mediators IL6 and IL8. Co-treatment with XBP1 inhibitors reduced IL6 and IL8 production induced by phenols, while overexpression of XBP1 alone increased their expression. Thus, melanocytes themselves produce cytokines associated with activation of an immune response following exposure to chemical triggers of vitiligo. These results expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying melanocyte loss in vitiligo and pathways linking environmental stressors and autoimmunity.

  10. Response surface optimization of the medium components for the production of biosurfactants by probiotic bacteria

    Rodrigues, L; Teixeira, J; Oliveira, R; van der Mei, HC

    Optimization of the medium for biosurfactants production by probiotic bacteria (Lactococcus lactis 53 and Streptococcus thermophilus A) was carried out using response surface methodology. Both biosurfactants were proved to be growth-associated, thus the desired response selected for the optimization

  11. Introductory analysis of sustainable consumption and production : Factors of corporate social responsibility management in Japan

    八木, 迪幸; 國部, 克彦

    2017-01-01

    As an introductory analysis of sustainable consumption and production, this paper examines what factors influence corporate social responsibility management in Japan. Following some underlying theories (management control system; the neo-institutional theory; performance measurement systems; the stakeholder theory; the resource dependence theory), this paper conducts empirical studies using firm-level data. The first three studies examine what factors encourage corporate social responsibility...

  12. Short communication: immediate and deferred milk production responses to concentrate supplements in cows grazing fresh pasture.

    Roche, J R; Kay, J K; Rius, A G; Grala, T M; Sheahan, A J; White, H M; Phyn, C V C

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the increase in milk production from supplementation that occurred after supplementation ceased. This portion of the total response (i.e., the deferred response), although accepted, is generally not accounted for in short-term component research projects, but it is important in determining the economic impact of supplementary feeding. Fifty-nine multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were offered a generous allowance of spring pasture [>45 kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day) and were supplemented with 0, 3, or 6 kg (DM)/d of pelleted concentrate (half of the allowance at each milking event) in a complete randomized design. Treatments were imposed for the first 12 wk of lactation. Treatments were balanced for cow age (5.4 ± 1.68 yr), calving date (July 27 ± 26.0 d), and genetic merit for milk component yield. During the period of supplementation, milk yield and the yield of milk components increased (1.19 kg of milk, 0.032 kg of fat, 0.048 kg of protein, and 0.058 kg of lactose/kg of concentrate DM consumed), but neither body condition score nor body weight was affected. After concentrate supplementation ceased and cows returned to a common diet of fresh pasture, milk and milk component yields remained greater for 3 wk in the cows previously supplemented. During this 3-wk period, cows that previously received 3 and 6 kg of concentrate DM per day produced an additional 2.3 and 4.5 kg of milk/d, 0.10 and 0.14 kg of fat/d, 0.10 and 0.14 kg of protein/d, and 0.10 and 0.19 kg of lactose/d, respectively, relative to unsupplemented cows. This is equivalent to an additional 0.19 kg of milk, 0.006 kg of fat, 0.006 kg of protein, and 0.008 kg of lactose per 1 kg of concentrate DM previously consumed, which would not be accounted for in the immediate response. As a result of this deferred response to supplements, the total milk production benefit to concentrate supplements is between 7% (lactose yield) and 32% (fat yield) greater

  13. Research Results Transfer towards the Productive Sector via Research Collaboration in Four Colombian Public Universities

    Maria Eugenia Morales Rubiano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the determining factors in the research results transfer towards the productive sector via research collaboration in four Colombian public universities. Thirty heads of units in the aforementioned universities were interviewed, which served to determine eleven cases of study and conduct interviews with thirty-five participants ranging from researchers, participant in formation and business people, in each case, it was found that especially in the last decade universities have turned to creating capacities for research collaboration as well as an openness in participants to create links that not only go in favor of enriching the productive sector but also in strengthening formation and research processes. It was concluded that there is a recent growing interest in the different actors in strengthening the bonds between the universities and the productive sector, though there may be some difficulties in the process of research collaboration due to the lack of an appropriate regulatory framework.

  14. Simulated Vegetation Response to Climate Change in California: The Importance of Seasonal Production Patterns

    Kim, J. B.; Pitts, B.

    2013-12-01

    MC1 dynamic global vegetation model simulates vegetation response to climate change by simulating vegetation production, soil biogeochemistry, plant biogeography and fire. It has been applied at a wide range of spatial scales, yet the spatio-temporal patterns of simulated vegetation production, which drives the model's response to climate change, has not been examined in detail. We ran MC1 for California at a relatively fine scale, 30 arc-seconds, for the historical period (1895-2006) and for the future (2007-2100), using downscaled data from four CMIP3-based climate projections: A2 and B1 GHG emissions scenarios simulated by PCM and GFDL GCMs. The use of these four climate projections aligns our work with a body of climate change research work commissioned by the California Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. The four climate projections vary not only in terms of changes in their annual means, but in the seasonality of projected climate change. We calibrated MC1 using MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011 as a guide, and adapting a published technique for adjusting simulated vegetation production by increasing the simulated plant rooting depths. We evaluated the simulation results by comparing the model output for the historical period with several benchmark datasets, summarizing by EPA Level 3 Ecoregions. Multi-year summary statistics of model predictions compare moderately well with Kuchler's potential natural vegetation map, National Biomass and Carbon Dataset, Leenhouts' compilation of fire return intervals, and, of course, the MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011. When we compared MC1's monthly NPP values with MODIS monthly GPP data (2000-2011), however, the seasonal patterns compared very poorly, with NPP/GPP ratio for spring (Mar-Apr-May) often exceeding 1, and the NPP/GPP ratio for summer (Jun-Jul-Aug) often flattening to zero. This suggests MC1's vegetation production algorithms are overly biased for spring production at the cost of summer production. We

  15. Comparison of experimental data with results of some drying models for regularly shaped products

    Kaya, Ahmet [Aksaray University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aksaray (Turkey); Aydin, Orhan [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Trabzon (Turkey); Dincer, Ibrahim [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of drying of moist slab, cylinder and spherical products to study dimensionless moisture content distributions and their comparisons. Experimental study includes the measurement of the moisture content distributions of slab and cylindrical carrot, slab and cylindrical pumpkin and spherical blueberry during drying at various temperatures (e.g., 30, 40, 50 and 60 C) at specific constant velocity (U = 1 m/s) and the relative humidity {phi}=30%. In theoretical analysis, two moisture transfer models are used to determine drying process parameters (e.g., drying coefficient and lag factor) and moisture transfer parameters (e.g., moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient), and to calculate the dimensionless moisture content distributions. The calculated results are then compared with the experimental moisture data. A considerably high agreement is obtained between the calculations and experimental measurements for the cases considered. The effective diffusivity values were evaluated between 0.741 x 10{sup -5} and 5.981 x 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/h for slab products, 0.818 x 10{sup -5} and 6.287 x 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/h for cylindrical products and 1.213 x 10{sup -7} and 7.589 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2}/h spherical products using the model-I and 0.316 x 10{sup -5}-5.072 x 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/h for slab products, 0.580 x 10{sup -5}-9.587 x 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/h for cylindrical products and 1.408 x 10{sup -7}-13.913 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2}/h spherical products using the model-II. (orig.)

  16. Comparison of experimental data with results of some drying models for regularly shaped products

    Kaya, Ahmet; Aydın, Orhan; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of drying of moist slab, cylinder and spherical products to study dimensionless moisture content distributions and their comparisons. Experimental study includes the measurement of the moisture content distributions of slab and cylindrical carrot, slab and cylindrical pumpkin and spherical blueberry during drying at various temperatures (e.g., 30, 40, 50 and 60°C) at specific constant velocity ( U = 1 m/s) and the relative humidity φ = 30%. In theoretical analysis, two moisture transfer models are used to determine drying process parameters (e.g., drying coefficient and lag factor) and moisture transfer parameters (e.g., moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient), and to calculate the dimensionless moisture content distributions. The calculated results are then compared with the experimental moisture data. A considerably high agreement is obtained between the calculations and experimental measurements for the cases considered. The effective diffusivity values were evaluated between 0.741 × 10-5 and 5.981 × 10-5 m2/h for slab products, 0.818 × 10-5 and 6.287 × 10-5 m2/h for cylindrical products and 1.213 × 10-7 and 7.589 × 10-7 m2/h spherical products using the Model-I and 0.316 × 10-5-5.072 × 10-5 m2/h for slab products, 0.580 × 10-5-9.587 × 10-5 m2/h for cylindrical products and 1.408 × 10-7-13.913 × 10-7 m2/h spherical products using the Model-II.

  17. Will enhanced turbulence in inland waters result in elevated production of autochthonous dissolved organic matter?

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Zhou, Jian; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Qin, Boqiang; Shi, Kun; Tang, Xiangming; Han, Xiaoxia

    2016-02-01

    Biological activity in lakes is strongly influenced by hydrodynamic conditions, not least turbulence intensity; which increases the encounter rate between plankter and nutrient patches. To investigate whether enhanced turbulence in shallow and eutrophic lakes may result in elevated biological production of autochthonous chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), a combination of field campaigns and mesocosm experiments was used. Parallel factor analysis identified seven components: four protein-like, one microbial humic-like and two terrestrial humic-like components. During our field campaigns, elevated production of autochthonous CDOM was recorded in open water with higher wind speed and wave height than in inner bays, implying that elevated turbulence resulted in increased production of autochthonous CDOM. Confirming the field campaign results, in the mesocosm experiment enhanced turbulence resulted in a remarkably higher microbial humic-like C1 and tryptophan-like C3 (pCDOM. This is consistent with the significantly higher mean concentrations of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the enhanced phytoplanktonic alkaline phosphatase activity (PAPA) recorded in the experimental turbulence groups than in the control group (pCDOM samples further suggested their probable autochthonous origin. Our results have implications for the understanding of CDOM cycling in shallow aquatic ecosystems influenced by wind-induced waves, in which the enhanced turbulence associated with extreme weather conditions may be further stimulated by the predicted global climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. LHC Superconducting Dipole Production Follow-up Results of Audit on QA Aspects in Industry

    Modena, M; Cornelis, M; Fessia, P; Liénard, P; Miles, J; de Rijk, G; Savary, F; Sgobba, Stefano; Tommasini, D; Vlogaert, J; Völlinger, C; Wildner, E

    2006-01-01

    The manufacturing of the 1232 Superconducting Main Dipoles for LHC is under way at three European Contractors: Alstom-Jeumont (Consortium), Ansaldo Superconduttori Genova and Babcock Noell Nuclear. The manufacturing is proceeding in a very satisfactory way and in March 2005 the mid production was achieved. To intercept eventually â€ワweak points” of the production process still present and in order to make a check of the Quality Assurance and Control in place for the series production, an Audit action was launched by CERN during summer-fall 2004. Aspects like: completion of Production and Quality Assurance documentation, structure of QC Teams, traceability, calibration and maintenance for tooling, incoming components inspections, were checked during a total of seven visits at the five different production sites. The results of the Audit in terms of analysis of â€ワsystematic” and â€ワrandom” problems encountered as well as corrective actions requested are presented.

  19. Response Surface Methodology for Biodiesel Production Using Calcium Methoxide Catalyst Assisted with Tetrahydrofuran as Cosolvent

    Nichaonn Chumuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to optimize a heterogeneous calcium methoxide (Ca(OCH32 catalyzed transesterification process assisted with tetrahydrofuran (THF as a cosolvent for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Response surface methodology (RSM with a 5-level-4-factor central composite design was applied to investigate the effect of experimental factors on the percentage of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME conversion. A quadratic model with an analysis of variance obtained from the RSM is suggested for the prediction of FAME conversion and reveals that 99.43% of the observed variation is explained by the model. The optimum conditions obtained from the RSM were 2.83 wt% of catalyst concentration, 11.6 : 1 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 100.14 min of reaction time, and 8.65% v/v of THF in methanol concentration. Under these conditions, the properties of the produced biodiesel satisfied the standard requirement. THF as cosolvent successfully decreased the catalyst concentration, methanol-to-oil molar ratio, and reaction time when compared with biodiesel production without cosolvent. The results are encouraging for the application of Ca(OCH32 assisted with THF as a cosolvent for environmentally friendly and sustainable biodiesel production.

  20. Optimization and Modeling of Process Variables of Biodiesel Production from Marula Oil using Response Surface Methodology

    Enweremadu, C. C.; Rutto, H. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization study in the production of biodiesel production from Marula oil. The study was carried out using a central composite design of experiments under response surface methodology. A mathematical model was developed to correlate the transesterification process variables to biodiesel yield. The transesterification reaction variables were methanol to oil ratio, x /sub 1/ (10-50 wt percentage), reaction time, x /sub 2/ (30-90 min), reaction temperature, x /sub 3/ (30-90 Degree C) stirring speed, x /sub 4/ (100-400 rpm) and amount of catalyst, x /sub 5/ (0.5-1.5 g). The optimum conditions for the production of the biodiesel were found to be methanol to oil ratio (29.43 wt percentage), reaction time (59.17 minutes), reaction temperature (58.80 Degree C), stirring speed (325 rpm) and amount of catalyst (1.02 g). The optimum yield of biodiesel that can be produced was 95 percentage. The results revealed that the crucial fuel properties of the biodiesel produced at the optimum conditions met the ASTM biodiesel specifications. (author)

  1. [Increased IL-4 production in response to virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis in tuberculosis patients with advanced disease].

    Ordway, Diane J; Martins, Marta S; Costa, Leonor M; Freire, Mónica S; Arroz, Maria J; Dockrell, Hazel M; Ventura, Fernando A

    2005-01-01

    The study was designed to compare immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and antigens in healthy Portuguese subjects and pulmonary tuberculosis patients (TB), and to correlate immune status with clinical severity of tuberculosis disease. PBMC were cultured and stimulated with live and killed M. tuberculosis H37Rv and purified protein derivative (PPD) and lymphoproliferation and production of IFN-gamma and IL-5/IL-4 by these cultures were evaluated by the use of ELISA and multi-parameter flow cytometry. PBMC from 30 tuberculosis patients demonstrated significantly reduced amounts of proliferation and IFN-gamma when stimulated with live M. tuberculosis compared the control group. Of 15 tuberculosis patients tested for intracellular IL-4 following stimulation with M. tuberculosis, 7 showed greatly increased IL-4 production in CD8+ and gammadelta+ T cells. Tuberculosis patients demonstrated an increase of intracellular IL-4 after PBMC were stimulated with live M. tuberculosis in the CD4+ phenotype, but more notably in CD8+ and gammadelta TCR+ subsets. Increased production of IL-4 in tuberculosis patients was primarily in individuals with advanced involvement of lung parenchymal with high bacterial loads in sputum. These results suggest that an alteration in type 1 and type 2 cytokine balance can occur in patients with tuberculosis at an advanced clinical stage of disease.

  2. Responses of plant available water and forest productivity to variably layered coarse textured soils

    Huang, Mingbin; Barbour, Lee; Elshorbagy, Amin; Si, Bing; Zettl, Julie

    2010-05-01

    Reforestation is a primary end use for reconstructed soils following oil sands mining in northern Alberta, Canada. Limited soil water conditions strongly restrict plant growth. Previous research has shown that layering of sandy soils can produce enhanced water availability for plant growth; however, the effect of gradation on these enhancements is not well defined. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of soil texture (gradation and layering) on plant available water and consequently on forest productivity for reclaimed coarse textured soils. A previously validated system dynamics (SD) model of soil moisture dynamics was coupled with ecophysiological and biogeochemical processes model, Biome-BGC-SD, to simulate forest dynamics for different soil profiles. These profiles included contrasting 50 cm textural layers of finer sand overlying coarser sand in which the sand layers had either a well graded or uniform soil texture. These profiles were compared to uniform profiles of the same sands. Three tree species of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), white spruce (Picea glauce Voss.), and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) were simulated using a 50 year climatic data base from northern Alberta. Available water holding capacity (AWHC) was used to identify soil moisture regime, and leaf area index (LAI) and net primary production (NPP) were used as indices of forest productivity. Published physiological parameters were used in the Biome-BGC-SD model. Relative productivity was assessed by comparing model predictions to the measured above-ground biomass dynamics for the three tree species, and was then used to study the responses of forest leaf area index and potential productivity to AWHC on different soil profiles. Simulated results indicated soil layering could significantly increase AWHC in the 1-m profile for coarse textured soils. This enhanced AWHC could result in an increase in forest LAI and NPP. The increased extent varied with soil

  3. Time delays between core power production and external detector response from Monte Carlo calculations

    Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    One primary concern for design of safety systems for reactors is the time response of external detectors to changes in the core. This paper describes a way to estimate the time delay between the core power production and the external detector response using Monte Carlo calculations and suggests a technique to measure the time delay. The Monte Carlo code KENO-NR was used to determine the time delay between the core power production and the external detector response for a conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. The Monte Carlo estimated time delay was determined to be about 10 ms for this conceptual design of the ANS reactor

  4. Studies on the products resulting from the conversion of aspen poplar to an oil

    Eager, R L; Mathews, J F; Pepper, J M; Zohdi, H

    1981-01-01

    The reactions involved in the conversion of aspen poplar into a variety of chemical products as a result of its interaction with CO and H/sub 2/O in the presence of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ at elevated temperatures and pressures are considered. The original C content of the wood is distributed between an oil phase, a complex mixture of highly oxygenated H/sub 2/O-soluble products many of which were identified as low-molecular-weight aliphatic alcohols, ketones, and acids, and a gaseous phase consisting of mainly H and CO/sub 2/. Using model substances (cellulose, cellobiose, -D-glucose, D-fructose, D-xylose, sorbitol, glycerol, and an isolated lignin) information was obtained on the origin of the oil and of the H/sub 2/O-soluble products. Studies at 160 degrees - 360 degrees revealed a marked exothermic reaction occurring at 200-240 degrees for wood and cellulose, which was reflected in the nature of the resulting product. With increasing temperature an increase in the yields of the H/sub 2/O-souluble derivatives and also a change in their relative abundance was observed.

  5. results

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  6. Assessment of soil-structure interaction practice based on synthesized results from Lotung experiment - earthquake response

    Hadjian, A.H.; Tseng, W.S.; Tang, Y.K.; Tang, H.T.; Stepp, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    On the assumption that the foundation can be appropriately modeled, it would be difficult to distinguish between the computational capabilities of the SASSI, CLASSI and SUPERALUSH/CLASSI methods of SSI analysis. Given the appropriate model, all three methodologies would produce very similar valid results. However, both CLASSI (Bechtel) and Soil-Spring methods should be used cautiously within their known limitations. The use of FLUSH should be limited to essentially 2D problems. More than the computational methods, the differences in the seismic response results obtained are due to the modeling of the soil-structure system and the characterization of the input motions. A number of insights have been obtained with respect to the validity of SSI analysis methodologies for earthquake response. Among these are the following: vertical wave propagation assumption in performing SSI is adequate to describe the wave field; equivalent linear analysis of soil response for SSI analysis, such as performed by the SHAKE code, provides acceptable results; a significant but non-permanent degradation of soil modulus occurs during earthquakes; the development of soil stiffness degradation and damping curves as a function of strain, based on geophysical and laboratory tests, requires improvement to reduce variability and uncertainty; backfill stiffness plays an important role in determining impedance functions and possibly input motions; scattering of ground motion due to embedment is an important element in performing SSI analysis. (author)

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CORPORATE VOLUNTEERING AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: RESULTS OF AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Oscar Licandro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Volunteering (CV is a phenomenon that emerged in the second half of the 20th century and began to grow and globalize at the beginning of the 21st century. There seems to be a consensus that the recent growth of Corporate Volunteering is related to the development and growing legitimacy of the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. Nevertheless, the theoretical discussion on how the two concepts (Corporate Volunteering and Corporate Social Responsibility are related is just beginning, while empirical research on how this relationship operates in corporate practice is still incipient. This paper presents preliminary results of a research on this subject carried out in Uruguay in 2016. This is a statistical study that analyses the relationship between the application of corporate volunteering activities and the incorporation of a CSR approach to the management of companies. The incorporation of both types of practices is measured by a self-assessment questionnaire that includes 81 indicators (using a Likert scale to assess them, which were designed based on ISO 26000 Guidance of Social Responsibility. The questionnaire was administered to 96 companies, using a comparative analysis between those that practice Corporate Volunteering and those which do not. The results obtained allow us to support the hypothesis that the application of Corporate Volunteering is positively associated with the incorporation of CSR when managing the relationship between the company and its employees and also with the community. Moreover, these results contribute to a better understanding on how both concepts are related.

  8. Comparison of the response of various TLDs to cosmic radiation and ion beams: Current results of the HAMLET project

    Bilski, P.; Berger, T.; Hajek, M.; Reitz, G.

    2011-01-01

    HAMLET is an European Commission research project aiming at optimal scientific exploitation of the data produced within the space experiment MATROSHKA. During phase 1 of this experiment a human phantom equipped with several thousands of radiation detectors (mainly TLDs) was exposed outside the International Space Station for 1.5 years. Besides the measurements realized in Earth orbit, the HAMLET project includes also a ground-based program of intercomparison of detector response to high-energy ion beams. Within the paper, the relative response of main glow-curve peaks of various TLDs (mostly based on LiF) used in frame of the MATROSHKA experiment by three laboratories (DLR Cologne, ATI Vienna and IFJ Krakow) for radiation in space and several ion beams, has been compared. For LiF:Mg,Ti detectors a very good agreement between results obtained by the three laboratories was observed, both for space and accelerator-based exposures. This should be considered a remarkable result, taking into account that the studied TLDs originated from six different batches, manufactured by two producers exploiting different production techniques and were processed by three laboratories, using significantly different protocols (annealing, readout, calibration, glow-curve analysis). Another type of TL detectors, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, was found to show response to cosmic radiation lower than that of LiF:Mg,Ti by 5%–18%.

  9. MicroCHP: Overview of selected technologies, products and field test results

    Kuhn, Vollrad [Berliner Energieagentur GmbH, Franzoesische Strasse 23, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Klemes, Jiri; Bulatov, Igor [Centre for Process Integration, CEAS, The University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, M60 1QD Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    This paper gives an overview on selected microCHP technologies and products with the focus on Stirling and steam machines. Field tests in Germany, the UK and some other EC countries are presented, assessed and evaluated. Test results show the overall positive performance with differences in sectors (domestic vs. small business). Some negative experiences have been received, especially from tests with the Stirling engines and the free-piston steam machine. There are still obstacles for market implementation. Further projects and tests of microCHP are starting in various countries. When positive results will prevail and deficiencies are eliminated, a way to large-scale production and market implementation could be opened. (author)

  10. Microbiology of processed edible insect products - Results of a preliminary survey.

    Grabowski, Nils Th; Klein, Günter

    2017-02-21

    Little is known of the microbiology of processed insect products. The present survey analysed a total of n=38 samples of deep-fried and spiced (Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, and Omphisa fuscidentalis), cooked in soy sauce ("tsukudani"; Oxya yezoensis, Vespula flaviceps, and Bombyx mori), dried (A. domesticus, L. migatoria, Alphitobius diaperinus, Tenebrio molitor, B. mori, Hermetia illucens, and Musca domestica), powdered (H. illucens, T. molitor) and other (incl. deep-frozen B. mori and honeybee pollen) insect products microbiologically (total bacterial count [TBC], Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci, bacilli, and yeasts and moulds counts, salmonellae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli). Although each product type revealed a microbiological profile of its own, dried and powdered insects ("class I") displayed markedly higher counts than the deep-fried and cooked ones ("class II"). Thresholds between class I and II products were estimated at 4.0 (TBC), 1.0 (Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and moulds), 2.5 (staphylococci), and 3.0lgcfu/g (bacilli). All samples were negative for salmonellae, L. monocytogenes, E. coli and Stapyhlococcus aureus, but dried and powdered insects, as well as pollen, contained B. cereus, coliforms, Serratia liquefaciens, Listeria ivanovii, Mucor spp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Cryptococcus neoformans. Comparing the results with the hygiene criteria for edible insects proposed by Belgium and the Netherlands, class I products failed to comply with many bacterial count limits despite the absence of classical food pathogens. Therefore, class I products should always be consumed after another heating step as indicated by the manufacturer, until drying techniques are able to ensure lower bacterial counts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Engineering the oxygen sensing regulation results in an enhanced recombinant human hemoglobin production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Martinez Ruiz, José Luis; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Efficient production of appropriate oxygen carriers for transfusions (blood substitutes or artificial blood) has been pursued for many decades, and to date several strategies have been used, from synthetic polymers to cell-free hemoglobin carriers. The recent advances in the field of metabolic en...... the transcription factor HAP1, which resulted in an increase of the final recombinant active hemoglobin titer exceeding 7% of the total cellular protein....

  12. Sort of agricultural species introducing in production resulting of mutation breeding programs in cuba

    Perez Talavera, Susana

    1999-01-01

    Radiomutant varieties of important species used in the Cuban agricultural productions are shown. They were obtained by INIFAT specialists as authors or co-author with the aid of radiomutation techniques in plant breeding programs. Several dates concerning the procedure and some of the features rendering varieties more useful are given. The introduction and acceptability by farmers are also commented. The information was collected from members of the scientific staff involving in the results and from the available literature

  13. Growth and biochemical responses of juvenile cod to acute and chronic exposure to production water from the Hibernia oil rig

    Burridge, L.; Lyons, M.; Blair, T.; Haya, K.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division

    2007-07-01

    A study was conducted in which the chemical characteristics of production water collected from the Hibernia oil production platform in June, 2006 were determined. Bioassays were also performed on juvenile cod in order to determine acute responses after 48 hour exposure to concentrations of production water ranging from 0.06 to 5 per cent. Of the 70 juvenile cod that were exposed continuously for 45 days to 0.05 per cent Hibernia production water, 8 were sacrificed and liver, gill muscle and plasma was collected for biochemical analysis at day 3, 14, 28 and 45 during the exposure. Length and weight data were also collected to compare growth rates of exposed fish with unexposed fish. Results did not reveal any difference in growth rate in cod exposed for 45 days to Hibernia production water compared to those held in untreated water under the same conditions. Tissues for mixed function oxygenase (MFO) induction are undergoing analysis.

  14. A New Method for a Virtue-Based Responsible Conduct of Research Curriculum: Pilot Test Results.

    Berling, Eric; McLeskey, Chet; O'Rourke, Michael; Pennock, Robert T

    2018-02-03

    Drawing on Pennock's theory of scientific virtues, we are developing an alternative curriculum for training scientists in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) that emphasizes internal values rather than externally imposed rules. This approach focuses on the virtuous characteristics of scientists that lead to responsible and exemplary behavior. We have been pilot-testing one element of such a virtue-based approach to RCR training by conducting dialogue sessions, modeled upon the approach developed by Toolbox Dialogue Initiative, that focus on a specific virtue, e.g., curiosity and objectivity. During these structured discussions, small groups of scientists explore the roles they think the focus virtue plays and should play in the practice of science. Preliminary results have shown that participants strongly prefer this virtue-based model over traditional methods of RCR training. While we cannot yet definitively say that participation in these RCR sessions contributes to responsible conduct, these pilot results are encouraging and warrant continued development of this virtue-based approach to RCR training.

  15. Response of a laminar premixed flame to flow oscillations: A kinematic model and thermoacoustic instability results

    Fleifil, M.; Annaswamy, A.M.; Ghoneim, A.F. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ghoneim, Z.A. [Ain Shams Univ., Abassia (Egypt)

    1996-09-01

    Combustion instability is a resonance phenomenon that arises due to the coupling between the system acoustics and the unsteady heat release. The constructive feedback between the two processes, which is known to occur as a certain phase relationship between the pressure and the unsteady heat release rate is satisfied, depends on many parameters among which is the acoustic mode, the flame holder characteristics, and the dominant burning pattern. In this paper, the authors construct an analytical model to describe the dynamic response of a laminar premixed flame stabilized on the rim of a tube to velocity oscillation. They consider uniform and nonuniform velocity perturbations superimposed on a pipe flow velocity profile. The model results show that the magnitude of heat release perturbation and its phase with respect to the dynamic perturbation dependent primarily on the flame Strohal number, representing the ratio of the dominant frequency times the tube radius to the laminar burning velocity. In terms of this number, high-frequency perturbations pass through the flame while low frequencies lead to a strong response. The phase with respect to the velocity perturbation behaves in the opposite way. Results of this model are shown to agree with experimental observations and to be useful in determining how the combustion excited model is selected among all the acoustic unstable modes. The model is then used to obtain a time-domain differential equation describing the relationship between the velocity perturbation and the heat release response over the entire frequency range.

  16. The Effects of Faulty or Potentially Harmful Products on Brand Reputation and Social Responsibility of Business

    Claudiu-Cătălin Munteanu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Building a strong brand requires a good management of brand reputation over time. Social responsibility of business is a key factor in evoking a positive brand reputation. Both the product itself and brand related actions and communications define brand reputation in the eyes of consumers, thus influencing perceived corporate social responsibility. As a consequence, it can be easily hindered or endangered by many product related issues such as faulty products or potentially harmful products. The purpose of this article is to provide an insight on the link between brand reputation and social responsibility in order to help organizations provide better services and protection for consumers. We examined how brand reputation is influenced by the negative bias generated by brand related communications regarding potentially harmful products. This study also analyzes how under normal consumption circumstances, consumers' experiences related to faulty products can influence brand reputation. To investigate this, we propose a model based on perceptual brand constructs and possible outcomes of brand reputation. In both circumstances, negative spillover effects are highlighted using structural equation modeling. The findings reveal that both faulty products and potentially harmful products have a negative bias on brand reputation, but affected perceptual brand constructs are different.

  17. Peptidoglycan from Fermentation By-Product Triggers Defense Responses in Grapevine

    Chen, Yang; Takeda, Taito; Aoki, Yoshinao; Fujita, Keiko; Suzuki, Shunji; Igarashi, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Plants are constantly under attack from a variety of microorganisms, and rely on a series of complex detection and response systems to protect themselves from infection. Here, we found that a by-product of glutamate fermentation triggered defense responses in grapevine, increasing the expression of defense response genes in cultured cells, foliar chitinase activity, and resistance to infection by downy mildew in leaf explants. To identify the molecule that triggered this innate immunity, we fractionated and purified candidates extracted from Corynebacterium glutamicum, a bacterium used in the production of amino acids by fermentation. Using hydrolysis by lysozyme, a silkworm larva plasma detection system, and gel filtration analysis, we identified peptidoglycan as inducing the defense responses. Peptidoglycans of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus also generated similar defensive responses. PMID:25427192

  18. Optimization of maltodextrin production from avocado seed starch by response surface methodology

    Nguyen, Thanh Viet; Ma, Tuyen-Hoang Nguyen; Nguyen, Tha Thi; Ho, Vinh-Nghi Kim; Vo, Hau Tan

    2018-04-01

    A process for maltodextrin production from avocado seed starch was reported in this study. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables for hydrolysis of the starch using a commercial food-grade α-amylase, Termamyl SC. These variables included enzyme concentration (0.05 - 0.15% starch), pH (5.0 - 6.0) and hydrolysis time (1.0 - 3.0 h), while the temperature fixed at 95°C. The result showed that the optimum conditions were using enzyme concentration at 0.12%, pH at 5.5 and 2.75 h of the incubation time. Under the optimum conditions, the recovered starch yield was 79.8% and the maltodextrin powder had 15.8 of dextrose equivalent.

  19. Tocopherol Supplementation Reduces NO Production and Pulmonary Inflammatory Response to Bleomycin

    Shi, Jin Dong; Golden, Thea; Guo, Chang-Jiang; Tu, Shui Ping; Scott, Pamela; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chung S.; Gow, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Bleomycin causes acute lung injury through production of reactive species and initiation of inflammation. Previous work has shown alteration to the production of reactive oxygen species results in attenuation of injury. Vitamin E, in particular, γ-tocopherol, isoform, has the potential to scavenge reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. This study examines the utility of dietary supplementation with tocopherols in reducing bleomycin-mediated acute lung injury. Male C57BL6/J mice were intratracheally instilled with PBS or 2 units/kg bleomycin. Animals were analyzed 3 and 8 days post instillation at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels. Results showed successful delivery of tocopherols to the lung via dietary supplementation. Also, increases in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species due to bleomycin are normalized in those mice fed tocopherol diet. Injury was not prevented but inflammation progression was altered, in particular macrophage activation and function. Inflammatory scores based on histology demonstrate limited progression of inflammation in those mice treated with bleomycin and fed tocopherol diet compared to control diet. Upregulation of enzymes and cytokines involved in pro-inflammation were limited by tocopherol supplementation. Day 3 functional changes in elastance in response to bleomycin are prevented, however, 8 days post injury the effect of the tocopherol diet is lost. The effect of tocopherol supplementation upon the inflammatory process is demonstrated by a shift in the phenotype of macrophage activation. The effect of these changes on resolution and the progression of pulmonary fibrosis has yet to be elucidated. PMID:23669183

  20. Productivity responses of Acer rubrum and Taxodium distichum seedlings to elevated CO2 and flooding

    Vann, C.D.; Megonigal, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 are expected to increase photosynthetic rates of C3 tree species, but it is uncertain whether this will result in an increase in wetland seedling productivity. Separate short-term experiments (12 and 17 weeks) were performed on two wetland tree species, Taxodium distichum and Acer rubrum, to determine if elevated CO2 would influence the biomass responses of seedlings to flooding. T. distichum were grown in replicate glasshouses (n = 2) at CO2 concentrations of 350 or 700 ppm, and A. rubrum were grown in growth chambers at CO2 concentrations of 422 or 722 ppm. Both species were grown from seed. The elevated CO2 treatment was crossed with two water table treatments, flooded and non-flooded. Elevated CO2 increased leaf-level photosynthesis, whole-plant photosynthesis, and trunk diameter of T. distichum in both flooding treatments, but did not increase biomass of T. distichum or A. rubrum. Flooding severely reduced biomass, height, and leaf area of both T. distichum and A. rubrum. Our results suggest that the absence of a CO2-induced increase in growth may have been due to an O2 limitation on root production even though there was a relatively deep (??? 10 cm) aerobic soil surface in the non-flooded treatment. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Unfolded protein response is required for Aspergillus oryzae growth under conditions inducing secretory hydrolytic enzyme production.

    Tanaka, Mizuki; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2015-12-01

    Unfolded protein response (UPR) is an intracellular signaling pathway for adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In yeast UPR, Ire1 cleaves the unconventional intron of HAC1 mRNA, and the functional Hac1 protein translated from the spliced HAC1 mRNA induces the expression of ER chaperone genes and ER-associated degradation genes for the refolding or degradation of unfolded proteins. In this study, we constructed an ireA (IRE1 ortholog) conditionally expressing strain of Aspergillus oryzae, a filamentous fungus producing a large amount of amylolytic enzymes, and examined the contribution of UPR to ER stress adaptation under physiological conditions. Repression of ireA completely blocked A. oryzae growth under conditions inducing the production of hydrolytic enzymes, such as amylases and proteases. This growth defect was restored by the introduction of unconventional intronless hacA (hacA-i). Furthermore, UPR was observed to be induced by amylolytic gene expression, and the disruption of the transcriptional activator for amylolytic genes resulted in partial growth restoration of the ireA-repressing strain. In addition, a homokaryotic ireA disruption mutant was successfully generated using the strain harboring hacA-i as a parental host. These results indicated that UPR is required for A. oryzae growth to alleviate ER stress induced by excessive production of hydrolytic enzymes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The serial order of response units in word production: The case of typing.

    Scaltritti, Michele; Longcamp, Marieke; Alario, F-Xavier

    2018-05-01

    The selection and ordering of response units (phonemes, letters, keystrokes) represents a transversal issue across different modalities of language production. Here, the issue of serial order was investigated with respect to typewriting. Following seminal investigations in the spoken modality, we conducted an experiment where participants typed as many times as possible a pair of words during a fixed time-window. The 2 words shared either their first 2 keystrokes, the last 2 ones, all the keystrokes, or were unrelated. Fine-grained performance measures were recorded at the level of individual keystrokes. In contrast with previous results from the spoken modality, we observed an overall facilitation for words sharing the initial keystrokes. In addition, the initial overlap briefly delayed the execution of the following keystroke. The results are discussed with reference to different theoretical perspectives on serial order, with a particular attention to the competing accounts offered by position coding models and chaining models. Our findings point to potential major differences between the speaking and typing modalities in terms of interactive activation between lexical and response units processing levels. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. TOPAZ results on jet production in γγ and eγ collisions

    Hayashii, Hisaki

    1995-01-01

    We report the recent results on the jet production in almost real γγ and eγ collisions studied at √s = 58 GeV with the TOPAZ detector at the TRISTAN e + e - collider. We have updated the previous results by improving the photon flux functions and by doubling the statistics. The energy distribution in the small angle region are studied in some more details. A clear jet-like structure is also observed in the event sample of deep-inelastic eγ scattering. (author)

  4. French fission products experiments performed in Cadarache and Valduc. Results comparison

    Anno, Jacques; Barreau, Anne; Hudelot, Jean Pascal; Girault, Emmanuel; Fouillaud, Patrick; Toubon, Herve

    2003-01-01

    Cofunded by Cogema, two complementary experimental programmes on burn up credit (BUC) related to fission products (FPs) are performed by CEA and IRSN at Cadarache and Valduc. After shortly recalling the main characteristics of each experiment, a first comparison of some results is presented, especially the energy range in which most part of cross section absorption are qualified. Both experiments exhibit great quality and accurate results, giving a high degree of confidence to the whole experimental French process of qualification devoted to BUC. (author)

  5. Optimization of a two stage process for biodiesel production from shea butter using response surface methodology

    E.O. Ajala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of biodiesel production from high free fatty acid (FFA shea butter (SB necessitated this study. The reduction of %FFA of SB by esterification and its subsequent utilization by transesterification for biodiesel production in a two stage process for optimization studies was investigated using response surface methodology based on a central composite design (CCD. Four operating conditions were investigated to reduce the %FFA of SB and increase the %yield of shea biodiesel (SBD. The operating conditions were temperature (40–60°C, agitation speed (200–1400 rpm, methanol (MeOH: oil mole ratio: 2:1–6:1 (w/w for esterification and 4:1–8:1 (w/w for transesterification and catalyst loading: 1–2% (H2SO4, (v/v for esterification and KOH, (w/w for transesterification. The significance of the parameters obtained in linear and non-linear form from the models were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The optimal operating conditions that gave minimum FFA of 0.26% were 52.19°C, 200 rpm, 2:1 (w/w and 1.5% (v/v, while those that gave maximum yield of 92.16% SBD were 40°C, 800 rpm, 7:1 (w/w and 1% (w/w. The p-value of <0.0001 for each of the stages showed that the models were significant with R2 of 0.96 each. These results indicate the reproducibility of the models and showed that the RSM is suitable to optimize the esterification and transesterification of SB for SBD production. Therefore, RSM is a useful tool that can be employed in industrial scale production of SBD from high FFA SB.

  6. Age-related slowing of response selection and production in a visual choice reaction time task

    David L Woods

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with delayed processing in choice reaction time (CRT tasks, but the processing stages most impacted by aging have not been clearly identified. Here, we analyzed CRT latencies in a computerized serial visual feature-conjunction task. Participants responded to a target letter (probability 40% by pressing one mouse button, and responded to distractor letters differing either in color, shape, or both features from the target (probabilities 20% each, by pressing the other mouse button. Stimuli were presented randomly to the left and right visual fields and stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs were adaptively reduced following correct responses using a staircase procedure. In Experiment 1, we tested 1466 participants who ranged in age from 18 to 65 years. CRT latencies increased significantly with age (r = 0.47, 2.80 ms/year. Central processing time (CPT, isolated by subtracting simple reaction times (obtained in a companion experiment performed on the same day from CRT latencies, accounted for more than 80% of age-related CRT slowing, with most of the remaining increase in latency due to slowed motor responses. Participants were faster and more accurate when the stimulus location was spatially compatible with the mouse button used for responding, and this effect increased slightly with age. Participants took longer to respond to distractors with target color or shape than to distractors with no target features. However, the additional time needed to discriminate the more target-like distractors did not increase with age. In Experiment 2, we replicated the findings of Experiment 1 in a second population of 178 participants (ages 18-82 years. CRT latencies did not differ significantly in the two experiments, and similar effects of age, distractor similarity, and stimulus-response spatial compatibility were found. The results suggest that the age-related slowing in visual CRT latencies is largely due to delays in response selection and

  7. ALICE results on quarkonium production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions

    Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    The study of quarkonia, bound states of heavy (charm or bottom) quark-antiquark pairs such as the J/psi or the Upsilon?, provides insight into the earliest and hottest stages of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions where the formation of a Quark-Gluon Plasma is expected. High-precision data from proton-proton collisions represent an essential baseline for the measurement of nuclear modi?cations in nucleus-nucleus collisions and serve also as a crucial test for models of quarkonium hadroproduction. Another fundamental tool to understand the quarkonium production in nucleus-nucleus collisions is the the study of proton-nucleus interactions, which allows one to investigate cold nuclear matter e?ects, such as parton shadowing or gluon saturation. The ALICE detector provides excellent capabilities to study quarkonium production at the Large Hadron Collider at both central and forward rapidity. An overview on ALICE results on quarkonium production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions is presented. Results are compare...

  8. Performance and first results of fission product release and transport provided by the VERDON facility

    Gallais-During, A., E-mail: annelise.gallais-during@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bonnin, J.; Malgouyres, P.-P. [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Morin, S. [IRSN, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bernard, S.; Gleizes, B.; Pontillon, Y.; Hanus, E.; Ducros, G. [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • A new facility to perform experimental LWR severe accidents sequences is evaluated. • In the furnace a fuel sample is heated up to 2600 °C under a controlled gas atmosphere. • Innovative thermal gradient tubes are used to study fission product transport. • The new VERDON facility shows an excellent consistency with results from VERCORS. • Fission product re-vapourization results confirm the correct functioning of the gradient tubes. - Abstract: One of the most important areas of research concerning a hypothetical severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR) is determining the source term, i.e. quantifying the nature, release kinetics and global released fraction of the fission products (FPs) and other radioactive materials. In line with the former VERCORS programme to improve source term estimates, the new VERDON laboratory has recently been implemented at the CEA Cadarache Centre in the LECA-STAR facility. The present paper deals with the evaluation of the experimental equipment of this new VERDON laboratory (furnace, release and transport loops) and demonstrates its capability to perform experimental sequences representative of LWR severe accidents and to supply the databases necessary for source term assessments and FP behaviour modelling.

  9. Analysis of the results of Federal incentives used to stimulate energy production

    Cone, B.W.; Emery, J.C.; Fassbender, A.G.

    1980-06-01

    The research program analyzed the Federal incentives used to stimulate nuclear, hydro, coal, gas, oil, and electricity production in order to supply what was learned to the selection of an incentives strategy to induce new energy production from renewable resources. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter 2 examines the problem of estimating effects from a theoretical perspective. Methods of quantifying and identifying the many interactive effects of government actions are discussed. Chapter 3 presents a generic analysis of the result of Federal incentives. Chapters 4 through 9 deal with incentives to energy forms - nuclear, hydro, coal, oil, gas, and electricity. Chapter 10 summarizes the estimated results of the incentives, which are presented in terms of their quantity and price impacts. The incentive costs per million Btu of induced energy production is also discussed. Chapter 11 discusses the parity issue, that is an equivalence between Federal incentives to renewable resources and to traditional energy resources. Any analysis of incentives for solar needs will profit from an analysis of the costs of solar incentives per million Btu compared with those for traditional energy forms. Chapter 12 concludes the analysis, discussing the history of traditional energy incentives as a guide to solar-energy incentives. 216 references, 38 figures, 91 tables.

  10. Cleaning products and air fresheners: emissions and resulting concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids.

    Singer, B C; Destaillats, H; Hodgson, A T; Nazaroff, W W

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to quantify emissions and concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids from cleaning product and air freshener use in a 50-m3 room ventilated at approximately 0.5/h. Five cleaning products were applied full-strength (FS); three were additionally used in dilute solution. FS application of pine-oil cleaner (POC) yielded 1-h concentrations of 10-1300 microg/m3 for individual terpenoids, including alpha-terpinene (90-120), d-limonene (1000-1100), terpinolene (900-1300), and alpha-terpineol (260-700). One-hour concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and/or d-limonene were 300-6000 microg/m3 after FS use of other products. During FS application including rinsing with sponge and wiping with towels, fractional emissions (mass volatilized/dispensed) of 2-butoxyethanol and d-limonene were 50-100% with towels retained, and approximately 25-50% when towels were removed after cleaning. Lower fractions (2-11%) resulted from dilute use. Fractional emissions of terpenes from FS use of POC were approximately 35-70% with towels retained, and 20-50% with towels removed. During floor cleaning with dilute solution of POC, 7-12% of dispensed terpenes were emitted. Terpene alcohols were emitted at lower fractions: 7-30% (FS, towels retained), 2-9% (FS, towels removed), and 2-5% (dilute). During air-freshener use, d-limonene, dihydromyrcenol, linalool, linalyl acetate, and beta-citronellol) were emitted at 35-180 mg/day over 3 days while air concentrations averaged 30-160 microg/m3. While effective cleaning can improve the healthfulness of indoor environments, this work shows that use of some consumer cleaning agents can yield high levels of volatile organic compounds, including glycol ethers--which are regulated toxic air contaminants--and terpenes that can react with ozone to form a variety of secondary pollutants including formaldehyde and ultrafine particles. Persons involved in cleaning, especially those who clean occupationally or often, might encounter

  11. From wind ensembles to probabilistic information about future wind power production - results from an actual application

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    on the wind power ensemble forecasts. Given measurements of power production, representing a region or a single wind farm, we have developed methods applicable for these two steps. While (ii) should in principle be a simple task we found that the probabilistic information contained in the wind power ensembles...... horizon we aim at supplying quantiles of the wind power production conditional on the information available at the time at which the forecast is generated. This involves: (i) transformation of meteorological ensemble forecasts into wind power ensemble forecasts and (ii) calculation of quantiles based....... The application use ECMWF-ensembles. One setup corresponds to an offshore wind farm (Nysted, Denmark) and one corresponds to regional forecasting (Western Denmark). In the paper we analyze the results obtained from 8 months of actual operation of this system. It is concluded that the demo-application produce...

  12. Coupling External Radiation Transport Code Results to the GADRAS Detector Response Function

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Thoreson, Gregory G.; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Simulating gamma spectra is useful for analyzing special nuclear materials. Gamma spectra are influenced not only by the source and the detector, but also by the external, and potentially complex, scattering environment. The scattering environment can make accurate representations of gamma spectra difficult to obtain. By coupling the Monte Carlo Nuclear Particle (MCNP) code with the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) detector response function, gamma spectrum simulations can be computed with a high degree of fidelity even in the presence of a complex scattering environment. Traditionally, GADRAS represents the external scattering environment with empirically derived scattering parameters. By modeling the external scattering environment in MCNP and using the results as input for the GADRAS detector response function, gamma spectra can be obtained with a high degree of fidelity. This method was verified with experimental data obtained in an environment with a significant amount of scattering material. The experiment used both gamma-emitting sources and moderated and bare neutron-emitting sources. The sources were modeled using GADRAS and MCNP in the presence of the external scattering environment, producing accurate representations of the experimental data.

  13. Health and management improvements of family poultry production in Africa - Survey results from Kenya

    Njue, S.W.; Kasiiti, J.L.; Macharia, M.J.; Gacheru, S.G.; Mbugua, H.C.W.

    2002-01-01

    In Kenya the poultry population is about 25 million, 80% of which comprises local chicken and the rest, improved breeds. With the ever-increasing prices of red meat, local chicken has become the main source of animal protein in the form of meat and eggs for the rural population. Both egg production and egg size varies with season as the quantity and availability of feed varies. This paper describes work done during the wet season to identify constraints of family chicken production in the study area. The study was repeated on the same farms that were identified in work done earlier during the dry season. Data were gathered from 24 family poultry farms located in Kangundo and Kikuyu divisions. Through the Veterinary Officers and the Animal Health Assistants who assisted in the dry season fieldwork the farmers were contacted a week before the intended f m visits. Baseline and disease survey forms were administered again. The baseline survey achieved 100% response rate. During the farm visits, serum samples, blood and faecal samples were collected. Post mortem examination was also done on sick birds. The flock size in the two ecological zones decreased during the wet season, most probably due to the Christmas festivities. The percentage deaths in Ecological Zone III (ECZIII) were high because most farmers in this zone set their chicken free thus predisposing them to predators, disease and harsh weather conditions. Disease control information was scanty as most farmers were not keen about it. Worm infestation was not as prevalent in the wet season as compared to the dry season. Except for three farms, all the other twenty-one farms had been exposed to Salmonellosis at one time or another. Women were involved in aspects of poultry management, while the men were significantly involved in shelter construction. The local birds were free-range feeding on green grass, leafy vegetables and insects. Occasionally, the birds were supplemented with crushed maize grains or

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF RED PIGMENT PRODUCTION BY MONASCUS PURPUREUS FTC 5356 USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Farhan M. Said

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Factors such as environmental conditions and nutrients are significant for successful growth and reproduction of microorganisms. Manipulations of the factors are the most effective way to stimulate the growth of the microorganism, which can be used to optimize the yield of a product. In this study, Central Composite Design (CCD of Response Surface Methodology (RSM was used to optimize the production of red pigment by Monascus purpureus FTC 5356 using the petioles of oil palm fronds (OPF as a substrate in solid state fermentation (SSF. The data was analyzed using Design Expert Software. The optimum combination predicted via RSM was confirmed through experimental work. The interactions between three variables such as initial moisture content (%, initial pH value (pH, and peptone concentration (% were studied and modelled. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the optimal conditions for red pigment production 47 AU/g with the biomass of 425.1 mg/g was at 55% initial moisture content, 3% of peptone, and at pH 3.  The RSM results showed that the initial pH value had a significant effect on red pigment production (P-value <0.05. The validation of these results was also conducted by fermentation with predicted conditions and it was found that there was a discrepancy of 0.39% between the values of the experimental result and those of the predicted values. ABSTRAK: Keadaan persekitaran dan nutrien merupakan faktor-faktor penting dalam pertumbuhan mikroorganisma. Manipulasi faktor-faktor tersebut adalah kaedah terbaik bagi meningkatkan pertumbuhan mikroorganisma dan mengoptimumkan penghasilan produk. Kajian ini mengguna pakai Rekaan Gabungan Pusat (CCD melalui Kaedah Tindak balas Permukaan (RSM bagi penghasilan pigmen merah optimum oleh Monascus purpureus FTC 5356 menggunakan batang pelepah kelapa sawit (OPF sebagai perumah dalam proses penapaian pepejal (SSF. Data telah dianalisis menggunakan perisian Design Expert. Gabungan parameter

  15. Consumer responses to shelf-out-of-stocks of perishable products

    Woensel, van T.; Donselaar, van K.H.; Broekmeulen, R.A.C.M.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to identify customer behavior with regard to out-of-stocks (OOS) of perishable products (focused on bakery bread) and the resulting inventory performance for these perishable products. Design/methodology/approach – Insights on how consumers behave when their preferred bread product

  16. Results of innovative communication processes on productivity gains in a high technology environment

    Kelly, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    The technology which resulted in performance breakthroughs at engineering and management services is discussed. As a result of the innovative approaches of communicating productivity concepts to the employees, specific outcomes can now be pinpointed at all levels of the organization such as: (1) employee-headed program; (2) performance feedback processes; and (3) an investigative approach to creating leadership. The Lockheed Corporation began the innovative trend in 1974 when they became the first company to introduce quality circles in America. Although some of Lockheed-EMSCO's processes may sound different from traditional improvement processes, the context out of which those to be presented evolved has sustained more than 10 years of positive results through employee involvement activities.

  17. Response surface optimization of ethanol production from banana peels by organic acid hydrolysis and fermentation

    Sininart Chongkhong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The production of ethanol from banana peels was optimized by response surface methodology in a two-step process. The steps were vinegar hydrolysis of banana peels using microwave heating, and fermentation of the peel hydrolysate by commercial baker’s yeast. The sugar (glucose content in the hydrolysate was maximized over ranges of vinegar concentration, microwave power and hydrolysis time. The maximal 15.3 g/L glucose content was reached using 1.47 %w/w vinegar and 465 W microwave power for 10 min, and was used in maximizing the ethanol content from the second step. The maximal 9.2 %v/v ethanol was obtained with 4 %w/w yeast, an initial pH of 4.8, at 28°C for 192 hrs. The results suggest that a combination of microwave application and organic acid hydrolysis might contribute cost-efficiently in the production of ethanol from biological waste.

  18. Results of dose calculations for NET accidental and normal operation releases of tritium and activation products

    Raskob, W.; Hasemann, I.

    1992-08-01

    This report documents conditions, data and results of dose calculations for accidental and normal operation releases of tritium and activation products, performed within the NET subtask SEP2.2 ('NET-Benchmark') of the European Fusion Technology Programme. For accidental releases, the computer codes UFOTRI and COSYMA for assessing the radiological consequences, have been applied for both deterministic and probabilistic calculations. The influence on dose estimates of different release times (2 minutes / 1 hour), two release heights (10 m / 150 m), two chemical forms of tritium (HT/HTO), and two different model approaches for the deposition velocity of HTO on soil was investigated. The dose calculations for normal operation effluents were performed using the tritium model of the German regulatory guidelines, parts of the advanced dose assessment model NORMTRI still under development, and the statistical atmospheric dispersion model ISOLA. Accidental and normal operation source terms were defined as follows: 10g (3.7 10 15 Bq) for accidental tritium releases, 10 Ci/day (3.7 10 11 Bq/day) for tritium releases during normal operation and unit releases of 10 9 Bq for accidental releases of activation products and fission products. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Antibody production in response to staphylococcal MS-1 phage cocktail in patients undergoing phage therapy

    Maciej Żaczek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the humoral immune response (through the release of IgG, IgA, and IgM antiphage antibodies to a staphylococcal phage cocktail in patients undergoing experimental phage therapy at the Phage Therapy Unit, Medical Center of the Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy in Wrocław, Poland. We also evaluated whether occurring antiphage antibodies had neutralizing properties towards applied phages (K rate. Among 20 examined patients receiving the MS-1 phage cocktail orally and/or locally, the majority did not show a noticeably higher level of antiphage antibodies in their sera during phage administration. Even in those individual cases with an increased immune response, mostly by induction of IgG and IgM, the presence of antiphage antibodies did not translate into unsatisfactory clinical results of phage therapy. On the other hand, a negative outcome of the treatment occurred in some patients who showed relatively weak production of antiphage antibodies before and during treatment. This may imply that possible induction of antiphage antibodies is not an obstacle to the implementation of phage therapy and support our assumption that the outcome of the phage treatment does not primarily depend on the appearance of antiphage antibodies in sera of patients during therapy. These conclusions are in line with our previous findings. The confirmation of this thesis is of great interest as regards the efficacy of phage therapy in humans.

  20. Antibody Production in Response to Staphylococcal MS-1 Phage Cocktail in Patients Undergoing Phage Therapy.

    Żaczek, Maciej; Łusiak-Szelachowska, Marzanna; Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Owczarek, Barbara; Kopciuch, Agnieszka; Fortuna, Wojciech; Rogóż, Paweł; Górski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the humoral immune response (through the release of IgG, IgA, and IgM antiphage antibodies) to a staphylococcal phage cocktail in patients undergoing experimental phage therapy at the Phage Therapy Unit, Medical Center of the Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy in Wrocław, Poland. We also evaluated whether occurring antiphage antibodies had neutralizing properties toward applied phages (K rate). Among 20 examined patients receiving the MS-1 phage cocktail orally and/or locally, the majority did not show a noticeably higher level of antiphage antibodies in their sera during phage administration. Even in those individual cases with an increased immune response, mostly by induction of IgG and IgM, the presence of antiphage antibodies did not translate into unsatisfactory clinical results of phage therapy. On the other hand, a negative outcome of the treatment occurred in some patients who showed relatively weak production of antiphage antibodies before and during treatment. This may imply that possible induction of antiphage antibodies is not an obstacle to the implementation of phage therapy and support our assumption that the outcome of the phage treatment does not primarily depend on the appearance of antiphage antibodies in sera of patients during therapy. These conclusions are in line with our previous findings. The confirmation of this thesis is of great interest as regards the efficacy of phage therapy in humans.

  1. An Epigenetic Modifier Results in Improved In Vitro Blastocyst production after Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Juan; Villemoes, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, on development of porcine cloned embryos. Our results showed that treatment of cloned embryos derived from sow oocytes with 50 nM TSA for up to 24 h after the onset of activation cou...... were tested, and for all cell lines an enhancement in blastocyst development compared to their corresponding control was observed. Our data demonstrate that TSA treatment after somatic cell nuclear transfer in the pig can significantly improve the in vitro blastocyst production...

  2. Design, production and first commissioning results of the electrical feedboxes of the LHC

    Perin, A.; Atieh, S.; Benda, V.; Bertarelli, A.; Bouillot, A.; CERN; Brodzinski, K.; Wroclaw Tech. U.; Folch, R.; CERN; Fydrych, J.; Wroclaw Tech. U.; Genet, M.; Koczorowski, S.; Metral, L.; CERN; Serpukhov, IHEP; Fermilab; CERN; Serpukhov, IHEP; CERN; Serpukhov, IHEP

    2007-01-01

    A total of 44 CERN designed cryogenic electrical feedboxes are needed to power the LHC superconducting magnets. The feedboxes include more than 1000 superconducting circuits fed by high temperature superconductor and conventional current leads ranging from 120 A to 13 kA. In addition to providing the electrical current to the superconducting circuits, they also ensure specific mechanical and cryogenic functions for the LHC. The paper focuses on the main design aspects and related production operations and gives an overview of specific technologies employed. Results of the commissioning of the feedboxes of the first LHC sectors are presented

  3. Analysis of Indicators of Corporate Responsibility in Road Freight Transport: Results of Transport Companies and FMCG Retailers in Serbia

    Dragan Đuranović

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the analysis of indicators of corporate responsibility in road freight transport, with special emphasis on freight transport and delivery to Fast Moving Consumers Goods (FMCG retailers and final consumer. The main task is to rank the importance of corporate responsibility indicators in freight transport from the perspective of the management of transport companies, as well as management of retail stores. In this context, empirical research was conducted on a sample of 124 managers of transport enterprises and 181 managers of FMCG retailers in Serbia. The results showed that the impact of indicators does not depend on the region, transport company and retail store. The indicators show a statistically significant dependence on FMCG type that is being transported. The conducted analysis and achieved results are important in practice as they show to the management of transport companies which indicators should be developed, so that customers (retailers, and thus the users of final products are satisfied. Disadvantages of the existing research and suggestions for future studies are provided in the paper.

  4. Physiological response of Pichia pastoris GS115 to methanol-induced high level production of the Hepatitis B surface antigen: catabolic adaptation, stress responses, and autophagic processes

    2012-01-01

    Background Pichia pastoris is an established eukaryotic host for the production of recombinant proteins. Most often, protein production is under the control of the strong methanol-inducible aox1 promoter. However, detailed information about the physiological alterations in P. pastoris accompanying the shift from growth on glycerol to methanol-induced protein production under industrial relevant conditions is missing. Here, we provide an analysis of the physiological response of P. pastoris GS115 to methanol-induced high-level production of the Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg). High product titers and the retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are supposedly of major impact on the host physiology. For a more detailed understanding of the cellular response to methanol-induced HBsAg production, the time-dependent changes in the yeast proteome and ultrastructural cell morphology were analyzed during the production process. Results The shift from growth on glycerol to growth and HBsAg production on methanol was accompanied by a drastic change in the yeast proteome. In particular, enzymes from the methanol dissimilation pathway started to dominate the proteome while enzymes from the methanol assimilation pathway, e.g. the transketolase DAS1, increased only moderately. The majority of methanol was metabolized via the energy generating dissimilatory pathway leading to a corresponding increase in mitochondrial size and numbers. The methanol-metabolism related generation of reactive oxygen species induced a pronounced oxidative stress response (e.g. strong increase of the peroxiredoxin PMP20). Moreover, the accumulation of HBsAg in the ER resulted in the induction of the unfolded protein response (e.g. strong increase of the ER-resident disulfide isomerase, PDI) and the ER associated degradation (ERAD) pathway (e.g. increase of two cytosolic chaperones and members of the AAA ATPase superfamily) indicating that potential degradation of HBsAg could

  5. Research Results of Bioenergetics Factors Influence on Crop Production Yields Increase

    A. P. Grishin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a fundamental research is presented confirming two hypotheses concerning the process of a crop harvest forming and transpiration as the two main bio-energetic factors of fertility. Transpiration is a thermodynamic process in an open self-organizing system, which has a dissipative random character. Transpiration consumes about 95 percent of the water consumed by the plant. (Purpose of research The research objective is to obtain results confirming two hypotheses, according to which the efficiency of the process of crop formation is due to transpiration as a bio-energy factor of fertility and its components: photosynthetic exergy and thermal exergy. (Methods and materials The basic principles of thermodynamic systems self-organization, as well as methods of experimental studies of the principle of subordination to the parameter of the order in which the system control variable is dependent on parameter of the order. The relation of the order parameter (thermal exergy of solar radiation (SR and the variable control (transpiration was determined. The values of the correlation coefficients of these two processes have a value close to one. This confirms that transpiration is a dissipative self-organizing process underlying the transpiration irrigation mechanism. It is revealed that a fractal dimension of a time series of transpiration of cucumber with natural light, a potato is artificial, and their probability haracteristics: the mathematical expectation, standard deviation and variance. (Results and discussion We received confirmation of the scientific hypothesis about the influence of limiting climatic factors on the theoretical limit of plant productivity and fractal dimension of transpiration as an indicator of production processes in crop production. (Conclusions We put forward supplemental scientific hypothesis about the influence of limiting climatic factors on the theoretical limit of plant productivity. It was showed that

  6. NLO QCD result for the gluon polarization from open charm $D^{0}$ meson production at COMPASS

    Kurek, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    One of the main goals of the COMPASS experiment is the measurement of the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin. Among the processes studied by COMPASS, open- charm $D^{0}$ meson production seems to be the cleanest channel for probing gluons in the energy range covered by the experiment. The gluon polarisation is related to the measured asymmetry for charmed mesons production via the analyzing power (asymmetry at the partonic level) calculated in the perturbative QCD frame. The analyzing power for the "photon-gluon fusion" process corresponds to a LO QCD approximation. The signicant improvement of the statistical precision and the new, nal LO result are presented . The NLO QCD corrections to the partonic cross sections (unpolarised and polarized ones) are now also included into the analysis scheme since these higher order contributions are not negligible. The preliminary NLO QCD result on the gluon polarisation based on a set of measured $D^{0}$ meson asymmetries in kinematical bins of the $D^{0}$ energy amd...

  7. PIXE characterization of by-products resulting from the zinc recycling of industrial cemented carbides

    Freemantle, C.S.; Sacks, N.; Topic, M.; Pineda-Vargas, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    By-product materials of the widely used zinc recycling process of cemented carbides have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-PIXE techniques have identified elemental concentrations, distributions and purity of by-product materials from an industrial zinc recycling plant. Cobalt surface enrichment, lamellar microstructures of varying composition, including alternating tungsten carbide (WC) grains and globular cobalt, and regions of excess zinc contamination were found in materials with incomplete zinc penetration. Liquid Co–Zn formation occurred above 72 wt.% Zn at the furnace temperature of 930 °C, and was extracted towards the surface of poorly zinc infiltrated material, primarily by the vacuum used for zinc distillation. Surface enrichment was not observed in material that was zinc infiltrated to the sample center, which was more friable and exhibited more homogeneous porosity and elemental concentrations. The result of incomplete zinc infiltration was an enriched surface zone of up to 60 wt.% Co, compared to an original sample composition of ∼10–15 wt.% Co. The impact on resulting powders could be higher or inhomogeneous cobalt content, as well as unacceptably high zinc concentrations. PIXE has proven it can be a powerful technique for solving industrial problems in the cemented carbide cutting tool industry, by identifying trace elements and their locations (such as Zn to 0.1 wt.% accuracy), as well as the distribution of major elements within WC–Co materials.

  8. PIXE characterization of by-products resulting from the zinc recycling of industrial cemented carbides

    Freemantle, C.S. [School of Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering and DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Pilot Tools (Pty) (Ltd), P.O. Box 27420, Benrose 2011 (South Africa); Sacks, N. [School of Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering and DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Topic, M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health & Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    By-product materials of the widely used zinc recycling process of cemented carbides have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-PIXE techniques have identified elemental concentrations, distributions and purity of by-product materials from an industrial zinc recycling plant. Cobalt surface enrichment, lamellar microstructures of varying composition, including alternating tungsten carbide (WC) grains and globular cobalt, and regions of excess zinc contamination were found in materials with incomplete zinc penetration. Liquid Co–Zn formation occurred above 72 wt.% Zn at the furnace temperature of 930 °C, and was extracted towards the surface of poorly zinc infiltrated material, primarily by the vacuum used for zinc distillation. Surface enrichment was not observed in material that was zinc infiltrated to the sample center, which was more friable and exhibited more homogeneous porosity and elemental concentrations. The result of incomplete zinc infiltration was an enriched surface zone of up to 60 wt.% Co, compared to an original sample composition of ∼10–15 wt.% Co. The impact on resulting powders could be higher or inhomogeneous cobalt content, as well as unacceptably high zinc concentrations. PIXE has proven it can be a powerful technique for solving industrial problems in the cemented carbide cutting tool industry, by identifying trace elements and their locations (such as Zn to 0.1 wt.% accuracy), as well as the distribution of major elements within WC–Co materials.

  9. Thinking on luxury or pragmatic brand products: Brain responses to different categories of culturally based brands.

    Schaefer, Michael; Rotte, Michael

    2007-08-24

    Culturally based brands have a high impact on people's economic actions. Here we aimed to examine whether socioeconomic information conveyed by certain classes of brands (prestigious versus pragmatic classes) differentially evoke brain response. We presented icons of brands while recording subject's brain activity during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. After the experiment, we asked subjects to assess the brands according to different characteristics. Results revealed an active network of bilateral superior frontal gyri, hippocampus and posterior cingulate related to familiar brands in general. Brands of the category sports and luxury activated regions in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and precuneus. In contrast, brands rated as value products activated the left superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The results suggest an active cortical network related to cognitive control for value brands and a network known to be associated with self-relevant processing for prestigious brands. We discuss the results as differential engagement of the prefrontal cortex depending on the attributed characteristic of a brand.

  10. Combined results on b-hadron production rates and decay properties

    Abbaneo, D.; Andreev, V.; Barberio, E.; Battaglia, M.; Byth, S.; Boix, G.; Calvi, M.; Checchia, P.; Coyle, P.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Gagnon, P.; Hawkings, R.; Hayes, O.; Henrard, P.; Hessing, T.; Kroll, I.J.; Leroy, O.; Lucchesi, D.; Margoni, M.; Mele, S.; Moser, H.G.; Muheim, F.; Palla, F.; Pallin, D.; Parodi, F.; Paulini, M.; Piotto, E.; Privitera, P.; Rosnet, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rousseau, D.; Schneider, O.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Simonetto, F.; Spagnolo, P.; Stocchi, A.; Su, D.; Usher, T.; Weiser, C.; Wicklund, B.; Willocq, Stephane; CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Combined results on b-hadron lifetimes, b-hadron production rates, B^0_d - \\bar{B^0_d} and B^0_S - \\bar{B^0_s} oscillations, the decay width difference between the mass eigenstates of the B^0_s - \\bar{B^0_s} system, the average number of c and \\bar{c} quarks in b-hadron decays, and searches for CP violation in the B^0_d - \\bar{B-0_d} system are presented. They have been obtained from published and preliminary measurements available in Summer 2000 from the ALEPH, CDF, DELPHI, L3, OPAL and SLD Collaborations. These results have been used to determine the parameters of the CKM unitarity triangle.

  11. Monitoring changes in soil carbon resulting from intensive production, a non-traditional agricultural methodology.

    Dwyer, Brian P.

    2013-03-01

    New Mexico State University and a group of New Mexico farmers are evaluating an innovative agricultural technique they call Intensive Production (IP). In contrast to conventional agricultural practice, IP uses intercropping, green fallowing, application of soil amendments and soil microbial inocula to sequester carbon as plant biomass, resulting in improved soil quality. Sandia National Laboratories role was to identify a non-invasive, cost effective technology to monitor soil carbon changes. A technological review indicated that Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) best met the farmers objectives. Sandia partnered with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to analyze farmers test plots using a portable LIBS developed at LANL. Real-time LIBS field sample analysis was conducted and grab samples were collected for laboratory comparison. The field and laboratory results correlated well implying the strong potential for LIBS as an economical field scale analytical tool for analysis of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate.

  12. Refining in the 1990s: Technological response to environmental concerns, product quality requirements and changes in demand patterns

    Naber, J.E.; Stork, W.H.J.; Blauwhoff, P.M.M. (Koninklijke Shell, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Lab.); Groeneveld, K.J.W. (Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands))

    1990-01-01

    The refining industry is faced with a pressing need to protect the environment and with increasing demands for higher quality and changes in the composition of the product mix, partly as a result of a continued decline in demand for residual fuel due to energy savings and competition from other energy sources. An important part of the response to these challenges has been the development and implementation of new and improved technology to increase the refiner's ability to upgrade relatively low-value products to high-quality fuels. This generally involves an increase of the hydrogen content of the products, either by rejecting carbon or by adding hydrogen. In consequence, advanced technology has recently been developed for the conversion of residual components in catalytic crackers (carbon rejection) as well as in residue hydroprocessing (hydrogen addition). However, as a result of the increasing amounts of aromatic components in distillates from residue conversion, higher product quality demands in conjunction with a shift to diesel fuel can only be met by significant further developments in hydroprocessing. These developments favour the low hetero-atom and low-aromatics production in modern hydrocrackers utilising advanced catalysts and process technology. In the more distant future, the advent of new technology for large-scale production of synthesis gas (CO/H{sub 2}) from partial oxidation of natural gas, heavy oil or coal will enable the production of superior-quality non-aromatic middle distillates through sophisticated Fischer-Tropsch catalysis. (orig./EF).

  13. 76 FR 50998 - Certain Lined Paper Products From People's Republic of China: Initiation and Preliminary Results...

    2011-08-17

    ...''). AASPS claims that producers accounting for substantially all of the production of the domestic like... definition, the actual use of or labeling these products as school supplies or non- school supplies is not a... determines that producers accounting for substantially all of the production of the domestic like product...

  14. Temperature response of methane production in liquid manures and co-digestates

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olsen, Anna Berg; Petersen, Søren O.

    2016-01-01

    Intensification of livestock production makes correct estimation of methanogenesis in liquidmanure increasingly important for inventories of CH4 emissions. Such inventories currently rely on fixed methane conversion factors as knowledge gaps remain with respect to detailed temperature responses...... gradient incubator and CH4 production was measured by gas chromatographic analysis of headspace gas after a 17-h incubation period. Methane production potentials at 5–37 °C were described by the Arrhenius equation (modelling efficiencies, 79.2–98.1%), and the four materials showed a consistent activation...

  15. Comparison of fission product release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Maki, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict fission product release from tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) measurements provided data on release of fission products from fuel compacts and fuel particles, and retention of fission products in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of these fission products was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of about two, corresponding to an over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of about 100. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by an average of about an order of magnitude, which could additionally be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 30%. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-estimated by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release from intact particles varied considerably from compact to compact, making it difficult to assess the effective over-estimation of the diffusivities. Furthermore, the release of strontium from particles with failed SiC is difficult to observe experimentally due to the release from intact particles, preventing any conclusions to be made on the accuracy or validity of the

  16. Isotope studies on plant productivity. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    In order to explore this approach, a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Isotope Studies for Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics was initiated in October 1989 and complete in October 1994. Almost half of the work carried out under this programme concentrated on water use efficiency and the rest on phosphate use efficiency. Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia focused on wheat; Nigeria and Sierra Leone on cowpea; Kenya, Sudan and the United Republic of Tanzania on nitrogen fixing trees such as Prosopis, Acacia and Gliricidia; and Viet Nam on rice. Experiments conducted in the field showed that there is a wealth of genetic diversity among the genotypes/provenances of crop and tree species in their capacity for uptake and use of phosphorus and water from soils limited in resources. Several elite genotypes/provenances were identified which are highly efficient in water or phosphate use. In a few cases, the high water use efficiency (or the high phosphorus use efficiency) feature was seen in the same genotype where the grain yield was also high. Morphological parameters responsible for making some genotypes superior in their capacity to use phosphorus or water have also been investigated. It is our hope that the findings reported in this publication will help agricultural scientists in the Member States, particularly in Africa, in their quest of finding solutions to problems of food security. Refs, figs, tabs.

  17. Isotope studies on plant productivity. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    1996-07-01

    In order to explore this approach, a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Isotope Studies for Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics was initiated in October 1989 and complete in October 1994. Almost half of the work carried out under this programme concentrated on water use efficiency and the rest on phosphate use efficiency. Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia focused on wheat; Nigeria and Sierra Leone on cowpea; Kenya, Sudan and the United Republic of Tanzania on nitrogen fixing trees such as Prosopis, Acacia and Gliricidia; and Viet Nam on rice. Experiments conducted in the field showed that there is a wealth of genetic diversity among the genotypes/provenances of crop and tree species in their capacity for uptake and use of phosphorus and water from soils limited in resources. Several elite genotypes/provenances were identified which are highly efficient in water or phosphate use. In a few cases, the high water use efficiency (or the high phosphorus use efficiency) feature was seen in the same genotype where the grain yield was also high. Morphological parameters responsible for making some genotypes superior in their capacity to use phosphorus or water have also been investigated. It is our hope that the findings reported in this publication will help agricultural scientists in the Member States, particularly in Africa, in their quest of finding solutions to problems of food security. Refs, figs, tabs

  18. Immune response in mice to ingested soya protein: antibody production, oral tolerance and maternal transfer

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    antibody response in the offspring, bat in this case in the absence of oral tolerance. This indicates that, under certain conditions, factors involved in spontaneous antibody production can be transmitted from mother to offspring. Understanding the immune response to soya protein ingested under healthy...... by ELISA, and to the presence of oral tolerance detected as a suppressed antibody and cell-proliferation response upon immunisation with soya protein. F0 mice generated soya-specific antibodies, while oral tolerance to the same soya proteins was also clearly induced. When F0 dams were transferred to soya...

  19. A 'private adventure'? John Herschel's Cape voyage and the production of the 'Cape Results'

    Ruskin, Steven William

    2002-07-01

    This dissertation considers the life of John Herschel (1792 1871) from the years 1833 to 1847. In 1833 Herschel sailed from London to Cape Town, southern Africa, to undertake (at his own expense) an astronomical exploration of the southern heavens, as well as a terrestrial exploration of the area around Cape Town. After his return to England in 1838, he was highly esteemed and became Britain's most recognized scientist. In 1847 his southern hemisphere astronomical observations were published as the Cape Results. The main argument of this dissertation is that Herschel's voyage, and the publication of the Cape Results, in addition to their contemporary scientific importance, were also significant for nineteenth-century politics and culture. This dissertation is a two-part dissertation. The first part is entitled “John Herschel's Cape Voyage: Private Science, Public Imagination, and the Ambitions of Empire”; and the second part, “The Production of the Cape Results.” In the first part it is demonstrated that the reason for Herschel's cultural renown was the popular notion that his voyage to the Cape was a project aligned with the imperial ambitions of the British government. By leaving England for one of its colonies, and pursuing there a significant scientific project, Herschel was seen in the same light as other British men of science who had also undertaken voyages of exploration and discovery. It is then demonstrated, in the second part of this work, that the production of the Cape Results, in part because of Herschel's status as Britain's scientific figurehead, was a significant political and cultural event. In addition to the narrow area of Herschel scholarship, this dissertation touches on other areas of research in the history of science as well: science and culture, science and empire, science and politics, and what has been called the “new” history of scientific books.

  20. Integrated carbon analysis of biomass production on fallow agricultural land and product substitution in Sweden - Preliminary results

    Dornburg, Veronika; Eggers, Thies; Gustavsson, Leif [Mid Sweden Univ., Oestersund (Sweden). Ecotechnology

    2006-07-15

    An important option in the Swedish context to reduce its net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the increased use of biomass for energy and material substitution. On fallow agricultural land additional production of biomass would be possible. We analyse biomass production systems based on Norway spruce, hybrid poplar and willow hybrids and the use of this biomass to replace fossil energy and energy intensive material systems. The highest biomass production potential is for willow in southern Sweden. Fertilisation management of spruce could shorten the rotation lengths by about 17%. The fertilised production of Norway spruce with use of harvested timber for construction and use of remaining woody biomass for heat and power production gives the largest reductions of carbon emissions per hectare under the assumptions made. The use of willow for heat and power and of fertilised spruce for a wood product mix lead to the highest fossil primary energy savings in our scenarios. Spruce cultivations can achieve considerable carbon emission reductions in the long term, but willow and poplar might be a good option when fossil energy savings and carbon emission reductions should be achieved in the short term.

  1. Studies for Improving Productive Efficiency and Immune System Response of Aged Female Japanese Quail

    Sabek, E.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed in animal house Nuclear Research Center-Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas. The objective of this study was to overcome decrease productive efficiency and immune system response as a result of advanced of female Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix japonica) and multiple the production period of females studying the effect of three methods of force rest and their effect on physiological and endocrinological changes associated with each of procedure used. Three hundred birds were used, 240 female and 120 males (50 weeks of age). Females were at 44% hen day (HD) egg production. The birds randomly divided into four groups, 60 females and 30 males in each treatment which divided into three replicate of 20 females and 10 males in each. The first group was fed a layer diet, plus 2% zinc oxide (20,000 ppm) for 14 days. The second group was fed a commercial layer diet containing 8 mg / birds / day tamoxifen for 14 days. The third group was force molted by the California method (fed withdrawal by removing the diet 10 days then feed for 7 days corn). The fourth group fed the layer diet and served as the control. The results obtained showed significant increase in body weight, egg production, egg weight, shell weight, hatchability percent, fertility percent, embryonic mortality percent, hatching weight percent mortality percent, carcass relative weight, kidney relative weight, intestine relative weight, intestine length, proventriculus relative weight, ovary relative weight, oviduct relative weight, oviduct length, femur breaking strength, tibia breaking strength, packed cell volume, globulin, phosphorus concentration, triglyceride, estrogen hormone, aldosterone hormone and significant decrease in heart relative weight, albumin to globulin ratio, GOT, testosterone hormone, T 3 , T 4 , Heamaglutination inhibition test in treated groups than control group. While gizzard relative weight, femur relative weight, tibia relative weight, femur ash, tibia

  2. Organic Production Business Model and the Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Ekaterina ARABSKA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR considering competitiveness and sustainability issues in contemporary globalizing world is closely linked to organic production being a production system applying holistic approaches in the overall management and production activities and assurance of the highest degree of conformability to sustainable use and preservation of resources. The paper examines the organic production as a business model corresponding to the spheres of CSR regarding society, environment, human capital and work conditions, knowledge and education. The focus in on sustainable business practices in organic production assessed in the study from the point of view of management, environment, human resources, public relations and business environment considered in five dimensions: economic, social, environmental, cultural and accountability.

  3. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Productivity, digestion, and health responses to hindgut acidosis in ruminants.

    Gressley, T F; Hall, M B; Armentano, L E

    2011-04-01

    Microbial fermentation of carbohydrates in the hindgut of dairy cattle is responsible for 5 to 10% of total-tract carbohydrate digestion. When dietary, animal, or environmental factors contribute to abnormal, excessive flow of fermentable carbohydrates from the small intestine, hindgut acidosis can occur. Hindgut acidosis is characterized by increased rates of production of short-chain fatty acids including lactic acid, decreased digesta pH, and damage to gut epithelium as evidenced by the appearance of mucin casts in feces. Hindgut acidosis is more likely to occur in high-producing animals fed diets with relatively greater proportions of grains and lesser proportions of forage. In these animals, ruminal acidosis and poor selective retention of fermentable carbohydrates by the rumen will increase carbohydrate flow to the hindgut. In more severe situations, hindgut acidosis is characterized by an inflammatory response; the resulting breach of the barrier between animal and digesta may contribute to laminitis and other disorders. In a research setting, effects of increased hindgut fermentation have been evaluated using pulse-dose or continuous abomasal infusions of varying amounts of fermentable carbohydrates. Continuous small-dose abomasal infusions of 1 kg/d of pectin or fructans into lactating cows resulted in decreased diet digestibility and decreased milk fat percentage without affecting fecal pH or VFA concentrations. The decreased diet digestibility likely resulted from increased bulk in the digestive tract or from increased digesta passage rate, reducing exposure of the digesta to intestinal enzymes and epithelial absorptive surfaces. The same mechanism is proposed to explain the decreased milk fat percentage because only milk concentrations of long-chain fatty acids were decreased. Pulse-dose abomasal fructan infusions (1 g/kg of BW) into steers resulted in watery feces, decreased fecal pH, and increased fecal VFA concentrations, without causing an

  4. SMOS near-real-time soil moisture product: processor overview and first validation results

    N. J. Rodríguez-Fernández

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the surface soil moisture (SM content are important for a wide range of applications. Among them, operational hydrology and numerical weather prediction, for instance, need SM information in near-real-time (NRT, typically not later than 3 h after sensing. The European Space Agency (ESA Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS satellite is the first mission specifically designed to measure SM from space. The ESA Level 2 SM retrieval algorithm is based on a detailed geophysical modelling and cannot provide SM in NRT. This paper presents the new ESA SMOS NRT SM product. It uses a neural network (NN to provide SM in NRT. The NN inputs are SMOS brightness temperatures for horizontal and vertical polarizations and incidence angles from 30 to 45°. In addition, the NN uses surface soil temperature from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF Integrated Forecast System (IFS. The NN was trained on SMOS Level 2 (L2 SM. The swath of the NRT SM retrieval is somewhat narrower (∼ 915 km than that of the L2 SM dataset (∼ 1150 km, which implies a slightly lower revisit time. The new SMOS NRT SM product was compared to the SMOS Level 2 SM product. The NRT SM data show a standard deviation of the difference with respect to the L2 data of < 0.05 m3 m−3 in most of the Earth and a Pearson correlation coefficient higher than 0.7 in large regions of the globe. The NRT SM dataset does not show a global bias with respect to the L2 dataset but can show local biases of up to 0.05 m3 m−3 in absolute value. The two SMOS SM products were evaluated against in situ measurements of SM from more than 120 sites of the SCAN (Soil Climate Analysis Network and the USCRN (US Climate Reference Network networks in North America. The NRT dataset obtains similar but slightly better results than the L2 data. In summary, the NN SMOS NRT SM product exhibits performances similar to those of the Level 2 SM product

  5. Production of specific structured lipids by enzymatic interesterification: optimization of the reaction by response surface design

    Xu, Xuebing; Skands, Anja Rebecca Havegaard; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    1998-01-01

    Rapeseed oil and capric acid were interesterified in solvent-free media catalyzed by Lipozyme IM (Rhizomucor miehei) to produce specific-structured lipids (SSLs). The process was optimized by response surface design concerning the effects of acyl migration and the by-products of diacylglycerols...

  6. Whole-body CO2 production as an index of the metabolic response to sepsis

    Whole-body carbon dioxide (CO2) production (RaCO2) is an index of substrate oxidation and energy expenditure; therefore, it may provide information about the metabolic response to sepsis. Using stable isotope techniques, we determined RaCO2 and its relationship to protein and glucose metabolism in m...

  7. Response of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum to photooxidative stress resulting from high light exposure.

    Nuno Domingues

    Full Text Available The response of microalgae to photooxidative stress resulting from high light exposure is a well-studied phenomenon. However, direct analyses of photosystem II (PSII D1 protein (the main target of photoinhibition in diatoms are scarce. In this study, the response of the diatom model species Phaeodactylum tricornutum to short-term exposure to high light was examined and the levels of D1 protein determined immunochemically. Low light (LL acclimated cells (40 µmol photons m(-2 s(-1 subjected to high light (HL, 1,250 µmol photons m(-2 s(-1 showed rapid induction of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ and ca. 20-fold increase in diatoxanthin (DT concentration. This resulted from the conversion of diadinoxanthin (DD to DT through the activation of the DD-cycle. D1 protein levels under LL decreased about 30% after 1 h of the addition of lincomycin (LINC, a chloroplast protein synthesis inhibitor, showing significant D1 degradation and repair under low irradiance. Exposure to HL lead to a 3.2-fold increase in D1 degradation rate, whereas average D1 repair rate was 1.3-x higher under HL than LL, leading to decreased levels of D1 protein under HL. There were significant effects of both HL and LINC on P. tricornutum maximum quantum yield of PSII (F(v/F(m, showing a reduction of active PSII reaction centres. Partial recovery of F(v/F(m in the dark demonstrates the photosynthetic resilience of this diatom to changes in the light regime. P. tricornutum showed high allocation of total protein to D1 and an active D1-repair cycle to limit photoinhibition.

  8. Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and ResultingConcentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids

    Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff,William W.

    2005-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to quantify emissions and concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids from cleaning product and air freshener use in a 50-m{sup 3} room ventilated at {approx}0.5 h{sup -1}. Five cleaning products were applied full-strength (FS); three were additionally used in dilute solution. FS application of pine-oil cleaner (POC) yielded 1-h concentrations of 10-1300 {micro}g m{sup -3} for individual terpenoids, including {alpha}-terpinene (90-120), d-limonene (1000-1100), terpinolene (900-1300), and {alpha}-terpineol (260-700). One-hour concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and/or dlimonene were 300-6000 {micro}g m{sup -3} after FS use of other products. During FS application including rinsing with sponge and wiping with towels, fractional emissions (mass volatilized/dispensed) of 2-butoxyethanol and d-limonene were 50-100% with towels retained, {approx}25-50% when towels were removed after cleaning. Lower fractions (2-11%) resulted from dilute use. Fractional emissions of terpenes from FS use of POC were {approx}35-70% with towels retained, 20-50% with towels removed. During floor cleaning with dilute solution of POC, 7-12% of dispensed terpenes were emitted. Terpene alcohols were emitted at lower fractions: 7-30% (FS, towels retained), 2-9% (FS, towels removed), and 2-5% (dilute). During air-freshener use, d-limonene, dihydromyrcenol, linalool, linalyl acetate, and {beta}-citronellol were emitted at 35-180 mg d{sup -1} over three days while air concentrations averaged 30-160 {micro}g m{sup -3}.

  9. Temperature response of denitrification rate and greenhouse gas production in agricultural river marginal wetland soils.

    Bonnett, S A F; Blackwell, M S A; Leah, R; Cook, V; O'Connor, M; Maltby, E

    2013-05-01

    Soils are predicted to exhibit significant feedback to global warming via the temperature response of greenhouse gas (GHG) production. However, the temperature response of hydromorphic wetland soils is complicated by confounding factors such as oxygen (O2 ), nitrate (NO3-) and soil carbon (C). We examined the effect of a temperature gradient (2-25 °C) on denitrification rates and net nitrous oxide (N2 O), methane (CH4 ) production and heterotrophic respiration in mineral (Eutric cambisol and Fluvisol) and organic (Histosol) soil types in a river marginal landscape of the Tamar catchment, Devon, UK, under non-flooded and flooded with enriched NO3- conditions. It was hypothesized that the temperature response is dependent on interactions with NO3--enriched flooding, and the physicochemical conditions of these soil types. Denitrification rate (mean, 746 ± 97.3 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ), net N2 O production (mean, 180 ± 26.6 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) and net CH4 production (mean, 1065 ± 183 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) were highest in the organic Histosol, with higher organic matter, ammonium and moisture, and lower NO3- concentrations. Heterotrophic respiration (mean, 127 ± 4.6 mg m(-2)  h(-1) ) was not significantly different between soil types and dominated total GHG (CO2 eq) production in all soil types. Generally, the temperature responses of denitrification rate and net N2 O production were exponential, whilst net CH4 production was unresponsive, possibly due to substrate limitation, and heterotrophic respiration was exponential but limited in summer at higher temperatures. Flooding with NO3- increased denitrification rate, net N2 O production and heterotrophic respiration, but a reduction in net CH4 production suggests inhibition of methanogenesis by NO3- or N2 O produced from denitrification. Implications for management and policy are that warming and flood events may promote microbial interactions in soil between distinct microbial communities and increase

  10. Discriminant validity, responsiveness and reliability of the arthritis-specific Work Productivity Survey assessing workplace and household productivity in patients with psoriatic arthritis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The novel arthritis-specific Work Productivity Survey (WPS) was developed to estimate patient productivity limitations associated with arthritis within and outside the home, which is an unmet need in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The WPS has been validated in rheumatoid arthritis. This report assesses the discriminant validity, responsiveness and reliability of the WPS in adult-onset PsA. Methods Psychometric properties were assessed using data from the RAPID-PsA trial (NCT01087788) investigating certolizumab pegol (CZP) efficacy and safety in PsA. WPS was completed at baseline and every 4 weeks until Week 24. Validity was evaluated at baseline via known-groups defined using first and third quartiles of patients’ Disease Activity Score 28 based on C-reactive protein (DAS28(CRP)), Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Short Form-36 (SF-36) items and PsA Quality of Life (PsAQoL) scores. Responsiveness and reliability were assessed by comparing WPS mean changes at Week 12 in American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria (ACR20) or HAQ-DI Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) 0.3 responders versus non-responders, as well as using standardized response means (SRM). All comparisons were conducted on the observed cases in the Randomized Set, regardless of the randomization group, using a non-parametric bootstrap-t method. Results Compared with patients with a better health state, patients with a worse health state had on average 2 to 6 times more household work days lost, more days with reduced household productivity, more days missed of family/social/leisure activities, more days with outside help hired and a significantly higher interference of arthritis per month. Among employed patients, those with a worse health state had 2 to 4 times more workplace days lost, more days with patient workplace productivity reduced, and a significantly higher interference of arthritis on patient workplace productivity versus

  11. Measuring the mental health care system responsiveness: results of an outpatient survey in Tehran

    Setareh eForouzan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAs explained by the World Health Organisation (WHO in 2000, the concept of health system responsiveness is one of the core goals of health systems. Since 2000, further efforts have been made to measure health system responsiveness and the factors affecting responsiveness, yet few studies have applied responsiveness concepts to the evaluation of mental health systems. The present study aims to measure responsiveness and its related domains in the mental health care system of Tehran. Utilising the same method used by the WHO for its responsiveness survey, responsiveness for outpatient mental health care was evaluated using a validated Farsi questionnaire. A sample of 500 public mental health service users in Tehran participated and subsequently completed the questionnaire. On average, 47% of participants reported experiencing poor responsiveness. Among responsiveness domains, confidentiality and dignity were the best performing factors while autonomy, access to care and quality of basic amenities were the worst performing. Respondents who reported their social status as low were more likely to experience poor responsiveness overall. Autonomy, quality of basic amenities and clear communication were responsiveness dimensions that performed poorly but were considered to be important by study participants. In summary, the study suggests that measuring responsiveness could provide guidance for further development of mental health care systems to become more patient orientated and provide patients with more respect.

  12. New results on Coulomb effects in meson production in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Rybicki Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method of investigating the space-time evolution of meson production in heavy ion collisions, by making use of spectator-induced electromagnetic (“Coulomb” effects. The presence of two nuclear remnants (“spectator systems” in the non-central collision generates a strong Coulomb field, which modifies the trajectories of charged final state hadrons. This results in charge-dependent azimuthal anisotropies in final state meson emission. In our approach, this effect can be computed numerically by means of a high-statistics Monte Carlo simulation, using the distance between the meson formation zone and the spectator system as free parameter. Our simulation correctly describes the electromagnetic effect on azimuthal anisotropies observed for π+ and π−mesons in Au+Au collisions at lower RHIC energy, known from data recently reported by the STAR Collaboration. Similarly to our earlier studies of spectator-induced electromagnetic effects, also in the present study we find that these effects offer sensitivity to the position of the meson formation zone with respect to the spectator system. Therefore, we conclude that they can serve as a new tool to investigate the space-time evolution of meson production, and the dynamics of the heavy ion collision.

  13. Production trials involving use of the FAMACHA© system for haemonchosis in sheep : preliminary results

    J.A. Van Wyk

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In three trials conducted on two separate farms the production of sheep treated for naturally acquired haemonchosis using the FAMACHA© system of targeted selective treatment (TST (i.e. to treat only those animals unable to manage unaided in the face of heavy Haemonchus challenge was compared to that of suppressively drenched sheep in the same flock. As expected by the research team who developed and evaluated the FAMACHA© system, TST did result in some loss in production. However, despite high levels of worm challenge in two of the trials and the fact that the comparison was with suppressive drenching which is not sustainable, the total effect was relatively small in relation to the important advantage of using the TST as regards reduced selection for anthelmintic resistance (AR. Concerning the sustainability of worm control, it is concluded that the development of drug resistance to anthelmintics leaves sheep and goat farmers in South Africa no choice but to use methods of TST such as FAMACHA©. The FAMACHA© system can also be a useful clinical aid for early on-farm detection of AR by farmers; the degree of improvement in the colour of the ocular mucous membrane from pale to red in individually drenched anaemic animals over a period of 7-14 days can give a good indication of the efficacy of the compound(s used.

  14. Optimization of biosurfactant production by Bacillus brevis using response surface methodology

    Foukia E. Mouafi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate and validate a statistical model for maximizing biosurfactant productivity by Bacillus brevis using response surface methodology. In this respect, twenty bacterial isolates were screened for biosurfactant production using hemolytic activity, oil spreading technique, and emulsification index (E24. The most potent biosurfactant-producing bacterium (B. brevis was used for construction of the statistical response surface model. The optimum conditions for biosurfactant production by B. brevis were: 33 °C incubation temperature at pH 8 for 10 days incubation period and 8.5 g/L glucose concentration as a sole carbon source. The produced biosurfactant (BS (73% exhibited foaming activity, thermal stability in the range 30–80 °C for 30 min., pH stability, from 4 to 9 and antimicrobial activity against (Escherichia coli. The BS gave a good potential application as an emulsifier.

  15. Integration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imagery and Derived Products into Severe Weather Disaster Response

    Schultz, L. A.; Molthan, A.; Nicoll, J. B.; Bell, J. R.; Gens, R.; Meyer, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    Disaster response efforts leveraging imagery from NASA, USGS, NOAA, and the European Space Agency (ESA) have continued to expand as satellite imagery and derived products offer an enhanced overview of the affected areas, especially in remote areas where terrain and the scale of the damage can inhibit response efforts. NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been supporting the NASA Earth Science Disaster Response Program by providing both optical and SAR imagery products to the NWS and FEMA to assist during domestic response efforts. Although optical imagery has dominated, the availability of ESA's Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the Sentinel 1-A/B satellites offers a unique perspective to the damage response community as SAR imagery can be collected regardless of the time of day or the presence of clouds, two major hindrances to the use of satellite optical imagery. Through a partnership with the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) and the collocated Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF), NASA's SAR Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), SPoRT has been investigating the use of SAR imagery products to support storm damage surveys conducted by the National Weather Service after any severe weather event. Additionally, products are also being developed and tested for FEMA and the National Guard Bureau. This presentation will describe how SAR data from the Sentinel 1A/B satellites are processed and developed into products. Examples from multiple tornado and hail events will be presented highlighting both the strengths and weaknesses of SAR imagery and how it integrates and compliments more traditional optical imagery collected post-event. Specific case study information from a large hail event in South Dakota and a long track tornado near Clear Lake, Wisconsin will be discussed as well as an overview of the work being done to support FEMA and the National Guard.

  16. Assessing consumer responses to potential reduced-exposure tobacco products: a review of tobacco industry and independent research methods.

    Rees, Vaughan W; Kreslake, Jennifer M; Cummings, K Michael; O'Connor, Richard J; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Parascandola, Mark; Shields, Peter G; Connolly, Gregory N

    2009-12-01

    Internal tobacco industry documents and the mainstream literature are reviewed to identify methods and measures for evaluating tobacco consumer response. The review aims to outline areas in which established methods exist, identify gaps in current methods for assessing consumer response, and consider how these methods might be applied to evaluate potentially reduced exposure tobacco products and new products. Internal industry research reviewed included published articles, manuscript drafts, presentations, protocols, and instruments relating to consumer response measures were identified and analyzed. Peer-reviewed research was identified using PubMed and Scopus. Industry research on consumer response focuses on product development and marketing. To develop and refine new products, the tobacco industry has developed notable strategies for assessing consumers' sensory and subjective responses to product design characteristics. Independent research is often conducted to gauge the likelihood of future product adoption by measuring consumers' risk perceptions, responses to product, and product acceptability. A model that conceptualizes consumer response as comprising the separate, but interacting, domains of product perceptions and response to product is outlined. Industry and independent research supports the dual domain model and provides a wide range of methods for assessment of the construct components of consumer response. Further research is needed to validate consumer response constructs, determine the relationship between consumer response and tobacco user behavior, and improve reliability of consumer response measures. Scientifically rigorous consumer response assessment methods will provide a needed empirical basis for future regulation of potentially reduced-exposure tobacco products and new products, to counteract tobacco industry influence on consumers, and enhance the public health.

  17. Response surface optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of narrow-leaf cattail for bioethanol production

    Ruangmee, Arrisa; Sangwichien, Chayanoot

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The cellulose of pretreated sample was higher than untreated sample. • Lower hemicellulose and lignin were enhanced of hydrolyzed cellulose to sugar. • The predicted result of enzymatic hydrolysis process was fitted by quadratic model. • Predicted data was good agreement with the experimental data; with 95% confidence. - Abstract: Narrow-leaf cattail was employed as lignocellulosic biomass substrate for the investigation of the hydrolysis process of lignocellulosic ethanol. Cellulose saccharification into a high yield of fermentable sugar is an important step in ethanol production. Response surface methodology was utilized in the study of variables affecting enzymatic hydrolysis on the released glucose and xylose. Five levels (−2, −1, 0, +1, +2) of independent variable factors; cellulase (5–25 FPU/g substrate), β-glucosidase (0–20 U/g substrate), hydrolysis temperature (30–50 °C), and hydrolysis time (24–96 h), were randomly setup by using the Design of Experiment program. The significance of the regression model was high; with 95% confidence interval (less than 5% error). The predicted result after optimization was also in good agreement with the experimental data. An optimal condition; 13.50 FPU/g substrate, 16.50 U/g substrate, 50 °C and 24 h, was obtained, yielding a released glucose of 552.9 mg/g substrate (75.6% saccharification) and a released xylose of 74.0 mg/g substrate (45.6% saccharification)

  18. Progress on Optimizing Miscanthus Biomass Production for the European Bioeconomy: Results of the EU FP7 Project OPTIMISC

    Lewandowski, Iris; Clifton-Brown, John; Trindade, Luisa M.; van der Linden, Gerard C.; Schwarz, Kai-Uwe; Müller-Sämann, Karl; Anisimov, Alexander; Chen, C.-L.; Dolstra, Oene; Donnison, Iain S.; Farrar, Kerrie; Fonteyne, Simon; Harding, Graham; Hastings, Astley; Huxley, Laurie M.; Iqbal, Yasir; Khokhlov, Nikolay; Kiesel, Andreas; Lootens, Peter; Meyer, Heike; Mos, Michal; Muylle, Hilde; Nunn, Chris; Özgüven, Mensure; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Schüle, Heinrich; Tarakanov, Ivan; van der Weijde, Tim; Wagner, Moritz; Xi, Qingguo; Kalinina, Olena

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the complete findings of the EU-funded research project OPTIMISC, which investigated methods to optimize the production and use of miscanthus biomass. Miscanthus bioenergy and bioproduct chains were investigated by trialing 15 diverse germplasm types in a range of climatic and soil environments across central Europe, Ukraine, Russia, and China. The abiotic stress tolerances of a wider panel of 100 germplasm types to drought, salinity, and low temperatures were measured in the laboratory and a field trial in Belgium. A small selection of germplasm types was evaluated for performance in grasslands on marginal sites in Germany and the UK. The growth traits underlying biomass yield and quality were measured to improve regional estimates of feedstock availability. Several potential high-value bioproducts were identified. The combined results provide recommendations to policymakers, growers and industry. The major technical advances in miscanthus production achieved by OPTIMISC include: (1) demonstration that novel hybrids can out-yield the standard commercially grown genotype Miscanthus x giganteus; (2) characterization of the interactions of physiological growth responses with environmental variation within and between sites; (3) quantification of biomass-quality-relevant traits; (4) abiotic stress tolerances of miscanthus genotypes; (5) selections suitable for production on marginal land; (6) field establishment methods for seeds using plugs; (7) evaluation of harvesting methods; and (8) quantification of energy used in densification (pellet) technologies with a range of hybrids with differences in stem wall properties. End-user needs were addressed by demonstrating the potential of optimizing miscanthus biomass composition for the production of ethanol and biogas as well as for combustion. The costs and life-cycle assessment of seven miscanthus-based value chains, including small- and large-scale heat and power, ethanol, biogas, and insulation

  19. Progress on optimizing miscanthus biomass production for the European bioeconomy: Results of the EU FP7 project OPTIMISC

    Iris Lewandowski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the complete findings of the EU-funded research project OPTIMISC, which investigated methods to optimize the production and use of miscanthus biomass. Miscanthus bioenergy and bioproduct chains were investigated by trialing fifteen diverse germplasm types in a range of climatic and soil environments across central Europe, Ukraine, Russia and China. The abiotic stress tolerances of a wider panel of 100 germplasm types to drought, salinity and low temperatures were measured in the laboratory and a field trial in Belgium. A small selection of germplasm types was evaluated for performance in grasslands on marginal sites in Germany and the UK. The growth traits underlying biomass yield and quality were measured to improve regional estimates of feedstock availability. Several potential high-value bioproducts were identified. The combined results provide recommendations to policymakers, growers and industry. The major technical advances in miscanthus production achieved by OPTIMISC include: 1 demonstration that novel hybrids can out-yield the standard commercially grown genotype Miscanthus x giganteus; 2 characterisation of the interactions of physiological growth responses with environmental variation within and between sites; 3 quantification of biomass-quality-relevant traits; 4 abiotic stress tolerances of miscanthus genotypes; 5 selections suitable for production on marginal land; 6 field establishment methods for seeds using plugs; 7 evaluation of harvesting methods; and 8 quantification of energy used in densification (pellet technologies with a range of hybrids with differences in stem wall properties. End-user needs were addressed by demonstrating the potential of optimizing miscanthus biomass composition for the production of ethanol and biogas as well as for combustion. The costs and life-cycle assessment of seven miscanthus-based value chains, including small- and large-scale heat and power, ethanol, biogas and

  20. Progress on Optimizing Miscanthus Biomass Production for the European Bioeconomy: Results of the EU FP7 Project OPTIMISC.

    Lewandowski, Iris; Clifton-Brown, John; Trindade, Luisa M; van der Linden, Gerard C; Schwarz, Kai-Uwe; Müller-Sämann, Karl; Anisimov, Alexander; Chen, C-L; Dolstra, Oene; Donnison, Iain S; Farrar, Kerrie; Fonteyne, Simon; Harding, Graham; Hastings, Astley; Huxley, Laurie M; Iqbal, Yasir; Khokhlov, Nikolay; Kiesel, Andreas; Lootens, Peter; Meyer, Heike; Mos, Michal; Muylle, Hilde; Nunn, Chris; Özgüven, Mensure; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Schüle, Heinrich; Tarakanov, Ivan; van der Weijde, Tim; Wagner, Moritz; Xi, Qingguo; Kalinina, Olena

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the complete findings of the EU-funded research project OPTIMISC, which investigated methods to optimize the production and use of miscanthus biomass. Miscanthus bioenergy and bioproduct chains were investigated by trialing 15 diverse germplasm types in a range of climatic and soil environments across central Europe, Ukraine, Russia, and China. The abiotic stress tolerances of a wider panel of 100 germplasm types to drought, salinity, and low temperatures were measured in the laboratory and a field trial in Belgium. A small selection of germplasm types was evaluated for performance in grasslands on marginal sites in Germany and the UK. The growth traits underlying biomass yield and quality were measured to improve regional estimates of feedstock availability. Several potential high-value bioproducts were identified. The combined results provide recommendations to policymakers, growers and industry. The major technical advances in miscanthus production achieved by OPTIMISC include: (1) demonstration that novel hybrids can out-yield the standard commercially grown genotype Miscanthus x giganteus; (2) characterization of the interactions of physiological growth responses with environmental variation within and between sites; (3) quantification of biomass-quality-relevant traits; (4) abiotic stress tolerances of miscanthus genotypes; (5) selections suitable for production on marginal land; (6) field establishment methods for seeds using plugs; (7) evaluation of harvesting methods; and (8) quantification of energy used in densification (pellet) technologies with a range of hybrids with differences in stem wall properties. End-user needs were addressed by demonstrating the potential of optimizing miscanthus biomass composition for the production of ethanol and biogas as well as for combustion. The costs and life-cycle assessment of seven miscanthus-based value chains, including small- and large-scale heat and power, ethanol, biogas, and insulation

  1. Influences of Product Temperature on Emotional Responses to, and Sensory Attributes of, Coffee and Green Tea Beverages

    Pramudya, Ragita C.; Seo, Han-Seok

    2018-01-01

    Coffee and green tea are popular beverages consumed at both hot and cold temperatures. When people consume hot beverages concurrently with other activities, they may experience at different temperatures over the period of consumption. However, there has been limited research investigating the effects of product temperatures on emotional responses and sensory attributes of beverages. This study aimed to determine whether emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, brewed coffee and green tea vary as a function of sample temperature. Using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) method, 157 participants (79 for coffee and 78 for green tea) were asked to evaluate either coffee or green tea samples served at cold (5°C), ambient (25°C), and hot (65°C) temperatures with respect to emotional responses and sensory attributes. The results showed that sample temperature could have significant influences on emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea samples. More specifically, 6 and 18 sensory attributes of coffee and green tea samples, respectively, significantly differed with sample temperature. Beverage samples evaluated at 65°C were characterized, regardless of activation/arousal level, by positive emotional responses terms and favorable sensory attributes. While beverages evaluated at 25°C were associated more with negative emotional responses with low activation/arousal, those evaluated at 5°C were more frequently characterized as having negative emotional responses with high activation/arousal. Sensory and emotional drivers of liking for both coffee and green tea differed both with sample temperature and gender. While both emotional responses and sensory attributes were identified as drivers of liking among females, only emotional responses were identified as drivers of liking among males. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that both emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea beverages can

  2. 75 FR 64254 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Products From Brazil; Final Results of...

    2010-10-19

    ...-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Products From Brazil; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... for the Final Results, 75 FR 19369 (April 14, 2010) (Preliminary Results). This review covers sales of... Products from Brazil,'' dated June 22, 2010 (USIMINAS Sales Verification Report). Following the release of...

  3. An unexpected response of torulopsis glabrata fusion products to x-irradiation

    Galeotti, C.L.; Sriprakash, K.S.; Batum, C.M.; Clark-Walker, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    Intra-species fusion products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces unisporus and Torulopsis glabrata have been isolated following polyethylene glycol-induced fusion of protoplasts and selection for prototrophic colonies. Staining with lomofungin showed that all fusion products were uninucleate. Measurement of DNA content mostly gave values between haploid and diploid levels indicating that the majority of fusion products were aneuploid. Nevertheless fusion products of S. cerevisiae and S. unisporus were, as expected, more resistant to X-irradiation than their haploid parents. By contrast, the X-ray doze-response curve of all T. glabrata fusion products was indistinguishable from their progenitors despite the fact that mitotic segregants could be recovered amongst the survivors to X-rays. A possible explanation for the behaviour towards X-rays of T. glabrata fusion products is that this species lacks a DNA repair pathway involving recombination between homologous chromosomes. We conclude from this study that the shape of the X-ray dose-response curve should not be taken to indicate the ploidy of new yeast isolates without supporting data. (orig.)

  4. Modeling of Throughput in Production Lines Using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Networks

    Federico Nuñez-Piña

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of assigning buffers in a production line to obtain an optimum production rate is a combinatorial problem of type NP-Hard and it is known as Buffer Allocation Problem. It is of great importance for designers of production systems due to the costs involved in terms of space requirements. In this work, the relationship among the number of buffer slots, the number of work stations, and the production rate is studied. Response surface methodology and artificial neural network were used to develop predictive models to find optimal throughput values. 360 production rate values for different number of buffer slots and workstations were used to obtain a fourth-order mathematical model and four hidden layers’ artificial neural network. Both models have a good performance in predicting the throughput, although the artificial neural network model shows a better fit (R=1.0000 against the response surface methodology (R=0.9996. Moreover, the artificial neural network produces better predictions for data not utilized in the models construction. Finally, this study can be used as a guide to forecast the maximum or near maximum throughput of production lines taking into account the buffer size and the number of machines in the line.

  5. Using climate response functions in analyzing electricity production variables. A case study from Norway.

    Tøfte, Lena S.; Martino, Sara; Mo, Birger

    2016-04-01

    This study analyses whether and to which extent today's hydropower system and reservoirs in Mid-Norway are able to balance new intermittent energy sources in the region, in both today's and tomorrow's climate. We also investigate if the electricity marked model EMPS gives us reasonable results also when run in a multi simulation mode without recalibration. Climate related energy (CRE) is influenced by the weather, the system for energy production and transport, and by market mechanisms. In the region of Mid-Norway, nearly all power demand is generated by hydro-electric facilities. Due to energy deficiency and limitations in the power grid the region experiences a deficit of electricity. The region is likely to experience considerable investments in wind power and small-scale hydropower and the transmission grid within and out of the region will probably be extended, so this situation might change. In addition climate change scenarios for the region agree on higher temperatures, more precipitation in total and a larger portion of the precipitation coming as rain instead of snow, as well as we expect slightly higher wind speed and more storms during the winter. Changing temperatures will also change the electricity demand. EMPS is a tool for forecasting and planning in electricity markets, developed for optimization and simulation of hydrothermal power systems with a considerable share of hydro power. It takes into account transport constraints and hydrological differences between major areas or regional subsystems. During optimization the objective is to minimize the expected cost in the whole system subject to all constraints. Incremental water values (marginal costs for hydropower) are computed for each area using stochastic dynamic programming. A heuristic approach is used to treat the interaction between areas. In the simulation part of the model total system costs are minimized week by week for each climate scenario in a linear problem formulation. A detailed

  6. Dairy products consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

    Dengfeng Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The consumption of dairy products may influence the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, but inconsistent findings have been reported. Moreover, large variation in the types of dairy intake has not yet been fully explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the dose-response association of dairy products intake and T2DM risk. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus for studies of dairy products intake and T2DM risk published up to the end of October 2012. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risk (RR statistics. Dose-response relations were evaluated using data from different dairy products in each study. We included 14 articles of cohort studies that reported RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs of T2DM with dairy products intake. We found an inverse linear association of consumption of total dairy products (13 studies, low-fat dairy products (8 studies, cheese (7 studies and yogurt (7 studies and risk of T2DM. The pooled RRs were 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.97 and 0.88 (0.84-0.93 for 200 g/day total and low-fat dairy consumption, respectively. The pooled RRs were 0.80 (0.69-0.93 and 0.91 (0.82-1.00 for 30 g/d cheese and 50 g/d yogurt consumption, respectively. We also found a nonlinear association of total and low-fat dairy intake and T2DM risk, and the inverse association appeared to be strongest within 200 g/d intake. CONCLUSION: A modest increase in daily intake of dairy products such as low fat dairy, cheese and yogurt may contribute to the prevention of T2DM, which needs confirmation in randomized controlled trials.

  7. Optimization of lactic acid production by pellet-form Rhizopus oryzae in 3-L airlift bioreactor using response surface methodology.

    Maneeboon, Thanapoom; Vanichsriratana, Wirat; Pomchaitaward, Chaiyaporn; Kitpreechavanich, Vichien

    2010-05-01

    The influence of two key environmental factors, pH and oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a), was evaluated on the lactic acid production as the main answer and, on the size of cell pellets of the fungal strain Rhizopus oryzae KPS106, as second dependant answer by response surface methodology using a central composite design. The results of the analysis of variance and modeling demonstrated that pH and k(L)a had a significant effect on lactic acid production by this strain. However, no interaction was observed between these two experimental factors. pH and k(L)a had no significant influence on the pellet size. Optimal pH and k(L)a of the fermentation medium for lactic acid production from response surface analysis was 5.85 and of 3.6 h(-1), respectively. The predicted and experimental lactic acid maximal values were 75.4 and 72.0 g/l, respectively, with pellets of an average of 2.54 +/- 0.41 mm. Five repeated batches in series were conducted with a mean lactic acid production of 77.54 g/l. The productivity was increased from 0.75 in the first batch to 0.99 g/l h in the last fifth batch.

  8. Different stress modalities result in distinct steroid hormone responses by male rats

    M.L. Andersen

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Since both paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD and stress alter male reproductive function, the purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of PSD and other stressors (restraint, electrical footshock, cold and forced swimming, N = 10 per group on steroid hormones in adult Wistar male rats. Rats were submitted to chronic stress for four days. The stressors (footshock, cold and forced swimming were applied twice a day, for periods of 1 h at 9:00 and 16:00 h. Restrained animals were maintained in plastic cylinders for 22 h/day whereas PSD was continuous. Hormone determination was measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (testosterone, competitive immunoassay (progesterone and by radioimmunoassay (corticosterone, estradiol, estrone. The findings indicate that PSD (13.7 ng/dl, footshock (31.7 ng/dl and cold (35.2 ng/dl led to lower testosterone levels compared to the swimming (370.4 ng/dl and control (371.4 ng/dl groups. However, progesterone levels were elevated in the footshock (4.5 ng/ml and PSD (5.4 ng/ml groups compared to control (1.6 ng/ml, swimming (1.1 ng/ml, cold (2.3 ng/ml, and restrained (1.2 ng/ml animals. Estrone and estradiol levels were reduced in the PSD, footshock and restraint groups compared to the control, swimming and cold groups. A significant increase in corticosterone levels was found only in the PSD (299.8 ng/ml and footshock (169.6 ng/ml groups. These changes may be thought to be the full steroidal response to stress of significant intensity. Thus, the data suggest that different stress modalities result in distinct steroid hormone responses, with PSD and footshock being the most similar.

  9. Results of real-time production optimization of a maturing North Sea gas asset with production constraints

    Linden, R.J.P. van der; Marck, J.W.; Boer, J.P. de

    2015-01-01

    Operating maturing assets poses increasingly complex challenges to operators. Meeting hourly or daily production targets becomes more difficult when wells are more often shut in for e.g. water washes (against salt deposition) or solvent jobs (at asphaltenes deposition). Declining reservoir pressure

  10. 76 FR 62343 - Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    2011-10-07

    ... Lined Paper Products from India: Selection of Respondents for Individual Review'' (Respondent Selection... purposes of determining appropriate product comparisons to U.S. sales. Because Riddhi did not have home market sales of subject merchandise during the POR, all products produced by Riddhi covered by the...

  11. Investigating the life-span of cork products through a longitudinal approach with users- Interim results

    Da Silva Pereira, A.C.; Brezet, J.C.; Pereira, H.; Vogtlander, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Products with long life-spans are generally preferred form an environmental perspective. This paper addresses the longevity of cork products, and the respective influencing aspects. This is accomplished through a longitudinal study where several cork products are used, and at different moments in

  12. 77 FR 61742 - Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    2012-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-533-844] Certain Lined Paper Products... order on certain lined paper products from India. The period of review (POR) is January 1, 2010, through... (202) 482-1009. Scope of the Order The merchandise subject to the order is certain lined paper products...

  13. Response to palatability after area postrema lesions: a result of learned aversions.

    Tomoyasu, N; Kenney, N J

    1989-11-01

    The role of palatability, novelty, and food aversion in determining changes of food choice after ablation of the area postrema and caudal-medial aspect of the nucleus of the solitary tract (AP/cmNTS) is examined through a series of studies utilizing 24-h, two-food choice tests. On test days, the food that the animal has ingested since the time of lesioning or sham surgery is presented along with a novel food that varies in palatability. The results indicate that postlesion diet history is the major determinant of food choice by lesioned rats. Lesioned rats consistently take less of their familiar postlesion food than diet-matched controls, suggesting that the lesioned rats have developed an aversion to that food. Over-ingestion of the novel food may occur, but this outcome is not reliable. No indication that the animals' response to food palatability is affected by AP/cmNTS ablation was found. Learned aversion to a food ingested after AP/cmNTS ablation may account not only for changes of food preference after the lesion but also may be involved in the hypophagia and weight loss resulting from the ablation.

  14. Different Mechanisms of Soil Microbial Response to Global Change Result in Different Outcomes in the MIMICS-CN Model

    Kyker-Snowman, E.; Wieder, W. R.; Grandy, S.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial-explicit models of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling have improved upon simulations of C and N stocks and flows at site-to-global scales relative to traditional first-order linear models. However, the response of microbial-explicit soil models to global change factors depends upon which parameters and processes in a model are altered by those factors. We used the MIcrobial-MIneral Carbon Stabilization Model with coupled N cycling (MIMICS-CN) to compare modeled responses to changes in temperature and plant inputs at two previously-modeled sites (Harvard Forest and Kellogg Biological Station). We spun the model up to equilibrium, applied each perturbation, and evaluated 15 years of post-perturbation C and N pools and fluxes. To model the effect of increasing temperatures, we independently examined the impact of decreasing microbial C use efficiency (CUE), increasing the rate of microbial turnover, and increasing Michaelis-Menten kinetic rates of litter decomposition, plus several combinations of the three. For plant inputs, we ran simulations with stepwise increases in metabolic litter, structural litter, whole litter (structural and metabolic), or labile soil C. The cumulative change in soil C or N varied in both sign and magnitude across simulations. For example, increasing kinetic rates of litter decomposition resulted in net releases of both C and N from soil pools, while decreasing CUE produced short-term increases in respiration but long-term accumulation of C in litter pools and shifts in soil C:N as microbial demand for C increased and biomass declined. Given that soil N cycling constrains the response of plant productivity to global change and that soils generate a large amount of uncertainty in current earth system models, microbial-explicit models are a critical opportunity to advance the modeled representation of soils. However, microbial-explicit models must be improved by experiments to isolate the physiological and stoichiometric

  15. Secondary Aroma Compounds in Fresh Grape Marc Distillates as a Result of Variety and Corresponding Production Technology

    Borislav Miličević; Mara Banović; Srećko Tomas; Sanja Radeka; Đordano Peršurić; Igor Lukić

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the composition of secondary aroma compounds of fresh grape marc distillates as a result of variety and production technology, 30 samples (6 varieties×5 samples) were analysed. White grape marc samples from Malvazija istarska, Chardonnay and Muscat Blanc were obtained as by-products in standard white wine production, while red grape marc samples from Teran and Cabernet Sauvignon were obtained after standard red wine production procedures. Marc from red grape variety Mu...

  16. Qualification and characterization programmes for disposal of a glass product resulting from high level waste vitrification in the PAMELA installation of BELGOPROCESS

    Goeyse, A. de; De, A.K.; Demonie, M.; Iseghem, P. van

    1993-01-01

    In the framework of a general quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) programme, the quality of a conditioned waste product is achieved in two phases. The first phase is the design of a process and facility which will ensure the required quality of the product. In the second phase the conformance of the product with the preset requirements is verified. NIRAS/ONDRAF, as the agency responsible for the management of all radioactive waste in Belgium (including treatment, conditioning, storage and disposal), controls compliance with the quality requirements during both phases. The purpose of the paper is to describe the different phases of this general procedure in the case of a vitrified HLW product resulting from a vitrification campaign in the PAMELA facility at the BELGOPROCESS site. The active glass product of type SM527 produced during the vitrification of highly enriched waste concentrate (HEWC) (resulting from the reprocessing of highly enriched uranium fuel) has been selected for illustration. During the process qualification phase, the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Wiederaufarbeitung von Kernbrennstoffen mbH, responsible for the development of the vitrification process of PAMELA, defined and performed and R and D programmed for each glass product originating from the vitrification of the different HEWC solutions stored at the BELGOPROCESS site. At the end of this qualification phase a data catalogue was prepared. In order to ensure that the active glass product corresponds with the selected product from the data catalogue, the QA/QC handbook for the vitrification process describes all measures to be taken by the waste producer, BELGOPROCESS, during the vitrification. Finally, verification analyses are performed by the characterization of inactive and active samples by an independent laboratory. This phase is called the product quality verification phase. The details of the characterization programmes performed during the different phases and their results

  17. The ASCAT soil moisture product. A Review of its specifications, validation results, and emerging applications

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Hahn, Sebastian; Kidd, Richard [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Dept. of Geodesy and Geoinformation] [and others

    2013-02-15

    provide a comprehensive overview of the major characteristics and caveats of the ASCAT soil moisture product, this paper describes the ASCAT instrument and the soil moisture processor and near-real-time distribution service implemented by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT). A review of the most recent validation studies shows that the quality of ASCAT soil moisture product is - with the exception of arid environments -comparable to, and over some regions (e.g. Europe) even better than currently available soil moisture data derived from passive microwave sensors. Further, a review of applications studies shows that the use of the ASCAT soil moisture product is particularly advanced in the fields of numerical weather prediction and hydrologic modelling. But also in other application areas such as yield monitoring, epidemiologic modelling, or societal risks assessment some first progress can be noted. Considering the generally positive evaluation results, it is expected that the ASCAT soil moisture product will increasingly be used by a growing number of rather diverse land applications. (orig.)

  18. The ASCAT Soil Moisture Product: A Review of its Specifications, Validation Results, and Emerging Applications

    Wolfgang Wagner

    2013-02-01

    applications. To provide a comprehensive overview of the major characteristics and caveats of the ASCAT soil moisture product, this paper describes the ASCAT instrument and the soil moisture processor and near-real-time distribution service implemented by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT. A review of the most recent validation studies shows that the quality of ASCAT soil moisture product is - with the exception of arid environments -comparable to, and over some regions (e.g. Europe even better than currently available soil moisture data derived from passive microwave sensors. Further, a review of applications studies shows that the use of the ASCAT soil moisture product is particularly advanced in the fields of numerical weather prediction and hydrologic modelling. But also in other application areas such as yield monitoring, epidemiologic modelling, or societal risks assessment some first progress can be noted. Considering the generally positive evaluation results, it is expected that the ASCAT soil moisture product will increasingly be used by a growing number of rather diverse land applications.

  19. Does training-induced orthostatic hypotension result from reduced carotid baroreflex responsiveness?

    Pawelczyk, James A.; Raven, Peter B.

    1994-01-01

    As manned space travel has steadily increased in duration and sophistication, the answer to a simple, relevant question remains elusive. Does endurance exercise training - high intensity rhythmic activity, performed regularly for extended periods of time - alter the disposition to, or severity of, postflight orthostatic hypotension? Research results continue to provide different views; however, data are difficult to compare because of the following factors that vary between investigations: the type of orthostatic stress imposed (+Gz, lower body negative pressure (LBNP), head-up tilt); pretest perturbations used (exercise, heat exposure, head-down tilting, bed rest, water immersion, hypohydration, pharmacologically-induced diuresis); the length of the training program used in longitudinal investigations (days versus weeks versus months); the criteria used to define fitness; and the criteria used to define orthostatic tolerance. Generally, research results indicate that individuals engaged in aerobic exercise activities for a period of years have been reported to have reduced orthostatic tolerance compared to untrained control subjects, while the results of shorter term longitudinal studies remain equivocal. Such conclusions suggest that chronic athletic training programs reduce orthostatic tolerance, whereas relatively brief (days to weeks) training programs do not affect orthostatic tolerance to any significant degree (increase or decrease). A primary objective was established to identify the alterations in blood pressure control that contribute to training-induced orthostatic hypotension (TIOH). Although any aspect of blood pressure regulation is suspect, current research has been focused on the baroreceptor system. Reductions in carotid baroreflex responsiveness have been documented in exercise-trained rabbits, reportedly due to an inhibitory influence from cardiac afferent, presumably vagal, nerve fibers that is abolished with intrapericardiac denervation. The

  20. Enhanced Production of Cellulase from Pineapple Waste by Response Surface Methodology

    P. Saravanan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the media components for cellulase production using Trichoderma reesei was carried out. The optimization of cellulase production using pineapple waste as substrate was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nutrients and their influence on the cellulase production was studied using a Plackett-Burman design. Avicel, soybean cake flour, KH2PO4, and yeast extract were found to have the positive influence for the production of cellulase. The selected components were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimum concentrations are avicel: 26.5 g/L, soybean cake flour: 22.5 g/L, KH2PO4: 4.5 g/L, and yeast extract: 12.3 g/L. A maximum cellulase activity of 8.61 IU/mL was obtained under the optimized medium in the validation experiment.

  1. The impact of phosphate scarcity on pharmaceutical protein production in S. cerevisiae: linking transcriptomic insights to phenotypic responses

    Kazemi Seresht Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adaptation of unicellular organisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae to alternating nutrient availability is of great fundamental and applied interest, as understanding how eukaryotic cells respond to variations in their nutrient supply has implications spanning from physiological insights to biotechnological applications. Results The impact of a step-wise restricted supply of phosphate on the physiological state of S. cerevisiae cells producing human Insulin was studied. The focus was to determine the changes within the global gene expression of cells being cultured to an industrially relevant high cell density of 33 g/l cell dry weight and under six distinct phosphate concentrations, ranging from 33 mM (unlimited to 2.6 mM (limited. An increased flux through the secretory pathway, being induced by the PHO circuit during low Pi supplementation, proved to enhance the secretory production of the heterologous protein. The re-distribution of the carbon flux from biomass formation towards increased glycerol production under low phosphate led to increased transcript levels of the insulin gene, which was under the regulation of the TPI1 promoter. Conclusions Our study underlines the dynamic character of adaptive responses of cells towards a change in their nutrient access. The gradual decrease of the phosphate supply resulted in a step-wise modulated phenotypic response, thereby alternating the specific productivity and the secretory flux. Our work emphasizes the importance of reduced phosphate supply for improved secretory production of heterologous proteins.

  2. Indirect effects of human-induced environmental change on offspring production mediated by behavioural responses.

    Candolin, Ulrika; Nieminen, Anne; Nyman, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes often cause behavioural alterations in animals. The consequences that these alterations in turn have for the viability of populations are, however, poorly known. We used a population of threespine sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus in the Baltic Sea to investigate the consequences of behavioural responses to human-induced eutrophication for offspring production. The investigated population has been growing during the last decades, and one cause could be increased offspring production. We combined field-based surveys with laboratory-based experiments, and found that an enhanced growth of macroalgae relaxed agonistic interactions among males. This allowed more males to nest, improved hatching success, and increased the number of reproductive cycles that males completed. Thus, the behavioural responses were adaptive at the individual level and increased offspring production. However, a larger proportion of small males of low competitive ability reproduced in dense vegetation. As male size and dominance are heritable, this could influence the genetic composition of the offspring. Together with a higher number of offspring produced, this could influence natural selection and the rate of adaptation to the changing environment. Thus, behavioural responses to a rapid human-induced environmental change can influence offspring production, with potential consequences for population dynamics and evolutionary processes.

  3. Influence Determination of Social Responsibility to the Productivity Enterprise Activity Level

    Sergii Kavun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a scientific and methodical approach for determination of the comprehensive social responsibility indicator in this paper based on estimation of influence degree for the economical, ecological, social and labour, standard and legal components. There is allowance for determining of some level of enterprise social responsibility. In addition, there is a basis for development some ways of their increasing. The essence of the used approach is clotting of the individual indicators set to four intermediate indicators of the economic, ecological, social and labor, standard and legal components, which can be boiled down to the generalizing activity productivity indicator based on the matrix and range approach. An economical and mathematical model of the social responsibility influence level to the enterprise activity productivity level, which is based on enterprise propose harmonization with the participants’ interests, was being built. The paper proposes the mathematical model, which allows detecting a necessary time period for enterprise activity productivity ensuring due to social responsibility implementation.

  4. New product, familiar taste: Effects of slogans on cognitive and affective responses to an unknown food product among food neophobics and neophilics

    Fenko, Anna; Leufkens, Jean-Marie; van Hoof, Joris Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Food neophobia is considered a potential barrier for the introduction of new food products. This study investigated how advertising slogans could influence cognitive and affective responses to a new product in food neophobics and food neophilics. An unknown dairy product was used to examine the

  5. Results of the experiment on chemical identification of Db as a decay product of element 115

    Dmitriev, S.N.; Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Utenkov, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time the chemical identification of Db as the terminal isotope of the decay element 115 produced via the 243 Am( 48 Ca, 3n) 288 115 reaction was realized. The experiment was performed on the U400 cyclotron of FLNR, JINR. The 243 Am target was bombarded with a beam dose of 3.4 · 10 18 48 Ca projectiles at an energy of 247 MeV in the center of the target. The reaction products were collected in the surface of a copper catcher block, which was removed with a lathe and then dissolved in concentrated HNO 3 . The group 5 elements were separated by sorption onto Dowex 50X8 cation-exchange resin with subsequent desorption using 1 M HF, which forms anionic fluoride complexes of group 5 elements. The eluant was evaporated onto 0.4 μm thick polyethylene foils which were placed between a pair of semiconductor detectors surrounded by 3 He neutron counters for measurement of α particles, fission fragments and neutrons. Over the course of the experiment, we observed 15 spontaneous fission events with T 1/2 = 32 -7 +11 h which we attribute to 268 Db. The production cross section for the 243 Am + 48 Ca reaction was 4.2 -1.2 + 1 .6 pb. These results agree with the original element 115 synthesis experiment where 268 Db was first observed as the terminal isotope following the five consecutive α decays from the 288 115 parent nucleus at the Dubna gas-filled separator. The data from the present experiment give independent evidence for the synthesis of element 115 as well as element 113 via the 243 Am + 48 Ca reaction

  6. The effects of climatic change on crop production. Results of a five-year research project

    Mela, T.; Carter, T.; Hakala, K.; Kaukoranta, T.; Laurila, H.; Niemi, K.; Saarikko, R.; Tiilikkala, K. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, Jokioinen (Finland); Hannukkala, A. [Agricultural Research Centre, Rovaniemi (Finland). Lapland Research Station

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this research project, funded jointly by SILMU and by the Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, was to evaluate the possible effects of changes in climate and carbon dioxide concentration on the growth, development and yield of field crops and on crop pests and diseases in Finland. The study focused on two cereal crops (spring wheat and spring barley), a grass species (meadow fescue), some common pathogens of cereals and potato, insect pests of small fruits and nematode risk of potato and sugar beet. The results of this study indicate the following effects on crop production of the `best guess` climate change anticipated for Finland by 2050: A lengthening of the potential growing season of 3-5 weeks. A northward expansion of about 250-500 km in suitability for cereal production. Increased yields of adapted spring cereals. New, longer-season cultivars would benefit from both higher temperatures and elevated CO{sub 2}. Improved potential for the cultivation of higher-yielding winter sown cereals. Increased grass yields due to a lengthening growing season and increased growth rates, assuming that water and nutrient limitations are minor. However, there is a possibility of reduced winter hardening under higher autumn temperatures and an increased risk of winter damage. Potential for the successful cultivation of new crops like maize in southern Finland. Increased potential for yield losses due to crop pests and diseases under climatic warming. The range of many species is expected to expand northwards, additional generations of some species would develop successfully, and new species may become established in Finland. The research is continuing as part of a new European Community project, and will explore a wider range of crop types, focusing on the effects of climate change on agricultural risk at national scale

  7. The effects of climatic change on crop production. Results of a five-year research project

    Mela, T; Carter, T; Hakala, K; Kaukoranta, T; Laurila, H; Niemi, K; Saarikko, R; Tiilikkala, K [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, Jokioinen (Finland); Hannukkala, A [Agricultural Research Centre, Rovaniemi (Finland). Lapland Research Station

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this research project, funded jointly by SILMU and by the Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, was to evaluate the possible effects of changes in climate and carbon dioxide concentration on the growth, development and yield of field crops and on crop pests and diseases in Finland. The study focused on two cereal crops (spring wheat and spring barley), a grass species (meadow fescue), some common pathogens of cereals and potato, insect pests of small fruits and nematode risk of potato and sugar beet. The results of this study indicate the following effects on crop production of the `best guess` climate change anticipated for Finland by 2050: A lengthening of the potential growing season of 3-5 weeks. A northward expansion of about 250-500 km in suitability for cereal production. Increased yields of adapted spring cereals. New, longer-season cultivars would benefit from both higher temperatures and elevated CO{sub 2}. Improved potential for the cultivation of higher-yielding winter sown cereals. Increased grass yields due to a lengthening growing season and increased growth rates, assuming that water and nutrient limitations are minor. However, there is a possibility of reduced winter hardening under higher autumn temperatures and an increased risk of winter damage. Potential for the successful cultivation of new crops like maize in southern Finland. Increased potential for yield losses due to crop pests and diseases under climatic warming. The range of many species is expected to expand northwards, additional generations of some species would develop successfully, and new species may become established in Finland. The research is continuing as part of a new European Community project, and will explore a wider range of crop types, focusing on the effects of climate change on agricultural risk at national scale

  8. 2015 California Demand Response Potential Study - Charting California’s Demand Response Future. Interim Report on Phase 1 Results

    Alstone, Peter; Potter, Jennifer; Piette, Mary Ann; Schwartz, Peter; Berger, Michael A.; Dunn, Laurel N.; Smith, Sarah J.; Sohn, Michael D.; Aghajanzadeh, Arian; Stensson, Sofia; Szinai, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Demand response (DR) is an important resource for keeping the electricity grid stable and efficient; deferring upgrades to generation, transmission, and distribution systems; and providing other customer economic benefits. This study estimates the potential size and cost of the available DR resource for California’s three investor-owned utilities (IOUs), as the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) evaluates how to enhance the role of DR in meeting California’s resource planning needs and operational requirements. As the state forges a clean energy future, the contributions of wind and solar electricity from centralized and distributed generation will fundamentally change the power grid’s operational dynamics. This transition requires careful planning to ensure sufficient capacity is available with the right characteristics – flexibility and fast response – to meet reliability needs. Illustrated is a snapshot of how net load (the difference between demand and intermittent renewables) is expected to shift. Increasing contributions from renewable generation introduces steeper ramps and a shift, into the evening, of the hours that drive capacity needs. These hours of peak capacity need are indicated by the black dots on the plots. Ultimately this study quantifies the ability and the cost of using DR resources to help meet the capacity need at these forecasted critical hours in the state.

  9. COMPASS results on the transverse spin asymmetry in hadron-pair production in SIDIS

    Braun Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The parton distribution function h1q (x of a transversely polarized quark q inside a transversely polarized nucleon, is chiral-odd and therefore not accessible in inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. It can however be observed in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS in combination with another chiral-odd function, for instance the dihadron interference fragmentation function (DiFF H1⊲q. The 160 GeV/c polarized muon beam of CERN’s M2 beamline allows COMPASS to investigate transverse spin effects using polarized solid-state targets. In this contribution an overview of COMPASS results for the azimuthal asymmetry in identified dihadron production is given. Pions and kaons were identified by a RICH detector. Recently, the full set of this asymmetry from the COMPASS data on the deuteron and the proton target became available. All data, including early data sets, were analyzed using the same methods and requirements. The results are compared to model predictions and HERMES data. Also a point-by-point extraction of the Transversity distribution functions h1(x for u and d quarks was carried out with this full data set. Further investigations on the correlation between the dihadron asymmetry and the Collins asymmetries of the two hadrons of the pair have revealed an interesting dependence of these three asymmetries on the difference ∆Φ of the azimuthal angles of the two hadrons.

  10. Phagocytosis of mast cell granules results in decreased macrophage superoxide production

    Bobby A. Shah

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism by which phagocytosed mast cell granules (MCGs inhibit macrophage superoxide production has not been defined. In this study, rat peritoneal macrophages were co-incubated with either isolated intact MCGs or MCG-sonicate, and their respiratory burst capacity and morphology were studied. Co-incubation of macrophages with either intact MCGs or MCG-sonicate resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of superoxide- mediated cytochrome c reduction. This inhibitory effect was evident within 5 min of incubation and with MCG-sonicate was completely reversed when macrophages were washed prior to activation with PMA. In the case of intact MCGs, the inhibitory effect was only partially reversed by washing after a prolonged co-incubation time. Electron microscopic analyses revealed that MCGs were rapidly phagocytosed by macrophages and were subsequently disintegrated within the phagolysosomes. Assay of MCGs for superoxide dismutase (SOD revealed the presence of significant activity of this enzyme. A comparison of normal macrophages and those containing phagocytosed MCGs did not reveal a significant difference in total SOD activity. It is speculated that, although there was no significant increase in total SOD activity in macrophages containing phagocytosed MCGs, the phagocytosed MCGs might cause a transient increase in SOD activity within the phagolysosomes. This transient rise in SOD results in scavenging of the newly generated superoxide. Alternatively, MCG inhibition of NADPH oxidase would explain the reported observations.

  11. COMPASS results on the transverse spin asymmetry in hadron-pair production in SIDIS

    Braun, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The parton distribution function h q 1 ( x ) of a transversely polarized quark q inside a transversely po- larized nucleon, is chiral-odd and therefore not accessible in inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. It can however be observed in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) in combination with another chiral-odd func- tion, for instance the dihadron interference fragmentation function (DiFF) H / q 1 . The 160 GeV = c polarized muon beam of CERN’s M2 beamline allows COMPASS to investigate transverse spin e ects using polarized solid- state targets. In this contribution an overview of COMPASS results for the azimuthal asymmetry in identified dihadron production is given. Pions and kaons were identified by a RICH detector. Recently, the full set of this asymmetry from the COMPASS data on the deuteron and the proton target became available. All data, includ- ing early data sets, were analyzed using the same methods and requirements. The results are compared to model predictions and HERMES data. Also ...

  12. How to correct the ambient temperature influence on the thermal response test results

    Borinaga-Treviño, Roque; Norambuena-Contreras, Jose; Castro-Fresno, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Due to global warming and to the increasing energy demand, it is necessary to improve energy efficiency on buildings. In this context, Ground-Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHP) have proved to be the most efficient heating and cooling system. The main parameters to define a ground heat exchanger are obtained via an in situ test called Thermal Response Test (TRT). However, ambient air influence on this test is remarkable due to the exposition of the testing machine, and even the ground undisturbed temperature varies with the ambient temperature oscillations. Therefore, despite the fact that the influence of ambient conditions on the TRT results is an important topic in order to define a ground heat exchanger, there is yet a limited literature on new theoretical methods to correct the ambient temperature influence on the predicted ground thermal conductivity measured via TRT. This paper presents a new methodology to analyse and mitigate the influence of the ambient conditions on the TRT results, with the main advantage that it is not necessary to know its physical origin previously. The method is focused on reducing the mean fluid temperature oscillations caused by the ambient temperature, by analysing the influence of the chosen time interval to fit the data to the infinite line source theory formulae that finally predicts the ground thermal conductivity. With these purpose, results of two different TRTs were analysed, each of them with a different equipment and ambient exposition. Results using the proposed method showed that thermal conductivity oscillations were reduced in both tests. For the first test, the uncertainty associated to the chosen time interval for the estimation was diminished by 33%, reducing significantly its predicted value and thus avoiding the future installation possible under-designing. However, because of the equipment insulation improvements and the smoother ambient temperature variations, the method obtained similar results for the predicted

  13. A new patient classification for laser resurfacing and peels: predicting responses, risks, and results.

    Fanous, Nabil

    2002-01-01

    Traditional classifications for skin treatment modalities are based on skin characteristics, the most important being skin color. Other factors are considered as well, such as oiliness, thickness, pathology, and sensitivity. While useful, these classifications are occasionally inadequate in predicting and explaining the outcome of some peels, dermabrasions, or laser resurfacing procedures. Why, for example, would a Korean patient with a light white skin inadvertently develop more hyperpigmentation than his darker skinned French counterpart? The new classification introduced here is based on the racial and genetic origins of patients. It suggests that racial genetic predisposition is the determining factor in human response to skin injury, including skin treatments. This classification takes into account both skin and features, rather than skin alone. It offers a new approach in evaluating patients scheduled for skin peels or laser resurfacing, in the hope of helping physicians to better predict reactions, select the appropriate type and intensity of the skin treatment and, ultimately, better control the outcome. Six categories (sub-races) are described: Nordics, Europeans, Mediterraneans, Indo-Pakistanis, Africans, and Asians. The reaction of each sub-race to peels, laser resurfacing, or dermabrasion is analyzed. The risks associated with each group are noted. This new classification provides physicians with a practical way to evaluate patients prior to treatment, with a view to determining each patient's suitability, postoperative reaction, the likelihood of complications, and likely result.

  14. FIRST RESULTS FROM THE RAPID-RESPONSE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS USING UKIRT

    Mommert, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Petersen, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Borth, D. [Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz (DFKI), D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Jedicke, R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Butler, N. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Reyes-Ruiz, M. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Astronomía, Ensenada, B.C. 22860, México (Mexico); Pichardo, B. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Axelrod, T. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Moskovitz, N., E-mail: michael.mommert@nau.edu [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Using the Wide Field Camera for the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT), we measure the near-infrared colors of near-Earth objects (NEOs) in order to put constraints on their taxonomic classifications. The rapid-response character of our observations allows us to observe NEOs when they are close to the Earth and bright. Here we present near-infrared color measurements of 86 NEOs, most of which were observed within a few days of their discovery, allowing us to characterize NEOs with diameters of only a few meters. Using machine-learning methods, we compare our measurements to existing asteroid spectral data and provide probabilistic taxonomic classifications for our targets. Our observations allow us to distinguish between S-complex, C/X-complex, D-type, and V-type asteroids. Our results suggest that the fraction of S-complex asteroids in the whole NEO population is lower than the fraction of ordinary chondrites in the meteorite fall statistics. Future data obtained with UKIRT will be used to investigate the significance of this discrepancy.

  15. Bronchial and nasal responsiveness in atopic asthma and allergic rhinitis patients: Relationship of local responsiveness to cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Keiji Maeda

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between local responsiveness and allergic symptoms, bronchial and nasal responsiveness were measured in the following four groups of subjects: (i bronchial asthma patients with serum house dust mite (HDM-specific IgE antibody; (ii allergic rhinitis patients with serum HDM-specific IgE antibody; (iii normal control subjects with HDM-specific IgE antibody; and (iv normal control subjects without IgE antibody specific for 10 common aero-allergens. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was detected in all subjects with asthma (group 1 and in some subjects from groups 2 and 3, but not in subjects from group 4. Nasal hyperresponsiveness was found in all subjects with allergic rhinitis (group 2 and in some subjects from groups 1 and 3, but not in subjects from group 4. These findings indicate that local hyperresponsiveness of the non-diseased organ is influenced by an individual's atopic status. Interleukin (IL-4 and IL-5 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was measured after stimulation with HDM in groups 1, 2 and 3 and was found to be similar in all three groups. A correlation between bronchial hyperresponsiveness and in vitro cytokine production was noted in asthma patients. These results suggest that the capacity of IL-4 or IL-5 production by PBMC may reflect local hyperresponsiveness in case of asthma.

  16. The Persuasive Effects of Character Presence and Product Type on Responses to Advergames

    Choi, Yung Kyun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The use of online video games as an advertising channel has become an integrated part of branding for many marketers in an increasingly fractured media environment. The primary question motivating this research is whether the use of an animated spokes-character embedded in online game affects the persuasiveness of advertising. Specifically, this study looks at how product types moderate the magnitude of such effects. The results show a significant interaction effect between character presence and product type on both brand attitude and purchase intention. The effects of an animated spokes-character on brand evaluation and purchase intention were more pronounced for utilitarian products than for hedonic products. PMID:22897431

  17. The persuasive effects of character presence and product type on responses to advergames.

    Choi, Yung Kyun; Lee, Jung-Gyo

    2012-09-01

    The use of online video games as an advertising channel has become an integrated part of branding for many marketers in an increasingly fractured media environment. The primary question motivating this research is whether the use of an animated spokes-character embedded in online game affects the persuasiveness of advertising. Specifically, this study looks at how product types moderate the magnitude of such effects. The results show a significant interaction effect between character presence and product type on both brand attitude and purchase intention. The effects of an animated spokes-character on brand evaluation and purchase intention were more pronounced for utilitarian products than for hedonic products.

  18. Responses of Terrestrial Ecosystems’ Net Primary Productivity to Future Regional Climate Change in China

    Zhao, Dongsheng; Wu, Shaohong; Yin, Yunhe

    2013-01-01

    The impact of regional climate change on net primary productivity (NPP) is an important aspect in the study of ecosystems’ response to global climate change. China’s ecosystems are very sensitive to climate change owing to the influence of the East Asian monsoon. The Lund–Potsdam–Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model for China (LPJ-CN), a global dynamical vegetation model developed for China’s terrestrial ecosystems, was applied in this study to simulate the NPP changes affected by future climate change. As the LPJ-CN model is based on natural vegetation, the simulation in this study did not consider the influence of anthropogenic activities. Results suggest that future climate change would have adverse effects on natural ecosystems, with NPP tending to decrease in eastern China, particularly in the temperate and warm temperate regions. NPP would increase in western China, with a concentration in the Tibetan Plateau and the northwest arid regions. The increasing trend in NPP in western China and the decreasing trend in eastern China would be further enhanced by the warming climate. The spatial distribution of NPP, which declines from the southeast coast to the northwest inland, would have minimal variation under scenarios of climate change. PMID:23593325

  19. Responses of terrestrial ecosystems' net primary productivity to future regional climate change in China.

    Zhao, Dongsheng; Wu, Shaohong; Yin, Yunhe

    2013-01-01

    The impact of regional climate change on net primary productivity (NPP) is an important aspect in the study of ecosystems' response to global climate change. China's ecosystems are very sensitive to climate change owing to the influence of the East Asian monsoon. The Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model for China (LPJ-CN), a global dynamical vegetation model developed for China's terrestrial ecosystems, was applied in this study to simulate the NPP changes affected by future climate change. As the LPJ-CN model is based on natural vegetation, the simulation in this study did not consider the influence of anthropogenic activities. Results suggest that future climate change would have adverse effects on natural ecosystems, with NPP tending to decrease in eastern China, particularly in the temperate and warm temperate regions. NPP would increase in western China, with a concentration in the Tibetan Plateau and the northwest arid regions. The increasing trend in NPP in western China and the decreasing trend in eastern China would be further enhanced by the warming climate. The spatial distribution of NPP, which declines from the southeast coast to the northwest inland, would have minimal variation under scenarios of climate change.

  20. Responses of terrestrial ecosystems' net primary productivity to future regional climate change in China.

    Dongsheng Zhao

    Full Text Available The impact of regional climate change on net primary productivity (NPP is an important aspect in the study of ecosystems' response to global climate change. China's ecosystems are very sensitive to climate change owing to the influence of the East Asian monsoon. The Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model for China (LPJ-CN, a global dynamical vegetation model developed for China's terrestrial ecosystems, was applied in this study to simulate the NPP changes affected by future climate change. As the LPJ-CN model is based on natural vegetation, the simulation in this study did not consider the influence of anthropogenic activities. Results suggest that future climate change would have adverse effects on natural ecosystems, with NPP tending to decrease in eastern China, particularly in the temperate and warm temperate regions. NPP would increase in western China, with a concentration in the Tibetan Plateau and the northwest arid regions. The increasing trend in NPP in western China and the decreasing trend in eastern China would be further enhanced by the warming climate. The spatial distribution of NPP, which declines from the southeast coast to the northwest inland, would have minimal variation under scenarios of climate change.

  1. Response surface optimization of culture medium for enhanced docosahexaenoic acid production by a Malaysian thraustochytrid.

    Manikan, Vidyah; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2015-02-27

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) plays a vital role in the enhancement of human health, particularly for cognitive, neurological, and visual functions. Marine microalgae, such as members of the genus Aurantiochytrium, are rich in DHA and represent a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. In this study, levels of glucose, yeast extract, sodium glutamate and sea salt were optimized for enhanced lipid and DHA production by a Malaysian isolate of thraustochytrid, Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1, using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized medium contained 60 g/L glucose, 2 g/L yeast extract, 24 g/L sodium glutamate and 6 g/L sea salt. This combination produced 17.8 g/L biomass containing 53.9% lipid (9.6 g/L) which contained 44.07% DHA (4.23 g/L). The optimized medium was used in a scale-up run, where a 5 L bench-top bioreactor was employed to verify the applicability of the medium at larger scale. This produced 24.46 g/L biomass containing 38.43% lipid (9.4 g/L), of which 47.87% was DHA (4.5 g/L). The total amount of DHA produced was 25% higher than that produced in the original medium prior to optimization. This result suggests that Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 could be developed for industrial application as a commercial DHA-producing microorganism.

  2. Optimization of lipase-catalyzed enantioselective production of 1-phenyl 1-propanol using response surface methodology.

    Soyer, Asli; Bayraktar, Emine; Mehmetoglu, Ulku

    2010-01-01

    Optically active 1-phenyl 1-propanol is used as a chiral building block and synthetic intermediate in the pharmaceutical industries. In this study, the enantioselective production of 1-phenyl 1-propanol was investigated systematically using response surface methodology (RSM). Before RSM was applied, the effects of the enzyme source, the type of acyl donor, and the type of solvent on the kinetic resolution of 1-phenyl 1-propanol were studied. The best results were obtained with Candida antartica lipase (commercially available as Novozym 435), vinyl laurate as the acyl donor, and isooctane as the solvent. In the RSM, substrate concentration, molar ratio of acyl donor to the substrate, amount of enzyme, temperature, and stirring rate were chosen as independent variables. The predicted optimum conditions for a higher enantiomeric excess (ee) were as follows: substrate concentration, 233 mM; molar ratio of acyl donor to substrate, 1.5; enzyme amount, 116 mg; temperature, 47 °C; and stirring rate, 161 rpm. A verification experiment conducted at these optimized conditions for maximum ee yielded 91% for 3 hr, which is higher than the predicted value of 83%. The effect of microwave on the ee was also investigated and ee reached 87% at only 5 min.

  3. Signaling Product Quality Information in Supply Chains via Corporate Social Responsibility Choices

    Yuhui Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on how an upstream supplier signals the private information of its product quality with corporate social responsibility (CSR choices to a downstream retailer and uninformed consumers in the final market. We build a signaling model to: capture the strategic interactions among the supplier, the retailer, and the final consumers in the supply chain; characterize completely the set of all separating perfect Bayesian equilibriums (PBEs; and finally, select a unique equilibrium that satisfies the intuitive criterion for exploring some comparative statics. The equilibrium results show that under some technical conditions: (1 a set of moderate levels of CSR conduct signal the upstream supplier’s high quality in the sense of separating PBEs; (2 the unique separating PBE satisfying the intuitive criterion is the one with the lowest CSR level that separates a high-quality supplier from a low-quality supplier; (3 the lowest CSR level decreases in the proportion of informed consumers and the low-quality supplier’s marginal CSR cost, but is independent of the high-quality supplier’s marginal CSR cost; (4 the profits of the high-quality supplier increase in proportion to the number of informed consumers and the low-quality supplier’s marginal cost CSR, but decrease in proportion to the high-quality supplier’s marginal CSR cost. Managerial insights are also discussed.

  4. Preliminary results on optimising hydrothermal treatment used in co-production of biofuels

    Thomsen, M.H.; Thomsen, A.B.; Jørgensen, H.

    . The solubilised hemicellulose is in a second step converted by either enzymes or weak acid hydrolyses tomonomeric sugar compounds for ethanol production. The cellulose fraction containing the lignin will be burned for electricity or part of it may be used for ethanol production by means of SSF. By-products from......In December 2002, an EU-project for co-production of biofuels was started. The overall objective is to develop cost and energy effective production systems for co-production of bio ethanol and electricity based on integrated biomass utilization. Duringthe first 12 months period of the project...... illustrates that it is possible to extract more than 95% of the alkaline salts (at 200 C) leaving a solid cellulose rich biofuel for combustion or for further treatment in the ethanol process. In the experiments performed at 190 C, the best totalglucose yield after pre-treatment and following enzymatic...

  5. COMPASS results on the transverse spin asymmetry in identified dihadron production in SIDIS

    Braun, Christopher [Univ. Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The parton distribution function h{sub 1}{sup q}(x) of a transversely polarized quark q inside a transversely polarized nucleon, is chiral-odd and therefore not accessible in inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. It can only be observed in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) in combination with another chiral-odd function like the dihadron interference fragmentation function (IFF) H{sub 1,q} {sup triangleleft}. The 160 GeV/c polarized muon beam of CERNs M2 beamline allows COMPASS to investigate transverse spin effects using polarized solid state targets. In this contribution an overview of COMPASS results for the azimuthal asymmetry in identified dihadron production is given. Taking advantage of the very precise particle identification of the apparatus using the RICH detector an identification of the hadrons which form the pairs in terms of pions and kaons was performed. Recently, the full set of this asymmetry from the COMPASS data on the deuteron and the proton target is available. The latter has been taken in the years 2007 and 2010, while the deuteron date dates back to the years 2003 and 2004. Data sets from same targets have been combined and analyzed using homogeneous cuts and methods. This allows for a detailed comparison of the obtained results to each other, to the corresponding results of the HERMES experiment and to model predictions. Furthermore an extraction of the so-called ''Transversity'' distribution h{sub 1}(x) for u and d quarks was carried out.

  6. XPS response in the corrosion products analysis for copper exposed at clean air environment

    Mariaca, L.; Morcillo, M.; Feliu Jr, S.; Gonzalez, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this work is presented the obtained response for superficial analysis technique by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA), to determine the corrosion products formed during the copper exposure at environment without pollutants (clean air) at 50, 70 and 90 % of relative humidity at 35 Centigrade. One of the copper corrosion products most knew is Cu 2 O. This oxide is formed instantly to be exposed the copper at air. However in function of the exposure time and the relative humidity at it is exposed, the Cu 2 O oxide is transformed at Cu O and Cu(OH) 2 (Author)

  7. HPLC evaluation of the minor lipid components of by-products resulting from edible oil processing

    EL-Shami, Safinaz Mohamed M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An analytical evaluation of some by-products resulting from edible oil refining processing steps has been carried out. By-product samples were taken from four different local refineries that apply chemical refining technology. Pretreatment of the representative samples of the by-products were done prior to analysis followed by chromatographic isolation and derivatization of the minor components, namely, free and acylated sterol (FS and AS as well as free and acylated sterylglycosides (FSG and ASG. However, tocopherols were directly determined in the pretreated samples. HPLC, using different detectors, was carried out for the determination of these minor components. Several authors have focused on the analysis of sterols and sterol esters, as well as tocopherols in the refining byproducts; however sterylglycosides, as biologically important components, have not been dealt with. This study throws light on the by – products enriched with certain minor components to be possibly utilized as sources for such components. Also, the role of the conditions of the refining steps followed in removing these valuable minor components from oils was discussed. It was found that soapstock samples contained various amounts of total tocopherols ranging from 80 to 230ppm; total FS and AS ranged from 240 to 4000 mg/100g while total FSG and ASG ranged from 1120 to 6375 mg/100g. In the case of deodorization distillate samples total tocopherols ranged from 960 to 7360ppm; total FS and AS ranged from 1020 to 4160 mg/100g and total FSG, ASG ranged from 395 to 880 mg/100g.El trabajo realiza una evaluación analítica de algunos subproductos resultantes del la refinación de aceites comestibles. Las muestras procedieron de 4 plantas que aplicaban refinación química. Después de un pretratamiento de las muestras estas se sometieron a un análisis cromatográfico para el aislamiento y derivatización de los siguientes componentes minoritarios: esteroles libres y

  8. Psychological traits and the cortisol awakening response: results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety.

    van Santen, Aafke; Vreeburg, Sophie A; Van der Does, A J Willem; Spinhoven, Philip; Zitman, Frans G; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2011-02-01

    Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation is often seen in major depression, and is thought to represent a trait vulnerability - rather than merely an illness marker - for depressive disorder and possibly anxiety disorder. Vulnerability traits associated with stress-related disorders might reflect increased sensitivity for the development of psychopathology through an association with HPA axis activity. Few studies have examined the association between psychological trait factors and the cortisol awakening response, with inconsistent results. The present study examined the relationship between multiple psychological trait factors and the cortisol awakening curve, including both the dynamic of the CAR and overall cortisol awakening levels, in a sample of persons without psychopathology, hypothesizing that persons scoring high on vulnerability traits demonstrate an elevated cortisol awakening curve. From 2981 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), baseline data from 381 controls (aged 18-65) without previous, current and parental depression and anxiety disorders were analyzed. Psychological measures included the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness) measured using the NEO-FFI, anxiety sensitivity assessed by the Anxiety Sensitivity Index, cognitive reactivity to sadness (hopelessness, acceptance/coping, aggression, control/perfectionism, risk aversion, and rumination) as measured by the LEIDS-R questionnaire, and mastery, assessed using the Pearlin and Schooler Mastery scale. Salivary cortisol levels were measured at awakening, and 30, 45, and 60 min afterwards. In adjusted analyses, high scores of hopelessness reactivity (β=.13, p=.02) were consistently associated with a higher cortisol awakening response. In addition, although inconsistent across analyses, persons scoring higher on extraversion, control/perfectionism reactivity, and

  9. Young adults' perceptions about established and emerging tobacco products: results from eight focus groups.

    Wray, Ricardo J; Jupka, Keri; Berman, Susan; Zellin, Stacie; Vijaykumar, Santosh

    2012-02-01

    In order to sustain their market, tobacco producers target young adults through novel product design and marketing strategies. Public health professionals need to understand young adults' risks perceptions about and use of new tobacco products to best inform tobacco control interventions. In 2009, researchers conducted 8 focus groups with 67 young adults stratified by self-reported tobacco use and nonuse, residence in rural and urban areas, and living in a state with or without a statewide smoking restriction policy. Participants provided feedback about their knowledge and risk perceptions about and use of tobacco products and marketing. Participants reported a high level of familiarity with a wide range of novel tobacco products. A great deal of confusion and disagreement appeared with regard to absolute and relative risk of different tobacco products. Participants readily discussed using smokeless tobacco products as alternatives to smoking when smoking is prohibited. Fewer differences in tobacco-related knowledge risk perceptions and use were found between urban and rural participants and those in smoke-free policy and nonpolicy states than between user and nonuser groups. Both users and nonusers were familiar with and skeptical about tobacco marketing and prevention efforts. Young adults are familiar with many tobacco products, but they convey little understanding of relative risks of new or trendy tobacco products, such as snus or hookah. Mindful of industry innovation, tobacco control advocates must continuously update prevention efforts, seeking new strategies to limit promotion, marketing, and use of new and conventional products.

  10. Promiscuous Diffusible Signal Factor Production and Responsiveness of the Xylella fastidiosa Rpf System.

    Ionescu, Michael; Yokota, Kenji; Antonova, Elena; Garcia, Angelica; Beaulieu, Ellen; Hayes, Terry; Iavarone, Anthony T; Lindow, Steven E

    2016-07-19

    Cell density-dependent regulation of gene expression in Xylella fastidiosa that is crucial to its switching between plant hosts and insect vectors is dependent on RpfF and its production of 2-enoic acids known as diffusible signal factor (DSF). We show that X. fastidiosa produces a particularly large variety of similar, relatively long-chain-length 2-enoic acids that are active in modulating gene expression. Both X. fastidiosa itself and a Pantoea agglomerans surrogate host harboring X. fastidiosa RpfF (XfRpfF) is capable of producing a variety of both saturated and unsaturated free fatty acids. However, only 2-cis unsaturated acids were found to be biologically active in X. fastidiosa X. fastidiosa produces, and is particularly responsive to, a novel DSF species, 2-cis-hexadecanoic acid that we term XfDSF2. It is also responsive to other, even longer 2-enoic acids to which other taxa such as Xanthomonas campestris are unresponsive. The 2-enoic acids that are produced by X. fastidiosa are strongly affected by the cellular growth environment, with XfDSF2 not detected in culture media in which 2-tetradecenoic acid (XfDSF1) had previously been found. X. fastidiosa is responsive to much lower concentrations of XfDSF2 than XfDSF1. Apparently competitive interactions can occur between various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids that block the function of those agonistic 2-enoic fatty acids. By altering the particular 2-enoic acids produced and the relative balance of free enoic and saturated fatty acids, X. fastidiosa might modulate the extent of DSF-mediated quorum sensing. X. fastidiosa, having a complicated lifestyle in which it moves and multiplies within plants but also must be vectored by insects, utilizes DSF-based quorum sensing to partition the expression of traits needed for these two processes within different cells in this population based on local cellular density. The finding that it can produce a variety of DSF species in a strongly

  11. Forage production and growing goats’ response under silvopastoral systems based on Guazuma ulmifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Crescentia cujete

    Gustavo Rodríguez Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grass monoculture, besides being unnatural to goat’s natural eating habits, exhibits low forage production during the dry season, with negative impacts on animal productivity. This research aimed to determine the productive advantages of silvopastoral system arrangements in goat production. A completely randomized design with repeated measurements through time was used. Six treatments were evaluated: kikuyina grass monoculture (Bothriochloa pertusa and guinea grass monoculture (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania as control groups; guacimo (Guazuma ulmifolia based silvopastoral arrangement; calabash (Crescentia cujete based silvopastoral arrangement; lead tree (Leucaena leucocephala based silvopastoral arrangement; and a mixed based silvopastoralarrangement (guacimo, calabash and leucaena. The information was processed with analysis of variance. The results showed increased forage production in silvopastoral arrangements vs. Bothriochloa pertusa monoculture. The greater increase in height (p <0.05 at 9-14 months of age, was obtained with the leucaena silvopastoral arrangement. All silvopastoral arrangements showed forage yield advantages compared to B. pertusa. The higher dry matter production of guinea grass is highlighted. Overall weight gain of the growing goats was low; nevertheless, a differential response between treatments was observed. Silvopastoral arrangements had the highest (p <0.05 weight gain (22.5 to 33.6 g/animal per day relative to the guinea grass monoculture (13.2 g/animal per day. The growing goats had higher percentages of estrus and pregnancy in the mixed system (66.7% and those based on guacimo (66.7% and on lead tree (55.6%.

  12. The Response of Grain Potential Productivity to Land Use Change: A Case Study in Western Jilin, China

    Fei Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of land use change on grain potential productivity is one of the most important topics in the research of land use/cover change and its effects. Western Jilin, located on the edge of an ecotone in northern China, and its land use have changed dramatically in recent decades, with significant impact on grain potential productivity. This study evaluated the grain potential productivity in different conditions and analyzed the response to land use change based on land use data, meteorological data and statistical data by using the Global Agro-ecological Zone model. Results showed that (1 grain potential productivity of Western Jilin in 2010 was 19.12 million tons, an increase of 34.8% over 1975 because of changes in land use and in climate; (2 due to land use change, grain potential productivity in the study area increased between 1975 and 2000, however, it decreased between 2000 and 2010; (3 conversion in type of land use and an increase in irrigation percentage caused grain potential productivity to increase by 0.70 million tons and 3.13 million tons respectively between 1975 and 2000; between 2000 and 2010, grain potential productivity had an increase of 0.17 million tons due to the increase in farmland area, but it decreased by 1.88 million tons because the irrigation percentage declined from 36.6% to 24.7%. Therefore, increasing investment in agriculture, improving land quality and increasing the conversion rate of grain potential productivity to actual production would be a better choice for ensuring national food security and achieving sustainable land use.

  13. Results and future prospects of exclusive vector meson production with pPb collisions at CMS

    Chudasama, Ruchi

    2017-01-01

    Exclusive photoproduction of vector mesons (Upsilon and Rho0) is studied with the large photon flux available in ultra-peripheral pPb collisions at sqrt(sNN) =5.02 TeV with CMS experiment. It provides a clean probe of the gluon distribution at small values of parton fractional momenta $x$ at centralrapidities ($y < 2.5$). The cross sections are measured as a function of the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy, extending the energy range explored by H1 and ZEUS Experiments at HERA. In addition, the differential cross sections (dsigma/dt), where $\\abs{t} \\approx p^2_T$ is the squared transverse momentum of produced vector mesons, are measured and the slope parameters are obtained. The results are compared to previous measurements and to theoretical predictions. Finally, prospect for further measurements of vector meson production that can be performed using the 2016 pPb collision data at 8 TeV to be collected at the end of the year are presented.

  14. Hot beta particles in the lung: Results from dogs exposed to fission product radionuclides

    Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.; Hobbs, C.H. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident resulted in the release of uranium dioxide fuel and fission product radionuclides into the environment with the fallout of respirable, highly radioactive particles that have been termed {open_quotes}hot beta particles.{close_quotes} There is concern that these hot beta particles (containing an average of 150-20,000 Bq/particle), when inhaled and deposited in the lung, may present an extraordinary hazard for the induction of lung cancer. We reviewed data from a group of studies in dogs exposed to different quantities of beta-emitting radionuclides with varied physical half-lives to determine if those that inhaled hot beta particles were at unusual risk for lung cancer. This analysis indicates that the average dose to the lung is adequate to predict biologic effects of lung cancer for inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides in the range of 5-50 Gy to the lung and with particle activities in the range of 0.10-50 Bq/particle.

  15. Results and progress of fundamental research on fission product chemistry. Progress report in 2015

    Osaka, Masahiko; Miwa, Shuhei; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Di Lemma, Fidelma Giulia; Suzuki, Chikashi; Miyahara, Naoya; Kobata, Masaaki; Okane, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Eriko

    2016-12-01

    A fundamental research program on fission product (FP) chemistry has been conducted since 2012 in order to establish a FP chemistry database in LWR under severe accidents and to improve FP chemical models based on the database. Research outputs are reflected as fundamental knowledge to both the R and D of decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F) and enhancement of LWR safety. Four research items have thus been established considering the specific issues of 1F and the priority in the source term research area, as follows: effects of boron (B) release kinetics and thermal-hydraulic conditions on FP behavior, cesium (Cs) chemisorption and reactions with structural materials, enlargement of a thermodynamic and thermophysical properties database for FP compounds and development of experimental and analytical techniques for the reproduction of FP behavior and for direct measurement methods of chemical form of FP compounds. In this report, the research results and progress for the year 2015 are described. The main accomplishment was the installation of a reproductive test facility for FP release and transport behavior. Moreover, basic knowledge about the Cs chemisorption behavior was also obtained. In addition to the four research items, a further research item is being considered for deeper interpretation of FP behavior by the analysis of samples outside of the 1F units. (author)

  16. Automatic detection and classification of EOL-concrete and resulting recovered products by hyperspectral imaging

    Palmieri, Roberta; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    The recovery of materials from Demolition Waste (DW) represents one of the main target of the recycling industry and the its characterization is important in order to set up efficient sorting and/or quality control systems. End-Of-Life (EOL) concrete materials identification is necessary to maximize DW conversion into useful secondary raw materials, so it is fundamental to develop strategies for the implementation of an automatic recognition system of the recovered products. In this paper, HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) technique was applied in order to detect DW composition. Hyperspectral images were acquired by a laboratory device equipped with a HSI sensing device working in the near infrared range (1000-1700 nm): NIR Spectral Camera™, embedding an ImSpector™ N17E (SPECIM Ltd, Finland). Acquired spectral data were analyzed adopting the PLS_Toolbox (Version 7.5, Eigenvector Research, Inc.) under Matlab® environment (Version 7.11.1, The Mathworks, Inc.), applying different chemometric methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for exploratory data approach and Partial Least Square- Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) to build classification models. Results showed that it is possible to recognize DW materials, distinguishing recycled aggregates from contaminants (e.g. bricks, gypsum, plastics, wood, foam, etc.). The developed procedure is cheap, fast and non-destructive: it could be used to make some steps of the recycling process more efficient and less expensive.

  17. Soil physico-hydrical properties resulting from the management in Integrated Production Systems

    André Carlos Auler

    Full Text Available Anthropic action, such as the soil use and management systems, promote changes in the soil structure. These changes might hamper the development of plants in soil management practices that involve its mobilization, and the negative effects might be increased due to intensive use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physico-hydrical properties of a Haplohumox in integrated production systems under different soil managements. The soil superficial (0.0-0.10 m and sub-superficial (0.10-0.20 m layers were evaluated in the different systems: conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT, no-tillage (NT and chiseled no-tillage (CNT, taking into consideration the annual ryegrass cropped for different uses [cover crop (C, grazing (G and silage (S] during the winter. Soil bulk density (Db, total porosity (TP, macro (Ma and microporosity (Mi, water retention curves (SWRC and water retention due to pore size (r were determined. The annual ryegrass used as C produced lower Db and Mi and higher TP and Ma in CT, MT and CNT systems. No difference was verified between G and S in any of the management systems or soil layers. The superficial layer SWRC presented similar behavior regarding CT, MT and CNT. Under NT, C resulted in higher water retention. However, G and S provided higher water retention due to the pore size in this system.

  18. Ingredient Functionality in Multilayered Dough-margarine Systems and the Resultant Pastry Products: A Review.

    Ooms, Nand; Pareyt, Bram; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2016-10-02

    Pastry products are produced from heterogeneous multilayered dough systems. The main ingredients are flour, water, fat and sugar for puff pastry, and the same plus yeast for fermented pastry. Key aspects in pastry production are (i) building laminated dough containing alternating layers of dough and bakery fat and (ii) maintaining this multilayered structure during processing to allow for steam entrapment for proper dough lift during baking. Although most authors agree on the importance of gluten and fat for maintaining the integrity of the different layers, detailed studies on their specific function are lacking. The exact mechanism of steam entrapment during dough lift and the relative contribution of water set free from the fat phase during baking also remain unclear. This review brings together current knowledge on pastry products and the factors determining (intermediate) product quality. Its focus is on flour constituents, fat, water, and (where applicable) yeast during the different production stages of pastry products. Future research needs are addressed as the knowledge on biochemical and physical changes occurring in flour constituents and other ingredients during pastry production and their effect on product quality is currently inadequate.

  19. Performance test results of mock-up test facility of HTTR hydrogen production system

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Nishihara, Tetsuo

    2004-01-01

    For the purpose to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing a hydrogen production system and has planned to connect the hydrogen production system to High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Prior to construction of a HTTR hydrogen production system, a mock-up test facility was constructed to investigate transient behavior of the hydrogen production system and to establish system controllability. The Mock-up test facility with a full-scale reaction tube is an approximately 1/30-scale model of the HTTR hydrogen production system and an electric heater is used as a heat source instead of a reactor. After its construction, a performance test of the test facility was carried out in the same pressure and temperature conditions as those of the HTTR hydrogen production system to investigate its performance such as hydrogen production ability, controllability and so on. It was confirmed that hydrogen was stably produced with a hot helium gas about 120m 3 /h, which satisfy the design value, and thermal disturbance of helium gas during the start-up could be mitigated within the design value by using a steam generator. The mock-up test of the HTTR hydrogen production system using this facility will continue until 2004. (author)

  20. Results of a pilot scale melter test to attain higher production rates

    Elliott, M.L.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Chapman, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A pilot-scale melter test was completed as part of the effort to enhance glass production rates. The experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of bulk glass temperature and feed oxide loading. The maximum glass production rate obtained, 86 kg/hr-m 2 , was over 200% better than the previous record for the melter used

  1. 78 FR 62584 - Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-533-844] Certain Lined Paper Products... (CVD) order on certain lined paper products from India. The period of review (POR) is January 1, 2011...-1503. Scope of the Order The merchandise subject to the Lined Paper Order \\1\\ is certain lined paper...

  2. Increased plant productivity in Alaskan tundra as a result of experimental warming of soil and permafrost

    S.M. Natali; E.A.G. Schuur; R.L. Rubin

    2012-01-01

    The response of northern tundra plant communities to warming temperatures is of critical concern because permafrost ecosystems play a key role in global carbon (C) storage, and climate-induced ecological shifts in the plant community will affect the transfer of carbon-dioxide between biological and atmospheric pools. This study, which focuses on the response of tundra...

  3. 2025 California Demand Response Potential Study - Charting California’s Demand Response Future. Final Report on Phase 2 Results

    Alstone, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Potter, Jennifer [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Berger, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunn, Laurel N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Aruab [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stensson, Sofia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Szinai, Julie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walter, Travis [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKenzie, Lucy [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3), San Francisco, CA (United States); Lavin, Luke [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3), San Francisco, CA (United States); Schneiderman, Brendan [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3), San Francisco, CA (United States); Mileva, Ana [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3), San Francisco, CA (United States); Cutter, Eric [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3), San Francisco, CA (United States); Olson, Arne [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3), San Francisco, CA (United States); Bode, Josh [Nexant, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Ciccone, Adriana [Nexant, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Jain, Ankit [Nexant, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    California’s legislative and regulatory goals for renewable energy are changing the power grid’s dynamics. Increased variable generation resource penetration connected to the bulk power system, as well as, distributed energy resources (DERs) connected to the distribution system affect the grid’s reliable operation over many different time scales (e.g., days to hours to minutes to seconds). As the state continues this transition, it will require careful planning to ensure resources with the right characteristics are available to meet changing grid management needs. Demand response (DR) has the potential to provide important resources for keeping the electricity grid stable and efficient, to defer upgrades to generation, transmission and distribution systems, and to deliver customer economic benefits. This study estimates the potential size and cost of future DR resources for California’s three investor-owned utilities (IOUs): Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), Southern California Edison Company (SCE), and San Diego Gas & Electric Company (SDG&E). Our goal is to provide data-driven insights as the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) evaluates how to enhance DR’s role in meeting California’s resource planning needs and operational requirements. We address two fundamental questions: 1. What cost-competitive DR service types will meet California’s future grid needs as it moves towards clean energy and advanced infrastructure? 2. What is the size and cost of the expected resource base for the DR service types?

  4. Inter-comparison of ice sheet mass balance products from GRACE: ESA CCI Round Robin results

    Groth, A.; Horwath, M.; Horvath, A.

    -term satellite-based data products are generated for selected ECVs. Since ice sheet mass balance is an ECV parameter of highest interest, both the AIS_cci and the GIS_cci project will provide mass balance products based on satellite gravimetry data: (a) time series of monthly mass changes for individual drainage...... basins, and (b) gridded mass changes covering the entire ice sheet.Gravimetry Mass Balance (GMB) products are derived from data acquired by the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission. Although GRACE data have the advantage of being directly sensitive to mass changes, their limited...... drainage basins the GMB time series are compared to independent mass balance products based on satellite altimetry and firn densification information from a regional climate model. This inter-comparison has aided the algorithm definition for the operational ECV production....

  5. Optimization of Protease Production by Psychrotrophic Rheinheimera sp. with Response Surface Methodology

    Mrayam Mahjoubin-Tehran; Bahar Shahnavaz; Razie Ghazi-Birjandi; Mansour Mashreghi; Jamshid Fooladi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Psychrotrophic bacteria can produce enzymes at low temperatures; this provides a wide biotechnological potential, and offers numerous economical advantages over the use of mesophilic bacteria. In this study, extracellular protease production by psychrotrophic Rheinheimera sp. (KM459533) was optimized by the response surface methodology.Materials and Methods: The culture medium was tryptic soy broth containing 1% (w v -1 ) skim milk. First, the effects of variables w...

  6. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AS AN INSTRUMENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTION ENTERPRISES

    Ewelina GAWEŁ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of corporate social responsibility as an instrument of operationalising the paradigm of sustainable development on the microeconomic level in the sector of production enterprises. It presents a genesis and importance of CSR and indicates the most relevant essential instruments of CSR implementation on an enterprise level. The paper also analyses endogenous and exogenous benefits from implementing CSR into the business practice.

  7. Intact nitric oxide production is obligatory for the sustained flow response during hypercapnic acidosis in guinea pig heart.

    Heintz, Anke; Koch, Thea; Deussen, Andreas

    2005-04-01

    The mechanisms underlying hypercapnic coronary dilation remain unsettled. This study tests the hypothesis that flow dependent NO production is obligatory for the hypercapnic flow response. In isolated, constant pressure (CP) perfused guinea pig hearts a step change of arterial pCO(2) from 38.6 to 61.4 mm Hg induced a bi-phasic flow response with an early transient (maximum 60 s) and a consecutive persisting flow rise (121.6+/-6.6 (S.D.) % after 10 min). In contrast, when perfused with constant flow (CF), perfusion pressure only transiently (2 min) fell by 7.4+/-4.8 % following the step change of arterial pCO(2). In CP perfused hearts L-NAME (100 micromol/l) specifically abolished the delayed flow rise during hypercapnic acidosis (102.37+/-2.9% after 10 min), whereas the inhibitor had no effect on perfusion pressure response in CF perfused hearts. Under CP perfusion arterial hypercapnia resulted in a transient rise of coronary cGMP release (from 0.69+/-0.35 to 1.12+/-0.68 pmol/ml), which was abolished after L-NAME. Surprisingly, the K(+)ATP channel blocker glibenclamide did not have any significant effect on the hypercapnic flow response but largely blunted reactive hyperemia after a 20 s flow stop. The delayed steady state hypercapnic flow response in guinea pig heart requires intact NO production. The absence of a persisting decrease in coronary resistance under CF perfusion points to an important role of shear stress dependent NO production.

  8. Optimization of the production of extracellular α-amylase by Kluyveromyces marxianus IF0 0288 by response surface methodology

    Panagiota-Yiolanda Stergiou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the production of extracellular α-amylase by Kluyveromyces marxianus IF0 0288 using optimized nutritional and cultural conditions in a complex yeast medium under aerobic batch fermentation. By applying the conventional "one-variable-at-a-time" approach and the response surface methodology, the effect of four fermentation parameters (type of carbon source, initial culture pH, temperature, and incubation time on the growth and α-amylase production was evaluated. The production of α-amylase during 60 h of fermentation increased 13-fold under optimized conditions (1% starch, pH 6.0, 30ºC in comparison to the conventional optimization method. The initial pH value of 6.13 and temperature of 30.3ºC were optimal conditions by the response surface methodology, leading to further improvement (up to 13-fold in the production of extracellular α-amylase. These results constituted first evidence that K. marxianus could be potentially used as an effective source of extracellular α-amylase.

  9. Responses of terrestrial herpetofauna to persistent, novel ecosystems resulting from mountaintop removal mining

    Williams, Jennifer M.; Brown, Donald J.; Wood, Petra B.

    2017-01-01

    Mountaintop removal mining is a large-scale surface mining technique that removes entire floral and faunal communities, along with soil horizons located above coal seams. In West Virginia, the majority of this mining occurs on forested mountaintops. However, after mining ceases the land is typically reclaimed to grasslands and shrublands, resulting in novel ecosystems. In this study, we examined responses of herpetofauna to these novel ecosystems 10–28 y postreclamation. We quantified differences in species-specific habitat associations, (sub)order-level abundances, and habitat characteristics in four habitat types: reclaimed grassland, reclaimed shrubland, forest fragments in mined areas, and nonmined intact forest. Habitat type accounted for 33.2% of the variation in species-specific captures. With few exceptions, forest specialists were associated with intact forest and fragmented forest sites, while habitat generalists were either associated with grassland and shrubland sites or were distributed among all habitat types. At the (sub)order level, salamander (Order Urodela) captures were highest at fragmented and intact forest sites, frog and toad (Order Anura) captures were lowest at intact forest sites, and snake (Suborder Serpentes) captures were highest at shrubland sites. Habitat type was a strong predictor for estimated total abundance of urodeles, but not for anurans or snakes. Tree stem densities in grasslands differed from the other three habitat types, and large trees (>38 cm diameter at breast height) were only present at forest sites. Overstory vegetation cover was greater in forested than in reclaimed habitat types. Ground cover in reclaimed grasslands was distinct from forest treatments with generally less woody debris and litter cover and more vegetative cover. It is important to consider the distributions of habitat specialists of conservation concern when delineating potential mountaintop mine sites, as these sites will likely contain unsuitable

  10. Costs to Automate Demand Response - Taxonomy and Results from Field Studies and Programs

    Piette, Mary A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schetrit, Oren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheung, Iris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Becky Z [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    During the past decade, the technology to automate demand response (DR) in buildings and industrial facilities has advanced significantly. Automation allows rapid, repeatable, reliable operation. This study focuses on costs for DR automation in commercial buildings with some discussion on residential buildings and industrial facilities. DR automation technology relies on numerous components, including communication systems, hardware and software gateways, standards-based messaging protocols, controls and integration platforms, and measurement and telemetry systems. This report compares cost data from several DR automation programs and pilot projects, evaluates trends in the cost per unit of DR and kilowatts (kW) available from automated systems, and applies a standard naming convention and classification or taxonomy for system elements. Median costs for the 56 installed automated DR systems studied here are about $200/kW. The deviation around this median is large with costs in some cases being an order of magnitude great or less than the median. This wide range is a result of variations in system age, size of load reduction, sophistication, and type of equipment included in cost analysis. The costs to automate fast DR systems for ancillary services are not fully analyzed in this report because additional research is needed to determine the total cost to install, operate, and maintain these systems. However, recent research suggests that they could be developed at costs similar to those of existing hot-summer DR automation systems. This report considers installation and configuration costs and does include the costs of owning and operating DR automation systems. Future analysis of the latter costs should include the costs to the building or facility manager costs as well as utility or third party program manager cost.

  11. Supply of nutrients and productive responses in dairy cows given diets based on restrictively fermented silage

    P. HUHTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to review research which has evaluated the feeding of dairy cows with diets containing large proportions of grass silage. In Finland, milk production systems evolved are based on the use of restrictively fermented silages. Higher potential yields, smaller production risks than with cereal grains, short grazing period and high digestibility of grasses grown in northern latitudes have facilitated this development. Factors affecting nutrient supply from these diets are discussed. Digestibility is determined mainly by the stage of maturity at harvesting and it is not markedly affected by the level of energy and protein supplementation. Intake of grass silage is influenced both by digestibility and fermentation characteristics. Efficiency of microbial synthesis is high in animals given diets based on restrictively fermented silage but rumen fermentation pattern is characterised by low molar proportions of propionate. Production responses to additional concentrate are relatively small, especially when the amount of concentrate exceeds 10 kg day-1. High substitution of silage dry matter (DM, negative associative effects on digestion and partitioning of energy towards body tissues account for small production responses. Protein supplementation has consistently increased milk protein yield but responses do not appear to be related to the level of milk production, silage crude protein content, amount of concentrate or stage of lactation. The new protein evaluation system provides an accurate prediction of protein yield with the typical Finnish dairy cow diets. The high slopes (ca. 0.5 between protein supply and milk protein yield within experiments suggest that protein supply is suboptimal and protein supplements are used with a high efficiency.;

  12. Responses to GM food content in context with food integrity issues: results from Australian population surveys.

    Mohr, Philip; Golley, Sinéad

    2016-01-25

    This study examined community responses to use of genetically modified (GM) content in food in the context of responses to familiar food additives by testing an empirically and theoretically derived model of the predictors of responses to both GM content and food integrity issues generally. A nationwide sample of 849 adults, selected at random from the Australian Electoral Roll, responded to a postal Food and Health Survey. Structural equation modelling analyses confirmed that ratings of general concern about food integrity (related to the presence of preservatives and other additives) strongly predicted negativity towards GM content. Concern about food integrity was, in turn, predicted by environmental concern and health engagement. In addition, both concern about food integrity generally and responses to GM content specifically were weakly predicted by attitudes to benefits of science and an intuitive (i.e., emotionally-based) reasoning style. Data from a follow-up survey conducted under the same conditions (N=1184) revealed that ratings of concern were significantly lower for use of genetic engineering in food than for four other common food integrity issues examined. Whereas the question of community responses to GM is often treated as a special issue, these findings support the conclusion that responses to the concept of GM content in food in Australia are substantially a specific instance of a general sensitivity towards the integrity of the food supply. They indicate that the origins of responses to GM content may be largely indistinguishable from those of general responses to preservatives and other common food additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Studying and optimizing the biodiesel production from mastic oil aided by ultrasonic using response surface method

    B Hosseinzdeh Samani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Biodiesel is a promising renewable substitute source of fuel produced from tree born oils, vegetable based oils, fats of animals and even waste cooking oil, has been identified as one of the key solutions for the alarming global twin problems of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. One of the sources for biodiesel production is mastic which is often grown in mountains. Its kernel contains 55% oil which makes it as a valuable renewable resource for biodiesel production. The objective of this research was to study of the feasibility of biodiesel production from Atlas mastic oil using ultrasonic system and optimization of the process using Response surface methodology. Materials and Methods In order to supply the required oil for the biodiesel production process, the oil should be prepared before the reaction. Hence, the purified oil was methylated using Metcalf et al (1996 method, and the prepared sample was injected into Gas Chromatography device to determine fatty acids profile and molecular weight of the used oil. An ultrasonic processor (Hielscher Model UP400S, USA. was used to perform the transesterification reaction. All the experiments were replicated three times to determine the variability of the results and to assess the experimental errors. The reported values are the average of the individual runs. The different operating parameters used in the present work, to optimize the extent of conversion of Atlas pistache oil, include methanol to oil molar ratio (4:1, 5:1 ,6:1, amplitude (24.1, 62.5 100%, pulse (24.1, 62.5 100%, reaction time (3, 6, 9 min. Results and Discussion Results of analyses showed that the independent variables, namely molar ratio, vibration amplitude, pulse and reaction time had significant effects on the amount of produced methyl ester. By increasing the amplitude and pulse, the methyl ester content increased. Increase in amplitude and pulse cause to increase the mixing effect and physical

  14. Response of the human tympanic membrane to transient acoustic and mechanical stimuli: Preliminary results

    Razavi, Payam; Ravicz, Michael E.; Dobrev, Ivo; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J.

    2016-01-01

    The response of the tympanic membrane (TM) to transient environmental sounds and the contributions of different parts of the TM to middle-ear sound transmission were investigated by measuring the TM response to global transients (acoustic clicks) and to local transients (mechanical impulses) applied to the umbo and various locations on the TM. A lightly-fixed human temporal bone was prepared by removing the ear canal, inner ear, and stapes, leaving the incus, malleus, and TM intact. Motion of nearly the entire TM was measured by a digital holography system with a high speed camera at a rate of 42 000 frames per second, giving a temporal resolution of <24 μs for the duration of the TM response. The entire TM responded nearly instantaneously to acoustic transient stimuli, though the peak displacement and decay time constant varied with location. With local mechanical transients, the TM responded first locally at the site of stimulation, and the response spread approximately symmetrically and circumferentially around the umbo and manubrium. Acoustic and mechanical transients provide distinct and complementary stimuli for the study of TM response. Spatial variations in decay and rate of spread of response imply local variations in TM stiffness, mass, and damping. PMID:26880098

  15. Products of neutrophils and eosinophils increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue.

    Hallahan, A R; Armour, C L; Black, J L

    1990-05-01

    This study examines the possibility that products of neutrophils and eosinophils could increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue. Neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The cells were incubated with 1 microM calcium ionophore A23187 for 10-15 min then centrifuged, the supernatant collected and stored at -70 degrees C. Human bronchial rings (2-3 mm diameter, 3-4 mm long) were prepared from specimens resected at thoracotomy. The tissues were suspended in organ baths under a 1 g load and changes in tension measured isometrically. Stable contractions to bolus doses of histamine (0.1-10 microM) or to electrical field stimulation (40-100 V, 4-16 Hz, 1 ms for 20 s) were established. Supernatant from 106 neutrophils or 105 eosinophils was then added and tissue responsiveness reassessed. Neutrophil supernatant increased tissue responsiveness to histamine and electrical field stimulation by 54 +/- 17% (n = 5, p less than 0.05) and 18 +/- 7% (n = 6, p less than 0.05), respectively. Eosinophil supernatant increased the histamine response by 60 +/- 23% (n = 8, p less than 0.05) while tissue responsiveness to electrical field stimulation was unchanged (n = 3). Thus, as neutrophils and eosinophils can change the responsiveness of human bronchus in vitro it is possible that they do this in vivo and may not simply be temporally related to the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

  16. Shift Work in Rats Results in Increased Inflammatory Response after Lipopolysaccharide Administration: A Role for Food Consumption.

    Guerrero-Vargas, Natalí N; Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara; Fuentes, Rebeca; García, Joselyn; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Basualdo, María del Carmen; Escobar, Carolina; Markus, Regina P; Buijs, Ruud M

    2015-08-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) drives circadian rhythms in behavioral and physiological variables, including the inflammatory response. Shift work is known to disturb circadian rhythms and is associated with increased susceptibility to develop disease. In rodents, circadian disruption due to shifted light schedules (jet lag) induced increased innate immune responses. To gain more insight into the influence of circadian disruption on the immune response, we characterized the inflammatory response in a model of rodent shift work and demonstrated that circadian disruption affected the inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) both in vivo and in vitro. Since food consumption is a main disturbing element in the shift work schedule, we also evaluated the inflammatory response to LPS in a group of rats that had no access to food during their working hours. Our results demonstrated that the shift work schedule decreased basal TNF-α levels in the liver but not in the circulation. Despite this, we observed that shift work induced increased cytokine response after LPS stimulation in comparison to control rats. Also, Kupffer cells (liver macrophages) isolated from shift work rats produced more TNF-α in response to in vitro LPS stimulation, suggesting important effects of circadian desynchronization on the functionality of this cell type. Importantly, the effects of shift work on the inflammatory response to LPS were prevented when food was not available during the working schedule. Together, these results show that dissociating behavior and food intake from the synchronizing drive of the SCN severely disturbs the immune response. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Response surface methodology for the optimization of alpha amylase production by serratia marcescens SB08

    Venil, C.K.; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, central composite design combining with response surface methodology was successfully employed to optimize medium composition for the production of alpha amylase by Serratia marcescens SB08 in submerged fermentation. The process parameters that influence the enzyme production were identified using Plackett- Burman design. Among the various factors screened, inoculum concentration, pH, NaCl and CaCl/sub 2/ were found to be most significant. The optimum level of pH was 5.0, inoculum concentration 3%, NaCl 0.30 g/l and CaCl/sub 2/ 0.13 g/l. The actual enzyme yield before and after optimization was 56.43 U/ml and 87.23 U/ml, respectively. Thus, it is advisable to the microbial industry sponsors to apply such profitable bioprocess to maintain high yield for mass production of alpha amylase. (author)

  18. Single Cell Responses to Spatially Controlled Photosensitized Production of Extracellular Singlet Oxygen

    Pedersen, Brian Wett; Sinks, Louise E.; Breitenbach, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The response of individual HeLa cells to extracellularly produced singlet oxygen was examined. The spatial domain of singlet oxygen production was controlled using the combination of a membrane-impermeable Pd porphyrin-dendrimer, which served as a photosensitizer, and a focused laser, which served...... to localize the sensitized production of singlet oxygen. Cells in close proximity to the domain of singlet oxygen production showed morphological changes commonly associated with necrotic cell death. The elapsed post-irradiation “waiting period” before necrosis became apparent depended on (a) the distance...... between the cell membrane and the domain irradiated, (b) the incident laser fluence and, as such, the initial concentration of singlet oxygen produced, and (c) the lifetime of singlet oxygen. The data imply that singlet oxygen plays a key role in this process of light-induced cell death. The approach...

  19. Response evaluation in nuclear medicine. Criteria, results and pitfalls; Nuklearmedizinische Responsebeurteilung. Kriterien, Ergebnisse und Pitfalls

    Hoffend, J. [Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen am Rhein gGmbH, Onkologische Diagnostik/PET-CT, Zentralinstitut fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Sachpekidis, C. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg, Klinische Kooperationseinheit Nuklearmedizin, Forschungsschwerpunkt Bildgebung und Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiologie, Forschungsschwerpunkt Bildgebung und Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, A. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg, Klinische Kooperationseinheit Nuklearmedizin, Forschungsschwerpunkt Bildgebung und Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    Established criteria to categorize metabolic tumor response to cytotoxic chemotherapies may not be suited to capture the effects of therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) or with kinase inhibitors (KI), such as BRAF or MEK inhibitors. To assess the metabolic response to cytotoxic chemotherapy by positron emission tomography (PET) with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), the criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the positron emission tomography response criteria in solid tumors (PERCIST) were conceived. The salient features of both criteria are detailed in a comparative way. To date only retrospective data exist for the evaluation of therapies with either ICI or KI. They show that response to ICI cannot be reliably determined using the established criteria. Employing the EORTC criteria the responses to KI can be adequately ascertained so that the metabolic tumor response in FDG-PET is regarded as a surrogate marker for the efficacy of these drugs. Tumor response to therapy with ICI cannot at present be assessed with FDG-PET. Responses to BRAF and MEK inhibitors are, however, assessable using the criteria that were originally developed to evaluate responses to cytotoxic chemotherapy. (orig.) [German] Bisherige Kriterien, welche das metabolische Ansprechen von Tumoren auf zytotoxische Chemotherapien klassifizieren, lassen sich moeglicherweise nur bedingt verwenden, um ein Ansprechen auf Immuncheckpointinhibitoren (ICI) und Kinasehemmer (KI) wie BRAF- und MEK-Inhibitoren zu erfassen. Um das Ansprechen unter Chemotherapie durch die Positronenemissionstomographie (PET) mit {sup 18}F-Fluordesoxyglukose (FDG) zu erfassen, wurden Kriterien der European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) und die Positron Emission Tomography Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (PERCIST) entwickelt. Die wesentlichen Merkmale beider Kriterien werden vergleichend beschrieben. Bisher liegen sowohl fuer ICI als auch KI

  20. Friend or foe? Reactive oxygen species production, scavenging and signaling in plant response to environmental stresses.

    Czarnocka, Weronika; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2018-01-10

    In the natural environment, plants are exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stress conditions that trigger rapid changes in the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The production and scavenging of ROS is compartmentalized, which means that, depending on stimuli type, they can be generated and eliminated in different cellular compartments such as the apoplast, plasma membrane, chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. Although the accumulation of ROS is generally harmful to cells, ROS play an important role in signaling pathways that regulate acclimatory and defense responses in plants, such as systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR). However, high accumulations of ROS can also trigger redox homeostasis disturbance which can lead to cell death, and in consequence, to a limitation in biomass and yield production. Different ROS have various half-lifetimes and degrees of reactivity toward molecular components such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Thus, they play different roles in intra- and extra-cellular signaling. Despite their possible damaging effect, ROS should mainly be considered as signaling molecules that regulate local and systemic acclimatory and defense responses. Over the past two decades it has been proven that ROS together with non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), hormones, Ca 2+ waves, and electrical signals are the main players in SAA and SAR, two physiological processes essential for plant survival and productivity in unfavorable conditions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Plant response-based sensing for control starategies in sustainable greenhouse production

    Kacira, M.; Sase, S.; Okushima, L.; Ling, P.P.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of environmental variability is one of the major concerns in experimental design for both research in plant systems and greenhouse plant production. Microclimates surrounding plants are not usually uniform. Therefore, many samples and sensors are required to obtain a true representation of the plant population. A plant monitoring system capable of reducing the required number of samples by reducing environmental variability would be more advantageous. To better understand plant-environment interaction, it is essential to study plants, microclimate surrounding the plants and the growth media. To achieve this, the monitoring system must be equipped with proper instrumentation. To achieve proper management practices and sustainable greenhouse production, it is essential first to understand plants and their interactions with their surroundings and then establish plant response-based sensing and control strategies for greenhouse processes. Therefore, an effort was conducted to review and discuss current sensing and control strategies in greenhouse research and plant production and provide recommendations on plant response-based sensing and control strategies for sustainable greenhouse production

  2. Reducing pollution at five critical points of shale gas production: Strategies and institutional responses

    Centner, Terence J.

    2016-01-01

    While the public and governments debate the advisability of engaging in shale gas production, the United States has proceeded to develop its resources with an accompanying remarkable increase in natural gas production. The development of shale gas has not been without problems, and some countries have decided that shale gas production should not proceed until more is known about the accompanying health issues and environmental damages. From experiences in the United States, careful consideration of five critical points relating to shale gas production can form the basis for developing strategies for reducing discharges of pollutants: (1) casing and cementing, (2) handling wastewater, (3) venting and flaring, (4) equipment with air emissions, and (5) seismic events. For each strategy, institutional responses to markedly reduce the risks of harm to people and the environment are identified. These responses offer state and local governments ideas for enabling shale gas resources to be developed without sacrificing public health and environmental quality. - Highlights: •Shale gas development involves releases of unnecessary pollutants. •Major sources of unnecessary pollutants can be identified. •For major pollutant sources, strategies can be developed to reduce releases of contaminants. •Alternative strategies can offer firms and governments ways to reduce pollutant releases.

  3. Roles and responsibilities of pharmacists with respect to natural health products: key informant interviews.

    Olatunde, Shade; Boon, Heather; Hirschkorn, Kristine; Welsh, Sandy; Bajcar, Jana

    2010-03-01

    Although many pharmacies sell natural health products (NHPs), there is no clear definition as to the roles and responsibilities (if any) of pharmacists with respect to these products. The purpose of this study was to explore pharmacy and stakeholder leaders' perceptions of pharmacists' professional NHP roles and responsibilities. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with pharmacy leaders (n=17) and stakeholder (n=18) leaders representing consumers, complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, conventional health care practitioners, and industry across Canada. All participants believed a main NHP responsibility for pharmacists was in safety monitoring, although a one challenge identified in the interviews was pharmacists' general lack of NHP knowledge; however, stakeholder leaders did not expect pharmacists to be experts, but should have a basic level of knowledge about NHPs. Participants described pharmacists' professional roles and responsibilities for NHPs as similar to those for over-the-counter drugs; more awareness of existing NHP-related pharmacy policies is needed, and pharmacy owners/managers should provide additional training to ensure front-line pharmacists have appropriate knowledge of NHPs sold in the pharmacy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulation of the E. coli SOS response by the lexA gene product

    Brent, R.

    1983-01-01

    In an Escherichia coli that is growing normally, transcription of many genes is repressed by the product of the lexA gene. If cellular DNA is damaged, proteolytically competent recA protein (recA protease) inactivates lexA protein and these genes are induced. Many of the cellular phenomena observed during the cellular response to DNA damage (the SOS response) are the consequence of the expression of these lexA-prepressed genes. Since the SOS response of E. coli has recently been the subject of a comprehensive review, in this paper I would like to concentrate on some modifications to the picture based on new data. 12 references, 2 figures

  5. Heterosis may result in selection favouring the products of long-distance pollen dispersal in Eucalyptus.

    João Costa E Silva

    Full Text Available Using native trees from near the northern and southern extremities of the relatively continuous eastern distribution of Eucalyptus globulus in Tasmania, we compared the progenies derived from natural open-pollination (OP with those generated from within-region and long-distance outcrossing. Controlled outcrossing amongst eight parents - with four parents from each of the northern and southern regions - was undertaken using a diallel mating scheme. The progeny were planted in two field trials located within the species native range in southern Tasmania, and their survival and diameter growth were monitored over a 13-year-period. The survival and growth performances of all controlled cross types exceeded those of the OP progenies, consistent with inbreeding depression due to a combination of selfing and bi-parental inbreeding. The poorer survival of the northern regional (♀N♂N outcrosses compared with the local southern regional outcrosses (♀S♂S indicated differential selection against the former. Despite this mal-adaptation of the non-local ♀N♂N crosses at both southern sites, the survival of the inter-regional hybrids (♀N♂S and ♀S♂N was never significantly different from that of the local ♀S♂S crosses. Significant site-dependent heterosis was detected for the growth of the surviving long-distance hybrids. This was expressed as mid-parent heterosis, particularly at the more northern planting site. Heterosis increased with age, while the difference between the regional ♀N♂N and ♀S♂S crosses remained insignificant at any age at either site. Nevertheless, the results for growth suggest that the fitness of individuals derived from long-distance crossing may be better at the more northern of the planting sites. Our results demonstrate the potential for early-age assessments of pollen dispersal to underestimate realised gene flow, with local inbreeding under natural open-pollination resulting in selection favouring the

  6. Toward responsible development and effective risk management of nano-enabled products in the U.S. construction industry

    West, Gavin H.; Lippy, Bruce E., E-mail: blippy@cpwr.com; Cooper, Michael R. [CPWR - The Center for Construction Research and Training (United States); Marsick, Daniel [Marsick Consulting, LLC (United States); Burrelli, Leonard G.; Griffin, Kelsey N. [Environmental Profiles, Inc. (United States); Segrave, Alan M. [Bureau Veritas North America, Inc. (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The global construction sector is experiencing major improvements to building materials used in large quantities through commercial applications of nanotechnology. Nano-enabled construction products hold great promise for energy efficiency and resource conservation, but risk assessments lag as new products emerge. This paper presents results from an inventory, survey, and exposure assessment conducted by the authors and explores these findings in the broader context of evolving research trends and responsible development of nanotechnology. An inventory of 458 reportedly nano-enabled construction products provided insight into product availability, potential exposures, and deficiencies in risk communication that are barriers to adoption of proactive safety measures. Seasoned construction trainers surveyed were largely unaware of the availability of nano-enabled construction products. Exposure assessment demonstrated the effectiveness of ventilation to reduce exposures during mechanical abrasion of photocatalytic tiles containing titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}). Dissociated particles of TiO{sub 2} just above the nanoscale (138 nm) were detected in the debris collected during cutting of the tiles, but measurements were below recommended exposure limits for TiO{sub 2}. Exposure assessments remain scarce, and toxicological understanding primarily pertains to unincorporated nanomaterials; less is known about the occupational risks of nano-enabled construction products across their life cycle. Further research is needed to characterize and quantify exposure to debris released from nanocomposite materials for realistic risk assessment, and to ascertain how nanocomposite matrices, fillers, and degradation forces interact to affect release dynamics. Improving risk communication strategies and implementing safe work practices will cultivate responsible development of nanotechnology in construction, as will multidisciplinary research efforts.

  7. Toward responsible development and effective risk management of nano-enabled products in the U.S. construction industry

    West, Gavin H.; Lippy, Bruce E.; Cooper, Michael R.; Marsick, Daniel; Burrelli, Leonard G.; Griffin, Kelsey N.; Segrave, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    The global construction sector is experiencing major improvements to building materials used in large quantities through commercial applications of nanotechnology. Nano-enabled construction products hold great promise for energy efficiency and resource conservation, but risk assessments lag as new products emerge. This paper presents results from an inventory, survey, and exposure assessment conducted by the authors and explores these findings in the broader context of evolving research trends and responsible development of nanotechnology. An inventory of 458 reportedly nano-enabled construction products provided insight into product availability, potential exposures, and deficiencies in risk communication that are barriers to adoption of proactive safety measures. Seasoned construction trainers surveyed were largely unaware of the availability of nano-enabled construction products. Exposure assessment demonstrated the effectiveness of ventilation to reduce exposures during mechanical abrasion of photocatalytic tiles containing titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ). Dissociated particles of TiO 2 just above the nanoscale (138 nm) were detected in the debris collected during cutting of the tiles, but measurements were below recommended exposure limits for TiO 2 . Exposure assessments remain scarce, and toxicological understanding primarily pertains to unincorporated nanomaterials; less is known about the occupational risks of nano-enabled construction products across their life cycle. Further research is needed to characterize and quantify exposure to debris released from nanocomposite materials for realistic risk assessment, and to ascertain how nanocomposite matrices, fillers, and degradation forces interact to affect release dynamics. Improving risk communication strategies and implementing safe work practices will cultivate responsible development of nanotechnology in construction, as will multidisciplinary research efforts

  8. Methodology assessment of the total beta activity in tobacco and tobacco products and certain results

    Georgieva, A.; Srentz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of alpha and beta radionuclides in tobacco and tobacco products is a frequently discussed issue. However, any information in publications about them and their presence in tobacco products is too scarce. World Health care Organization monitors the influence of tobacco smoking on human health. In 2003, a Framework Convention on Tobacco Control was accepted with the aim to protect human health, which was signed by 179 countries, including Bulgaria. The first debates on the presence of radionuclides in tobacco products are raised in Moscow in 2014. These were instigated by data on the findings of polonium-210, reported by USA and Russia. The aim of the report is to outline a methodology to detect the presence of beta-active radionuclides in tobacco and its products. Keywords: beta activity, geiger counter, samples with infinite thickness, tobacco samples

  9. Stackelberg leadership with product differentiation and endogenous entry: some comparative static and limiting results

    Žigić, Krešimir

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2012), s. 221-232 ISSN 0931-8658 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : Stackelberg leadership * product differentiation * endogenous entry Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.512, year: 2012

  10. Calibration methodology application of kerma area product meters in situ: Preliminary results

    Costa, N. A.; Potiens, M. P. A.

    2014-11-01

    The kerma-area product (KAP) is a useful quantity to establish the reference levels of conventional X-ray examinations. It can be obtained by measurements carried out with a KAP meter on a plane parallel transmission ionization chamber mounted on the X-ray system. A KAP meter can be calibrated in laboratory or in situ, where it is used. It is important to use one reference KAP meter in order to obtain reliable quantity of doses on the patient. The Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC) is a new equipment from Radcal that measures KAP. It was manufactured following the IEC 60580 recommendations, an international standard for KAP meters. This study had the aim to calibrate KAP meters using the PDC in situ. Previous studies and the quality control program of the PDC have shown that it has good function in characterization tests of dosimeters with ionization chamber and it also has low energy dependence. Three types of KAP meters were calibrated in four different diagnostic X-ray equipments. The voltages used in the two first calibrations were 50 kV, 70 kV, 100 kV and 120 kV. The other two used 50 kV, 70 kV and 90 kV. This was related to the equipments limitations. The field sizes used for the calibration were 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm. The calibrations were done in three different cities with the purpose to analyze the reproducibility of the PDC. The results gave the calibration coefficient for each KAP meter and showed that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument to calibrate clinical KAP meters.

  11. Review of scientific Research results in identification of plant raw materials in food products

    GOLUBTSOVA YU. V.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the science-based capabilities have been generated to develop and test various identification methods of food products and reveal adulteration using advanced technique and processes. This article reviews researches and developments to identify the plant raw materials in food products based on morphological, anatomic, physical and chemical test methods and the latest DNA-technologies. Review of physical, chemical, anatomic and morphological test methods to identify raw materials bot...

  12. The influence of slaughterhouse waste on fermentative H2 production from food waste: Preliminary results

    Boni, Maria Rosaria; Sbaffoni, Silvia; Tuccinardi, Letizia

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-digestion process finalized to bio-H 2 production was tested in batch tests. • Slaughterhouse waste (SHW) and food waste (FW) were co-digested in different proportions. • The presence of SHW affected the H 2 production from FW. • When SHW ranging between 50% and 70% the H 2 production is improved. • SHW percentages above 70%, led to a depletion in H 2 production. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of slaughterhouse waste (SHW; essentially the skin, fats, and meat waste of pork, poultry, and beef) in a fermentative co-digestion process for H 2 production from pre-selected organic waste taken from a refectory (food waste [FW]). Batch tests under mesophilic conditions were conducted in stirred reactors filled with different proportions of FW and SHW. The addition of 60% and 70% SHW to a mixture of SHW and FW improved H 2 production compared to that in FW only, reaching H 2 -production yields of 145 and 109 ml gVS 0 -1 , respectively, which are 1.5–2 times higher than that obtained with FW alone. Although the SHW ensured a more stable fermentative process due to its high buffering capacity, a depletion of H 2 production occurred when SHW fraction was higher than 70%. Above this percentage, the formation of foam and aggregated material created non-homogenous conditions of digestion. Additionally, the increasing amount of SHW in the reactors may lead to an accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which are potentially toxic for anaerobic microorganisms and may inhibit the normal evolution of the fermentative process

  13. Treatment with sirolimus results in complete responses in patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome

    Teachey, David T.; Greiner, Robert; Seif, Alix; Attiyeh, Edward; Bleesing, Jack; Choi, John; Manno, Catherine; Rappaport, Eric; Schwabe, Dirk; Sheen, Cecilia; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Zhuang, Hongming; Wechsler, Daniel S.; Grupp, Stephan A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary We hypothesized that sirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, may be effective in patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and treated patients who were intolerant to or failed other therapies. Four patients were treated for autoimmune cytopenias; all had a rapid complete or near complete response. Two patients were treated for autoimmune arthritis and colitis, demonstrating marked improvement. Three patients had complete resolution of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly and all patients had a reduction in double negative T cells, a population hallmark of the disease. Based on these significant responses, we recommend that sirolimus be considered as second-line therapy for patients with steroid-refractory disease. PMID:19208097

  14. ESTIMATING THE PRODUCTION FUNCTION IN THE CASE OF ROMANIA METODOLOGY AND RESULTS

    Simuț Ramona Marinela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of economic growth is a headline concern among economists, mathematicians and politicians. This is because of the major impact of economic growth on the entire population of a country, which has made achieving or maintaining a sustained growth rate the major objective of macroeconomic policy of any country. Thus, in order to identify present sources of economic growth for Romania in our study we used the Cobb-Douglas type production function. The basic variables of this model are represented by work factors, capital stock and the part of economic growth determined by the technical progress, the Solow residue or total productivity of production factors. To estimate this production function in the case of Romania, we used the quarter statistical data from the period between 2000 – first quarter and 2014 – fourth quarter; the source of the data was Eurostat. The Cobb-Douglas production function with the variables work and capital is valid in Romania’s case because it has the parameters of the exogenous variables significantly different from zero. This model became valid after we eliminated the autocorrelation of errors. Removing the autocorrelation of errors does not alter the structure of the production function. The adjusted R2 determination coefficient, as well as the α and β coefficients have values close to those from the first estimated equation. The regression of the GDP is characterized by marginal decreasing efficiency of the capital stock (α > 1 and decreasing efficiency of work (β < 1. In our case the sum of the α and β coefficients is below 1 (it is 0.75 as well as in the case of the second model (0.89, which corresponds to the decreasing efficiency of the production function. Concerning the working population of Romania, it registered a growing trend, starting with 2000 until 2005, a period that coincided with a sustained economic growth.

  15. 75 FR 4779 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Preliminary Results of...

    2010-01-29

    ...-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon- quality steel plate products... that the Department conduct an administrative review of its sales and entries of subject merchandise...

  16. 78 FR 16252 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India, Indonesia, and Thailand: Final Results...

    2013-03-14

    ... Indonesia P.T. Krakatau Steel 10.21 All Others 10.21 Thailand Sahaviriya Steel Industries Public Company...] Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India, Indonesia, and Thailand: Final Results of... products (``HR steel'') from India, Indonesia, and Thailand pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of...

  17. Dissolved lipid production in the Northern Adriatic (Mediterranean) in response to sea surface warmin

    Gasparovic, Blazenka; Novak, Tihana; Godrijan, Jelena; Mlakar, Marina; MAric, Daniela; Djakovac, Tamara

    2017-04-01

    Marine dissolved organic matter (OM) represents one of the largest active pools of organic carbon in the global carbon cycle. Oceans and seas are responsible for half of global primary production. Ocean warming caused by climate change is already starting to impact the marine life that necessary will have impact on ocean productivity. The partition of OM production by phytoplankton (major OM producer in seas and ocens) in the conditions of rising temperatures may considerably change. This has implications for the export of organic matter from the photic zone. In this study, we set out to see how annual temperature changes between 10 and 30 C in the Northern Adriatic (Mediterranean) affect production of DOM and particularly dissolved lipids and lipid classes. We have sampled at two stations being oligotrophic and mesotrophic where we expected different system reaction to temperature changes. In addition, we performed microcosm incubations covering temperature range of the NA with nutrient amendments to test whether changes in the available nutrients would reflect those of dissolved OM in the NA. We have selected to work with extracellular OM produced during growth of diatom Chaetoceros curvisetus cultures according to the criteria that genera Chaetoceros are important component of the phytoplankton in the NA and are often among bloom-forming taxa. Details on the dissolved lipid and lipid classes production as plankton responce to rising temperature will be discussed.

  18. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology

    Bambang Tri Nugroho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a renewable fuel. The production of biodiesel by conventional transesterification process employs alkali or acid catalyst and has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. However for alkali catalyst, there may be risk of free acid or water contamination and soap formation is likely to take place which makes the separation process difficult. Although yield is high, the acids, being corrosive, may cause damage to the equipment and the reaction rate was also observed to be low. This research focuses on empirical modeling and optimization for the biodiesel production over plasma reactor. The plasma reactor technology is more promising than the conventional catalytic processes due to the reducing reaction time and easy in product separation. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 August 2009, Revised: 5 September 2009, Accepted: 12 October 2009][How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, P. Marwoto, S. Suherman, B.T. Nugroho (2009. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 23-31. doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.23.23-31][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.23.23-31

  19. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology

    Istadi Istadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a renewable fuel. The production of biodiesel by conventional transesterification process employs alkali or acid catalyst and has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. However for alkali catalyst, there may be risk of free acid or water contamination and soap formation is likely to take place which makes the separation process difficult. Although yield is high, the acids, being corrosive, may cause damage to the equipment and the reaction rate was also observed to be low. This research focuses on empirical modeling and optimization for the biodiesel production over plasma reactor. The plasma reactor technology is more promising than the conventional catalytic processes due to the reducing reaction time and easy in product separation. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 August 2009, Revised: 5 September 2009, Accepted: 12 October 2009][How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, P. Marwoto, S. Suherman, B.T. Nugroho (2009. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 23-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7115.23-31][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7115.23-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7115

  20. Threshold responses in cinnamic-aldehyde-sensitive subjects: results and methodological aspects

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Rastogi, S C

    1996-01-01

    Cinnamic aldehyde is an important fragrance material and contact allergen. The present study was performed to provide quantitative data on the eliciting capacity of cinnamic aldehyde, to be considered in assessment of clinical relevance and health hazard. The skin response to serial dilution patch...

  1. Short-term adaptations as a response to travel time: results of a stated adaptation experimentincreases

    Psarra, I.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on short-term dynamics of activity-travel behavior as a response to travel time increases. It is assumed that short-term changes are triggered by stress, which is defined as the deviation between an individual’s aspirations and his or her daily experiences. When stress exceeds a

  2. Added value of pharmacogenetic testing in predicting statin response: Results from the REGRESS trial

    Van Der Baan, F.H.; Knol, M.J.; Maitland-Van Der Zee, A.H.; Regieli, J.J.; Van Iperen, E.P.A.; Egberts, A.C.G.; Klungel, O.H.; Grobbee, D.E.; Jukema, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    It was investigated whether pharmacogenetic factors, both as single polymorphism and as gene-gene interactions, have an added value over non-genetic factors in predicting statin response. Five common polymorphisms were selected in apolipoprotein E, angiotensin-converting enzyme, hepatic lipase and

  3. Synthesising empirical results to improve predictions of post-wildfire runoff and erosion response

    Richard A. Shakesby; John A. Moody; Deborah A. Martin; Pete Robichaud

    2016-01-01

    Advances in research into wildfire impacts on runoff and erosion have demonstrated increasing complexity of controlling factors and responses, which, combined with changing fire frequency, present challenges for modellers. We convened a conference attended by experts and practitioners in post-wildfire impacts, meteorology and related research, including...

  4. Social marketing and social responsibility of the business: intercoupling and results

    T.V. Shtal; O.O. Tyshchenko

    2012-01-01

    In article is considered problem of social marketing concepts use, problems of provision business-structures to social responsibility and competitiveness provision as criterion to efficiency social-oriented marketing programs. Author not only sets the problem install the correspondence between specified category, but also reveal the criterion to social-directed marketing decisions efficiency.

  5. Familial aggregation of VO(2max) response to exercise training: results from the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Bouchard, C; An, P; Rice, T; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Gagnon, J; Pérusse, L; Leon, A S; Rao, D C

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that individual differences in the response of maximal O(2) uptake (VO(2max)) to a standardized training program are characterized by familial aggregation. A total of 481 sedentary adult Caucasians from 98 two-generation families was exercise trained for 20 wk and was tested for VO(2max) on a cycle ergometer twice before and twice after the training program. The mean increase in VO(2max) reached approximately 400 ml/min, but there was considerable heterogeneity in responsiveness, with some individuals experiencing little or no gain, whereas others gained >1.0 l/min. An ANOVA revealed that there was 2.5 times more variance between families than within families in the VO(2max) response variance. With the use of a model-fitting procedure, the most parsimonious models yielded a maximal heritability estimate of 47% for the VO(2max) response, which was adjusted for age and sex with a maternal transmission of 28% in one of the models. We conclude that the trainability of VO(2max) is highly familial and includes a significant genetic component.

  6. The effect of animated images on persuasion: The mediator role of hedonic responses and the moderator role of product category

    Hussant-Zebian, Rola

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the mediator role of hedonic responses in the relation between animated images and attitudinal responses. It has another objective which is to show off the moderator role of product category. To this purpose, we have manipulated two categories of advertising opposing computer animated to non-computer animated images. We have also seetwo product categories : a high involvement product and a low involvement one.

  7. Training for the medical response in radiological emergency experiences and results

    Cardenas Herrera, J.; Lopez Forteza, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The use of the nuclear techniques int he social practice confers a special imporatnce to the relative aspects to the safety of the practices and radiationsources, for what the implementation of efficient programs of radiation protection constitutes a priority. However in spite of the will before expressed, regrettably radiological situations happen accidental assocaited to multiple causes taht suggest the creation of response capacities to intervention before these fortuitous facts. The experiences accumulated in the last decades related with accidental exposures have evidenced the convenience of having properly qualified human resources for the Medical Response in Radiological Emergencies. The training in the medical aspects of the radiological emergencies acquires a singular character. In such a sense when valuing the national situation put onof manifest deficiences as for the training in medical aspects of the radiological emergencies that advised the development of training programs in such aspects for the different response groups linked to the topic. After identified the training necessities and the scope of the same ones, the contents of the training program were elaborated. The program has as general purpose the invigoration of the capacity of the medical response in front of accidental radiological situations, by means of actions that they bear to prepare groups of medical response in the handling of people accident victims and to the identification of potentials,accidental scenarios, as well as of the necessary resources to confront them. The program content approaches theoretical and paractical aspects to the medical aspect to radiological emergencies. The program include the different topics about fundamental of physical biological to radiation protection, radiation protection during exposure of radiological accidents, medical care for overexposed or contaminated persons, drill, exercises and concludes with designation of a strategy as preparation and

  8. The Spanish system for the radiological surveillance and control of scrap and the products resulting from its processing

    Gil, E.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the fact that the use of radiation technologies has always been subjected to strict controls in most countries, the presence of radioactive materials in scrap has been detected relatively often in recent years. This has led to the implementation of a series of international initiatives aimed at detecting and preventing illicit international trafficking with radioactive material, intentional or otherwise. The Spanish iron and steel industry is one of the most important industrial sectors in the country, and depends to a large extent on the importing of a significant proportion of the scrap its uses as raw material. Experience has shown that that countries that import large quantities of scrap should complement the aforementioned international initiatives with others of national scope, in order to reduce the risks arising from the presence of radioactive material in scrap. In this context, the Spanish radiological protection authorities, along with the business associations involved in the metal recovery and smelting industry, have established a national system for the radiological surveillance and control of scrap and of the products resulting from its processing. The system consists of a set of legal bases, the installation of specific radiological surveillance equipment and the enhancement of other general purpose equipment that existed prior to these initiatives, the development of radiological training and information plans for the professionals involved in the metal recovery and smelting sectors and improvement to the national radiological emergency response system. (author)

  9. Effects of dietary Capsicum oleoresin on productivity and immune responses in lactating dairy cows.

    Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Frederick, T; Pate, J; Walusimbi, S; Elias, R J; Wall, E H; Bravo, D; Hristov, A N

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of Capsicum oleoresin in granular form (CAP) on nutrient digestibility, immune responses, oxidative stress markers, blood chemistry, rumen fermentation, rumen bacterial populations, and productivity of lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, including 3 ruminally cannulated, were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Experimental periods were 25 d in duration, including a 14-d adaptation and an 11-d data collection and sampling period. Treatments included control (no CAP) and daily supplementation of 250, 500, or 1,000 mg of CAP/cow. Dry matter intake was not affected by CAP (average 27.0±0.64 kg/d), but milk yield tended to quadratically increase with CAP supplementation (50.3 to 51.9±0.86 kg/d). Capsicum oleoresin quadratically increased energy-corrected milk yield, but had no effect on milk fat concentration. Rumen fermentation variables, apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients, and N excretion in feces and urine were not affected by CAP. Blood serum β-hydroxybutyrate was quadratically increased by CAP, whereas the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was similar among treatments. Rumen populations of Bacteroidales, Prevotella, and Roseburia decreased and Butyrivibrio increased quadratically with CAP supplementation. T cell phenotypes were not affected by treatment. Mean fluorescence intensity for phagocytic activity of neutrophils tended to be quadratically increased by CAP. Numbers of neutrophils and eosinophils and the ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes in peripheral blood linearly increased with increasing CAP. Oxidative stress markers were not affected by CAP. Overall, in the conditions of this experiment, CAP did not affect feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, T cell phenotypes, and oxidative stress markers. However, energy-corrected milk yield was quadratically increased by CAP, possibly as a result of enhanced mobilization of body fat reserves. In

  10. Design and optimization of hydrogen production from hydrothermally pretreated sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodology.

    Soares, Lais Américo; Braga, Juliana Kawanishi; Motteran, Fabrício; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Silva, Edson Luiz; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio

    2017-07-01

    Hydrogen production from hydrothermally pretreated (200 °C for 10 min at 16 bar) sugarcane bagasse was analyzed using response surface methodology. The yeast extract concentration and the temperature had a significant influence for hydrogen production (p-value 0.027 and 0.009, respectively). Maximum hydrogen production (17.7 mmol/L) was observed with 3 g/L yeast extract at 60 °C (C10). In this conditions were produced acetic acid (50.44 mg/L), butyric acid (209.71 mg/L), ethanol (38.4 mg/L), and methane (6.27 mmol/L). Lower hydrogen productions (3.5 mmol/L and 3.9 mmol/L) were observed under the conditions C7 (2 g/L of yeast extract, 35.8 °C) and C9 (1 g/L of yeast extract, 40 °C), respectively. The low yeast extract concentration and low temperature caused a negative effect on the hydrogen production. By means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis 20% of similarity was observed between the archaeal population of mesophilic (35 and 40 °C) and thermophilic (50, 60 and 64 °C) reactors. Likewise, similarity of 22% was noted between the bacterial population for the reactors with the lowest hydrogen production (3.5 mmol/L), at 35.8 °C and with the highest hydrogen production (17.7 mmol/L) at 60 °C demonstrating that microbial population modification was a function of incubation temperature variation.

  11. Reproductive responses and productive characteristics in ewes supplemented with detoxified castor meal for a long period

    Liliane Moreira Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with detoxified castor meal (DCM in the diet of ewes during pregnancy, partum, and post-partum on the weight development of their offspring and at slaughter. The study included 56 ewes with synchronized estrus that were naturally mated. At the beginning of pregnancy and in post-partum, hepatic and renal function-related parameters and progesterone levels were measured. At slaughter, the proximate composition and fatty acid profile were determined in the loin of ewes. There was no effect of diet on reproductive response after estrus synchronization. At the beginning of pregnancy, albumin and creatinine levels were lower in the DCM group. Supplementation with DCM did not alter the weight or body condition of ewes at partum. However, at weaning, the DCM group showed a higher loin-eye area (LEA in relation to the group fed diets without detoxified castor meal (WDCM. At partum, as well as at weaning, the offspring of the ewes supplemented with DCM had a larger LEA than the WDCM group. In post-partum, levels of glucose, urea, protein, and cholesterol were lower in the DCM group. The return to cyclicity was similar in both groups, with an average of 47 days after partum. At slaughter, neither anatomical and carcass components nor the results of the proximate analysis were affected by the type of diet, except for an increase in heptadecanoic acid in the DCM group. Supplementation with detoxified castor meal in the diet of ewes does not affect lambing, pregnancy, prolificacy, return to cyclicity, milk production, blood biochemical parameters, or carcass characteristics.

  12. Results on the EW gauge boson and jet production (including sensitivity to PDFs)

    Richter-Was, Elzbieta; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The production of jets in association with vector bosons is an important process to study perturbative QCD in a multi-scale environment. The LHC collaborations have performed measurements of vector boson+jets cross sections, differential in several kinematic variables, in proton-proton collision data taken at center-of-mass energies of 8TeV and 13TeV. Measurements explored also extreme phase-space: EW production and collinear W emissions. Discussed is also precise measurement of leptons angular correlations for Z+j production at high pT. The measurements are compared to state-of-the art theory predictions and can be used to constrain the proton structure. In this context discussed are also high precision measurement of the differential W and Z boson cross-sections.

  13. [Optimization of ethylene production from ethanol dehydration using Zn-Mn-Co/HZSM-5 by response surface methodology].

    Wang, Wei; Cheng, Keke; Xue, Jianwei; Zhang, Jian'an

    2011-03-01

    The effects of reaction temperature, ethanol concentration and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) on the ethylene production from ethanol dehydration using zinc, manganese and cobalt modified HZSM-5 catalyst were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the most significant effect among factors was reaction temperature and the factors had interaction. The optimum conditions were found as 34.4% ethanol concentration, 261.3 0 degrees C of reaction temperature and 1.18 h(-1) of WHSV, under these conditions the yield of ethylene achieved 98.69%.

  14. Modelling contrasting responses of wetland productivity to changes in water table depth

    R. F. Grant

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Responses of wetland productivity to changes in water table depth (WTD are controlled by complex interactions among several soil and plant processes, and hence are site-specific rather than general in nature. Hydrological controls on wetland productivity were studied by representing these interactions in connected hummock and hollow sites in the ecosystem model ecosys, and by testing CO2 and energy fluxes from the model with those measured by eddy covariance (EC during years with contrasting WTD in a shrub fen at Lost Creek, WI. Modelled interactions among coupled processes for O2 transfer, O2 uptake, C oxidation, N mineralization, N uptake and C fixation by diverse microbial, root and mycorrhizal populations enabled the model to simulate complex responses of CO2 exchange to changes in WTD that depended on the WTD at which change was occurring. At the site scale, greater WTD caused the model to simulate greater CO2 influxes and effluxes over hummocks vs. hollows, as has been found at field sites. At the landscape scale, greater WTD caused the model to simulate greater diurnal CO2 influxes and effluxes under cooler weather when water tables were shallow, but also smaller diurnal CO2 influxes and effluxes under warmer weather when water tables were deeper, as was also apparent in the EC flux measurements. At an annual time scale, these diurnal responses to WTD in the model caused lower net primary productivity (NPP and heterotrophic respiration (Rh, but higher net ecosystem productivity (NEP = NPP − Rh, to be simulated in a cooler year with a shallower water table than in a warmer year with a deeper one. This difference in NEP was consistent with those estimated from gap-filled EC fluxes in years with different water tables at Lost Creek and at similar boreal fens elsewhere. In sensitivity tests of the model, annual NEP

  15. Partial dissociative emission cross sections and product state distributions of the resulting photofragments

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu., E-mail: Sergy.Grebenshchikov@ch.tum.de

    2016-12-20

    This paper relates the partial cross section of a continuous optical emission into a given scattering channel of the lower electronic state to the photofragment population. This allows one to infer partial emission cross sections ‘non-optically’ from product state distributions; in computations, explicit construction of exact scattering states is therefore avoided. Applications to the emission spectra of NaI, CO{sub 2}, and pyrrole are given. It is also demonstrated that a similar relationship holds between partial cross sections of dissociative photoionization and distributions of ionic fragments over final product channels.

  16. Beyond production: Brain responses during speech perception in adults who stutter

    Tali Halag-Milo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental stuttering is a speech disorder that disrupts the ability to produce speech fluently. While stuttering is typically diagnosed based on one's behavior during speech production, some models suggest that it involves more central representations of language, and thus may affect language perception as well. Here we tested the hypothesis that developmental stuttering implicates neural systems involved in language perception, in a task that manipulates comprehensibility without an overt speech production component. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signals in adults who do and do not stutter, while they were engaged in an incidental speech perception task. We found that speech perception evokes stronger activation in adults who stutter (AWS compared to controls, specifically in the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG and in left Heschl's gyrus (LHG. Significant differences were additionally found in the lateralization of response in the inferior frontal cortex: AWS showed bilateral inferior frontal activity, while controls showed a left lateralized pattern of activation. These findings suggest that developmental stuttering is associated with an imbalanced neural network for speech processing, which is not limited to speech production, but also affects cortical responses during speech perception.

  17. Physiological response and productivity of safflower lines under water deficit and rehydration.

    Bortolheiro, Fernanda P A P; Silva, Marcelo A

    2017-01-01

    Water deficit is one of the major stresses affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. Plants induce various morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes to adapt to the changing environment. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), a potential oil producer, is highly adaptable to various environmental conditions, such as lack of rainfall and temperatures. The objective of this work was to study the physiological and production characteristics of six safflower lines in response to water deficit followed by rehydration. The experiment was conducted in a protected environment and consisted of 30 days of water deficit followed by 18 days of rehydration. A differential response in terms of photosynthetic pigments, electrolyte leakage, water potential, relative water content, grain yield, oil content, oil yield and water use efficiency was observed in the six lines under water stress. Lines IMA 04, IMA 10, IMA 14 showed physiological characteristics of drought tolerance, with IMA 14 and IMA 16 being the most productive after water deficit. IMA 02 and IMA 21 lines displayed intermediate characteristics of drought tolerance. It was concluded that the lines responded differently to water deficit stress, showing considerable genetic variation and influence to the environment.

  18. Physiological response and productivity of safflower lines under water deficit and rehydration

    FERNANDA P.A.P. BORTOLHEIRO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water deficit is one of the major stresses affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. Plants induce various morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes to adapt to the changing environment. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L., a potential oil producer, is highly adaptable to various environmental conditions, such as lack of rainfall and temperatures. The objective of this work was to study the physiological and production characteristics of six safflower lines in response to water deficit followed by rehydration. The experiment was conducted in a protected environment and consisted of 30 days of water deficit followed by 18 days of rehydration. A differential response in terms of photosynthetic pigments, electrolyte leakage, water potential, relative water content, grain yield, oil content, oil yield and water use efficiency was observed in the six lines under water stress. Lines IMA 04, IMA 10, IMA 14 showed physiological characteristics of drought tolerance, with IMA 14 and IMA 16 being the most productive after water deficit. IMA 02 and IMA 21 lines displayed intermediate characteristics of drought tolerance. It was concluded that the lines responded differently to water deficit stress, showing considerable genetic variation and influence to the environment.

  19. Net primary productivity and its partitioning in response to precipitation gradient in an alpine meadow.

    Zhang, Fangyue; Quan, Quan; Song, Bing; Sun, Jian; Chen, Youjun; Zhou, Qingping; Niu, Shuli

    2017-11-09

    The dynamics of net primary productivity (NPP) and its partitioning to the aboveground versus belowground are of fundamental importance to understand carbon cycling and its feedback to climate change. However, the responses of NPP and its partitioning to precipitation gradient are poorly understood. We conducted a manipulative field experiment with six precipitation treatments (1/12 P, 1/4 P, 1/2 P, 3/4 P, P, and 5/4 P, P is annual precipitation) in an alpine meadow to examine aboveground and belowground NPP (ANPP and BNPP) in response to precipitation gradient in 2015 and 2016. We found that changes in precipitation had no significant impact on ANPP or belowground biomass in 2015. Compared with control, only the extremely drought treatment (1/12 P) significantly reduced ANPP by 37.68% and increased BNPP at the depth of 20-40 cm by 80.59% in 2016. Across the gradient, ANPP showed a nonlinear response to precipitation amount in 2016. Neither BNPP nor NPP had significant relationship with precipitation changes. The variance in ANPP were mostly due to forbs production, which was ultimately caused by altering soil water content and soil inorganic nitrogen concentration. The nonlinear precipitation-ANPP relationship indicates that future precipitation changes especially extreme drought will dramatically decrease ANPP and push this ecosystem beyond threshold.

  20. Transesterification of Waste Cooking Sunflower Oil by Porcine Pancreas Lipase Using Response Surface Methodology for Biodiesel Production

    Soraya Ebrahimi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Biodiesel production from recycled vegetable oils is considered as an economically acceptable alternative for fossil fuels in the recent years. In this work, porcine pancreas lipase as an active catalyst in transesterification reaction of waste cooking sunflower oil with methanol for biodiesel production was used.Material and Methods: In order to define optimum process parameters and predict the best results, response surface methodology and the central composite design was performed. The effects of methanol to oil molar ratio, lipase concentration and reaction temperature on transesterification were investigated. Biodiesel production was carried out in 25 ml shake flasks at 180 rpm for 72 h.Results and Conclusion: Under optimal conditions, the biodiesel yield was 75% which was nearly consistent with the predicted yield of 76%. At optimal conditions the molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature, and lipase percent were determined as 3:1, 44°C and 4.4%, respectively. Due to relatively high obtained yield, biodiesel production from waste cooking sunflower oil has provided a sound environmental and commercial process.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  1. Vegetation productivity responses to drought on tribal lands in the four corners region of the Southwest USA

    El-Vilaly, Mohamed Abd Salam; Didan, Kamel; Marsh, Stuart E.; van Leeuwen, Willem J. D.; Crimmins, Michael A.; Munoz, Armando Barreto

    2018-03-01

    For more than a decade, the Four Corners Region has faced extensive and persistent drought conditions that have impacted vegetation communities and local water resources while exacerbating soil erosion. These persistent droughts threaten ecosystem services, agriculture, and livestock activities, and expose the hypersensitivity of this region to inter-annual climate variability and change. Much of the intermountainWestern United States has sparse climate and vegetation monitoring stations, making fine-scale drought assessments difficult. Remote sensing data offers the opportunity to assess the impacts of the recent droughts on vegetation productivity across these areas. Here, we propose a drought assessment approach that integrates climate and topographical data with remote sensing vegetation index time series. Multisensor Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series data from 1989 to 2010 at 5.6 km were analyzed to characterize the vegetation productivity changes and responses to the ongoing drought. A multi-linear regression was applied to metrics of vegetation productivity derived from the NDVI time series to detect vegetation productivity, an ecosystem service proxy, and changes. The results show that around 60.13% of the study area is observing a general decline of greenness ( pchallenges to the region's already stressed ecosystems. Whereas the results provide additional insights into this isolated and vulnerable region, the drought assessment approach used in this study may be adapted for application in other regions where surface-based climate and vegetation monitoring record is spatially and temporally limited.

  2. Double product response and diastolic blood pressure in treadmill, stationary bicycle and muscular circuit exercises

    Elmiro Santos Resende

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the various causes for cardiovascular problems affecting the world population nowadays, the most relevant risk factors is sedentary lifestyle. Many studies have been carried out to analyse and elucidate main adaptations on the cardiovascular system stimulated by different sorts of exercises.In this way, this study had aimed at comparing the acute response of double product (DP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP after treadmill (TRM, stationary bicycle (BIC or muscle circuit training (MCT exercises. Nine individuals (6 women and 3 men exercised at 60% of heart rate reserve (HRR on the TRM and BIC and at 60% of one repetition maximum (1RM in MCT. The results showed that pre- and post-effort DP were significantly difference in all three exercises. However, DP did not differ among exercise types. The hypotensive DBP pos-effort response was greater in MCT. According to the results, it was concluded that there is no difference on the heart work demand rate estimated by DP among the three exercises and MCT at 60% 1RM provokes a greater hypotensive DBP post-effort response. RESUMO Entre as diversas causas de problemas cardiovasculares que afetam a população mundial, na atualidade, o sedentarismo é apontado como um dos fatores de risco mais relevantes. Vários estudos têm se preocupado em analisar e esclarecer as principais adaptações provocadas pelos diferentes tipos de exercícios sobre o sistema cardiovascular. Seguindo esta linha o presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar e comparar a resposta aguda do duplo produto (DP e a pressão arterial diastólica (PAD em exercício de esteira, bicicleta estacionária e circuito na musculação. Foram avaliados nove indivíduos sendo seis mulheres e três homens, na esteira, a 60% da freqüência cardíaca de reserva (FCR, na bicicleta estacionária, a 60% FCR e circuito de musculação a 60% de 1 repetição máxima (1RM. Os resultados encontrados apresentaram diferença significativa do DP pr

  3. Double product response and diastolic blood pressure in treadmill, stationary bicycle and muscular circuit exercises

    Leandro Teixeira Paranhos Lopes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the various causes for cardiovascular problems affecting the world population nowadays, the most relevant risk factors is sedentary lifestyle. Many studies have been carried out to analyse and elucidate main adaptations on the cardiovascular system stimulated by different sorts of exercises.In this way, this study had aimed at comparing the acute response of double product (DP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP after treadmill (TRM, stationary bicycle (BIC or muscle circuit training (MCT exercises. Nine individuals (6 women and 3 men exercised at 60% of heart rate reserve (HRR on the TRM and BIC and at 60% of one repetition maximum (1RM in MCT. The results showed that pre- and post-effort DP were significantly difference in all three exercises. However, DP did not differ among exercise types. The hypotensive DBP pos-effort response was greater in MCT. According to the results, it was concluded that there is no difference on the heart work demand rate estimated by DP among the three exercises and MCT at 60% 1RM provokes a greater hypotensive DBP post-effort response. . Resumo Entre as diversas causas de problemas cardiovasculares que afetam a população mundial, na atualidade, o sedentarismo é apontado como um dos fatores de risco mais relevantes. Vários estudos têm se preocupado em analisar e esclarecer as principais adaptações provocadas pelos diferentes tipos de exercícios sobre o sistema cardiovascular. Seguindo esta linha o presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar e comparar a resposta aguda do duplo produto (DP e a pressão arterial diastólica (PAD em exercício de esteira, bicicleta estacionária e circuito na musculação. Foram avaliados nove indivíduos sendo seis mulheres e três homens, na esteira, a 60% da freqüência cardíaca de reserva (FCR, na bicicleta estacionária, a 60% FCR e circuito de musculação a 60% de 1 repetição máxima (1RM. Os resultados encontrados apresentaram diferença significativa do DP

  4. High fat feeding results in a decrease in insulin responsiveness of isolated solei

    Grundleger, M.L.; Preves, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between diet and insulin responsiveness was examined in isolated solei from 6 week old female Sprague-Dawley rats. Weanling rats were fed either a high fat (HF) (67%kcal) or a high carbohydrate diet (HC) (67% kcal) for 21 days. A significant decrease in plasma insulin (I) but not glucose was observed in the HF fed rats. Insulin stimulated (IS) glucose (G) metabolism was examined using a maximal concentration of I (20 mU/m1). G uptake was estimated using 14 C-2 deoxyglucose (2DG). Basal and IS 2DG uptake decreased in HF rats. However, I sensitivity but not responsiveness remained intact in the HF rats. Total G utilization (GU) was estimated by the sum of the rate of formation of: 3 H 2 O from 5- 3 H-glucose [glycolysis- (GL)] and 3 H-glycogen (GLY). IS GU decreased in HF versus HC fed rats. I failed to stimulate GL while GLY remained sensitive. Glucose oxidation (GO) was measured by 14 CO 2 . I failed to stimulated GO. Intracellular metabolite concentrations (IC) were measured in solei from HF and HC fed rats. IS IC-G6P decreased in HF compared to HC fed rats. Basal IC-F6P but not IC-F 1.6 BP increased in HF compared to HC fed rats. I failed to stimulate an increase in IC-F 1,6BP concentrations. Glycolytic activators were determined. HF produced a significant decrease in F2, 6BP concentration when compared to HC rats. Prostaglandins (PG) have been implicated in mediating insulin action. HF produced a significant decrease in basal and insulin stimulated PGE 2 . These data demonstrate that postreceptor - postmembrane alterations are in part responsible for the decreased insulin responsiveness observed after HF feeding

  5. Heavy metals content in plant-growing products as the results of agroecological monitoring

    Kuznetsov, A.V.; Lunev, M.I.; Pavlikhina, A.V.; Lobas, N.V.

    2008-01-01

    The generalised data on the heavy metals and arsenic contents in grain and vegetable cultures, green mass and hay of various grasses are presented. The dependence of heavy metal accumulation factors in plant-growing products on soil properties is shown. The estimation of levels of the heavy metals contents in accordance with the admissible content standards is given.

  6. The influence of slaughterhouse waste on fermentative H2 production from food waste: preliminary results.

    Boni, Maria Rosaria; Sbaffoni, Silvia; Tuccinardi, Letizia

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of slaughterhouse waste (SHW; essentially the skin, fats, and meat waste of pork, poultry, and beef) in a fermentative co-digestion process for H2 production from pre-selected organic waste taken from a refectory (food waste [FW]). Batch tests under mesophilic conditions were conducted in stirred reactors filled with different proportions of FW and SHW. The addition of 60% and 70% SHW to a mixture of SHW and FW improved H2 production compared to that in FW only, reaching H2-production yields of 145 and 109 ml g VS 0(-1), respectively, which are 1.5-2 times higher than that obtained with FW alone. Although the SHW ensured a more stable fermentative process due to its high buffering capacity, a depletion of H2 production occurred when SHW fraction was higher than 70%. Above this percentage, the formation of foam and aggregated material created non-homogenous conditions of digestion. Additionally, the increasing amount of SHW in the reactors may lead to an accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which are potentially toxic for anaerobic microorganisms and may inhibit the normal evolution of the fermentative process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation results for lifetime test of conversion LEU fuel in plutonium production reactors

    Vatulin, A.; Stetskiy, Yu.; Kukharkin, N.; Kalougin, A.; Gavrilov, P.; Ivanov, A.

    1999-01-01

    The program of converting Russian production reactors for the purpose to stop their plutonium fabrication is currently in progress. The program also provides for operation of these reactors under the conversion mode with using of low-enriched fuel (LEU). LEU fuel elements were developed and activities related to their preparation for reactor tests were carried out. (author)

  8. Central location test vs. home use test: Contrasting results depending on product type

    Boutrolle, I.; Delarue, J.; Arranz, D.; Rogeaux, M.; Köster, E.P.

    2007-01-01

    Marketing professionals and sensory scientists have several hedonic testing methods at their disposal to assess product acceptability. The central location test (CLT) which usually takes place in a standardised location under controlled conditions is more frequently used than the home use test

  9. Process for manufacture of inertial confinement fusion targets and resulting product

    Solomon, D.E.; Wise, K.D.; Wuttke, G.H.; Masnari, N.A.; Rensel, W.B.; Robinson, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A method of manufacturing inertial confinement fusion targets is described which is adaptable for high volume production of low cost targets in a wide variety of sizes. The targets include a spherical pellet of fusion fuel surrounded by a protective concentric shell. (UK)

  10. Assessment of the results of the strategic orientation on regional and local products in food retail

    Kamil Pícha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess if there is a difference in food choice behaviour between regular customers of stores of the retail chain Terno and other consumers. Consequently, the paper aims to discover, if the strategy formulated by the consumer co-operative Jednota České Budějovice was a good strategy. The core of this strategy is the orientation on the region, local and regional food and food products and the co-operation with local small and medium suppliers. Another part of this strategy is also the permanent control of quality of these products and creation of the special private label – Quality food from our region. The consumer co-operative co-operates also with the regional grouping under another label – Tastes great. Southbohemian. The assessment is done by means of the analysis of a questionnaire survey that was done among consumers in the South Bohemia in 2011. The strongest factor differentiating customers of the retail chain TERNO from other consumer is the orientation on regional or local products, which explains about 41% of variability. Other differentiating factors are environment-friendly production and selling and quality of food. All these three factors explain in total 66.5% of variability of the data set.

  11. Space flight research leading to the development of enhanced plant products: Results from STS-94

    Stodieck, Louis S.; Hoehn, Alex; Heyenga, A. Gerard

    1998-01-01

    Products derived from plants, such as foods, pharmaceuticals, lumber, paper, oils, etc., are pervasive in everyday life and generate revenues in the hundreds of billions of dollars. Research on space-grown plants has the potential to alter quantities, properties and types of plant-derived products in beneficial ways. Research on space grown plants may help expand the utilization of this resource for Earth based benefit to an even greater extent. The use of space flight conditions may help provide a greater understanding and ultimate manipulation of the metabolic and genetic control of commercially important plant products. Companies that derive and sell plant products could significantly benefit from investing in space research and development. A flight investigation was conducted on the Shuttle mission STS-94 to establish the initial experimental conditions necessary to test the hypothesis that the exposure of certain plant forms to an adequate period of microgravity may divert the cell metabolic expenditure on structural compounds such as lignin to alternative secondary metabolic compounds which are of commercial interest. Nine species of plants were grown for 16 days in the Astro/Plant Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (Astro/PGBA) under well-controlled environmental conditions. Approximately half of the plant species exhibited significant growth comparable with synchronous ground controls. The other flight plant species were stunted and showed signs of stress with the cause still under investigation. For the plants that grew well, analyses are underway and are expected to demonstrate the potential for space flight biotechnology research.

  12. Production of single top quark - results from the Tevatron and the LHC

    Moon, Chang-Seong

    2014-01-01

    We present the most recent measurements of single top quark production cross section by the CDF and D0 experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider and the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The data were collected at the Tevatron corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-antiproton ($p\\bar p$) collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV and at the LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 4.9 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton ($pp$) collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV in 2011 and up to 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV in 2012. The measurements of single top quark production in $s$-channel, $t$-channel and associated production of a top quark and a $W$-boson ($tW$ production) are presented separately and lower limits on the CKM matrix element $|V_{tb}|$ from the single top quark cross section are set.

  13. Stackelberg leadership with product differentiation and endogenous entry: some comparative static and limiting results

    Žigić, Krešimir

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2012), s. 221-232 ISSN 0931-8658 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : Stackelberg leadership * product differentiation * endogenous entry Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.512, year: 2012

  14. Stackelberg leadership with product differentiation and endogenous entry: some comparative static and limiting results

    Žigić, Krešimir

    -, č. 369 (2008), s. 1-12 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : Stackelberg leader ship * product differentiation * endogenous entry Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp369.pdf

  15. 78 FR 34640 - Certain Lined Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    2013-06-10

    ... be treated as part of the PRC-wide entity; Shanghai Lian Li Paper Products Co., Ltd. (``Lian Li... Hwa Fuh Plastics Co., Ltd./Li Teng Plastics (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd. (``Hwa Fuh/Li Teng'') could not be... Central Records Unit (``CRU''), room 7046 of the main Department of Commerce building. In addition, a...

  16. Potential for Increased Photosynthetic Performance and Crop Productivity in Response to Climate Change: role of CBFs and Gibberellic Acid

    Norman Peter Andrew Huner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose that targeting the dwarf phenotype, enhanced photosynthetic performance typically associated with the cold acclimation of winter cultivars of rye (Secale cereale L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Brassica napus L. may provide a novel approach to improve crop yield and productivity under abiotic as well as biotic stress conditions. In support of this hypothesis, we provide the physiological, biochemical and molecular evidence that the dwarf phenotype induced by cold acclimation is coupled to significant enhancement in photosynthetic performance, resistance to photoinhibition and a decreased dependence on photoprotection through nonphotochemical quenching which result in enhanced biomass production and ultimately increased seed yield. These system-wide changes at the levels of phenotype, physiology and biochemistry appear to be governed by the family of C-repeat / dehydration-responsive family of transcription factors (CBF/DREB1. We relate this phenomenon to the semi-dwarf, gibberellic acid insensitive, cereal varieties developed during the green revolution of the early 1960s and 1970s. We suggest that genetic manipulation of the family of C-repeat / dehydration-responsive element binding transcription factors (CBF/DREB1 may provide a novel approach for the maintenance and perhaps even the enhancement of plant productivity under conditions of sub-optimal growth conditions predicted for our future climate.

  17. Radioadaptive response: the results of a two-year follow-up study on a non-responder

    Mortazavi, Javad S M.; Ikushima, Takaji

    2001-01-01

    Scientists have been aware for many years that low doses of ionizing radiation may cause some changes in the cells and organisms, which lead to an adaptation to the detrimental effects of relatively high doses of radiation. In spite of the fact that human lymphocytes exposed in vivo to different adapting doses show a radioadaptive response (e.g. induction of radioadaptive response in radiation workers, residents of the contaminated areas after Chernobyl accident or the inhabitants of high background radiation areas), it is still an open question why the radioadaptive response cannot be induced in the lymphocytes of some individuals. We and other investigators reported that some non-responders showed a significant increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations after an adapting dose. Considering the fact that we still don't know the frequency of non-responders in the population, any implication of radioadaptive response in the estimation of the risks of low-level exposure would be problematical. In this paper, we present the results of our two-year follow-up study on a non-responder. In 1998, we found out that one of the blood donors did not show radioadaptive response in any experiments. Interestingly, in some cases the donor's lymphocytes showed a strong synergistic effect after exposure to an adapting dose. As it was claimed that the existence or lack of radioadaptive response is possibly dependent on some transient physiological parameters, we evaluated the responses of this donor to a common adapting dose in a two-year follow-up study. The results showed that non-responsiveness was not a transient phenomenon. The non-responder donor never showed a radioadaptive response despite some changes in the magnitude of the synergistic effect induced by an adapting dose. These results suggest that the non-responsiveness of this donor is probably determined by some non-transient biological factors such as the genetic constitution. (authors)

  18. Results of the Level 1 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of internal events for heavy water production reactors (U)

    Tinnes, S.P.; Cramer, D.S.; Logan, V.E.; Topp, S.V.; Smith, J.A.; Brandyberry, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a full-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) performed for the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors. The Level 1 PRA for the K Reactor has been completed and includes the assessment of reactor systems response to accidents and estimates of the severe core melt frequency (SCMF). The internal events spectrum includes those events related directly to plant systems and safety functions for which transients or failures may initiate an accident

  19. Optimization for the Production of Deoxynivalenoland Zearalenone by Fusarium graminearum UsingResponse Surface Methodology

    Li Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEN are the most common contaminants in cereals worldwide, causing a wide range of adverse health effects on animals and humans. Many environmental factors can affect the production of these mycotoxins. Here, we have used response surface methodology (RSM to optimize the Fusarium graminearum strain 29 culture conditions for maximal toxin production. Three factors, medium pH, incubation temperature and time, were optimized using a Box-Behnken design (BBD. The optimized conditions for DON production were pH 4.91 and an incubation temperature of 23.75 °C for 28 days, while maximal ZEN production required pH 9.00 and an incubation temperature of 15.05 °C for 28 days. The maximum levels of DON and ZEN production were 2811.17 ng/mL and 23789.70 ng/mL, respectively. Considering the total level of DON and ZEN, desirable yields of the mycotoxins were still obtained with medium pH of 6.86, an incubation temperature of 17.76 °C and a time of 28 days. The corresponding experimental values, from the validation experiments, fitted well with these predictions. This suggests that RSM could be used to optimize Fusarium mycotoxin levels, which are further purified for use as potential mycotoxin standards. Furthermore, it shows that acidic pH is a determinant for DON production, while an alkaline environment and lower temperature (approximately 15 °C are favorable for ZEN accumulation. After extraction, separation and purification processes, the isolated mycotoxins were obtained through a simple purification process, with desirable yields, and acceptable purity. The mycotoxins could be used as potential analytical standards or chemical reagents for routine analysis.

  20. Bioethanol Production from Raw Juice as Intermediate of Sugar Beet Processing: A Response Surface Methodology Approach

    Stevan Popov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was used for selecting optimal fermentation time and initial sugar mass fraction in cultivation media based on raw juice from sugar beet in order to produce ethanol. Optimal fermentation time and initial sugar mass fraction for ethanol production in batch fermentation by free Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells under anaerobic conditions at the temperature of 30 °C and agitation rate of 200 rpm were estimated to be 38 h and 12.30 % by mass, respectively. For selecting optimal conditions for industrial application, further techno-economic analysis should be performed by using the obtained mathematical representation of the process (second degree polynomial model. The overall fermentation productivity of five different types of yeast was examined and there is no significant statistical difference between them.

  1. Secreted products of Fasciola hepatica inhibit the induction of T cell responses that mediate allergy.

    Finlay, C M; Stefanska, A M; Coleman, M M; Jahns, H; Cassidy, J P; McLoughlin, R M; Mills, K H G

    2017-10-01

    There is evidence from epidemiology studies of a negative association between infection with helminth parasites and the development of allergy and asthma. Here, we demonstrate that the excretory/secretory products of the helminth Fasciola hepatica (FHES) protected mice against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma when administered at time of allergen sensitization. FHES reduced the accumulation of mucus, eosinophils and lymphocytes into the airways of allergen-challenged mice. Furthermore, FHES treatment suppressed Th2 responses in the airways. Interestingly, systemic administration of FHES at allergen challenge had no effect on airway inflammation, demonstrating that alum-induced Th2 response is set following initial allergen sensitization. Our findings highlight the immunomodulatory potential of molecules secreted by F. hepatica. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Transcriptional Profiling of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in Response to Porphyromonas gingivalis Secreted Products

    Reddi, Durga; Belibasakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that destroys the tooth-supporting (periodontal) tissues. Porphyromonas gingivalis is an oral pathogen highly implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease. It can exert its effects to a number of cells, including osteogenic bone marrow stromal cells which are important for homeostastic capacity of the tissues. By employing gene microarray technology, this study aimed to describe the overall transcriptional events (>2-fold regulation) elicited by P. gingivalis secreted products in bone marrow stromal cells, and to dissect further the categories of genes involved in bone metabolism, inflammatory and immune responses. After 6 h of challenge with P. gingivalis, 271 genes were up-regulated whereas 209 genes were down-regulated, whereas after 24 h, these numbers were 259 and 109, respectively. The early (6 h) response was characterised by regulation of genes associated with inhibition of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis and loss of structural integrity, whereas the late (24 h) response was characterised by induction of chemokines, cytokines and their associated intracellular pathways (such as NF-κB), mediators of connective tissue and bone destruction, and suppression of regulators of osteogenic differentiation. The most strongly up-regulated genes were lipocalin 2 (LCN2) and serum amyloid A3 (SAA3), both encoding for proteins of the acute phase inflammatory response. Collectively, these transcriptional changes elicited by P. gingivalis denote that the fundamental cellular functions are hindered, and that the cells acquire a phenotype commensurate with propagated innate immune response and inflammatory-mediated tissue destruction. In conclusion, the global transcriptional profile of bone marrow stromal cells in response to P. gingivalis is marked by deregulated homeostatic functions, with implications in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. PMID:22937121

  3. "Omics" of maize stress response for sustainable food production: opportunities and challenges.

    Gong, Fangping; Yang, Le; Tai, Fuju; Hu, Xiuli; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Maize originated in the highlands of Mexico approximately 8700 years ago and is one of the most commonly grown cereal crops worldwide, followed by wheat and rice. Abiotic stresses (primarily drought, salinity, and high and low temperatures), together with biotic stresses (primarily fungi, viruses, and pests), negatively affect maize growth, development, and eventually production. To understand the response of maize to abiotic and biotic stresses and its mechanism of stress tolerance, high-throughput omics approaches have been used in maize stress studies. Integrated omics approaches are crucial for dissecting the temporal and spatial system-level changes that occur in maize under various stresses. In this comprehensive analysis, we review the primary types of stresses that threaten sustainable maize production; underscore the recent advances in maize stress omics, especially proteomics; and discuss the opportunities, challenges, and future directions of maize stress omics, with a view to sustainable food production. The knowledge gained from studying maize stress omics is instrumental for improving maize to cope with various stresses and to meet the food demands of the exponentially growing global population. Omics systems science offers actionable potential solutions for sustainable food production, and we present maize as a notable case study.

  4. Enhanced Production of Xylitol from Corncob by Pachysolen tannophilus Using Response Surface Methodology

    S. Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the culture medium and process variables for xylitol production using corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate by Pachysolen tannophilus (MTTC 1077 was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on xylitol production was achieved using a Plackett-Burman design. Peptone, xylose, MgSO4·7H2O, and yeast extract were selected based on their positive influence on xylitol production. The selected components were optimized with Box-Behnken design using response surface methodology (RSM. The optimum levels (g/L were peptone: 6.03, xylose: 10.62, MgSO4·7H2O: 1.39, yeast extract: 4.66. The influence of various process variables on the xylitol production was evaluated. The optimal levels of these variables were quantified by the central composite design using RSM, for establishment of a significant mathematical model with a coefficient determination of . The validation experimental was consistent with the prediction model. The optimum levels of process variables were temperature (36.56°C, pH (7.27, substrate concentration (3.55 g/L, inoculum size (3.69 mL, and agitation speed (194.44 rpm. These conditions were validated experimentally which revealed an enhanced xylitol yield of 0.80 g/g.

  5. Optimization of Baker's Yeast Production on Date Extract Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

    Kara Ali, Mounira; Outili, Nawel; Ait Kaki, Asma; Cherfia, Radia; Benhassine, Sara; Benaissa, Akila; Kacem Chaouche, Noreddine

    2017-08-07

    This work aims to study the production of the biomass of S. cerevisiae on an optimized medium using date extract as the only carbon source in order to obtain a good yield of the biomass. The biomass production was carried out according to the central composite experimental design (CCD) as a response surface methodology using Minitab 16 software. Indeed, under optimal biomass production conditions, temperature (32.9 °C), pH (5.35) and the total reducing sugar extracted from dates (70.93 g/L), S. cerevisiae produced 40 g/L of their biomass in an Erlenmeyer after only 16 h of fermentation. The kinetic performance of the S. cerevisiae strain was investigated with three unstructured models i.e., Monod, Verhulst, and Tessier. The conformity of the experimental data fitted showed a good consistency with Monod and Tessier models with R² = 0.945 and 0.979, respectively. An excellent adequacy was noted in the case of the Verhulst model ( R² = 0.981). The values of kinetic parameters ( Ks , X m , μ m , p and q ) calculated by the Excel software, confirmed that Monod and Verhulst were suitable models, in contrast, the Tessier model was inappropriately fitted with the experimental data due to the illogical value of Ks (-9.434). The profiles prediction of the biomass production with the Verhulst model, and that of the substrate consumption using Leudeking Piret model over time, demonstrated a good agreement between the simulation models and the experimental data.

  6. Characteristics and parameters of family poultry production in Africa. Results of a FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme

    2002-01-01

    One of the tasks of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is to promote the use of nuclear techniques for improving disease diagnosis and monitoring disease control programmes in order to optimise animal production in developing countries. An applied research programme was initiated in 1998 with funding from the Regular Budget to promote farmyard poultry production in Africa by developing practical vaccination strategies against Newcastle disease and Gumboro disease in various countries in Africa and monitoring immunity using an ELISA technique. Following initial discussions with experts from various universities and FAO it became clear that in order to improve farmyard poultry production effectively it was essential to initiate a holistic approach. Consequently, it was decided to first collect production data of the existing situation in a standardised fashion, subsequently analyse the production constraints and finally initiate interventions not only by vaccinating poultry but also by introducing improvements in housing, feeding and commercialisation. At the same time a practical and robust ELISA test for detecting antibodies against Newcastle disease was developed at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. The results of the standardised survey to collect production data of the current situation are reported in the present publication together with an analysis of production constraints, a number of review articles on family poultry production in Africa and a comparative analysis of the results from the various countries

  7. Sublethal detoxification responses to contaminant exposure associated with offshore production platforms

    McDonald, S. J.; Willett, K. L.; Thomsen, J.; Beatty, K. B.; Connor, K.; Narasimhan, T. R.; Erickson, C. M.; Safe, S. H. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Several fish and invertebrate species were evaluated for their responses to contamination associated with petroleum and gas development and production in the Gulf of Mexico. Sampling was done at 100 and 3000 m from the center of three platforms. No significant near/far station differences were observed in aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity for invertebrate species. Similarly, no AHH activity, or cytochrome P450 mRNA levels, or biliary polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolite concentrations were detected in 16 fish species. There were, however, some species-specific differences in AHH and biliary PAH metabolite levels. 78 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  8. A Production-Rule Analysis System for Nuclear Plant monitoring and emergency response applications

    Ragheb, M.; Tsoukalas, L.; McDonough, T.; Parker, M.

    1987-01-01

    A Production-Rule Analysis System for Nuclear Power Plant Monitoring is presented. The signals generated by the Zion-1 Plant are considered for emergency Response applications. The integrity of the Plant Radiation, the Reactor Coolant, the Fuel Clad, and the Containment Systems, is monitored. Representation of the system is in the form of a goal-tree generating a Knowledge-Base searched by an Inference Engine functioning in the forward-chaining mode. The Gaol-tree is built from Fault-Trees based on plant operational information. The system is implemented on a VAX-8500 and is programmed in OPS-5

  9. Worldviews and Quality in Higher Education: a dichotomy between productivity and social responsibility

    Julio Bertolin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses and analyzes concepts that have been often used by important stakeholders to refer to challenges and to quality in higher education. The aim is to identify the conceptualizations of quality in higher education that underlie the use of different concepts such as efficiency and equity. Based on publications by important multilateral organizations, these terms are correlated with the conceptualizations of higher education and, at the political level, with two major contemporary socioeconomic models: neoliberalism and social welfare state. Finally, two ideological tendencies for the understanding of quality in higher education are presented: quality as productivity and quality as social responsibility.

  10. The Demand Side Response to Multi-zone Tariffs. Consumer Test Results

    Adam Olszewski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI is a technologically advanced solution currently implemented by the most innovative distribution system operators. ENERGA-OPERATOR SA set about preparing for smart metering implementation in 2010. So far the company has installed over 400,000 meters in its area, and plans to install a further 450,000 in 2015. Kalisz, the first fully AMI-covered city in Poland, was chosen for an in-depth analysis of the system. In particular, a consumer test was conducted there with the intention of answering the question about the strength of the demand side response to multi-zone tariffs and power reduction. Conclusions from the year-long test show the demand side response to multi-zone tariffs – i.e. the maximum temporary percentage reduction of energy consumption in the time zone with the tariff raised by a min. of 80% – stays within the 5–15% range. In the case of power reduction (the maximum temporary reduction of energy consumption in the time zone when the power available to a household is limited to 1 kW – the demand side response stays within the 10–30% range. An additional effect of tariff diversification and smart metering is a reduction in electricity consumption by 1–4% on working days (i.e. this is the effect of either the consumption reduction or shifting it to weekends. During the test energy consumers were subjected to both price incentives and education. Due to the fact that it is difficult to separate the effects of education and tariff structures, the company plans to continue the research related to verifying the effectiveness of individual activation tools in reducing electricity consumption by households.

  11. Results from a first production of enhanced Silicon Sensor Test Structures produced by ITE Warsaw

    Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Frey, M.; Grabiec, P.; Grodner, M.; Hänsel, S.; Hartmann, F.; Hoffmann, K.-H.; Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M.; Kucharski, K.; Macchiolo, A.; Marczewski, J.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring the manufacturing process of silicon sensors is essential to ensure stable quality of the produced detectors. During the CMS silicon sensor production we were utilising small Test Structures (TS) incorporated on the cut-away of the wafers to measure certain process-relevant parameters. Experience from the CMS production and quality assurance led to enhancements of these TS. Another important application of TS is the commissioning of new vendors. The measurements provide us with a good understanding of the capabilities of a vendor's process. A first batch of the new TS was produced at the Institute of Electron Technology in Warsaw Poland. We will first review the improvements to the original CMS test structures and then discuss a selection of important measurements performed on this first batch.

  12. Results from a first production of enhanced Silicon Sensor Test Structures produced by ITE Warsaw

    Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Dragicevic, M. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: dragicevic@oeaw.ac.at; Frey, M. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), Universitaet Karlsruhe (Thailand) (Germany); Grabiec, P.; Grodner, M. [Institute of Electron Technology (ITE), Warsaw (Poland); Haensel, S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Hartmann, F.; Hoffmann, K.-H. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), Universitaet Karlsruhe (Thailand) (Germany); Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Kucharski, K. [Institute of Electron Technology (ITE), Warsaw (Poland); Macchiolo, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (MPI), Munich (Germany); Marczewski, J. [Institute of Electron Technology (ITE), Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring the manufacturing process of silicon sensors is essential to ensure stable quality of the produced detectors. During the CMS silicon sensor production we were utilising small Test Structures (TS) incorporated on the cut-away of the wafers to measure certain process-relevant parameters. Experience from the CMS production and quality assurance led to enhancements of these TS. Another important application of TS is the commissioning of new vendors. The measurements provide us with a good understanding of the capabilities of a vendor's process. A first batch of the new TS was produced at the Institute of Electron Technology in Warsaw Poland. We will first review the improvements to the original CMS test structures and then discuss a selection of important measurements performed on this first batch.

  13. Development of a validation test for self-reported abstinence from smokeless tobacco products: preliminary results

    Robertson, J.B.; Bray, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    Using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, 11 heavy elements at concentrations that are easily detectable have been identified in smokeless tobacco products. These concentrations were found to increase in cheek epithelium samples of the user after exposure to smokeless tobacco. This feasibility study suggests that the level of strontium in the cheek epithelium could be a valid measure of recent smokeless tobacco use. It also demonstrates that strontium levels become undetectable within several days of smokeless tobacco cessation. This absence of strontium could validate a self-report of abstinence from smokeless tobacco. Finally, the X-ray spectrum of heavy metal content of cheek epithelium from smokeless tobacco users could itself provide a visual stimulus to further motivate the user to terminate the use of smokeless tobacco products

  14. Recent HERMES results from inclusive and semi-inclusive hadron production

    Van Hulse Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hermes collected a wealth of data using the 27.6 GeV polarized Hera lepton beam and various pure, polarized and unpolarized, gaseous targets. This unique data set opens the door to various measurements sensitive to the multi-dimensional structure of the nucleon. Among them are two-hadron production in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized target, providing access to different transverse-momentum-dependent distribution and fragmentation functions in a way complementary to single-hadron production. Also transverse-target single-spin asymmetries in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons have been recently extracted, complementing data from proton-proton collisions, where large, so far unexplained, asymmetries have been observed. From inclusive measurements on various nuclear targets, the Λ polarization is extracted, also here complementing measurements in proton-proton collisions.

  15. Production of molten UO2 pools by internal heating: apparatus and preliminary experimental heat transfer results

    Chasanov, M.G.; Gunther, W.H.; Baker, L. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The capability for removal of heat from a pool of molten fuel under postaccident conditions is an important consideration in liquid-metal fast breeder reactor safety analysis. No experimental data for pool heat transfer from molten UO 2 under conditions simulating internal heat generation by fission product decay have been reported previously in the literature. An apparatus to provide such data was developed and used to investigate heat transfer from pools containing up to 7.5 kg of UO 2 ; the internal heat generation rates and pool depths attained cover most of the ranges of interest for postaccident heat removal analysis. It was also observed in these studies that the presence of simulated fission products corresponding to approximately 150,000 kW-day/kg burnup had no significant effect on the observed heat transfer

  16. The 1997-98 financial crisis in Malaysia: causes, response, and results – A Rejoinder

    Hasan, Zubair

    2003-01-01

    This rejoinder refutes the comments of Mohamed Ariff and Faiz Mohammad on the author’s article: The 1997-98 Financial Crisis in Malaysia: Causes, Response, and Results”, published in the Islamic Economic Studies, Vol. 9 No. 2, 2002. My basic difference with the reviewers is this: they maintain that weaknesses of the sort piling up in the economy over the years invited currency attack, while I have reasons to believe that it came to Malaysia independently of her fundamental, rather eroded them...

  17. Pavlovian drug-sickness pairings result in the conditioning of an antisickness response.

    Lett, B T

    1983-10-01

    After a drug conditioned stimulus (CS) has been injected prior to lithium chloride as the unconditioned stimulus (US) on five occasions, the drug CS becomes able to evoke a conditioned antisickness response (CAR). This CAR is implied by the finding that the CS drug mitigates the conditioned saccharin aversion produced by lithium when it is administered in the interval between saccharin consumption and lithium injection. The following drugs were tested and are listed in approximate order of their effectiveness in producing a conditioned antisickness effect: pentobarbital, ethanol, morphine, amphetamine, and chlordiazepoxide.

  18. Strangeness production in Au+Au collisions at the AGS: recent results from E917

    Chang, W.-C.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R.; Britt, H.C.; Chang, W.C.; Gillitzer, A.; Henning, W.F.; Hofman, D.J.; Holzman, B.; Nanal, V.; Wuosmaa, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    Strangeness production in Au+Au collisions has been measured via the yields of K + , K - at 6, 8 AGeV and of bar Λ at 10.8 AGeV beam kinetic energy in experiment E917. By varying the collision centrally and beam energy, a systematic search for indications of new phenomena and in-medium effects under high baryon density is undertaken

  19. Overview of cleaner production as a result of clean technology research in Vietnam

    Sam, D.V.; Nhan, T.V.; Lan, N.N. [Hanoi Univ. of Technology (Viet Nam)

    1996-12-31

    Vietnam is beginning its industrialization process, and it currently lacks the capital necessary for expensive pollution control and treatment systems. Pollution strategies are critical for the country. This study evaluates the present status of industry and the pollution problems associated with industrial development in Vietnam. The purpose of the study is to identify sectors that may have potential for promoting cleaner production practices. 4 refs.

  20. SMOS near-real-time soil moisture product: processor overview and first validation results

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Nemesio J.; Muñoz Sabater, Joaquin; Richaume, Philippe; de Rosnay, Patricia; Kerr, Yann H.; Albergel, Clement; Drusch, Matthias; Mecklenburg, Susanne

    2017-10-01

    Measurements of the surface soil moisture (SM) content are important for a wide range of applications. Among them, operational hydrology and numerical weather prediction, for instance, need SM information in near-real-time (NRT), typically not later than 3 h after sensing. The European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite is the first mission specifically designed to measure SM from space. The ESA Level 2 SM retrieval algorithm is based on a detailed geophysical modelling and cannot provide SM in NRT. This paper presents the new ESA SMOS NRT SM product. It uses a neural network (NN) to provide SM in NRT. The NN inputs are SMOS brightness temperatures for horizontal and vertical polarizations and incidence angles from 30 to 45°. In addition, the NN uses surface soil temperature from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecast System (IFS). The NN was trained on SMOS Level 2 (L2) SM. The swath of the NRT SM retrieval is somewhat narrower (˜ 915 km) than that of the L2 SM dataset (˜ 1150 km), which implies a slightly lower revisit time. The new SMOS NRT SM product was compared to the SMOS Level 2 SM product. The NRT SM data show a standard deviation of the difference with respect to the L2 data of Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) multicast service (EUMETCast).

  1. Particle production in field theories coupled to strong external sources, I: Formalism and main results

    Gelis, Francois; Venugopalan, Raju

    2006-01-01

    We develop a formalism for particle production in a field theory coupled to a strong time-dependent external source. An example of such a theory is the color glass condensate. We derive a formula, in terms of cut vacuum-vacuum Feynman graphs, for the probability of producing a given number of particles. This formula is valid to all orders in the coupling constant. The distribution of multiplicities is non-Poissonian, even in the classical approximation. We investigate an alternative method of calculating the mean multiplicity. At leading order, the average multiplicity can be expressed in terms of retarded solutions of classical equations of motion. We demonstrate that the average multiplicity at next-to-leading order can be formulated as an initial value problem by solving equations of motion for small fluctuation fields with retarded boundary conditions. The variance of the distribution can be calculated in a similar fashion. Our formalism therefore provides a framework to compute from first principles particle production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions beyond leading order in the coupling constant and to all orders in the source density. We also provide a transparent interpretation (in conventional field theory language) of the well-known Abramovsky-Gribov-Kancheli (AGK) cancellations. Explicit connections are made between the framework for multi-particle production developed here and the framework of reggeon field theory

  2. Secondary Aroma Compounds in Fresh Grape Marc Distillates as a Result of Variety and Corresponding Production Technology

    Borislav Miličević

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the composition of secondary aroma compounds of fresh grape marc distillates as a result of variety and production technology, 30 samples (6 varieties×5 samples were analysed. White grape marc samples from Malvazija istarska, Chardonnay and Muscat Blanc were obtained as by-products in standard white wine production, while red grape marc samples from Teran and Cabernet Sauvignon were obtained after standard red wine production procedures. Marc from red grape variety Muškat ruža porečki was obtained during the production of rosé wines. All fermented marc samples were distilled using a traditional copper alembic. The obtained distillates were subjected to GC/MS and GC/FID analyses. Malvazija istarska distillates exhibited exceptionally high methanol content. Distillates from white grape varieties were found to be characterized by higher C6 alcohol and 1-propanol concentrations, while red grape distillates contained higher amounts of the majority of alcohols, acids, and esters. In Muškat ruža distillates intermediate concentrations of many important aroma compounds were found. It was concluded that differences in the production technology parameters, depending on the variety, resulted in differences in secondary aroma profiles, most evident between distillates from white and red varieties. These findings were confirmed applying stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA, which resulted in 100 % correct classification of distillates according to the variety and corresponding production technology.

  3. Citrate-capped gold nanoparticle electrophoretic heat production in response to a time-varying radiofrequency electric-field.

    Corr, Stuart J; Raoof, Mustafa; Mackeyev, Yuri; Phounsavath, Sophia; Cheney, Matthew A; Cisneros, Brandon T; Shur, Michael; Gozin, Michael; McNally, Patrick J; Wilson, Lon J; Curley, Steven A

    2012-11-15

    The evaluation of heat production from gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) irradiated with radiofrequency (RF) energy has been problematic due to Joule heating of their background ionic buffer suspensions. Insights into the physical heating mechanism of nanomaterials under RF excitations must be obtained if they are to have applications in fields such as nanoparticle-targeted hyperthermia for cancer therapy. By developing a purification protocol which allows for highly-stable and concentrated solutions of citrate-capped AuNPs to be suspended in high-resistivity water, we show herein, for the first time, that heat production is only evident for AuNPs of diameters ≤ 10 nm, indicating a unique size-dependent heating behavior not previously observed. Heat production has also shown to be linearly dependent on both AuNP concentration and total surface area, and severely attenuated upon AuNP aggregation. These relationships have been further validated using permittivity analysis across a frequency range of 10 MHz to 3 GHz, as well as static conductivity measurements. Theoretical evaluations suggest that the heating mechanism can be modeled by the electrophoretic oscillation of charged AuNPs across finite length scales in response to a time-varying electric field. It is anticipated these results will assist future development of nanoparticle-assisted heat production by RF fields for applications such as targeted cancer hyperthermia.

  4. Earthworm responses to Cd and Cu under fluctuating environmental conditions: a comparison with results from laboratory exposures

    Spurgeon, David J.; Svendsen, Claus; Lister, Lindsay J.; Hankard, Peter K.; Kille, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory toxicity tests are usually conducted under stable ambient conditions, while exposures in ecosystems occur in a fluctuating climate. To assess how climate influences the toxicity of Cu and Cd for the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, this study compared effects for life-cycle parameters (survival, reproduction), cellular status (lysosomal membrane stability), gene expression (transcript of the metal binding protein metallothionein-2) and tissue metal concentration measured under outdoor conditions, with the same responses under constant conditions as measured by Spurgeon et al. [Spurgeon, D.J., Svendsen, C., Weeks, J.M., Hankard, P.K., Stubberud, H.E., Kammenga, J.E., 2003. Quantifying copper and cadmium impacts on intrinsic rate of population increase in the terrestrial oligochaete Lumbricus rubellus. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22, 1465-1472]. Both metals were found to significantly influence earthworm reproduction, compromise lysosomal membrane stability and induce MT-2 gene expression in the outdoor system. Comparison with physiological and life-cycle responses in the laboratory indicated similar response patterns and effect concentrations for Cu. For Cd, lysosomal membrane stability and MT-2expression showed comparable responses in both exposures. Juvenile production rate, however, gave different dose response relationships, with the EC- 50 in the outdoor test approximately half that in the laboratory test. A difference in Cd accumulation was also seen. Overall, however, the comparison indicated only a marginal effect of environmental fluctuations typical for northern temperate Europe on earthworm sensitivity to the two metals. - Comparative analysis of life-cycle, physiological and molecular responses to Cu and Cd indicate similar responses under static and fluctuating climate regimes

  5. Meta-analysis as a tool to study crop productivity response to poultry litter application

    Extensive research on the use of poultry litter (PL) under different agricultural practices in the USA has shown both negative and positive effects on crop productivity (either yield or aboveground biomass). However, these experimental results are substantially dependent on the experimental set-up, ...

  6. Differences between young adults and elderly in thermal comfort, productivity and thermal physiology in response to a moderate temperature drift

    Schellen, Lisje; Lichtenbelt, Wouter van Marken; Loomans, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    thermal condition differ between young adults and elderly. There is a lack of studies that describe the effect of aging on thermal comfort and productivity during a moderate temperature drift. In this study, the effect of a moderate temperature drift on physiological responses, thermal comfort......Results from naturally ventilated buildings show that allowing the indoor temperature to drift does not necessarily result in thermal discomfort and may allow for a reduction in energy use. However, for stationary conditions, several studies indicate that the thermal neutral temperature and optimum......, temperature drift: first 4 h: +2 K/h, last 4 h: –2 K/h. The results indicate that thermal sensation of the elderly was, in general, 0.5 scale units lower in comparison with their younger counterparts. Furthermore, the elderly showed more distal vasoconstriction during both conditions. Nevertheless, TS...

  7. Research results on productivity stabilization by ultrasonic camera (plant with membrane ceramic elements during vine processing

    V. T. Antufyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes solutions to the problems of declining productivity of ceramic membrane elements for wine processing on the final manufacturing phase. A relative stabilization of filtration velocity, venting efficiency and wine lightening were experimentally confirmed during contacts with oscillation waves of ultrasonic transmitter on the ceramic filter. Which significantly reduced the cost of various preservatives to increase periods storage. To study the processes of wine processing by the proposed method it was made an experimental installation on the basis of pilot machine MRp-1/2 for bottling of quiet liquids and an ultrasonic device "Volna– M" UZTA-1/22-OM with a firmly, waveguide which transmits sound, fixed filter frame on the ultrasound emitter. To stabilize the performance of ultrasonic units with ceramic membrane elements without quality deterioration of wines it was empirically determined rational parameters of power of ultrasound input and pressure in the system. The given derived dependencies and graphs allow to define the time of relatively stable operating filter regime. It was revealed a significant cost reduction on filtration, as it allows escape from the contamination of the product by various preservatives, and increasing of storage duration in a sealed container during aseptic filling without a thermal sterilization. Ultrasonic emitter contact by superposition wave vibrations on the ceramic filter increases not only the efficiency of gas removal, but also improves the organoleptic characteristics, stabilizes the filters, improves their productivity. Gas removal creates unfavorable conditions for development of the yeast, which in turn increases the shelf life of semisweet wine.

  8. Interactions of Low-Frequency, Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields with Living Tissue: Biochemical Responses and Clinical Results

    Rahbek, Ulrik L.; Tritsaris, Katerina; Dissing, Steen

    2005-01-01

    In recent years many studies have demonstrated stimulatory effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on biological tissue. However, controversies have also surrounded the research often due to the lack of knowledge of the different physical consequences of static versus pulsed electromagnetic......, are still lacking. Despite the apparent success of the PEMF technology very little is known regarding the coupling between pulsed electrical fields and biochemical events leading to cellular responses. Insight into this research area is therefore of great importance. In this review we describe the physical...... properties of PEMF-induced electrical fields and explain the typical set up for coils and pulse patterns. Furthermore, we discuss possible models that can account for mechanisms by which induced electric fields are able to enhance cellular signaling. We have emphasized the currently well-documented effects...

  9. Change of Cr-39(DOP) track detector response as a result of space exposure

    Yadav, J.S.; Singh, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The response functions for CR-39(DOP) plastic track detectors are calculated, using the simplex method for nonlinear least squares fit, from experimental data obtained from accelerator beams as well as space exposure. The average detector sensitivity is reduced by over 30% in the case of space exposure. The average charge shift for the oxygen group is one charge unit, and it increases with particle charge. The effect decreases with restricted energy loss, which is contrary to that observed in the registration temperature effect. We have discussed various environmental parameters which may produce the observed effect. The registration temperature effect may account for the observed effect (within the errors) for the worst case (temperature) analysis. However, a more reasonable estimate suggests that both the registration temperature as well as pressure during exposure contribute to the observed effect. To discriminate between the separate contributions, further experimental data is needed. (author)

  10. Stab injury and device implantation within the brain results in inversely multiphasic neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative responses

    Potter, Kelsey A.; Buck, Amy C.; Self, Wade K.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2012-08-01

    An estimated 25 million people in the US alone rely on implanted medical devices, ˜2.5 million implanted within the nervous system. Even though many devices perform adequately for years, the host response to medical devices often severely limits tissue integration and long-term performance. This host response is believed to be particularly limiting in the case of intracortical microelectrodes, where it has been shown that glial cell encapsulation and localized neuronal cell loss accompany intracortical microelectrode implantation. Since neuronal ensembles must be within ˜50 µm of the electrode to obtain neuronal spikes and local field potentials, developing a better understanding of the molecular and cellular environment at the device-tissue interface has been the subject of significant research. Unfortunately, immunohistochemical studies of scar maturation in correlation to device function have been inconclusive. Therefore, here we present a detailed quantitative study of the cellular events and the stability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following intracortical microelectrode implantation and cortical stab injury in a chronic survival model. We found two distinctly inverse multiphasic profiles for neuronal survival in device-implanted tissue compared to stab-injured animals. For chronically implanted animals, we observed a biphasic paradigm between blood-derived/trauma-induced and CNS-derived inflammatory markers driving neurodegeneration at the interface. In contrast, stab injured animals demonstrated a CNS-mediated neurodegenerative environment. Collectively these data provide valuable insight to the possibility of multiple roles of chronic neuroinflammatory events on BBB disruption and localized neurodegeneration, while also suggesting the importance to consider multiphasic neuroinflammatory kinetics in the design of therapeutic strategies for stabilizing neural interfaces.

  11. Overview and preliminary results of the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP campaign

    C. S. Law

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Establishing the relationship between marine boundary layer (MBL aerosols and surface water biogeochemistry is required to understand aerosol and cloud production processes over the remote ocean and represent them more accurately in earth system models and global climate projections. This was addressed by the SOAP (Surface Ocean Aerosol Production campaign, which examined air–sea interaction over biologically productive frontal waters east of New Zealand. This overview details the objectives, regional context, sampling strategy and provisional findings of a pilot study, PreSOAP, in austral summer 2011 and the following SOAP voyage in late austral summer 2012. Both voyages characterized surface water and MBL composition in three phytoplankton blooms of differing species composition and biogeochemistry, with significant regional correlation observed between chlorophyll a and DMSsw. Surface seawater dimethylsulfide (DMSsw and associated air–sea DMS flux showed spatial variation during the SOAP voyage, with maxima of 25 nmol L−1 and 100 µmol m−2 d−1, respectively, recorded in a dinoflagellate bloom. Inclusion of SOAP data in a regional DMSsw compilation indicates that the current climatological mean is an underestimate for this region of the southwest Pacific. Estimation of the DMS gas transfer velocity (kDMS by independent techniques of eddy covariance and gradient flux showed good agreement, although both exhibited periodic deviations from model estimates. Flux anomalies were related to surface warming and sea surface microlayer enrichment and also reflected the heterogeneous distribution of DMSsw and the associated flux footprint. Other aerosol precursors measured included the halides and various volatile organic carbon compounds, with first measurements of the short-lived gases glyoxal and methylglyoxal in pristine Southern Ocean marine air indicating an unidentified local source. The application of a real-time clean sector

  12. Consumer Response to Product-Integrated Energy Feedback: Behavior, Goal Level Shifts and Energy Conservation

    McCalley, L.T.; de Vries, Pieter Walter; Midden, Cees J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Results of recent experiments suggest that interactive control panels of individual appliances can be used to stimulate energy saving behavior by offering the means for consumers to set a goal and receive immediate energy use feedback. The underlying source of the behavioral response, however,

  13. MG Travessia: a coffee arabica cultivar productive and responsive to pruning

    Carvalho, Gladyston Rodrigues; Bartholo, Gabriel Ferreira; Pereira, Antônio Alves; Rezende, Juliana Costa de; Botelho, Cesar Elias; Oliveira, Antônio Carlos Baião de; Silva, Felipe Lopes da

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the results of progeny 1190-1170-2, which was recorded as ‘MGS Travessia’ and selected based on its performance in the state of Minas Gerais. The cultivar has short size, cylindrical canopy, high yield capacity, high vegetative vigor, very satisfactory husk/bean ratio, grain quality compatible to traditional cultivars, and is very responsive to skeleton pruning.

  14. Consumer response to product-integrated energy feedback : behavior, goal level shifts, and energy conservation

    McCalley, L.T.; Vries, de P.W.; Midden, C.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Results of recent experiments suggest that interactive control panels of individual appliances can be used to stimulate energy saving behavior by offering the means for consumers to set a goal and receive immediate energy use feedback. The underlying source of the behavioral response, however,

  15. The Northeastern area's objectives and beliefs responses regarding forests and grasslands: 2004 survey results

    Lori B. Shelby; Deborah J. Shields; Michael D. Miller; Donna L. Lybecker; Brian M. Kent; Vesna Bashovska

    2009-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service revises its Strategic Plan according to the 1993 Government Performance and Results Act. The goals and objectives included in the Strategic Plan are developed from natural resource trend data (Forest and Rangeland Renewable Planning Act) and from public input such as the results from this telephone survey. The purpose of this report is to...

  16. Diet and cooling interactions on physiological responses of grazing dairy cows, milk production and composition

    Gallardo, M. R.; Valtorta, S. E.; Leva, P. E.; Gaggiotti, M. C.; Conti, G. A.; Gregoret, R. F.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of diet and cooling in the holding pen before milking on rectal temperature, respiration rate and milk production and composition. Fifty-eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a factorial split-plot design, at Rafaela Experimental Station from 12 January to 3 March 2003. The treatments were combinations of two diets: control (CD) and balanced (BD) with two levels of cooling before milking: none (NSF) and a sprinkler and fans (SF). Forage:concentrate ratios for CD and BD were 81:19 and 68:32, respectively. Cows were milked twice daily. Milk production was recorded daily, and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) was analysed twice a week. The physiological data were recorded once a week, before the cattle entered the holding pen and after milking, in the afternoon. Average maximum weekly temperature humidity index was 75.4 and ranged from 61.4 to 83. There were highly significant effects of cooling on physiological responses. Milk production was affected by diet and cooling, with no interaction; the highest and lowest production of milk was 22.42 and 20.07 l/cow per day, for BD+SF and CD+NSF, respectively. Protein was affected by diet, and was higher for BD (3.17 vs. 3.08%). There were interaction effects on milk fat at the 8% level, the highest concentration being 3.65% for BD+NFS. It was concluded that under grazing conditions, cooling by sprinkler and fans before milking improves the comfort of dairy cows, and that the effects on milk production and composition are enhanced when diets are specially formulated for heat-stress periods.

  17. Whole-Genome Microarray and Gene Deletion Studies Reveal Regulation of the Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production Cycle by the Stringent Response in Ralstonia eutropha H16

    Brigham, CJ; Speth, DR; Rha, C; Sinskey, AJ

    2012-10-22

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) production and mobilization in Ralstonia eutropha are well studied, but in only a few instances has PHB production been explored in relation to other cellular processes. We examined the global gene expression of wild-type R. eutropha throughout the PHB cycle: growth on fructose, PHB production using fructose following ammonium depletion, and PHB utilization in the absence of exogenous carbon after ammonium was resupplied. Our results confirm or lend support to previously reported results regarding the expression of PHB-related genes and enzymes. Additionally, genes for many different cellular processes, such as DNA replication, cell division, and translation, are selectively repressed during PHB production. In contrast, the expression levels of genes under the control of the alternative sigma factor sigma(54) increase sharply during PHB production and are repressed again during PHB utilization. Global gene regulation during PHB production is strongly reminiscent of the gene expression pattern observed during the stringent response in other species. Furthermore, a ppGpp synthase deletion mutant did not show an accumulation of PHB, and the chemical induction of the stringent response with DL-norvaline caused an increased accumulation of PHB in the presence of ammonium. These results indicate that the stringent response is required for PHB accumulation in R. eutropha, helping to elucidate a thus-far-unknown physiological basis for this process.

  18. World oil demand's shift toward faster growing and less price-responsive products and regions

    Dargay, Joyce M.; Gately, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    Using data for 1971-2008, we estimate the effects of changes in price and income on world oil demand, disaggregated by product - transport oil, fuel oil (residual and heating oil), and other oil - for six groups of countries. Most of the demand reductions since 1973-74 were due to fuel-switching away from fuel oil, especially in the OECD; in addition, the collapse of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) reduced their oil consumption substantially. Demand for transport and other oil was much less price-responsive, and has grown almost as rapidly as income, especially outside the OECD and FSU. World oil demand has shifted toward products and regions that are faster growing and less price-responsive. In contrast to projections to 2030 of declining per-capita demand for the world as a whole - by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), International Energy Agency (IEA) and OPEC - we project modest growth. Our projections for total world demand in 2030 are at least 20% higher than projections by those three institutions, using similar assumptions about income growth and oil prices, because we project rest-of-world growth that is consistent with historical patterns, in contrast to the dramatic slowdowns which they project. (author)

  19. The myeloid receptor PILRβ mediates the balance of inflammatory responses through regulation of IL-27 production.

    Cristina M Tato

    Full Text Available Paired immunoglobulin-like receptors beta, PILRβ, and alpha, PILRα, are related to the Siglec family of receptors and are expressed primarily on cells of the myeloid lineage. PILRβ is a DAP12 binding partner expressed on both human and mouse myeloid cells. The potential ligand, CD99, is found on many cell types, such as epithelial cells where it plays a role in migration of immune cells to sites of inflammation. Pilrb deficient mice were challenged with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii in two different models of infection induced inflammation; one involving the establishment of chronic encephalitis and a second mimicking inflammatory bowel disease in order to understand the potential role of this receptor in persistent inflammatory responses. It was found that in the absence of activating signals from PILRβ, antigen-presenting cells (APCs produced increased amounts of IL-27, p28 and promoted IL-10 production in effector T cells. The sustained production of IL-27 led ultimately to enhanced survival after challenge due to dampened immune pathology in the gut. Similar protection was also observed in the CNS during chronic T. gondii infection after i.p. challenge again providing evidence that PILRβ is important for regulating aberrant inflammatory responses.

  20. [How to carry out work on family planning after adopting production responsibility systems in rural areas].

    Xiao, S H

    1982-05-29

    After the Third Meeting of the Eleventh People's Congress, the entire responsibility for agricultural production was transferred to a lower level. Peasants in various areas have adopted the so called production responsibility system, and the phenomenon of an increased population rate has also appeared in some areas. In this article, the author discusses how to solve these problems created by the new situation. The 1st step is try to control population growth through socialist propaganda education, administrative measures, economic incentives and punishments, and family planning work. The 2nd step is to popularize the practice of having only 1 child per household in the rural areas. The 2nd and 3rd child in each family should be controlled and prohibited. This policy formulated by the Central Government should be carried out thoroughly. Families which follow the policy and have only 1 child should be encouraged with economic rewards, and those families which have 2 or more children should be punished economically. The 3rd step is to establish a national work team to be in charge of family planning and birth control. There should be an ideological unity among the nation's leadership. Party members and cadres should establish themselves as good examples for the people so that the population control work may become successful.

  1. Results of fission product release from intermediate-scale MCCI [molten core-concrete interaction] tests

    Spencer, B.W.; Thompson, D.H.; Fink, J.K.; Gunther, W.H.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    A program of reactor-material molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) tests and related analyses are under way at Argonne National Laboratory under sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The particular objective of these tests is to provide data pertaining to the release of nonvolatile fission products such as La, Ba, and Sr, plus other aerosol materials, from the coupled thermal-hydraulic and chemical processes of the MCCI. The first stages of the program involving small and intermediate-scale tests have been completed. Three small-scale tests (/approximately/5 kg corium) and nine intermediate-scale tests (/approximately/30 kg corium) were performed between September 1985 and September 1987. Real reactor materials were used in these tests. Sustained internal heat generation at nominally 1 kW per kg of melt was provided by direct electrical heating of the corium mixture. MCCI tests were performed with both fully and partially oxidized corium mixtures that contained a variety of nonradioactive materials such as La 2 O 3 , BaO, and SrO to represent fission products. Both limestone/common sand and basaltic concrete basemats were used. The system was instrumented for characterization of the thermal hydraulic, chemical, gas release, and aerosol release processes

  2. Leukocyte depletion results in improved lung function and reduced inflammatory response after cardiac surgery

    Gu, YJ; Boonstra, PW; vanOeveren, W

    Leukocyte depletion during cardiopulmonary bypass has been demonstrated in animal experiments to improve pulmonary function, Conflicting results have been reported, however, with clinical depletion by arterial line filter of leukocytes at the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass. In this study, we

  3. Preliminary results of lab-scale investigations of products of incomplete combustion during incineration of primary and mixed digested sludge.

    Braguglia, C M; Bagnuolo, G; Gianico, A; Mininni, G; Pastore, C; Mascolo, G

    2016-03-01

    Separation between primary and secondary sludge treatment could be a valuable solution for sludge management. According to this approach, secondary sludge can be conveniently used in agriculture while primary sludge could be easily dried and incinerated. It follows that some concern may arise from incinerating primary sludge with respect to the current practice to incinerate mixed digested sludge. Incineration of primary and mixed digested municipal sludge was investigated with a lab-scale equipment in terms of emissions of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) during incineration failure modes. PICs can be grouped in three sub-categories, namely aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes), compounds with a single aromatic ring, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). After-burning temperature was the most important parameter to be controlled in order to minimize emissions of alkanes and alkenes. As for mono-aromatic compounds, benzene and toluene are the most thermally resistant compounds, and in some cases, an after-burning temperature of 1100 °C was not enough to get the complete destruction of benzene leading to a residual emission of 18 mg/kgsludge. PAHs showed an opposite trend with respect to aliphatic and mono-aromatic hydrocarbons being the thermal failure mode the main responsible of PIC emissions. A proper oxygen concentration is more important than elevated temperature thus reflecting the high thermal stability of PAHs. Overall, obtained results, even though obtained under flameless conditions that are different from those of the industrial plants, demonstrated that separation of primary and secondary sludge does not pose any drawbacks or concern regarding primary sludge being disposed of by incineration even though it is more contaminated than mixed digested sludge in terms of organic pollutants.

  4. Optimization of Saccharomyces boulardii production in solid-state fermentation with response surface methodology

    Yuanliang Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces boulardii preparations are promising probiotics and clinical agents for animals and humans. This work focused on optimizing the nutritional conditions for the production of S. boulardii in solid-state fermentation by using classical and statistical methods. In single-factor experiments, the S. boulardii production was significantly increased by the addition of glucoamylase and the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources were found to be soluble starch and NH4Cl, respectively. The effects of the glucoamylase, soluble starch and NH4Cl on S. boulardii production were evaluated by a three-level three-factor Box–Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM. The maximal yeast count (4.50 ×109CFU/g was obtained under the optimized conditions (198 U/g glucoamylase, 2.37% soluble starch and 0.9% NH4Cl, which was in a good agreement with the predicted value of the model. This study has provided useful information on how to improve the accumulation of yeast cells by RSM.

  5. Process optimization by response surface methodology for extracellular alkaline protease production from bacillus subtilis

    Mushtaq, Z.; Adnan, A.; Mehmood, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Three microbial cultures Bacillus subtilis DSM 1970, Bacillus subtilis GCU-8 and Bacillus licheniformis DSM 1969 were screened for protease production by casein agar plate method. Among these Bacillus subtilis GCU-8 was found to be the most potent protease producer in wide pH range (5.0 to 8.0). Fermentation conditions were optimized for the production of alkaline protease using two statistical tools: Placket Burmen Model for linear regression study and Response Surface Model for interactive effects of significant factors on production. The alkaline protease was optimally produced after 48 hours of incubation at 37 degree C in fermentation media containing equal amounts of substrates (soybean meal and wheat bran, 7.5 g), MgSO/sub 4/ 7H/sub 2/O, 0.10 g and yeast extract 0.55 g. The protease was purified to homogeneity by salt precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. The homogeneity and molecular weights were checked by SDS-PAGE. The protease was 45 KDa protein, predominantly alkaline and optimally active at pH 8.0. (author)

  6. Adding salt to a surfactant solution: Linear rheological response of the resulting morphologies

    Gaudino, Danila; Pasquino, Rossana, E-mail: r.pasquino@unina.it; Grizzuti, Nino [DICMaPI, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    The micellar system composed of Cetylpyridinium Chloride-Sodium Salicylate (CPyCl-NaSal) in brine aqueous solutions has been studied by systematically changing the salt concentration, in order to investigate the rheology of the arising morphologies. In particular, the zero-shear viscosity and the linear viscoelastic response have been measured as a function of the NaSal concentration (with [CPyCl] = 100 mM). The Newtonian viscosity shows a nonmonotonic dependence upon concentration, passing through a maximum at NaSal/CPyCl ≈ 0.6, and eventually dropping at higher salt concentrations. The progressive addition of salt determines first a transition from a Newtonian to a purely Maxwell-like behavior as the length of the micelles significantly increases. Beyond the peak viscosity, the viscoelastic data show two distinct features. On the one hand, the main relaxation time of the system strongly decreases, while the plateau modulus remains essentially constant. Calculations based on the rheological data show that, as the binding salt concentration increases, there is a decrease in micelles breaking rate and a decrease in their average length. On the other hand, in the same concentration region, a low-frequency elastic plateau is measured. Such a plateau is considered as the signature of a tenuous, but persistent branched network, whose existence is confirmed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy images.

  7. Evaluating the influence of process parameters on soluble microbial products formation using response surface methodology coupled with grey relational analysis.

    Xu, Juan; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Luo, Hong-Wei; Fang, Fang; Li, Wen-Wei; Zeng, Raymond J; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Soluble microbial products (SMPs) present a major part of residual chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluents from biological wastewater treatment systems, and the SMP formation is greatly influenced by a variety of process parameters. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with grey relational analysis (GRA) method was used to evaluate the effects of substrate concentration, temperature, NH(4)(+)-N concentration and aeration rate on the SMP production in batch activated sludge reactors. Carbohydrates were found to be the major component of SMP, and the influential priorities of these factors were: temperature>substrate concentration > aeration rate > NH(4)(+)-N concentration. On the basis of the RSM results, the interactive effects of these factors on the SMP formation were evaluated, and the optimal operating conditions for a minimum SMP production in such a batch activated sludge system also were identified. These results provide useful information about how to control the SMP formation of activated sludge and ensure the bioreactor high-quality effluent. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lipid production in aquatic plant Azolla at vegetative and reproductive stages and in response to abiotic stress.

    Miranda, Ana F; Liu, Zhiqian; Rochfort, Simone; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2018-03-01

    The aquatic plant Azolla became increasingly popular as bioenergy feedstock because of its high growth rate, production of biomass with high levels of biofuel-producing molecules and ability to grow on marginal lands. In this study, we analysed the contribution of all organs of Azolla to the total yield of lipids at vegetative and reproductive stages and in response to stress. Triacylglycerol-containing lipid droplets were detected in all (vegetative and reproductive) organs with the highest level in the male microsporocarps and microspores. As a result, significantly higher total yields of lipids were detected in Azolla filiculoides and Azolla pinnata at the reproductive stage. Starving changed the yield and composition of the fatty acid as a result of re-direction of carbon flow from fatty acid to anthocyanin pathways. The composition of lipids, in regard the length and degree of unsaturation of fatty acids, in Azolla meets most of the important requirements for biodiesel standards. The ability of Azolla to grow on wastewaters, along with their high productivity rate, makes it an attractive feedstock for the production of biofuels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Productive response of hair ewes crossed with Damara and Dorper and growth of their lambs

    T. Salinas-Rios

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Profitability of sheep production depends on the reproductive response of ewes and growth of their lambs, which can be improved through the ram genotype. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive response of Blackbelly (Bb, Pelibuey (Pb, Katahdin (Kat and Dorper (Dor ewes crossed with Damara (Dam and Dor rams and the growth of their offspring. To measure percentage of single and multiple lambings (MLP, 234 Bb, Pb, Kat and Dor ewes were used. To measure lamb growth, the offspring of 86 Bb x Pb (BbPb ewes and 73 Kat x Dor (KatDOR ewes were used. Four Dor x BbPb, six Dam x BbPb and six Dam x KatDor lambs were slaughtered for carcass assessment. MLP was analyzed with the CATMOD procedure considering the factors age and breed. Lamb growth data were analyzed with the MIXED procedure, and those of carcass characteristics with the GLM procedure of SAS, using weight at slaughter as covariable. MLP was higher (P0.05 by effect of ram breed. It is concluded that Bb ewes are more prolific than Dor ewes; male lambs of Dam rams had post-weaning growth response and carcass yield similar to those of Dor rams, although the female lambs of Dor rams were heavier than those of Dam rams.

  10. Studies of key success factors of product development success: A reinterpretation of results

    Plichta, Kirsten; Harmsen, Hanne

    In this paper the general validity of the research area of key factors of success in product development is discussed. To be more specific we argue that validity hinges on the causal relation between success and success factrors ­ a relation that unaccounted for in the empirical studies....... The theoretical tradition of the resource-based perspective provides ­ at least to some extent ­ an account of this causality. An important point in the paper is that the key factors of success in the empi studies are not factors causally related to success, but at the most a number of valuable resources and thus......, but in the studies problems concerning implementation are not discussed. When the lists factors of success are interprested as valuable resources and capabilities, we show that some implications on the implementability might be deduced from the resource-based perspective....

  11. Anaerobic digestion of microalgae residues resulting from the biodiesel production process

    Ehimen, E.A.; Sun, Z.F.; Carrington, C.G.; Birch, E.J.; Eaton-Rye, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The recovery of methane from post transesterified microalgae residues has the potential to improve the renewability of the 'microalgae biomass to biodiesel' conversion process as well as reduce its cost and environmental impact. This paper deals with the anaerobic digestion of microalgae biomass residues (post transesterification) using semi-continuously fed reactors. The influence of substrate loading concentrations and hydraulic retention times on the specific methane yield of the anaerobically digested microalgae residues was investigated. The co-digestion of the microalgae residues with glycerol as well as the influence of temperature was also examined. It was found that the hydraulic retention period was the most significant variable affecting methane production from the residues, with periods (>5 days) corresponding to higher energy recovery. The methane yield was also improved by a reduction in the substrate loading rates, with an optimum substrate carbon to nitrogen ratio of 12.44 seen to be required for the digestion process.

  12. Method of eliminating undesirable gaseous products resulting in underground uranium ore leaching

    Krizek, J.; Dedic, K.; Johann, J.; Haas, F.; Sokola, K.

    1980-01-01

    The method described is characteristic of the fact that gases being formed or dissolved are oxidized using a combined oxidation-reduction system consisting of airborne oxygen, oxygen carriers and a strong irreversible oxidant. The oxygen carrier system consists of a mixture of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ cations or of Cu + and Cu 2+ cations introduced in solutions in form of iron salts at a concentration of 0.0001 to 0.003 M, or copper salts maximally of 0.0003 M. The irreversible oxidant shows a standard redox potential of at least +1.0 V. In addition to undesirable product elimination, the method allows increasing the leaching process yield. (J.B.)

  13. Results of periodic radiohygienic survey of some agricultural products originated in Slovakia in the year 2005

    Missik, J.; Puskeiler, L.; Miklas, P.

    2006-01-01

    Among other periodic monitoring and surveillance programs of the State Veterinary and Food Administration of Slovak Republic there is also the program Radiohygienic surveillance of agricultural raw, semi-, and final products made in Slovakia. In the year 2005 six commodities were sampled giving a total of 160 samples analysed by HPGe spectrometry for the abundance of man-made radionuclides. Besides 137 Cs no other anthropogenic radionuclide was found in the samples of raw cow milk, raw sheep milk, beef, pork, wild boar, roe deer, red deer and wheat. Highest level of 137 Cs activity was found in the sample of wild boar (32.71 ± 1.88) Bq · kg -1 from the surroundings of Maly Sulin in the district Stara Lubovna. (authors)

  14. Recent results from the CELSIUS/WASA collaboration on meson production in proton-hydrogen collisions

    Bilger, R.; Bondar, A.; Brodowski, W.; Calen, H.; Clement, H.; Dyring, J.; Ekstroem, C.; Fransson, K.; Gustafsson, L.; Haeggstroem, S.; Hoeistad, B.; Johanson, J.; Johansson, A.; Johansson, T.; Kilian, K.; Kullander, S.; Kupsc, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Morosov, B.; Moertsell, A.; Oelert, W.; Povtorejko, A.; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.; Schuberth, U.; Sefzick, T.; Sidorov, V.; Shwartz, B.; Sopov, V.; Stepaniak, J.; Sukhanov, A.; Sukhanov, A.; Tchernychev, V.; Turowiecki, A.; Wagner, G.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Zabierowski, J.; Zernov, A.; Zlomanczuk, J.

    1999-01-01

    Different π and η meson production channels in proton-proton and proton-deuteron collisions have been studied at the CELSIUS storage ring using an internal cluster-jet target setup [1]. During the last years more emphasis has been put on ππ and all but one of the possible channels in proton-proton collisions have been studied. Recently also the quasi-free p+n→d+η reaction cross section has been measured at threshold using 1295 MeV protons and target deuterium. Excess energies from threshold to 10 MeV in the center of mass of the final dη system were covered. Approaching the threshold the cross section is enhanced compared to phase-space expectations. This behaviour is typical for a strong final-state interaction

  15. Modeling the Response of Primary Production and Sedimentation to Variable Nitrate Loading in the Mississippi River Plume

    Green, Rebecca E; Breed, Greg A; Dagg, Michael J; Lohrenz, Steven E

    2008-01-01

    ...% reduction in annual nitrogen discharge into the Gulf of Mexico. We developed an ecosystem model for the Mississippi River plume to investigate the response of organic matter production and sedimentation to variable nitrate loading...

  16. Analysis of veterinary drug residue monitoring results for commercial livestock products in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015

    Hsin-Chun Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics have been widely used in the treatment of livestock diseases. However, the emergence of issues related to drug resistance prompted governments to enact a series of laws regulating the use of antibiotics in livestock. Following control of the problem of drug resistant bacteria, public attention has shifted to the recurring incidence of human health and safety issues caused by residual veterinary drugs in livestock products. To guarantee the safety and hygiene of meat, milk, and eggs from food-producing animals, governments and relevant agencies established laws and regulations for the use of veterinary drugs. It is, therefore, necessary to monitor the content of residual drugs in livestock products at regular intervals to assess whether the regulations have resulted in the effective management of food product safety, and to prevent and manage sudden problems related to this issue. A 2011–2015 livestock product post-marketing monitoring program launched by the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA inspected 1487 livestock products. Over the past 5 years, there were 34 samples identified that did not conform to the regulations; these samples included residue drugs such as β-agonists, chloramphenicols, β-lactam antibiotics, sulfa drugs, enrofloxacin, and lincomycin. Inspections of commercial livestock products with the consistent cooperation of agricultural authorities did not detect the drugs that were banned by the government, whereas the detection of other drugs decreased annually with an increase in the post-market monitoring sample size. In the future, the TFDA will continue to monitor the status of residual veterinary drugs in commercial livestock products, adjust the sampling of food products annually according to monitoring results, and closely cooperate with agricultural authorities on source management. Keywords: Agricultural authorities, Livestock products, Post-market monitoring, Veterinary drug residues

  17. Comparison of TOPEX/Poseidon Sea Level and Linear Model Results forced by Various Wind Products for the Tropical Pacific

    Hackert, Eric C.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to compare TOPEX/Posaidon (T/P) sea level with sea level results from linear ocean model experiments forced by several different wind products for the tropical Pacific. During the period of this study (October 1992 - October 1995), available wind products include satellite winds from the ERS-1 scatterometer product of [HALP 97] and the passive microwave analysis of SSMI winds produced using the variational analysis method (VAM) of [ATLA 91]. In addition, atmospheric GCM winds from the NCEP reanalysis [KALN 96], ECMWF analysis [ECMW94], and the Goddard EOS-1 (GEOS-1) reanalysis experiment [SCHU 93] are available for comparison. The observed ship wind analysis of FSU [STRI 92] is also included in this study. The linear model of [CANE 84] is used as a transfer function to test the quality of each of these wind products for the tropical Pacific. The various wind products are judged by comparing the wind-forced model sea level results against the T/P sea level anomalies. Correlation and RMS difference maps show how well each wind product does in reproducing the T/P sea level signal. These results are summarized in a table showing area average correlations and RMS differences. The large-scale low-frequency temporal signal is reproduced by all of the wind products, However, significant differences exist in both amplitude and phase on regional scales. In general, the model results forced by satellite winds do a better job reproducing the T/P signal (i.e. have a higher average correlation and lower RMS difference) than the results forced by atmospheric model winds.

  18. Presentation of the results of 1993-1994 of the peat production research area; Turvetuotanto - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Leinonen, A.

    1996-12-31

    The development target of the peat production research area of the Biomass research programme is to improve the competitivity of peat by reducing the production costs by 20 % (5-6 FIM/MWh) from the level of 1992 and to reduce the environmental load. The main targets of peat production, by which the target can be met, are ditching and preparation technologies, drying technology, machine technology, methodology, integration of wood harvesting and peat production, and application of the results of the Optimiturve research programme in practice. The objectives of the peat production research are possible to meet if the partial targets are met. Increment of the open-ditch distance from 20 m to 60 m reduces the production costs by 5.0 %, increment of the rate of utilization of solar radiation from 30 % to 40 % reduces the production costs by 8 %, reduction of the amount of residual peat from 3000 MWh to 1500 MWh reduces the costs by 6.5 %, development of light and firesafe machines by 3 %, and integrated harvesting of wood by 3 %. Meeting of the partial targets reduces the production costs by 24 %. The main research areas of peat production will be carried out further. The total funding of the peat production researches in 1993-1994 was 19.4 million FIM (9.7 million FIM/a). The share of the total funding of the research organization projects has been 6.7 million FIM and that of the company projects 12.7 million FIM. The share of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry of the funding has been 9.0 million FIM (46 %)

  19. Comparison of theoretical and test results on shear wall seismic response

    Gantenbein, F.; Wang, F.; Dalbera, J.

    1991-01-01

    As reinforced concrete shear walls are important resisting components of buildings in nuclear power facilities, it is important to study their ultimate behavior under dynamic loading. An experimental and analytical work has been undertaken on shear walls with and without openings, in order to develop and validate their model. This paper is related to the walls without openings. While pretest calculations have already been reported (Wang and al. 1989) and the test results are given in Gantenbein and al. 1991, this paper is mainly related to the comparison of test and calculation results on the wall initial stiffness and the time history of the wall motion

  20. Response of lead-acid batteries to chopper-controlled discharge: Preliminary results

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary results of simulated electric vehicle, chopper, speed controller discharge of a battery show energy output losses up to 25 percent compared to constant current discharges at the same average discharge current of 100 amperes. These energy losses are manifested as temperature rises during discharge, amounting to a two-fold increase for a 400-ampere pulse compared to the constant current case. Because of the potentially large energy inefficiency, the results suggest that electric vehicle battery/speed controller interaction must be carefully considered in vehicle design.