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Sample records for responses engagement level

  1. Socially responsible investment engagement

    Goessling, T.; Buijter, Bas; Freeman, R.E.; Kujala, J.; Sachs, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores engagement in socially responsible investment (SRI) processes. More specifically, it researches the impact of shareholder salience on the success of engagement activities. The research question asks: What is the relationship between shareholder salience and engagement effort

  2. Entrepreneurial engagement levels in the European Union

    I. Grilo (Isabel); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractA multinomial logit model and survey data from the 25 EU member states and the US are used to establish the effect of demographic and other variables on various entrepreneurial engagement levels. These engagement levels range from never thought about starting a business to thinking

  3. Enhancing co-responsibility for patient engagement

    Neutelings, I.M.P.; Levy, P.D.; Djajadiningrat, J.P.; Hummels, C.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT:In this paper we share a theoretical perspective of co-responsibility, developed by a consortium of a university, a private company and a hospital. On this perspective we will base design interventions towards improving the experience and specifically the engagement of cardiovascular

  4. Institutional Level Student Engagement and Organisational Cultures

    van der Velden, Gwen

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the growing presence of market forces within higher education worldwide, universities are changing the way they engage with students. This article explores how a university's internal culture relates to engagement with students and their views. It builds on wider research into student engagement and organisational cultures. The…

  5. Citizenship Engagement: Responses from High School Students

    Martin, Leisa A.

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, the main mission of social studies education is to prepare students for citizenship. With this in mind, the following study examined 191 high school students’ views on how they demonstrated citizenship. Traditionally with this age group, personally responsible citizenship has been a common form of self-reported citizenship engagement. However, in this study, the students seemed to conceptualize citizenship differently. With the Akwesasne Mohawk students, the European Ame...

  6. The Relationship between Student Motivation and Class Engagement Levels

    Nayir, Funda

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Student engagement and interest in class are important conditions for active learning. For this they must be highly motivated. In other words, students who have high motivation make an effort to be engaged in class. Thus, knowing students' motivation level is important for active engagement in class. The aim of the present study is to…

  7. A survey of work engagement and psychological capital levels.

    Bonner, Lynda

    2016-08-11

    To evaluate the relationship between work engagement and psychological capital (PsyCap) levels reported by registered nurses. PsyCap is a developable human resource. Research on PsyCap as an antecedent to work engagement in nurses is needed. A convenience sample of 137 registered nurses participated in this quantitative cross-sectional survey. Questionnaires measured self-reported levels of work engagement and psychological capital. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. There was a statistically significant correlation between work engagement and PsyCap scores (r=0.633, pworking at band 5 level reported statistically significantly lower PsyCap scores compared with nurses working at band 6 and 7 levels. Nurses reporting high levels of work engagement also reported high levels of PsyCap. Band 5 nurses might benefit most from interventions to increase their PsyCap. This study supports PsyCap as an antecedent to work engagement.

  8. Public Engagement for Responsible Research and Innovation

    Steinhaus, Norbert; Mulder, Henk; de Marree, Jozefien; Pratt, Chris

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will elaborate on the role of Public Engagement in research (PE) as a key approach to achieve RRI. We will use PE as an umbrella term, encompassing Community Engagement and Community-Based Research as well.

  9. Shaping corporate social responsibility management and reporting through engagement : The role of advocacy organisations

    Clune, C.

    2017-01-01

    Advocacy organisations have traditionally played a prominent role in shaping corporate social responsibility (CSR) management and reporting practices through organisational-level and institutional-level engagement. Recent years have seen advocacy organisations expand the nature and content of their

  10. An exploration in kitchen blender interactions aimed at designing for high levels of engagement

    van Rheden, V.; Hengeveld, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper illustrates three novel kitchen blender interactions aimed at bringing about a higher level of engagement with interactive products, as a response to current, seemingly un-engaging interactions. We describe our starting points and approach after which we present the designed blender

  11. Company engagement with nongovernmental organizations from a corporate responsibility perspective

    Kourula, Arno

    2009-01-01

    Organizations from a Corporate Responsibility Perspective Purpose – This doctoral dissertation examines the relationship between corporations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The key research question of the thesis is the following: Why and how do companies engage with nongovernmental organizations to demonstrate corporate responsibility in different institutional contexts? The most important motives for engaging with NGOs include gaining legitimacy and knowledge, managing risk, impr...

  12. Why Japanese workers show low work engagement: An item response theory analysis of the Utrecht Work Engagement scale.

    Shimazu, Akihito; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Miyanaka, Daisuke; Iwata, Noboru

    2010-11-05

    With the globalization of occupational health psychology, more and more researchers are interested in applying employee well-being like work engagement (i.e., a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption) to diverse populations. Accurate measurement contributes to our further understanding and to the generalizability of the concept of work engagement across different cultures. The present study investigated the measurement accuracy of the Japanese and the original Dutch versions of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (9-item version, UWES-9) and the comparability of this scale between both countries. Item Response Theory (IRT) was applied to the data from Japan (N = 2,339) and the Netherlands (N = 13,406). Reliability of the scale was evaluated at various levels of the latent trait (i.e., work engagement) based the test information function (TIF) and the standard error of measurement (SEM). The Japanese version had difficulty in differentiating respondents with extremely low work engagement, whereas the original Dutch version had difficulty in differentiating respondents with high work engagement. The measurement accuracy of both versions was not similar. Suppression of positive affect among Japanese people and self-enhancement (the general sensitivity to positive self-relevant information) among Dutch people may have caused decreased measurement accuracy. Hence, we should be cautious when interpreting low engagement scores among Japanese as well as high engagement scores among western employees.

  13. Why Japanese workers show low work engagement: An item response theory analysis of the Utrecht Work Engagement scale

    Iwata Noboru

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the globalization of occupational health psychology, more and more researchers are interested in applying employee well-being like work engagement (i.e., a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption to diverse populations. Accurate measurement contributes to our further understanding and to the generalizability of the concept of work engagement across different cultures. The present study investigated the measurement accuracy of the Japanese and the original Dutch versions of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (9-item version, UWES-9 and the comparability of this scale between both countries. Item Response Theory (IRT was applied to the data from Japan (N = 2,339 and the Netherlands (N = 13,406. Reliability of the scale was evaluated at various levels of the latent trait (i.e., work engagement based the test information function (TIF and the standard error of measurement (SEM. The Japanese version had difficulty in differentiating respondents with extremely low work engagement, whereas the original Dutch version had difficulty in differentiating respondents with high work engagement. The measurement accuracy of both versions was not similar. Suppression of positive affect among Japanese people and self-enhancement (the general sensitivity to positive self-relevant information among Dutch people may have caused decreased measurement accuracy. Hence, we should be cautious when interpreting low engagement scores among Japanese as well as high engagement scores among western employees.

  14. Responsive and Responsible: Faculty Encouragement of Civic Engagement

    Cole, Eddie R.; Howe, Elijah C.; Laird, Thomas F. Nelson

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how often faculty members encourage students to engage with campus, local, state, national, and global issues. Using data from the 2013 administration of the Faculty Survey of Student Engagement (FSSE), the results show that faculty members are more likely to encourage students to engage in state, national, or global issues…

  15. Cortisol levels, burnout and engagement in university employees

    Ortiz-Valdés, Juan A.; Vega-Michel, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    People’s psychological relationship with work can be conceptualized as a continuum ranging from negative experiences of professional burnout to positive experiences, known as engagement. A retrospective ex post facto study was carried out for the purpose of exploring and measuring the degree of relation of professional burnout and job engagement to cortisol levels and the filing of claims for medical costs among university employees. One hundred ninety-nine subjects participated. A weak posit...

  16. University-Community Engagement: Case Study of University Social Responsibility

    Chile, Love M.; Black, Xavier M.

    2015-01-01

    Corporatisation of universities has drawn parallels between contemporary universities and business corporations, and extended analysis of corporate social responsibility to universities. This article reports on a case study of university-community engagement with schools and school communities through youth engagement programmes to enhance…

  17. A STUDY ON THE DETERMINATION OF WORK ENGAGEMENT LEVELS OF HEALTH EMPLOYEES

    Özlem Özer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine work engagement levels of health employees and to reveal whether the individual and demographic features of the employees have an effect on the level of work engagement or not. The population of study included all employees in Aydin Atatürk State Hospital. The sample is selected in the study, tried to reach the whole universe and a total of 414 usable responses were obtained. According to result of this study, there are statistically significant differences between employees’ evaluations related to work engagement level by level of education, occupational status and gender whereas total work years, age and marital status do not create a difference in terms of work engagement levels of employees.

  18. Internal marketing for engaging employees on the corporate responsibility journey

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Isabel; Grayson, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore whether internal marketing could be a powerful tool for engaging employees on the corporate responsibility journey. Design/methodology/approach: In the absence of empirical work linking internal marketing efforts in organizations and employee engagement in corporate responsibility issues, a conceptual approach based on literature review is carried out to determine the existing possibilities provided by internal marketing to enhance corporate re...

  19. Social Responsibility and Commitment in Management Institutes: Mediation by Engagement

    Manish Gupta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its major influence on individual’s performance, engagement is increasingly becoming popular among practitioners. While its influence on performance has been well established, research on the influence of variables related to organizations on engagement is still in its nascent stage. Therefore, this study examines the mediating role of employee engagement in the corporate social responsibility (CSR – organizational commitment relationship. Multiple regression results using responses from 150 academics working in Indian management institutes predominantly owned by business groups partially support the relationships hypothesized. The findings may encourage Indian management institutes owned by business groups to consider CSR in teaching and research as serious investment areas in order to have a more engaged and committed workforce.

  20. Corporate social responsibility, corporate reputation and employee engagement

    Ali, Imran; Ali, Jawaria Fatima

    2011-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been outlined as voluntarily additional legal duties of organization to serve environment and community. This voluntarily actions of corporate help them to develop reputation which can shape favorable attitude of employees towards work. Employee engagement is an attitude of commitment and involvement of employee towards their work and organization. Researchers have proved that engaged employees are more productive, more likely to achieve corporate go...

  1. Service Learning as a Response to Community/School Engagement: Towards a Pedagogy of Engagement

    Alexander, Gregg; Khabanyane, Mokhethi

    2013-01-01

    The promulgation of the White Paper on Higher Education (1997) necessitated Higher Education Institutions (HEis) in South Africa to avail their expertise in their human resources and physical infrastructure for service learning and community engagement initiatives, in the interest of demonstrating social responsibility, collaborative partnerships…

  2. Innovation and responsibility: engaging with new and emerging technologies

    Coenen, C.; Dijkstra, A.F.B.; Fautz, C.; Guivant, J.; Konrad, Kornelia Elke; Milburn, C.; van Lente, H

    2014-01-01

    The contributions to this volume engage with diverse aspects of responsible innovation, reflecting on its history and its current form, reporting on success stories and critical discussions, pointing out shortcomings and obstacles, and analyzing the grand narratives that shape discourse on new and

  3. Internal marketing for engaging employees on the corporate responsibility journey

    Isabel Sanchez-Hernandez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore whether internal marketing could be a powerful tool for engaging employees on the corporate responsibility journey.Design/methodology/approach: In the absence of empirical work linking internal marketing efforts in organizations and employee engagement in corporate responsibility issues, a conceptual approach based on literature review is carried out to determine the existing possibilities provided by internal marketing to enhance corporate responsibility.Findings: Reflexion from the extant literature indicates that, because employee engagement matters, internal responsibility should be put first. The internal marketing umbrella, including “selling internally” the idea of responsibility, facilitating internal communication, enhancing corporate volunteering or the possibility to become a social intrapreneur, could help to align employees’ needs with corporate responsibility goals.Practical implications: The results suggest that managers must ensure that internal aspects of management, such as internal communication and employee commitment are taken into account in order to get success in corporate responsibility issues. Managers need to be more proactive trying to introduce the marketing function in human capital issues. Understanding employees’ wants and needs and selling internally responsibility goals would make external efforts in developing a responsible strategy much more likely to succeed.Originality/value: Reflecting the literature which highlights the importance of internal marketing, we pay particular attention to their role on promoting corporate responsibility internally. The results indicate that while organizations strive to achieve corporate responsibility goals, it is expected that effectiveness will be greater among organizations using internal marketing tools for this purpose. To the best of our knowledge is the first time this relationship has been academically discussed

  4. Internal marketing for engaging employees on the corporate responsibility journey

    Isabel Sanchez-Hernandez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore whether internal marketing could be a powerful tool for engaging employees on the corporate responsibility journey. Design/methodology/approach: In the absence of empirical work linking internal marketing efforts in organizations and employee engagement in corporate responsibility issues, a conceptual approach based on literature review is carried out to determine the existing possibilities provided by internal marketing to enhance corporate responsibility.Findings: Reflexion from the extant literature indicates that, because employee engagement matters, internal responsibility should be put first. The internal marketing umbrella, including ‘selling internally’ the idea of responsibility, facilitating internal communication, enhancing corporate volunteering or the possibility to become a social intrapreneur, could help to align employees´ needs with corporate responsibility goals.Practical implications: The results suggest that managers must ensure that internal aspects of management, such as internal communication and employee commitment are taken into account in order to get success in corporate responsibility issues. Managers need to be more proactive trying to introduce the marketing function in human capital issues. Understanding employees´ wants and needs and selling internally responsibility goals would make external efforts in developing a responsible strategy much more likely to succeed.Originality/value: Reflecting the literature which highlights the importance of internal marketing, we pay particular attention to their role on promoting corporate responsibility internally. The results indicate that while organizations strive to achieve corporate responsibility goals, it is expected that effectiveness will be greater among organizations using internal marketing tools for this purpose. To the best of our knowledge is the first time this relationship has been academically discussed

  5. Personal and Social Responsibility among Athletes: the Role of Self-Determination, Achievement Goals and Engagement.

    Martins, Paulo; Rosado, António; Ferreira, Vítor; Biscaia, Rui

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between motivation, engagement and personal and social responsibility among athletes. Based on the literature, a survey was conducted including measures of motivation, considering task orientation and ego orientation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation. We also measured the components of engagement (dedication, confidence, vigor and enthusiasm) and the components of personal and social responsibility. A total of 517 athletes from different types of sports participated in the study. The results gathered through a structural equation model revealed that task orientation had the strongest relationship with personal responsibility and social responsibility, followed by engagement. Self-determination levels were not associated with personal and social responsibility. These results suggest that monitoring of task orientation and engagement levels should be performed by coaches as a strategy to develop personal and social responsibility among their athletes. Moreover, findings from this study provide scholars with a tool to aid them in managing athletes' levels of personal and social responsibility.

  6. Personal and Social Responsibility Among Athletes: the Role of Self-Determination, Achievement Goals and Engagement

    Martins Paulo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between motivation, engagement and personal and social responsibility among athletes. Based on the literature, a survey was conducted including measures of motivation, considering task orientation and ego orientation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation. We also measured the components of engagement (dedication, confidence, vigor and enthusiasm and the components of personal and social responsibility. A total of 517 athletes from different types of sports participated in the study. The results gathered through a structural equation model revealed that task orientation had the strongest relationship with personal responsibility and social responsibility, followed by engagement. Self-determination levels were not associated with personal and social responsibility. These results suggest that monitoring of task orientation and engagement levels should be performed by coaches as a strategy to develop personal and social responsibility among their athletes. Moreover, findings from this study provide scholars with a tool to aid them in managing athletes’ levels of personal and social responsibility.

  7. Personal and Social Responsibility among Athletes: the Role of Self-Determination, Achievement Goals and Engagement

    Martins, Paulo; Rosado, António; Ferreira, Vítor; Biscaia, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between motivation, engagement and personal and social responsibility among athletes. Based on the literature, a survey was conducted including measures of motivation, considering task orientation and ego orientation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation. We also measured the components of engagement (dedication, confidence, vigor and enthusiasm) and the components of personal and social responsibility. A total of 517 athletes from different types of sports participated in the study. The results gathered through a structural equation model revealed that task orientation had the strongest relationship with personal responsibility and social responsibility, followed by engagement. Self-determination levels were not associated with personal and social responsibility. These results suggest that monitoring of task orientation and engagement levels should be performed by coaches as a strategy to develop personal and social responsibility among their athletes. Moreover, findings from this study provide scholars with a tool to aid them in managing athletes’ levels of personal and social responsibility. PMID:28713457

  8. Academic performance and student engagement in level 1 physics undergraduates

    Casey, M M; McVitie, S

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of academic year 2007-08, staff in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow started to implement a number of substantial changes to the administration of the level 1 physics undergraduate class. The main aims were to improve the academic performance and progression statistics. With this in mind, a comprehensive system of learning support was introduced, the main remit being the provision of an improved personal contact and academic monitoring and support strategy for all students at level 1. The effects of low engagement with compulsory continuous assessment components had already been observed to have a significant effect on students sitting in the middle of the grade curve. Analysis of data from the 2007-08 class showed that even some nominally high-achieving students achieved lowered grades due to the effects of low engagement. Nonetheless, academic and other support measures put in place during 2007-08 played a part in raising the passrate for the level 1 physics class by approximately 8% as well as raising the progression rate by approximately 10%.

  9. Academic performance and student engagement in level 1 physics undergraduates

    Casey, M M; McVitie, S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.casey@physics.gla.ac.uk

    2009-09-15

    At the beginning of academic year 2007-08, staff in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow started to implement a number of substantial changes to the administration of the level 1 physics undergraduate class. The main aims were to improve the academic performance and progression statistics. With this in mind, a comprehensive system of learning support was introduced, the main remit being the provision of an improved personal contact and academic monitoring and support strategy for all students at level 1. The effects of low engagement with compulsory continuous assessment components had already been observed to have a significant effect on students sitting in the middle of the grade curve. Analysis of data from the 2007-08 class showed that even some nominally high-achieving students achieved lowered grades due to the effects of low engagement. Nonetheless, academic and other support measures put in place during 2007-08 played a part in raising the passrate for the level 1 physics class by approximately 8% as well as raising the progression rate by approximately 10%.

  10. Effects of music engagement on responses to painful stimulation.

    Bradshaw, David H; Chapman, C Richard; Jacobson, Robert C; Donaldson, Gary W

    2012-06-01

    We propose a theoretical framework for the behavioral modulation of pain based on constructivism, positing that task engagement, such as listening for errors in a musical passage, can establish a construction of reality that effectively replaces pain as a competing construction. Graded engagement produces graded reductions in pain as indicated by reduced psychophysiological arousal and subjective pain report. Fifty-three healthy volunteers having normal hearing participated in 4 music listening conditions consisting of passive listening (no task) or performing an error detection task varying in signal complexity and task difficulty. During all conditions, participants received normally painful fingertip shocks varying in intensity while stimulus-evoked potentials (SEP), pupil dilation responses (PDR), and retrospective pain reports were obtained. SEP and PDR increased with increasing stimulus intensity. Task performance decreased with increasing task difficulty. Mixed model analyses, adjusted for habituation/sensitization and repeated measures within person, revealed significant quadratic trends for SEP and pain report (Pchangemusic listening task. Engaging activities may prevent pain by creating competing constructions of reality that draw on the same processing resources as pain. Better understanding of these processes will advance the development of more effective pain modulation through improved manipulation of engagement strategies.

  11. Using Audience Response Systems to Encourage Student Engagement and Reflection on Ethical Orientation and Behavior

    Micheletto, Melinda J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an audience response system (ARS) to engage students in classroom discussions concerning sensitive and controversial topics (e.g., business ethics), assess student's ethical orientation and conduct in unethical behaviors, and encourage reflection on their personal level of ethicality. Students used ARS devices…

  12. How do stakeholders from multiple hierarchical levels of a large provincial health system define engagement? A qualitative study.

    Norris, Jill M; White, Deborah E; Nowell, Lorelli; Mrklas, Kelly; Stelfox, Henry T

    2017-08-01

    Engaging stakeholders from varied organizational levels is essential to successful healthcare quality improvement. However, engagement has been hard to achieve and to measure across diverse stakeholders. Further, current implementation science models provide little clarity about what engagement means, despite its importance. The aim of this study was to understand how stakeholders of healthcare improvement initiatives defined engagement. Participants (n = 86) in this qualitative thematic study were purposively sampled for individual interviews. Participants included leaders, core members, frontline clinicians, support personnel, and other stakeholders of Strategic Clinical Networks in Alberta Health Services, a Canadian provincial health system with over 108,000 employees. We used an iterative thematic approach to analyze participants' responses to the question, "How do you define engagement?" Regardless of their organizational role, participants defined engagement through three interrelated themes. First, engagement was active participation from willing and committed stakeholders, with levels that ranged from information sharing to full decision-making. Second, engagement centered on a shared decision-making process about meaningful change for everyone "around the table," those who are most impacted. Third, engagement was two-way interactions that began early in the change process, where exchanges were respectful and all stakeholders felt heard and understood. This study highlights the commonalities of how stakeholders in a large healthcare system defined engagement-a shared understanding and terminology-to guide and improve stakeholder engagement. Overall, engagement was an active and committed decision-making about a meaningful problem through respectful interactions and dialog where everyone's voice is considered. Our results may be used in conjunction with current implementation models to provide clarity about what engagement means and how to engage various

  13. Individual differences in the effects of music engagement on responses to painful stimulation.

    Bradshaw, David H; Donaldson, Gary W; Jacobson, Robert C; Nakamura, Yoshio; Chapman, C Richard

    2011-12-01

    Engaged attention, including music listening, has shown mixed results when used as a method for reducing pain. Applying the framework of constructivism, we extend the concept of engagement beyond attention/distraction to include all cognitive and emotional/motivational processes that may be recruited in order to construct an alternative experience to pain and thus reduce pain. Using a music-listening task varying in task demand, we collected stimulus-evoked potentials, pupil dilation, and skin conductance responses to noxious electrocutaneous stimulations as indicators of central and peripheral arousal, respectively. Trait anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and absorption (Tellegen Absorption Scale) provided indicators of individual differences. One hundred and fifty-three healthy, normal volunteers participated in a test session in which they received 3 stimulus intensity levels while listening to background tones (No Task) or performing a music-listening task. Linear slopes indicating net engagement (change in stimulus arousal relative to task performance) decreased with increasing task demand and stimulus level for stimulus-evoked potentials. Slopes for pupil dilation response and skin conductance response varied with task demand, anxiety, and absorption, with the largest engagement effect occurring for high anxiety/high absorption participants. Music engagement reduces pain responses, but personality factors like anxiety and absorption modulate the magnitude of effect. Engaging in music listening can reduce responses to pain, depending on the person: people who are anxious and can become absorbed in activities easily may find music listening especially effective for relieving pain. Clinicians should consider patients' personality characteristics when recommending behavioral interventions like music listening for pain relief. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A problem with levels: how to engage a diverse IPE

    Naeem Inayatullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Though welcome, Cohen's call for exchange across diverse perspectives in international political economy (IPE evades the question: why have we remained unaware of or insensitive to the diversity that already exists? We follow John Hobson's claim that racism, imperialism and Eurocentrism disallow a western-dominated social science from engaging with diverse viewpoints. We argue further that a disciplinary bias towards a unit-level or atomistic understanding of social science precludes and disallows epistemological encounters in which actual diversity might be harnessed. We support this claim in two steps. First, we draw on Ghassan Hage's analysis of exigophobia, or the fear that social explanation inadvertently justifies horrendous actions and humanises their perpetrators. Exigophobia activates what we call the condemnation imperative: an eagerness to condemn an individual or group act, of fierce violence, for example, before one has tried to understand or explain it. Second, building on Nicholas Onuf's work on levels, we show that the disciplinary bias towards explanations which 'see' from the level of individual actors treats Europe or the west, in Hobson's terms, as 'self-constituting and exceptional'. When one neglects the structuring features of the whole, and assumes western 'pioneering agency', it is easy to treat non-western inferiority (irrationality, backwards culture, and so on as an explanation of the relative successes and failures of a flattened planet of autonomous units. Though we endorse forms of social explanation that start from the whole as opposed to the parts, we favour the view that there are only simultaneous and continuous processes whose seeming mystical flow our descriptions cannot but freeze. We suggest that there are no levels, simply parts and wholes in process.

  15. Patterns of engagement : the relationship between efficacy beliefs and task engagement at the individual versus the collective level

    Vera, M.; Le Blanc, P.M.; Taris, A.W.; Salanova, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between efficacy beliefs and task engagement in and over time, at both the individual and collective levels. We conducted latent growth curve analyses using data from 372 university students (individual level) who were assigned to one of 79 e-work groups

  16. Engaging Students: The Next Level of Working on the Work

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    2011-01-01

    In Phillip Schlechty's best-selling book "Working on the Work", he outlined a motivational framework for improving student performance by improving the quality of schools designed for students. "Engaging Students" offers a next-step resource in which Schlechty incorporates what he's learned from the field and from the hundreds of workshops he and…

  17. One Hen: Teaching Elementary-Level Economics for Civic Engagement

    Whitlock, Annie McMahon

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a qualitative case study focused on describing and analyzing the student and teacher experience with One Hen, a project-based learning unit specifically designed to teach civic engagement. In this study I address three questions: 1) Do fifth-grade students' knowledge and skills in economics change after participating in a…

  18. Community engagement in the CTSA program: stakeholder responses from a national Delphi process.

    Freeman, Elmer; Seifer, Sarena D; Stupak, Matthew; Martinez, Linda Sprague

    2014-06-01

    In response to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee's December 2012 public request for stakeholder input on the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program, two nonprofit organizations, the Center for Community Health Education Research and Service, Inc. (CCHERS) and Community-Campus Partnerships for Health (CCPH), solicited feedback from CTSA stakeholders using the Delphi method. Academic and community stakeholders were invited to participate in the Delphi, which is an exploratory method used for group consensus building. Six questions posed by the IOM Committee to an invited panel on community engagement were electronically sent to stakeholders. In Round 1 stakeholder responses were coded thematically and then tallied. Round 2 asked stakeholders to state their level of agreement with each of the themes using a Likert scale. Finally, in Round 3 the group was asked to rank the Round 2 based on potential impact for the CTSA program and implementation feasibility. The benefits of community engagement in clinical and translational research as well as the need to integrate community engagement across all components of the CTSA program were common themes. Respondents expressed skepticism as to the feasibility of strengthening CTSA community engagement. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Relationships among Principal Authentic Leadership and Teacher Trust and Engagement Levels

    Bird, James J.; Wang, Chuang; Watson, Jim R.; Murray, Louise

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among the authentic leadership style of school principals and the trust and engagement levels of their teachers in a county school district in a Southeastern state. The authenticity of the school principal was found to be significantly positively related to teacher trust and teacher engagement levels. The…

  20. Increasing Responsive Parent–Child Interactions and Joint Engagement: Comparing the Influence of Parent-Mediated Intervention and Parent Psychoeducation

    Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing immediate and contingent responding by caregivers to children’s signals is an important strategy to support social interactions between caregivers and their children with autism. Yet, there has been limited examination of parents’ responsive behaviour in association with children’s social behaviour post caregiver-mediated intervention. Eighty-five dyads were randomized to one of two 10-week caregiver-training interventions. Parent–child play interactions were coded for parental responsivity and children’s joint engagement. Significant gains in responsivity and time jointly engaged were found post JASPER parent-mediated intervention over a psychoeducation intervention. Further, combining higher levels of responsive behaviour with greater adoption of intervention strategies was associated with greater time jointly engaged. Findings encourage a focus on enhancing responsive behaviour in parent-mediated intervention models. PMID:26797940

  1. Generational differences on work engagement levels of government healthcare institution employees

    Veronica Hlongwane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore generational differences on work engagement levels of employees in a South African government healthcare institution. The Ultrech Work Engagement Scale measured the participants’ levels of work engagement and it was administered to a random sample size of government healthcare institution employees (n=289. Statistical analyses of the data were conducted and the results of ANOVA indicated that the levels of work engagement significantly differ depending on the employees’ generational cohort or group for the dimensions vigour, dedication and absorption. In terms of contributions and practical implications, recommendations are made regarding proposed organisational development interventions to enhance employees’ work engagement levels in a healthcare institution context as well as to conduct future research.

  2. The Engagement Continuum Model Using Corporate Social Responsibility as an Intervention for Sustained Employee Engagement: Research Leading Practice

    Valentin, Marie Anttonitte; Valentin, Celestino C.; Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore implications of motivational potential that are highly correlated to the self-determination theory (SDT) (intrinsic motivating factors), in relation to corporate social responsibility (CSR). This paper specifies key antecedents of engagement within the theoretical framework of the self-determination…

  3. Developing Social Responsibility and Political Engagement: Assessing the Aggregate Impacts of University Civic Engagement on Associated Attitudes and Behaviors

    Whitley, Cameron T.; Yoder, Scot D.

    2015-01-01

    Universities have become increasingly interested in incorporating civic engagement into undergraduate education with the goal of enhancing leadership skills and creating socially responsible global citizens. What is unclear is which educational experiences are most effective in achieving this goal. In this study, we seek to determine the impact of…

  4. Automatic temporal ranking of children’s engagement levels using multi-modal cues

    Kim, Jaebok; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Evers, Vanessa

    As children of ages 5 - 8 often play with each other in small groups, their differences in social development and personality traits usually cause various levels of engagement among others. For example, one child may just observe without engaging at all with others while another child may be

  5. Engaging the Bible in GCSE and A Level Religious Studies: Environmental Stewardship as a Test Case

    Horrell, David G.; Davis, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the potential for critical and informed engagement with biblical texts to form a key element of the study of Christian perspectives on ethical issues at GCSE and A level. Given the current dominance of philosophical and ethical topics, and weaknesses in the engagement with biblical texts within existing curriculum materials,…

  6. Community Response and Engagement During Extreme Water Events in Saskatchewan, Canada and Queensland, Australia

    McMartin, Dena W.; Sammel, Alison J.; Arbuthnott, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Technology alone cannot address the challenges of how societies, communities, and individuals understand water accessibility, water management, and water consumption, particularly under extreme conditions like floods and droughts. At the community level, people are increasingly aware challenges related to responses to and impacts of extreme water events. This research begins with an assessment of social and political capacities of communities in two Commonwealth jurisdictions, Queensland, Australia and Saskatchewan, Canada, in response to major flooding events. The research further reviews how such capacities impact community engagement to address and mitigate risks associated with extreme water events and provides evidence of key gaps in skills, understanding, and agency for addressing impacts at the community level. Secondary data were collected using template analysis to elucidate challenges associated with education (formal and informal), social and political capacity, community ability to respond appropriately, and formal government responses to extreme water events in these two jurisdictions. The results indicate that enhanced community engagement alongside elements of an empowerment model can provide avenues for identifying and addressing community vulnerability to negative impacts of flood and drought.

  7. Community Engagement in a Graduate-Level Community Literacy Course

    Marshall Bowen, Lauren; Arko, Kirsti; Beatty, Joel; Delaney, Cindy; Dorpenyo, Isidore; Moeller, Laura; Roberts, Elsa; Velat, John

    2014-01-01

    A case study of a graduate-level community literacy seminar that involved a tutoring project with adult digital literacy learners, this essay illustrates the value of community outreach and service-learning for graduate students in writing studies. Presenting multiple perspectives through critical reflection, student authors describe how their…

  8. Simulating the DIRCM engagement: component and system level performance

    Willers, CJ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available , spectrally matched, pyrophoric. Jammers with arc lamps and steered (directional) beams. Early directional laser beams: soft- kill - jamming & dazzling. Single head, complex gimbals. Advanced direction- al laser beams: hard kill - power levels cause damage... countermeasures (DIRCM), employing high power lamps or lasers as sources of infrared energy. The larger aircraft self-protection scenario, comprising the missile, aircraft and DIRCM hardware is a complex system. In this system, each component presents major...

  9. Corporate Social Responsibility and Employee Engagement: Enabling Employees to Employ More of Their Whole Selves at Work.

    Glavas, Ante

    2016-01-01

    Research at the individual level of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been growing rapidly. Yet we still lack a more complete understanding of why and how individuals (i.e., employees) are affected by CSR. This study contributes to that gap by exploring the relationship between CSR and employee engagement. Moreover, in order to address the problem of low levels of employee engagement in the workplace, CSR is proposed and tested as a pathway for engaging a significant part of the workforce. Building on engagement theory, a model is tested in which CSR enables employees to bring more of their whole selves to work, which results in employees being more engaged. Data from 15,184 employees in a large professional service firm in the USA was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results show that authenticity (i.e., being able to show one's whole self at work) positively and significantly mediates the relationship between CSR and employee engagement. However, the other mediator tested in this study, perceived organizational support (POS; i.e., direct benefits to the employee), did not significantly mediate the relationship. In addition, results of moderated mediation suggest that when CSR is extra-role (i.e., not embedded in one's job design such as volunteering), it weakens the relationship between CSR and employee engagement. Moreover, post hoc analyses show that even when POS is controlled for, authenticity has an impact above and beyond POS on employee engagement. These results extend prior CSR literature which has often been top-down and has focused on how employees will be positively affected by what the organization can give them (e.g., POS). Rather, a bottom-up approach might reveal that the more that employees can give of their whole selves, the more engaged they might be at work.

  10. Corporate Social Responsibility and Employee Engagement: Enabling Employees to Employ More of Their Whole Selves at Work

    Ante eGlavas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Research at the individual level of corporate social responsibility (CSR has been growing rapidly. Yet we still lack a more complete understanding of why and how individuals (i.e., employees are affected by CSR. This study contributes to that gap by exploring the relationship between CSR and employee engagement. Moreover, in order to address the problem of low levels of employee engagement in the workplace, CSR is proposed and tested as a pathway for engaging a significant part of the workforce. Building on engagement theory, a model is tested in which CSR enables employees to bring more of their whole selves to work, which results in employees being more engaged. Data from 15,184 employees in a large professional service firm in the U.S. was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results show that authenticity (i.e., being able to show one’s whole self at work positively and significantly mediates the relationship between CSR and employee engagement. However, the other mediator tested in this study, perceived organizational support (POS; i.e., direct benefits to the employee, did not significantly mediate the relationship. In addition, results of moderated mediation suggest that when CSR is extra-role (i.e., not embedded in one’s job design such as volunteering, it weakens the relationship between CSR and employee engagement. Moreover, post hoc analyses show that even when POS is controlled for, authenticity has an impact above and beyond POS on employee engagement. These results extend prior CSR literature which has often been top-down and has focused on how employees will be positively affected by what the organization can give them (e.g., POS. Rather, a bottom-up approach might reveal that the more that employees can give of their whole selves, the more engaged they might be at work.

  11. Individual and group-level job resources and their relationships with individual work engagement

    F?llemann, D?sir?e; Brauchli, Rebecca; Jenny, Gregor J.; Bauer, Georg F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study adds a multilevel perspective to the well-researched individual-level relationship between job resources and work engagement. In addition, we explored whether individual job resources cluster within work groups because of a shared psychosocial environment and investigated whether a resource-rich psychosocial work group environment is beneficial for employee engagement over and above the beneficial effect of individual job resources and independent of their variability w...

  12. Low burnout risk and high engagement levels among oral and maxillofacial surgeons

    Gorter, R.C.; Jacobs, B.L.T.H.; Allard, R.H.B.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the well-being of oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The aim of this study was to measure the levels of burnout risk and the demanding work aspects of Dutch oral and maxillofacial surgeons, as well as the levels of positive work engagement and stimulating aspects of the work

  13. Job crafting at the team and individual level: Implications for work engagement and performance

    Tims, M.; Bakker, A.B.; Derks, D.; Rhenen, van W.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that employee job crafting is positively related to job performance through employee work engagement. The present study expands this individual-level perspective to the team level by hypothesizing that team job crafting relates positively to team performance through team

  14. Work-engaged nurses for a better clinical learning environment: a ward-level analysis.

    Tomietto, Marco; Comparcini, Dania; Simonetti, Valentina; Pelusi, Gilda; Troiani, Silvano; Saarikoski, Mikko; Cicolini, Giancarlo

    2016-05-01

    To correlate workgroup engagement in nursing teams and the clinical learning experience of nursing students. Work engagement plays a pivotal role in explaining motivational dynamics. Nursing education is workplace-based and, through their clinical placements, nursing students develop both their clinical competences and their professional identity. However, there is currently a lack of evidence on the role of work engagement related to students' learning experiences. A total of 519 nurses and 519 nursing students were enrolled in hospital settings. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) was used to assess work engagement, and the Clinical Learning Environment and Supervision plus nurse Teacher (CLES+T) scale was used to assess students' learning experience. A multilevel linear regression analysis was performed. Group-level work engagement of nurses correlated with students' clinical learning experience (β = 0.11, P learning (respectively, β = 0.37, P education. Nursing education institutions and health-care settings need to conjointly work to build effective organisational climates. The results highlighted the importance of considering the group-level analysis to understand the most effective strategies of intervention for both organisations and nursing education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Engaging with Diversity and Global Learning - The leadership Responsibility

    Lauridsen, Karen M.; Gregersen Hermans, Jeanine

    This roundtable discusses what is at play in an international - or internationalizing - university when students with very diverse cultural backgrounds are brought together. It specifically addresses the leadership responsibility for ensuring that curricula and syllabi are adapted to teaching...

  16. The importance of symbolic and engaged participation in evidence-based quality improvement in a complex integrated healthcare system: response to "The science of stakeholder engagement in research".

    Hamilton, Alison B; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2017-09-01

    In this commentary, we respond to the commentary provided by Goodman and Sanders Thompson regarding our paper on multilevel stakeholder engagement in a VA implementation trial of evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI) in women's health primary care. We clarify our overall approach to engagement (comprised of both symbolic and engaged participation, according to the authors' classification rubric), highlighting that symbolic participation is of more import and value than the authors suggest, especially in the context of a hierarchical healthcare system. We contend that the issue of power-and how power matters in stakeholder engagement-needs to be considered in this context rather than in global "community" terms. In response to the authors' call for greater detail, we clarify our planning processes as well as our approach to veteran engagement. We concur with Goodman and Sanders Thompson that the science of stakeholder engagement necessitates a broader understanding of best practices as well as the impact of engagement on implementation outcomes.

  17. Facilitating Student Engagement: Social Responsibility and Freshmen Learning Communities

    Kingston, Lindsey N.; MacCartney, Danielle; Miller, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Human rights education is advanced as a method for promoting social responsibility, with an emphasis on promoting ideals of "global citizenship" among undergraduate students. At the same time, the practice of learning communities is widespread on college campuses for retaining freshmen and promoting student success. However, there is…

  18. School Psychologists' Perceptions of Stakeholder Engagement in Response to Intervention

    Little, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    As Response to Intervention (RTI) continues to be implemented in schools, it is important to consider how this initiative is perceived by the educational professionals involved in the implementation and effectiveness of the process. This study utilized a survey intended to investigate the perceptions of school psychologists regarding their…

  19. Factors influencing the levels of work engagement in physicians from Poland, Serbia and Bulgaria.

    Wilczyński, Krzysztof Maria; Swamad, Mohammed Abdul; Subotic, Vanja; Wizner, Dominika; Mazgaj, Elżbieta; Wajda, Weronika

    2015-09-01

    Lowered work engagement and burnout are a growing problem in recent years, especially among physicians. Cynicism, lack of energy and decreased efficacy may lead to the occurrence of severe depression. These phenomena influence almost every aspect of affected person's life, both professional and extraprofessional, and decrease its quality. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of family life and other factors on levels of work engagement and risk of depression. Our study was conducted on a group of 417 physicians from Poland, Serbia and Bulgaria using a paper questionnaire. The collected data was subjected to statistical analyses using Statsoft Statistica v. 10.0 software. There was no significant correlation between work engagement and sex or age. The highest score on work engagement was in Serbia (m=4.41; Mann-Whitney's U test with pUWES and SWING scales. WHI+/WHI- ratio correlates significantly with a BDI scale (Spearman's r=-0.49; pengagement and risk of burnout. The negative influence of work on family life may increase the risk of depression, and that effect is not susceptible to either positive or negative interactions of family life with work. The country with the lowest expenditure on a healthcare have also the lowest levels of work engagement.

  20. The Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility Dimensions on Employee Engagement in Iran

    Osveh Esmaeelinezhad; Ali Bin Boerhannoeddin; Kuppusamy Singaravelloo

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has attracted the attention of scholars and practitioners. Nevertheless, there is a lack of researches on how CSR influences employees’ positive behaviour toward their companies. By considering the dearth of engaged employees in organizations around the world, it could be expected that CSR programs used as by companies one of the key drivers of enhancing employee engagement. Understanding employee reactions to CSR could help organizatio...

  1. Employee voice and work engagement : Macro, meso, and micro-level drivers of convergence?

    Kwon, Bora; Farndale, E.; Park, Jong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Direct forms of individual employee voice are potentially important yet underexplored antecedents of work engagement. Based largely in job demands-resources theorizing, we develop a conceptual multi-level framework that explores how individual employee perceptions of voice practices affect their

  2. Advanced Level Biology Teachers' Attitudes towards Assessment and Their Engagement in Assessment for Learning

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a Mixed Methods study involving an investigation into the attitudes of advanced level biology teachers towards assessment and describes the teachers' experiences while being engaged in Assessment for Learning (AfL) practices such as sharing of learning objectives and peer- and self-assessment. Quantitative data were collected…

  3. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from three…

  4. Patterns in household-level engagement with climate change in Indonesia

    Bohensky, Erin L.; Smajgl, Alex; Brewer, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Understanding how individuals engage with climate change is critical for developing successful climate adaptation policies. Indonesia ranks among the world's top CO2 emitters, affirming its relevance to the global climate change policy arena, yet the dynamics of climate change engagement in Indonesia may differ from developed countries from which much research on this issue derives. We surveyed 6,310 households in two Indonesian regions to investigate patterns in four steps of engagement: observation, risk perception, reactive action (in response to present climate change) and proactive action (in anticipation of future climate change). We show that 89.5% of households exhibited a pattern whereby taking each of these steps in sequence implied taking all steps that precede it. Exceptions occurred in urban areas, where households were more likely to take action without having observed climate change or perceiving risks. In rural areas, households were more likely to observe climate change without taking action. These variations suggest a potentially nonlinear relationship between steps of engagement. We distinguish three types of household requiring adaptation support, and stress that Indonesian climate policy should shift emphasis from raising awareness to identifying broader institutional structures and processes to facilitate household engagement.

  5. Taking Responsibility into All Matter: Engaging Levinas for the Climate of the 21st Century

    Martin, Betsan

    2016-01-01

    This paper works with Levinasian thought to ask how principles of responsibility can be engaged for the twenty-first century crisis of climate destabilization, and other matters of injustice and exploitation. A case is made for extending an ethics of responsibility from a human-centered view to include humans as interdependent with nature. After a…

  6. Stakeholder Engagement for Responsible Innovation in the Private Sector: Critical Issues and Management Practices

    Blok, V.; Hoffmans, L.; Wubben, E.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Although both EU policy makers and researchers acknowledge that public or stakeholder engagement is important for responsible innovation (RI), empirical evidence in this field is still scarce. In this article, we explore to what extent companies with a disposition to innovate in a more responsible

  7. Muscle afferent receptors engaged in augmented sympathetic responsiveness in peripheral artery disease

    Jianhua eLi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The exercise pressor reflex (EPR is a neural control mechanism responsible for the cardiovascular responses to exercise. As exercise is initiated, thin fiber muscle afferent nerves are activated by mechanical and metabolic stimuli arising in the contracting muscles. This leads to reflex increases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate primarily through activation of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA. Studies of humans and animals have indicated that the EPR is exaggerated in a number of cardiovascular diseases. For the last several years, studies have specifically employed a rodent model to examine the mechanisms at receptor and cellular levels by which responses of SNA and blood pressure to static exercise are heightened in peripheral artery disease (PAD, one of the most common cardiovascular disorders. A rat model of this disease has well been established. Specifically, femoral artery occlusion is used to study intermittent claudication that is observed in human PAD. The receptors on thin fiber muscle afferents that are engaged in this disease include transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1, purinergic P2X and acid sensing ion channel (ASIC. The role played by nerve growth factor (NGF in regulating those sensory receptors in the processing of amplified EPR was also investigated. The purpose of this review is to focus on a theme namely that PAD accentuates autonomic reflex responses to exercise and further address regulatory mechanisms leading to abnormal sympathetic responsiveness. This review will present some of recent results in regard with several receptors in muscle sensory neurons in contribution to augmented autonomic reflex responses in PAD. Review of the findings from recent studies would lead to a better understanding in integrated processing of sympathetic nervous system in PAD.

  8. The Impact of Motivation and Task Difficulty on Resource Engagement: Differential Influences on Cardiovascular Responses of Young and Older Adults

    Smith, Brian T.; Hess, Thomas M.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined whether the level of cognitive engagement older adults were willing to invest is disproportionately influenced by the personal implications of the task, as suggested by Selective Engagement Theory. We experimentally altered the personal implications of the task by manipulating participants accountability for their performance. Young (N = 50) and older (N = 50) adults performed a memory-search task of moderate difficulty but within the capabilities of both age groups. Both physiological (systolic blood pressure responsivity; SBP-R) and subjective (NASA-TLX) measures of cognitive effort were assessed across all difficulty levels. The results replicated findings from previous research that indicated older adults must exert more effort than younger adults to achieve the same level of objective performance. Most importantly, our results showed that older adults were especially sensitive to our accountability manipulation, with the difference in SBP-R between accountability conditions being greater for older than for young adults. Finally, we found that there was little relation between subjective measures of workload and our physiological measures of task engagement. Together, the results of this study provide continued support for the Selective Engagement Theory. PMID:29670932

  9. Increasing Resilience Through Engagement In Sea Level Rise Community Science Initiatives.

    Chilton, L. A.; Rindge, H.

    2017-12-01

    Science literate and engaged members of the public, including students, are critical to building climate resilient communities. USC Sea Grant facilitates programs that work to build and strengthen these connections. The Urban Tides Community Science Initiative (Urban Tides) and the Youth Exploring Sea Level Rise Science Program (YESS) engage communities across the boundaries of public engagement, K-12 education, and informal education. YESS is an experiential sea level rise education program that combines classroom learning, field investigations and public presentations. Students explore sea level rise using a new curricula, collect their own data on sea level rise, develop communication products, and present their findings to city governments, researchers, and others. Urban Tides engages community members, informal education centers, K-12 students, and local government leaders in a citizen science program photo- documenting extreme high tides, erosion and coastal flooding in Southern California. Images provide critical information to help calibrate scientific models used to identify locations vulnerable to damage from future sea level rise. These tools and information enable community leaders and local governments to set priorities, guidelines, and update policies as they plan strategies that will help the region adapt. The program includes a mobile app for data collection, an open database to view photos, a lesson plan, and community beach walks. Urban Tides has led to an increase in data and data-gathering capacity for regional scientists, an increase in public participation in science, and an increase in ocean and climate literacy among initiative participants. Both of these programs bring informed and diverse voices into the discussion of how to adapt and build climate resilient communities. USC Sea Grant will share impacts and lessons learned from these two unique programs.

  10. Individual and group-level job resources and their relationships with individual work engagement.

    Füllemann, Désirée; Brauchli, Rebecca; Jenny, Gregor J; Bauer, Georg F

    2016-06-16

    This study adds a multilevel perspective to the well-researched individual-level relationship between job resources and work engagement. In addition, we explored whether individual job resources cluster within work groups because of a shared psychosocial environment and investigated whether a resource-rich psychosocial work group environment is beneficial for employee engagement over and above the beneficial effect of individual job resources and independent of their variability within groups. Data of 1,219 employees nested in 103 work groups were obtained from a baseline employee survey of a large stress management intervention project implemented in six medium and large-sized organizations in diverse sectors. A variety of important job resources were assessed and grouped to an overall job resource factor with three subfactors (manager behavior, peer behavior, and task-related resources). Data were analyzed using multilevel random coefficient modeling. The results indicated that job resources cluster within work groups and can be aggregated to a group-level job resources construct. However, a resource-rich environment, indicated by high group-level job resources, did not additionally benefit employee work engagement but on the contrary, was negatively related to it. On the basis of this unexpected result, replication studies are encouraged and suggestions for future studies on possible underlying within-group processes are discussed. The study supports the presumed value of integrating work group as a relevant psychosocial environment into the motivational process and indicates a need to further investigate emergent processes involved in aggregation procedures across levels.

  11. The Level of African Engagement at the World Trade Organization from 1995 to 2010.

    Joan Apecu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the level of individual and collective participation of African World Trade Organization (WTO Members in the Organization over a 15 year period, from 1995 to 2010. Specifically, it compares participation levels in three core areas of the WTO: regular committee work; Doha multilateral negotiations; and, dispute settlement. Primary data are collected and examined. Analysis showed that individual and collective participation by African WTO Members was nominal, minimal and largely ineffectual in relation to the group's significant membership share, in areas identified as priority, and compared to members' participation from other regions. The results of the analysis strongly suggest that the described level of participation of African countries is explained by the continuing inertia of a “special and differential exemption orientation”; misalignment in coordinating capital-driven domestic trade policy and economic reforms with the African WTO "Geneva frontline"; misallocation of negotiators across the core areas of work; a small trade share; and, to a lesser extent, specialised capacity handicaps. Furthermore, analysis indicated that the degree of engagement of participation of African WTO Members could be explained by levels of personal commitment and professional engagement of individual negotiators, regardless of capacity constraints and weaknesses. There were evident relationships between the level of African participation and the governance and institutional structures from which negotiators originated. Negotiators from systems with fragile democracies and weak governance structures tended to be tentative, largely inactive, inconsistent in participation and ineffectual in engagement. Within this overarching explanatory framework, specific variables have intervened in different combinations in the three areas of work to influence the levels of engagement, such as trade share levels, specific commercial interests, and

  12. Engagement in Training as a Mechanism to Understanding Fidelity of Implementation of the Responsive Classroom Approach.

    Wanless, Shannon B; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia; Larsen, Ross A; Patton, Christine L

    2015-11-01

    Fidelity of implementation of classroom interventions varies greatly, a reality that is concerning because higher fidelity of implementation relates to greater effectiveness of the intervention. We analyzed 126 fourth and fifth grade teachers from the treatment group of a randomized controlled trial of the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach. Prior to training in the intervention, we assessed factors that had the potential to represent a teacher's readiness to implement with fidelity. These included teachers' observed emotional support, teacher-rated use of intervention practices, teacher-rated self-efficacy, teacher-rated collective responsibility, education level, and years of experience, and they were not directly related to observed fidelity of implementation 2 years later. Further analyses indicated, however, that RC trainers' ratings of teachers' engagement in the initial weeklong RC training mediated the relation between initial observed emotional support and later observed fidelity of implementation. We discuss these findings as a way to advance understanding of teachers' readiness to implement new interventions with fidelity.

  13. A Conceptual Framework for Responsive Global Engagement in Communication Sciences and Disorders

    Hyter, Yvette D.

    2014-01-01

    The field of speech-language pathology needs a conceptual framework to guide the provision of services in a globalized world. Proposed in this article is a conceptual framework designed to facilitate responsive global engagement for professionals such as speech-language pathologists, who are increasingly serving diverse populations around the…

  14. Examining the Intersections between Undergraduates' Engagement in Community Service and Development of Socially Responsible Leadership

    Soria, Krista; Nobbe, June; Fink, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined relationships between students' engagement in community service in different contexts through classes, student organizations, work study, and on their own as well as their development of socially responsible leadership at a large, public, research university in the Upper Midwest. Results from the Multi-Institutional Study of…

  15. Daily micro-breaks and job performance: General work engagement as a cross-level moderator.

    Kim, Sooyeol; Park, YoungAh; Headrick, Lucille

    2018-03-29

    Despite the growing research on work recovery and its well-being outcomes, surprisingly little attention has been paid to at-work recovery and its job performance outcomes. The current study extends the work recovery literature by examining day-level relationships between prototypical microbreaks and job performance as mediated by state positive affect. Furthermore, general work engagement is tested as a cross-level moderator weakening the indirect effects of microbreaks on job performance via positive affect. Using multisource experience sampling method, the authors collected two daily surveys from 71 call center employees and obtained objective records of daily sales performance for two consecutive weeks (n = 632). Multilevel path analysis results showed that relaxation, socialization, and cognitive microbreaks were related to increased positive affect at work which, in turn, predicted greater sales performance. However, breaks for nutrition-intake (having snacks and drinks) did not show significant effects. Importantly, microbreaks had significant indirect effects on job performance via positive affect only for workers who had lower general work engagement, whereas the indirect effects did not exist for workers who had higher general work engagement. Furthermore, Bayesian multilevel analyses confirmed the results. Theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Engaging with communities, engaging with patients: amendment to the NAPCRG 1998 Policy Statement on Responsible Research With Communities.

    Allen, Michele L; Salsberg, Jon; Knot, Michaela; LeMaster, Joseph W; Felzien, Maret; Westfall, John M; Herbert, Carol P; Vickery, Katherine; Culhane-Pera, Kathleen A; Ramsden, Vivian R; Zittleman, Linda; Martin, Ruth Elwood; Macaulay, Ann C

    2017-06-01

    In 1998, the North American Primary Care Research Group (NAPCRG) adopted a groundbreaking Policy Statement endorsing responsible participatory research (PR) with communities. Since that time, PR gained prominence in primary care research. To reconsider the original 1998 Policy Statement in light of increased uptake of PR, and suggest future directions and applications for PR in primary care. This work contributed to an updated Policy Statement endorsed by NAPCRG in 2015. 32 university and 30 community NAPCRG-affiliated research partners, convened a workshop to document lessons learned about implementing processes and principles of PR. This document emerged from that session and reflection and discussion regarding the original Policy Statement, the emerging PR literature, and our own experiences. The foundational principles articulated in the 1998 Policy Statement remain relevant to the current PR environment. Lessons learned since its publication include that the maturation of partnerships is facilitated by participatory processes that support increased community responsibility for research projects, and benefits generated through PR extend beyond research outcomes. Future directions that will move forward the field of PR in primary care include: (i) improve assessment of PR processes to better delineate the links between how PR teams work together and diverse PR outcomes, (ii) increase the number of models incorporating PR into translational research from project inception to dissemination, and (iii) increase application of PR approaches that support patient engagement in clinical settings to patient-provider relationship and practice change research. PR has markedly altered the manner in which primary care research is undertaken in partnership with communities and its principles and philosophies continue to offer means to assure that research results and processes improve the health of all communities. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All

  17. Adaptive response after low level irradiation

    Pelevina, I I; Afanasjev, G G; JaGotlib, V; Tereschenko, D G; Tronov, V A; Serebrjany, A M [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Chemical Physics

    1996-02-01

    The experiments conducted on cultured HeLa (tissue culture) cells revealed that there is a limit of dose above which adaptive response was not observed and a limit of dose below which this response was not induced. The exposure of cells in the territories with elevated radiation background leads to genome instability which results in enhanced radiosensitivity. Investigations on the blood lymphocytes of people living in contaminated regions revealed that adaptive response was more significant in children whereas in adults there was slight increase. Acute irradiation serves as a tool revealing the changes that took place in DNA during chronic low level irradiations after Chernobyl disaster. (author).

  18. Sequencing learning experiences to engage different level learners in the workplace: An interview study with excellent clinical teachers.

    Chen, H Carrie; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Teherani, Arianne; Fogh, Shannon; Kobashi, Brent; ten Cate, Olle

    2015-01-01

    Learning in the clinical workplace can appear to rely on opportunistic teaching. The cognitive apprenticeship model describes assigning tasks based on learner rather than just workplace needs. This study aimed to determine how excellent clinical teachers select clinical learning experiences to support the workplace participation and development of different level learners. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews with medical school faculty identified as excellent clinical teachers teaching multiple levels of learners. We explored their approach to teach different level learners and their perceived role in promoting learner development. We performed thematic analysis of the interview transcripts using open and axial coding. We interviewed 19 clinical teachers and identified three themes related to their teaching approach: sequencing of learning experiences, selection of learning activities and teacher responsibilities. All teachers used sequencing as a teaching strategy by varying content, complexity and expectations by learner level. The teachers initially selected learning activities based on learner level and adjusted for individual competencies over time. They identified teacher responsibilities for learner education and patient safety, and used sequencing to promote both. Excellent clinical teachers described strategies for matching available learning opportunities to learners' developmental levels to safely engage learners and improve learning in the clinical workplace.

  19. A task-level perspective on work engagement: A new approach that helps to differentiate the concepts of engagement and burnout

    Sabine Sonnentag

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical paper differentiates work engagement from the burnout concept by using a task-level perspective. Specifically, I argue that work engagement (i.e., the experience of vigor, dedication and absorption, Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004 emerges during the process of working. It does not only differ between persons and does not only fluctuate from one day to the other (or even within the course of a day, but can vary largely between different work tasks. Burnout (and particularly exhaustion as a chronic state does not differ from one work task to the other. I describe task features derived from the job characteristics model (Hackman & Oldham, 1976 as predictors of task-specific work engagement and discuss interaction effects between task features on the one hand and job-level social and personal resources on the other hand. I outline possible avenues for future research and address practical implications, including task design and employee's energy management throughout the workday.

  20. Poverty and involuntary engagement stress responses: examining the link to anxiety and aggression within low-income families.

    Wolff, Brian C; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E

    2009-05-01

    Families living with the burdens of poverty-related stress are at risk for developing a range of psychopathology. The present study examines the year-long prospective relationships among poverty-related stress, involuntary engagement stress response (IESR) levels, and anxiety symptoms and aggression in an ethnically diverse sample of 98 families (300 individual family members) living at or below 150% of the US federal poverty line. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) moderator model analyses provided strong evidence that IESR levels moderated the influence of poverty-related stress on anxiety symptoms and provided mixed evidence for the same interaction effect on aggression. Higher IESR levels, a proxy for physiological stress reactivity, worsened the impact of stress on symptoms. Understanding how poverty-related stress and involuntary stress responses affect psychological functioning has implications for efforts to prevent or reduce psychopathology, particularly anxiety, among individuals and families living in poverty.

  1. Identifying the influence of gender on motivation and engagement levels in student physiotherapists.

    Edgar, Susan

    2015-04-01

    There is an increasing focus in higher education on the role of learner characteristics and their influence on academic performance. Educators are interested in how students engage with learning activities as they progress through the curriculum. A previous study highlighted gender effects in academic performance in student physiotherapists, despite comparable entry scores. The aim of this study was to determine variation in student motivation and engagement, across the four year levels of the physiotherapy program at The University of Notre Dame Australia while considering gender and age. A cross-sectional design was adopted surveying 233 students utilising the Motivation and Engagement Scale - University/College (MES-UC), to review motivational thoughts and behaviours influencing learning. RESULTS identified gender effects with males having on average significantly lower scores for planning, task management and persistence; and higher scores for disengagement from their studies. Females displayed higher average scores for anxiety particularly in their first year and final clinical year. RESULTS were consistent with gender effects noted in academic performance throughout the program for previous student cohorts. The application of the MES-UC early in course would highlight to educators the areas where intervention can be targeted. Early individualized intervention is recommended to address learner characteristics influencing performance.

  2. Behavioral response of manatees to variations in environmental sound levels

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Wagner, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabit coastal regions because they feed on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters, which are the same areas where human activities are greatest. Noise produced from anthropogenic and natural sources has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. Sound levels were calculated from recordings made throughout behavioral observation periods. An information theoretic approach was used to investigate the relationship between behavior patterns and sound level. Results indicated that elevated sound levels affect manatee activity and are a function of behavioral state. The proportion of time manatees spent feeding and milling changed in response to sound level. When ambient sound levels were highest, more time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behavior of feeding, whereas less time was spent engaged in undirected behavior such as milling. This work illustrates how shifts in activity of individual manatees may be useful parameters for identifying impacts of noise on manatees and might inform population level effects.

  3. Triumph or Tragedy: Comparing Student Engagement Levels of Members of Greek-Letter Organizations and Other Students.

    Hayek, John C.; Carini, Robert M.; O'Day, Patrick T.; Kuh, George D.

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the levels of student engagement between fraternity and sorority members and other undergraduate students. After controls, Greek members appeared to be equally and sometimes more engaged in academically challenging tasks, active learning, student-faculty interaction, community service, diversity, satisfaction, and on learning…

  4. Why Japanese workers show low work engagement: An item response theory analysis of the Utrecht Work Engagement scale

    Shimazu, Akihito; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Miyanaka, Daisuke; Iwata, Noboru

    2010-01-01

    Abstract With the globalization of occupational health psychology, more and more researchers are interested in applying employee well-being like work engagement (i.e., a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption) to diverse populations. Accurate measurement contributes to our further understanding and to the generalizability of the concept of work engagement across different cultures. The present study investigated the measurem...

  5. Impact of corporate social responsibility on employee engagement: A case of Eskom in South Africa

    Fortunate Slindile Kweyama

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR as a business management concept in the fifties ushered in a new error in the way business view its various stakeholders. Chief among the stakeholders are the employees by virtue of being the brains behind the organization. This study assesses the impact of CSR programmes on Employee Engagement (EE in the South African State Owned Power Company, Eskom. In particular, the study interrogates the impact of the three CSR dimensions of awareness, involvement and environmental awareness vis-a-vis the two dimensions of EE, namely, Job Engagement (JE and Organizational Engagement (OE. A total of 380 Eskom employees were used as participants. The major findings were that organizational leaders are eager to implement CSR strategies. The study further revealed realistic and practical practises to broaden understanding of the current status of the organization, understanding EE and understanding the role CSR could play as a potential Human Resources (HR tool to engage employees for Eskom and other organizations in general. The study concludes by recommending further research across industries to address the relationship between CSR initiatives and EE.

  6. Engagement techniques and playing level impact the biomechanical demands on rugby forwards during machine-based scrummaging

    Preatoni, Ezio; Stokes, Keith A.; England, Michael E.; Trewartha, Grant

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This cross-sectional study investigated the factors that may influence the physical loading on rugby forwards performing a scrum by studying the biomechanics of machine-based scrummaging under different engagement techniques and playing levels.Methods 34 forward packs from six playing levels performed repetitions of five different types of engagement techniques against an instrumented scrum machine under realistic training conditions. Applied forces and body movements were recorded...

  7. The multi-dimensional model of Māori identity and cultural engagement: item response theory analysis of scale properties.

    Sibley, Chris G; Houkamau, Carla A

    2013-01-01

    We argue that there is a need for culture-specific measures of identity that delineate the factors that most make sense for specific cultural groups. One such measure, recently developed specifically for Māori peoples, is the Multi-Dimensional Model of Māori Identity and Cultural Engagement (MMM-ICE). Māori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. The MMM-ICE is a 6-factor measure that assesses the following aspects of identity and cultural engagement as Māori: (a) group membership evaluation, (b) socio-political consciousness, (c) cultural efficacy and active identity engagement, (d) spirituality, (e) interdependent self-concept, and (f) authenticity beliefs. This article examines the scale properties of the MMM-ICE using item response theory (IRT) analysis in a sample of 492 Māori. The MMM-ICE subscales showed reasonably even levels of measurement precision across the latent trait range. Analysis of age (cohort) effects further indicated that most aspects of Māori identification tended to be higher among older Māori, and these cohort effects were similar for both men and women. This study provides novel support for the reliability and measurement precision of the MMM-ICE. The study also provides a first step in exploring change and stability in Māori identity across the life span. A copy of the scale, along with recommendations for scale scoring, is included.

  8. Work engagement and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels among Japanese workers: a 1-year prospective cohort study.

    Eguchi, Hisashi; Shimazu, Akihito; Kawakami, Norito; Inoue, Akiomi; Nakata, Akinori; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2015-08-01

    Evidence on the association between psychological well-being and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels is limited. We carried out a prospective study to investigate the association between work engagement and hs-CRP levels in a group of Japanese workers. Our cohort included 1,857 men and 657 women aged 65 and under, and free from major illness, working at two manufacturing worksites in Japan. Baseline examinations were conducted from April to June 2011 to determine the demographic and lifestyle characteristics and levels of work engagement. Blood samples were obtained from participants at baseline and after 1 year. Participants were classified into tertiles of low, moderate, and high work engagement at baseline. Hs-CRP levels were split into low (≤3.0 mg/L) and high (>3.0 mg/L). We used multiple logistic regression analyses to evaluate the association between work engagement at baseline and hs-CRP levels at follow-up, adjusting for hs-CRP at baseline and potential confounding factors. Participants reporting moderate and high levels of work engagement at baseline had significantly lower odds ratios (ORs) of having high hs-CRP levels at follow-up than those with low levels of work engagement at baseline [OR of moderate level 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24-0.81; OR of high level 0.57, 95% CI 0.33-0.99; p for trend work engagement has beneficial effects on workers' cardiovascular health.

  9. Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise: Advancing coastal management through integrated research and engagement

    Kidwell, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Rising sea level represents a significant threat to coastal communities and ecosystems through land loss, altered habitats, and increased vulnerability to coastal storms and inundation. This threat is exemplified in the northern Gulf of Mexico where low topography, expansive marshes, and a prevalence of tropical storms have already resulted in extensive coastal impacts. The development of robust predictive capabilities that incorporate complex biological processes with physical dynamics are critical for informed planning and restoration efforts for coastal ecosystems. Looking to build upon existing predictive modeling capabilities and allow for use of multiple model (i.e., ensemble) approaches, NOAA initiated the Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise program in 2010 to advance physical/biological integrative modeling capabilities in the region with a goal to provide user friendly predictive tools for coastal ecosystem management. Focused on the northern Gulf of Mexico, this multi-disciplinary project led by the University of Central Florida will use in situ field studies to parameterize physical and biological models. These field studies will also result in a predictive capability for overland sediment delivery and transport that will further enhance marsh, oyster, and submerged aquatic vegetation models. Results from this integrated modeling effort are envisioned to inform management strategies for reducing risk, restoration and breakwater guidelines, and resource sustainability for project planning, among other uses. In addition to the science components, this project incorporates significant engagement of the management community through a management applications principle investigator and an advisory management committee. Routine engagement between the science team and the management committee, including annual workshops, are focused on ensuring the development of applicable, relevant, and useable products and tools at the conclusion of this project. Particular

  10. Escitalopram plasma levels and antidepressant response.

    Florio, Vincenzo; Porcelli, Stefano; Saria, Alois; Serretti, Alessandro; Conca, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Major Depression Disorder (MDD) has a highly variable treatment response due to the large inter-individual variation in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drug treatments. In detail the correlation between plasma level and efficacy has been much debated. Among first-line drugs for MDD, one of the most used is escitalopram. In the present study we investigated the association between serum concentration of escitalopram (SCE) and antidepressant response (AR). 70 MDD patients treated with escitalopram monotherapy were recruited and followed for three months. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale - 21 (HAMD-21) was administrated at baseline, month 1, and month 3 to assess AR. SCE was measured at steady state. Linear regression analysis and nonlinear least-squares regression were used to estimate association between SCE and AR. We found an association between SCE and AR both at month 1 (pescitalopram the association between SCE and AR likely follows a nearly-asymptotic function, with poor AR at sub-therapeutic SCE and stable AR response at therapeutic SCE. Thus, when a patient reaches the therapeutic SCE range, further increase of escitalopram dosage seems to be useless, although further studies are needed to confirm our findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  11. Student Engagement

    Conduit, Jodie; Karpen, Ingo; Farrelly, Francis

    2017-01-01

    system (the university), the narrow service system (the course), and the individual dyadic level of engagement (the student-lecturer interaction). These findings could be further considered and empirically tested in other engagement contexts (e.g. employee engagement, customer engagement).......Universities are seeking to actively and strategically manage student engagement through providing opportunities for students to interact and engage with the institution on a range of levels and in different ways. However, this increasingly complex and multi-layered nature of student engagement...... within a tertiary education environment is not well understood. Through qualitative focus groups and a series of interviews with undergraduate and postgraduate students, this study explores and articulates the cognitive, emotional, behavioural and social dimensions of engagement that depict the nature...

  12. A Comparison of Traditional and Engaging Lecture Methods in a Large, Professional-Level Course

    Miller, Cynthia J.; McNear, Jacquee; Metz, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    In engaging lectures, also referred to as broken or interactive lectures, students are given short periods of lecture followed by "breaks" that can consist of 1-min papers, problem sets, brainstorming sessions, or open discussion. While many studies have shown positive effects when engaging lectures are used in undergraduate settings,…

  13. Differential p53 engagement in response to oxidative and oncogenic stresses in Fanconi anemia mice

    Rani, Reena; Li, Jie; Pang, Qishen

    2008-01-01

    Members of the Fanconi anemia (FA) protein family are involved in repair of genetic damage caused by DNA cross-linkers. It is not clear whether the FA proteins function in oxidative DNA damage and oncogenic stress response. Here we report that deficiency in the Fanca gene in mice elicits a p53-dependent growth arrest and DNA damage response to oxidative DNA damage and oncogenic stress. Using a Fanca-/- Trp53-/- double knockout model and a functionally switchable p53 retrovirus, we define the kinetics, dependence, and persistence of p53-mediated response to oxidative and oncogenic stresses in Fanca-/- cells. Notably, oxidative stress induces persistent p53 response in Fanca-/- cells, likely due to accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage. On the other hand, whereas WT cells exhibit prolonged response to oncogene activation, the p53-activating signals induced by oncogenic ras are short-lived in Fanca-/- cells, suggesting that Fanca may be required for the cell to engage p53 during constitutive ras activation. We propose that the FA proteins protect cells from stress-induced proliferative arrest and tumor evolution by acting as a modulator of the signaling pathways that link FA to p53. PMID:19047147

  14. Differential p53 engagement in response to oxidative and oncogenic stresses in Fanconi anemia mice.

    Rani, Reena; Li, Jie; Pang, Qishen

    2008-12-01

    Members of the Fanconi anemia (FA) protein family are involved in repair of genetic damage caused by DNA cross-linkers. It is not clear whether the FA proteins function in oxidative DNA damage and oncogenic stress response. Here, we report that deficiency in the Fanca gene in mice elicits a p53-dependent growth arrest and DNA damage response to oxidative DNA damage and oncogenic stress. Using a Fanca-/-Trp53-/- double knockout model and a functionally switchable p53 retrovirus, we define the kinetics, dependence, and persistence of p53-mediated response to oxidative and oncogenic stresses in Fanca-/- cells. Notably, oxidative stress induces persistent p53 response in Fanca-/- cells, likely due to accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage. On the other hand, whereas wild-type cells exhibit prolonged response to oncogene activation, the p53-activating signals induced by oncogenic ras are short-lived in Fanca-/- cells, suggesting that Fanca may be required for the cell to engage p53 during constitutive ras activation. We propose that the FA proteins protect cells from stress-induced proliferative arrest and tumor evolution by acting as a modulator of the signaling pathways that link FA to p53.

  15. The association between team-level social capital and individual-level work engagement: Differences between subtypes of social capital and the impact of intra-team agreement.

    Meng, Annette; Clausen, Thomas; Borg, Vilhelm

    2018-04-01

    The study explored the association between team-level social capital and individual-level work engagement. Questionnaire data were collected from six companies in the dairy industry. Seven hundred seventy-two participants divided into 65 teams were included. In confirmatory factor analyses, we found a superior model fit to a four dimensional model of social capital: bonding social capital, bridging social capital and two types of linking social capital. The results showed a positive association between all subtypes of social capital at the team level and work engagement at the individual level. However, this association only remained significant for linking social capital in relation the workplace as a whole when we adjusted for psychosocial working conditions. The level of intra-team agreement in social capital score did not moderate the association between social capital and work engagement. In conclusion, the results provide further support for previous findings suggesting a positive association between social capital and work engagement. They add to the existing knowledge by suggesting that linking social capital in relation to the workplace is the most important explanatory variable for work engagement, thus emphasizing the need to distinguish between subtypes of social capital in research and practice. © 2018 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Stakeholders' Engagement Methods for the Mining Social Responsibility Practice: Determination of Local Issues and Concerns Related to the Mines Operations in Northwest of the US.

    Masaitis, A.

    2014-12-01

    Every year, all around the world, global environmental change affects the human habitat. This is effect enhanced by the mining operation, and creates new challenges in relationship between the mining and local community. The purpose of this project are developed the Stakeholders engagement evaluation plan which is currently developed in University of Nevada, Reno for the Emigrant mining project, located in the central Nevada, USA, and belong to the Newmont Mining Corporation, one of the gold production leader worldwide. The needs for this project is to create the open dialog between Newmont mining company and all interested parties which have social or environmental impacts from the Emigrant mine. Identification of the stakeholders list is first and one of the most difficult steps in the developing of mine social responsibility. Stakeholders' engagement evaluation plan must be based on the timing and available resources of the mining company, understanding the goals for the engagement, and on analyzes of the possible risks from engagement. In conclusion, the Stakeholders engagement evaluation plan includes: first, determinations of the stakeholders list, which must include any interested or effected by the mine projects groups, for example: state and local government representatives, people from local communities, business partners, environmental NGOs, indigenous people, and academic groups. The contacts and availability for communication is critical for Stakeholders engagement. Next, is to analyze characteristics of all these parties and determinate the level of interest and level of their influence on the project. The next step includes the Stakeholders matrix and mapping development, where all these information will be put together.After that, must be chosen the methods for stakeholders' engagement. The methods usually depends from the goals of engagement (create the dialog lines, collect the data, determinations of the local issues and concerns, or establish

  17. Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: a meta-analysis.

    Harter, James K; Schmidt, Frank L; Hayes, Theodore L

    2002-04-01

    Based on 7,939 business units in 36 companies, this study used meta-analysis to examine the relationship at the business-unit level between employee satisfaction-engagement and the business-unit outcomes of customer satisfaction, productivity, profit, employee turnover, and accidents. Generalizable relationships large enough to have substantial practical value were found between unit-level employee satisfaction-engagement and these business-unit outcomes. One implication is that changes in management practices that increase employee satisfaction may increase business-unit outcomes, including profit.

  18. Engaging in an experiential processing mode increases positive emotional response during recall of pleasant autobiographical memories.

    Gadeikis, Darius; Bos, Nikita; Schweizer, Susanne; Murphy, Fionnuala; Dunn, Barnaby

    2017-05-01

    It is important to identify effective emotion regulation strategies to increase positive emotion experience in the general population and in clinical conditions characterized by anhedonia. There are indications that engaging in experiential processing (direct awareness of sensory and bodily experience) bolsters positive emotion experience but this has not been extensively tested during memory recall. To further test this notion, 99 community participants recalled two positive autobiographical memories. Prior to the second recall, participants either underwent an experiential, analytical, or distraction induction (n = 33 per condition). Subjective happiness and sadness ratings and heart rate variability (HRV) response were measured during each recall. Greater spontaneous use of experiential processing during the first memory was associated with greater happiness experience, but was unrelated to HRV and sadness experience. Inducing experiential processing increased happiness experience relative to both the analytical and distraction conditions (but had no impact on sadness experience). There was a significant difference in HRV between conditions. The experiential condition led to a trend-significant increase, and the other conditions a non-significant decrease, in HRV from the first to the second memory. These results suggest that engaging in experiential processing is an effective way to up-regulate positive emotion experience during positive memory recall. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Relating Corporate Social Responsibility and Employee Engagement: The Mediating Role of Perceived Organizational Support and Chinese Values

    Jennifer H. Gao

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggested that Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is positively related to organization's attractiveness to potential employees. This paper tries to explore the effective dimensions of CSR on employee engagement and the mediating factors that lay between the two constructs. The author proposes that CSR has a direct impact on employee engagement, and that perceived organizational support (POS) and Chinese values mediate this relationship, so CSR may also contribute indirec...

  20. Key experiences of community engagement and social mobilization in the Ebola response

    Laverack, G.; Manoncourt, Erma

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing outbreak of the Ebola virus in West Africa is the largest on record; it has undermined already fragile healthcare systems and presented new challenges to contain the spread of the disease. Based on our observations in the field and insights from referenced sources, we aimed to identify...... key experiences of community engagement and social mobilization efforts in the current Ebola response. We concluded that there is no excuse not to actively involve local people and that the United Nations (UN) agencies and other partners did learn from their earlier mistakes to make a genuine attempt...... and health. This commentary can provide a guide to agencies to understand an appropriate way forward when the next Ebola outbreak inevitably occurs. © The Author(s) 2015....

  1. A neural measure of behavioral engagement: task-residual low-frequency blood oxygenation level-dependent activity in the precuneus.

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chiang-Shan Ray

    2010-01-15

    Brain imaging has provided a useful tool to examine the neural processes underlying human cognition. A critical question is whether and how task engagement influences the observed regional brain activations. Here we highlighted this issue and derived a neural measure of task engagement from the task-residual low-frequency blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activity in the precuneus. Using independent component analysis, we identified brain regions in the default circuit - including the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) - showing greater activation during resting as compared to task residuals in 33 individuals. Time series correlations with the posterior cingulate cortex as the seed region showed that connectivity with the precuneus was significantly stronger during resting as compared to task residuals. We hypothesized that if the task-residual BOLD activity in the precuneus reflects engagement, it should account for a certain amount of variance in task-related regional brain activation. In an additional experiment of 59 individuals performing a stop signal task, we observed that the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) of the precuneus but not the mPFC accounted for approximately 10% of the variance in prefrontal activation related to attentional monitoring and response inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that task-residual fALFF in the precuneus may be a potential indicator of task engagement. This measurement may serve as a useful covariate in identifying motivation-independent neural processes that underlie the pathogenesis of a psychiatric or neurological condition.

  2. The effect of presenteeism-related health conditions on employee work engagement levels: A comparison between groups

    Leon T. de Beer

    2014-10-01

    Research purpose: The primary objective of this study was to determine the differences in work engagement levels based on groups of presenteeism-related conditions in employees. Motivation for the study: Awareness of the impact of presenteeism-related conditions on work engagement levels can aid in the crafting of interventions to assist employees who suffer from these conditions, which in turn can boost work engagement levels. Research design, approach and method: Cross-sectional data was collected from an availability sample of employees in the manufacturing sector (N = 3387. Main findings: The results of the multi-group structural equation modelling revealed significant mean differences in work engagement levels between the groups. Practical significance tests revealed significant differences between all the groups. The largest difference was between the group who suffered from no presenteeism-related conditions and the group who suffered from all three conditions included in this study concurrently. Practical/managerial implications: Organisational stakeholders are encouraged to take note of the effects that presenteeism-related health conditions have on work engagement and to consider relevant strategies and interventions to address and alleviate symptoms in order to tend to employee health and obviate the effect on productivity. Contribution: This study found that there were clear practical differences between employees who suffer from the presenteeism-related conditions and those who suffer from none of the conditions. Furthermore, there was also a clear difference when comparing the ‘no condition’ group to a general random sample in which employees might experience some symptoms but not comorbidity.

  3. Involved and Focused? Students' Perceptions of Institutional Identity, Personal Goal Orientation and Levels of Campus Engagement

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; McCarthy, Brendan J.; Milner, Lauren A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study explores the relationship between students' perception of their institution's mission identity, personal goal orientation tendencies, and the extent to which they engage in mission-driven activities. Goal orientation research categorizes student motivations in three ways: mastery orientation (MO), performance-approach (PAp)…

  4. The Science Advancement through Group Engagement Program: Leveling the Playing Field and Increasing Retention in Science

    Hall, Donna M.; Curtin-Soydan, Amanda J.; Canelas, Dorian A.

    2014-01-01

    How can colleges and universities keep an open gateway to the science disciplines for the least experienced first-year science students while also maintaining high standards that challenge the students with the strongest possible high school backgrounds? The Science Advancement through Group Engagement (SAGE) project targets cohorts of less…

  5. An Emerging Ethic of Responsibility: A Case Study for Engaging the Public

    Mandia, S. A.; Abraham, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Recent trends in the public’s understanding of climate change have diverged from the broad, and well-documented consensus held by scientists. While the level of consensus regarding climate change among scientists is very high, the public remains deeply divided. Furthermore, a large percentage of the general public perceives that a serious debate exists within the science community on the basic theory of anthropogenic climate change. This disconnect between the scientific community and the general public should motivate scientists to take a more active role in public outreach. Recent stories in the media have increased the public’s resistance to climate change. Included here are Climategate, mistakes in the IPCC regarding Himalayan glacial melt, and other reports (inaccurately reported) about IPCC errors related to the sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest to a changing climate. Along with these stories, there has been a well-documented increase in activism by “skeptical scientists” and by “skeptical non-scientists” to engage the public with a goal of promoting the perception of a serious debate within the science community. Also during the past few years, a number of scientists who have taken an active role in educating the general public have come under political, scientific, and personal pressure. The resistance exerted on scientists who become public educators has caused many scientists to avoid outreach efforts. Here, the authors present a case study for a successful effort to engage the public on the issue of climate change. We utilized a number of media methods to cause a significant impact on the public discussion of global warming. In addition, the effort has begun to affect legislative processes within the United States and abroad. The authors present this case study to provide a roadmap to colleagues who wish to participate in public outreach.

  6. Engagement techniques and playing level impact the biomechanical demands on rugby forwards during machine-based scrummaging.

    Preatoni, Ezio; Stokes, Keith A; England, Michael E; Trewartha, Grant

    2015-04-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the factors that may influence the physical loading on rugby forwards performing a scrum by studying the biomechanics of machine-based scrummaging under different engagement techniques and playing levels. 34 forward packs from six playing levels performed repetitions of five different types of engagement techniques against an instrumented scrum machine under realistic training conditions. Applied forces and body movements were recorded in three orthogonal directions. The modification of the engagement technique altered the load acting on players. These changes were in a similar direction and of similar magnitude irrespective of the playing level. Reducing the dynamics of the initial engagement through a fold-in procedure decreased the peak compression force, the peak downward force and the engagement speed in excess of 30%. For example, peak compression (horizontal) forces in the professional teams changed from 16.5 (baseline technique) to 8.6 kN (fold-in procedure). The fold-in technique also reduced the occurrence of combined high forces and head-trunk misalignment during the absorption of the impact, which was used as a measure of potential hazard, by more than 30%. Reducing the initial impact did not decrease the ability of the teams to produce sustained compression forces. De-emphasising the initial impact against the scrum machine decreased the mechanical stresses acting on forward players and may benefit players' welfare by reducing the hazard factors that may induce chronic degeneration of the spine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Item response theory at subject- and group-level

    Tobi, Hilde

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature about item response models for the subject level and aggregated level (group level). Group-level item response models (IRMs) are used in the United States in large-scale assessment programs such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the California

  8. Mobile-Phone-Based Classroom Response Systems: Students' Perceptions of Engagement and Learning in a Large Undergraduate Course

    Dunn, Peter K.; Richardson, Alice; Oprescu, Florin; McDonald, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Using a Classroom Response System (CRS) has been associated with positive educational outcomes, by fostering student engagement and by allowing immediate feedback to both students and instructors. This study examined a low-cost CRS (VotApedia) in a large first-year class, where students responded to questions using their mobile phones. This study…

  9. Engaging EFL Students in E-Books Using Reader-Response Theory

    Chou, I-Chia

    2015-01-01

    E-book reading is generally considered suboptimal because people engaging in e-book reading tend to browse through digital texts. As a result, studies concerning students' e-book preference in academic contexts have shown that students less prefer using e-books than hardcopy books when engaging in academic reading which is considered intensive…

  10. COREDAR: COmmunicating Risk of sea level rise and Engaging stakeholDers in framing community based Adaptation stRategies

    Amsad Ibrahim Khan, S. K.; Chen, R. S.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Andimuthu, R.; Kandasamy, P.

    2015-12-01

    Accelerated sea-level rise (SLR) is a major long term outcome of climate change leading to increased inundation of low-lying areas. Particularly, global cities that are located on or near the coasts are often situated in low lying areas and these locations put global cities at greater risk to SLR. Localized flooding will profoundly impact vulnerable communities located in high-risk urban areas. Building community resilience and adapting to SLR is increasingly a high priority for cities. On the other hand, Article 6 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change addresses the importance of climate change communication and engaging stakeholders in decision making process. Importantly, Community Based Adaptation (CBA) experiences emphasize that it is important to understand a community's unique perceptions of their adaptive capacities to identify useful solutions and that scientific and technical information on anticipated coastal climate impacts needs to be translated into a suitable language and format that allows people to be able to participate in adaptation planning. To address this challenge, this study has put forth three research questions from the lens of urban community engagement in SLR adaptation, (1) What, if any, community engagement in addressing SLR occurring in urban areas; (2) What information do communities need and how does it need to be communicated, in order to be better prepared and have a greater sense of agency? and (3) How can government agencies from city to federal levels facilitate community engagement and action?. To answer these questions this study has evolved a framework "COREDAR" (COmmunicating Risk of sea level rise and Engaging stakeholDers in framing community based Adaptation StRategies) to communicate and transfer complex climate data and information such as projected SLR under different scenarios of IPCC AR5, predicted impact of SLR, prioritizing vulnerability, etc. to concerned stakeholders and local communities

  11. Work engagement supports nurse workforce stability and quality of care: nursing team-level analysis in psychiatric hospitals.

    Van Bogaert, P; Wouters, K; Willems, R; Mondelaers, M; Clarke, S

    2013-10-01

    Research in healthcare settings reveals important links between work environment factors, burnout and organizational outcomes. Recently, research focuses on work engagement, the opposite (positive) pole from burnout. The current study investigated the relationship of nurse practice environment aspects and work engagement (vigour, dedication and absorption) to job outcomes and nurse-reported quality of care variables within teams using a multilevel design in psychiatric inpatient settings. Validated survey instruments were used in a cross-sectional design. Team-level analyses were performed with staff members (n = 357) from 32 clinical units in two psychiatric hospitals in Belgium. Favourable nurse practice environment aspects were associated with work engagement dimensions, and in turn work engagement was associated with job satisfaction, intention to stay in the profession and favourable nurse-reported quality of care variables. The strongest multivariate models suggested that dedication predicted positive job outcomes whereas nurse management predicted perceptions of quality of care. In addition, reports of quality of care by the interdisciplinary team were predicted by dedication, absorption, nurse-physician relations and nurse management. The study findings suggest that differences in vigour, dedication and absorption across teams associated with practice environment characteristics impact nurse job satisfaction, intention to stay and perceptions of quality of care. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Methodological approaches to the assessment level of social responsibility

    Vorona, E.

    2010-01-01

    A study of current approaches to assessing the level of social responsibility. Proposed methodological approach to evaluating the performance of the social responsibility of railway transport. Conceptual Basis of social reporting in rail transport.

  13. Climate change adapatation response at local government level

    Mambo, Julia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The climate change response policy gives the mandate to all municipalities and other levels of government to develop and implement climate chnage adaptation response. The availability of appropriate information is essential for this process...

  14. Engaging students in blended and online collaborative courses at university level through Second Life: comparative perspectives and instructional affordances

    Pellas, Nikolaos; kazanidis, Ioannis

    2014-04-01

    Students' opinions about the degree of impact, status, and socio-cognitive viability with the utilization of the emerging three-dimensional (3D) computer-generated technologies may vary. Indisputably, 3D technology-enhanced environments have provided considerable benefits and affordances to the contemporary e-Education. In these circumstances, virtual worlds (VWs) like second life (SL) have generally intensified with an extensive perpetuation and penetration of innovative performances that encapsulated or enacted from the vast majority of higher education fields. At the same time, there is growing widespread recognition of reasons affecting the high or low degree of students' engagement in online and blended course delivery methods held in 3D VWs. Notwithstanding that most notable studies have disclosed SL functional capabilities from a plethora of pilot case studies, however, it is still lacking an experiential-based research approach to determine the degree of students' engagement in blended and online courses at university level through SL. The present comparative study explores students' engagement overall as a multidimensional construct consisting of emotional, behavioral, and cognitive factors. One hundred and thirty-five undergraduate and postgraduate students in almost identical blended and online instructional conditions held in SL took part in this project. Preliminary results have decoded students' satisfaction for both methods, despite the fact that the voluntary sample composed of different educational disciplines. The quantitative analysis showed that postgraduate students of the online course had more positive results and the degree of engagement significantly increased compared to those who enrolled with the blended course delivery method. The instructional affordances from the utilization of SL were the collaborative climate between users (instructor and students) who eliminated various intractable boundaries which were predominantly observed by

  15. A survey of engagement and competence levels in interventions and activities in a community mental health workforce in England

    Lang Linda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National Health Service (NHS mental health workforce configuration is at the heart of successful delivery, and providers are advised to produce professional development strategies. Recent policy changes in England have sharpened the focus on competency based role development. We determined levels of intervention activities, engagement and competence and their influencing factors in a community-setting mental health workforce. Methods Using a modified questionnaire based on the Yorkshire Care Pathways Model we investigated 153 mental health staff working in Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust. A median score of competence was computed across 10 cluster activities. Low engagement and competence levels were examined in a logistic regression model. Results In 220 activities, Monitoring risk was the highest rate of engagement (97.6% and Group psychological therapy/Art/Drama therapy was the lowest engagement (3.6%. The median competence level based on all activities was 3.95 (proficient. There were significant differences in the competence level among professional groups; non-qualified support group (3.00 for competent, Counsellor/Psychologist/Therapist (3.38, Occupational therapists (3.76, Nurses (4.01, Medical staff (4.05, Social workers (4.25 and Psychologists (4.62 for proficient/expert. These levels varied with activity clusters; the lowest level was for Counsellor/Psychologist/Therapist in the accommodation activity (1.44 novice/advance beginner and the highest for Occupational therapists in personal activity (4.94 expert. In a multivariate analysis, low competence was significantly related to non-qualified community support professions, late time of obtaining first qualification, more frequencies of clinical training, and training of cognitive behavioural therapy. The associations were similar in the analysis for 10 activity clusters respectively. Conclusions There was a reasonable competence level in the community

  16. Engaging Storm Spotters and Community College Students in Regional Responses to Climate Change

    Mooney, M. E.; Ackerman, S. A.; Buhr, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    Resiliency to natural hazards includes climate literacy. With a record number of billion dollar weather disasters in 2011, each one enhanced by a warmer atmosphere, our nation needs new strategies to respond, mitigate, communicate and adapt to the impacts of climate change. We know that actions we take today matter, but finding ways to mobilize our citizenry remains largely elusive. One way to galvanize a meaningful response to climate change could involve National Weather Service (NWS) storm spotters and Community College students. Dedicated storm spotters represent decades of NOAA NWS efforts to engage and enlist public participation in community safety. Why not leverage this wealth of human capital to cultivate a similar mitigation and stewardship response? The Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison conducted a pilot project with NWS storm spotters in the spring of 2011 via a web seminar on climate change, climate mitigation and emerging applications to access weather and climate data with mobile devices. Nineteen storm spotters participated and eleven provided feedback via a follow-up survey. A third of the respondents indicated that they had taken actions to minimize their carbon footprint; a majority (90%) indicated their likelihood to take action in the near future and more than two-thirds said they wanted to learn more about climate mitigation and sustainability. One attendee commented "Thank-you for putting together this web seminar. As a weather spotter, I found the information helpful, even humbling, to know climate change is already happening." CIMSS is also collaborating with the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) and Madison Area Technical College (MATC) on a climate education project where community college students take an on-line climate change course followed by the opportunity to apply for a summer internship. Through this program, two students

  17. Impact of organizational climate and engagement on motivation level of university teachers

    Muhammad Salman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research includes factors which affect motivation of employees. There are many factors which affect employee motivation but due to time constraint we take only 2 factors. Many researchers argue that employee motivation is very crucial for organizations; motivating employees can give financial success to organizations. Organizations have to invest on its employees to satisfy and motivate its employees. Took data through questionnaire and analyses data through SPSS. Research included two independent variables, organization climate and engagement and one dependent variable that is employee motivation. It was observed that the two independent variables had strong and positive effect on employee motivation; if one of the independent variable is increased the motivation will also be increased. So it is recommended that there should be no disturbance in working environment, strong relation among employees and conducting seminars and training workshops so that employees can do their work with their full potential and will be more motivated.

  18. ECOLES: a Citizen Observers network engaging communities to map climate change at the local level

    Thejll, Peter; Walker, Nicholas; Sandholt, Inge; Brown, Ian; Solberg, Rune; Suwala, Jason; Kelly, Richard; Tangen, Helge; Berglund, Robin; Dean, Andy; Engset, Rune; Siewertsen, Bjarne

    2016-04-01

    Engaging people in environmental studies is an important way to bring across awareness of expected future climate changes, and also a way to measure environmental change in ways that are better or complementary to remote sensing methods. With a hands-on approach, people are more likely to embrace the idea that climate change is occurring, and with modern technologies it is possible to collect quite stunning amounts of relevant data. We suggest several national activities tailored to conditions in each of the participating countries and also to existing national CO-projects. The project focuses on gathering data on biological changes, on weather, and on snow-pack information in Nordic countries as well as Greenland and Canada. Data will be gathered with existing equipment (mobile phones and internet-connected weather stations) and the project provides the means for collation of data into a database for dissemination and quality control. Numerical data collected by small non-professional weather stations or mobile phones with sensors are not directly useful quantitatively for e.g. numerical weather prediction without validation of data quality, but with validation there is a huge untapped potential due to the number of observers. Students are a central part of the project, which also seeks to engage people out and about in nature, and people with their own weather stations or other environmental data-collection activities, as well as passive data collection from mobile phone data sensors in people's bags and pockets. Appropriate software, educational and training materials will be designed with end-users in mind; school-age materials will be produced in the appropriate languages (e.g. Kalaallisut for COs of school age in Greenland).

  19. Diversity of Human Capital as a Driver for Corporate Responsibility Engagement

    Gomes, Catarina Pessanha; Yarime, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Corporate responsibility (CR) used to focus mainly on preventing a firm's reputational damages, rather than integrating sustainable development imperatives. By bringing innovation into CR strategies, firms can create positive synergies between their core business and socio-environmental...... an evaluation of policies in three dimensions of environmental, economic and social sustainability. A cluster matrix analysis of CR strategy and diversity management strategy of 17 companies in the luxury sector reveal that the level of strategic commitment to CR has a close linkage with the inclusiveness...

  20. OPG's deep geologic repository for low and intermediate level waste - public participation and aboriginal engagement

    Wilson, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG)'s Public Participation and Aboriginal Engagement Program for the proposed Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level waste (L and ILW) began with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in 2002 between OPG and the Municipality of Kincardine. The MOU set out the terms under which the two parties would jointly study the feasibility of different options for the long-term management of L and ILW at the Bruce nuclear site. A consultant, independent from both the Municipality of Kincardine and OPG, was retained to manage the assessment of options as well as a communication plan to ensure the public and Aboriginal peoples were kept apprised of all activities associated with the MOU. This early commitment to transparency and openness, with its ensuing opportunities for the public and Aboriginal peoples to become informed, ask questions, and engage in meaningful two-way dialogue about the early assessment of options, established the foundation and later became the hallmark of the DGR Project's Public Participation and Aboriginal Engagement program. This paper provides an overview of the development, nature and results of that program as it has evolved through the early investigative stages of options and through the environmental assessment and licencing process for the proposed DGR Project. (author)

  1. Incorporating Stakeholder Engagement, Financial Implications and Values in Corporate Social Responsibility: A Proposed Model from an African Context

    Hamidu, Aminu Ahmadu; Haron, Md. Harashid; Amran, Azlan

    2017-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility in Africa is mainly characterised by the features of socio-economic environment like; poverty, underdevelopment, poor infrastructures, weak governmental functionaries. This makes all the drivers or motivating reasons to be an avenue for addressing issues relating to socio-economic development of communities. The motivating factors for CSR from an African context present a set of reasons to engage in CSR with a view to fulfil obligations to society. Stakeholder ...

  2. Professional burnout and work engagement among dentists.

    Te Brake, Hans; Bouman, Anne-Marthe; Gorter, Ronald; Hoogstraten, Johan; Eijkman, Michiel

    2007-06-01

    A recent development within burnout research is the shift to its conceptual opposite: work engagement. This study aimed to unravel the concepts of burnout and work engagement, and to determine their levels among dentists. A representative sample of 497 Dutch general dental practitioners was included (survey response rate of 59%), consisting of 372 men and 121 women (the gender of 4 dentists remained unknown). The hypothesized three-factor structure of work engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption), as measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), was substantiated among dentists. It was also found that work engagement was related negatively to burnout, as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). However, a model consisting of a reduced ('core') burnout factor and an 'enhanced' engagement factor (composed of the three original factors plus the burnout factor, personal accomplishment) showed the best fit. Overall burnout levels among dentists are low, and the levels of engagement indicate that dentists have a positive working attitude.

  3. Experiencing Nature through Immersive Virtual Environments: Environmental Perceptions, Physical Engagement, and Affective Responses during a Simulated Nature Walk

    Giovanna Calogiuri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By combining physical activity and exposure to nature, green exercise can provide additional health benefits compared to physical activity alone. Immersive Virtual Environments (IVE have emerged as a potentially valuable supplement to environmental and behavioral research, and might also provide new approaches to green exercise promotion. However, it is unknown to what extent green exercise in IVE can provide psychophysiological responses similar to those experienced in real natural environments. In this study, 26 healthy adults underwent three experimental conditions: nature walk, sitting-IVE, and treadmill-IVE. The nature walk took place on a paved trail along a large river. In the IVE conditions, the participants wore a head-mounted display with headphones reproducing a 360° video and audio of the nature walk, either sitting on a chair or walking on a manually driven treadmill. Measurements included environmental perceptions (presence and perceived environmental restorativeness – PER, physical engagement (walking speed, heart rate, and perceived exertion, and affective responses (enjoyment and affect. Additionally, qualitative information was collected through open-ended questions. The participants rated the IVEs with satisfactory levels of ‘being there’ and ‘sense of reality,’ but also reported discomforts such as ‘flatness,’ ‘movement lag’ and ‘cyber sickness.’ With equivalent heart rate and walking speed, participants reported higher perceived exertion in the IVEs than in the nature walk. The nature walk was associated with high enjoyment and enhanced affect. However, despite equivalent ratings of PER in the nature walk and in the IVEs, the latter were perceived as less enjoyable and gave rise to a poorer affect. Presence and PER did not differ between the two IVEs, although in the treadmill-IVE the negative affective responses had slightly smaller magnitude than in the sitting-IVE. In both the IVEs, the negative

  4. Levels of Engagement and Barriers to Physical Activity in a Population of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning…

  5. Engaging in Effective Science Communication: A Response to Blancke et al. on Deproblematizing GMOs.

    Landrum, Asheley R; Hallman, William K

    2017-05-01

    As science communication scholars, we encourage interdisciplinary efforts such as those by Blancke, Grunewald, and De Jaeger to engage with the public on GMOs and genetic engineering broadly. We extend the advice given by these scholars with tips based on what we know from the science of science communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Levels of corporate community engagement who should provide the social license to operate

    Dumitru Bortun; Camelia Crisan

    2012-01-01

    Several authors are linking sustainability to CSR when referring to companies and their activities in the relevant communities (Doppelt, 2003; Doppelt, 2008; Hawken, Lovins&Lovins, 1999; McDonough&Braungart, 2002; Porrit, 2007; Elkington, 2007). Others have implied this term when referring to the types of responsibilities a company needs to have in order to be able to exercise its activity in the society (Blair [1994] 2004, Clarke [1998] 2004 and Philips 2003). It took a little while until a ...

  7. Combinations of Personal Responsibility: Differences on Pre-service and Practicing Teachers' Efficacy, Engagement, Classroom Goal Structures and Wellbeing.

    Daniels, Lia M; Radil, Amanda I; Goegan, Lauren D

    2017-01-01

    Pre-service and practicing teachers feel responsible for a range of educational activities. Four domains of personal responsibility emerging in the literature are: student achievement, student motivation, relationships with students, and responsibility for ones own teaching. To date, most research has used variable-centered approaches to examining responsibilities even though the domains appear related. In two separate samples we used cluster analysis to explore how pre-service ( n = 130) and practicing ( n = 105) teachers combined personal responsibilities and their impact on three professional cognitions and their wellbeing. Both groups had low and high responsibility clusters but the third cluster differed: Pre-service teachers combined responsibilities for relationships and their own teaching in a cluster we refer to as teacher-based responsibility; whereas, practicing teachers combined achievement and motivation in a cluster we refer to as student-outcome focused responsibility. These combinations affected outcomes for pre-service but not practicing teachers. Pre-service teachers in the low responsibility cluster reported less engagement, less mastery approaches to instruction, and more performance goal structures than the other two clusters.

  8. Treatment engagement and response to CBT among Latinos with anxiety disorders in primary care.

    Chavira, Denise A; Golinelli, Daniela; Sherbourne, Cathy; Stein, Murray B; Sullivan, Greer; Bystritsky, Alexander; Rose, Raphael D; Lang, Ariel J; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Welch, Stacy; Bumgardner, Kristin; Glenn, Daniel; Barrios, Velma; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Craske, Michelle

    2014-06-01

    In the current study, we compared measures of treatment outcome and engagement for Latino and non-Latino White patients receiving a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program delivered in primary care. Participants were 18-65 years old and recruited from 17 clinics at 4 different sites to participate in a randomized controlled trial for anxiety disorders, which compared the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) intervention (consisting of CBT, medication, or both) with usual care. Of those participants who were randomized to the intervention arm and selected CBT (either alone or in combination with medication), 85 were Latino and 251 were non-Latino White; the majority of the Latino participants received the CBT intervention in English (n = 77). Blinded assessments of clinical improvement and functioning were administered at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months after baseline. Measures of engagement, including attendance, homework adherence, understanding of CBT principles, and commitment to treatment, were assessed weekly during the CBT intervention. Findings from propensity-weighted linear and logistic regression models revealed no statistically significant differences between Latinos and non-Latino Whites on symptom measures of clinical improvement and functioning at almost all time points. There were significant differences on 2 of 7 engagement outcomes, namely, number of sessions attended and patients' understanding of CBT principles. These findings suggest that CBT can be an effective treatment approach for Latinos who are primarily English speaking and likely more acculturated, although continued attention should be directed toward engaging Latinos in such interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Baseline Response Levels Are a Nuisance in Infant Contingency Learning

    Millar, W. S.; Weir, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of differences in level of baseline responding on contingency learning in the first year was examined by considering the response acquisition of infants classified into baseline response quartiles. Whereas the three lower baseline groups showed the predicted increment in responding to a contingency, the highest baseline responders did…

  10. Priors engaged in long-latency responses to mechanical perturbations suggest a rapid update in state estimation.

    Frédéric Crevecoeur

    Full Text Available In every motor task, our brain must handle external forces acting on the body. For example, riding a bike on cobblestones or skating on irregular surface requires us to appropriately respond to external perturbations. In these situations, motor predictions cannot help anticipate the motion of the body induced by external factors, and direct use of delayed sensory feedback will tend to generate instability. Here, we show that to solve this problem the motor system uses a rapid sensory prediction to correct the estimated state of the limb. We used a postural task with mechanical perturbations to address whether sensory predictions were engaged in upper-limb corrective movements. Subjects altered their initial motor response in ∼60 ms, depending on the expected perturbation profile, suggesting the use of an internal model, or prior, in this corrective process. Further, we found trial-to-trial changes in corrective responses indicating a rapid update of these perturbation priors. We used a computational model based on Kalman filtering to show that the response modulation was compatible with a rapid correction of the estimated state engaged in the feedback response. Such a process may allow us to handle external disturbances encountered in virtually every physical activity, which is likely an important feature of skilled motor behaviour.

  11. [Association between serum aluminium level and methylation of amyloid precursor protein gene in workers engaged in aluminium electrolysis].

    Yang, X J; Yuan, Y Z; Niu, Q

    2016-04-20

    To investigate the association between serum aluminium level and methylation of the promoter region of amyloid precursor protein (APP)gene in workers engaged in aluminium electrolysis. In 2012, 366 electrolysis workers in an aluminium factory were enrolled as exposure group (working years >10 and age >40 years)and divided into low-exposure group and high-exposure group based on the median serum aluminium level. Meanwhile, 102 workers in a cement plant not exposed to aluminium were enrolled as control group. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used to measure serum aluminium level, methylation specific PCR was used to measure the methylation rate of the promoter region of APP gene, and ELI-SA was used to measure the protein expression of APP in lymphocytes in peripheral blood. The exposure group had a significantly higher serum aluminium level than the control group (45.07 μg/L vs 30.51 μg/L, P0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that with reference to the control group, low aluminium exposure (OR=1.86, 95% CI 1.67~3.52)and high aluminium exposure (OR=2.98, 95% CI 1.97~4.15)were risk factors for a reduced methylation rate of the promoter region of APP gene. Reduced methylation of the promoter region of APP gene may be associated with increased serum aluminium level, and downregulated methylation of the promoter region of APP gene may accelerate APP gene transcription.

  12. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal diets. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of ...

  13. Reduction of Cortisol Levels and Participants' Responses Following Art Making

    Kaimal, Girija; Ray, Kendra; Muniz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of visual art making on the cortisol levels of 39 healthy adults. Participants provided saliva samples to assess cortisol levels before and after 45 minutes of art making. Participants also provided written responses about the experience at the end of the session. Results indicate that art…

  14. Activation of SAT1 engages polyamine metabolism with p53-mediated ferroptotic responses.

    Ou, Yang; Wang, Shang-Jui; Li, Dawei; Chu, Bo; Gu, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Although p53-mediated cell-cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis remain critical barriers to cancer development, the emerging role of p53 in cell metabolism, oxidative responses, and ferroptotic cell death has been a topic of great interest. Nevertheless, it is unclear how p53 orchestrates its activities in multiple metabolic pathways into tumor suppressive effects. Here, we identified the SAT1 (spermidine/spermine N 1 -acetyltransferase 1) gene as a transcription target of p53. SAT1 is a rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine catabolism critically involved in the conversion of spermidine and spermine back to putrescine. Surprisingly, we found that activation of SAT1 expression induces lipid peroxidation and sensitizes cells to undergo ferroptosis upon reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced stress, which also leads to suppression of tumor growth in xenograft tumor models. Notably, SAT1 expression is down-regulated in human tumors, and CRISPR-cas9-mediated knockout of SAT1 expression partially abrogates p53-mediated ferroptosis. Moreover, SAT1 induction is correlated with the expression levels of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15), and SAT1-induced ferroptosis is significantly abrogated in the presence of PD146176, a specific inhibitor of ALOX15. Thus, our findings uncover a metabolic target of p53 involved in ferroptotic cell death and provide insight into the regulation of polyamine metabolism and ferroptosis-mediated tumor suppression.

  15. Can biomass responses to warming at plant to ecosystem levels be predicted by leaf-level responses?

    Xia, J.; Shao, J.; Zhou, X.; Yan, W.; Lu, M.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming has the profound impacts on terrestrial C processes from leaf to ecosystem scales, potentially feeding back to climate dynamics. Although numerous studies had investigated the effects of warming on C processes from leaf to plant and ecosystem levels, how leaf-level responses to warming scale up to biomass responses at plant, population, and community levels are largely unknown. In this study, we compiled a dataset from 468 papers at 300 experimental sites and synthesized the warming effects on leaf-level parameters, and plant, population and ecosystem biomass. Our results showed that responses of plant biomass to warming mainly resulted from the changed leaf area rather than the altered photosynthetic capacity. The response of ecosystem biomass to warming was weaker than those of leaf area and plant biomass. However, the scaling functions from responses of leaf area to plant biomass to warming were different in diverse forest types, but functions were similar in non-forested biomes. In addition, it is challenging to scale the biomass responses from plant up to ecosystem. These results indicated that leaf area might be the appropriate index for plant biomass response to warming, and the interspecific competition might hamper the scaling of the warming effects on plant and ecosystem levels, suggesting that the acclimation capacity of plant community should be incorporated into land surface models to improve the prediction of climate-C cycle feedback.

  16. Engaging Institutional Review Boards in Developing a Brief, Community-Responsive Human Subjects Training for Community Partners

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Bogart, Laura M.; Francis, Evelyn; Kornetsky, Susan Z.; Winkler, Sabune J.; Kaberry, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Engaging community partners as co-investigators in community-based participatory research (CBPR) requires certification in the rules, ethics, and principles governing research. Despite developments in making human research protection trainings more convenient and standardized (e.g., self-paced Internet modules), time constraints and the structure of the content (which may favor academic audiences) may hinder the training of community partners. OBJECTIVES This paper is motivated by a case example in which academic and community partners, and stakeholders of a community-based organization actively engaged the leadership of a pediatric hospital-based Institutional Review Board (IRB) in implementing a brief, community-responsive human subjects training session. METHODS A two hour, discussion-based human subjects training was developed via collaborations between the IRB and the community and academic partners. Interviews with trainees and facilitators after the training were used to evaluate its acceptability and possible future applications. CONCLUSIONS Local Institutional Review Boards have the potential to assist community partners in building sufficient knowledge of human subjects research protections to engage in specific projects, thereby expediting the progress of vital research to address community needs. We propose the need for developing truncated human subjects education materials to train and certify community partners, and creating formally organized entities within academic and medical institutions that specialize in community-based research to guide the development and implementation of alternative human subjects training certification opportunities for community partners. PMID:28230554

  17. Engaging Institutional Review Boards in Developing a Brief, Community-Responsive Human Subjects Training for Community Partners.

    Calzo, Jerel P; Bogart, Laura M; Francis, Evelyn; Kornetsky, Susan Z; Winkler, Sabune J; Kaberry, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Engaging community partners as co-investigators in community-based participatory research (CBPR) requires certification in the rules, ethics, and principles governing research. Despite developments in making human research protection trainings more convenient and standardized (eg, self-paced Internet modules), time constraints and the structure of the content (which may favor academic audiences) may hinder the training of community partners. This paper is motivated by a case example in which academic and community partners, and stakeholders of a community-based organization actively engaged the leadership of a pediatric hospital-based institutional review board (IRB) in implementing a brief, community-responsive human subjects training session. A 2-hour, discussion-based human subjects training was developed via collaborations between the IRB and the community and academic partners. Interviews with trainees and facilitators after the training were used to evaluate its acceptability and possible future applications. Local IRBs have the potential to assist community partners in building sufficient knowledge of human subjects research protections to engage in specific projects, thereby expediting the progress of vital research to address community needs. We propose the need for developing truncated human subjects education materials to train and certify community partners, and creating formally organized entities within academic and medical institutions that specialize in community-based research to guide the development and implementation of alternative human subjects training certification opportunities for community partners.

  18. Comparative risk assessment of spill response options for a deepwater oil well blowout: Part III. Stakeholder engagement.

    Walker, Ann Hayward; Scholz, Debra; McPeek, Melinda; French-McCay, Deborah; Rowe, Jill; Bock, Michael; Robinson, Hilary; Wenning, Richard

    2018-05-25

    This paper describes oil spill stakeholder engagement in a recent comparative risk assessment (CRA) project that examined the tradeoffs associated with a hypothetical offshore well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico, with a specific focus on subsea dispersant injection (SSDI) at the wellhead. SSDI is a new technology deployed during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill response. Oil spill stakeholders include decision makers, who will consider whether to integrate SSDI into future tradeoff decisions. This CRA considered the tradeoffs associated with three sets of response strategies: (1) no intervention; (2) mechanical recovery, in-situ burning, and surface dispersants; and, (3) SSDI in addition to responses in (2). For context, the paper begins with a historical review of U.S. policy and engagement with oil spill stakeholders regarding dispersants. Stakeholder activities throughout the project involved decision-maker representatives and their advisors to inform the approach and consider CRA utility in future oil spill preparedness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between participants' level of education and engagement in their completion of the Understanding Dementia Massive Open Online Course.

    Goldberg, Lynette R; Bell, Erica; King, Carolyn; O'Mara, Ciaran; McInerney, Fran; Robinson, Andrew; Vickers, James

    2015-03-26

    The completion rates for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) generally are low (5-10%) and have been reported to favour participants with higher (typically tertiary-level) education. Despite these factors, the flexible learning offered by a MOOC has the potential to provide an accessible educational environment for a broad spectrum of participants. In this regard, the Wicking Dementia Research and Education Centre has developed a MOOC on dementia that is evidence-based and intended to address this emerging major global public health issue by providing educational resources to a broad range of caregivers, people with dementia, and health care professionals. The Understanding Dementia MOOC was designed specifically to appeal to, and support, adult learners with a limited educational background. The nine-week course was presented in three units. Participants passed a quiz at the end of each unit to continue through the course. A series of discussion boards facilitated peer-to-peer interactions. A separate "Ask an Expert" discussion board also was established for each unit where participants posted questions and faculty with expertise in the area responded. Almost 10,000 people from 65 countries registered; 4,409 registrants engaged in the discussion boards, and 3,624 (38%) completed the course. Participants' level of education ranged from postgraduate study to a primary (elementary) school education. Participants without a university education (vocational certificate and below) were as likely as those with a university education to complete the course (χ(2) = 2.35, df = 6, p = 0.88) and to engage in the online discussions (F[6, 3799] = 0.85, p = 0.54). Further, participants who completed the MOOC engaged in significantly more discussion board posts than participants who did not complete the course (t = 39.60, df = 4407, p education suggest that MOOCs can be successfully developed and delivered to students from diverse educational

  20. Errors and conflict at the task level and the response level.

    Desmet, Charlotte; Fias, Wim; Hartstra, Egbert; Brass, Marcel

    2011-01-26

    In the last decade, research on error and conflict processing has become one of the most influential research areas in the domain of cognitive control. There is now converging evidence that a specific part of the posterior frontomedian cortex (pFMC), the rostral cingulate zone (RCZ), is crucially involved in the processing of errors and conflict. However, error-related research has focused primarily on a specific error type, namely, response errors. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether errors on the task level rely on the same neural and functional mechanisms. Here we report a dissociation of both error types in the pFMC: whereas response errors activate the RCZ, task errors activate the dorsal frontomedian cortex. Although this last region shows an overlap in activation for task and response errors on the group level, a closer inspection of the single-subject data is more in accordance with a functional anatomical dissociation. When investigating brain areas related to conflict on the task and response levels, a clear dissociation was perceived between areas associated with response conflict and with task conflict. Overall, our data support a dissociation between response and task levels of processing in the pFMC. In addition, we provide additional evidence for a dissociation between conflict and errors both at the response level and at the task level.

  1. Determination of response level for imported meat and poultry

    Houston, Donald L; Engel, Ronald E

    1986-07-01

    The response level of 75,000 picocuries per kilogram (pci/kg) for imported meat and poultry was determined in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Accidental Radioactive Contamination of Human Food and Animal Feeds, Recommendations for State and Local Agencies which was published in the Federal Register of October 22, 1982, and in consultation with FDA. The response level takes into account the total intake of activity from a radionuclide and the average daily consumption of food in the United States. This response level value is based, in part, upon the expectation that the major contributors of radiation to imported meat and poultry will be cesium-134 (half-life 2.1 years) and cesium-137 (half-life 30 years)

  2. Determination of response level for imported meat and poultry

    Houston, Donald L.; Engel, Ronald E.

    1986-01-01

    The response level of 75,000 picocuries per kilogram (pci/kg) for imported meat and poultry was determined in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Accidental Radioactive Contamination of Human Food and Animal Feeds, Recommendations for State and Local Agencies which was published in the Federal Register of October 22, 1982, and in consultation with FDA. The response level takes into account the total intake of activity from a radionuclide and the average daily consumption of food in the United States. This response level value is based, in part, upon the expectation that the major contributors of radiation to imported meat and poultry will be cesium-134 (half-life 2.1 years) and cesium-137 (half-life 30 years)

  3. The urban and community health pathway: preparing socially responsive physicians through community-engaged learning.

    Meurer, Linda N; Young, Staci A; Meurer, John R; Johnson, Sheri L; Gilbert, Ileen A; Diehr, Sabina

    2011-10-01

    One of five options for the new required Medical College of Wisconsin Pathways program, the Urban and Community Health Pathway (UCHP), links training with community needs and assets to prepare students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to provide effective care in urban, underserved settings; promote community health; and reduce health disparities. Students spend at least 10 hours per month on pathway activities: 4 hours of core material delivered through readings, didactics, case discussions, and site visits; and at least 6 hours of experiential noncore activities applying core competencies, guided by an Individualized Learning Plan and faculty advisor. Noncore activities include community-engaged research, service-learning activities or other relevant experiences, and submission of a synthesis paper addressing pathway competencies. The first cohort of students began their pathways in January 2010. Of 560 participating students, 95 (of which 48 were first-year, 21 second-year, and 26 third-year students) selected UCHP. Core sessions focused on public health, social determinants, cultural humility, poverty, the local healthcare system, and safety net. During noncore time, students engaged in projects addressing homelessness, obesity, advocacy, Hmong and Latino health, HIV, asthma, and violence prevention. Students enjoyed working with peers across classes and favored interactive, community-based sessions over didactics in the classroom. Students' papers reflected a range of service and scholarly activities and a deepened appreciation of social and economic influences on health. The UCHP enriches the traditional curriculum with individualized, community-based experiences to build knowledge about health determinants and skills in partnering with communities to improve health. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sometimes more is more: iterative participatory design of infographics for engagement of community members with varying levels of health literacy.

    Arcia, Adriana; Suero-Tejeda, Niurka; Bales, Michael E; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Yoon, Sunmoo; Woollen, Janet; Bakken, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    To collaborate with community members to develop tailored infographics that support comprehension of health information, engage the viewer, and may have the potential to motivate health-promoting behaviors. The authors conducted participatory design sessions with community members, who were purposively sampled and grouped by preferred language (English, Spanish), age group (18-30, 31-60, >60 years), and level of health literacy (adequate, marginal, inadequate). Research staff elicited perceived meaning of each infographic, preferences between infographics, suggestions for improvement, and whether or not the infographics would motivate health-promoting behavior. Analysis and infographic refinement were iterative and concurrent with data collection. Successful designs were information-rich, supported comparison, provided context, and/or employed familiar color and symbolic analogies. Infographics that employed repeated icons to represent multiple instances of a more general class of things (e.g., apple icons to represent fruit servings) were interpreted in a rigidly literal fashion and thus were unsuitable for this community. Preliminary findings suggest that infographics may motivate health-promoting behaviors. Infographics should be information-rich, contextualize the information for the viewer, and yield an accurate meaning even if interpreted literally. Carefully designed infographics can be useful tools to support comprehension and thus help patients engage with their own health data. Infographics may contribute to patients' ability to participate in the Learning Health System through participation in the development of a robust data utility, use of clinical communication tools for health self-management, and involvement in building knowledge through patient-reported outcomes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student Forms' (UWES-SF) Adaptation to Turkish, Validity and Reliability Studies, and the Mediator Role of Work Engagement between Academic Procrastination and Academic Responsibility

    Çapri, Burhan; Gündüz, Bülent; Akbay, Sinem Evin

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal of this study is to complete the adaptation, validity and reliability studies of the long (17 items) and short (9 items) forms of UWES-SF. The secondary goal of this study is to study the mediating role of work engagement between academic procrastination and academic responsibility in high school students. The study group consists…

  6. Social Mobilization and Community Engagement Central to the Ebola Response in West Africa: Lessons for Future Public Health Emergencies.

    Gillespie, Amaya M; Obregon, Rafael; El Asawi, Rania; Richey, Catherine; Manoncourt, Erma; Joshi, Kshiitij; Naqvi, Savita; Pouye, Ade; Safi, Naqibullah; Chitnis, Ketan; Quereshi, Sabeeha

    2016-12-23

    Following the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern regarding the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in July 2014, UNICEF was asked to co-lead, in coordination with WHO and the ministries of health of affected countries, the communication and social mobilization component-which UNICEF refers to as communication for development (C4D)-of the Ebola response. For the first time in an emergency setting, C4D was formally incorporated into each country's national response, alongside more typical components such as supplies and logistics, surveillance, and clinical care. This article describes the lessons learned about social mobilization and community engagement in the emergency response to the Ebola outbreak, with a particular focus on UNICEF's C4D work in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The lessons emerged through an assessment conducted by UNICEF using 4 methods: a literature review of key documents, meeting reports, and other articles; structured discussions conducted in June 2015 and October 2015 with UNICEF and civil society experts; an electronic survey, launched in October and November 2015, with staff from government, the UN, or any partner organization who worked on Ebola (N = 53); and key informant interviews (N = 5). After triangulating the findings from all data sources, we distilled lessons under 7 major domains: (1) strategy and decentralization: develop a comprehensive C4D strategy with communities at the center and decentralized programming to facilitate flexibility and adaptation to the local context; (2) coordination: establish C4D leadership with the necessary authority to coordinate between partners and enforce use of standard operating procedures as a central coordination and quality assurance tool; (3) entering and engaging communities: invest in key communication channels (such as radio) and trusted local community members; (4) messaging: adapt messages and strategies continually as patterns

  7. Linear response at the 4-component relativistic level

    Saue, T.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2003-01-01

    The theory, implementation, and application of linear response at the 4-component relativistic closed-shell Hartree-Fock level based on the concept of quasienergy and time averaging are reported. As such, an efficient AO-driven algorithm is obtained by assigning specific Hermiticity and time...

  8. Occupational Safety and Health System for Workers Engaged in Emergency Response Operations in the USA.

    Toyoda, Hiroyuki; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Mori, Koji

    2016-12-03

    To study the occupational safety and health systems used for emergency response workers in the USA, we performed interviews with related federal agencies and conducted research on related studies. We visited the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in the USA and performed interviews with their managers on the agencies' roles in the national emergency response system. We also obtained information prepared for our visit from the USA's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). In addition, we conducted research on related studies and information on the website of the agencies. We found that the USA had an established emergency response system based on their National Incident Management System (NIMS). This enabled several organizations to respond to emergencies cooperatively using a National Response Framework (NRF) that clarifies the roles and cooperative functions of each federal agency. The core system in NIMS was the Incident Command System (ICS), within which a Safety Officer was positioned as one of the command staff supporting the commander. All ICS staff were required to complete a training program specific to their position; in addition, the Safety Officer was required to have experience. The All-Hazards model was commonly used in the emergency response system. We found that FEMA coordinated support functions, and OSHA and NIOSH, which had specific functions to protect workers, worked cooperatively under NRF. These agencies employed certified industrial hygienists that play a professional role in safety and health. NIOSH recently executed support activities during disasters and other emergencies. The USA's emergency response system is characterized by functions that protect the lives and health of emergency response workers. Trained and experienced human resources support system effectiveness. The findings provided valuable information that could be used to improve the

  9. Benefts of Corporate Social Responsibility Engagement in Companies: The Case of Poland

    Ewa Chojnacka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study investigates the benefts of being perceived as a socially responsible company. The main purpose of the research was to fnd out whether company managers consider that certain aspects of company activity may beneft from being perceived as socially responsible. Research limitations: The primary source of data used in this study was a survey of respondents’ views and opinions rather than an analysis of extensive numerical data. Methodology: The research methods included a literature review and a survey conducted in several Polish companies regarded as socially responsible. The so-called RESPECT Index, including socially responsible companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange Main List, as well as annual rankings of responsible companies were used as a kind of reputation database for choosing survey respondents. Findings: The most important benefts indicated by the respondents included better frm image/reputation, improved relations with stakeholders, increased employee motivation, better communication inside the company, as well as more effective management and control over new aspects not considered before. Additionally, the identifed benefts were analyzed using different criteria, such as the size of the company or its feld of activity. Originality: The problem analyzed in this study is important, yet it is still not a suffciently examined issue in many emerging markets including Poland. As benefts taken into consideration in the survey are also valid for other fnancial markets, the results can be used for comparative studies of Poland and other countries.

  10. The Relationship between Classroom Quality-Related Variables and Engagement Levels in Swedish Preschool Classrooms: A Longitudinal Study

    Castro, Susana; Granlund, Mats; Almqvist, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Child engagement has been defined as active participation in classroom routines, appropriate interactions with the environment and it also predicts academic achievement. Therefore, it is necessary to identify predictors of engagement over time. Moreover, cross-cultural data is needed to provide a global picture of the quality of Early Childhood…

  11. 100 Million Views of Electronic Cigarette YouTube Videos and Counting: Quantification, Content Evaluation, and Engagement Levels of Videos.

    Huang, Jidong; Kornfield, Rachel; Emery, Sherry L

    2016-03-18

    The video-sharing website, YouTube, has become an important avenue for product marketing, including tobacco products. It may also serve as an important medium for promoting electronic cigarettes, which have rapidly increased in popularity and are heavily marketed online. While a few studies have examined a limited subset of tobacco-related videos on YouTube, none has explored e-cigarette videos' overall presence on the platform. To quantify e-cigarette-related videos on YouTube, assess their content, and characterize levels of engagement with those videos. Understanding promotion and discussion of e-cigarettes on YouTube may help clarify the platform's impact on consumer attitudes and behaviors and inform regulations. Using an automated crawling procedure and keyword rules, e-cigarette-related videos posted on YouTube and their associated metadata were collected between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. Metadata were analyzed to describe posting and viewing time trends, number of views, comments, and ratings. Metadata were content coded for mentions of health, safety, smoking cessation, promotional offers, Web addresses, product types, top-selling brands, or names of celebrity endorsers. As of June 30, 2013, approximately 28,000 videos related to e-cigarettes were captured. Videos were posted by approximately 10,000 unique YouTube accounts, viewed more than 100 million times, rated over 380,000 times, and commented on more than 280,000 times. More than 2200 new videos were being uploaded every month by June 2013. The top 1% of most-viewed videos accounted for 44% of total views. Text fields for the majority of videos mentioned websites (70.11%); many referenced health (13.63%), safety (10.12%), smoking cessation (9.22%), or top e-cigarette brands (33.39%). The number of e-cigarette-related YouTube videos was projected to exceed 65,000 by the end of 2014, with approximately 190 million views. YouTube is a major information-sharing platform for electronic cigarettes

  12. 100 Million Views of Electronic Cigarette YouTube Videos and Counting: Quantification, Content Evaluation, and Engagement Levels of Videos

    2016-01-01

    Background The video-sharing website, YouTube, has become an important avenue for product marketing, including tobacco products. It may also serve as an important medium for promoting electronic cigarettes, which have rapidly increased in popularity and are heavily marketed online. While a few studies have examined a limited subset of tobacco-related videos on YouTube, none has explored e-cigarette videos’ overall presence on the platform. Objective To quantify e-cigarette-related videos on YouTube, assess their content, and characterize levels of engagement with those videos. Understanding promotion and discussion of e-cigarettes on YouTube may help clarify the platform’s impact on consumer attitudes and behaviors and inform regulations. Methods Using an automated crawling procedure and keyword rules, e-cigarette-related videos posted on YouTube and their associated metadata were collected between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. Metadata were analyzed to describe posting and viewing time trends, number of views, comments, and ratings. Metadata were content coded for mentions of health, safety, smoking cessation, promotional offers, Web addresses, product types, top-selling brands, or names of celebrity endorsers. Results As of June 30, 2013, approximately 28,000 videos related to e-cigarettes were captured. Videos were posted by approximately 10,000 unique YouTube accounts, viewed more than 100 million times, rated over 380,000 times, and commented on more than 280,000 times. More than 2200 new videos were being uploaded every month by June 2013. The top 1% of most-viewed videos accounted for 44% of total views. Text fields for the majority of videos mentioned websites (70.11%); many referenced health (13.63%), safety (10.12%), smoking cessation (9.22%), or top e-cigarette brands (33.39%). The number of e-cigarette-related YouTube videos was projected to exceed 65,000 by the end of 2014, with approximately 190 million views. Conclusions YouTube is a major

  13. Cardiac response and anxiety levels in psychopathic murderers.

    Serafim, Antonio de Pádua; Barros, Daniel Martins de; Valim, André; Gorenstein, Clarice

    2009-09-01

    To compare the emotional response and level of anxiety of psychopathic murderers, non-psychopathic murderers, and nonpsychopathic non-criminals. 110 male individuals aged over 18 years were divided into three groups: psychopathic murderers (n = 38); non-psychopathic murderers (n = 37) serving sentences for murder convictions in Maximum Security Prisons in the State of Sao Paulo; and non-criminal, non-psychopathic individuals (n = 35) according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. The emotional response of subjects was assessed by heart rate variation and anxiety level (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) after viewing standardized pictures depicting pleasant, unpleasant and neutral content from the International Affective Picture System. Psychopathic murderers presented lower anxiety levels and smaller heart rate variations when exposed to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli than nonpsychopathic murderers or non-psychopathic non-criminals. The results also demonstrated that the higher the score for factor 1 on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, the lower the heart rate variation and anxiety level. The results suggest that psychopathic murderers do not present variation in emotional response to different visual stimuli. Although the non-psychopathic murderers had committed the same type of crime as the psychopathic murderers, the former tended to respond with a higher level of anxiety and heart rate variation.

  14. Respecting Stakeholders and Their Engagement to Decision Making - The Way of Successful Corporate Social Responsibility Strategy

    Drieniková, Katarína; Sakál, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Current world situation characterized by constant dynamic development and changes in all spheres enforced us to view the business not only as a profit creator but as creator of added value to the society. The paper deals with the stakeholders as the integral part of corporate social responsibility (CSR) concept. It mentions the topic of stakeholder theory and stakeholder management in consideration of sustainable development and sustainable competitiveness of business. Within the paper are mentioned outputs of pilot research carried on among Slovak companies focusing on stakeholders and decision making within responsible business.

  15. Differential p53 engagement in response to oxidative and oncogenic stresses in Fanconi anemia mice

    Rani, Reena; Li, Jie; Pang, Qishen

    2008-01-01

    Members of the Fanconi anemia (FA) protein family are involved in repair of genetic damage caused by DNA cross-linkers. It is not clear whether the FA proteins function in oxidative DNA damage and oncogenic stress response. Here we report that deficiency in the Fanca gene in mice elicits a p53-dependent growth arrest and DNA damage response to oxidative DNA damage and oncogenic stress. Using a Fanca-/- Trp53-/- double knockout model and a functionally switchable p53 retrovirus, we define the ...

  16. The Effects of Music on Students Engaged in Reader Response Strategies.

    Kagan, Susan C.

    This study examined the effects of background classical music on silent reading in a sixth grade class, in order to determine the amount and type of influence it would have on the reader's written response to what was read. Thirty-four suburban sixth graders from two history classes were selected for this study. The data was obtained over a period…

  17. Engaging High School Girls in Native American Culturally Responsive STEAM Enrichment Activities

    Kant, Joanita M.; Burckhard, Suzette R.; Meyers, Richard T.

    2018-01-01

    Providing science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics (STEAM) culturally responsive enrichment activities is one way of promoting more interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) studies and careers among indigenous students. The purpose of the study was to explore the impact, if any, of STEAM culturally…

  18. Communicating Corporate Social Responsibility on Social Media: Strategies, Stakeholders, and Public Engagement on Corporate Facebook

    Cho, Moonhee; Furey, Lauren D.; Mohr, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore what corporations with good reputations communicate on social media. Based on a content analysis of 46 corporate Facebook pages from "Fortune's" "World's Most Admired Companies," this study found that corporations communicate noncorporate social responsibility messages more frequently…

  19. Rules of Engagement: Toward an Analysis of Staff Responses to Challenging Behavior.

    Hastings, Richard P.; Remington, Bob

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews literature on the responses of direct care staff to challenging behaviors of individuals with mental retardation. The paper constructs a behavior analytic description of the functions of care staff behavior in relation to their clients' challenging behaviors, draws a distinction between contingency-shaped and rule-governed…

  20. Non-Response in Student Surveys: The Role of Demographics, Engagement and Personality

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    What causes a student to participate in a survey? This paper looks at participation across multiple surveys to understand survey non-response; by using multiple surveys we minimize the impact of survey salience. Students at a selective liberal arts college were administered four different surveys throughout the 2002-2003 academic year, and we use…

  1. Engaging in Distancing Tactics among Sport Fans: Effects on Self-Esteem and Emotional Responses.

    Bizman, Aharon; Yinon, Yoel

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effects of distancing tactics on self-esteem and emotions following a win or loss of one's favorite basketball team. Measures the self-esteem and emotional responses of basketball fans as they exited the sport arena after their team won or lost an official game. (CMK)

  2. Engagement Means Everyone

    Patton, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Employee engagement is not just HR's responsibility. While HR is responsible for the process of measuring and driving engagement, improving it is actually everyone's responsibility. And that means reducing the barriers to productivity to drive business performance. Training departments can play a pivotal role. Their job is to enhance curriculum or…

  3. Transient response of level instruments in a research reactor

    Cheng, Lap Y.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed to simulate the dynamics of water level instruments in a research nuclear reactor. A bubble device, with helium gas as the working fluid, is used to monitor liquid level by sensing the static head pressure due to the height of liquid in the reactor vessel. A finite-difference model is constructed to study the transient response of the water level instruments to pressure perturbations. The field equations which describe the hydraulics of the helium gas in the bubbler device are arranged in the form of a tridiagonal matrix and the field variables are solved at each time step by the Thomas algorithm. Simulation results indicate that the dynamic response of the helium gas depends mainly on the volume and the inertia of the gas in the level instrument tubings. The anomalies in the simulated level indication are attributed to the inherent lag in the level instrument due to the hydraulics of the system. 1 ref., 5 figs

  4. Firm-level perspectives on public sector engagement with private healthcare providers: survey evidence from Ghana and Kenya.

    Neeraj Sood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are in urgent need of improvement. The private health sector is a major provider of care in the region and it will remain a significant actor in the future. Any efforts by SSA governments to improve health systems performance therefore has to account for the private health sector. Regional and international actors increasingly recognize importance of effectively engaging with the private health sector, and initiatives to improve engagement are underway in several countries. However, there is little systematic analysis of private health providers' view and experience with engagement. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we surveyed private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to understand the extent to which and how governments interact and engage with these facilities. The results suggest that government engagement with private health facilities is quite limited. The primary focus of this engagement is "command-and-control" type regulations to improve the quality of care. There is little attention paid to building the capacity of health care businesses through either technical or financial assistance. The vast majority of these facilities also receive no government assistance in meeting public health and social goals. Finally, government engagement with private pharmacies is often neglected and clinics receive a disproportionate share of government assistance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our findings suggest that there may be considerable untapped potential for greater engagement with private health facilities--particularly pharmacies. Improving engagement will likely help governments with limited resources to better take advantage of the private sector capacity to meet access and equity objectives and to accelerate the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

  5. Firm-Level Perspectives on Public Sector Engagement with Private Healthcare Providers: Survey Evidence from Ghana and Kenya

    Sood, Neeraj; Burger, Nicholas; Yoong, Joanne; Kopf, Dan; Spreng, Connor

    2011-01-01

    Background Health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are in urgent need of improvement. The private health sector is a major provider of care in the region and it will remain a significant actor in the future. Any efforts by SSA governments to improve health systems performance therefore has to account for the private health sector. Regional and international actors increasingly recognize importance of effectively engaging with the private health sector, and initiatives to improve engagement are underway in several countries. However, there is little systematic analysis of private health providers' view and experience with engagement. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we surveyed private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to understand the extent to which and how governments interact and engage with these facilities. The results suggest that government engagement with private health facilities is quite limited. The primary focus of this engagement is “command-and-control” type regulations to improve the quality of care. There is little attention paid to building the capacity of health care businesses through either technical or financial assistance. The vast majority of these facilities also receive no government assistance in meeting public health and social goals. Finally, government engagement with private pharmacies is often neglected and clinics receive a disproportionate share of government assistance. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our findings suggest that there may be considerable untapped potential for greater engagement with private health facilities—particularly pharmacies. Improving engagement will likely help governments with limited resources to better take advantage of the private sector capacity to meet access and equity objectives and to accelerate the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:22132092

  6. Multi-level damage identification with response reconstruction

    Zhang, Chao-Dong; Xu, You-Lin

    2017-10-01

    Damage identification through finite element (FE) model updating usually forms an inverse problem. Solving the inverse identification problem for complex civil structures is very challenging since the dimension of potential damage parameters in a complex civil structure is often very large. Aside from enormous computation efforts needed in iterative updating, the ill-condition and non-global identifiability features of the inverse problem probably hinder the realization of model updating based damage identification for large civil structures. Following a divide-and-conquer strategy, a multi-level damage identification method is proposed in this paper. The entire structure is decomposed into several manageable substructures and each substructure is further condensed as a macro element using the component mode synthesis (CMS) technique. The damage identification is performed at two levels: the first is at macro element level to locate the potentially damaged region and the second is over the suspicious substructures to further locate as well as quantify the damage severity. In each level's identification, the damage searching space over which model updating is performed is notably narrowed down, not only reducing the computation amount but also increasing the damage identifiability. Besides, the Kalman filter-based response reconstruction is performed at the second level to reconstruct the response of the suspicious substructure for exact damage quantification. Numerical studies and laboratory tests are both conducted on a simply supported overhanging steel beam for conceptual verification. The results demonstrate that the proposed multi-level damage identification via response reconstruction does improve the identification accuracy of damage localization and quantization considerably.

  7. Stakeholder Engagement: Ensuring Confidence in the Regulatory Decision of a Possible Co-Located Low Level Waste (LLW) Disposal and Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) Storage Facility in Australia

    Murray, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Stakeholder Engagement Strategy and Plan: 1. Explicitly state your OBJECTIVE! I.“Strengthen and sustain stakeholder trust …..”; II.Independence, capability and evidence-based approach. 2. Important to get the tone and preferred mode of engagement right … from the start. I. Collaboration mode: I. Person-to-Person; II. One-to-One; III. Small Groups. 3. Executed and managed over a sustained period of time; I.The plan MUST be amenable! 4. The 6 Pillars strategy (1. Position APANSA as the peoples' expert; 2. Engage all Tier One stakeholders person-to-person; 3. Generate content that is understood readily; 4. Provide information openly; 5. Create awareness; 6. Involve stateholders) of the engagement and plan and engagement activities.

  8. Examining multi-level effects on corporate social responsibility and irresponsibility

    Mazzei Matthew J.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available What influences firms to engage in socially responsible (irresponsible activities? Corporate social responsibility (CSR, the efforts of firms to create a positive and desirable impact on society, and corporate social irresponsibility (CSI, contrary actions of unethical behavior that negatively influence society, have become an important focus of discussion for both corporations and scholars. Despite this interest, our understanding of organizations’ socially responsible (irresponsible actions and their antecedents is still developing. A dearth of knowledge about the multi-level nature of the drivers of CSR and CSI continues to exist. Utilizing a longitudinal sample composed of 899 firms in 66 industries, we follow a prominent model to empirically examine industry-, firm-, and individual-level effects on CSR and CSI. Employing variance decomposition analysis, our results confirm that all three levels of investigation do indeed influence CSR and CSI. More substantively, our analysis estimates the magnitude of the effects attributable to each of the three levels for both CSR and CSI. We also compare multi-level influences on two separate CSR strategies, those targeting primary stakeholders (strategic CSR and those targeting secondary stakeholders (social CSR. We find greater industry- and firmlevel effects on social CSR, and higher individual-level effects on strategic CSR. Our results build on the conceptual work of previous authors by providing empirical analyses to confirm multilevel influences on CSR and extending prior multi-level theory to the concept of CSI. Further, we add to the emerging literature regarding stakeholder demands by examining the various influences on CSR strategies targeting different stakeholder groups.

  9. Responses to Human Bioeffluents at Levels Recommended by Ventilation Standards

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether exposure to human bioeffluents, at the levels recommended by the current ventilation standards, would cause any effects on humans. Ten subjects were exposed in a low-emission stainless-steel climate chamber for 4.25 hours. The outdoor air supply rate...... was set to 33 or 4 l/s per person, creating two levels of bioeffluents with carbon dioxide (CO2) at 500 or 1600 ppm. Subjective ratings were collected, cognitive performance was examined and physiological responses were monitored. The results show that exposures to human bioeffluents at ventilation rate...

  10. Assessing the impact of previous experience, and attitudes towards technology, on levels of engagement in a virtual reality based occupational therapy intervention for spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    McCaughey, Manus Dr.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current research project was to determine if there were significant differences between patients with higher or lower levels of experience with technology in terms of their level of engagement with virtual reality (VR) in occupational therapy, their future uptake of VR technology in therapy, and their attitudes towards technology. Patients’ experience of technology was also examined in relation to demographic characteristics such as age and education level.\\r\

  11. Cardiac response and anxiety levels in psychopathic murderers

    Serafim,Antonio de Pádua; Barros,Daniel Martins de; Valim,André; Gorenstein,Clarice

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the emotional response and level of anxiety of psychopathic murderers, non-psychopathic murderers, and nonpsychopathic non-criminals. METHOD: 110 male individuals aged over 18 years were divided into three groups: psychopathic murderers (n = 38); non-psychopathic murderers (n = 37) serving sentences for murder convictions in Maximum Security Prisons in the State of Sao Paulo; and non-criminal, non-psychopathic individuals (n = 35) according to the Psychopathy Checklist-R...

  12. Mapping the Social World of Classrooms: A Multi-Level, Multi-Reporter Approach to Social Processes and Behavioral Engagement.

    Kim, Ha Yeon; Cappella, Elise

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the social context of classrooms has been a central goal of research focused on the promotion of academic development. Building on the current literature on classroom social settings and guided by a risk and protection framework, this study examines the unique and combined contribution of individual relationships and quality of classroom interactions on behavioral engagement among low-income Latino students in kindergarten to fifth grade (N = 111). Findings indicate that individual relationships with teachers and peers and classroom quality, each independently predicted behavioral engagement. Moreover, high-quality classrooms buffered the negative influence of students' difficulties in individual relationships on behavioral engagement. Findings illuminate the need to consider multiple layers of social classroom relationships and interactions and suggest the potential benefit of targeting classroom quality as a mechanism for improving behavioral engagement in urban elementary schools. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  13. Response of sunflower to various levels of nitrogen and phosphorus

    Arif, M.; Karar, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    To study the response of sunflower to various levels of nitrogen and phosphorous, an experiment was conducted in pots at NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, during 1997. Four nitrogen levels 0, 80, 120, 160 kg/ha and three phosphorous levels 0,60,90 kg/ha were included in the experiment. Increase in nitrogen levels significantly increased head diameter, grain yield per head and thousand-grain weight. Maximum head diameter (25.71), grain yield per head (114.84g) and thousand-grain weight (75.67g) was recorded at nitrogen level of 160 kg/ha. Increased in phosphorus level increased plant height and thousand grains weight. Tallest plants (198.92cm) were observed at 6Okg P/ha while heavy grains (70.67g) were recorded at P level of 9Okg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ha. It is concluded that l60kg N/ha and 9Okg P/ha is proper dose of N and P for sunflower hybrid. (author)

  14. Improving survey response rates from parents in school-based research using a multi-level approach.

    Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Sciberras, Emma; Efron, Daryl; Anderson, Vicki; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    While schools can provide a comprehensive sampling frame for community-based studies of children and their families, recruitment is challenging. Multi-level approaches which engage multiple school stakeholders have been recommended but few studies have documented their effects. This paper compares the impact of a standard versus enhanced engagement approach on multiple indicators of recruitment: parent response rates, response times, reminders required and sample characteristics. Parents and teachers were distributed a brief screening questionnaire as a first step for recruitment to a longitudinal study, with two cohorts recruited in consecutive years (cohort 1 2011, cohort 2 2012). For cohort 2, additional engagement strategies included the use of pre-notification postcards, improved study materials, and recruitment progress graphs provided to school staff. Chi-square and t-tests were used to examine cohort differences. Compared to cohort 1, a higher proportion of cohort 2 parents responded to the survey (76% versus 69%; p value of investing in a relatively simple multi-level strategy to maximise parent response rates, and potentially reduce recruitment time and costs.

  15. Explaining the Impact of Disabled Children's Engagement with Physical Activity on Their Parents' Smartphone Addiction Levels: A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Research

    Gündogdu, Cemal; Aygün, Yalin; Ilkim, Mehmet; Tüfekçi, Sakir

    2018-01-01

    In this research, quantitative findings and qualitative follow-up themes were used to quantify, conceptualize and finally try to explain the impact of disabled children's engagement with physical activity on their parents' smartphone addiction levels. An initial phase of quantitative investigation was conducted with 116 parents. Analyses of…

  16. State-level emergency preparedness and response capabilities.

    Watkins, Sharon M; Perrotta, Dennis M; Stanbury, Martha; Heumann, Michael; Anderson, Henry; Simms, Erin; Huang, Monica

    2011-03-01

    Prior assessments of public health readiness had identified gaps in radiation preparedness. In recent years, preparedness planning has involved an "all-hazards" approach. Current assessment of the national status related to radiation public health emergency preparedness capabilities at the state and local health department levels was needed. A survey of state health departments related to radiation readiness was undertaken in 2010 by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). States with nuclear power plants were instructed to consider their responses exclusive of capabilities and resources related to the plants given that the emergency response plans for nuclear power plants are specific and unique. Thirty-eight (76%) state health departments responded to the survey, including 26 of the 31 states with nuclear power plants. Specific strengths noted at the state level included that the majority of states had a written radiation response plan and most plans include a detailed section for communications issues during a radiation emergency. In addition, more than half of the states indicated that their relationship with federal partners is sufficient to provide resources for radiation emergencies, indicating the importance states placed on federal resources and expertise. Specific weaknesses are discussed and include that most states had completed little to no planning for public health surveillance to assess potential human health impacts of a radiation event; less than half had written plans to address exposure assessment, environmental sampling, human specimen collection and analysis, and human health assessment. Few reported having sufficient resources to do public health surveillance, radiation exposure assessment, laboratory functions and other capabilities. Levels of planning, resources and partnerships varied among states, those with nuclear power plants were better prepared. Gaps were evident in all states; however and additional training and

  17. Knowledge Building and Mathematics: Shifting the Responsibility for Knowledge Advancement and Engagement

    Joan Moss

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three classrooms of Grade 4 students from different schools and diverse backgrounds collaborated in early algebra research to solve a series of linear and quadratic generalizing problems. Results revealed that high- and low-achieving students were able to solve problems of recognized difficulty. We discuss Knowledge Building principles and practices that fostered deep understanding and broad participation. Students used the online Knowledge Building environment Knowledge Forum® to conduct their work and we illustrate how Knowledge Forum supported a Knowledge Building culture for mathematical learning and problem solving. Analyses of participation patterns and note content revealed practices consistent with Knowledge Building principles, specifically democratization of knowledge, with students at all achievement levels participating, and epistemic agency, with students providing evidence and justification for conjectures and generating multiple solutions to challenging problems.

  18. Exercise responses in patients with chronically high creatine kinase levels.

    Cooper, Christopher B; Dolezal, Brett A; Neufeld, Eric V; Shieh, Perry; Jenner, John R; Riley, Marshall

    2017-08-01

    Elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) is often taken to reflect muscle disease, but many individuals have elevated CK without a specific diagnosis. How elevated CK reflects muscle metabolism during exercise is not known. Participants (46 men, 48 women) underwent incremental exercise testing to assess aerobic performance, cardiovascular response, and ventilatory response. Serum lactate, ammonia, and CK were measured at rest, 4 minutes into exercise, and 2 minutes into recovery. High-CK and control subjects demonstrated similar aerobic capacities and cardiovascular responses to incremental exercise. Those with CK ≥ 300 U/L exhibited significantly higher lactate and ammonia levels after maximal exercise, together with increased ventilatory responses, whereas those with CK ≥200 U/L but ≤ 300 U/L did not. We recommend measurement of lactate and ammonia profiles during a maximal incremental exercise protocol to help identify patients who warrant muscle biopsy to rule out myopathy. Muscle Nerve 56: 264-270, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. On analyzing free-response data on location level

    Bandos, Andriy I.; Obuchowski, Nancy A.

    2017-03-01

    Free-response ROC (FROC) data are typically collected when primary question of interest is focused on the proportions of the correct detection-localization of known targets and frequencies of false positive responses, which can be multiple per subject (image). These studies are particularly relevant for CAD and related applications. The fundamental tool of the location-level FROC analysis is the FROC curve. Although there are many methods of FROC analysis, as we describe in this work, some of the standard and popular approaches, while important, are not suitable for analyzing specifically the location-level FROC performance as summarized by the FROC curve. Analysis of the FROC curve, on the other hand, might not be straightforward. Recently we developed an approach for the location-level analysis of the FROC data using the well-known tools for clustered ROC analysis. In the current work, based on previously developed concepts, and using specific examples, we demonstrate the key reasons why specifically location-level FROC performance cannot be fully addressed by the common approaches as well as illustrate the proposed solution. Specifically, we consider the two most salient FROC approaches, namely JAFROC and the area under the exponentially transformed FROC curve (AFE) and show that clearly superior FROC curves can have lower values for these indices. We describe the specific features that make these approaches inconsistent with FROC curves. This work illustrates some caveats for using the common approaches for location-level FROC analysis and provides guidelines for the appropriate assessment or comparison of FROC systems.

  20. Fitness Level Modulates Intraocular Pressure Responses to Strength Exercises.

    Vera, Jesús; Jiménez, Raimundo; Redondo, Beatríz; Cárdenas, David; García-Ramos, Amador

    2018-06-01

    Purpose/Aim: The execution of strength exercises has demonstrated to increase the intraocular pressure (IOP) levels, and it may have a negative impact on the ocular health. We aimed to explore the influence of fitness level on the acute IOP response to strength exercises performed under different loading conditions, as well as to test whether the IOP responses differ between the bench press and jump squat when performed against the same relative loads. Forty military personnel males were divided in two subgroups (20 high-fit and 20 low-fit) based on their relative to body mass one-repetition maximum (1-RM). Participants performed an incremental loading test in the bench press and jump squat exercises, and IOP was assessed before and after each repetition by rebound tonometry. IOP increased immediately after executing both exercises (p e., high-fit and low-fit) and in both exercises (R 2 range: 0.81-1.00). Higher fitness level attenuated the IOP rise produced by both exercises (p < 0.01 in both cases). The bench press induced higher IOP increments than the jump squat for both groups at relative loads of ~50%1-RM and ~60%1-RM (p < 0.01 in all cases). These data indicate that IOP increases as a consequence of performing strength exercises, being the increment accentuated with the increase of the load and in the bench press compared to the jump squat exercise. Of special importance would be that the IOP responses were significantly reduced in high-fit individuals. These findings should be addressed in glaucoma patients.

  1. Attention-level transitory response: a novel hybrid BCI approach

    Diez, Pablo F.; Garcés Correa, Agustina; Orosco, Lorena; Laciar, Eric; Mut, Vicente

    2015-10-01

    Objective. People with disabilities may control devices such as a computer or a wheelchair by means of a brain-computer interface (BCI). BCI based on steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) requires visual stimulation of the user. However, this SSVEP-based BCI suffers from the ‘Midas touch effect’, i.e., the BCI can detect an SSVEP even when the user is not gazing at the stimulus. Then, these incorrect detections deteriorate the performance of the system, especially in asynchronous BCI because ongoing EEG is classified. In this paper, a novel transitory response of the attention-level of the user is reported. It was used to develop a hybrid BCI (hBCI). Approach. Three methods are proposed to detect the attention-level of the user. They are based on the alpha rhythm and theta/beta rate. The proposed hBCI scheme is presented along with these methods. Hence, the hBCI sends a command only when the user is at a high-level of attention, or in other words, when the user is really focused on the task being performed. The hBCI was tested over two different EEG datasets. Main results. The performance of the hybrid approach is superior to the standard one. Improvements of 20% in accuracy and 10 bits min-1 are reported. Moreover, the attention-level is extracted from the same EEG channels used in SSVEP detection and this way, no extra hardware is needed. Significance. A transitory response of EEG signal is used to develop the attention-SSVEP hBCI which is capable of reducing the Midas touch effect.

  2. Zero-field magnetic response functions in Landau levels

    Gao, Yang; Niu, Qian

    2017-07-01

    We present a fresh perspective on the Landau level quantization rule; that is, by successively including zero-field magnetic response functions at zero temperature, such as zero-field magnetization and susceptibility, the Onsager’s rule can be corrected order by order. Such a perspective is further reinterpreted as a quantization of the semiclassical electron density in solids. Our theory not only reproduces Onsager’s rule at zeroth order and the Berry phase and magnetic moment correction at first order but also explains the nature of higher-order corrections in a universal way. In applications, those higher-order corrections are expected to curve the linear relation between the level index and the inverse of the magnetic field, as already observed in experiments. Our theory then provides a way to extract the correct value of Berry phase as well as the magnetic susceptibility at zero temperature from Landau level fan diagrams in experiments. Moreover, it can be used theoretically to calculate Landau levels up to second-order accuracy for realistic models.

  3. Response of Wheat Genotypes to Different Levels of Nitrogen

    Shukra Raj Shrestha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted using six genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. for response to different levels of nitrogen (N use. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with four levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1 as main plots and six wheat genotypes (BL 3623, BL 3629, BL 3872, NL 1008, NL 1055 and Vijay, a check variety as sub-plots. Grain yield and other yield components increased linearly in response to N concentrations in both seasons. Only two parameters: days to heading (DOH and days to maturity (DTM varied significantly (p ≤ 0.05 among wheat genotypes in both the years. None of the parameters showed interaction effects in both seasons. Vijay showed highest grain yield of 3.12 t ha-1 in 2013 with the application of 100 kg N ha-1, and 3.23 t ha-1 in 2014 with 150 kg N ha-1. Spike length, productive tillers m-2, number of spikes m-2 and test weight were greater with higher N rates. The straw yield of wheat fertilized with 150 kg N ha-1 was the highest in Vijay (4.35 t ha-1 and BL 3872 (4.33 t ha-1, respectively. Vijay with 100 kg N ha-1 produced the highest number of productive tillers m-2 (276.33 in 2013 and 296.00 with the application of 150 kg N ha-1 in 2014.

  4. General Education Teachers' Ratings of the Academic Engagement Level of Students Who Read Braille: A Comparison with Sighted Peers

    Bardin, Julie A.; Lewis, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    English and language arts teachers of braille-reading students in general education classes rated these students' academic engagement and the academic achievement of low- and average-achieving sighted students in the same classrooms. The braille readers were found to be statistically similar to the low-achieving students with regard to effort,…

  5. Examination of Socialization Level of University Students Engaged in Sports Activities According to Their Locus of Control

    Inan, Mehmet; Karagözoglu, Cengiz; Dervent, Fatih; Arslantas, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the university students who participate in sports have been examined in terms of their socialization relative to the participation in sport activities and the locus of control. Students are thought to be engaged in many activities in addition to their lessons during their student tenure at higher education institutions. Their…

  6. Quantifying human response capabilities towards tsunami threats at community level

    Post, J.; Mück, M.; Zosseder, K.; Wegscheider, S.; Taubenböck, H.; Strunz, G.; Muhari, A.; Anwar, H. Z.; Birkmann, J.; Gebert, N.

    2009-04-01

    Decision makers at the community level need detailed information on tsunami risks in their area. Knowledge on potential hazard impact, exposed elements such as people, critical facilities and lifelines, people's coping capacity and recovery potential are crucial to plan precautionary measures for adaptation and to mitigate potential impacts of tsunamis on society and the environment. A crucial point within a people-centred tsunami risk assessment is to quantify the human response capabilities towards tsunami threats. Based on this quantification and spatial representation in maps tsunami affected and safe areas, difficult-to-evacuate areas, evacuation target points and evacuation routes can be assigned and used as an important contribution to e.g. community level evacuation planning. Major component in the quantification of human response capabilities towards tsunami impacts is the factor time. The human response capabilities depend on the estimated time of arrival (ETA) of a tsunami, the time until technical or natural warning signs (ToNW) can be received, the reaction time (RT) of the population (human understanding of a tsunami warning and the decision to take appropriate action), the evacuation time (ET, time people need to reach a safe area) and the actual available response time (RsT = ETA - ToNW - RT). If RsT is larger than ET, people in the respective areas are able to reach a safe area and rescue themselves. Critical areas possess RsT values equal or even smaller ET and hence people whin these areas will be directly affected by a tsunami. Quantifying the factor time is challenging and an attempt to this is presented here. The ETA can be derived by analyzing pre-computed tsunami scenarios for a respective area. For ToNW we assume that the early warning center is able to fulfil the Indonesian presidential decree to issue a warning within 5 minutes. RT is difficult as here human intrinsic factors as educational level, believe, tsunami knowledge and experience

  7. Clickenomics: Using a Classroom Response System to Increase Student Engagement in a Large-Enrollment Principles of Economics Course

    Salemi, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important challenges facing college instructors of economics is helping students engage. Engagement is particularly important in a large-enrollment Principles of Economics course, where it can help students achieve a long-lived understanding of how economists use basic economic ideas to look at the world. The author reports how…

  8. Multiple-level stakeholder engagement in malaria clinical trials: addressing the challenges of conducting clinical research in resource-limited settings.

    Mtove, George; Kimani, Joshua; Kisinza, William; Makenga, Geofrey; Mangesho, Peter; Duparc, Stephan; Nakalembe, Miriam; Phiri, Kamija S; Orrico, Russell; Rojo, Ricardo; Vandenbroucke, Pol

    2018-03-22

    Multinational clinical trials are logistically complex and require close coordination between various stakeholders. They must comply with global clinical standards and are accountable to multiple regulatory and ethical bodies. In resource-limited settings, it is challenging to understand how to apply global clinical standards to international, national, and local factors in clinical trials, making multiple-level stakeholder engagement an important element in the successful conduct of these clinical trials. During the planning and implementation of a large multinational clinical trial for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in resource-limited areas of sub-Saharan Africa, we encountered numerous challenges, which required implementation of a range of engagement measures to ensure compliance with global clinical and regulatory standards. These challenges included coordination with ongoing global malaria efforts, heterogeneity in national regulatory structures, sub-optimal healthcare infrastructure, local practices and beliefs, and perspectives that view healthcare providers with undue trust or suspicion. In addition to engagement with international bodies, such as the World Health Organization, the Malaria in Pregnancy Consortium, the Steve Biko Centre for Bioethics, and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, in order to address the challenges just described, Pfizer Inc. and Medicines for Malaria Venture (the "Sponsoring Entities" for these studies) and investigators liaised with national- and district-level stakeholders such as health ministers and regional/local community health workers. Community engagement measures undertaken by investigators included local meetings with community leaders to explain the research aims and answer questions and concerns voiced by the community. The investigators also engaged with family members of prospective trial participants in order to be sensitive to local practices and beliefs. Engagement

  9. Bean leaf growth response to moderate ozone levels

    Evans, L S

    1973-01-01

    The middle leaflet from the first trifoliate leaf of pinto bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) was subjected to various ozone levels for both 12 and 24 h to show moderate oxidant injury. Rates of leaf expansion were used as criteria to measure the effects of ozone at three leaflet positions. Growth analysis included Y-intercepts indicating growth after day 1, growth after day 3, and regression line slopes between days 1 and 7 after the beginning of the experiments. Slopes of growth rate regression lines differentiated untreated leaflets from leaflets exposed to a 0.60 ppm-h (0.05 ppm for 12 h) dose. Growth rates of plants exposed to 1.20 ppm-h (either 0.05 ppm for 24 h, or 0.10 ppm for 12 h) were distinguishable from untreated plants within three days. Basal leaf portions showed the most differential ozone response compared with lateral and tip positions.

  10. Dose response curves for effects of low-level radiation

    Myers, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    The linear dose-response model used by international committees to assess the genetic and carcinogenic hazards of low-level radiation appears to be the most reasonable interpretation of the available scientific data that are relevant to this topic. There are, of course, reasons to believe that this model may overestimate radiation hazards in certain instances, a fact acknowledged in recent reports of these committees. The linear model is now also being utilized to estimate the potential carcinogenic hazards of other agents such as asbestos and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This model implies that there is no safe dose for any of these agents and that potential health hazards will increase in direct proportion to total accumulated dose. The practical implication is the recommendation that all exposures should be kept 'as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account'. (auth)

  11. Trophic level responses differ as climate warms in Ireland

    Donnelly, Alison; Yu, Rong; Liu, Lingling

    2015-08-01

    Effective ecosystem functioning relies on successful species interaction. However, this delicate balance may be disrupted if species do not respond to environmental change at a similar rate. Here we examine trends in the timing of spring phenophases of groups of species occupying three trophic levels as a potential indicator of ecosystem response to climate warming in Ireland. The data sets were of varying length (1976-2009) and from varying locations: (1) timing of leaf unfolding and May Shoot of a range of broadleaf and conifer tree species, (2) first appearance dates of a range of moth species, and (3) first arrival dates of a range of spring migrant birds. All three groups revealed a statistically significant ( Pphenology that was driven by rising spring temperature ( P<0.05; 0.45 °C /decade). However, the rate of advance was greater for moths (1.8 days/year), followed by birds (0.37 days/year) and trees (0.29 days/year). In addition, the length of time between (1) moth emergence and leaf unfolding and (2) moth emergence and bird arrival decreased significantly ( P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), indicating a decrease in the timing between food supply and demand. These differing trophic level response rates demonstrate the potential for a mismatch in the timing of interdependent phenophases as temperatures rise. Even though these data were not specifically collected to examine climate warming impacts, we conclude that such data may be used as an early warning indicator and as a means to monitor the potential for future ecosystem disruption to occur as climate warms.

  12. The Levels and Predictors of Physical Activity Engagement Within the Treatment-Seeking Transgender Population: A Matched Control Study.

    Jones, Bethany Alice; Haycraft, Emma; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Arcelus, Jon

    2018-02-01

    Physical activity has been found to alleviate mental health problems and could be beneficial for at-risk populations, such as transgender people. This study had 3 aims. First, to explore the amount of physical activity that treatment-seeking transgender people engage in and to compare this to matched cisgender people. Second, to determine whether there was a difference in physical activity depending on cross-sex hormone use. Third, to determine factors that predict physical activity among treatment-seeking transgender people. Transgender (n = 360) and cisgender people (n = 314) were recruited from the United Kingdom. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires about physical activity, symptoms of anxiety and depression, self-esteem, body satisfaction, and transphobia. Transgender people engaged in less physical activity than cisgender people. Transgender people who were on cross-sex hormone treatment engaged in more physical activity than transgender people who were not. In transgender people on cross-sex hormones, high body satisfaction was the best statistical predictor of physical activity, whereas high self-esteem was the best statistical predictor in people who were not. Transgender people are less active than cisgender people. Cross-sex hormone treatment appears to be able to indirectly increase physical activity within this population, which may be beneficial for mental well-being.

  13. Estimating Derived Response Levels at the Savannah River Site for Use with Emergency Response Models

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Emergency response computer models at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are coupled with real-time meteorological data to estimate dose to individuals downwind of accidental radioactive releases. Currently, these models estimate doses for inhalation and shine pathways, but do not consider dose due to ingestion of contaminated food products. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has developed derived intervention levels (DIL) which refer to the radionuclide-specific concentration in food present throughout the relevant period of time, with no intervention, that could lead to an individual receiving a radiation dose equal to the protective action guide. In the event of an emergency, concentrations in various food types are compared with these levels to make interdictions decisions. Prior to monitoring results being available, concentrations in the environmental media (i.e. soil), called derived response levels (DRLs), can be estimated from the DILs and directly compared with computer output to provide preliminary guidance as to whether intervention is necessary. Site-specific derived response levels (DRLs) are developed for ingestion pathways pertinent to SRS: milk, meat, fish, grain, produce, and beverage. This provides decision-makers with an additional tool for use immediately following an accident prior to the acquisition of food monitoring data

  14. Making sense of climate change risks and responses at the community level: A cultural-political lens

    Ainka A. Granderson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to better assess, communicate and respond to risks from climate change at the community level have emerged as key questions within climate risk management. Recent research to address these questions centres largely on psychological factors, exploring how cognition and emotion lead to biases in risk assessment. Yet, making sense of climate change and its responses at the community level demands attention to the cultural and political processes that shape how risk is conceived, prioritized and managed. I review the emergent literature on risk perceptions and responses to climate change using a cultural-political lens. This lens highlights how knowledge, meaning and power are produced and negotiated across multiple stakeholders at the community level. It draws attention to the different ways of constructing climate change risks and suggests an array of responses at the community level. It further illustrates how different constructions of risk intersect with agency and power to shape the capacity for response and collective action. What matters are whose constructions of risk, and whose responses, count in decision-making. I argue for greater engagement with the interpretive social sciences in research, practice and policy. The interpretive social sciences offer theories and tools for capturing and problematising the ways of knowing, sense-making and mobilising around risks from climate change. I also highlight the importance of participatory approaches in incorporating the multiplicity of interests at the community level into climate risk management in fair, transparent and culturally appropriate ways.

  15. Technical responsibilities in low-level waste disposal

    Murray, R.L.; Walker, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    North Carolina will be the host state for a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility serving the Southeast Compact for 20 yr beginning in 1993. Primary responsibility for the project rests with the North Carolina Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority, a citizen board. The North Carolina project embodies a unique combination of factors that places the authority in a position to exercise technical leadership in the LLRW disposal field. First, the Southeast Compact is the largest in the United States in terms of area, population, and waste generation. second, it is in a humid rather than an arid region. Third, the citizens of the state are intensely interested in preserving life style, environment, and attractiveness of the region to tourists and are especially sensitive to the presence of waste facilities of any kind. Finally, disposal rules set by the Radiation Protection Commission and enforced by the Radiation Protection Section are stricter than the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's 10CFR61. These four factors support the authority's belief that development of the facility cannot be based solely on engineering and economics, but that social factors, including perceptions of human risk, concerns for the environment, and opinions about the desirability of hosting a facility, should be integral to the project. This philosophy guides the project's many technical aspects, including site selection, site characterization, technology selection and facility design, performance assessment modeling, and waste reduction policies. Each aspect presents its own unique problems

  16. Vaccine and Wild-Type Strains of Yellow Fever Virus Engage Distinct Entry Mechanisms and Differentially Stimulate Antiviral Immune Responses.

    Fernandez-Garcia, Maria Dolores; Meertens, Laurent; Chazal, Maxime; Hafirassou, Mohamed Lamine; Dejarnac, Ophélie; Zamborlini, Alessia; Despres, Philippe; Sauvonnet, Nathalie; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Jouvenet, Nolwenn; Amara, Ali

    2016-02-09

    The live attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine 17D stands as a "gold standard" for a successful vaccine. 17D was developed empirically by passaging the wild-type Asibi strain in mouse and chicken embryo tissues. Despite its immense success, the molecular determinants for virulence attenuation and immunogenicity of the 17D vaccine are poorly understood. 17D evolved several mutations in its genome, most of which lie within the envelope (E) protein. Given the major role played by the YFV E protein during virus entry, it has been hypothesized that the residues that diverge between the Asibi and 17D E proteins may be key determinants of attenuation. In this study, we define the process of YFV entry into target cells and investigate its implication in the activation of the antiviral cytokine response. We found that Asibi infects host cells exclusively via the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while 17D exploits a clathrin-independent pathway for infectious entry. We demonstrate that the mutations in the 17D E protein acquired during the attenuation process are sufficient to explain the differential entry of Asibi versus 17D. Interestingly, we show that 17D binds to and infects host cells more efficiently than Asibi, which culminates in increased delivery of viral RNA into the cytosol and robust activation of the cytokine-mediated antiviral response. Overall, our study reveals that 17D vaccine and Asibi enter target cells through distinct mechanisms and highlights a link between 17D attenuation, virus entry, and immune activation. The yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine 17D is one of the safest and most effective live virus vaccines ever developed. The molecular determinants for virulence attenuation and immunogenicity of 17D are poorly understood. 17D was generated by serially passaging the virulent Asibi strain in vertebrate tissues. Here we examined the entry mechanisms engaged by YFV Asibi and the 17D vaccine. We found the two viruses use different entry

  17. Associations of Affective Responses During Free-Living Physical Activity and Future Physical Activity Levels: an Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

    Liao, Yue; Chou, Chih-Ping; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam; Dunton, Genevieve

    2017-08-01

    Affective response during physical activity may influence motivation to perform future physical activity behavior. However, affective response during physical activity is often assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. The current study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity performed by adults, and determined whether these affective responses predict future moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels after 6 and 12 months. At baseline, electronic EMA surveys were randomly prompted across 4 days asking about current activities and affective states (e.g., happy, stressed, energetic, tired). Affective response during physical activity was operationalized as the level of positive or negative affect reported when concurrent physical activity (e.g., exercise or sports) was also reported. Data were available for 82 adults. Future levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured using accelerometers, worn for seven consecutive days at 6 and 12 months after the baseline assessment. Feeling more energetic during physical activity was associated with performing more minutes of daily MVPA after both 6 and 12 months. Feeling less negative affect during physical activity was associated with engaging in more daily MVPA minutes after 12 months only. This study demonstrated how EMA can be used to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity. Results found that feelings more energetic and less negative during physical activity were associated with more future physical activity, suggesting that positive emotional benefits may reinforce behavior.

  18. The Future of Student Engagement

    Buskist, William; Groccia, James E.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter underscores the importance of conceptualizing student engagement as a responsibility shared by all members of the academy and describes how Groccia's multidimensional model can serve as blueprint for future thinking and research on student engagement.

  19. Proyecto MercadoFRESCO: a multi-level, community-engaged corner store intervention in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights.

    Ortega, Alexander N; Albert, Stephanie L; Sharif, Mienah Z; Langellier, Brent A; Garcia, Rosa Elena; Glik, Deborah C; Brookmeyer, Ron; Chan-Golston, Alec M; Friedlander, Scott; Prelip, Michael L

    2015-04-01

    Urban food swamps are typically situated in low-income, minority communities and contribute to overweight and obesity. Changing the food landscape in low income and underserved communities is one strategy to combat the negative health consequences associated with the lack of access to healthy food resources and an abundance of unhealthy food venues. In this paper, we describe Proyecto MercadoFRESCO (Fresh Market Project), a corner store intervention project in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights in California that used a multi-level approach with a broad range of community, business, and academic partners. These are two neighboring, predominantly Latino communities that have high rates of overweight and obesity. Located in these two communities are approximately 150 corner stores. The project used a community-engaged approach to select, recruit, and convert four corner stores, so that they could become healthy community assets in order to improve residents' access to and awareness of fresh and affordable fruits and vegetables in their immediate neighborhoods. We describe the study framework for the multi-level intervention, which includes having multiple stakeholders, expertise in corner store operations, community and youth engagement strategies, and social marketing campaigns. We also describe the evaluation and survey methodology to determine community and patron impact of the intervention. This paper provides a framework useful to a variety of public health stakeholders for implementing a community-engaged corner store conversion, particularly in an urban food swamp.

  20. Leader Style and Anxiety Level: Their Relation to Autonomic Response.

    Seemann, Daniel C.

    1982-01-01

    Studied effects of leader style and a group of people classified as either high-anxious or low-anxious. Measured participants' (N=71) responses to the leader styles using Galvanic Skin Response. Results indicated similar responses of participants to both autocratic and democratic leadership styles. (RC)

  1. Patterns and predictors of patient and caregiver engagement in heart failure care: a multi-level dyadic study.

    Lee, Christopher S; Vellone, Ercole; Lyons, Karen S; Cocchieri, Antonello; Bidwell, Julie T; D'Agostino, Fabio; Hiatt, Shirin O; Alvaro, Rosaria; Buck, Harleah G; Riegel, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    Heart failure is a burdensome clinical syndrome, and patients and their caregivers are responsible for the vast majority of heart failure care. This study aimed to characterize naturally occurring archetypes of patient-caregiver dyads with respect to patient and caregiver contributions to heart failure self-care, and to identify patient-, caregiver- and dyadic-level determinants thereof. Dyadic analysis of cross-sectional data on patients and their caregivers. Outpatient heart failure clinics in 28 Italian provinces. 509 Italian heart failure patients and their primary caregivers. Multilevel and mixture modeling were used to generate dyadic averages and incongruence in patient and caregiver contributions to heart failure self-care and identify common dyadic archetypes, respectively. Three distinct archetypes were observed. 22.4% of dyads were labeled as novice and complementary because patients and caregivers contributed to different aspects of heart failure self-care that was generally poor; these dyads were predominantly older adults with less severe heart failure and their adult child caregivers. 56.4% of dyads were labeled as inconsistent and compensatory because caregivers reported greater contributions to the areas of self-care most insufficient on the part of the patients; patients in these dyads had the highest prevalence of hospitalizations for heart failure in the past year and the fewest limitations to performing activities of daily living independently. Finally, 21.2% of dyads were labeled as expert and collaborative because of high contributions to all aspects of heart failure self-care, the best relationship quality and lowest caregiver strain compared with the other archetypes; patients in this archetype were likely the sickest because they also had the worst heart failure-related quality of life. Three distinct archetypes of dyadic contributions to heart failure care were observed that represent a gradient in the level of contributions to self

  2. Improving survey response rates from parents in school-based research using a multi-level approach.

    Elizabeth J Schilpzand

    Full Text Available While schools can provide a comprehensive sampling frame for community-based studies of children and their families, recruitment is challenging. Multi-level approaches which engage multiple school stakeholders have been recommended but few studies have documented their effects. This paper compares the impact of a standard versus enhanced engagement approach on multiple indicators of recruitment: parent response rates, response times, reminders required and sample characteristics.Parents and teachers were distributed a brief screening questionnaire as a first step for recruitment to a longitudinal study, with two cohorts recruited in consecutive years (cohort 1 2011, cohort 2 2012. For cohort 2, additional engagement strategies included the use of pre-notification postcards, improved study materials, and recruitment progress graphs provided to school staff. Chi-square and t-tests were used to examine cohort differences.Compared to cohort 1, a higher proportion of cohort 2 parents responded to the survey (76% versus 69%; p < 0.001, consented to participate (71% versus 56%; p < 0.001, agreed to teacher participation (90% versus 82%; p < 0.001 and agreed to follow-up contact (91% versus 80%; p < 0.001. Fewer cohort 2 parents required reminders (52% versus 63%; p < 0.001, and cohort 2 parents responded more promptly than cohort 1 parents (mean difference: 19.4 days, 95% CI: 18.0 to 20.9, p < 0.001.These results illustrate the value of investing in a relatively simple multi-level strategy to maximise parent response rates, and potentially reduce recruitment time and costs.

  3. The influence of high-level beliefs on self-regulatory engagement: Evidence from thermal pain stimulation

    Margaret T Lynn

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Determinist beliefs have been shown to impact basic motor preparation, prosocial behavior, performance monitoring, and voluntary inhibition, presumably by diminishing the recruitment of cognitive resources for self-regulation. We sought to support and extend previous findings by applying a belief manipulation to a novel inhibition paradigm that requires participants to occasionally suppress a prepotent withdrawal reaction from a strong aversive stimulus. Our results suggest that reduction of free will beliefs lead to a form of intentional disengagement that influences action selection and inhibition. It is likely that disbelief in free will encourages participants to be more passive, to exhibit a reduction in intentional engagement, and to be disinclined to adapt their behavior to contextual needs.

  4. Students' objectively measured physical activity levels and engagement as a function of between-class and between-student differences in motivation toward physical education.

    Aelterman, Nathalie; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Keer, Hilde; Van den Berghe, Lynn; De Meyer, Jotie; Haerens, Leen

    2012-08-01

    Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3% boys, Mage = 14.36 ±1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37% and 63% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students' personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory's emphasis on quality of motivation.

  5. Civil-Military Engagement: An Empirical Account of Humanitarian Perceptions of Civil-Military Coordination During the Response to Typhoon Haiyan.

    Bollettino, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to identify how humanitarian actors in natural disasters coordinate (or communicate) with the military to identify the needs of disaster-affected populations, identify how coordination should be undertaken for the delivery of relief goods, perceive the effectiveness of such coordination, perceive the role that training played in preparation for coordinating with the military and the effectiveness of this training, and view the overall civil-military engagement and its implications for the independence of the humanitarian sector. A survey instrument focused on participant perceptions of the civil-military engagement in response to Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines was sent to country directors and agency leads who played a role in the response. Although the data supported anecdotal accounts that the coordination between civilian and military actors during the disaster relief efforts in Typhoon Haiyan worked well, they also revealed that fewer than half of the respondents were familiar with the Guidelines on the Use of Foreign Military and Civil Defence Assets in Disaster Relief (the "Oslo Guidelines") and only 12% of respondents thought that the Oslo Guidelines were used to develop organizational policy on humanitarian aid agency engagement with military actors. Humanitarians felt that international militaries and the Philippines Armed Forces played an important role in ensuring that aid reached people in need, particularly in the early days of the response. However, less than half of the respondents were familiar with the Oslo Guidelines.

  6. Mobilisation for public engagement: Benchmarking the practices of research institutes.

    Entradas, Marta; Bauer, Martin M

    2017-10-01

    Studies on scientists' practices of public engagement have pointed to variations between disciplines. If variations at the individual level are reflected at the institutional level, then research institutes in Social Sciences (and Humanities) should perform higher in public engagement and be more involved in dialogue with the public. Using a nearly complete sample of research institutes in Portugal 2014 ( n = 234, 61% response rate), we investigate how public engagement varies in intensity, type of activities and target audiences across scientific areas. Three benchmark findings emerge. First, the Social Sciences and the Humanities profile differently in public engagement highlighting the importance of distinguishing between these two scientific areas often conflated in public engagement studies. Second, the Social Sciences overall perform more public engagement activities, but the Natural Sciences mobilise more effort for public engagement. Third, while the Social Sciences play a greater role in civic public engagement, the Natural Sciences are more likely to perform educational activities. Finally, this study shows that the overall size of research institutes, available public engagement funding and public engagement staffing make a difference in institutes' public engagement.

  7. Staying Engaged: Knowledge and Research Needs in Student Engagement

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we review knowledge about student engagement and look ahead to the future of study in this area. We begin by describing how researchers in the field define and study student engagement. In particular, we describe the levels, contexts, and dimensions that constitute the measurement of engagement, summarize the contexts that shape engagement and the outcomes that result from it, and articulate person-centered approaches for analyzing engagement. We conclude by addressing limitations to the research and providing recommendations for study. Specifically, we point to the importance of incorporating more work on how learning-related emotions, personality characteristics, prior learning experiences, shared values across contexts, and engagement in nonacademic activities influence individual differences in student engagement. We also stress the need to improve our understanding of the nuances involved in developing engagement over time by incorporating more extensive longitudinal analyses, intervention trials, research on affective neuroscience, and interactions among levels and dimensions of engagement. PMID:27087833

  8. Responses to Error: Sentence-Level Error and the Teacher of Basic Writing

    Foltz-Gray, Dan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about sentence-level error, error in grammar, mechanics, punctuation, usage, and the teacher of basic writing. He states that communities are crawling with teachers and administrators and parents and state legislators and school board members who are engaged in sometimes rancorous debate over what to do about…

  9. Student Perceptions of Engagement Using Mobile-Based Polling as an Audience Response System: Implications for Leadership Studies

    Noel, Dan; Stover, Sheri; McNutt, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The increase in ownership and use of mobile-based devices among college students creates unique opportunities for faculty to develop highly engaging learning environments. With many educational institutions offering campus-wide Wi-Fi, students have the ability to use their mobile devices, including cell phones, tablets, and laptops for engaging…

  10. Expression of complement and pentraxin proteins in acute phase response elicited by tumor photodynamic therapy: the engagement of adrenal hormones.

    Merchant, Soroush; Huang, Naiyan; Korbelik, Mladen

    2010-12-01

    Treatment of solid tumors by photodynamic therapy (PDT) was recently shown to trigger a strong acute phase response. Using the mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) model, the present study examined complement and pentraxin proteins as PDT-induced acute phase reactants. The results show a distinct pattern of changes in the expression of genes encoding these proteins in the tumor, as well as host liver and spleen, following PDT mediated by photosensitizer Photofrin™. These changes were influenced by glucocorticoid hormones, as evidenced by transcriptional activation of glucocorticoid receptor and the upregulation of gene encoding this receptor. The expression of gene for glucocorticoid-induced zipper (GILZ) protein, whose activity is particularly susceptible to glucocorticoid regulation, was also changed in PDT-treated tumors. A direct demonstration that tumor PDT induces glucocorticoid hormone upregulation is provided by documenting elevated levels of serum corticosterone in mice bearing PDT-treated LLC tumors. Tumor response to PDT was negatively affected by blocking glucocorticoid receptor activity, which suggests that glucocorticoid hormones have a positive impact on the therapeutic outcome with this therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Responses to the low-level-radiation controversy

    Bond, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    Some data sets dealing with the hazards of low-level radiation are discussed. It is concluded that none of these reports, individually or collectively, changes appreciably or even significantly the evaluations of possible low-level radiation effects that have been made by several authoritative national and international groups

  12. Barrier response to Holocene sea-level rise

    Pejrup, Morten; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Johannessen, Peter N

    Normally it is believed that sea-level rise causes coastal barrier retreat. However, sea-level is only one of the parameters determining the long term coastal development of barrier coasts. Sediment supply is an equally important determinant and may overshadow the effects of sea-level rise....... Conceptually this has been known for a long time but for the first time we can show the relative effect of these two parameters. We have studied three neighboring barrier islands in the Wadden Sea, and described their 3D morphological evolution during the last 8000 years. It appears that the barrier islands...... a much stronger component of sea-level control. The distance between the islands is only 50 km, and therefore our study shows that prediction of barrier development during a period of rising sea level may be more complicated than formerly believed....

  13. Item Response Theory at Subject- and Group-Level. Research Report 90-1.

    Tobi, Hilde

    This paper reviews the literature about item response models for the subject level and aggregated level (group level). Group-level item response models (IRMs) are used in the United States in large-scale assessment programs such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the California Assessment Program. In the Netherlands, these…

  14. Population level response of downy brome to soil growing medium

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum) is the most ubiquitous exotic invasive weed in the Intermountain West. A major issue for management is the extreme generalist plastic nature of downy brome. We hypothesized that soil growing medium would effect all measured response variables representing some degree of...

  15. Haloperidol plasmatic levels and their clinical response to the treatment

    Cabranes, J.A.; Almoguera, I.; Santos, J.L.; Prieto, P.; Ramos, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Schizophrenic patients were treated with haloperidol. Their haloperidol levels in plasma were determined with radioimmunoassay (RIA) and radioreceptor assay (RRA). The results obtained are compared with the clinical improvement. (M.C.B.)

  16. Groundwater level responses to precipitation variability in Mediterranean insular aquifers

    Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; Garcia, Celso; Morán-Tejeda, Enrique

    2017-09-01

    Groundwater is one of the largest and most important sources of fresh water on many regions under Mediterranean climate conditions, which are exposed to large precipitation variability that includes frequent meteorological drought episodes, and present high evapotranspiration rates and water demand during the dry season. The dependence on groundwater increases in those areas with predominant permeable lithologies, contributing to aquifer recharge and the abundance of ephemeral streams. The increasing pressure of tourism on water resources in many Mediterranean coastal areas, and uncertainty related to future precipitation and water availability, make it urgent to understand the spatio-temporal response of groundwater bodies to precipitation variability, if sustainable use of the resource is to be achieved. We present an assessment of the response of aquifers to precipitation variability based on correlations between the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) at various time scales and the Standardized Groundwater Index (SGI) across a Mediterranean island. We detected three main responses of aquifers to accumulated precipitation anomalies: (i) at short time scales of the SPI (24 months). The differing responses were mainly explained by differences in lithology and the percentage of highly permeable rock strata in the aquifer recharge areas. We also identified differences in the months and seasons when aquifer storages are more dependent on precipitation; these were related to climate seasonality and the degree of aquifer exploitation or underground water extraction. The recharge of some aquifers, especially in mountainous areas, is related to precipitation variability within a limited spatial extent, whereas for aquifers located in the plains, precipitation variability influence much larger areas; the topography and geological structure of the island explain these differences. Results indicate large spatial variability in the response of aquifers to precipitation in

  17. NF-κB-Activating Complex Engaged in Response to EGFR Oncogene Inhibition Drives Tumor Cell Survival and Residual Disease in Lung Cancer

    Collin M. Blakely

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although oncogene-targeted therapy often elicits profound initial tumor responses in patients, responses are generally incomplete because some tumor cells survive initial therapy as residual disease that enables eventual acquired resistance. The mechanisms underlying tumor cell adaptation and survival during initial therapy are incompletely understood. Here, through the study of EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma, we show that NF-κB signaling is rapidly engaged upon initial EGFR inhibitor treatment to promote tumor cell survival and residual disease. EGFR oncogene inhibition induced an EGFR-TRAF2-RIP1-IKK complex that stimulated an NF-κB-mediated transcriptional survival program. The direct NF-κB inhibitor PBS-1086 suppressed this adaptive survival program and increased the magnitude and duration of initial EGFR inhibitor response in multiple NSCLC models, including a patient-derived xenograft. These findings unveil NF-κB activation as a critical adaptive survival mechanism engaged by EGFR oncogene inhibition and provide rationale for EGFR and NF-κB co-inhibition to eliminate residual disease and enhance patient responses.

  18. Seismic response of reinforced concrete frames at different damage levels

    Morales-González, Merangeli; Vidot-Vega, Aidcer L.

    2017-03-01

    Performance-based seismic engineering is focused on the definition of limit states to represent different levels of damage, which can be described by material strains, drifts, displacements or even changes in dissipating properties and stiffness of the structure. This study presents a research plan to evaluate the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) moment resistant frames at different performance levels established by the ASCE 41-06 seismic rehabilitation code. Sixteen RC plane moment frames with different span-to-depth ratios and three 3D RC frames were analyzed to evaluate their seismic behavior at different damage levels established by the ASCE 41-06. For each span-to-depth ratio, four different beam longitudinal reinforcement steel ratios were used that varied from 0.85 to 2.5% for the 2D frames. Nonlinear time history analyses of the frames were performed using scaled ground motions. The impact of different span-to-depth and reinforcement ratios on the damage levels was evaluated. Material strains, rotations and seismic hysteretic energy changes at different damage levels were studied.

  19. Learning to attain an advanced level of professional responsibility.

    Ter Maten-Speksnijder, Ada; Grypdonck, Mieke; Pool, Aart; Meurs, Pauline; Van Staa, AnneLoes

    2015-08-01

    After graduation, nurse practitioner students are expected to be capable of providing complex, evidence-based nursing care independently, combined with standardized medical care. The students who follow work-study programs have to develop their competencies in a healthcare environment dominated by efficiency policies. This study aims to explore nurse practitioner students' perceptions of their professional responsibility for patient care. This qualitative interpretative study entails a content analysis of 46 reflective case studies written by nurse practitioner students. The students felt responsible for the monitoring of patients' health status, attending to psychosocial problems, emphasizing compliance, and optimizing the family's role as informal caregivers. At the same time, students struggled to understand the complexities of their patients' needs, and they had difficulty applying their knowledge and skills to complex medical, psychological, and social problems. The students' perceptions of their new responsibility were characterized by a strong focus on curative care, while psychosocial components of health and illness concerns were often overlooked. The students experienced difficulties in meeting the criteria of advanced practice nursing described in the Dutch competency framework. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Response of Anopheles gambiae detoxification enzymes to levels of ...

    Some of the sampled larvae were reared to pupae and adult life stages. Levels of 7 physical (pH, temperature, conductivity, transparency, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen and biological oxygen demand) and 6 chemical (sulphates, phosphates, nitrites, nitrates, carbon content and oil and grease) environmental ...

  1. Dynamics in Responsible Land Administration; Change at Five Levels

    Zevenbergen, Jaap; de Vries, W.T.; Bennett, Rohan

    2018-01-01

    Fundamentally, the term 'administration' suggests bureaucratic, controlled and steady, if not slow, paces of change. However the relations between people and land, that land administration attempts to capture, are the very opposite and are changing rapidly. At all levels of abstraction, land

  2. Individual and population-level responses to ocean acidification.

    Harvey, Ben P; McKeown, Niall J; Rastrick, Samuel P S; Bertolini, Camilla; Foggo, Andy; Graham, Helen; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Milazzo, Marco; Shaw, Paul W; Small, Daniel P; Moore, Pippa J

    2016-01-29

    Ocean acidification is predicted to have detrimental effects on many marine organisms and ecological processes. Despite growing evidence for direct impacts on specific species, few studies have simultaneously considered the effects of ocean acidification on individuals (e.g. consequences for energy budgets and resource partitioning) and population level demographic processes. Here we show that ocean acidification increases energetic demands on gastropods resulting in altered energy allocation, i.e. reduced shell size but increased body mass. When scaled up to the population level, long-term exposure to ocean acidification altered population demography, with evidence of a reduction in the proportion of females in the population and genetic signatures of increased variance in reproductive success among individuals. Such increased variance enhances levels of short-term genetic drift which is predicted to inhibit adaptation. Our study indicates that even against a background of high gene flow, ocean acidification is driving individual- and population-level changes that will impact eco-evolutionary trajectories.

  3. Measuring Engagement in Fourth to Twelfth Grade Classrooms: The Classroom Engagement Inventory

    Wang, Ze; Bergin, Christi; Bergin, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on factors that may promote engagement is hampered by the absence of a measure of classroom-level engagement. Literature has suggested that engagement may have 3 dimensions--affective, behavioral, and cognitive. No existing engagement scales measure all 3 dimensions at the classroom level. The Classroom Engagement Inventory (CEI) was…

  4. Integrating plant ecological responses to climate extremes from individual to ecosystem levels.

    Felton, Andrew J; Smith, Melinda D

    2017-06-19

    Climate extremes will elicit responses from the individual to the ecosystem level. However, only recently have ecologists begun to synthetically assess responses to climate extremes across multiple levels of ecological organization. We review the literature to examine how plant responses vary and interact across levels of organization, focusing on how individual, population and community responses may inform ecosystem-level responses in herbaceous and forest plant communities. We report a high degree of variability at the individual level, and a consequential inconsistency in the translation of individual or population responses to directional changes in community- or ecosystem-level processes. The scaling of individual or population responses to community or ecosystem responses is often predicated upon the functional identity of the species in the community, in particular, the dominant species. Furthermore, the reported stability in plant community composition and functioning with respect to extremes is often driven by processes that operate at the community level, such as species niche partitioning and compensatory responses during or after the event. Future research efforts would benefit from assessing ecological responses across multiple levels of organization, as this will provide both a holistic and mechanistic understanding of ecosystem responses to increasing climatic variability.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Engaging actively with issues in the responsible conduct of science: lessons from international efforts are relevant for undergraduate education in the United States.

    Clements, John D; Connell, Nancy D; Dirks, Clarissa; El-Faham, Mohamed; Hay, Alastair; Heitman, Elizabeth; Stith, James H; Bond, Enriqueta C; Colwell, Rita R; Anestidou, Lida; Husbands, Jo L; Labov, Jay B

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies are demonstrating that engaging undergraduate students in original research can improve their achievement in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and increase the likelihood that some of them will decide to pursue careers in these disciplines. Associated with this increased prominence of research in the undergraduate curriculum are greater expectations from funders, colleges, and universities that faculty mentors will help those students, along with their graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, develop an understanding and sense of personal and collective obligation for responsible conduct of science (RCS). This Feature describes an ongoing National Research Council (NRC) project and a recent report about educating faculty members in culturally diverse settings (Middle East/North Africa and Asia) to employ active-learning strategies to engage their students and colleagues deeply in issues related to RCS. The NRC report describes the first phase of this project, which took place in Aqaba and Amman, Jordan, in September 2012 and April 2013, respectively. Here we highlight the findings from that report and our subsequent experience with a similar interactive institute in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Our work provides insights and perspectives for faculty members in the United States as they engage undergraduate and graduate students, as well as postdoctoral fellows, to help them better understand the intricacies of and connections among various components of RCS. Further, our experiences can provide insights for those who may wish to establish "train-the-trainer" programs at their home institutions.

  6. Mangrove Sedimentation and Response to Relative Sea-Level Rise.

    Woodroffe, C D; Rogers, K; McKee, K L; Lovelock, C E; Mendelssohn, I A; Saintilan, N

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions, related primarily to elevation and hydroperiod, influence mangrove distributions; this review considers how these distributions change over time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks, and tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas measurements made using surface elevation tables and marker horizons provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in a continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  7. Income Levels and Response to Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation.

    López-Núñez, Carla; Secades-Villa, Roberto; Peña-Suárez, Elsa; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Weidberg, Sara

    2017-06-07

    Contingency management (CM) has demonstrated its efficacy in treating many drug addictions, including nicotine. However, one of the most commonly perceived limitations with regard to its dissemination into community settings is whether this protocol could be equally effective for treating patients across different income levels. This study aimed to examine whether individuals' income levels affect treatment success in a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) that included a voucher-based CM protocol for smoking cessation. A total of 92 treatment-seeking smokers in a community setting were randomly assigned to a CBT group (N = 49) or to a CBT plus CM group (N = 43). The CM procedure included a voucher program through which smoking abstinence was reinforced on a schedule of escalating magnitude of reinforcement with a reset contingency. We analyzed the impact of self-reported monthly income, alone and in combination with treatment condition, on short-term (treatment retention) and long-term (self-reported number of days of continuous smoking abstinence at 6-month follow-up) results. Income had no effect on treatment retention and continuous abstinence outcomes at 6-month follow-up in either treatment condition. Treatment modality emerged as the only significant predictor of treatment success. Our findings suggest that treatment-seeking smokers from the general population respond equally well to CM regardless of their income levels. The results of this randomized controlled trial support the generalizability of this evidenced-based program into community settings.

  8. Mangrove sedimentation and response to relative sea-level rise

    Woodroffe, CD; Rogers, K.; Mckee, Karen L.; Lovelock, CE; Mendelssohn, IA; Saintilan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions influence mangrove distributions, primarily related to elevation and hydroperiod; this review considers how these adjust through time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks; tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon, but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas Surface Elevation Table-Marker Horizon measurements (SET-MH) provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  9. Chemoreceptor Responsiveness at Sea Level Does Not Predict the Pulmonary Pressure Response to High Altitude.

    Hoiland, Ryan L; Foster, Glen E; Donnelly, Joseph; Stembridge, Mike; Willie, Chris K; Smith, Kurt J; Lewis, Nia C; Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, Jim D; Yeoman, David J; Thomas, Kate N; Day, Trevor A; Tymko, Mike M; Burgess, Keith R; Ainslie, Philip N

    2015-07-01

    The hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) at sea level (SL) is moderately predictive of the change in pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) to acute normobaric hypoxia. However, because of progressive changes in the chemoreflex control of breathing and acid-base balance at high altitude (HA), HVR at SL may not predict PASP at HA. We hypothesized that resting oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (Spo₂) at HA would correlate better than HVR at SL with PASP at HA. In 20 participants at SL, we measured normobaric, isocapnic HVR (L/min · -%Spo₂⁻¹) and resting PASP using echocardiography. Both resting Spo₂ and PASP measures were repeated on day 2 (n = 10), days 4 to 8 (n = 12), and 2 to 3 weeks (n = 8) after arrival at 5,050 m. These data were also collected at 5,050 m in life-long HA residents (ie, Sherpa [n = 21]). Compared with SL, Spo₂ decreased from 98.6% to 80.5% (P HVR at SL was not related to Spo₂ or PASP at any time point at 5,050 m (all P > .05). Sherpa had lower PASP (P .50), there was a weak relationship in the Sherpa (R² = 0.16, P = .07). We conclude that neither HVR at SL nor resting Spo₂ at HA correlates with elevations in PASP at HA.

  10. Operations of human resources engagement

    Δημητρέλη, Αλεξάνδρα

    2017-01-01

    This current study, attempts to shed light on the relationship between HR Operations and employee engagement by testing the relationship empirically. More specifically, it looks at how employee engagement could be embedded into day-to-day human resources operations. Employee engagement is a topic that is repeatedly being discussed in most of the HR forums, articles and journals in the recent past. Employers recognize that truly engage and motivate employee’s produce impressive levels of in...

  11. Consumer segmentation based on the level of environmental responsibility

    Marija Ham

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Doubtless, there is an environmentally responsible segment of consumers in the market. However, with an increasing number of suppliers entering the green market, it is no longer sufficient to be aware of this fact. What is needed now are complex strategies of segmentation, targeting and positioning. The aim of this paper was to provide a theoretical framework for understanding the key concepts related to the green consumer segment and to help create a clearer picture of Croatia’s green consumers by gathering secondary data from the available literature, previous research and primary data from own research. Primary research was conducted by means of a structured questionnaire on a sample of 552 respondents. The questionnaire was divided into three parts, each measuring, respectively, attitudes, knowledge and activities undertaken. After the segmentation (three segments: green, neutral and brown consumers, a chi-square test was used in an attempt to prove statistically significant differences when comparing the given segment structure with the respondents’ demographic characteristics. The results of this research describe the average green consumer in the Republic of Croatia as a person who is 55 and older, with higher or university education, who is married, who responds to the advertising claims about eco-friendliness of products and is influenced by those claims, who occasionally or frequently makes purchasing decisions and shows readiness to pay a 20 percent mark-up for an environmentally friendly product.

  12. Blood pressure response to low level static contractions

    Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    The present study re-examines the 15% MVC concept, i.e. the existence of a circulatory steady-state in low intensity static contractions below 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Mean arterial blood pressure was studied during static endurance contractions of the elbow flexor and extensor...... 0.7) min for elbow extension]. Mean arterial blood pressure exhibited a continuous and progressive increase during the 10% MVC contractions indicating that the 15% MVC concept would not appear to be valid. The terminal blood pressure value recorded at the point of exhaustion in the 10% MVC elbow...... the circulation to the muscles was arrested just prior to the cessation of the contraction, blood pressure only partly recovered and remained elevated for as long as the occlusion persisted, indicating the level of pressure-raising muscle chemoreflexes. Based on blood pressure recordings obtained during...

  13. Low-level wind response to mesoscale pressure systems

    Garratt, J. R.; Physick, W. L.

    1983-09-01

    Observations are presented which show a strong correlation between low-level wind behaviour (e.g., rotation near the surface) and the passage of mesoscale pressure systems. The latter are associated with frontal transition zones, are dominated by a pressure-jump line and a mesoscale high pressure area, and produce locally large horizontal pressure gradients. The wind observations are simulated by specifying a time sequence of perturbation pressure gradient and subsequently solving the vertically-integrated momentum equations with appropriate initial conditions. Very good agreement is found between observed and calculated winds; in particular, (i) a 360 ° rotation in wind on passage of the mesoscale high; (ii) wind-shift lines produced dynamically by the pressure-jump line; (iii) rapid linear increase in wind speed on passage of the pressure jump.

  14. Ecosystem Responses To Plant Phenology Across Scales And Trophic Levels

    Stoner, D.; Sexton, J. O.; Nagol, J. R.; Ironside, K.; Choate, D.; Longshore, K.; Edwards, T., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Plant phenology in arid and semi-arid ecoregions is constrained by water availability and governs the life history characteristics of primary and secondary consumers. We related the behavior, demography, and distribution of mammalian herbivores and their principal predator to remotely sensed vegetation and climatological indices across the western United States for the period 2000-2014. Across scales, terrain and topographic position moderates the effects of climatological drought on primary productivity, resulting in differential susceptibility among plant functional types to water stress. At broad scales, herbivores tie parturition to moist sites during the period of maximum increase in local forage production. Consequently, juvenile mortality is highest in regions of extreme phenological variability. Although decoupled from primary production by one or more trophic levels, carnivore home range size and density is negatively correlated to plant productivity and growing season length. At the finest scales, predation influences the behavior of herbivore prey through compromised habitat selection, in which maternal females trade nutritional benefits of high plant biomass for reduced mortality risk associated with increased visibility. Climate projections for the western United States predict warming combined with shifts in the timing and form of precipitation. Our analyses suggest that these changes will propagate through trophic levels as increased phenological variability and shifts in plant distributions, larger consumer home ranges, altered migration behavior, and generally higher volatility in wildlife populations. Combined with expansion and intensification of human land use across the region, these changes will likely have economic implications stemming from increased human-wildlife conflict (e.g., crop damage, vehicle collisions) and changes in wildlife-related tourism.

  15. Dose-response relationships and threshold levels in skin and respiratory allergy

    Arts, J.H.E.; Mommers, C.; Heer, C.de

    2006-01-01

    A literature study was performed to evaluate dose-response relationships and no-effect levels for sensitization and elicitation in skin- and respiratory allergy. With respect to the skin, dose-response relationships and no-effect levels were found for both intradermal and topical induction, as well

  16. Backward Response-Level Crosstalk in the Psychological Refractory Period Paradigm

    Miller, Jeff; Alderton, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Bottleneck models of psychological refractory period (PRP) tasks suggest that a Task 1 response should be unaffected by the Task 2 response in the same trial, because selection of the former finishes before selection of the latter begins. Contrary to this conception, the authors found backward response-level crosstalk effects in which Task 2…

  17. Item level diagnostics and model - data fit in item response theory ...

    Item response theory (IRT) is a framework for modeling and analyzing item response data. Item-level modeling gives IRT advantages over classical test theory. The fit of an item score pattern to an item response theory (IRT) models is a necessary condition that must be assessed for further use of item and models that best fit ...

  18. Individual and culture-level components of survey response styles: A multi-level analysis using cultural models of selfhood.

    Smith, Peter B; Vignoles, Vivian L; Becker, Maja; Owe, Ellinor; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Brown, Rupert; Bourguignon, David; Garðarsdóttir, Ragna B; Kreuzbauer, Robert; Cendales Ayala, Boris; Yuki, Masaki; Zhang, Jianxin; Lv, Shaobo; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit; Jaafar, Jas Laile; Fischer, Ronald; Milfont, Taciano L; Gavreliuc, Alin; Baguma, Peter; Bond, Michael Harris; Martin, Mariana; Gausel, Nicolay; Schwartz, Seth J; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Tatarko, Alexander; González, Roberto; Didier, Nicolas; Carrasco, Diego; Lay, Siugmin; Nizharadze, George; Torres, Ana; Camino, Leoncio; Abuhamdeh, Sami; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J; Koller, Silvia H; Herman, Ginette; Courtois, Marie; Fritsche, Immo; Espinosa, Agustín; Villamar, Juan A; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Brambilla, Maria; Zinkeng, Martina; Jalal, Baland; Kusdil, Ersin; Amponsah, Benjamin; Çağlar, Selinay; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu; Möller, Bettina; Zhang, Xiao; Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Prieto Gil, Paula; Lorente Clemares, Raquel; Campara, Gabriella; Aldhafri, Said; Fülöp, Márta; Pyszczynski, Tom; Kesebir, Pelin; Harb, Charles

    2016-12-01

    Variations in acquiescence and extremity pose substantial threats to the validity of cross-cultural research that relies on survey methods. Individual and cultural correlates of response styles when using 2 contrasting types of response mode were investigated, drawing on data from 55 cultural groups across 33 nations. Using 7 dimensions of self-other relatedness that have often been confounded within the broader distinction between independence and interdependence, our analysis yields more specific understandings of both individual- and culture-level variations in response style. When using a Likert-scale response format, acquiescence is strongest among individuals seeing themselves as similar to others, and where cultural models of selfhood favour harmony, similarity with others and receptiveness to influence. However, when using Schwartz's (2007) portrait-comparison response procedure, acquiescence is strongest among individuals seeing themselves as self-reliant but also connected to others, and where cultural models of selfhood favour self-reliance and self-consistency. Extreme responding varies less between the two types of response modes, and is most prevalent among individuals seeing themselves as self-reliant, and in cultures favouring self-reliance. As both types of response mode elicit distinctive styles of response, it remains important to estimate and control for style effects to ensure valid comparisons. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Increasing Responsive Parent-Child Interactions and Joint Engagement: Comparing the Influence of Parent-Mediated Intervention and Parent Psychoeducation

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing immediate and contingent responding by caregivers to children's signals is an important strategy to support social interactions between caregivers and their children with autism. Yet, there has been limited examination of parents' responsive behaviour in association with children's social behaviour post caregiver-mediated intervention.…

  20. Behavioral and emotional responses to interpersonal stress: A comparison of adolescents engaged in non-suicidal self-injury to adolescent suicide attempters.

    Kim, Kerri L; Cushman, Grace K; Weissman, Alexandra B; Puzia, Megan E; Wegbreit, Ezra; Tone, Erin B; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2015-08-30

    Prominent theoretical models and existing data implicate interpersonal factors in the development and maintenance of suicidal behavior and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). However, no known study has yet used computerized behavioral tasks to objectively assess responses to interpersonal conflict/collaboration among teens engaged in NSSI or having made a suicide attempt. The current study, therefore, compared interpersonal functioning indexed by the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) task among three mutually exclusive groups, adolescents (ages 13-17): engaged in NSSI only without history of a suicide attempt (n=26); who made a suicide attempt without history of NSSI (n=26); and typically developing controls (n=26). Participants also completed the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure to assess their general sensitivity to/awareness of others' behaviors and feelings. No significant between-group differences were found in PD task performance; however, compared to typically developing control participants and those who had made a suicide attempt, the NSSI group reported significantly more stress during the task. Additionally, NSSI participants rated themselves as more interpersonally sensitive compared to both attempters and typically developing controls. Given the lack of knowledge about whether these groups either differentially activate the same circuitry during stressful interpersonal interactions or instead rely on alternative, compensatory circuits, future work using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Twenty Percent of the Variance between Students in Academic Engagement Is Explained by Grade Level, Gender, Family Affluence, Anxiety, and Social Support

    Wilcox, Gabrielle; McQuay, Jocelyn; Blackstaffe, Anita; Perry, Rosemary; Hawe, Penelope

    2016-01-01

    Understanding what contributes to academic engagement is important to effectively support students. This study examines the relationship between sociodemographic factors, anxiety, social support, and academic engagement in elementary and junior high school students. Students in grades 5-9 (N = 1,904) completed self-reports measuring academic…

  2. Effects of patient health literacy, patient engagement and a system-level health literacy attribute on patient-reported outcomes: a representative statewide survey.

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Weaver, Nancy L; Wray, Ricardo J; Brown, Melissa L R; Buskirk, Trent; Kreuter, Matthew W

    2014-10-07

    The effects of health literacy are thought to be based on interactions between patients' skill levels and health care system demands. Little health literacy research has focused on attributes of health care organizations. We examined whether the attribute of individuals' experiences with front desk staff, patient engagement through bringing questions to a doctor visit, and health literacy skills were related to two patient-reported outcomes. We administered a telephone survey with two sampling frames (i.e., household landline, cell phone numbers) to a randomly selected statewide sample of 3358 English-speaking adult residents of Missouri. We examined two patient-reported outcomes - whether or not respondents reported knowing more about their health and made better choices about their health following their last doctor visit. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the independent contributions of predictor variables (i.e., front desk staff, bringing questions to a doctor visit, health literacy skills). Controlling for self-reported health, having a personal doctor, time since last visit, number of chronic conditions, health insurance, and sociodemographic characteristics, respondents who had a good front desk experience were 2.65 times as likely (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.13, 3.30) and those who brought questions were 1.73 times as likely (95% CI: 1.32, 2.27) to report knowing more about their health after seeing a doctor. In a second model, respondents who had a good front desk experience were 1.57 times as likely (95% CI: 1.26, 1.95) and those who brought questions were 1.66 times as likely (95% CI: 1.29, 2.14) to report making better choices about their health after seeing a doctor. Patients' health literacy skills were not associated with either outcome. Results from this representative statewide survey may indicate that one attribute of a health care organization (i.e., having a respectful workforce) and patient engagement through

  3. The Player Engagement Process

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    , categories and triggers involved in this process. By applying grounded theory to the analysis of the responses, a process-oriented player engagement framework was developed and four main components consisting of objectives, activities, accomplishments and affects as well as the corresponding categories...

  4. Relationship quality and student engagement

    Culver, Jennifer

    The purpose of this study was to examine the qualities of support, relatedness, and negative interaction within parent-child and teacher-student relationships and their association with cognitive, psychological, and behavioral engagement. Additionally, this study explored the contributions of cognitive and psychological engagement on behavioral engagement. The role of gender, grade, and ethnicity on relationship quality and engagement was also considered. Participants (n=311) were students in grades three through five from a suburban school district in southeastern Michigan. Perceptions of teacher-student relationship quality varied by grade level. In general, younger students reported greater teacher support and relatedness in comparison to older students. Conversely, older students perceived greater conflict within the teacher-student relationship. Student engagement also varied by grade level, with younger students reporting greater engagement than older students. Ethnicity also contributed to variance in student engagement, with African American students reporting significantly more engagement than Caucasian or Multiracial students. Teacher-student relationship quality was a significant predictor of student engagement, even after controlling for student characteristics and parent-child relationship variables. Results of path analysis revealed that cognitive and psychological engagement contributed significantly to behavioral engagement.

  5. Increasing Responsive Parent–Child Interactions and Joint Engagement: Comparing the Influence of Parent-Mediated Intervention and Parent Psychoeducation

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing immediate and contingent responding by caregivers to children’s signals is an important strategy to support social interactions between caregivers and their children with autism. Yet, there has been limited examination of parents’ responsive behaviour in association with children’s social behaviour post caregiver-mediated intervention. Eighty-five dyads were randomized to one of two 10-week caregiver-training interventions. Parent–child play interactions were coded for parental resp...

  6. Abiotic stressors and stress responses: What commonalities appear between species across biological organization levels?

    Sulmon, Cécile; Baaren, Joan van; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Hennion, Françoise; Mony, Cendrine; Renault, David; Bormans, Myriam; El Amrani, Abdelhak; Wiegand, Claudia; Gérard, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), we review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact life history traits of stressed organisms, and ii) to what extent trait responses influence individual and population responses. Common response mechanisms are evident at molecular and cellular scales but become rather difficult to define at higher levels due to evolutionary distance and environmental complexity. We provide new insights into the understanding of the impact of molecular and cellular responses on individual and population dynamics and assess the potential related effects on communities and ecosystem functioning. - Highlights: • Responses to chemical and thermal stressors are reviewed across organization levels. • Common responses between taxa are evident at the molecular and cellular scales. • At individual level, energy allocation connects species-specific stress responses. • Commonality decreases at higher levels due to increasing environmental complexity. - The commonality of stress responses to chemical and thermal stressors among taxa is evident at the molecular and cellular scales but remains unclear at higher levels of organization

  7. Student Perceptions of Their Learning and Engagement in Response to the Use of a Continuous E-Assessment in an Undergraduate Module

    Holmes, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Student engagement is an important issue in higher education, and is related to the quality of the student experience. Increasing student engagement is one way of enhancing quality at a higher education institution. An institution is able to influence student engagement in a number of ways, one being through curriculum design. The use of a…

  8. Situating Engagement

    Korn, Matthias

    Our mobile phone is with us at all times. Habitually, we pick it up in the morning and carry it around on our daily routes and routines. Increasingly, we use it to locate ourselves and the things and people around us. With ubiquitous computing, technology is moving into the very fabric of our....... First, situationally appropriate forms of engagement that align well with citizens’ own conceptions are necessary in order to provide relevance and meaning of issues in the moment. Second, situated engagement requires a technological setup which facilitates the co-location of people, place...... with sophisticated prototypes in the wild. It proposes walkshops as a technique for collaborative exploration within actual outdoor environments and the use of field trials as part of an iterative design process in order to look ahead toward use practices that are still in the making....

  9. Public Engagement in Energy Research

    Jellema, Jako; Mulder, Henk A. J.

    Public Engagement in Research is a key element in "Responsible Research and Innovation"; a cross-cutting issue in current European research funding. Public engagement can advance energy R&D, by delivering results that are more in-line with society's views and demands; and collaboration also unlocks

  10. The Joint Military Medical Executive Skills initiative: an impressive response to changing human resource management rules of engagement.

    Kerr, Bernard J

    2007-01-01

    Confronted with a sudden and substantial change in the rules regarding who could command a military medical treatment facility (MTF), the Military Health System (MHS) responded to the challenge with an impressive human resource management solution-the Joint Medical Executive Skills Program. The history, emergence, and continuing role of this initiative exemplifies the MHS's capacity to fulfill the spirit and intent of an arduous Congressional mandate while enhancing professional development and sustaining the career opportunities of medical officers. The MHS response to the Congressional requirement that candidates for MTF command demonstrate professional administrative skills was decisive, creative, and consistent with the basic principles of human resource management. The Joint Medical Executive Skills Program is a management success story that demonstrates how strategic planning, well-defined skills requirements, and structured training can assure a ready supply of qualified commanders for the military's MTFs.

  11. Vaccine and Wild-Type Strains of Yellow Fever Virus Engage Distinct Entry Mechanisms and Differentially Stimulate Antiviral Immune Responses

    Maria Dolores Fernandez-Garcia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The live attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV vaccine 17D stands as a “gold standard” for a successful vaccine. 17D was developed empirically by passaging the wild-type Asibi strain in mouse and chicken embryo tissues. Despite its immense success, the molecular determinants for virulence attenuation and immunogenicity of the 17D vaccine are poorly understood. 17D evolved several mutations in its genome, most of which lie within the envelope (E protein. Given the major role played by the YFV E protein during virus entry, it has been hypothesized that the residues that diverge between the Asibi and 17D E proteins may be key determinants of attenuation. In this study, we define the process of YFV entry into target cells and investigate its implication in the activation of the antiviral cytokine response. We found that Asibi infects host cells exclusively via the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while 17D exploits a clathrin-independent pathway for infectious entry. We demonstrate that the mutations in the 17D E protein acquired during the attenuation process are sufficient to explain the differential entry of Asibi versus 17D. Interestingly, we show that 17D binds to and infects host cells more efficiently than Asibi, which culminates in increased delivery of viral RNA into the cytosol and robust activation of the cytokine-mediated antiviral response. Overall, our study reveals that 17D vaccine and Asibi enter target cells through distinct mechanisms and highlights a link between 17D attenuation, virus entry, and immune activation.

  12. THE IMPACT OF BENEFITS AND SERVICES ON MANAGER ENGAGEMENT AND MANAGER RETENTION IN TOURISM INDUSTRY: ENHANCED BY THE EFFECT OF MANAGEMENT LEVEL

    ALDATMAZ, Ipek; AYKAÇ, Cansu; DICLE, Ülkü

    2016-01-01

    Manager engagement and retention are vital to the success and organizational performance of manyservice sector organisations. Maintaining manager retention is a major challenge that many hotelenterprises face today. It is critical that organizations give greater importance to manager engagement,motivation and retention and therefore establish an efficient benefits and services strategy for retainingthese core managers for the persistence and achievement of the organization. Employee motivatio...

  13. Security Injections 2.0: Increasing Engagement and Faculty Adoption Using Enhanced Secure Coding Modules for Lower-Level Programming Courses

    Raina , Sagar; Taylor , Blair; Kaza , Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Part 2: Software Security Education; International audience; Learning interventions based on modules are common in computer science education. Traditional learning modules that present a large amount of content in a linear format can lead to students skimming and skipping content resulting in lower student engagement and effectiveness. In this paper, we present theoretical support for increasing engagement and effectiveness of learning modules, describe a system that implements these principl...

  14. Plasma homovanillic acid levels in first-episode schizophrenia. Psychopathology and treatment response.

    Koreen, A R; Lieberman, J; Alvir, J; Mayerhoff, D; Loebel, A; Chakos, M; Amin, F; Cooper, T

    1994-02-01

    To examine plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels in first-episode schizophrenia, to compare pHVA levels in patients and controls, and to assess the association of pHVA levels with psychopathology and treatment response. Forty-one patients entered the study, and pHVA levels were measured at baseline and on a weekly basis for up to 6 weeks of open standardized neuroleptic treatment. Psychopathology was evaluated with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, and the Clinical Global Impressions scale. Ten healthy controls were used for comparison of baseline pHVA levels. No differences were observed between patients and controls. Baseline pHVA level was not associated with psychopathology but was associated with time to reach remission. Baseline pHVA levels and week-1 pHVA levels were higher in responders than nonresponders. Regardless of responsiveness, female participants had higher pHVA levels than male participants throughout the study. The pattern of pHVA levels with treatment was similar in all patients with a short-term rise initially and then a decrease toward baseline values. These findings suggest that pHVA levels have prognostic significance for response and time to reach remission. Qualitative and quantitative differences between first-episode patients' pHVA levels and studies using a long-term, neuroleptic-exposed population suggest that changes occur with neuroleptic treatment or the progression of the illness.

  15. Employee Engagement: A Literature Review

    Dharmendra MEHTA; Naveen K. MEHTA

    2013-01-01

    Motivated and engaged employees tend to contribute more in terms of organizational productivity and support in maintaining a higher commitment level leading to the higher customer satisfaction. Employees Engagement permeates across the employee-customer boundary, where revenue, corporate goodwill, brand image are also at stake. This paper makes an attempt to study the different dimensions of employee engagement with the help of review of literature. This can be used to provide an overview and...

  16. Reframing Global Engagement.

    van der Wende, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has strongly influenced higher education during the last decades. As in many other sectors, this has generated contradictory outcomes. Higher education has opened up to the world and become more engaged at the global level. But how will this process continue with the current backlash

  17. Music Researchers' Musical Engagement

    Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music…

  18. Children's Self-Esteem, Level of Esteem Certainty, and Responsibility for Success and Failure

    Piers, Ellen V.

    1977-01-01

    Relationships between children's self esteem, certainty of self esteem appraisal, and intellectual achievement responsibility were examined in boys and girls at the sixth grade and tenth grade levels with use of the Piers-Harris Children's Self Concept Scale and the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire. (MS)

  19. High autistic trait individuals do not modulate gaze behaviour in response to social presence but look away more when actively engaged in an interaction.

    von dem Hagen, Elisabeth A H; Bright, Naomi

    2017-02-01

    Autism is characterised by difficulties in social functioning, notably in interactions with other people. Yet, most studies addressing social difficulties have used static images or, at best, videos of social stimuli, with no scope for real interaction. Here, we study one crucial aspect of social interactions-gaze behaviour-in an interactive setting. First, typical individuals were shown videos of an experimenter and, by means of a deception procedure, were either led to believe that the experimenter was present via a live video-feed or was pre-recorded. Participants' eye movements revealed that when passively viewing an experimenter they believed to be "live," they looked less at that person than when they believed the experimenter video was pre-recorded. Interestingly, this reduction in viewing behaviour in response to the believed "live" presence of the experimenter was absent in individuals high in autistic traits, suggesting a relative insensitivity to social presence alone. When participants were asked to actively engage in a real-time interaction with the experimenter, however, high autistic trait individuals looked significantly less at the experimenter relative to low autistic trait individuals. The results reinforce findings of atypical gaze behaviour in individuals high in autistic traits, but suggest that active engagement in a social interaction may be important in eliciting reduced looking. We propose that difficulties with the spatio-temporal dynamics associated with real social interactions rather than underlying difficulties processing the social stimulus itself may drive these effects. The results underline the importance of developing ecologically valid methods to investigate social cognition. Autism Res 2017, 10: 359-368. © 2016 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research. © 2016 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of

  20. Engaging Siblingships

    Gulløv, Eva; Palludan, Charlotte; Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by sociological and anthropological family studies, our point of departure is that there is neither a given nor an unequivocal prototype of sibling relationships. On the basis of qualitative interviews, dialogues and filmed observations of everyday life, we investigate how children...... and young people in contemporary Denmark engage emotionally in sibling relationships. It emerges that siblingships inevitably involve frictions in various forms. In the article, we analyse the impact frictions have on social relations and discuss how such dynamics in sibling relationships both reflect...

  1. Heavy Metals Induce Iron Deficiency Responses at Different Hierarchic and Regulatory Levels1[OPEN

    2017-01-01

    In plants, the excess of several heavy metals mimics iron (Fe) deficiency-induced chlorosis, indicating a disturbance in Fe homeostasis. To examine the level at which heavy metals interfere with Fe deficiency responses, we carried out an in-depth characterization of Fe-related physiological, regulatory, and morphological responses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) exposed to heavy metals. Enhanced zinc (Zn) uptake closely mimicked Fe deficiency by leading to low chlorophyll but high ferric-chelate reductase activity and coumarin release. These responses were not caused by Zn-inhibited Fe uptake via IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER (IRT1). Instead, Zn simulated the transcriptional response of typical Fe-regulated genes, indicating that Zn affects Fe homeostasis at the level of Fe sensing. Excess supplies of cobalt and nickel altered root traits in a different way from Fe deficiency, inducing only transient Fe deficiency responses, which were characterized by a lack of induction of the ethylene pathway. Cadmium showed a rather inconsistent influence on Fe deficiency responses at multiple levels. By contrast, manganese evoked weak Fe deficiency responses in wild-type plants but strongly exacerbated chlorosis in irt1 plants, indicating that manganese antagonized Fe mainly at the level of transport. These results show that the investigated heavy metals modulate Fe deficiency responses at different hierarchic and regulatory levels and that the interaction of metals with physiological and morphological Fe deficiency responses is uncoupled. Thus, this study not only emphasizes the importance of assessing heavy metal toxicities at multiple levels but also provides a new perspective on how Fe deficiency contributes to the toxic action of individual heavy metals. PMID:28500270

  2. Heavy Metals Induce Iron Deficiency Responses at Different Hierarchic and Regulatory Levels.

    Lešková, Alexandra; Giehl, Ricardo F H; Hartmann, Anja; Fargašová, Agáta; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2017-07-01

    In plants, the excess of several heavy metals mimics iron (Fe) deficiency-induced chlorosis, indicating a disturbance in Fe homeostasis. To examine the level at which heavy metals interfere with Fe deficiency responses, we carried out an in-depth characterization of Fe-related physiological, regulatory, and morphological responses in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) exposed to heavy metals. Enhanced zinc (Zn) uptake closely mimicked Fe deficiency by leading to low chlorophyll but high ferric-chelate reductase activity and coumarin release. These responses were not caused by Zn-inhibited Fe uptake via IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER (IRT1). Instead, Zn simulated the transcriptional response of typical Fe-regulated genes, indicating that Zn affects Fe homeostasis at the level of Fe sensing. Excess supplies of cobalt and nickel altered root traits in a different way from Fe deficiency, inducing only transient Fe deficiency responses, which were characterized by a lack of induction of the ethylene pathway. Cadmium showed a rather inconsistent influence on Fe deficiency responses at multiple levels. By contrast, manganese evoked weak Fe deficiency responses in wild-type plants but strongly exacerbated chlorosis in irt1 plants, indicating that manganese antagonized Fe mainly at the level of transport. These results show that the investigated heavy metals modulate Fe deficiency responses at different hierarchic and regulatory levels and that the interaction of metals with physiological and morphological Fe deficiency responses is uncoupled. Thus, this study not only emphasizes the importance of assessing heavy metal toxicities at multiple levels but also provides a new perspective on how Fe deficiency contributes to the toxic action of individual heavy metals. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Forget the Desk Job: Current Roles and Responsibilities in Entry-Level Reference Job Advertisements

    Detmering, Robert; Sproles, Claudene

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the evolving roles and responsibilities of entry-level academic reference positions, as stated in recent job advertisements posted on the American Library Association's JobLIST Web site and other sources. Findings from a content analysis of these advertisements indicate that current entry-level reference positions in academic…

  4. Evaluation of noise pollution level based upon community exposure and response data

    Edmiston, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results and procedures are reported from an evaluation of noise pollution level as a predictor of annoyance, based on aircraft noise exposure and community response data. The measures of noise exposure presented include composite noise rating, noise exposure forecast, noise and number index. A proposed measure as a universal noise exposure measure for noise pollution level (L sub NP) is discussed.

  5. Item response theory analysis of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students (UWES-S) using a sample of Japanese university and college students majoring medical science, nursing, and natural science.

    Tsubakita, Takashi; Shimazaki, Kazuyo; Ito, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Nobuo

    2017-10-30

    The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students has been used internationally to assess students' academic engagement, but it has not been analyzed via item response theory. The purpose of this study was to conduct an item response theory analysis of the Japanese version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students translated by authors. Using a two-parameter model and Samejima's graded response model, difficulty and discrimination parameters were estimated after confirming the factor structure of the scale. The 14 items on the scale were analyzed with a sample of 3214 university and college students majoring medical science, nursing, or natural science in Japan. The preliminary parameter estimation was conducted with the two parameter model, and indicated that three items should be removed because there were outlier parameters. Final parameter estimation was conducted using the survived 11 items, and indicated that all difficulty and discrimination parameters were acceptable. The test information curve suggested that the scale better assesses higher engagement than average engagement. The estimated parameters provide a basis for future comparative studies. The results also suggested that a 7-point Likert scale is too broad; thus, the scaling should be modified to fewer graded scaling structure.

  6. Thin-Film Magnetic-Field-Response Fluid-Level Sensor for Non-Viscous Fluids

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2008-01-01

    An innovative method has been developed for acquiring fluid-level measurements. This method eliminates the need for the fluid-level sensor to have a physical connection to a power source or to data acquisition equipment. The complete system consists of a lightweight, thin-film magnetic-field-response fluid-level sensor (see Figure 1) and a magnetic field response recorder that was described in Magnetic-Field-Response Measurement-Acquisition System (LAR-16908-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 6 (June 2006), page 28. The sensor circuit is a capacitor connected to an inductor. The response recorder powers the sensor using a series of oscillating magnetic fields. Once electrically active, the sensor responds with its own harmonic magnetic field. The sensor will oscillate at its resonant electrical frequency, which is dependent upon the capacitance and inductance values of the circuit.

  7. A noise level prediction method based on electro-mechanical frequency response function for capacitors.

    Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective.

  8. Employee Engagement: A Literature Review

    Dharmendra MEHTA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivated and engaged employees tend to contribute more in terms of organizational productivity and support in maintaining a higher commitment level leading to the higher customer satisfaction. Employees Engagement permeates across the employee-customer boundary, where revenue, corporate goodwill, brand image are also at stake. This paper makes an attempt to study the different dimensions of employee engagement with the help of review of literature. This can be used to provide an overview and references on some of the conceptual and practical work undertaken in the area of the employee engagement practices.

  9. Student Engagement in Inclusive Classrooms

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2018-01-01

    Using large scale survey data, I document substantial differences in behavioural engagement (defined as involvement in academic and social activities, cooperative participation in learning, and motivation and effort) and emotional engagement levels (defined as a sense of belonging and well-being at school) between students with and without special…

  10. Response of maize ( Zea mays L.) to varied moisture levels under ...

    Laboratory and glasshouse trials were used to determine the response of maize plants to varied moisture levels under Striga lutea infestation. Six moisture levels (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 ml) were applied to striga seed for germination count in the laboratory, while five moisture levels (300, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 ml) ...

  11. Consumer factors predicting level of treatment response to illness management and recovery.

    White, Dominique A; McGuire, Alan B; Luther, Lauren; Anderson, Adrienne I; Phalen, Peter; McGrew, John H

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to identify consumer-level predictors of level of treatment response to illness management and recovery (IMR) to target the appropriate consumers and aid psychiatric rehabilitation settings in developing intervention adaptations. Secondary analyses from a multisite study of IMR were conducted. Self-report data from consumer participants of the parent study (n = 236) were analyzed for the current study. Consumers completed prepost surveys assessing illness management, coping, goal-related hope, social support, medication adherence, and working alliance. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were run to identify self-report variables that predicted level of treatment response to IMR. Analyses revealed that goal-related hope significantly predicted level of improved illness self-management, F(1, 164) = 10.93, p consumer-level predictors of level of treatment response have not been explored for IMR. Although 2 significant predictors were identified, study findings suggest more work is needed. Future research is needed to identify additional consumer-level factors predictive of IMR treatment response in order to identify who would benefit most from this treatment program. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Job demands, burnout, and engagement among nurses: A multi-level analysis of ORCAB data investigating the moderating effect of teamwork

    Montgomery, Anthony; Spânu, Florina; Băban, Adriana; Panagopoulou, Efharis

    2015-01-01

    According to the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, burnout and engagement are psychological reactions that develop when individual characteristics interact with work characteristics. This study tests the JD-R model using multilevel analysis to test the main and moderating effects of teamwork effectiveness among 1156 nurses in 93 departments from seven European countries. Workload, emotional and organizational demands were positively associated with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and negatively with vigor. Emotional and organizational demands were negatively associated with dedication. Teamwork effectiveness was positively associated with engagement. We found no evidence for the moderating effect of teamwork effectiveness in reducing individual perceptions of demands. PMID:26877971

  13. Job demands, burnout, and engagement among nurses: A multi-level analysis of ORCAB data investigating the moderating effect of teamwork.

    Montgomery, Anthony; Spânu, Florina; Băban, Adriana; Panagopoulou, Efharis

    2015-09-01

    According to the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, burnout and engagement are psychological reactions that develop when individual characteristics interact with work characteristics. This study tests the JD-R model using multilevel analysis to test the main and moderating effects of teamwork effectiveness among 1156 nurses in 93 departments from seven European countries. Workload, emotional and organizational demands were positively associated with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and negatively with vigor. Emotional and organizational demands were negatively associated with dedication. Teamwork effectiveness was positively associated with engagement. We found no evidence for the moderating effect of teamwork effectiveness in reducing individual perceptions of demands.

  14. Stathmin protein level, a potential predictive marker for taxane treatment response in endometrial cancer.

    Henrica M J Werner

    Full Text Available Stathmin is a prognostic marker in many cancers, including endometrial cancer. Preclinical studies, predominantly in breast cancer, have suggested that stathmin may additionally be a predictive marker for response to paclitaxel. We first evaluated the response to paclitaxel in endometrial cancer cell lines before and after stathmin knock-down. Subsequently we investigated the clinical response to paclitaxel containing chemotherapy in metastatic endometrial cancer in relation to stathmin protein level in tumors. Stathmin level was also determined in metastatic lesions, analyzing changes in biomarker status on disease progression. Knock-down of stathmin improved sensitivity to paclitaxel in endometrial carcinoma cell lines with both naturally higher and lower sensitivity to paclitaxel. In clinical samples, high stathmin level was demonstrated to be associated with poor response to paclitaxel containing chemotherapy and to reduced disease specific survival only in patients treated with such combination. Stathmin level increased significantly from primary to metastatic lesions. This study suggests, supported by both preclinical and clinical data, that stathmin could be a predictive biomarker for response to paclitaxel treatment in endometrial cancer. Re-assessment of stathmin level in metastatic lesions prior to treatment start may be relevant. Also, validation in a randomized clinical trial will be important.

  15. A Study of the Influence of Organizational Learning on Employees' Innovative Behavior and Work Engagement by a Cross-Level Examination

    Lin, Hsiu-Chuan; Lee, Yuan-Duen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of organizational learning on employee's innovative behavior, and further proposed the mediation effect of work engagement between the relationship of organizational learning and employee's innovative behavior. The study targets on executives and their subordinates by paired samples within the…

  16. An Examination of Student- and Across-Level Mediation Mechanisms Accounting for Gender Differences in Reading Performance: A Multilevel Analysis of Reading Engagement

    Mak, Soi-kei; Cheung, Kwok-cheung; Soh, Kaycheng; Sit, Pou-seong; Ieong, Man-kai

    2017-01-01

    Enjoyment of reading, diversity of reading and metacognitive awareness of reading strategies are cognitive and affective variables pertaining to three facets of reading engagement for students to read happily, widely and skilfully. These have been found to be related to effectiveness in reading instruction. They together form a focus for this…

  17. An Action Research Study into the Role of Student Negotiation in Enhancing Perceived Student Engagement during English Speaking Classes at University Level in Turkey

    Uztosun, Mehmet Sercan; Skinner, Nigel; Cadorath, Jill

    2018-01-01

    A major issue in English language teaching in Turkey and other monolingual countries is the teaching of spoken English. This article reports the initial and final stages of an action research study which used student negotiation to enhance student engagement in speaking classes. The research was conducted in the English Language Teaching…

  18. Application of Wavelet Decomposition to Removing Barometric and Tidal Response in Borehole Water Level

    Yan Rui; Huang Fuqiong; Chen Yong

    2007-01-01

    Wavelet decomposition is used to analyze barometric fluctuation and earth tidal response in borehole water level changes. We apply wavelet analysis method to the decomposition of barometric fluctuation and earth tidal response into several temporal series in different frequency ranges. Barometric and tidal coefficients in different frequency ranges are computed with least squares method to remove barometric and tidal response. Comparing this method with general linear regression analysis method, we find wavelet analysis method can efficiently remove barometric and earth tidal response in borehole water level. Wavelet analysis method is based on wave theory and vibration theories. It not only considers the frequency characteristic of the observed data but also the temporal characteristic, and it can get barometric and tidal coefficients in different frequency ranges. This method has definite physical meaning.

  19. Challenges of Engaging Local Stakeholders for Statewide Program Development Process

    Martin, Michael J.; Leuci, Mary; Stewart, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The University of Missouri Extension needed to develop an annual program review process that collaboratively engaged county-level stakeholders. The results from the first 2 years highlight the results, challenges, and implications of the design process. The annual review process needs to be adaptive, responsive, and reflective from year to year…

  20. Influence determination of social responsibility to the productivity enterprise activity level

    Kavun, Sergii; Zhosan, Ganna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a scientific and methodical approach for determination of the comprehensive social responsibility indicator in this paper based on estimation of influence degree for the economical, ecological, social and labour, standard and legal components. There is allowance for determining of some level of enterprise social responsibility. In addition, there is a basis for development some ways of their increasing. The essence of the used approach is clotting of th...

  1. Basal blood DHEA-S/cortisol levels predicts EMDR treatment response in adolescents with PTSD.

    Usta, Mirac Baris; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Say, Gokce Nur; Bozkurt, Abdullah; Şahin, Berkan; Karabekiroğlu, Koray

    2018-04-01

    In literature, recent evidence has shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be dysregulated in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and HPA axis hormones may predict the psychotherapy treatment response in patients with PTSD. In this study, it was aimed to investigate changing cortisol and DHEA-S levels post-eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy and the relationship between treatment response and basal cortisol, and DHEA-S levels before treatment. The study group comprised 40 adolescents (age, 12-18 years) with PTSD. The PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and Child Post-traumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPSRI) and the blood cortisol and DHEA-S were measured with the chemiluminescence method before and after treatment. A maximum of six sessions of EMDR therapy were conducted by an EMDR level-1 trained child psychiatry resident. Treatment response was measured by the pre- to post-treatment decrease in self-reported and clinical PTSD severity. Pre- and post-treatment DHEA-S and cortisol levels did not show any statistically significant difference. Pre-treatment CDI scores were negatively correlated with pre-treatment DHEA-S levels (r: -0.39). ROC analysis demonstrated that the DHEA-S/cortisol ratio predicts treatment response at a medium level (AUC: 0.703, p: .030, sensitivity: 0.65, specificity: 0.86). The results of this study suggested that the DHEA-S/cortisol ratio may predict treatment response in adolescents with PTSD receiving EMDR therapy. The biochemical parameter of HPA-axis activity appears to be an important predictor of positive clinical response in adolescent PTSD patients, and could be used in clinical practice to predict PTSD treatment in the future.

  2. Response-only modal identification using random decrement algorithm with time-varying threshold level

    Lin, Chang Sheng; Tseng, Tse Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Modal Identification from response data only is studied for structural systems under nonstationary ambient vibration. The topic of this paper is the estimation of modal parameters from nonstationary ambient vibration data by applying the random decrement algorithm with time-varying threshold level. In the conventional random decrement algorithm, the threshold level for evaluating random dec signatures is defined as the standard deviation value of response data of the reference channel. The distortion of random dec signatures may be, however, induced by the error involved in noise from the original response data in practice. To improve the accuracy of identification, a modification of the sampling procedure in random decrement algorithm is proposed for modal-parameter identification from the nonstationary ambient response data. The time-varying threshold level is presented for the acquisition of available sample time history to perform averaging analysis, and defined as the temporal root-mean-square function of structural response, which can appropriately describe a wide variety of nonstationary behaviors in reality, such as the time-varying amplitude (variance) of a nonstationary process in a seismic record. Numerical simulations confirm the validity and robustness of the proposed modal-identification method from nonstationary ambient response data under noisy conditions.

  3. Transcriptional feedback regulation of YUCCA genes in response to auxin levels in Arabidopsis.

    Suzuki, Masashi; Yamazaki, Chiaki; Mitsui, Marie; Kakei, Yusuke; Mitani, Yuka; Nakamura, Ayako; Ishii, Takahiro; Soeno, Kazuo; Shimada, Yukihisa

    2015-08-01

    The IPyA pathway, the major auxin biosynthesis pathway, is transcriptionally regulated through a negative feedback mechanism in response to active auxin levels. The phytohormone auxin plays an important role in plant growth and development, and levels of active free auxin are determined by biosynthesis, conjugation, and polar transport. Unlike conjugation and polar transport, little is known regarding the regulatory mechanism of auxin biosynthesis. We discovered that expression of genes encoding indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway enzymes is regulated by elevated or reduced active auxin levels. Expression levels of TAR2, YUC1, YUC2, YUC4, and YUC6 were downregulated in response to synthetic auxins [1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)] exogenously applied to Arabidopsis thaliana L. seedlings. Concomitantly, reduced levels of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were observed. Alternatively, expression of these YUCCA genes was upregulated by the auxin biosynthetic inhibitor kynurenine in Arabidopsis seedlings, accompanied by reduced IAA levels. These results indicate that expression of YUCCA genes is regulated by active auxin levels. Similar results were also observed in auxin-overproduction and auxin-deficient mutants. Exogenous application of IPyA to Arabidopsis seedlings preincubated with kynurenine increased endogenous IAA levels, while preincubation with 2,4-D reduced endogenous IAA levels compared to seedlings exposed only to IPyA. These results suggest that in vivo conversion of IPyA to IAA was enhanced under reduced auxin levels, while IPyA to IAA conversion was depressed in the presence of excess auxin. Based on these results, we propose that the IPyA pathway is transcriptionally regulated through a negative feedback mechanism in response to active auxin levels.

  4. Does engagement with exposure yield better outcomes? Components of presence as a predictor of treatment response for virtual reality exposure therapy for social phobia.

    Price, Matthew; Mehta, Natasha; Tone, Erin B; Anderson, Page L

    2011-08-01

    Virtual reality exposure (VRE) has been shown to be effective for treating a variety of anxiety disorders, including social phobia. Presence, or the level of connection an individual feels with the virtual environment, is widely discussed as a critical construct both for the experience of anxiety within a virtual environment and for a successful response to VRE. Two published studies show that whereas generalized presence relates to fear ratings during VRE, it does not relate to treatment response. However, presence has been conceptualized as multidimensional, with three primary factors (spatial presence, involvement, and realness). These factors can be linked to other research on the facilitation of fear during exposure, inhibitors of treatment response (e.g., distraction), and more recent theoretical discussions of the mechanisms of exposure therapy, such as Bouton's description of expectancy violation. As such, one or more of these components of presence may be more strongly associated with the experience of fear during VRE and treatment response than the overarching construct. The current study (N=41) evaluated relations between three theorized components of presence, fear ratings during VRE, and treatment response for VRE for social phobia. Results suggest that total presence and realness subscale scores were related to in-session peak fear ratings. However, only scores on the involvement subscale significantly predicted treatment response. Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The contrasting responses of soil microorganisms in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level ozone

    Feng, Youzhi; Yu, Yongjie; Tang, Haoye; Zu, Qianhui; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-01-01

    Although elevated ground-level O 3 has a species–specific impact on plant growth, the differences in soil biota responses to O 3 pollution among rice cultivars are rarely reported. Using O 3 Free-Air Concentration Enrichment, the responses of the rhizospheric bacterial communities in the O 3 -tolerant (YD6) and the O 3 -sensitive (IIY084) rice cultivars to O 3 pollution and their differences were assessed by pyrosequencing at rice tillering and anthesis stages. Elevated ground-level O 3 negatively influenced the bacterial community in cultivar YD6 at both rice growth stages by decreasing the bacterial phylogenetic diversities and response ratios. In contrast, in cultivar IIY084, the bacterial community responded positively at the rice tillering stage under O 3 pollution. However, several keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O 3 pollution in two rice cultivars. These findings indicate that continuously O 3 pollution would negatively influence rice agroecosystem and the crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O 3 . - Highlights: • We investigated the soil biota in two rice cultivars in presence of elevated O 3 . • The contrasting responses of soil biota were found between two rice cultivars. • Some keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O 3 pollution. • The crop cultivar is important in determining soil biota responses to elevated O 3 . - The crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O 3

  6. Solving a Location, Allocation, and Capacity Planning Problem with Dynamic Demand and Response Time Service Level

    Carrie Ka Yuk Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistic systems with uncertain demand, travel time, and on-site processing time are studied here where sequential trip travel is allowed. The relationship between three levels of decisions: facility location, demand allocation, and resource capacity (number of service units, satisfying the response time requirement, is analysed. The problem is formulated as a stochastic mixed integer program. A simulation-based hybrid heuristic is developed to solve the dynamic problem under different response time service level. An initial solution is obtained from solving static location-allocation models, followed by iterative improvement of the three levels of decisions by ejection, reinsertion procedure with memory of feasible and infeasible service regions. Results indicate that a higher response time service level could be achieved by allocating a given resource under an appropriate decentralized policy. Given a response time requirement, the general trend is that the minimum total capacity initially decreases with more facilities. During this stage, variability in travel time has more impact on capacity than variability in demand arrivals. Thereafter, the total capacity remains stable and then gradually increases. When service level requirement is high, the dynamic dispatch based on first-come-first-serve rule requires smaller capacity than the one by nearest-neighbour rule.

  7. The correlation between osteopontin level and radiation response of malignant gliomas at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital

    Isnaniah Hasan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteopontin is an endogenous molecular marker for tumor hypoxia, and hypoxia is one of the factors that determine the aggressiveness of the disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between osteopontin levels and radiation response in malignant glioma. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 15 malignant glioma patients who underwent radiation therapy from July 2004 to May 2015 at the RSUPN Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Osteopontin levels were measured from paraffin-embedded tissue using a commercial ELISA kit. Tumor volume was calculated using computed tomography (CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI images, based on three-dimensional volume measurements. Tumor response was evaluated by comparing pre- and post-radiation tumor volumes using CT scan and MRI images. The mean osteopontin level was 0.49 ± 0.45 ng/mL and the mean percentage change in tumor volume was 8.59 ± 54.22%, with a 60% enlargement in tumor volume. A progressive disease was found in 26.7% of patients. There was a weak but insignificant negative correlation (r = -0.39, p = 0.146 between the level of osteopontin and radiation response. In contrast, there was a strong but insignificant positive correlation (r = +0.68, p = 0.219 between the level of osteopontin and radiation response in the patient group that used the chemosensitizer temozolamide.

  8. 41 CFR 102-192.150 - What are your general responsibilities as a program level mail manager?

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibilities as a program level mail manager? 102-192.150 Section 102-192.150 Public Contracts and Property... general responsibilities as a program level mail manager? Your responsibilities at the program level include— (a) Working closely with the agency mail manager and mail center managers who handle significant...

  9. Association of basal serum androgen levels with ovarian response and ICSI cycle outcome.

    Abide Yayla, C; Ozkaya, E; Kayatas Eser, S; Sanverdi, I; Devranoglu, B; Kutlu, T

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive value of basal serum testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels during follicular phase for ovarian response and outcome in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles of women with diminished ovarian reserve. We prospectively gathered data of basal serum androgen levels and ICSI cycle characteristics of 120 women with diminished ovarian reserve. Association of basal serum T and DHEAS levels with ovarian response was analyzed. Basal T and DHEAS levels were similar between pregnant and non-pregnant cases (P > 0.05). There were significant differences between groups with and without successful embryo implantation in terms of serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), gonadotropin starting and total dose, and peak estradiol level (P stimulation due to unresponsiveness (n = 26, 21.7%), no oocyte at oocyte pickup (n = 11, 9.2%), no mature oocyte (n = 6, 5%), and failure of fertilization or embryo development (n = 15, 12.5%). Basal androgen levels were not significant predictors for any of the cycle outcome. AMH level was a significant predictor for failure of fertilization or embryo development (AUC 0.722, P = 0.01) and cancelation of stimulation (AUC 0.801, P stimulation (AUC 0.774, P basal T and DHEAS levels have no value in predicting any of the cycle outcome parameters.

  10. Job demands, burnout, and engagement among nurses: A multi-level analysis of ORCAB data investigating the moderating effect of teamwork

    Montgomery, Anthony; Sp?nu, Florina; B?ban, Adriana; Panagopoulou, Efharis

    2015-01-01

    According to the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, burnout and engagement are psychological reactions that develop when individual characteristics interact with work characteristics. This study tests the JD-R model using multilevel analysis to test the main and moderating effects of teamwork effectiveness among 1156 nurses in 93 departments from seven European countries. Workload, emotional and organizational demands were positively associated with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, a...

  11. Use of competitive polymerase chain reaction to determine HIV-1 levels in response to antiviral treatments

    Bruisten, S. M.; Koppelman, M. H.; Roos, M. T.; Loeliger, A. E.; Reiss, P.; Boucher, C. A.; Huisman, H. G.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a competitive polymerase chain reaction technique with which to evaluate the usefulness of HIV-1 level as a marker of response to antiviral treatment. DESIGN: HIV-1 sequences were assessed by competitive polymerase chain reaction in four subjects participating in a double-blind

  12. Research of Emotional Burning out in Teachers with Different Levels of Responsibility

    S I Kudinov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of emotional burning out in teachers is discussed in the article. The results of the empirical research characterizing the different stages of the emotional burning out depending on the level of the responsibility manifestation in teachers are given.

  13. Superovulatory Ovarian Response in Mangalica Gilts is Not Influenced by Feeding Level

    Egerszegi, I.; Hazeleger, W.; Rátky, J.; Sarlós, P.; Kemp, B.; Bouwman, E.; Solti, L.; Brüssow, K.P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare how different feeding levels affect the ovarian potential of follicular development and oocyte maturation in response to superovulatory treatment in native Mangalica (M, n = 17) compared with Landrace (L, n = 20) pigs. Gilts of both breeds were fed high-energy

  14. USING RESPONSES OF OYSTERS IN ESTABLISHING MINIMUM FLOWS AND LEVELS IN THE CALOOSAHATCHEE ESTUARY, FLORIDA

    Volety, Aswani K., S. Gregory Tolley and James T. Winstead. 2002. Using Responses of Oysters in Establishing Minimum Flows and Levels in the Caloosahatchee Estuary, Florida (Abstract). Presented at the 6th International Conference on Shellfish Restoration, 20-24 November 2002, Ch...

  15. T cell responsiveness correlates differentially with antibody isotype levels in clinical and asymptomatic filariasis

    Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Paxton, W. A.; Kruize, Y. C.; Sartono, E.; Kurniawan, A.; van het Wout, A.; Selkirk, M. E.; Partono, F.; Maizels, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    To establish the relationships among T and B cell responses, active infection, and clinical manifestations in lymphatic filariasis, filarial-specific lymphocyte proliferation, IgG antibody isotypes, and IgE levels were determined in an exposed population: 31 asymptomatic amicrofilaremics, 43

  16. Translating crustacean biological responses from CO2 bubbling experiments into population-level predictions

    Many studies of animal responses to ocean acidification focus on uniformly conditioned age cohorts that lack complexities typically found in wild populations. These studies have become the primary data source for predicting higher level ecological effects, but the roles of intras...

  17. Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on maize physiology and biochemical response under variable nitrogen levels

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are known for colonizing plant roots, transporting water and nutrients from the soil to the plant. Therefore, environmental conditions set mainly by soil water and nutrient levels are important determinants of AM function and host plant response. Mechanisms of nitro...

  18. Tacrolimus drug level and response to treatment in idiopathic childhood steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome

    Shah, S.S.; Hafeez, F.; Akhtar, N.

    2015-01-01

    The management of Steroid Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome (SRNS) is an uphill task for paediatric nephrologists as immunosuppressive agents are the mainstay of treatment in these patients. Tacrolimus is used along with steroids. This study is conducted to see the relationship between the tacrolimus dose, drug level and response in the management of SRNS. Methods: This quasi experimental study was conducted at The Childrens Hospital Lahore over a period of one year. Patients with SRNS of either sex and 1-10 years of age were included and those with secondary nephrotic syndrome were excluded. Tacrolimus was given at a dose of 0.05-0.1 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses along with steroids. The follow-up was done for six months with proteinuria monitoring and tacrolimus drug levels done two weeks after initiation of treatment. Results: Out of 42 patients, 27 (64.3%) were males and 15 (35.7%) were females. The most common histological diagnosis observed was mesangio-proliferative glomerulonephritis in 30 (71.4%) patients. The tacrolimus trough level range was 0.5-15.20 ng/ml with a mean value of 4.68 ng/ml±2.85. Forty-one (97.6%) children showed complete response to treatment while one patient showed partial response. Conclusion: This study suggests that tacrolimus is an effective drug for treatment of SRNS in paediatric patients and there is no linear relationship between the drug dose, response and drug level. (author)

  19. Modelling Morphological Response of Large Tidal Inlet Systems to Sea Level Rise

    Dissanayake, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation qualitatively investigates the morphodynamic response of a large inlet system to IPCC projected relative sea level rise (RSLR). Adopted numerical approach (Delft3D) used a highly schematised model domain analogous to the Ameland inlet in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Predicted inlet

  20. Statin use and 25-hydroxyvitamin D blood level response to vitamin D treatment of older adults

    Objectives: To determine whether statin use alters response of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level to vitamin D treatment. Design: Pooled analysis. Setting: Three double-blind randomized controlled trials that tested different doses of vitamin D. Participants: Participants of three trials (N = 646; ...

  1. Resting hormone level response to a 16-week dynamic and static ...

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... The aim of the study was to evaluate hormonal responses of serum cortisol, growth hormone (GH), testesterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels during dynamic and static stress exercises in 20 male volunteer student athletes.

  2. Identity recognition in response to different levels of genetic relatedness in commercial soya bean

    Van Acker, Rene; Rajcan, Istvan; Swanton, Clarence J.

    2017-01-01

    Identity recognition systems allow plants to tailor competitive phenotypes in response to the genetic relatedness of neighbours. There is limited evidence for the existence of recognition systems in crop species and whether they operate at a level that would allow for identification of different degrees of relatedness. Here, we test the responses of commercial soya bean cultivars to neighbours of varying genetic relatedness consisting of other commercial cultivars (intraspecific), its wild progenitor Glycine soja, and another leguminous species Phaseolus vulgaris (interspecific). We found, for the first time to our knowledge, that a commercial soya bean cultivar, OAC Wallace, showed identity recognition responses to neighbours at different levels of genetic relatedness. OAC Wallace showed no response when grown with other commercial soya bean cultivars (intra-specific neighbours), showed increased allocation to leaves compared with stems with wild soya beans (highly related wild progenitor species), and increased allocation to leaves compared with stems and roots with white beans (interspecific neighbours). Wild soya bean also responded to identity recognition but these responses involved changes in biomass allocation towards stems instead of leaves suggesting that identity recognition responses are species-specific and consistent with the ecology of the species. In conclusion, elucidating identity recognition in crops may provide further knowledge into mechanisms of crop competition and the relationship between crop density and yield. PMID:28280587

  3. California's response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980: policy and progress

    Pasternak, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The public and private corporations and institutions in California that use radioactive materials and generate low-level radioactive waste have played a major role in shaping and guiding California's response to the federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. Working together as the California Radioactive Materials Management Forum (CAL RAD FORUM), these organizations carry out legislative and public education programs with the objective of establishing, in California, a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and maintaining access to existing disposal facilities in other states until the California facility is licensed and operating

  4. Engaging patients through your website.

    Snyder, Kimberlee; Ornes, Lynne L; Paulson, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Legislation requires the healthcare industry to directly engage patients through technology. This paper proposes a model that can be used to review hospital websites for features that engage patients in their healthcare. The model describes four levels of patient engagement in website design. The sample consisted of 130 hospital websites from hospitals listed on 2010 and 2011 Most Wired Hospitals. Hospital websites were analyzed for features that encouraged patient interaction with their healthcare according to the levels in the model. Of the four levels identified in the model, websites ranged from "informing" to "collaborative" in website design. There was great variation of features offered on hospital websites with few being engaging and interactive. © 2012 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  5. Final report for sea-level rise response modeling for San Francisco Bay estuary tidal marshes

    Takekawa, John Y.; Thorne, Karen M.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Swanson, Kathleen M.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The International Panel on Climate Change has identified coastal ecosystems as areas that will be disproportionally affected by climate change. Current sea-level rise projections range widely with 0.57 to 1.9 meters increase in mea sea level by 2100. The expected accelerated rate of sea-level rise through the 21st century will put many coastal ecosystems at risk, especially those in topographically low-gradient areas. We assessed marsh accretion and plant community state changes through 2100 at 12 tidal salt marshes around San Francisco Bay estuary with a sea-level rise response model. Detailed ground elevation, vegetation, and water level data were collected at all sites between 2008 and 2011 and used as model inputs. Sediment cores (taken by Callaway and others, 2012) at four sites around San Francisco Bay estuary were used to estimate accretion rates. A modification of the Callaway and others (1996) model, the Wetland Accretion Rate Model for Ecosystem Resilience (WARMER), was utilized to run sea-level rise response models for all sites. With a mean sea level rise of 1.24 m by 2100, WARMER projected that the vast majority, 95.8 percent (1,942 hectares), of marsh area in our study will lose marsh plant communities by 2100 and to transition to a relative elevation range consistent with mudflat habitat. Three marshes were projected to maintain marsh vegetation to 2100, but they only composed 4.2 percent (85 hectares) of the total marsh area surveyed.

  6. Response of irradiated cotton seeds to different levels of phosphorus fertilizer

    Janat, M; Khalifa, K [Atomic Energy Commission, P.O.Box 6091, Damasucs, (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1995-10-01

    A two years field experiment 1990, 1991 was conducted over two different locations in order to evaluate the response of cotton seeds exposed to various doses of gamma radiation 0,5, 10 and 20 Gy, to different levels of phosphorous fertilizer, 0,60, 100, 140 and kg P{sub 2} O{sub 5}/ha. Irradiation doses and P. Fertilizer levels arranged in split plot design, where irradiation doses made up the main plots and the P-levels the subplots. Representative soil samples were collected and analyzed before planting. Soil test for P revealed that enough P was available in the top soil. With a few exceptions, results showed no positive response of cotton crop to P-fertilizer and gamma rays stimulation. 8 tabs.

  7. Response of irradiated cotton seeds to different levels of phosphorus fertilizer

    Janat, M.; Khalifa, K.

    1995-07-01

    A two year field experiments 1990, 1991 was conducted over two different locations in order to evaluate the response of cotton seeds exposed to various doses of gamma radiation 0, 5, 10 and 20 Gy, to different levels of phosphorous fertilizer, 0, 60, 100, 140 and 180 Kg P sub 2 O sub 5 ha- sub 1. Irradiation doses and P-Fertilizer levels were arranged in split plot design, where irradiation doses made up the main plots and the P-levels the sub-plots. Representative soil samples were collected and analyzed before planting and after harvesting. Soil test for P revealed enough P was available in the top soil. With a few exceptions, results showed no positive response of cotton crop to P-fertilizer and gamma rays stimulation. (author). 26 refs., 49 tabs

  8. Influence Determination of Social Responsibility to the Productivity Enterprise Activity Level

    Sergii Kavun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a scientific and methodical approach for determination of the comprehensive social responsibility indicator in this paper based on estimation of influence degree for the economical, ecological, social and labour, standard and legal components. There is allowance for determining of some level of enterprise social responsibility. In addition, there is a basis for development some ways of their increasing. The essence of the used approach is clotting of the individual indicators set to four intermediate indicators of the economic, ecological, social and labor, standard and legal components, which can be boiled down to the generalizing activity productivity indicator based on the matrix and range approach. An economical and mathematical model of the social responsibility influence level to the enterprise activity productivity level, which is based on enterprise propose harmonization with the participants’ interests, was being built. The paper proposes the mathematical model, which allows detecting a necessary time period for enterprise activity productivity ensuring due to social responsibility implementation.

  9. Trace levels of innate immune response modulating impurities (IIRMIs) synergize to break tolerance to therapeutic proteins.

    Verthelyi, Daniela; Wang, Vivian

    2010-12-22

    Therapeutic proteins such as monoclonal antibodies, replacement enzymes and toxins have significantly improved the therapeutic options for multiple diseases, including cancer and inflammatory diseases as well as enzyme deficiencies and inborn errors of metabolism. However, immune responses to these products are frequent and can seriously impact their safety and efficacy. Of the many factors that can impact protein immunogenicity, this study focuses on the role of innate immune response modulating impurities (IIRMIs) that could be present despite product purification and whether these impurities can synergize to facilitate an immunogenic response to therapeutic proteins. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and CpG ODN as IIRMIs we showed that trace levels of these impurities synergized to induce IgM, IFNγ, TNFα and IL-6 expression. In vivo, trace levels of these impurities synergized to increase antigen-specific IgG antibodies to ovalbumin. Further, whereas mice treated with human erythropoietin showed a transient increase in hematocrit, those that received human erythropoietin containing low levels of IIRMIs had reduced response to erythropoietin after the 1(st) dose and developed long-lasting anemia following subsequent doses. This suggests that the presence of IIRMIs facilitated a breach in tolerance to the endogenous mouse erythropoietin. Overall, these studies indicate that the risk of enhancing immunogenicity should be considered when establishing acceptance limits of IIRMIs for therapeutic proteins.

  10. Trace levels of innate immune response modulating impurities (IIRMIs synergize to break tolerance to therapeutic proteins.

    Daniela Verthelyi

    Full Text Available Therapeutic proteins such as monoclonal antibodies, replacement enzymes and toxins have significantly improved the therapeutic options for multiple diseases, including cancer and inflammatory diseases as well as enzyme deficiencies and inborn errors of metabolism. However, immune responses to these products are frequent and can seriously impact their safety and efficacy. Of the many factors that can impact protein immunogenicity, this study focuses on the role of innate immune response modulating impurities (IIRMIs that could be present despite product purification and whether these impurities can synergize to facilitate an immunogenic response to therapeutic proteins. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS and CpG ODN as IIRMIs we showed that trace levels of these impurities synergized to induce IgM, IFNγ, TNFα and IL-6 expression. In vivo, trace levels of these impurities synergized to increase antigen-specific IgG antibodies to ovalbumin. Further, whereas mice treated with human erythropoietin showed a transient increase in hematocrit, those that received human erythropoietin containing low levels of IIRMIs had reduced response to erythropoietin after the 1(st dose and developed long-lasting anemia following subsequent doses. This suggests that the presence of IIRMIs facilitated a breach in tolerance to the endogenous mouse erythropoietin. Overall, these studies indicate that the risk of enhancing immunogenicity should be considered when establishing acceptance limits of IIRMIs for therapeutic proteins.

  11. Moderate variations in CDC25B protein levels modulate the response to DNA damaging agents

    Aressy, B.; Bugler, B.; Valette, A.; Ducommun, B.; Biard, D.

    2008-01-01

    CDC25B, one of the three members of the CDC25 dual-specificity phosphatase family, plays a critical role in the control of the cell cycle and in the checkpoint response to DNA damage. CDC25B is responsible for the initial dephosphorylation and activation of the cyclin-dependent kinases, thus initiating the train of events leading to entry into mitosis. The critical role played by CDC25B is illustrated by the fact that it is specifically required for checkpoint recovery and that unscheduled accumulation of CDC25B is responsible for illegitimate entry into mitosis. Here, we report that in p53 colon carcinoma cells, a moderate increase in the CDC25B level is sufficient to impair the DNA damage checkpoint, to increase spontaneous mutagenesis, and to sensitize cells to ionising radiation and genotoxic agents. Using a tumour cell spheroid assay as an alternative to animal studies, we demonstrate that the level of CDC25B expression modulates growth inhibition and apoptotic death. Since CDC25B overexpression has been observed in a significant number of human cancers, including colon carcinoma, and is often associated with high grade tumours and poor prognosis, our work suggests that the expression level of CDC25B might be a potential key parameter of the cellular response to cancer therapy. (authors)

  12. Acclimation increases freezing stress response of Arabidopsis thaliana at proteome level

    Fanucchi, Francesca

    2012-06-01

    This study used 2DE to investigate how Arabidopsis thaliana modulates protein levels in response to freezing stress after sub-lethal exposure at - 10 °C, both in cold-acclimated and in non-acclimated plants. A map was implemented in which 62 spots, corresponding to 44 proteins, were identified. Twenty-two spots were modulated upon treatments, and the corresponding proteins proved to be related to photosynthesis, energy metabolism, and stress response. Proteins demonstrated differences between control and acclimation conditions. Most of the acclimation-responsive proteins were either not further modulated or they were down-modulated by freezing treatment, indicating that the levels reached during acclimation were sufficient to deal with freezing. Anabolic metabolism appeared to be down-regulated in favor of catabolic metabolism. Acclimated plants and plants submitted to freezing after acclimation showed greater reciprocal similarity in protein profiles than either showed when compared both to control plants and to plants frozen without acclimation. The response of non-acclimated plants was aimed at re-modulating photosynthetic apparatus activity, and at increasing the levels of proteins with antioxidant-, molecular chaperone-, or post-transcriptional regulative functions. These changes, even less effective than the acclimation strategy, might allow the injured plastids to minimize the production of non-useful metabolites and might counteract photosynthetic apparatus injuries. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Acclimation increases freezing stress response of Arabidopsis thaliana at proteome level

    Fanucchi, Francesca; Alpi, Emanuele; Olivieri, Stefano; Cannistraci, Carlo; Bachi, Angela; Alpi, Amedeo; Alessio, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This study used 2DE to investigate how Arabidopsis thaliana modulates protein levels in response to freezing stress after sub-lethal exposure at - 10 °C, both in cold-acclimated and in non-acclimated plants. A map was implemented in which 62 spots, corresponding to 44 proteins, were identified. Twenty-two spots were modulated upon treatments, and the corresponding proteins proved to be related to photosynthesis, energy metabolism, and stress response. Proteins demonstrated differences between control and acclimation conditions. Most of the acclimation-responsive proteins were either not further modulated or they were down-modulated by freezing treatment, indicating that the levels reached during acclimation were sufficient to deal with freezing. Anabolic metabolism appeared to be down-regulated in favor of catabolic metabolism. Acclimated plants and plants submitted to freezing after acclimation showed greater reciprocal similarity in protein profiles than either showed when compared both to control plants and to plants frozen without acclimation. The response of non-acclimated plants was aimed at re-modulating photosynthetic apparatus activity, and at increasing the levels of proteins with antioxidant-, molecular chaperone-, or post-transcriptional regulative functions. These changes, even less effective than the acclimation strategy, might allow the injured plastids to minimize the production of non-useful metabolites and might counteract photosynthetic apparatus injuries. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Association between Serum Cortisol and DHEA-S Levels and Response to Antipsychotic Treatment in Schizophrenia

    Zoja Babinkostova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that alterations in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. AIM: To compare serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to evaluate their association with the response to antipsychotic treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this clinical prospective study were included 60 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy age and sex matched control subjects. Clinical evaluation of patients was performed using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. A questionnaire for socio-demographic and clinical data collection was used. For the purposes of the study, the examined group was divided in two subgroups: responders and nonresponders. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels were measured at baseline in all participants and after 3 and 6 weeks of the antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia. RESULTS: Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels in comparison to the control group. Responders had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels compared with nonresponders. CONCLUSION: Elevated serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and they may be related to positive response to antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia.

  15. Effect of blood glucose level on acute stress response of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Jiang, Danli; Wu, Yubo; Huang, Di; Ren, Xing; Wang, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Stress has a considerable impact on welfare and productivity of fish, and blood glucose level of fish may be a factor modulating stress response. This study evaluated the effect of blood glucose level and handling on acute stress response of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Fish were intraperitoneally injected with glucose at 0, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg g -1 body mass (BM) and then were exposed to handling for 5 min. Glucose injection resulted in increase of plasma glucose level and liver glycogen content and decrease of plasma lactate level. Handling resulted in increase of plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, and lactate and plasma lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and decrease of liver glycogen content. At 1 h post-stress, the plasma cortisol level was lower in the stressed fish injected with glucose at 0.5 mg g -1 BM than the stressed fish injected with glucose at 0, 0.2, and 1.0 mg g -1 BM. No significant differences were found in the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) in the liver between the stressed and unstressed fish, regardless of the dose of glucose injection. At 1 h post-stress, the liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity was higher in the fish without glucose injection than in the fish injected with glucose. This study reveals that blood glucose level can affect stress response of grass carp by modulating cortisol release and glucose homeostasis through glycogen metabolism and gluconeogenesis in the liver.

  16. Clearance of low levels of HCV viremia in the absence of a strong adaptive immune response

    Manns Michael P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV has frequently been associated with the presence of HCV-specific cellular immunity. However, there had been also reports in chimpanzees demonstrating clearance of HCV-viremia in the absence of significant levels of detectable HCV-specific cellular immune responses. We here report seven asymptomatic acute hepatitis C cases with peak HCV-RNA levels between 300 and 100.000 copies/ml who all cleared HCV-RNA spontaneously. Patients were identified by a systematic screening of 1176 consecutive new incoming offenders in a German young offender institution. Four of the seven patients never developed anti-HCV antibodies and had normal ALT levels throughout follow-up. Transient weak HCV-specific CD4+ T cell responses were detectable in five individuals which did not differ in strength and breadth from age- and sex-matched patients with chronic hepatitis C and long-term recovered patients. In contrast, HCV-specific MHC-class-I-tetramer-positive cells were found in 3 of 4 HLA-A2-positive patients. Thus, these cases highlight that clearance of low levels of HCV viremia is possible in the absence of a strong adaptive immune response which might explain the low seroconversion rate after occupational exposure to HCV.

  17. Engaging narratives evoke similar neural activity and lead to similar time perception.

    Cohen, Samantha S; Henin, Simon; Parra, Lucas C

    2017-07-04

    It is said that we lose track of time - that "time flies" - when we are engrossed in a story. How does engagement with the story cause this distorted perception of time, and what are its neural correlates? People commit both time and attentional resources to an engaging stimulus. For narrative videos, attentional engagement can be represented as the level of similarity between the electroencephalographic responses of different viewers. Here we show that this measure of neural engagement predicted the duration of time that viewers were willing to commit to narrative videos. Contrary to popular wisdom, engagement did not distort the average perception of time duration. Rather, more similar brain responses resulted in a more uniform perception of time across viewers. These findings suggest that by capturing the attention of an audience, narrative videos bring both neural processing and the subjective perception of time into synchrony.

  18. Should We Leave? Attitudes towards Relocation in Response to Sea Level Rise

    Jie Song

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The participation of individuals contributes significantly to the success of sea level rise adaptation. This study therefore addresses what influences people’s likelihood of relocating away from low-lying areas in response to rising sea levels. The analysis was based on a survey conducted in the City of Panama Beach in Florida (USA. Survey items relate to people’s risk perception, hazard experience, threat appraisal, and coping appraisal, whose theoretical background is Protection Motivation Theory. Descriptive and correlation analysis was first performed to highlight critical factors which were then examined by a multinomial Logit model. Results show that sea level rise awareness is the major explanatory variable. Coping appraisal is qualitatively viewed as a strong predictor for action, while threat appraisal is statistically significant in driving relocation intention. These factors should be integrated in current risk communication regarding sea level rise.

  19. Which level is responsible for gluteal pain in lumbar disc hernia?

    Fang, Guofang; Zhou, Jianhe; Liu, Yutan; Sang, Hongxun; Xu, Xiangyang; Ding, Zihai

    2016-08-22

    There are many different reasons why patients could be experiencing pain in the gluteal area. Previous studies have shown an association between radicular low back pain (LBP) and gluteal pain (GP). Studies locating the specific level responsible for gluteal pain in lumbar disc hernias have rarely been reported. All patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in the Kanghua hospital from 2010 to 2014 were recruited. All patients underwent a lumbar spine MRI to clarify their LDH diagnosis, and patients were allocated to a GP group and a non-GP group. To determine the cause and effect relationship between LDH and GP, all of the patients were subjected to percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD). A total of 286 cases were included according to the inclusive criteria, with 168 cases in the GP group and 118 cases in the non-GP group. Of these, in the GP group, 159 cases involved the L4/5 level and 9 cases involved the L5/S1 level, while in the non-GP group, 43 cases involved the L4/5 level and 48 cases involved the L5/S1 level. PELD was performed in both groups. Gluteal pain gradually disappeared after surgery in all of the patients. Gluteal pain recrudesced in a patient with recurrent disc herniation (L4/5). As a clinical finding, gluteal pain is related to low lumbar disc hernia. The L4/5 level is the main level responsible for gluteal pain in lumbar disc hernia. No patients with gluteal pain exhibited involvement at the L3/4 level.

  20. High-resolution tide projections reveal extinction threshold in response to sea-level rise.

    Field, Christopher R; Bayard, Trina S; Gjerdrum, Carina; Hill, Jason M; Meiman, Susan; Elphick, Chris S

    2017-05-01

    Sea-level rise will affect coastal species worldwide, but models that aim to predict these effects are typically based on simple measures of sea level that do not capture its inherent complexity, especially variation over timescales shorter than 1 year. Coastal species might be most affected, however, by floods that exceed a critical threshold. The frequency and duration of such floods may be more important to population dynamics than mean measures of sea level. In particular, the potential for changes in the frequency and duration of flooding events to result in nonlinear population responses or biological thresholds merits further research, but may require that models incorporate greater resolution in sea level than is typically used. We created population simulations for a threatened songbird, the saltmarsh sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus), in a region where sea level is predictable with high accuracy and precision. We show that incorporating the timing of semidiurnal high tide events throughout the breeding season, including how this timing is affected by mean sea-level rise, predicts a reproductive threshold that is likely to cause a rapid demographic shift. This shift is likely to threaten the persistence of saltmarsh sparrows beyond 2060 and could cause extinction as soon as 2035. Neither extinction date nor the population trajectory was sensitive to the emissions scenarios underlying sea-level projections, as most of the population decline occurred before scenarios diverge. Our results suggest that the variation and complexity of climate-driven variables could be important for understanding the potential responses of coastal species to sea-level rise, especially for species that rely on coastal areas for reproduction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The struggle with employee engagement: Measures and construct clarification using five samples.

    Byrne, Zinta S; Peters, Janet M; Weston, James W

    2016-09-01

    Among scholarly researchers, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) is a popular scale for assessing employee or work engagement. However, challenges to the scale's validity have raised major concerns about the measurement and conceptualization of engagement as a construct. Across 4 field samples, we examined 2 measures of engagement, the UWES and the Job Engagement Scale (JES), in both factor structure and patterns of relationships with theoretically hypothesized antecedents and consequences. In a fifth field sample, we examined the construct-level relationships between engagement and related variables, while controlling for sources of measurement error (i.e., item-specific factor, scale-specific factor, random response, and transient). By examining 2 measures, each derived from different theoretical bases, we provide unique insight into the measurement and construct of engagement. Our results show that, although correlated, the JES and UWES are not interchangeable. The UWES, more so than the JES, assesses engagement with overlap from other job attitudes, requiring improvement in the measurement of engagement. We offer guidance as to when to use each measure. Furthermore, by isolating the construct versus measurement of engagement relative to burnout, commitment, stress, and psychological meaningfulness and availability, we determined (a) the engagement construct is not the same as the opposite of burnout, warranting a reevaluation of the opposite-of-burnout conceptualization of engagement; and (b) psychological meaningfulness and engagement are highly correlated and likely reciprocally related, necessitating a modification to the self-role-expression conceptualization of engagement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Canine postradiation histamine levels and subsequent response to Compound 48/80

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Donlon, M.A.; Helgeson, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation-induced hypotension in the beagle is accompanied by increased intestinal blood flow (IBF) and hematocrit (HCT). This study was performed to correlate these radiation-induced changes with plasma histamine (PH) levels following radiation. The histamine (H) levels were monitored in the systemic arterial circulation (SA) and the hepatic portal vein (HPV) before and after radiation. To examine the effect of radiation on the mobilization of total body H stores, Compound 48/80 was given I.V., and H responses were monitored in both control and radiated animals. Data obtained indicated that 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma-radiation produced a decrease in systemic mean blood pressure (BP), an increase in IBF and an increase in HCT. Concurrently, the mean PH/SA values increased and the PH/HPV levels decreased. Compound 48/80 produced a marked increase in PH levels in both control and radiated animals however, the levels found in the radiated animals were consistently lower than those in the controls, although not statistically different. This implies that H may mediate these observed intestinal responses and that the mobility of histamine is decreased in radiated animals. 19 references

  3. Coastal sea level response to the tropical cyclonic forcing in the northern Indian Ocean

    Mehra, P.; Soumya, M.; Vethamony, P.; Vijaykumar, K.; Nair, T.M.B.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Jyoti, K.; Sudheesh, K.; Luis, R.; Lobo, S.; Halmalkar, B.

    –173, 2015 www.ocean-sci.net/11/159/2015/ doi:10.5194/os-11-159-2015 © Author(s) 2015. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Coastal sea level response to the tropical cyclonic forcing in the northern Indian Ocean P. Mehra1, M. Soumya1, P. Vethamony1, K. Vijaykumar1, T.... Note: sea level data at Colombo, Kochi, Karachi, Chabahar, Jask, Masirah, Minocoy and Hanimaadhoo are downloaded from www.gloss-sealevel.org and are shown with red stars. (Time is in Indian standard time (IST).) land locations of India are provided...

  4. Responses of evergreen and deciduous Quercus species to enhanced ozone levels

    Calatayud, Vicent; Cervero, Julia; Calvo, Esperanza; Garcia-Breijo, Francisco-Jose; Reig-Arminana, Jose; Sanz, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    Plants of one evergreen oak (Quercus ilex) and three deciduous oaks (Q. faginea, with small leaves; Q. pyrenaica and Q. robur, with large leaves) were exposed both to filtered air and to enhanced ozone levels in Open-Top Chambers. Q. faginea and Q. pyrenaica were studied for the first time. Based on visible injury, gas exchange, chlorophyll content and biomass responses, Q. pyrenaica was the most sensitive species, and Q. ilex was the most tolerant, followed by Q. faginea. Functional leaf traits of the species were related to differences in sensitivity, while accumulated ozone flux via stomata (POD 1.6 ) partly contributed to the observed differences. For risk assessment of Mediterranean vegetation, the diversity of responses detected in this study should be taken into account, applying appropriate critical levels. - Ozone tolerance overlapped with leaf traits in four Quercus species.

  5. Responses of evergreen and deciduous Quercus species to enhanced ozone levels

    Calatayud, Vicent, E-mail: calatayud_viclor@gva.e [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Cervero, Julia; Calvo, Esperanza [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Breijo, Francisco-Jose [Laboratorio de Anatomia e Histologia Vegetal ' Julio Iranzo' , Jardin Botanico, Universitat de Valencia, c/Quart 80, 46008 Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Ecosistemas Agroforestales, Escuela Tecnica Superior del Medio Rural y Enologia, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibanez 21, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Reig-Arminana, Jose [Departamento de Ecosistemas Agroforestales, Escuela Tecnica Superior del Medio Rural y Enologia, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibanez 21, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Sanz, Maria Jose [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Plants of one evergreen oak (Quercus ilex) and three deciduous oaks (Q. faginea, with small leaves; Q. pyrenaica and Q. robur, with large leaves) were exposed both to filtered air and to enhanced ozone levels in Open-Top Chambers. Q. faginea and Q. pyrenaica were studied for the first time. Based on visible injury, gas exchange, chlorophyll content and biomass responses, Q. pyrenaica was the most sensitive species, and Q. ilex was the most tolerant, followed by Q. faginea. Functional leaf traits of the species were related to differences in sensitivity, while accumulated ozone flux via stomata (POD{sub 1.6}) partly contributed to the observed differences. For risk assessment of Mediterranean vegetation, the diversity of responses detected in this study should be taken into account, applying appropriate critical levels. - Ozone tolerance overlapped with leaf traits in four Quercus species.

  6. Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise.

    Adam Langley, J; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Shepard, Katherine A; Hagerty, Shannon B; Patrick Megonigal, J

    2013-05-01

    Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Canada’s response to refugees at the primary health care level

    Kevin Pottie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Responsive primary health care systems and services must be at once complex and nimble. Policy makers may wish to believe that existing health systems effectively care for all populations equally, including refugees. However, we know that refugees may require a health equity approach: an approach where all levels of government, all types of health practitioners, and even the public sector, participate to ensure access to effective primary health care. This article outlines some of Canada’s healthcare responses for refugee populations. We provide field examples and guidelines that demonstrate responses, as well as ongoing inconsistencies and limitations. Refugee-receiving countries such as Australia, the US and Canada all have stories of success in resettlement and health systems. This article will focus on Canada.

  8. Evaluation of the level of social responsibility of the state in the field of employment

    Chernobay Liana Ivanivna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of public authorities in the development of society was grounded in terms of the Welfare State. The priority of employment policies was proved to ensure a sufficient level of social responsibility of the state. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of human resources were investigated at the current stage of development of Ukraine. Evaluation of the efficiency of the social state was proposed by means of the Social Responsibility Index (SRI. The method of selection of state policy was developed in the light of the evaluation of the social responsibility of the state in employment using the SRI and The Map of states of partial indicators. Measures were proposed on the base of method to enhance the functioning of Ukraine as a Social State.

  9. Social Responsibility At The Academic Level. Study Case: The University Of Bucharest

    Paul Marinescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the corporate social responsibility (CSR has been a major subject both for universities, civil society and businesses. Although the CSR concept is especially promoted by large multinational and transnational corporations, it has become also a prominent issue for universities. Social responsibility represents more than a challenge for universities. It has to be a purpose of the universities, taking into account that young people formation also means creating a high level of awareness about the need to involve members of society in solving social problems. Our paper contributes for better clarifying the CSR concept and presents as a study case some of initiatives of the University of Bucharest related to the social responsibility.

  10. Adaptation or Resistance: a classification of responses to sea-level rise

    Cooper, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    Societal responses to sea level rise and associated coastal change are apparently diverse in nature and motivation. Most are commonly referred to as 'adaptation'. Based on a review of current practice, however, it is argued that many of these responses do not involve adaptation, but are rather resisting change. There are several instances where formerly adaptive initiatives involving human adaptability are being replaced by initiatives that resist change. A classification is presented that recognises a continuum of responses ranging from adaptation to resistance, depending upon the willingness to change human activities to accommodate environmental change. In many cases climate change adaptation resources are being used for projects that are purely resistant and which foreclose future adaptation options. It is argued that a more concise definition of adaptation is needed if coastal management is to move beyond the current position of holding the shoreline, other tah n in a few showcase examples.

  11. Is a Transdisciplinary Theory of Engagement in Organized Settings Possible? A Concept Analysis of the Literature on Employee Engagement, Consumer Engagement and Patient Engagement.

    Graffigna, Guendalina

    2017-01-01

    Organizations are experiencing increased competition, disruptive innovation, and continuous changes in their social and economic context. Furthermore, the decrease of resources (economic and human) in such a demanding context make it imperative for organizations to find new models and strategies to make their service delivery more sustainable at the economic, environmental and psychological levels. In such a complex scenario the concept of engagement of the individuals involved in organized settings (either as service providers or as final receivers) is a promising lever for innovation. However, despite the number of studies on the matter, the debate on engagement is still very fragmented because the corpus of literature addressing the different areas of engagement is divided and diverse in its nature. In this paper, we discuss the results of a conceptual analysis of the literature conducted in order to investigate overlapping features and areas of divergence among three different areas of investigation and application of the engagement phenomenon in organized settings: the domains of employee engagement, consumer engagement, and patient engagement. These are deliberately selected as prototypical of the phenomenon of engagement along the "inside/outside" of organizational settings. The analysis consisted in a qualitative conceptual survey? Of the scholarly literature indexed with the key terms "employee engagement," "consumer engagement," and "patient engagement." We performed a key-word based survey? Of the literature in the Scopus database. A total of 163 articles were selected and analyzed. The analysis cast light on the following areas of conceptual overlap among employee, consumer and patient engagement: (1) engagement is different from empowerment and activation; (2) engagement is a multi-componential psychological experience; (3) engagement is a self-transformative experience; (4) engagement develops within a relational context; (5) engagement is a systemic

  12. Is a Transdisciplinary Theory of Engagement in Organized Settings Possible? A Concept Analysis of the Literature on Employee Engagement, Consumer Engagement and Patient Engagement

    Guendalina Graffigna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are experiencing increased competition, disruptive innovation, and continuous changes in their social and economic context. Furthermore, the decrease of resources (economic and human in such a demanding context make it imperative for organizations to find new models and strategies to make their service delivery more sustainable at the economic, environmental and psychological levels. In such a complex scenario the concept of engagement of the individuals involved in organized settings (either as service providers or as final receivers is a promising lever for innovation. However, despite the number of studies on the matter, the debate on engagement is still very fragmented because the corpus of literature addressing the different areas of engagement is divided and diverse in its nature. In this paper, we discuss the results of a conceptual analysis of the literature conducted in order to investigate overlapping features and areas of divergence among three different areas of investigation and application of the engagement phenomenon in organized settings: the domains of employee engagement, consumer engagement, and patient engagement. These are deliberately selected as prototypical of the phenomenon of engagement along the “inside/outside” of organizational settings. The analysis consisted in a qualitative conceptual survey? Of the scholarly literature indexed with the key terms “employee engagement,” “consumer engagement,” and “patient engagement.” We performed a key-word based survey? Of the literature in the Scopus database. A total of 163 articles were selected and analyzed. The analysis cast light on the following areas of conceptual overlap among employee, consumer and patient engagement: (1 engagement is different from empowerment and activation; (2 engagement is a multi-componential psychological experience; (3 engagement is a self-transformative experience; (4 engagement develops within a relational context

  13. Distinct Responses of Mycobacterium smegmatis to Exposure to Low and High Levels of Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Xiaojing Li

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is a natural oxidant produced by aerobic organisms and gives rise to oxidative damage, including DNA mutations, protein inactivation and lipid damage. The genus Mycobacterium utilizes redox sensors and H2O2 scavenging enzymes for the detoxification of H2O2. To date, the precise response to oxidative stress has not been fully elucidated. Here, we compared the effects of different levels of H2O2 on transcription in M. smegmatis using RNA-sequencing. A 0.2 mM H2O2 treatment had little effect on the growth and viability of M. smegmatis whereas 7 mM H2O2 was lethal. Analysis of global transcription showed that 0.2 mM H2O2 induced relatively few changes in gene expression, whereas a large proportion of the mycobacterial genome was found to be differentially expressed after treatment with 7 mM H2O2. Genes differentially expressed following treatment with 0.2 mM H2O2 included those coding for proteins involved in glycolysis-gluconeogenesis and fatty acid metabolism pathways, and expression of most genes encoding ribosomal proteins was lower following treatment with 7 mM H2O2. Our analysis shows that M. smegmatis utilizes the sigma factor MSMEG_5214 in response to 0.2 mM H2O2, and the RpoE1 sigma factors MSMEG_0573 and MSMEG_0574 in response to 7 mM H2O2. In addition, different transcriptional regulators responded to different levels of H2O2: MSMEG_1919 was induced by 0.2 mM H2O2, while high-level induction of DevR occurred in response to 7 mM H2O2. We detected the induction of different detoxifying enzymes, including genes encoding KatG, AhpD, TrxB and Trx, at different levels of H2O2 and the detoxifying enzymes were expressed at different levels of H2O2. In conclusion, our study reveals the changes in transcription that are induced in response to different levels of H2O2 in M. smegmatis.

  14. Framing crisis response messages on Facebook: a second level agenda analysis of MH370

    Abang Ahmad Dayang Aizza Maisha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A crisis can certainly bring great threats to an organisation. In time of crisis, what the organisation says and does may impose significant effect on the organisation’s effort to survive its reputational damages. Although crisis responses are considered a common topic, this rapidly growing field of research is however vital to be critically explored. In light of Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT [1] and the Second-level Agenda Setting approach [2], this study seeks to analyse the message frames used by Malaysia Airlines System (MAS in the formation of MH370 crisis response messages that that were disseminated directly to the organisation’s stakeholders on Facebook. The convergence of framing and second level agenda setting has made this study significant as it advances the explication of potential crisis communication effects by underscoring the distinct importance held by certain attributes and frames, in the content of a crisis response message. This paper also includes discussion on the directions for future research on crisis response strategies particularly in the local context.

  15. Endocannabinoid and Mood Responses to Exercise in Adults with Varying Activity Levels.

    Brellenthin, Angelique G; Crombie, Kevin M; Hillard, Cecilia J; Koltyn, Kelli F

    2017-08-01

    Acute aerobic exercise improves mood and activates the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in physically active individuals; however, both mood and eCB responses to exercise may vary based on habitual levels of physical activity. This study aimed to examine eCB and mood responses to prescribed and preferred exercises among individuals with low, moderate, and high levels of physical activity. Thirty-six healthy adults (21 ± 4 yr) were recruited from low (≤60 min moderate-vigorous physical activity [MVPA] per week), moderate (150-299 min MVPA per week), and high (≥300 MVPA per week) physical activity groups. Participants performed both prescribed (approximately 70%-75% max) and preferred (i.e., self-selected) aerobic exercise on separate days. Mood states and eCB concentrations were assessed before and after exercise conditions. Both preferred and prescribed exercise resulted in significant increases (P exercise elicited positive mood improvements compared with preexercise values, but changes in state anxiety, total mood disturbance, and confusion were greater in the preferred condition (P mood disturbance in the preferred condition (P mood or eCB outcomes. These results indicate that eCB and mood responses to exercise do not differ significantly between samples with varying physical activity levels. This study also demonstrates that in addition to prescribed exercise, preferred exercise activates the eCB system, and this activation may contribute to positive mood outcomes with exercise.

  16. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness.

    Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Qinglin; Van Gaal, Simon

    2015-07-14

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while human participants performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Crucially, in this task conflict awareness was manipulated by masking a conflict-inducing color word preceding a color patch target. We isolated semantic from response conflict by introducing four color words/patches, of which two were matched to the same response. We observed that both semantic as well as response conflict were associated with mid-frontal theta-band and parietal alpha-band power modulations, irrespective of the level of conflict awareness (high vs. low), although awareness of conflict increased these conflict-related power dynamics. These results show that both semantic and response conflict can be processed in the human brain and suggest that the neural oscillatory mechanisms in EEG reflect mainly "domain general" conflict processing mechanisms, instead of conflict source specific effects.

  17. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness

    Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Qinglin; Van Gaal, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while human participants performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Crucially, in this task conflict awareness was manipulated by masking a conflict-inducing color word preceding a color patch target. We isolated semantic from response conflict by introducing four color words/patches, of which two were matched to the same response. We observed that both semantic as well as response conflict were associated with mid-frontal theta-band and parietal alpha-band power modulations, irrespective of the level of conflict awareness (high vs. low), although awareness of conflict increased these conflict-related power dynamics. These results show that both semantic and response conflict can be processed in the human brain and suggest that the neural oscillatory mechanisms in EEG reflect mainly “domain general” conflict processing mechanisms, instead of conflict source specific effects. PMID:26169473

  18. Positioning and number of nutritional levels in dose-response trials to estimate the optimal-level and the adjustment of the models

    Fernando Augusto de Souza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of the number and position of nutrient levels used in dose-response trials in the estimation of the optimal-level (OL and the goodness of fit on the models: quadratic polynomial (QP, exponential (EXP, linear response plateau (LRP and quadratic response plateau (QRP. It was used data from dose-response trials realized in FCAV-Unesp Jaboticabal considering the homogeneity of variances and normal distribution. The fit of the models were evaluated considered the following statistics: adjusted coefficient of determination (R²adj, coefficient of variation (CV and the sum of the squares of deviations (SSD.It was verified in QP and EXP models that small changes on the placement and distribution of the levels caused great changes in the estimation of the OL. The LRP model was deeply influenced by the absence or presence of the level between the response and stabilization phases (change in the straight to plateau. The QRP needed more levels on the response phase and the last level on stabilization phase to estimate correctly the plateau. It was concluded that the OL and the adjust of the models are dependent on the positioning and the number of the levels and the specific characteristics of each model, but levels defined near to the true requirement and not so spaced are better to estimate the OL.

  19. Responses of Four Rice Varieties to Elevated CO2 and Different Salinity Levels

    Sheidollah Kazemi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:: This study was carried out in 2014 at Isfahan University of Technology, Iran, to evaluate the responses of four rice varieties (Neda, Deylamani, Shiroudi and Domsorkh to ambient (360 ± 50 μmol/mol and elevated (700 ± 50 μmol/mol air carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations under four salinity levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 mmol/L NaCl. There was significant variation among rice varieties in response to elevated CO2 concentration under the four salinity levels. Under non-saline condition, elevated CO2 increased the dry weight of Neda, Deylamani and Domsorkh by 8%, 50% and 8%, respectively, but reversely decreased that of Shiroudi by 34%. Increasing CO2 concentration significantly reduced the negative effects of salinity on Shiroudi, but these effects were even increased in Deylamani and Domsorkh under all the salinity levels and in Neda only under 30 and 60 mmol/L NaCl. Significant correlations were established between plant dry weight, SPAD value and leaf area under both CO2 levels. However, this trend was observed only at ambient CO2 concentration in the presence of soluble carbohydrates. The results revealed the genotype and salinity dependence of the effects of CO2 concentrations on the rice traits investigated. Key words: CO2 concentration, genetic diversity, salt tolerance, water soluble carbohydrate

  20. Development, Characterization, and Optimization of Protein Level in Date Bars Using Response Surface Methodology

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This project was designed to produce a nourishing date bar with commercial value especially for school going children to meet their body development requirements. Protein level of date bars was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. Economical and underutilized sources, that is, whey protein concentrate and vetch protein isolates, were explored for protein supplementation. Fourteen date bar treatments were produced using a central composite design (CCD with 2 variables and 3 levels for each variable. Date bars were then analyzed for nutritional profile. Proximate composition revealed that addition of whey protein concentrate and vetch protein isolates improved the nutritional profile of date bars. Protein level, texture, and taste were considerably improved by incorporating 6.05% whey protein concentrate and 4.35% vetch protein isolates in date bar without affecting any sensory characteristics during storage. Response surface methodology was observed as an economical and effective tool to optimize the ingredient level and to discriminate the interactive effects of independent variables.

  1. Barrier island response to an elevated sea-level anomaly: Onslow Beach, North Carolina, USA

    Theuerkauf, E. J.; Rodriguez, A. B.; Fegley, S. R.; Luettich, R.

    2012-12-01

    Variations in sea level over time scales ranging from hours to millennia influence coastal processes and evolution. At annual time scales, elevated sea-level anomalies produce coastal flooding and promote beach erosion. This study examines the coastal response of Onslow Beach, North Carolina to the summer 2009 East Coast sea-level anomaly. Onslow Beach is a 12-km-long wave-dominated barrier island with highly variable along-barrier morphology. The transgressive southern portion of the island is characterized by a narrow beach, low dunes, and multiple washover fans, while the regressive northern portion is characterized by a wide beach and continuous tall dunes. Hourly tide gauge data from adjacent NOAA stations (Beaufort and Wrightsville Beach) are used to determine the timing and extent of elevated water levels. The seasonal and longer term trends (relative sea level rise) are removed from both of the water level series and the sea-level anomaly is represented by a large residual between the observed and predicted water levels. Beach response is quantified using terrestrial laser scanning for morphology and from geoprobe cores to determine the maximum depth of erosion (MDOE). The mean high water (MHW) shoreline and dune toe are digitized from digital elevation models derived from the laser scans and analyzed using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS). Landward (negative) movement of these contacts indicates erosion. Wave data collected from an Acoustic Wave and Current Meter (AWAC) located offshore of the southern end of Onslow Beach is used to characterize the wave regime throughout the study. Water level is elevated in the tide gauge data from June 2009 to March 2010. This sea-level anomaly corresponds with an increase in the maximum depth of erosion between 2009 and 2010. Landward movement of the MHW shoreline and the dunetoe increased during the period between September 2009 and May 2010 indicating an increase in beach erosion during the sea-level

  2. Collaborative engagement experiment (CEE)

    Wade, Robert L.; Reames, Joseph M.

    2005-05-01

    Unmanned ground and air systems operating in collaboration have the potential to provide future Joint Forces a significant capability for operations in complex terrain. Ground and air collaborative engagements potentially offer force conservation, perform timely acquisition and dissemination of essential combat information, and can eliminate high value and time critical targets. These engagements can also add considerably to force survivability by reducing soldier and equipment exposure during critical operations. The Office of the Secretary of Defense, Joint Robotics Program (JRP) sponsored Collaborative Engagement Experiment (CEE) is a consolidation of separate Air Force, Army and Navy collaborative efforts to provide a Joint capability. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Material and Manufacturing Directorate, Aerospace Expeditionary Force Division, Force Protection Branch (AFRLMLQF), The Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) Joint Technology Center (JTC)/Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL), and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center-San Diego (SSC San Diego) are conducting technical research and proof of principle for an envisioned operational concept for extended range, three dimensional, collaborative operations between unmanned systems, with enhanced situational awareness for lethal operations in complex terrain. This program will assess information requirements and conduct experiments to identify and resolve technical risks for collaborative engagements using Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). It will research, develop and physically integrate multiple unmanned systems and conduct live collaborative experiments. Modeling and Simulation systems will be upgraded to reflect engineering fidelity levels to greater understand technical challenges to operate as a team. This paper will provide an update of a multi-year program and will concentrate primarily on the JTC

  3. Litter quality and its response to water level drawdown in boreal peatlands at plant species and community level

    Straková, Petra; Anttila, Jani; Spetz, Peter; Kitunen, Veikko; Tapanila, Tarja; Laiho, Raija

    2010-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that changes in the species composition and structure of plant communities induced by global change will have much more impact on plant-mediated carbon cycling than any phenotypic responses. These impacts are largely mediated by shifts in litter quality. There are few documentations of these changes so far, due to the relatively long time scale required for their direct observation. Here, we examine the changes in litter inputs induced by persistent water-level drawdown in boreal peatland sites. Peatlands contain a major proportion of the terrestrial carbon pool, and it is thus important to be able to predict their behaviour and role in the global C cycle under different global change factors. We studied the effects of short-term (ca. 4 years) and long-term (ca. 40 years) persistent water level (WL) drawdown on the quantity and chemical quality of above-ground plant litter inputs at three sites: bog, oligotrophic fen and mesotrophic fen. The parameters used to characterize litter quality included various extractable substances, cellulose, holocellulose, composition of hemicellulose (neutral sugars, uronic acids), lignin, CuO oxidation phenolic products, and concentrations of C, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium, magnesium, manganese and calcium. Four different groups of litter were clearly distinct based on their chemical quality: foliar litters, graminoids, mosses and woody litters. The pristine conditions were characterized by Sphagnum moss and graminoid litter. Following short-term WL drawdown, changes in the quality and quantity of litter inputs were small. Following long-term WL drawdown, total litter inputs dramatically increased, due to increased tree litter inputs, and the litter type composition greatly changed. These changes resulted in annual inputs of 1901-2010 kg•ha-1 C, 22-24 kg•ha-1 N, 1.5-2.2 kg•ha-1 P, 967-1235 kg•ha-1 lignin and lignin-like compounds and 254-300 kg•ha-1 water solubles after long-term WL

  4. Stratigraphic response of salt marshes to slow rates of sea-level change

    Daly, J.; Bell, T.

    2006-12-01

    Conventional models of salt-marsh development show an idealized spatial relationship between salt-marsh floral and foraminiferal zones, where the landward margin of the marsh gradually migrates inland in response to sea-level rise. This model predicts that transgression will result in persistent and possibly expanded salt marshes at the surface, depending on a variety of factors including sediment supply, hydrologic conditions, tidal range, and rate of sea-level rise. However, in areas with abundant sediment supply and slow rates of sea- level rise, the extent of back-barrier salt marshes may decline over time as the barrier-spits mature. Sea level around the northeast coast of Newfoundland is rising at a very slow rate during the late Holocene (flora. These transitions are interpreted to reflect the progradation of the spit, decreased tidal exchange in the back-barrier, and increased influence of freshwater streams discharging into the back-barrier setting. Decreased marine influence on the back-barrier environment leads to a floral and faunal shift associated with a regressive stratigraphy in an area experiencing sea-level rise. For studies of Holocene sea-level change requiring salt-marsh stratigraphic records, it is necessary to account for changing micro-environments to locate sites appropriate for study; salt marshes may play an important role in defining the record, but may not exist at the surface to guide investigation.

  5. Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome

    Sun Mei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

  6. Plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites predict the response to sulpiride or fluvoxamine in major depression.

    Ueda, N; Yoshimura, R; Shinkai, K; Nakamura, J

    2002-09-01

    We investigated the relationships between the changes in plasma catecholamine metabolites obtained from depressed patients before and after administration of sulpiride, a benzamide compound, or fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and between clinical responses to treatment with each of these drugs. Responders to sulpiride had significantly lower plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels before administration of sulpiride than did non-responders or controls (responders: 4.5 +/- 3.1 ng/ml, non-responders: 11.1 +/- 5.9 ng/ml, controls: 10.9 +/- 5.3 ng/ml). Positive relationships were observed between changes in pHVA levels and improvement rates in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D). In contrast, responders to fluvoxamine had significantly higher plasma free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (pMHPG) levels before administration of fluvoxamine than did non-responders or controls (responders: 8.5 +/- 1.8 ng/ml, non-responders: 5.9 +/- 2.I ng/ml, controls: 5.2 +/- 2.9 ng/ml). Negative relationships were observed between changes in pMHPG levels and improvement rates in Ham-D. These results suggest that lower pretreatment pHVA levels and higher pretreatment levels of pMHPG might be predictors of response to sulpiride and fluvoxamine, respectively, and that sulpiride might produce a functional increase in the dopaminergic system, resulting in improvement in some depressive symptoms; fluvoxamine, on the other hand, might produce a functional decrease in the noradrenergic system via serotonergic neurons, resulting in improvement of those symptoms.

  7. Periovulatory follicular fluid levels of estradiol trigger inflammatory and DNA damage responses in oviduct epithelial cells.

    Sergio E Palma-Vera

    Full Text Available Ovarian steroid hormones (mainly E2 and P4 regulate oviduct physiology. Serum-E2 acts on the oviduct epithelium from the basolateral cell compartment. Upon ovulation, the apical compartment of the oviduct epithelium is temporarily exposed to follicular fluid, which contains much higher levels of E2 than serum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of human periovulatory follicular fluid levels of E2 on oviduct epithelial cells using two porcine in vitro models.A cell line derived from the porcine oviductal epithelium (CCLV-RIE270 was characterized (lineage markers, proliferation characteristics and transformation status. Primary porcine oviduct epithelial cells (POEC were cultured in air-liquid interface and differentiation was assessed histologically. Both cultures were exposed to E2 (10 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml. Proliferation of CCLV-RIE270 and POEC was determined by real-time impedance monitoring and immunohistochemical detection of Ki67. Furthermore, marker gene expression for DNA damage response (DDR and inflammation was quantified.CCLV-RIE270 was not transformed and exhibited properties of secretory oviduct epithelial cells. Periovulatory follicular fluid levels of E2 (200 ng/ml upregulated the expression of inflammatory genes in CCLV-RIE270 but not in POEC (except for IL8. Expression of DDR genes was elevated in both models. A significant increase in cell proliferation could not be detected in response to E2.CCLV-RIE270 and POEC are complementary models to evaluate the consequences of oviduct exposure to follicular fluid components. Single administration of periovulatory follicular fluid E2 levels trigger inflammatory and DNA damage responses, but not proliferation in oviduct epithelial cells.

  8. Intraspecific variation shapes community-level behavioral responses to urbanization in spiders.

    Dahirel, Maxime; Dierick, Jasper; De Cock, Maarten; Bonte, Dries

    2017-09-01

    Urban areas are an extreme example of human-changed environments, exposing organisms to multiple and strong selection pressures. Adaptive behavioral responses are thought to play a major role in animals' success or failure in such new environments. Approaches based on functional traits have proven especially valuable to understand how species communities respond to environmental gradients. Until recently, they have, however, often ignored the potential consequences of intraspecific trait variation (ITV). When ITV is prevalent, it may highly impact ecological processes and resilience against stressors. This may be especially relevant in animals, in which behavioral traits can be altered very flexibly at the individual level to track environmental changes. We investigated how species turnover and ITV influenced community-level behavioral responses in a set of 62 sites of varying levels of urbanization, using orb web spiders and their webs as models of foraging behavior. ITV alone explained around one-third of the total trait variation observed among communities. Spider web structure changed according to urbanization, in ways that increase the capture efficiency of webs in a context of smaller urban prey. These trait shifts were partly mediated by species turnover, but ITV increased their magnitude, potentially helping to buffer the effects of environmental changes on communities. The importance of ITV varied depending on traits and on the spatial scale at which urbanization was considered. Despite being neglected from community-level analyses in animals, our results highlight the importance of accounting for intraspecific trait variation to fully understand trait responses to (human-induced) environmental changes and their impact on ecosystem functioning. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Insulin and C peptide response, and antibody levels in hepatitis C related chronic liver disease

    Abbas, Z.; Tariq, N.; Iqbal, M.; Shah, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Patients with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C (HC) have an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. The pathogenic mechanism by which HC predisposes to DM is not clear. The objective of this study was to determine the insulin and C-peptide response to 75 gram oral glucose load and measure anti phospholipid antibody levels in patients with chronic liver disease due to HC. Design: a prospective study. Place and duration of study: This study was conducted at the department of medicine, Jinnah postgraduate medical centre over period of three months. Subjects and methods: An analytical case control study was carried out on 37 patients (m-18,f=19); none of these patients had received interferon. They were divided into four groups: (a) HC cirrhosis with DM (n=9 ), (b) HC cirrhosis without DM (n=11), (c) hepatitis B (HB) cirrhosis without DM (n=7), (d) chronic hepatitis C without DM (n=10). Group C and D were taken as controls. Fasting blood samples were taken and repeated after 2 hours of 75 gram oral glucose load (2 h PG). Result: mean ages of group A,B,C and D were (yr +- SD) 51.3 +- 7.6,48.9 +- 2.4, 33.7 +-10.8 and 31.7 +- 8.8 respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the age, Pugh score and body mass index of HC cirrhotic patients with and without DM. Patients of group A had higher fasting and 2 h PG glucose levels (P=0.003 and 0.000) and higher fasting insulin level (p=0.045). However, increments in insulin and c peptide levels 2 h PG were much less (p=0.048 and 0.003). HB cirrhotics without diabetes (group C behaved just like HC cirrhotic without diabetes (group B). Patients of group D had normal glucose tolerance and insulin and C peptide levels. All four groups had normal anti phospholipid antibody levels. Conclusion: Patients with cirrhosis due to HC nd HB show evidence of glucose intolerance in spite of hyperinsulinaemia probably due to insulin resistance. HC cirrhotics with diabetes have fasting hyperglycemia in spite of

  10. Rats with decreased brain cholecystokinin levels show increased responsiveness to peripheral electrical stimulation-induced analgesia.

    Zhang, L X; Li, X L; Wang, L; Han, J S

    1997-01-16

    Using the P77PMC strain of rat, which is genetically prone to audiogenic seizures, and also has decreased levels of cholecystokinin (CCK), we examined the analgesic response to peripheral electrical stimulation, which is, in part, opiate-mediated. A number of studies have suggested that CCK may function as an antagonist to endogenous opiate effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that the P77PMC animals would show an enhanced analgesic response based on their decreased CCK levels producing a diminished endogenous opiate antagonism. We found that the analgesic effect on tail flick latency produced by 100 Hz peripheral electrical stimulation was more potent and longer lasting in P77PMC rats than in control rats. Moreover, the potency of the stimulation-produced analgesia correlated with the vulnerability to audiogenic seizures in these rats. We were able to block the peripheral electrical stimulation-induced analgesia (PSIA) using a cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) administered parenterally. Radioimmunoassay showed that the content of CCK-8 in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and periaqueductal gray was much lower in P77PMC rat than in controls. These results suggest that low CCK-8 content in the central nervous system of the P77PMC rats may be related to the high analgesic response to peripheral electrical stimulation, and further support the notion that CCK may be endogenous opiate antagonist.

  11. Development of national level preparedness for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    In India, DAE being the nodal agency for technical support for response to any radiation emergency nuclear disaster and various nuclear and radiological emergency scenarios and their impacts are identified. To reduce their consequences development of methodologies for detection and quick impact assessment, trained First Responders and Quick Response Teams (QRTs), twenty two DAE Emergency Response Centers, mobile and aerial radiation monitoring systems, aerial and ground based validation trials etc. are carried out. Study related to radiological threats and simulated RDD experiments conducted using stable isotopes indicates that radiation levels for distances more than 50 m will not be very high as hotspots may be restricted to nearby area. The biggest challenge from an RDD explosion will be handling of the radioactive contamination and 'fear factor' compared to radiation exposure to public or First Responders. Level and pattern of radioactive contamination on ground following releases during nuclear accidents and minimum strength of orphan radioactive sources to be detected are taken into account for optimizing systems and monitoring methodology required for emergency preparedness

  12. The adaptive response of E. coli to low levels of alkylating agent

    Jeggo, P.; Defais, M.; Samson, L.; Schendel, P.

    1978-01-01

    In an attempt to characterise which gene products may be involved in the repair system induced in E. coli by growth on low levels of alkylating agent (the adaptive response) we have analysed mutants deficient in other known pathways of DNA repair for the ability to adapt to MNNG. Adaptive resistance to the killing effects of MNNG seems to require a functional DNA polymerase I whereas resistance to the mutagenic effects can occur in polymerase I deficient strains; similarly killing adaptation could not be observed in a dam3 mutant, which was nonetheless able to show mutational adaptation. These results suggest that these two parts of the adaptive response must, at least to some extent, be separable. Both adaptive responses can be seen in the absence of uvrD + uvrE + -dependent mismatch repair, DNA polymerase II activity, or recF-mediated recombination and they are not affected by decreased levels of adenyl cyclase. The data presented support our earlier conclusion that adaptive resistance to the killing and mutagenic effect of MNNG is the result of previously uncharacterised repair pathways. (orig.) [de

  13. Grafting computer projected simulations and interactive engagement methods within a traditional classroom setting: The influence on secondary level students' understanding of Newtonian mechanics and on attitudes towards physics

    Zoubeir, Wassim Fouad

    This research explored the effects of a constructivist approach using computer projected simulations (CPS) and interactive engagement (IE) methods on 12th grade school students. The treatment lasted 18 weeks during the 1999-2000 fall semester and seeked to evaluate three variations in students': (1)conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics as measured by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI), (2)modification of their views about science as measured by the Views About Science Survey (VASS), and (3)achievement on traditional examinations, as measured by their end of semester grades. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was applied to determine the differences between the mean scores of the experimental group students, and students of the control group, who were exposed to traditional teaching methods only. The FCI data analysis showed that, after 18 weeks, conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics had markedly improved only in the experimental group (F(1,99) = 44.739, p performance on the VASS instrument for both groups (F(1,99) = .033, p = .856), confirming previous and comparable findings for studies of short implementation period. The lack of statistically significant difference between the control and experimental groups in graded achievement, while controlling for students' previous achievement, was unexpected (F(1,99) = 1.178, p = .280). It is suggested that in this particular setting, the influence of a technical factor may have been overlooked: the monitored and systematic drill exercises using elaborate math formulae to prepare students for traditional math-loaded exams. Still, despite being intentionally deprived of such preparation throughout the study, students of the experimental group did not achieve less than their counterpart, and in addition, they had gained a satisfactory understanding of Newtonian mechanics. This result points unmistakably at a plausible positive correlation between a better grasp of basic concepts in physics in a challenging

  14. VEGF-121 plasma level as biomarker for response to anti-angiogenetic therapy in recurrent glioblastoma.

    Martini, Maurizio; de Pascalis, Ivana; D'Alessandris, Quintino Giorgio; Fiorentino, Vincenzo; Pierconti, Francesco; Marei, Hany El-Sayed; Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; Pallini, Roberto; Larocca, Luigi Maria

    2018-05-10

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms, particularly the diffusible VEGF-121, could play a major role in the response of recurrent glioblastoma (GB) to anti-angiogenetic treatment with bevacizumab. We hypothesized that circulating VEGF-121 may reduce the amount of bevacizumab available to target the heavier isoforms of VEGF, which are the most clinically relevant. We assessed the plasma level of VEGF-121 in a brain xenograft model, in human healthy controls, and in patients suffering from recurrent GB before and after bevacizumab treatment. Data were matched with patients' clinical outcome. In athymic rats with U87MG brain xenografts, the level of plasma VEGF-121 relates with tumor volume and it significantly decreases after iv infusion of bevacizumab. Patients with recurrent GB show higher plasma VEGF-121 than healthy controls (p = 0.0002) and treatment with bevacizumab remarkably reduced the expression of VEGF-121 in plasma of these patients (p = 0.0002). Higher plasma level of VEGF-121 was significantly associated to worse PFS and OS (p = 0.0295 and p = 0.0246, respectively). Quantitative analysis of VEGF-121 isoform in the plasma of patients with recurrent GB could be a promising predictor of response to anti-angiogenetic treatment.

  15. Time Out of Joint and Future-Oriented Memory: Engaging Dietrich Bonhoeffer in the Search for a Way to Deal Responsibly with the Ghosts of the Past

    Robert Vosloo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores in conversation with some of the writings of Dietrich Bonhoeffer the question of how the experience of the dislocation of time and the visitation of “the ghosts of the past” (also in contexts marked by historical injustices is related to responsible ethical action. The question is also posed as to how the reconfiguration of the relationship of past, present and future functions on an implicit and explicit level in this regard. In the process, the article affirms the eschatological horizon of Bonhoeffer’s ethics and points to the importance of what is referred to as “future-oriented memory” in the search for responsible and hopeful action. The article acknowledges the dilemmas in relating thought and action (with reference to the so-called “Hamlet doctrine” and points to the way in which “the future” marks and determines Bonhoeffer’s understanding of ethical action amidst the haunting presence of the past and the experience of the present time as a “time out of joint.”

  16. Patient and Stakeholder Engagement in the PCORI Pilot Projects: Description and Lessons Learned.

    Forsythe, Laura P; Ellis, Lauren E; Edmundson, Lauren; Sabharwal, Raj; Rein, Alison; Konopka, Kristen; Frank, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Patients and healthcare stakeholders are increasingly becoming engaged in the planning and conduct of biomedical research. However, limited research characterizes this process or its impact. We aimed to characterize patient and stakeholder engagement in the 50 Pilot Projects funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), and identify early contributions and lessons learned. A self-report instrument was completed by researchers between 6 and 12 months following project initiation. Forty-seven principal investigators or their designees (94 % response rate) participated in the study. MAIN MEASURES Self-report of types of stakeholders engaged, stages and levels of engagement, facilitators and barriers to engagement, lessons learned, and contributions from engagement were measured. Most (83 %) reported engaging more than one stakeholder in their project. Among those, the most commonly reported groups were patients (90 %), clinicians (87 %), health system representatives (44 %), caregivers (41 %), and advocacy organizations (41 %). Stakeholders were commonly involved in topic solicitation, question development, study design, and data collection. Many projects engaged stakeholders in data analysis, results interpretation, and dissemination. Commonly reported contributions included changes to project methods, outcomes or goals; improvement of measurement tools; and interpretation of qualitative data. Investigators often identified communication and shared leadership strategies as "critically important" facilitators (53 and 44 % respectively); lack of stakeholder time was the most commonly reported challenge (46 %). Most challenges were only partially resolved. Early lessons learned included the importance of continuous and genuine partnerships, strategic selection of stakeholders, and accommodation of stakeholders' practical needs. PCORI Pilot Projects investigators report engaging a variety of stakeholders across many stages of research, with specific

  17. Natural and Human-Induced Variability in Barrier-Island Response to Sea Level Rise

    Miselis, Jennifer L.; Lorenzo-Trueba, Jorge

    2017-12-01

    Storm-driven sediment fluxes onto and behind barrier islands help coastal barrier systems keep pace with sea level rise (SLR). Understanding what controls cross-shore sediment flux magnitudes is critical for making accurate forecasts of barrier response to increased SLR rates. Here, using an existing morphodynamic model for barrier island evolution, observations are used to constrain model parameters and explore potential variability in future barrier behavior. Using modeled drowning outcomes as a proxy for vulnerability to SLR, 0%, 28%, and 100% of the barrier is vulnerable to SLR rates of 4, 7, and 10 mm/yr, respectively. When only overwash fluxes are increased in the model, drowning vulnerability increases for the same rates of SLR, suggesting that future increases in storminess may increase island vulnerability particularly where sediment resources are limited. Developed sites are more vulnerable to SLR, indicating that anthropogenic changes to overwash fluxes and estuary depths could profoundly affect future barrier response to SLR.

  18. Salivary Hormones Response to Preparation and Pre-competitive Training of World-class Level Athletes

    Guilhem, Gaël; Hanon, Christine; Gendreau, Nicolas; Bonneau, Dominique; Guével, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity, and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months) and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks) training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while IgA (+61%) and creatine kinase activity (+43%) increased, and chromogranin A decreased (−27%) during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15%) and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P athletics training. PMID:26635619

  19. Physiological responses to four hours of low-level repetitive work

    Garde, A Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie; Jensen, Bente R

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study investigated physiological responses to 4 hours of standardized low-level repetitive work. It was hypothesized that accumulative effects not observed after 1 hour could be found after 4 hours of repetitive work. METHODS: Ten healthy women performed intermittent (5 seconds + 5...... muscle activity during a mental reference task with low exerted force indicated attention-related muscle activity. Finally, it was indicated that repetitive work including high demands for attention is performed at the expense of the precision of the exerted force....... seconds) handgrip contractions at 10% of the maximal voluntary contraction combined with mental demands for concentration and attention. Muscle activity in the working forearm muscles, cardiovascular responses, and concentrations of biomarkers in biological fluids were recorded along with exerted force...

  20. Frequency response testing at Experimental Breeder Reactor II using discrete-level periodic signals

    Rhodes, W.D.; Larson, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 (EBR-2) reactivity-to-power frequency-response function was measured with pseudo-random, discrete-level, periodic signals. The reactor power deviation was small with insignificant perturbation of normal operation and in-place irradiation experiments. Comparison of results with measured rod oscillator data and with theoretical predictions show good agreement. Moreover, measures of input signal quality (autocorrelation function and energy spectra) confirm the ability to enable this type of frequency response determination at EBR-2. Measurements were made with the pseudo-random binary sequence, quadratic residue binary sequence, pseudo-random ternary sequence, and the multifrequency binary sequence. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Work-family conflict and work engagement among mothers: Conscientiousness and neuroticism as moderators

    Tracy J. Opie

    2013-07-01

    Research purpose: The job demand-resources model is utilised to investigate the moderating role of conscientiousness and neuroticism on the relationship between work-family conflict and work engagement. Motivation for the study: Working mothers are challenged to establish a balance between work and family life. The resulting work-family conflict can negatively affect well-being. It is thus necessary to explore personal factors that relate to work-family conflict, particularly in the South African context. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample (N = 267 was comprised of working mothers from several organisations. Data was gathered using the work-to-family conflict questionnaire, the Basic Traits Inventory and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Main findings: The results indicated that work-family conflict negatively predicts work engagement. Conscientiousness positively predicts work engagement, and neuroticism negatively predicts work engagement. A significant interaction effect was found for conscientiousness but not for neuroticism. The findings showed that for participants with high levels of conscientiousness, work engagement decreases significantly more with an increase in work-family conflict than for participants with low levels of conscientiousness. Practical/Managerial implications: Organisations should consider those individuals who have high levels of conscientiousness and low levels of neuroticism in the selection and placement of employees. In addition, organisations have a responsibility to provide conscientious women, particularly mothers, with adequate support to ensure that work-family conflict does not adversely impact their levels of work engagement.

  2. Cortisol levels in response to starting school in children at increased risk for social phobia.

    Russ, Stephanie J; Herbert, Joe; Cooper, Peter; Gunnar, Megan R; Goodyer, Ian; Croudace, Tim; Murray, Lynne

    2012-04-01

    Research on depression has identified hyperactivity of the HPA axis as a potential contributory factor to the intergenerational transmission of affective symptoms. This has not yet been examined in the context of social phobia. The current study compared HPA axis activity in response to a universal social stressor (starting school) in children of 2 groups of women: one with social phobia and one with no history of anxiety (comparison group). To determine specificity of effects of maternal social phobia, a third group of children were also examined whose mothers had generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Children provided salivary cortisol samples in the morning, afternoon and at bedtime across 3 time-blocks surrounding the school start: a month before starting school (baseline), the first week at school (stress response), and the end of the first school term (stress recovery). Child behavioural inhibition at 14 months was assessed to explore the influence of early temperament on later stress responses. All children displayed an elevation in morning and afternoon cortisol from baseline during the first week at school, which remained elevated until the end of the first term. Children in the social phobia group, however, also displayed an equivalent elevation in bedtime cortisol, which was not observed for comparison children or for children of mothers with GAD. Children in the social phobia group who were classified as 'inhibited' at 14 months displayed significantly higher afternoon cortisol levels overall. A persistent stress response to school in the morning and afternoon is typical for all children, but children of mothers with social phobia also display atypical elevations in evening cortisol levels when at school--signalling longer-term disruption of the circadian rhythm in HPA axis activity. This is the first study to report HPA axis disruption in children at increased risk of developing social phobia. Future research should determine whether this represents a

  3. Effects of pretesting implicit self-determined motivation on behavioral engagement: evidence for the mere measurement effect at the implicit level.

    Keatley, David A; Clarke, David D; Ferguson, Eamonn; Hagger, Martin S

    2014-01-01

    Research into individuals' intended behavior and performance has traditionally adopted explicitly measured, self-report constructs, and outcomes. More recently, research has shown that completing explicit self-report measures of constructs may effect subsequent behavior, termed the "mere measurement" effect. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether implicit measures of motivation showed a similar mere measurement effect on subsequent behavior. It may be the case that measuring the implicit systems affects subsequent implicit interventions (e.g., priming), observable on subsequent behavior. Priming manipulations were also given to participants in order to investigate the interaction between measurement and priming of motivation. Initially, a 2 [implicit association test (IAT: present vs. absent) ×2 (Prime: autonomous vs. absent) and a 2 (IAT: present vs. absent) × 2 (Prime: controlled vs. absent)] between participants designs were conducted, these were them combined into a 2 (IAT: present vs. absent) ×3 (Prime: autonomous vs. controlled vs. absent) between participants design, with attempts at a novel task taken as the outcome measure. Implicit measure completion significantly decreased behavioral engagement. Priming autonomous motivation significantly facilitated, and controlled motivation significantly inhibited performance. Finally, there was a significant implicit measurement × priming interaction, such that priming autonomous motivation only improved performance in the absence of the implicit measure. Overall, this research provides an insight into the effects of implicit measurement and priming of motivation and the combined effect of completing both tasks on behavior.

  4. Effects of pretesting implicit self-determined motivation on behavioural engagement: Evidence for the mere measurement effect at the implicit level

    David A Keatley

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research into individuals’ intended behavior and performance has traditionally adopted explicitly-measured, self-report constructs and outcomes. More recently, research has shown that completing explicit self-report measures of constructs may effect subsequent behavior, termed the ‘mere measurement’ effect. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether implicit measures of motivation showed a similar mere measurement effect on subsequent behavior. It may be the case that measuring the implicit systems affects subsequent implicit interventions (e.g., priming, observable on subsequent behaviour. Priming manipulations were also given to participants in order to investigate the interaction between measurement and priming of motivation. Initially, a 2 (IAT: present vs absent x2 (Prime: autonomous vs absent and a 2 (IAT: present vs absent x 2 (Prime: controlled vs. absent between participants designs were conducted, these were them combined into a 2 (IAT: present vs absent x3 (Prime: autonomous vs controlled vs absent between participants design, with attempts at a novel task taken as the outcome measure. Implicit measure completion significantly decreased behavioral engagement. Priming autonomous motivation significantly facilitated, and controlled motivation significantly inhibited performance. Finally, there was a significant implicit measurement x priming interaction, such that priming autonomous motivation only improved performance in the absence of the implicit measure. Overall, this research provides an insight into the effects of implicit measurement and priming of motivation and the combined effect of completing both tasks on behavior.

  5. Responses to Projected Changes in Climate and UV-B at the Species Level

    Callaghan, Terry V. [Abisko Scientific Research Station, Abisko (Sweden); Bjoern, Lars Olof [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cell and Organism Biology; Cernov, Yuri [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.N. Severtsov Inst. of Evolutionary Morphology and Animal Ecology] (and others)

    2004-11-01

    Environmental manipulation experiments showed that species respond individualistically to each environmental-change variable. The greatest responses of plants were generally to nutrient, particularly nitrogen, addition. Summer warming experiments showed that woody plant responses were dominant and that mosses and lichens became less abundant. Responses to warming were controlled by moisture availability and snow cover. Many invertebrates increased population growth in response to summer warming, as long as desiccation was not induced. CO{sub 2} and UV-B enrichment experiments showed that plant and animal responses were small. However, some microorganisms and species of fungi were sensitive to increased UV-B and some intensive mutagenic actions could, perhaps, lead to unexpected epidemic outbreaks. Tundra soil heating, CO{sub 2} enrichment and amendment with mineral nutrients generally accelerated microbial activity. Algae are likely to dominate cyanobacteria in milder climates. Expected increases in winter freeze-thaw cycles leading to ice-crust formation are likely to severely reduce winter survival rate and disrupt the population dynamics of many terrestrial animals. A deeper snow cover is likely to restrict access to winter pastures by reindeer/caribou and their ability to flee from predators while any earlier onset of the snow-free period is likely to stimulate increased plant growth. Initial species responses to climate change might occur at the sub-species level: an Arctic plant or animal species with high genetic/racial diversity has proved an ability to adapt to different environmental conditions in the past and is likely to do so also in the future. Indigenous knowledge, air photographs, satellite images and monitoring show that changes in the distributions of some species are already occurring: Arctic vegetation is becoming more shrubby and more productive, there have been recent changes in the ranges of caribou, and 'new' species of insects and

  6. Promoting social responsibility for health: health impact assessment and healthy public policy at the community level.

    Mittelmark, M B

    2001-09-01

    The 1997 Jakarta Declaration on Health Promotion into the 21st Century called for new responses to address the emerging threats to health. The declaration placed a high priority on promoting social responsibility for health, and it identified equity-focused health impact assessment as a high priority for action. This theme was among the foci at the 2000 Fifth Global Conference on Health Promotion held in Mexico. This paper, which is an abbreviation of a technical report prepared for the Mexico conference, advances arguments for focusing on health impact assessment at the local level. Health impact assessment identifies negative health impacts that call for policy responses, and identifies and encourages practices and policies that promote health. Health impact assessment may be highly technical and require sophisticated technology and expertise. But it can also be a simple, highly practical process, accessible to ordinary people, and one that helps a community come to grips with local circumstances that need changing for better health. To illustrate the possibilities, this paper presents a case study, the People Assessing Their Health (PATH) project from Eastern Nova Scotia, Canada. It places ordinary citizens, rather than community elites, at the very heart of local decision-making. Evidence from PATH demonstrates that low technology health impact assessment, done by and for local people, can shift thinking beyond the illness problems of individuals. It can bring into consideration, instead, how programmes and policies support or weaken community health, and illuminate a community's capacity to improve local circumstances for better health. This stands in contrast to evidence that highly technological approaches to community-level health impact assessment can be self-defeating. Further development of simple, people-centred, low technology approaches to health impact assessment at the local level is called for.

  7. Transcriptome analysis reveals a stress response of Shewanella oneidensis deprived of background levels of ionizing radiation

    Li, Xiaoping; Schilkey, Faye; Smith, Geoffrey B.

    2018-01-01

    Natural ionizing background radiation has exerted a constant pressure on organisms since the first forms of life appeared on Earth, so that cells have developed molecular mechanisms to avoid or repair damages caused directly by radiation or indirectly by radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we investigated the transcriptional effect of depriving Shewanella oneidensis cultures of background levels of radiation by growing the cells in a mine 655 m underground, thus reducing the dose rate from 72.1 to 0.9 nGy h-1 from control to treatment, respectively. RNASeq transcriptome analysis showed the differential expression of 4.6 and 7.6% of the S. oneidensis genome during early- and late-exponential phases of growth, respectively. The greatest change observed in the treatment was the downregulation of ribosomal proteins (21% of all annotated ribosomal protein genes during early- and 14% during late-exponential) and tRNA genes (14% of all annotated tRNA genes in early-exponential), indicating a marked decrease in protein translation. Other significant changes were the upregulation of membrane transporters, implying an increase in the traffic of substrates across the cell membrane, as well as the up and downregulation of genes related to respiration, which could be interpreted as a response to insufficient oxidants in the cells. In other reports, there is evidence in multiple species that some ROS not just lead to oxidative stress, but act as signaling molecules to control cellular metabolism at the transcriptional level. Consistent with these reports, several genes involved in the metabolism of carbon and biosynthesis of amino acids were also regulated, lending support to the idea of a wide metabolic response. Our results indicate that S. oneidensis is sensitive to the withdrawal of background levels of ionizing radiation and suggest that a transcriptional response is required to maintain homeostasis and retain normal growth. PMID:29768440

  8. Integration of supercapacitive storage in renewable energy system to compare the response of two level and five level inverter with RL type load

    Jana, Suman; Biswas, Pabitra Kumar; Das, Upama

    2018-04-01

    The analytical and simulation-based study in this presented paper shows a comparative report between two level inverter and five-level inverter with the integration of Supercapacitive storage in Renewable Energy system. Sometime dependent numerical models are used to measure the voltage and current response of two level and five level inverter in MATLAB Simulink based environment. In this study supercapacitive sources, which are fed by solar cells are used as input sources to experiment the response of multilevel inverter with integration of su-percapacitor as a storage device of Renewable Energy System. The RL load is used to compute the time response in MATLABSimulink based environment. With the simulation results a comparative study has been made of two different level types of inverters. Two basic types of inverter are discussed in the study with reference to their electrical behavior. It is also simulated that multilevel inverter can convert stored energy within supercapacitor which is extracted from Renewable Energy System.

  9. Implications of Glutathione Levels in the Plasmodium berghei Response to Chloroquine and Artemisinin.

    Joel Vega-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most devastating parasitic diseases worldwide. Plasmodium drug resistance remains a major challenge to malaria control and has led to the re-emergence of the disease. Chloroquine (CQ and artemisinin (ART are thought to exert their anti-malarial activity inducing cytotoxicity in the parasite by blocking heme degradation (for CQ and increasing oxidative stress. Besides the contribution of the CQ resistance transporter (PfCRT and the multidrug resistant gene (pfmdr, CQ resistance has also been associated with increased parasite glutathione (GSH levels. ART resistance was recently shown to be associated with mutations in the K13-propeller protein. To analyze the role of GSH levels in CQ and ART resistance, we generated transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasites either deficient in or overexpressing the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene (pbggcs encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH biosynthesis. These lines produce either lower (pbggcs-ko or higher (pbggcs-oe levels of GSH than wild type parasites. In addition, GSH levels were determined in P. berghei parasites resistant to CQ and mefloquine (MQ. Increased GSH levels were detected in both, CQ and MQ resistant parasites, when compared to the parental sensitive clone. Sensitivity to CQ and ART remained unaltered in both pgggcs-ko and pbggcs-oe parasites when tested in a 4 days drug suppressive assay. However, recrudescence assays after the parasites have been exposed to a sub-lethal dose of ART showed that parasites with low levels of GSH are more sensitive to ART treatment. These results suggest that GSH levels influence Plasmodium berghei response to ART treatment.

  10. Drivers for the Value of Demand Response under Increased Levels of Wind and Solar Power; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Hale, Elaine

    2015-07-30

    Demand response may be a valuable flexible resource for low-carbon electric power grids. However, there are as many types of possible demand response as there are ways to use electricity, making demand response difficult to study at scale in realistic settings. This talk reviews our state of knowledge regarding the potential value of demand response in several example systems as a function of increasing levels of wind and solar power, sometimes drawing on the analogy between demand response and storage. Overall, we find demand response to be promising, but its potential value is very system dependent. Furthermore, demand response, like storage, can easily saturate ancillary service markets.

  11. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected.

  12. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected

  13. Meta-analysis reveals profound responses of plant traits to glacial CO2 levels

    Temme, A A; Cornwell, W K; Cornelissen, J H C; Aerts, R

    2013-01-01

    A general understanding of the links between atmospheric CO2 concentration and the functioning of the terrestrial biosphere requires not only an understanding of plant trait responses to the ongoing transition to higher CO2 but also the legacy effects of past low CO2. An interesting question is whether the transition from current to higher CO2 can be thought of as a continuation of the past trajectory of low to current CO2 levels. Determining this trajectory requires quantifying the effect si...

  14. Exercise level before pregnancy and engaging in high-impact sports reduce the risk of pelvic girdle pain: a population-based cohort study of 39 184 women.

    Owe, Katrine Mari; Bjelland, Elisabeth K; Stuge, Britt; Orsini, Nicola; Eberhard-Gran, Malin; Vangen, Siri

    2016-07-01

    To examine whether an association exists between exercise levels pre-pregnancy and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy. Pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy has been associated with physical inactivity, a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. We used data from a population-based cohort study including 39 184 nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. Pre-pregnancy exercise frequency and types were assessed by questionnaire in pregnancy week 17. Pelvic girdle pain, defined as combined pain in the anterior pelvis and in the posterior pelvis bilaterally, was self-reported in pregnancy week 30. Multivariable Poisson regression estimated risks of pelvic girdle pain associated with pre-pregnancy exercise. We examined a dose-response association of prepregnancy exercise frequency using restricted cubic splines. A test for non-linearity was also conducted. Final models were adjusted for pre-pregnancy BMI, age, education, history of low back pain and history of depression. 4069 women (10.4%) reported pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy and the prevalence among women who were non-exercisers prepregnancy was 12.5%. There was a non-linear association for pre-pregnancy exercise and risk of pelvic girdle pain (test for non-linearity, p=0.003). Compared to non-exercisers, women exercising 3-5 times weekly pre-pregnancy had a 14% lower risk of developing pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96). Taking part in high-impact exercises such as running, jogging, orienteering, ballgames, netball games and high-impact aerobics were associated with less risk of pelvic girdle pain. Women who exercise regularly and engage in high-impact exercises before the first pregnancy may have a reduced risk of pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Circulating FGF23 levels in response to acute changes in plasma Ca(2+)

    Gravesen, E; Mace, M.L.; Hofman-Bang, J.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) synthesis and secretion is still incompletely understood. FGF23 is an important regulator of renal phosphate excretion and has regulatory effects on the calciotropic hormones calcitriol and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Calcium (Ca) and phosphate...... FGF23 levels and whether a close relationship, similar that known for Ca and PTH, exists between Ca and FGF23. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine whether acute hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia regulate FGF23 levels in the rat. Acute hypercalcemia was induced by an intravenous Ca infusion...... and hypocalcemia by infusion of ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) in normal and acutely parathyroidectomized rats. Intact plasma FGF23 and intact plasma PTH and plasma Ca(2+) and phosphate were measured. Acute hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia resulted as expected in adequate PTH secretory responses. Plasma FGF...

  16. Predicting multi-level drug response with gene expression profile in multiple myeloma using hierarchical ordinal regression.

    Zhang, Xinyan; Li, Bingzong; Han, Huiying; Song, Sha; Xu, Hongxia; Hong, Yating; Yi, Nengjun; Zhuang, Wenzhuo

    2018-05-10

    Multiple myeloma (MM), like other cancers, is caused by the accumulation of genetic abnormalities. Heterogeneity exists in the patients' response to treatments, for example, bortezomib. This urges efforts to identify biomarkers from numerous molecular features and build predictive models for identifying patients that can benefit from a certain treatment scheme. However, previous studies treated the multi-level ordinal drug response as a binary response where only responsive and non-responsive groups are considered. It is desirable to directly analyze the multi-level drug response, rather than combining the response to two groups. In this study, we present a novel method to identify significantly associated biomarkers and then develop ordinal genomic classifier using the hierarchical ordinal logistic model. The proposed hierarchical ordinal logistic model employs the heavy-tailed Cauchy prior on the coefficients and is fitted by an efficient quasi-Newton algorithm. We apply our hierarchical ordinal regression approach to analyze two publicly available datasets for MM with five-level drug response and numerous gene expression measures. Our results show that our method is able to identify genes associated with the multi-level drug response and to generate powerful predictive models for predicting the multi-level response. The proposed method allows us to jointly fit numerous correlated predictors and thus build efficient models for predicting the multi-level drug response. The predictive model for the multi-level drug response can be more informative than the previous approaches. Thus, the proposed approach provides a powerful tool for predicting multi-level drug response and has important impact on cancer studies.

  17. Levels of active tyrosine kinase receptor determine the tumor response to Zalypsis

    Moneo, Victoria; Serelde, Beatriz G; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen; Diaz-Uriarte, Ramon; Avilés, Pablo; Santamaría, Gemma; Tercero, Juan C; Cuevas, Carmen; Carnero, Amancio

    2014-01-01

    Zalypsis® is a marine compound in phase II clinical trials for multiple myeloma, cervical and endometrial cancer, and Ewing’s sarcoma. However, the determinants of the response to Zalypsis are not well known. The identification of biomarkers for Zalypsis activity would also contribute to broaden the spectrum of tumors by selecting those patients more likely to respond to this therapy. Using in vitro drug sensitivity data coupled with a set of molecular data from a panel of sarcoma cell lines, we developed molecular signatures that predict sensitivity to Zalypsis. We verified these results in culture and in vivo xenograft studies. Zalypsis resistance was dependent on the expression levels of PDGFRα or constitutive phosphorylation of c-Kit, indicating that the activation of tyrosine kinase receptors (TKRs) may determine resistance to Zalypsis. To validate our observation, we measured the levels of total and active (phosphorylated) forms of the RTKs PDGFRα/β, c-Kit, and EGFR in a new panel of diverse solid tumor cell lines and found that the IC50 to the drug correlated with RTK activation in this new panel. We further tested our predictions about Zalypsis determinants for response in vivo in xenograft models. All cells lines expressing low levels of RTK signaling were sensitive to Zalypsis in vivo, whereas all cell lines except two with high levels of RTK signaling were resistant to the drug. RTK activation might provide important signals to overcome the cytotoxicity of Zalypsis and should be taken into consideration in current and future clinical trials

  18. Designing Iranian Model to Assess the Level of Health System Responsiveness.

    Askari, Roohollah; Arab, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Akbari-Sari, Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Mostafa; Gharaee, Hojat

    2016-03-01

    determinants of the responsiveness model and proposed model validity. Given the comprehensiveness of presented aspects and indicators in this proposed model and its validity test, the aforementioned responsiveness model can be considered a suitable model to use when assessing the levels of health system responsiveness in Iran.

  19. Engaged Research in Process Improvement

    Pries-Heje, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This keynote initiates from an example of engaged research; a Danish software house that made it from maturity level 1 to 5 in eight years. The organizational change implied at each step is discussed and a design theory of process improvement and change derived.......This keynote initiates from an example of engaged research; a Danish software house that made it from maturity level 1 to 5 in eight years. The organizational change implied at each step is discussed and a design theory of process improvement and change derived....

  20. Setting-level influences on implementation of the responsive classroom approach.

    Wanless, Shannon B; Patton, Christine L; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Deutsch, Nancy L

    2013-02-01

    We used mixed methods to examine the association between setting-level factors and observed implementation of a social and emotional learning intervention (Responsive Classroom® approach; RC). In study 1 (N = 33 3rd grade teachers after the first year of RC implementation), we identified relevant setting-level factors and uncovered the mechanisms through which they related to implementation. In study 2 (N = 50 4th grade teachers after the second year of RC implementation), we validated our most salient Study 1 finding across multiple informants. Findings suggested that teachers perceived setting-level factors, particularly principal buy-in to the intervention and individualized coaching, as influential to their degree of implementation. Further, we found that intervention coaches' perspectives of principal buy-in were more related to implementation than principals' or teachers' perspectives. Findings extend the application of setting theory to the field of implementation science and suggest that interventionists may want to consider particular accounts of school setting factors before determining the likelihood of schools achieving high levels of implementation.

  1. The Complex Transcriptional Response of Acaryochloris marina to Different Oxygen Levels

    Miguel A. Hernández-Prieto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ancient oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes produced oxygen as a waste product, but existed for a long time under an oxygen-free (anoxic atmosphere, before an oxic atmosphere emerged. The change in oxygen levels in the atmosphere influenced the chemistry and structure of many enzymes that contained prosthetic groups that were inactivated by oxygen. In the genome of Acaryochloris marina, multiple gene copies exist for proteins that are normally encoded by a single gene copy in other cyanobacteria. Using high throughput RNA sequencing to profile transcriptome responses from cells grown under microoxic and hyperoxic conditions, we detected 8446 transcripts out of the 8462 annotated genes in the Cyanobase database. Two-thirds of the 50 most abundant transcripts are key proteins in photosynthesis. Microoxic conditions negatively affected the levels of expression of genes encoding photosynthetic complexes, with the exception of some subunits. In addition to the known regulation of the multiple copies of psbA, we detected a similar transcriptional pattern for psbJ and psbU, which might play a key role in the altered components of photosystem II. Furthermore, regulation of genes encoding proteins important for reactive oxygen species-scavenging is discussed at genome level, including, for the first time, specific small RNAs having possible regulatory roles under varying oxygen levels.

  2. The Complex Transcriptional Response of Acaryochloris marina to Different Oxygen Levels

    Hernández-Prieto, Miguel A.; Lin, Yuankui; Chen, Min

    2016-01-01

    Ancient oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes produced oxygen as a waste product, but existed for a long time under an oxygen-free (anoxic) atmosphere, before an oxic atmosphere emerged. The change in oxygen levels in the atmosphere influenced the chemistry and structure of many enzymes that contained prosthetic groups that were inactivated by oxygen. In the genome of Acaryochloris marina, multiple gene copies exist for proteins that are normally encoded by a single gene copy in other cyanobacteria. Using high throughput RNA sequencing to profile transcriptome responses from cells grown under microoxic and hyperoxic conditions, we detected 8446 transcripts out of the 8462 annotated genes in the Cyanobase database. Two-thirds of the 50 most abundant transcripts are key proteins in photosynthesis. Microoxic conditions negatively affected the levels of expression of genes encoding photosynthetic complexes, with the exception of some subunits. In addition to the known regulation of the multiple copies of psbA, we detected a similar transcriptional pattern for psbJ and psbU, which might play a key role in the altered components of photosystem II. Furthermore, regulation of genes encoding proteins important for reactive oxygen species-scavenging is discussed at genome level, including, for the first time, specific small RNAs having possible regulatory roles under varying oxygen levels. PMID:27974439

  3. Civic Engagement Scale

    Amy Doolittle

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the development and validation of the Civic Engagement Scale (CES. This scale is developed to be easily administered and useful to educators who are seeking to measure the attitudes and behaviors that have been affected by a service-learning experience. This instrument was administered as a validation study in a purposive sample of social work and education majors at three universities (N = 513 with a return of 354 (69%. After the reliability and validity analysis was completed, the Attitude subscale was left with eight items and a Cronbach’s alpha level of .91. The Behavior subscale was left with six items and a Cronbach’s alpha level of .85. Principal component analysis indicated a two-dimensional scale with high loadings on both factors (mean factor loading for the attitude factor = .79, and mean factor loading for the behavior factor = .77. These results indicate that the CES is strong enough to recommend its use in educational settings. Preliminary use has demonstrated that this scale will be useful to researchers seeking to better understand the relationship of attitudes and behaviors with civic engagement in the service-learning setting. The primary limitations of this research are that the sample was limited to social work and education majors who were primarily White (n = 312, 88.1% and female (n = 294, 83.1%. Therefore, further research would be needed to generalize this research to other populations.

  4. Representations of work engagement and workaholism in modern psychological research

    Valentina V. Barabanshchikova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of work engagement and workaholism, and also the current research. Work engagement differs from workaholism as a psychological phenomenon, but both concepts are closely connected with each other. The scientific research of the phenomena mentioned above began only in 1970, when Oates published his first book called “On being a “workaholic”. Each employee has to find balance between private life and work to get utmost job satisfaction, and to perform his/her job responsibilities productively. Work engaged staff have higher levels of subjective comfort and psychological well-being, without any experience of occupational deteriorations. In modern psychology, there is no prescription for perfect recipe of finding balance between work and family that entails different angles of considering work engagement and workaholism, their causes and prevention mechanisms. On the other hand, the impact of excessive work engagement may be one of the reasons of developing negative human functional states that plays a moderating role in the transit stage from work engagement to workaholism. Schaufeli discribed work engagement as a positive, affective-motivational state of fulfillment that can be characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Workaholism is a multidimensional construct, which can be linked to both positive and negative outcomes. At the contemporary stage of scientific development a lot of difficulties in studying workaholism and work engagement could be analyzed, e.g. there are no adopted Russian diagnostics instruments to assess workaholism and its manifastations. Thus, further research should be devoted to the issues of choosing proper research instruments in order to obtain clear and reliable results.

  5. Atoll groundwater movement and its response to climatic and sea-level fluctuations

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater resources of low-lying atoll islands are threatened due to short-term and long-term changes in rainfall, wave climate, and sea level. A better understanding of how these forcings affect the limited groundwater resources was explored on Roi-Namur in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. As part of a 16-month study, a rarely recorded island-overwash event occurred and the island’s aquifer’s response was measured. The findings suggest that small-scale overwash events cause an increase in salinity of the freshwater lens that returns to pre-overwash conditions within one month. The overwash event is addressed in the context of climate-related local sea-level change, which suggests that overwash events and associated degradations in freshwater resources are likely to increase in severity in the future due to projected rises in sea level. Other forcings, such as severe rainfall events, were shown to have caused a sudden freshening of the aquifer, with salinity levels retuning to pre-rainfall levels within three months. Tidal forcing of the freshwater lens was observed in electrical resistivity profiles, high-resolution conductivity, groundwater-level well measurements and through submarine groundwater discharge calculations. Depth-specific geochemical pore water measurements further assessed and confirmed the distinct boundaries between fresh and saline water masses in the aquifer. The identification of the freshwater lens’ saline boundaries is essential for a quantitative evaluation of the aquifers freshwater resources and help understand how these resources may be impacted by climate change and anthropogenic activities.

  6. Atoll Groundwater Movement and Its Response to Climatic and Sea-Level Fluctuations

    Ferdinand K. J. Oberle

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater resources of low-lying atoll islands are threatened due to short-term and long-term changes in rainfall, wave climate, and sea level. A better understanding of how these forcings affect the limited groundwater resources was explored on Roi-Namur in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. As part of a 16-month study, a rarely recorded island-overwash event occurred and the island’s aquifer’s response was measured. The findings suggest that small-scale overwash events cause an increase in salinity of the freshwater lens that returns to pre-overwash conditions within one month. The overwash event is addressed in the context of climate-related local sea-level change, which suggests that overwash events and associated degradations in freshwater resources are likely to increase in severity in the future due to projected rises in sea level. Other forcings, such as severe rainfall events, were shown to have caused a sudden freshening of the aquifer, with salinity levels retuning to pre-rainfall levels within three months. Tidal forcing of the freshwater lens was observed in electrical resistivity profiles, high-resolution conductivity, groundwater-level well measurements and through submarine groundwater discharge calculations. Depth-specific geochemical pore water measurements further assessed and confirmed the distinct boundaries between fresh and saline water masses in the aquifer. The identification of the freshwater lens’ saline boundaries is essential for a quantitative evaluation of the aquifers freshwater resources and help understand how these resources may be impacted by climate change and anthropogenic activities.

  7. Engaged work teams in healthy companies: drivers, processes, and outcomes of team work engagement

    Torrente Barberà, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis analyses work engagement in the context of work teams taking a collective, psychosocial perspective. Throughout this thesis, the following topics will be addressed: 1) the state-of-the-art in the topic of team work engagement, 2) the measurement of team work engagement, 3) the association of team work engagement with other relevant individual-level constructs and how it fits in traditional research models in the field of Positive Occupational Health Psychology, 4) the antecede...

  8. Plasticity in leaf-level water relations of tropical rainforest trees in response to experimental drought.

    Binks, Oliver; Meir, Patrick; Rowland, Lucy; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Vasconcelos, Steel Silva; de Oliveira, Alex Antonio Ribeiro; Ferreira, Leandro; Christoffersen, Bradley; Nardini, Andrea; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The tropics are predicted to become warmer and drier, and understanding the sensitivity of tree species to drought is important for characterizing the risk to forests of climate change. This study makes use of a long-term drought experiment in the Amazon rainforest to evaluate the role of leaf-level water relations, leaf anatomy and their plasticity in response to drought in six tree genera. The variables (osmotic potential at full turgor, turgor loss point, capacitance, elastic modulus, relative water content and saturated water content) were compared between seasons and between plots (control and through-fall exclusion) enabling a comparison between short- and long-term plasticity in traits. Leaf anatomical traits were correlated with water relation parameters to determine whether water relations differed among tissues. The key findings were: osmotic adjustment occurred in response to the long-term drought treatment; species resistant to drought stress showed less osmotic adjustment than drought-sensitive species; and water relation traits were correlated with tissue properties, especially the thickness of the abaxial epidermis and the spongy mesophyll. These findings demonstrate that cell-level water relation traits can acclimate to long-term water stress, and highlight the limitations of extrapolating the results of short-term studies to temporal scales associated with climate change. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Child-Level Predictors of Responsiveness to Evidence-Based Mathematics Intervention.

    Powell, Sarah R; Cirino, Paul T; Malone, Amelia S

    2017-07-01

    We identified child-level predictors of responsiveness to 2 types of mathematics (calculation and word-problem) intervention among 2nd-grade children with mathematics difficulty. Participants were 250 children in 107 classrooms in 23 schools pretested on mathematics and general cognitive measures and posttested on mathematics measures. We assigned classrooms randomly assigned to calculation intervention, word-problem intervention, or business-as-usual control. Intervention lasted 17 weeks. Path analyses indicated that scores on working memory and language comprehension assessments moderated responsiveness to calculation intervention. No moderators were identified for responsiveness to word-problem intervention. Across both intervention groups and the control group, attentive behavior predicted both outcomes. Initial calculation skill predicted the calculation outcome, and initial language comprehension predicted word-problem outcomes. These results indicate that screening for calculation intervention should include a focus on working memory, language comprehension, attentive behavior, and calculations. Screening for word-problem intervention should focus on attentive behavior and word problems.

  10. Radio-adaptation: cellular and molecular features of a response to low levels of ionizing radiation

    Rigaud, O.

    1998-01-01

    It is well established that sublethal doses of DNA damaging agents induce protective mechanisms against a subsequent high dose treatment ; for instance, the phenomenon of radio-adaptation in the case of ionizing radiations. Since the early observation described in 1984, numerous studies have confirmed the radio-adaptive response in terms of reduction of chromosomal breaks for varied biological models in vitro and in vivo. Evidence for an adaptive response against the induction of gene mutations and the lethal effect is clearly demonstrated. This paper reviews the experimental results describing various aspects of these adaptive responses expressed on these different biological end-points. The molecular mechanism underlying radio-adaptation still remains nuclear. The development of this phenomenon requires de novo synthesis of transcripts and proteins during the time interval between the two doses. Some data are consistent with the hypotheses that these gene products would be involved in the activation of DNA repair pathways and antioxidant systems. However, a major question still remains unanswered; indeed, it is not clear whether or not the radio-adaptation could affect the estimation of cancer risk related with low level exposure to ionizing radiation, a major concern in radioprotection. Until such data are available, it is yet unwise to evoke the beneficial effects of radio-adaptation. (authors)

  11. Determination of the Timing and Level of Activities of Lumbopelvic Muscles in Response to Postural Perturbations

    S Ebrahimi Takamjani

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most important concerns in orthopedic medicine is the low back. Considering the importance of muscle function in preventing LBT by controlling too much load and stress applied on the spinal joints and ligaments. Materials and Methods: The aim of this research was to determine the timing and level of activities of lumbopelvic muscles in response to postural perturbations caused by unexpected loading of the upper limbs in standing on three different supporting surfaces (neutral, positive slope, negative slope in 20 healthy females 18 to 30 years old ( = 23.20 SD = 2.55 . The electromyographic signals were recorded from the deltoid, gluteus maximus, internal oblique abdominis and lumbar paraspinal muscles of the dominant side of the body to evaluate the onset time, end time, level of muscle activity (RMS and duration of different muscles in one task and one muscle in different tasks. Results: The results showed that the agonists (posterior muscles activated at first to compensate the flexor torque caused by loading and then the antagonists (anterior muscles switched-on to compensate the reaction forces caused by agonist activities. With regards to continuous activity of internal oblique and its attachments via thoracalumbar fascia to the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae, it can be considered as one of the major stabilizer muscles of the trunk . Conclusion: Finally the results indicated that supporting surface type didn’t have any effect on timing and scaling of muscle activities in different tasks suggesting that probably spinal and trunk priprioceptors are just responsible for triggering postural responses and they don’t have any role in determining timing and scaling.

  12. Measuring engagement effectiveness in social media

    Li, Lei; Sun, Tong; Peng, Wei; Li, Tao

    2012-03-01

    Social media is becoming increasingly prevalent with the advent of web 2.0 technologies. Popular social media websites, such as Twitter and Facebook, are attracting a gigantic number of online users to post and share information. An interesting phenomenon under this trend involves that more and more users share their experiences or issues with regard to a product, and then the product service agents use commercial social media listening and engagement tools (e.g. Radian6, Sysomos, etc.) to response to users' complaints or issues and help them tackle their problems. This is often called customer care in social media or social customer relationship management (CRM). However, all these existing commercial social media tools only provide an aggregated level of trends, patterns and sentiment analysis based on the keyword-centric brand relevant data, which have little insights for answering one of the key questions in social CRM system: how effective is our social customer care engagement? In this paper, we focus on addressing the problem of how to measure the effectiveness of engagement for service agents in customer care. Traditional CRM effectiveness measurements are defined under the scenario of the call center, where the effectiveness is mostly based on the duration time per call and/or number of answered calls per day. Different from customer care in a call center, we can obtain detailed conversations between agents and customers in social media, and therefore the effectiveness can be measured by analyzing the content of conversations and the sentiment of customers.

  13. Measuring patient safety culture: an assessment of the clustering of responses at unit level and hospital level

    Smits, M.; Wagner, C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wal, van der G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the claim that the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) measures patient safety culture instead of mere individual attitudes and to determine the most appropriate level (individual, unit or hospital level) for interventions aimed at improving the culture of patient

  14. Measuring patient safety culture : an assessment of the clustering of responses at unit level and hospital level

    Smits, M.; Wagner, C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wal, G. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To test the claim that the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) measures patient safety culture instead of mere individual attitudes and to determine the most appropriate level (individual, unit or hospital level) for interventions aimed at improving the culture of patient

  15. Sea-level response to abrupt ocean warming of Antarctic ice shelves

    Pattyn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica's contribution to global sea-level rise increases steadily. A fundamental question remains whether the ice discharge will lead to marine ice sheet instability (MISI) and collapse of certain sectors of the ice sheet or whether ice loss will increase linearly with the warming trends. Therefore, we employ a newly developed ice sheet model of the Antarctic ice sheet, called f.ETISh (fast Elementary Thermomechanical Ice Sheet model) to simulate ice sheet response to abrupt perturbations in ocean and atmospheric temperature. The f.ETISh model is a vertically integrated hybrid (SSA/SIA) ice sheet model including ice shelves. Although vertically integrated, thermomechanical coupling is ensured through a simplified representation of ice sheet thermodynamics based on an analytical solution of the vertical temperature profile, including strain heating and horizontal advection. The marine boundary is represented by a flux condition either coherent with power-law basal sliding (Pollard & Deconto (2012) based on Schoof (2007)) or according to Coulomb basal friction (Tsai et al., 2015), both taking into account ice-shelf buttressing. Model initialization is based on optimization of the basal friction field. Besides the traditional MISMIP tests, new tests with respect to MISI in plan-view models have been devised. The model is forced with stepwise ocean and atmosphere temperature perturbations. The former is based on a parametrised sub-shelf melt (limited to ice shelves), while the latter is based on present-day mass balance/surface temperature and corrected for elevation changes. Surface melting is introduced using a PDD model. Results show a general linear response in mass loss to ocean warming. Nonlinear response due to MISI occurs under specific conditions and is highly sensitive to the basal conditions near the grounding line, governed by both the initial conditions and the basal sliding/deformation model. The Coulomb friction model leads to significantly higher

  16. The climate response of the Indo-Pacific warm pool to glacial sea level

    Di Nezio, Pedro N.; Timmermann, Axel; Tierney, Jessica E.; Jin, Fei-Fei; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Rosenbloom, Nan; Mapes, Brian; Neale, Rich; Ivanovic, Ruza F.; Montenegro, Alvaro

    2016-06-01

    Growing climate proxy evidence suggests that changes in sea level are important drivers of tropical climate change on glacial-interglacial timescales. These paleodata suggest that rainfall patterns over the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) are highly sensitive to the landmass configuration of the Maritime Continent and that lowered sea level contributed to large-scale drying during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, approximately 21,000 years B.P.). Using the Community Earth System Model Version 1.2 (CESM1), we investigate the mechanisms by which lowered sea level influenced the climate of the IPWP during the LGM. The CESM1 simulations show that, in agreement with previous hypotheses, changes in atmospheric circulation are initiated by the exposure of the Sunda and Sahul shelves. Ocean dynamical processes amplify the changes in atmospheric circulation by increasing the east-west sea surface temperature (SST) gradient along the equatorial Indian Ocean. The coupled mechanism driving this response is akin to the Bjerknes feedback and results in a large-scale climatic reorganization over the Indian Ocean with impacts extending from east Africa to the western tropical Pacific. Unlike exposure of the Sunda shelf, exposure of Sahul shelf and the associated changes in surface albedo play a key role because of the positive feedback. This mechanism could explain the pattern of dry (wet) eastern (western) Indian Ocean identified in climate proxies and LGM simulations. However, this response also requires a strengthened SST gradient along the equatorial Indian Ocean, a pattern that is not evident in marine paleoreconstructions. Strategies to resolve this issue are discussed.

  17. Myocardial Creatine Levels Do Not Influence Response to Acute Oxidative Stress in Isolated Perfused Heart

    Aksentijević, Dunja; Zervou, Sevasti; Faller, Kiterie M. E.; McAndrew, Debra J.; Schneider, Jurgen E.; Neubauer, Stefan; Lygate, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple studies suggest creatine mediates anti-oxidant activity in addition to its established role in cellular energy metabolism. The functional significance for the heart has yet to be established, but antioxidant activity could contribute to the cardioprotective effect of creatine in ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Objectives To determine whether intracellular creatine levels influence responses to acute reactive oxygen species (ROS) exposure in the intact beating heart. We hypothesised that mice with elevated creatine due to over-expression of the creatine transporter (CrT-OE) would be relatively protected, while mice with creatine-deficiency (GAMT KO) would fare worse. Methods and Results CrT-OE mice were pre-selected for creatine levels 20–100% above wild-type using in vivo 1H–MRS. Hearts were perfused in isovolumic Langendorff mode and cardiac function monitored throughout. After 20 min equilibration, hearts were perfused with either H2O2 0.5 µM (30 min), or the anti-neoplastic drug doxorubicin 15 µM (100 min). Protein carbonylation, creatine kinase isoenzyme activities and phospho-PKCδ expression were quantified in perfused hearts as markers of oxidative damage and apoptotic signalling. Wild-type hearts responded to ROS challenge with a profound decline in contractile function that was ameliorated by co-administration of catalase or dexrazoxane as positive controls. In contrast, the functional deterioration in CrT-OE and GAMT KO hearts was indistinguishable from wild-type controls, as was the extent of oxidative damage and apoptosis. Exogenous creatine supplementation also failed to protect hearts from doxorubicin-induced dysfunction. Conclusions Intracellular creatine levels do not influence the response to acute ROS challenge in the intact beating heart, arguing against creatine exerting (patho-)physiologically relevant anti-oxidant activity. PMID:25272153

  18. Consideration of epigenetic responses at organisms chronically exposed to low levels of radioactive substances

    Gombeau, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This work integrates within the general framework of the European program COMET (7. Framework Programme EURATOM) and aims to assess the epigenetic responses, and particularly DNA methylation, during chronic exposure to low levels of radioactive materials within two particularly representative contexts of radioecological issues (i.e. uranium mining area and Fukushima post-accidental context). During a first experiment, zebra fish (Danio rerio) were exposed in laboratory controlled conditions to environmentally relevant concentrations of depleted uranium: 2 and 20 μg L"-"1. This experiment allowed an impact on the genomic DNA methylation to be demonstrated, mainly in exposed males, which increased with the duration and level of exposure. In a second experiment, we observed an impact on DNA methylation patterns in the progeny of exposed parents, as well as a perturbation of transcriptomics (i.e. epigenetic processes, DNA damage signaling and repair pathways, embryogenesis) and histological damage in larvae skeletal muscle from exposed parents. The methods developed were applied to the second context focusing on the study of biological effects induced by radionuclides emitted following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. The analyses performed on the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) revealed a positive correlation between the total dose of radiation absorbed by these frogs (correlated to "1"3"7Cs accumulation), hyper-methylation of genomic DNA as well as increasing damage to mitochondrial DNA. This work highlighted the sensitivity of epigenetic responses in different biological models exposed to low levels of radionuclides. Additionally, these epigenetic modifications are stable over the time and involved in the transfer of the parental toxicity of depleted uranium. As such, the epigenetic marks could be used to further characterize adaptation mechanisms and potential trans-generational effects induced by radionuclides. (author)

  19. Engagement, resilience and empathy in nursing assistants.

    Navarro-Abal, Yolanda; López-López, M José; Climent-Rodríguez, José A

    To analyse the levels of engagement, resilience and empathy, and the relationship between them, in a sample of nursing assistants working in different private institutions in Huelva. A transversal, descriptive study. The sample comprised 128 nursing assistants working in private health centres of Huelva. They were given the following instruments: resilience scale Wagnild and Young, Interpersonal Reactivity Index and Utrech Work Engagement Scale. There is a relationship between the cognitive and emotional components of engagement and empathy. Certain sociodemographic variables associated with the organisation of work and working conditions are associated with level of engagement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Detailed assessment of gene activation levels by multiple hypoxia-responsive elements under various hypoxic conditions.

    Takeuchi, Yasuto; Inubushi, Masayuki; Jin, Yong-Nan; Murai, Chika; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Hata, Hironobu; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2014-12-01

    HIF-1/HRE pathway is a promising target for the imaging and the treatment of intractable malignancy (HIF-1; hypoxia-inducible factor 1, HRE; hypoxia-responsive element). The purposes of our study are: (1) to assess the gene activation levels resulting from various numbers of HREs under various hypoxic conditions, (2) to evaluate the bidirectional activity of multiple HREs, and (3) to confirm whether multiple HREs can induce gene expression in vivo. Human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells were transiently transfected by the constructs containing a firefly luciferase reporter gene and various numbers (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of HREs (nHRE+, nHRE-). The relative luciferase activities were measured under various durations of hypoxia (6, 12, 18, and 24 h), O2 concentrations (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 %), and various concentrations of deferoxamine mesylate (20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 µg/mL growth medium). The bidirectional gene activation levels by HREs were examined in the constructs (dual-luc-nHREs) containing firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter genes at each side of nHREs. Finally, to test whether the construct containing 12HRE and the NIS reporter gene (12HRE-NIS) can induce gene expression in vivo, SPECT imaging was performed in a mouse xenograft model. (1) gene activation levels by HREs tended to increase with increasing HRE copy number, but a saturation effect was observed in constructs with more than 6 or 8 copies of an HRE, (2) gene activation levels by HREs increased remarkably during 6-12 h of hypoxia, but not beyond 12 h, (3) gene activation levels by HREs decreased with increasing O2 concentrations, but could be detected even under mild hypoxia at 16 % O2, (4) the bidirectionally proportional activity of the HRE was confirmed regardless of the hypoxic severity, and (5) NIS expression driven by 12 tandem copies of an HRE in response to hypoxia could be visualized on in vivo SPECT imaging. The results of this study will help in the understanding and assessment of

  1. Evaluation of Dynamic Coastal Response to Sea-level Rise Modifies Inundation Likelihood

    Lentz, Erika E.; Thieler, E. Robert; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stippa, Sawyer R.; Horton, Radley M.; Gesch, Dean B.

    2016-01-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) poses a range of threats to natural and built environments, making assessments of SLR-induced hazards essential for informed decision making. We develop a probabilistic model that evaluates the likelihood that an area will inundate (flood) or dynamically respond (adapt) to SLR. The broad-area applicability of the approach is demonstrated by producing 30x30m resolution predictions for more than 38,000 sq km of diverse coastal landscape in the northeastern United States. Probabilistic SLR projections, coastal elevation and vertical land movement are used to estimate likely future inundation levels. Then, conditioned on future inundation levels and the current land-cover type, we evaluate the likelihood of dynamic response versus inundation. We find that nearly 70% of this coastal landscape has some capacity to respond dynamically to SLR, and we show that inundation models over-predict land likely to submerge. This approach is well suited to guiding coastal resource management decisions that weigh future SLR impacts and uncertainty against ecological targets and economic constraints.

  2. DReAM: Demand Response Architecture for Multi-level District Heating and Cooling Networks

    Bhattacharya, Saptarshi; Chandan, Vikas; Arya, Vijay; Kar, Koushik

    2017-05-19

    In this paper, we exploit the inherent hierarchy of heat exchangers in District Heating and Cooling (DHC) networks and propose DReAM, a novel Demand Response (DR) architecture for Multi-level DHC networks. DReAM serves to economize system operation while still respecting comfort requirements of individual consumers. Contrary to many present day DR schemes that work on a consumer level granularity, DReAM works at a level of hierarchy above buildings, i.e. substations that supply heat to a group of buildings. This improves the overall DR scalability and reduce the computational complexity. In the first step of the proposed approach, mathematical models of individual substations and their downstream networks are abstracted into appropriately constructed low-complexity structural forms. In the second step, this abstracted information is employed by the utility to perform DR optimization that determines the optimal heat inflow to individual substations rather than buildings, in order to achieve the targeted objectives across the network. We validate the proposed DReAM framework through experimental results under different scenarios on a test network.

  3. Seasonal responses of six Poaceae to differential levels of solar UV-B radiation

    Deckmyn, G.; Impens, I.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of changes in solar UV-B on the growth and pigmentation of six grass species from cold-temperate grasslands (Lolium perenne, Lolium multiflorum, Festuca arundinacea, Festuca rubra, Phleum pratense and Dactylis glomerata) in spring and summer were studied. The grasses were grown in greenhouses with different foils, resulting in three treatments: no UV-B, 80% of ambient and 90% of ambient UV-BBE (biologically effective UV-B). The results indicated important effects of ambient UV-B levels on grass, but the different species reacted in very different ways. Both morphology and biomass production were influenced by UV-B in some species. However, changes in biomass production did not necessarily occur within the same species as changes in morphology. The grasses were more sensitive in summer. Overall, only F. rubra was positively influenced by UV-B under all circumstances. The biomass of D. glomerata and L. perenne was reduced by UV-B in spring and summer. Morphological changes included reduced height and increased tillering. The sensitivity of the different species was partially explained by their ability to reduce their specific leaf area in response to UV-B. Only the more sensitive species showed increased production of protective pigments. Overall, there were important differences between the effect of a low level of UV-B, and the further increase in UV-B, indicating that several mechanisms are operating at different light levels. (author)

  4. Dose-Response of High-Intensity Training (HIT) on Atheroprotective miRNA-126 Levels

    Schmitz, Boris; Schelleckes, Katrin; Nedele, Johanna; Thorwesten, Lothar; Klose, Andreas; Lenders, Malte; Krüger, Michael; Brand, Eva; Brand, Stefan-Martin

    2017-01-01

    Aim: MicroRNA-126 (miR-126) exerts beneficial effects on vascular integrity, angiogenesis, and atherosclerotic plaque stability. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the dose-response relationship of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on miR-126-3p and -5p levels. Methods: Sixty-one moderately trained individuals (females = 31 [50.8%]; 22.0 ± 1.84 years) were consecutively recruited and allocated into three matched groups using exercise capacity. During a 4-week intervention a HIIT group performed three exercise sessions/week of 4 × 30 s at maximum speed (all-out), a progressive HIIT (proHIIT) group performed three exercise sessions/week of 4 × 30 s at maximum speed (all-out) with one extra session every week (up to 7 × 30 s) and a low-intensity training (LIT) control group performed three exercise sessions/week for 25 min HIIT groups (after 4 min of high-intensity running). After the intervention, the LIT group presented an increase in miR-126-3p, while in the HIIT group, miR-126-3p levels were still reduced (all p HIIT (−1.05 ± 2.6 units). Conclusions: LIT and proHIIT may be performed to increase individual miR-126 levels. HIIT without progression was less effective in increasing miR-126. PMID:28611681

  5. Civic Engagement Patterns of Undocumented Mexican Students

    Perez, William; Espinoza, Roberta; Ramos, Karina; Coronado, Heidi; Cortes, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the civic engagement of undocumented Mexican students. Civic engagement was defined as providing a social service, activism, tutoring, and functionary work. Survey data results (n = 126) suggest that despite high feelings of rejection because of their undocumented status, part-time employment, and household responsibilities,…

  6. Exercise electrocardiographic responses and serum cystatin C levels among metabolic syndrome patients without overt diabetes mellitus

    Tanindi A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Asli Tanindi1 Hilal Olgun1 Ayse Tuncel2 Bulent Celik3 Hatice Pasaoglu2 Bulent Boyaci11Department of Cardiology, 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Statistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Gazi University, Ankara, TurkeyObjectives: An impaired heart rate response during exercise (chronotropic incompetence and an impaired heart rate recovery (HRR after exercise are predictors of cardiovascular risk and mortality. Cystatin C is a novel marker for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate exercise electrocardiographic responses in patients with metabolic syndrome who were without overt diabetes mellitus, in addition to the association of serum cystatin C levels with the exercise electrocardiographic test results.Method: Forty-three consecutive patients admitted to a cardiology outpatient clinic without angina pectoris were recruited if they met criteria for metabolic syndrome but did not have overt diabetes mellitus. Serum cystatin C levels were measured, and all participants underwent exercise electrocardiographic testing. Patients who were found to have ischemia had a coronary angiography procedure.Results: The mean cystatin C level of patients was higher in metabolic syndrome group than healthy controls (610.1 ± 334.02 vs 337.3 ± 111.01 µg/L; P < 0.001. The percentage of patients with ischemia confirmed by coronary angiography was 13.9% in the metabolic syndrome group. Cystatin C levels in the ischemic patients of the metabolic syndrome group were higher than that in nonischemic patients (957.00 ± 375.6 vs 553.8 ± 295.3 µg /L; P = 0.005. Chronotropic incompetence was observed in 30.2% of the patients with metabolic syndrome compared with 16.7% in the control group (P = 0.186. Chronotropic response indices were 0.8 ± 0.18 versus 0.9 ± 0.10 for the two groups, respectively (P = 0.259. HRR was significantly lower in the metabolic syndrome patients compared with the controls (20.1 ± 8.01 vs 25.2

  7. Baseline serum CXCL10 and IL-12 levels may predict severe asthmatics' responsiveness to omalizumab.

    Suzukawa, Maho; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ohshima, Nobuharu; Tashimo, Hiroyuki; Asari, Isao; Tajiri, Tomoko; Niimi, Akio; Nagase, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Shoji, Shunsuke; Ohta, Ken

    2018-01-01

    Omalizumab, a humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, is the first molecularly targeted drug for severe asthmatics. However, responses to omalizumab vary widely among patients. This study aimed to assess the potential of baseline serum cytokine levels as predictors of responsiveness to omalizumab. Thirty-one patients with severe, persistent asthma were enrolled in this study and administered omalizumab for at least 1 year. Response to omalizumab was assessed based on the physician's global evaluation of treatment effectiveness (GETE) at 48 weeks of treatment. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 16 and 32 weeks after starting omalizumab and measured for 30 cytokines by Luminex 200 and ELISA. Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels, peripheral blood eosinophil counts, pre-bronchodilator pulmonary functions and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire scores were determined at baseline and 16, 32 and 48 weeks after starting omalizumab. The numbers of clinically significant asthma exacerbations in the previous year and during 48 weeks of treatment with omalizumab were assessed. GETE assessment showed 19 responders (61.3%) and 12 non-responders (38.7%). Responders showed significantly higher levels of CXCL10 and IL-12 at baseline compared to non-responders (CXCL10: responders, 1530.0 ± 315.2 pg/ml vs. non-responders, 1066.0 ± 396.8 pg/ml, P = 0.001; IL-12: responders, 60.2 ± 39.2 pg/ml vs. non-responders, 32.2 ± 26.3 pg/ml, P = 0.04). ROC curves to distinguish responders from non-responders using the baseline serum CXCL10 level showed a good AUC of 0.83. At 32 weeks of omalizumab therapy, serum CXCL10 tended to be increased (1350 ± 412.3 pg/ml at baseline vs. 1529 ± 637.6 pg/ml at 32 weeks, P = 0.16) and serum IL-12 tended to be decreased (49.4 ± 37.0 pg/ml at baseline vs. 43.9 ± 30.9 pg/ml at 32 weeks, P = 0.05). On the other hand, serum IL-5 and PDGF were significantly decreased (IL-5: 54.2 ± 13.8 pg/ml at baseline vs. 49

  8. Striatal response to reward anticipation: evidence for a systems-level intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia.

    Grimm, Oliver; Heinz, Andreas; Walter, Henrik; Kirsch, Peter; Erk, Susanne; Haddad, Leila; Plichta, Michael M; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Pöhland, Lydia; Mohnke, Sebastian; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mattheisen, Manuel; Witt, Stephanie H; Schäfer, Axel; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus; Rietschel, Marcella; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Attenuated ventral striatal response during reward anticipation is a core feature of schizophrenia that is seen in prodromal, drug-naive, and chronic schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenia is highly heritable, raising the possibility that this phenotype is related to the genetic risk for the disorder. To examine a large sample of healthy first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients and compare their neural responses to reward anticipation with those of carefully matched controls without a family psychiatric history. To further support the utility of this phenotype, we studied its test-retest reliability, its potential brain structural contributions, and the effects of a protective missense variant in neuregulin 1 (NRG1) linked to schizophrenia by meta-analysis (ie, rs10503929). Examination of a well-established monetary reward anticipation paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging at a university hospital; voxel-based morphometry; test-retest reliability analysis of striatal activations in an independent sample of 25 healthy participants scanned twice with the same task; and imaging genetics analysis of the control group. A total of 54 healthy first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients and 80 controls matched for demographic, psychological, clinical, and task performance characteristics were studied. Blood oxygen level-dependent response during reward anticipation, analysis of intraclass correlations of functional contrasts, and associations between striatal gray matter volume and NRG1 genotype. Compared with controls, healthy first-degree relatives showed a highly significant decrease in ventral striatal activation during reward anticipation (familywise error-corrected P systems-level functional phenotype is reliable (with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.59-0.73), independent of local gray matter volume (with no corresponding group differences and no correlation to function, and with all uncorrected P values >.05), and affected by

  9. Dose-Response of High-Intensity Training (HIT on Atheroprotective miRNA-126 Levels

    Boris Schmitz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: MicroRNA-126 (miR-126 exerts beneficial effects on vascular integrity, angiogenesis, and atherosclerotic plaque stability. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the dose-response relationship of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on miR-126-3p and -5p levels.Methods: Sixty-one moderately trained individuals (females = 31 [50.8%]; 22.0 ± 1.84 years were consecutively recruited and allocated into three matched groups using exercise capacity. During a 4-week intervention a HIIT group performed three exercise sessions/week of 4 × 30 s at maximum speed (all-out, a progressive HIIT (proHIIT group performed three exercise sessions/week of 4 × 30 s at maximum speed (all-out with one extra session every week (up to 7 × 30 s and a low-intensity training (LIT control group performed three exercise sessions/week for 25 min <75% of maximum heart rate. Exercise miR-126-3p/-5p plasma levels were determined using capillary blood from earlobes.Results: No exercise-induced increase in miR-126 levels was detected at baseline, neither in the LIT (after 25 min low-intensity running nor the HIIT groups (after 4 min of high-intensity running. After the intervention, the LIT group presented an increase in miR-126-3p, while in the HIIT group, miR-126-3p levels were still reduced (all p < 0.05. An increase for both, miR-126-3p and -5p levels (all p < 0.05, pre- vs. during and post-exercise was detected in the proHIIT group. Between group analysis revealed that miR-126-3p levels after LIT and proHIIT increased by 2.12 ± 2.55 and 1.24 ± 2.46 units (all p < 0.01, respectively, compared to HIIT (−1.05 ± 2.6 units.Conclusions: LIT and proHIIT may be performed to increase individual miR-126 levels. HIIT without progression was less effective in increasing miR-126.

  10. Low baseline levels of NK cells may predict a positive response to ipilimumab in melanoma therapy.

    Tietze, Julia K; Angelova, Daniela; Heppt, Markus V; Ruzicka, Thomas; Berking, Carola

    2017-07-01

    The introduction of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has been a breakthrough in the therapy of metastatic melanoma. The influence of ICB on T-cell populations has been studied extensively, but little is known about the effect on NK cells. In this study, we analysed the relative and absolute amounts of NK cells and of the subpopulations of CD56 dim and CD56 bright NK cells among the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 32 patients with metastatic melanoma before and under treatment with ipilimumab or pembrolizumab by flow cytometry. In 15 (47%) patients, an abnormal low amount of NK cells was found at baseline. Analysis of the subpopulations showed also low or normal baseline levels for CD56 dim NK cells, whereas the baseline levels of CD56 bright NK cells were either normal or abnormally high. The relative and absolute amounts of NK cells and of CD56 dim and CD56 bright NK cell subpopulations in patients with a normal baseline did not change under treatment. However, patients with a low baseline of NK cells and CD56 dim NK cells showed a significant increase in these immune cell subsets, but the amounts remained to be lower than the normal baseline. The amount of CD56 bright NK cells was unaffected by treatment. The baseline levels of NK cells were correlated with the number of metastatic organs. Their proportion increased, whereas the expression of NKG2D decreased significantly when more than one organ was affected by metastases. Low baseline levels of NK cells and CD56 dim NK cells as well as normal baseline levels of CD56 bright NK cells correlated significantly with a positive response to ipilimumab but not to pembrolizumab. Survival curves of patients with low amounts of CD56 dim NK cells treated with ipilimumab showed a trend to longer survival. Normal baseline levels of CD56 bright NK cells were significantly correlated with longer survival as compared to patients with high baseline levels. In conclusion, analysis of the amounts of total NK cells

  11. Wetland Responses to Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Alizad, K.; Bilskie, M. V.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.; Morris, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal regions are vulnerable to flood risk due to climate change, sea level rise, and wetland losses. The Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) is a region in which extreme events are projected to be more intense under climate change and sea level rise scenarios [Wang et al., 2013; Bilskie et al., 2014]. Considering increased frequency and intensity of coastal flooding, wetlands are valuable natural resources that protect shorelines by dissipating waves and storm surges [Costanza et al., 2008]. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the response of salt marsh systems in different estuaries to sea level rise in the NGOM and their effects on storm surges to inform coastal managers to choose effective restoration plans. This research applies the coupled Hydro-MEM model [Alizad et al., 2016] to study three different estuarine systems in the NGOM. The model incorporates both sea level rise rate and feedbacks between physics and biology by coupling a hydrodynamic (ADCIRC) and salt marsh (MEM) model. The results of the model provide tidal hydrodynamics and biomass density change under four sea level rise projections during a 100-year period. The results are used to investigate marsh migration path in the estuarine systems. In addition, this study shows how marsh migration and biomass density change can impact storm surge modeling. The results imply the broader impacts of sea level rise on the estuarine systems in the NGOM. ReferencesAlizad, K., S. C. Hagen, J. T. Morris, P. Bacopoulos, M. V. Bilskie, J. Weishampel, and S. C. Medeiros (2016), A coupled, two-dimensional hydrodynamic-marsh model with biological feedback, Ecological Modeling, 327, 29-43. Bilskie, M. V., S. C. Hagen, S. C. Medeiros, and D. L. Passeri (2014), Dynamics of sea level rise and coastal flooding on a changing landscape, Geophysical Research Letters, 41(3), 927-934. Costanza, R., O. Pérez-Maqueo, M. L. Martinez, P. Sutton, S. J. Anderson, and K. Mulder (2008), The Value of Coastal Wetlands for Hurricane

  12. What Is Student Engagement?

    Groccia, James E.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter reviews the history and various definitions of student engagement and proposes a multidimensional model from which one can develop a variety of engagement opportunities that lead to a rich and challenging higher education experience.

  13. The glomerular parietal epithelial cell's responses are influenced by SM22 alpha levels.

    Naito, Shokichi; Pippin, Jeffrey W; Shankland, Stuart J

    2014-11-06

    Studies have shown in several diseases initially affecting podocytes, that the neighboring glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are secondarily involved. The PEC response might be reparative under certain circumstances, yet injurious under others. The factors governing these are not well understood. We have shown that SM22α, an actin-binding protein considered a marker of smooth muscle differentiation, is upregulated in podocytes and PECs in several models of podocyte disease. However, the impact of SM22α levels on PECs is not known. Experimental glomerular disease, characterized by primary podocyte injury, was induced in aged-matched SM22α+/+ and SM22α-/-mice by intraperitoneal injection of sheep anti-rabbit glomeruli antibody. Immunostaining methods were employed on days 7 and 14 of disease. The number of PEC transition cells, defined as cells co-expressing a PEC protein (PAX2) and podocyte protein (Synaptopodin) was higher in diseased SM22α-/-mice compared with SM22α+/+mice. WT1 staining along Bowman's capsule is higher in diseased SM22α-/-mice. This was accompanied by increased PEC proliferation (measured by ki-67 staining), and an increase in immunostaining for the progenitor marker NCAM, in a subpopulation of PECs in diseased SM22α-/-mice. In addition, immunostaining for vimentin and alpha smooth muscle actin, markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), was lower in diseased SM22α-/-mice compared to diseased SM22α+/+mice. SM22α levels may impact how PECs respond following a primary podocyte injury in experimental glomerular disease. Absent/lower levels favor an increase in PEC transition cells and PECs expressing a progenitor marker, and a lower EMT rate compared to SM22α+/+mice, where SM22 levels are markedly increased in PECs.

  14. Reef-scale modeling of coral calcification responses to ocean acidification and sea-level rise

    Nakamura, Takashi; Nadaoka, Kazuo; Watanabe, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Blanco, Ariel C.

    2018-03-01

    To predict coral responses to future environmental changes at the reef scale, the coral polyp model (Nakamura et al. in Coral Reefs 32:779-794, 2013), which reconstructs coral responses to ocean acidification, flow conditions and other factors, was incorporated into a reef-scale three-dimensional hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model. This coupled reef-scale model was compared to observations from the Shiraho fringing reef, Ishigaki Island, Japan, where the model accurately reconstructed spatiotemporal variation in reef hydrodynamic and geochemical parameters. The simulated coral calcification rate exhibited high spatial variation, with lower calcification rates in the nearshore and stagnant water areas due to isolation of the inner reef at low tide, and higher rates on the offshore side of the inner reef flat. When water is stagnant, bottom shear stress is low at night and thus oxygen diffusion rate from ambient water to the inside of the coral polyp limits respiration rate. Thus, calcification decreases because of the link between respiration and calcification. A scenario analysis was conducted using the reef-scale model with several pCO2 and sea-level conditions based on IPCC (Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013) scenarios. The simulation indicated that the coral calcification rate decreases with increasing pCO2. On the other hand, sea-level rise increases the calcification rate, particularly in the nearshore and the areas where water is stagnant at low tide under present conditions, as mass exchange, especially oxygen exchange at night, is enhanced between the corals and their ambient seawater due to the reduced stagnant period. When both pCO2 increase and sea-level rise occur concurrently, the calcification rate generally decreases due to the effects of ocean acidification. However, the

  15. Estimating aquifer properties from the water level response to Earth tides.

    Cutillo, Paula A; Bredehoeft, John D

    2011-01-01

    Water level fluctuations induced by tidal strains can be analyzed to estimate the elastic properties, porosity, and transmissivity of the surrounding aquifer material. We review underutilized methods for estimating aquifer properties from the confined response to earth tides. The earth tide analyses are applied to an open well penetrating a confined carbonate aquifer. The resulting range of elastic and hydraulic aquifer properties are in general agreement with that determined by other investigators for the area of the well. The analyses indicate that passive monitoring data from wells completed in sufficiently stiff, low porosity formations can provide useful information on the properties of the surrounding formation. Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association. No claim to original US government works.

  16. Analytical and empirical evaluation of low-level waste drum response to accident environments

    May, R.A.; Romesberg, L.E.; Yoshimura, H.R.; Baker, W.E.; Hokanson, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Based on results of tests to date, it was found that the structural response of low-level waste drums to impact environments can be generally predicted, both analytically and with subscale models. As currently represented, only the 1/4 scale models would adequately represent full scale drum deformation; however, additional work has shown that with proper heat treating the strength of the material used in the 1/8 scale containers can be reduced to the correct value. Both analytical models give results that are expected to be within the range of behavior of the full scale drums. Failure of the drum closure can be adequately inferred from the radial deformation results of both subscale tests and computer analyses. 6 figures

  17. Louisiana's Coastal Crisis: Characterizing Household and Community-Level Impacts and Responses

    Austin, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    Rich in natural resources and critical ecosystems, the Mississippi delta also is the site of numerous human communities, from sparsely populated towns to dense urban neighborhoods. People who live and work within the delta face major challenges as they confront land loss, subsidence, and storms. This presentation outlines key household and community-level impacts of these environmental changes and both individual and collective responses to them. Based on two decades of applied ethnographic research in the region, as well as the author's participation as an advisor to federal, state, and local organizations, the presentation considers historical and contemporary processes and practices, social organization, and cultural dynamics to analyze proposed policies for addressing the impacts.

  18. Response after Infection-Associated Rise in Clozapine Levels in Treatment-Resistant Schizoaffective Disorder

    Nina H. Grootendorst-van Mil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical management of patients with treatment-resistant psychotic disorders is still challenging despite years of extensive research. If first-line antipsychotic treatment proves ineffective, clozapine is considered golden standard. Herein, we report on a patient with schizoaffective disorder that initially showed no response to treatment with clozapine and ECT and therefore reached a therapeutic dead end. After an unintentional exposure to supratherapeutic clozapine levels, related to a pneumonia, a significant and persistent reduction of psychotic symptoms occurred. The report suggests a careful reevaluation of the clozapine dose in cases of treatment-resistant psychotic disorders with failed trials of clozapine. Further increase of dose may prove efficacious, although side effects should be closely monitored. Research to determine the upper threshold of clozapine for antipsychotic efficacy is warranted.

  19. Students Engaged in Learning

    Ismail, Emad A.; Groccia, James E.

    2018-01-01

    Engaging students in learning is a basic principle of effective undergraduate education. Outcomes of engaging students include meaningful learning experiences and enhanced skills in all learning domains. This chapter reviews the influence of engaging students in different forms of active learning on cognitive, psychomotor, and affective skill…

  20. Looking Past Primary Productivity: Benchmarking System Processes that Drive Ecosystem Level Responses in Models

    Cowdery, E.; Dietze, M.

    2017-12-01

    As atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide levels continue to increase, it is critical that terrestrial ecosystem models can accurately predict ecological responses to the changing environment. Current predictions of net primary productivity (NPP) in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration are highly variable and contain a considerable amount of uncertainty. Benchmarking model predictions against data are necessary to assess their ability to replicate observed patterns, but also to identify and evaluate the assumptions causing inter-model differences. We have implemented a novel benchmarking workflow as part of the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer (PEcAn) that is automated, repeatable, and generalized to incorporate different sites and ecological models. Building on the recent Free-Air CO2 Enrichment Model Data Synthesis (FACE-MDS) project, we used observational data from the FACE experiments to test this flexible, extensible benchmarking approach aimed at providing repeatable tests of model process representation that can be performed quickly and frequently. Model performance assessments are often limited to traditional residual error analysis; however, this can result in a loss of critical information. Models that fail tests of relative measures of fit may still perform well under measures of absolute fit and mathematical similarity. This implies that models that are discounted as poor predictors of ecological productivity may still be capturing important patterns. Conversely, models that have been found to be good predictors of productivity may be hiding error in their sub-process that result in the right answers for the wrong reasons. Our suite of tests have not only highlighted process based sources of uncertainty in model productivity calculations, they have also quantified the patterns and scale of this error. Combining these findings with PEcAn's model sensitivity analysis and variance decomposition strengthen our ability to identify which processes

  1. `Not hard to sway': a case study of student engagement in two large engineering classes

    Shekhar, Prateek; Borrego, Maura

    2018-07-01

    Although engineering education research has empirically validated the effectiveness of active learning in improving student learning over traditional lecture-based methods, the adoption of active learning in classrooms has been slow. One of the greatest reported barriers is student resistance towards engagement in active learning exercises. This paper argues that the level of student engagement in active learning classrooms is an interplay of social and physical classroom characteristics. Using classroom observations and instructor interviews, this study describes the influence of the interaction of student response systems and classroom layout on student engagement in two large active-learning-based engineering classrooms. The findings suggest that the use of different student response systems in combination with cluster-style seating arrangements can increase student engagement in large classrooms.

  2. Demand Response Technology Readiness Levels for Energy Management in Blocks of Buildings

    Tracey Crosbie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels deliver most of the flexibility in contemporary electricity systems. The pressing need to reduce CO2 emissions requires new methods to provide this flexibility. Demand response (DR offers consumers a significant role in the delivery of flexibility by reducing or shifting their electricity usage during periods of stress or constraint. Blocks of buildings offer more flexibility in the timing and use of energy than single buildings, however, and a lack of relevant scalable ICT tools hampers DR in blocks of buildings. To ameliorate this problem, a current innovation project called “Demand Response in Blocks of Buildings” (DR-BoB: www.dr-bob.eu has integrated existing technologies into a scalable cloud-based solution for DR in blocks of buildings. The degree to which the DR-BoB energy management solution can increase the ability of any given site to participate in DR is dependent upon its current energy systems, i.e., the energy metering, the telemetry and control technologies in building management systems, and the existence/capacity of local power generation and storage plants. To encourage the owners and managers of blocks of buildings to participate in DR, a method of assessing and validating the technological readiness to participate in DR energy management solutions at any given site is required. This paper describes the DR-BoB energy management solution and outlines what we have called the demand response technology readiness levels (DRTRLs for the implementation of such a solution in blocks of buildings.

  3. Detecting the Subtle Shape Differences in Hemodynamic Responses at the Group Level

    Gang eChen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the hemodynamic response (HDR is still not fully understood due to the multifaceted processes involved. Aside from the overall amplitude, the response may vary across cognitive states, tasks, brain regions, and subjects with respect to characteristics such as rise and fall speed, peak duration, undershoot shape, and overall duration. Here we demonstrate that the fixed-shape or adjusted-shape methods may fail to detect some shape subtleties. In contrast, the estimated-shape method (ESM through multiple basis functions can provide the opportunity to identify some subtle shape differences and achieve higher statistical power at both individual and group levels. Previously, some dimension reduction approaches focused on the peak magnitude, or made inferences based on the area under the curve or interaction, which can lead to potential misidentifications. By adopting a generic framework of multivariate modeling (MVM, we showcase a hybrid approach that is validated by simulations and real data. Unlike the few analyses that were limited to main effect, two- or three-way interactions, we extend the approach to an inclusive platform that is more adaptable than the conventional GLM, achieving a practical equipoise among representation, false positive control, statistical power, and modeling flexibility.

  4. Rheological and Mechanical Response Modifications for a Self-Leveling Mortar

    Pandermarakis Z.G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cases cement based materials demand a higher flowability and workability and this conventionally can’t be done without loss of its strength, due to the fact that the common practice to increase the workability is the addition of water. But, nowadays using a third generation superplasticizer (SP we can achieve the desire flowability without loss of its strength. The action of superplastisizers is to spread efficiently the cement grains and so to wetting better the cement grains giving a more homogeneous mixture with higher strength. Nine different mixtures were prepared adding a small percentage of SP (1%. The conditions to get a self levelling mortar, have to do not only with rheological but also with mechanical demands. The bending and compression test gave the achieving mechanical strength whereas their rheological response came through slump flow and v-funnel flow tests. With the help of a small amount of stabilizer we obtain a robust mixture that deserves the desire response at the field too.

  5. Rheological and Mechanical Response Modifications for a Self-Leveling Mortar

    Katsiadramis, N. J.; Sotiropoulou, A. B.; Pandermarakis, Z. G.

    2010-06-01

    In many cases cement based materials demand a higher flowability and workability and this conventionally can’t be done without loss of its strength, due to the fact that the common practice to increase the workability is the addition of water. But, nowadays using a third generation superplasticizer (SP) we can achieve the desire flowability without loss of its strength. The action of superplastisizers is to spread efficiently the cement grains and so to wetting better the cement grains giving a more homogeneous mixture with higher strength. Nine different mixtures were prepared adding a small percentage of SP (1%). The conditions to get a self levelling mortar, have to do not only with rheological but also with mechanical demands. The bending and compression test gave the achieving mechanical strength whereas their rheological response came through slump flow and v-funnel flow tests. With the help of a small amount of stabilizer we obtain a robust mixture that deserves the desire response at the field too.

  6. Requirement of trained first responders and national level preparedness for prevention and response to radiological terrorism

    Sharma, R.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    The increase in the usage of radioactive sources in various fields and the present scenario of adopting various means of terrorism indicates a possible environment for malicious usage of radioactive sources. Many nations, India inclusive, have to strengthen further it's capability to deal with Nuclear/Radiological Emergencies. The probable radiological emergency scenario in public domain involves inadvertent melting of radioactive material, transport accident involving radioactive material/sources and presence of orphan sources as reported elsewhere. Explosion of Radiological Dispersal Device (RDDs) or Improvised Nuclear Devices (IND) leading to spread of radioactive contamination in public places have been identified by IAEA as probable radiological threats. The IAEA documents put lot of emphasis, at national level, on training and educational issues related with Radiological Emergencies. The agencies and institutions dealing with radioactive sources have few personnel trained in radiation protection. Experience so far indicates that public awareness is also not adequate in the field of radiological safety which may create difficulties during emergency response in public domain. The major challenges are associated with mitigation, monitoring methodology, contaminated and overexposed casualties, decontamination and media briefing. In this paper, we have identified the educational needs for response to radiological emergency in India with major thrust on training. The paper has also enumerated the available educational and training infrastructure, the human resources, as well as the important stake holders for development of sustainable education and training programme. (author)

  7. Mechanical response of knee muscles in high level bodyboarders during performance

    Dario Rodríguez-Matoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: bodyboarding is a kind of surfing that has been growing very rapidly over the last decade and has now developed into one of the fastest growing water sports in the world. OBJECTIVES: evaluate the effects of fatigue on rectus femoris RF, vastus lateralis VL and vastus medialis VM and biceps femoris BF and semitendinosus ST during a high-level bodyboard competition using tensiomyography TMG. METHODS: subjects were 11 highly experienced years of practice: 15, SD=4.65 male bodyboarders age: 28.17, SD=2.89, body weight: 74.83, SD=6.13kg; height: 179.25, SD=3.93cm; BMI: 23.29, SD=1.81 participating in the final of the 2010 Spanish championship. RESULTS: the fatigue is especially evident due to a decrease in the values of relaxation time Tr and sustain time Ts caused by the specific characteristics of waves, how the waves evolve and the type of manoeuvre executed in competition due to the wave characteristics. The maximum radial displacement Dm value increased slightly in all muscles analysed and normalised response speed Vrn was stable, with a tendency to improve as athletes adapted to the type of physical effort and the environmental conditions of the competition. CONCLUSIONS: the study shows that the fatigue in the extensor and flexor muscles of the knee occurs in response to the demands of competition.

  8. Global warming response options in Brazil's forest sector: comparison of project-level costs and benefits

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    A project-level assessment of monetary and carbon costs and benefits for five classes of global warming response options in the forest sector is attempted for typical Brazilian conditions. Options considered are: silvicultural plantations (for pulp, charcoal and sawlogs), sustainable timber management and reduction of deforestation. Comparison of pulpwood and sawlog plantations with the vegetation characteristic of deforested areas indicates of modest carbon benefit. Plantations for charcoal can produce a substantial carbon benefit through fossil fuel substitution, but much of this calculated benefit disappears if discount rates greater than zero are applied to carbon. Sustainable timber management, when compared with existing forest, represents a net carbon loss, accumulation of carbon in wood products being insufficient to compensate for biomass reduction over a 100 year time scale. Reduction of deforestation has great potential as a global warming response option, its per-hectare carbon benefits being approximately four times that of silvicultural plantation establishment for pulp and sawlogs over a 100 year period. The costs of reducing deforestation are difficult to assess, however, due to the importance of government policy changes such as removal of land speculation and land tenure establishment as motives for clearing. Although these changes would not cost money and would have tremendous carbon and other benefits, they have not yet occurred. (Author)

  9. The scientific basis for the establishment of threshold levels and dose response relationships of carcinogenesis

    1975-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency hosted a two day Symposium from 2-3 December 1974 at its Headquarters, organized by the 'International Academy for Environmental Safety and the Forum fur Wissenschaft, Wirtschaft und Politik' on the subject 'Scientific Basis for the Establishment of Threshold. Levels and Dose Response Relationships of Carcinogenesis'. Following an introductory paper by the Radiation Biology Section of the Agency on 'Radiation Carcinogenesis - Dose Response Relationship, Threshold and Risk Estimates', a series of papers dealt with this problem in chemical carcinogenesis.It was suggested that more experiments should be done using non-human primates for tests of carcinogens, especially chemicals. Preliminary experiments using monkeys with a potent carcinogen - nitrosoamine - indicate that there could possibly be a dose where no effect can be observed during the 5 year period of study. It was also pointed out that the overall cost/benefit and risk/ benefit relationships should be taken into consideration in determining limits for chemicals which are potentially carcinogenic but are used routinely by the public and industries; these considerations have been weighed in setting exposure limits for radiation

  10. Structural damping values as a function of dynamic response stress and deformation levels

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Damping as it is normally defined is the means by which the response motion of a structural system is reduced as the result of energy losses. However, as used in the context of nuclear plant design, the effects of changes in structural stiffness, geometry, support configuration, and modulus of elasticity are also usually lumped under the general heading of damping in current design methods. For convenience in structural design, damping in usually assumed as viscous in nature and in recognition of its use in modal response spectrum dynamic analysis is normally expressed as a percent of critical. In general, it should be understood that damping as used in design or analysis of nuclear plants is an experimentally determined factor which is used to make the results of linear elasticity analysis of dynamic systems agree reasonably well with observed experimental results. In this paper, damping data existing in the open literature applicable to nuclear power plant structures and equipment is summarized and statistically analyzed. Results of this analysis are used to develop damping trend curves which predict applicable damping values to be used in design at various levels of stress or deformation. (orig.)

  11. Migration to Current Open Source Technologies by MagIC Enables a More Responsive Website, Quicker Development Times, and Increased Community Engagement

    Jarboe, N.; Minnett, R.; Koppers, A.; Constable, C.; Tauxe, L.; Jonestrask, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) supports an online database for the paleo, geo, and rock magnetic communities ( https://earthref.org/MagIC ). Researchers can upload data into the archive and download data as selected with a sophisticated search system. MagIC has completed the transition from an Oracle backed, Perl based, server oriented website to an ElasticSearch backed, Meteor based thick client website technology stack. Using JavaScript on both the sever and the client enables increased code reuse and allows easy offloading many computational operations to the client for faster response. On-the-fly data validation, column header suggestion, and spreadsheet online editing are some new features available with the new system. The 3.0 data model, method codes, and vocabulary lists can be browsed via the MagIC website and more easily updated. Source code for MagIC is publicly available on GitHub ( https://github.com/earthref/MagIC ). The MagIC file format is natively compatible with the PmagPy ( https://github.com/PmagPy/PmagPy) paleomagnetic analysis software. MagIC files can now be downloaded from the database and viewed and interpreted in the PmagPy GUI based tool, pmag_gui. Changes or interpretations of the data can then be saved by pmag_gui in the MagIC 3.0 data format and easily uploaded to the MagIC database. The rate of new contributions to the database has been increasing with many labs contributing measurement level data for the first time in the last year. Over a dozen file format conversion scripts are available for translating non-MagIC measurement data files into the MagIC format for easy uploading. We will continue to work with more labs until the whole community has a manageable workflow for contributing their measurement level data. MagIC will continue to provide a global repository for archiving and retrieving paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data and, with the new system in place, be able to more quickly respond to the community

  12. Workload differences across command levels and emergency response organizations during a major joint training exercise.

    Prytz, Erik G; Rybing, Jonas; Jonson, Carl-Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an initial test using a validated workload measurement method, the NASA Task Load Index (TLX), as an indicator of joint emergency exercise effectiveness. Prior research on emergency exercises indicates that exercises must be challenging, ie, result in high workload, to be effective. However, this is often problematic with some participants being underloaded and some overloaded. The NASA TLX was used to test for differences in workload between commanders and subordinates and among three different emergency response organizations during a joint emergency exercise. Questionnaire-based evaluation with professional emergency responders. The study was performed in conjunction with a large-scale interorganizational joint emergency exercise in Sweden. A total of 20 participants from the rescue services, 12 from the emergency medical services, and 12 from the police participated in the study (N=44). Ten participants had a command-level role during the exercise and the remaining 34 were subordinates. The main outcome measures were the workload subscales of the NASA TLX: mental demands, physical demands, temporal demands, performance, effort, and frustration. The results showed that the organizations experienced different levels of workload, that the commanders experienced a higher workload than the subordinates, and that two out of three organizations fell below the twenty-fifth percentile of average workload scores compiled from 237 prior studies. The results support the notion that the NASA TLX could be a useful complementary tool to evaluate exercise designs and outcomes. This should be further explored and verified in additional studies.

  13. Soybean growth responses to enhanced levels of ultraviolet-B radiation under greenhouse conditions

    Teramura, A.H.; Sullivan, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv. Essex) was grown in an unshaded greenhouse under three levels of biologically effective ultraviolet-B (UV-BBE) radiation (effective daily dose: 0, 11.5 and 13.6 kJ m -2 ) for 91 days. Plants were harvested at regular intervals beginning 10 days after germination until reproductive maturity. Mathematical growth analysis revealed that the effects of UV-B radiation varied with plant growth stage. The transition period between vegetative and reproductive growth was the most sensitive to UV-B radiation. Intermediate levels of UV-B had deleterious effects on plant height, leaf area, and total plant dry weight at late vegetative and reproductive stages of development. Specific leaf weight increased during vegetative growth but was unaffected by UV-B during reproductive growth stages. Relative growth, net assimilation, and stem elongation rates were decreased by UV-B radiation during vegetative and early reproductive growth stages. Variation in plant responses may be due in part to changes in microclimate within the plant canopy or to differences in repair or protection mechanisms at differing developmental stages. (author)

  14. Azospirillum brasilense ameliorates the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to drought mainly via enhancement of ABA levels.

    Cohen, Ana C; Bottini, Rubén; Pontin, Mariela; Berli, Federico J; Moreno, Daniela; Boccanlandro, Hernán; Travaglia, Claudia N; Piccoli, Patricia N

    2015-01-01

    Production of phytohormones is one of the main mechanisms to explain the beneficial effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Azospirillum sp. The PGPRs induce plant growth and development, and reduce stress susceptibility. However, little is known regarding the stress-related phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) produced by bacteria. We investigated the effects of Azospirillum brasilense Sp 245 strain on Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and aba2-1 mutant plants, evaluating the morphophysiological and biochemical responses when watered and in drought. We used an in vitro-grown system to study changes in the root volume and architecture after inoculation with Azospirillum in Arabidopsis wild-type Col-0 and on the mutant aba2-1, during early growth. To examine Arabidopsis development and reproductive success as affected by the bacteria, ABA and drought, a pot experiment using Arabidopsis Col-0 plants was also carried out. Azospirillum brasilense augmented plant biomass, altered root architecture by increasing lateral roots number, stimulated photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments and retarded water loss in correlation with incremented ABA levels. As well, inoculation improved plants seed yield, plants survival, proline levels and relative leaf water content; it also decreased stomatal conductance, malondialdehyde and relative soil water content in plants submitted to drought. Arabidopsis inoculation with A. brasilense improved plants performance, especially in drought. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. Reproductive responses and progesterone levels of postpartum oestrus synchronization in goats with different body reserves

    Fabiana V. Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty adult goats were classified at parturition into two body condition score (BCS groups: BCI (n=16 with a score of 2.7 and BCII (n=14 with a score of 2.0. On the fiftieth day postpartum, oestrus was synchronized by CIDR for 5 days. Upon CIDR removal (Day 0, they received 1 mL of PGF2α IM and mated for 72 hours. Kids were kept with does and weaned at 40 days of age. Blood samples were taken at 0, 1, 4, 8 and 21 days after CIDR removal for progesterone assay. The BCI group showed a greater weight loss compared to the BCII group, and BCS before synchronization was 1.9±0.08 and 1.6±0.07 for the BCI and BCII groups, respectively (Pvs 36%; Pvs 1.25; Pvs 0.25; P<0.05. Progesterone concentration was higher in pregnant does in BCI. A positive relationship was found between progesterone level at CIDR removal and BCS at parturition (0.57; P<0.01, also between progesterone level at 21 days after CIDR removal and BCS at parturition (0.47; P<0.05, or BCS before synchronization (0.51; P<0.05. We conclude that oestrus response to postpartum CIDR synchronization appeared to be slightly dependent on BCS. However, goats with low BCS at oestrus synchronization exhibited a reduction in pregnancy rate.

  16. Global brain blood-oxygen level responses to autonomic challenges in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is accompanied by brain injury, perhaps resulting from apnea-related hypoxia or periods of impaired cerebral perfusion. Perfusion changes can be determined indirectly by evaluation of cerebral blood volume and oxygenation alterations, which can be measured rapidly and non-invasively with the global blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal, a magnetic resonance imaging procedure. We assessed acute BOLD responses in OSA subjects to pressor challenges that elicit cerebral blood flow changes, using a two-group comparative design with healthy subjects as a reference. We separately assessed female and male patterns, since OSA characteristics and brain injury differ between sexes. We studied 94 subjects, 37 with newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA (6 female (age mean ± std: 52.1±8.1 yrs; apnea/hypopnea index [AHI]: 27.7±15.6 events/hr and 31 male 54.3±8.4 yrs; AHI: 37.4±19.6 events/hr, and 20 female (age 50.5±8.1 yrs and 37 male (age 45.6±9.2 yrs healthy control subjects. We measured brain BOLD responses every 2 s while subjects underwent cold pressor, hand grip, and Valsalva maneuver challenges. The global BOLD signal rapidly changed after the first 2 s of each challenge, and differed in magnitude between groups to two challenges (cold pressor, hand grip, but not to the Valsalva maneuver (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05. OSA females showed greater differences from males in response magnitude and pattern, relative to healthy counterparts. Cold pressor BOLD signal increases (mean ± adjusted standard error at the 8 s peak were: OSA 0.14±0.08% vs. Control 0.31±0.06%, and hand grip at 6 s were: OSA 0.08±0.03% vs. Control at 0.30±0.02%. These findings, indicative of reduced cerebral blood flow changes to autonomic challenges in OSA, complement earlier reports of altered resting blood flow and reduced cerebral artery responsiveness. Females are more affected than males, an outcome which may contribute to the sex

  17. Aerobic carbon-cycle related microbial communities in boreal peatlands: responses to water-level drawdown

    Peltoniemi, K

    2010-07-01

    Boreal peatlands represent a considerable portion of the global carbon (C) pool. Water-level drawdown (WLD) causes peatland drying and induces a vegetation change, which affects the decomposition of soil organic matter and the release of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}). The objective of this thesis was to study the microbial communities related to the C cycle and their response to WLD in two boreal peatlands. Both sampling depth and site type had a strong impact on all microbial communities. In general, bacteria dominated the deeper layers of the nutrient-rich fen and the wettest surfaces of the nutrient-poor bog sites, whereas fungi seemed more abundant in the drier surfaces of the bog. WLD clearly affected the microbial communities but the effect was dependent on site type. The fungal and methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) community composition changed at all sites but the actinobacterial community response was apparent only in the fen after WLD. Microbial communities became more similar among sites after long-term WLD. Litter quality had a large impact on community composition, whereas the effects of site type and WLD were relatively minor. The decomposition rate of fresh organic matter was influenced slightly by actinobacteria, but not at all by fungi. Field respiration measurements in the northern fen indicated that WLD accelerates the decomposition of soil organic matter. In addition, a correlation between activity and certain fungal sequences indicated that community composition affects the decomposition of older organic matter in deeper peat layers. WLD had a negative impact on CH{sub 4} oxidation, especially in the oligotrophic fen. Fungal sequences were matched to taxa capable of utilizing a broad range of substrates. Most of the actinobacterial sequences could not be matched to characterized taxa in reference databases. This thesis represents the first investigation of microbial communities and their response to WLD among a variety of boreal

  18. Designing for user engagement

    Geisler, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Designing for User Engagement on the Web: 10 Basic Principles is concerned with making user experience engaging. The cascade of social web applications we are now familiar with - blogs, consumer reviews, wikis, and social networking - are all engaging experiences. But engagement is an increasingly common goal in business and productivity environments as well. This book provides a foundation for all those seeking to design engaging user experiences rich in communication and interaction. Combining a handbook on basic principles with case studies, it provides readers with a ric

  19. Lignin biosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): its response to waterlogging and association with hormonal levels.

    Nguyen, Tran-Nguyen; Son, SeungHyun; Jordan, Mark C; Levin, David B; Ayele, Belay T

    2016-01-25

    Lignin is an important structural component of plant cell wall that confers mechanical strength and tolerance against biotic and abiotic stressors; however it affects the use of biomass such as wheat straw for some industrial applications such as biofuel production. Genetic alteration of lignin quantity and quality has been considered as a viable option to overcome this problem. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying lignin formation in wheat biomass has not been studied. Combining molecular and biochemical approaches, the present study investigated the transcriptional regulation of lignin biosynthesis in two wheat cultivars with varying lodging characteristics and also in response to waterlogging. It also examined the association of lignin level in tissues with that of plant hormones implicated in the control of lignin biosynthesis. Analysis of lignin biosynthesis in the two wheat cultivars revealed a close association of lodging resistance with internode lignin content and expression of 4-coumarate:CoA ligase1 (4CL1), p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase1 (C3H1), cinnamoyl-CoA reductase2 (CCR2), ferulate 5-hydroxylase2 (F5H2) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase2 (COMT2), which are among the genes highly expressed in wheat tissues, implying the importance of these genes in mediating lignin deposition in wheat stem. Waterlogging of wheat plants reduced internode lignin content, and this effect is accompanied by transcriptional repression of three of the genes characterized as highly expressed in wheat internode including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase6 (PAL6), CCR2 and F5H2, and decreased activity of PAL. Expression of the other genes was, however, induced by waterlogging, suggesting their role in the synthesis of other phenylpropanoid-derived molecules with roles in stress responses. Moreover, difference in internode lignin content between cultivars or change in its level due to waterlogging is associated with the level of cytokinin. Lodging resistance, tolerance against

  20. Response of wheat varieties to different nitrogen levels under agro-climatic conditions of mansehra

    Shahzad, K.; Khan, A.

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment, comprising of three Nitrogen levels viz.0, 60, 120 and 180 kg/ha and five wheat varieties, viz., Pir Sabak-04 (P.S), P.S-05, P.S-08, Atta Habib and Siran, was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Baffa, Mansehra, in 2011. The experiment was laid out in randomised complete block design with split-plot arrangement. The results indicated that varieties and nitrogen levels were significantly different for tillers per m2, days to physiological maturity, plant height (cm), spike length, grains per spike, 1000 grains weight (gm), biological yield (kg/ha) and grain yield (kg/ha), while harvest index (%) was significantly affected by varieties only. Maximum tillers per m2 were produced in varieties P.S-2008, P.S-2004 and P.S-2005. Maximum days to physiological maturity and grains per spike were observed in variety P.S-2008. Taller plants were produced by variety P.S. 2005. Longer spikes, maximum thousand grains weight and grain yield (kg/ha) were obtained in varieties P.S-2008 and Atta Habib, respectively. Maximum biological yield (kg/ha) was recorded in Atta Habib. Among nitrogen levels, maximum tillers per m2, days to physiological maturity, longer spikes, number of grains per spike, thousand grains weight, biological yield and grain yield were maximum when N was applied at the rate of 120 kg/ha. Similarly the interactive response of varieties and nitrogen was significantly affected for days to emergence, grains per spike, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index (%). From the study, it was concluded that the varieties, Pir Sabak-2008 and Atta Habib, produced maximum seed yield whereas nitrogen applied at the rate of 120 kg/ha performed better in productivity than other treatments. (author)

  1. Varying Levels of Automation on UAS Operator Responses to Traffic Resolution Advisories in Civil Airspace

    Kenny, Caitlin; Fern, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Continuing demand for the use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) has put increasing pressure on operations in civil airspace. The need to fly UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS) in order to perform missions vital to national security and defense, emergency management, and science is increasing at a rapid pace. In order to ensure safe operations in the NAS, operators of unmanned aircraft, like those of manned aircraft, may be required to maintain separation assurance and avoid loss of separation with other aircraft while performing their mission tasks. This experiment investigated the effects of varying levels of automation on UAS operator performance and workload while responding to conflict resolution instructions provided by the Tactical Collision Avoidance System II (TCAS II) during a UAS mission in high-density airspace. The purpose of this study was not to investigate the safety of using TCAS II on UAS, but rather to examine the effect of automation on the ability of operators to respond to traffic collision alerts. Six licensed pilots were recruited to act as UAS operators for this study. Operators were instructed to follow a specified mission flight path, while maintaining radio contact with Air Traffic Control and responding to TCAS II resolution advisories. Operators flew four, 45 minute, experimental missions with four different levels of automation: Manual, Knobs, Management by Exception, and Fully Automated. All missions included TCAS II Resolution Advisories (RAs) that required operator attention and rerouting. Operator compliance and reaction time to RAs was measured, and post-run NASA-TLX ratings were collected to measure workload. Results showed significantly higher compliance rates, faster responses to TCAS II alerts, as well as less preemptive operator actions when higher levels of automation are implemented. Physical and Temporal ratings of workload were significantly higher in the Manual condition than in the Management by Exception and

  2. Baseline adiponectin levels do not influence the response to pioglitazone in ACT NOW.

    Tripathy, Devjit; Clement, Stephen C; Schwenke, Dawn C; Banerji, MaryAnn; Bray, George A; Buchanan, Thomas A; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Henry, Robert R; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ratner, Robert E; Stentz, Frankie B; Musi, Nicolas; Reaven, Peter D; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2014-06-01

    Plasma adiponectin levels are reduced in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other insulin-resistant states. We examined whether plasma adiponectin levels at baseline and after pioglitazone treatment in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects were associated with improved insulin sensitivity (SI) and glucose tolerance status. A total of 602 high-risk IGT subjects in ACT NOW were randomized to receive pioglitazone or placebo with a median follow-up of 2.4 years. Pioglitazone reduced IGT conversion to diabetes by 72% in association with improved β-cell function by 64% (insulin secretion/insulin resistance index) and increased tissue sensitivity by 88% (Matsuda index). In pioglitazone-treated subjects, plasma adiponectin concentration increased threefold from 13 ± 0.5 to 38 ± 2.5 μg/mL (P < 0.001) and was strongly correlated with the improvement in SI (r = 0.436, P < 0.001) and modestly correlated with glucose area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance test (r = 0.238, P < 0.005) and insulin secretion/insulin resistance index (r = 0.306, P < 0.005). The increase in adiponectin was a strong predictor of reversion to normal glucose tolerance and prevention of T2DM. In the placebo group, plasma adiponectin did not change and was not correlated with changes in glucose levels. There was an inverse association between baseline plasma adiponectin concentration and progression to diabetes in the placebo group but not in the pioglitazone group. Baseline adiponectin does not predict the response to pioglitazone. The increase in plasma adiponectin concentration after pioglitazone therapy in IGT subjects is strongly related to improved glucose tolerance status and enhanced tissue sensitivity to insulin. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. Mineral nutrition and plant responses to elevated levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2}

    Ahluwalia, A.

    1996-08-01

    The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, a radiatively-active ({open_quotes}green-house{close_quotes}) gas, is increasing. This increase is considered a post-industrial phenomenon attributable to increasing rates of fossil fuel combustion and changing land use practices, particularly deforestation. Climate changes resulting from such elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, in addition to the direct effects of increased CO{sub 2}, are expected to modify the productivity of forests and alter species distributions. Elevated levels of CO{sub 2} have been shown, in some cases, to lead to enhanced growth rates in plants, particularly those with C{sub 3} metabolism - indicating that plant growth is CO{sub 2}-limited in these situations. Since the major process underlying growth is CO{sub 2} assimilation via photosynthesis in leaves, plant growth represents a potential for sequestering atmospheric carbon into biomass, but this potential could be hampered by plant carbon sink size. Carbon sinks are utilization sites for assimilated carbon, enabling carbon assimilation to proceed without potential inhibition from the accumulation of assimilate (photosynthate). Plant growth provides new sinks for assimilated carbon which permits greater uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, sinks are, on the whole, reduced in size by stress events due to the adverse effects of stress on photosynthetic rates and therefore growth. This document reviews some of the literature on plant responses to increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and to inadequate nutrient supply rates, and with this background, the potential for nutrient-limited plants to respond to increasing carbon dioxide is addressed. Conclusions from the literature review are then tested experimentally by means of a case study exploring carbon-nitrogen interactions in seedlings of loblolly pine.

  4. SB certification handout material requirements, test methods, responsibilities, and minimum classification levels for mixture-based specification for flexible base.

    2012-10-01

    A handout with tables representing the material requirements, test methods, responsibilities, and minimum classification levels mixture-based specification for flexible base and details on aggregate and test methods employed, along with agency and co...

  5. The Social Rewards of Engagement

    Robison, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Political interest is a crucial precursor to political engagement, but little is known about how to stimulate greater interest. The article explores the role social motives have in generating interest. A laboratory experiment is used in which it is possible to manipulate beliefs about the social...... rewards of political engagement as well as external efficacy beliefs. Across two types of measures for political interest (self-reports and revealed preferences), connecting political engagement with social rewards led to substantial increases in political interest. Moreover, these effects were...... particularly strong among individuals with low levels of external efficacy. Ultimately, the data provide clear evidence that political interest can be positively stimulated with social rewards mobilisation techniques and that it is rooted in beliefs about the potential motives pursuable through politics...

  6. A biological basis for the linear non-threshold dose-response relationship for low-level carcinogen exposure

    Albert, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter examines low-level dose-response relationships in terms of the two-stage mouse tumorigenesis model. Analyzes the feasibility of the linear non-threshold dose-response model which was first adopted for use in the assessment of cancer risks from ionizing radiation and more recently from chemical carcinogens. Finds that both the interaction of B(a)P with epidermal DNA of the mouse skin and the dose-response relationship for the initiation stage of mouse skin tumorigenesis showed a linear non-threshold dose-response relationship. Concludes that low level exposure to environmental carcinogens has a linear non-threshold dose-response relationship with the carcinogen acting as an initiator and the promoting action being supplied by the factors that are responsible for the background cancer rate in the target tissue

  7. Instructor Perceptions of Using a Mobile-Phone-Based Free Classroom Response System in First-Year Statistics Undergraduate Courses

    Dunn, Peter K.; Richardson, Alice; McDonald, Christine; Oprescu, Florin

    2012-01-01

    Student engagement at first-year level is critical for student achievement, retention and success. One way of increasing student engagement is to use a classroom response system (CRS), the use of which has been associated with positive educational outcomes by fostering student engagement and by allowing immediate feedback to both students and…

  8. Comparison of the Effect of Noise Levels on Stress Response in Two Different Operation Groups in an Orthopedic Surgery Room

    Hasibe Baytan Yildiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this randomized, single-blinded study was to evaluate the effects of noise on hemodynamic and neuroendocrine stress response by measuring the level of noise in the surgery rooms of patients undergoing knee operations under neuroaxial anesthesia. Gerec ve Yontem: We compared patient responses from two groups of patients: those undergoing knee operations in a surgery room where the noise level (measured in decibels is high, and those undergoing meniscus operations in a surgery room with lower noise levels. The STAI, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-1, and the anxiety test (STAI-2wereperformed at preoperative and postoperative periods. 20 ml of blood sample was taken for basal, intraoperative 30th minute, and postoperative 1st hour measurements. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures were found to be higher in the high noise level group. ACTH levels were increased during the early postoperative period and became normal during the late postoperative period in the high noise level group whereas ACTH levels were significantly decreased in the low-noise level group. Basal cortisol levels were significantly higher in the high noise level group. HCRP, an inflammatory response mediator was found to be decreased in both groups. Early and late blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the high noise group. There was a greater increase in early and late blood glucose levels in the high noise group. In the postoperative period, although the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI-2 levels being higher in patients subject to noisier environment determines how people feel independent of the conditions and state they are in, this result made us consider that the noise the patients were subjected to in the intraoperative period may cause a stress response. Discussion: As a result we believe that standard noise levels should be achieved by reducing the factors causing high noise levels in the operating room. This will

  9. Application of Group-Level Item Response Models in the Evaluation of Consumer Reports about Health Plan Quality

    Reise, Steven P.; Meijer, Rob R.; Ainsworth, Andrew T.; Morales, Leo S.; Hays, Ron D.

    2006-01-01

    Group-level parametric and non-parametric item response theory models were applied to the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS[R]) 2.0 core items in a sample of 35,572 Medicaid recipients nested within 131 health plans. Results indicated that CAHPS responses are dominated by within health plan variation, and only weakly…

  10. Burnout and Work Engagement Among US Dentists.

    Calvo, Jean Marie; Kwatra, Japneet; Yansane, Alfa; Tokede, Oluwabunmi; Gorter, Ronald C; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2017-06-30

    Burnout is a threat to patient safety. It relates to emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment. Work engagement conversely composed of levels of vigor, dedication, and absorption in one's profession. The aim of this study was to examine burnout and work engagement among US dentists. This study used the extensively validated Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale to measure burnout in a self-administered survey of 167 US dentists who attended continuing education courses held in Boston, Pittsburg, Iowa City, and Las Vegas. The mean scores on the 3 subscales of Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were computed. The interscale correlations between the components of burnout and work engagement were assessed using Pearson correlations. We used 1-way analysis of variance and independent 2 sample t tests to examine the relationship between burnout and work engagement across sex and various age categories. Prevalence of burnout in our study population was also computed. We observed that 13.2% of our study population experienced burnout and 16.2% of our study population was highly work engaged. There was a statistically significant, unadjusted association between burnout risk and work engagement (χ = 22.51, P work engagement. In this preliminary study, we observed some evidence of burnout among practicing US dentists. It is imperative that the dental profession understands this and works to promote professional practices that increase work engagement and decrease burnout.

  11. Work engagement in nursing: a concept analysis.

    Bargagliotti, L Antoinette

    2012-06-01

      This article is a report of an analysis of the concept of work engagement. Background.  Work engagement is the central issue for 21st century professionals and specifically for registered nurses. Conceptual clarity about work engagement gives empirical direction for future research and a theoretical underpinning for the myriad studies about nurses and their work environment.   Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis was used. Nursing, business, psychology and health sciences databases were searched using Science Direct, CINAHL, OVID, Academic One File, ABI INFORM and PsycINFO for publications that were: written in English, published between 1990 and 2010, and described or studied work engagement in any setting with any population.   Work engagement is a positive, fulfilling state of mind about work that is characterized by vigour, dedication and absorption. Trust (organizationally, managerially and collegially) and autonomy are the antecedents of work engagement. The outcomes of nurses' work engagement are higher levels of personal initiative that are contagious, decreased hospital mortality rates and significantly higher financial profitability of organizations.   When work engagement is conceptually removed from a transactional job demands-resources model, the relational antecedents of trust and autonomy have greater explanatory power for work engagement in nurses. Untangling the antecedents, attributes and outcomes of work engagement is important to future research efforts. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Professional burnout and work engagement among dentists.

    Brake, H. te; Bouman, A-M.; Gorter, R.; Hoogstraten, J.; Eijkman, M.

    2007-01-01

    A recent development within burnout research is the shift to its conceptual opposite: work engagement. This study aimed to unravel the concepts of burnout and work engagement, and to determine their levels among dentists. A representative sample of 497 Dutch general dental practitioners was included

  13. Work engagement in health professions education

    van den Berg, Joost W.; Mastenbroek, Nicole J. J. M.; Scheepers, Renee A.; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.

    2017-01-01

    Work engagement deserves more attention in health professions education because of its positive relations with personal well-being and performance at work. For health professions education, these outcomes have been studied on various levels. Consider engaged clinical teachers, who are seen as better

  14. Toward Understanding Business Student Professional Development Engagement

    Blau, Gary; Blessley, Misty; Kunkle, Matthew; Schirmer, Michael; Regan, Laureen

    2017-01-01

    Professional development engagement (PDE) is defined as the level of perceived undergraduate engagement in professional development activities. An 11-item measure of PDE exhibited a good reliability. Using a complete data sample of 467 graduating business undergraduates, four variable sets (student background or precollege variables,…

  15. Employee voice and engagement : Connections and consequences

    Rees, C.; Alfes, K.; Gatenby, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between employee voice and employee engagement. Employee perceptions of voice behaviour aimed at improving the functioning of the work group are found to have both a direct impact and an indirect impact on levels of employee engagement. Analysis of data from two

  16. Institutionalizing Political and Civic Engagement on Campus

    Hoffman, Adam H.

    2015-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental design, I examine the impact of a political engagement program on students, looking at traditional measures of internal efficacy, as well as other areas of political engagement including levels of political knowledge, the development of political skills, and interest in media coverage of politics.

  17. Resistance Responses of Potato to Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi under Varying Abiotic Phosphorus Levels.

    McArthur, D A; Knowles, N R

    1992-09-01

    to plant growth decreased and root infection was lower. The in vivo ACC(ox) activity was also greater in roots of plants grown on high levels of P compared with those grown on low levels, although the influence of VAM infection was partially to counteract the nutritional effect of P on ACC(ox) activity. Similar to ACC(ox) activity, extracellular peroxidase activity of roots increased linearly with increasing abiotic P supply, thus indicating a greater potential for resistance to VAM infection. These findings suggest that VAM fungi may alter phenolic metabolism of roots so as to hinder ethylene production and the root's ability to invoke a defense response. Raising the abiotic P supply to plants at least partially restores the capacity of roots to produce ethylene and may, in this way, increase the root's resistance to VAM infection.

  18. Counterbalancing work-related stress? Work engagement among intensive care professionals.

    van Mol, Margo M C; Nijkamp, Marjan D; Bakker, Jan; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Kompanje, Erwin J O

    2018-07-01

    Working in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is increasingly complex and is also physically, cognitively and emotionally demanding. Although the negative emotions of work-related stress have been well studied, the opposite perspective of work engagement might also provide valuable insight into how these emotional demands may be countered. This study focused on the work engagement of ICU professionals and explored the complex relationship between work engagement, job demands and advantageous personal resources. This was a cross-sectional survey study among ICU professionals in a single-centre university hospital. Work engagement was measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, which included items about opinions related to the respondent's work environment. Additionally, 14 items based on the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy were included to measure empathic ability. A digital link to the questionnaire was sent in October 2015 to a population of 262 ICU nurses and 53 intensivists. The overall response rate was 61% (n=193). Work engagement was negatively related both to cognitive demands among intensivists and to emotional demands among ICU nurses. No significant relationship was found between work engagement and empathic ability; however, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability were highly correlated with work engagement. Only the number of hours worked per week remained as a confounding factor, with a negative effect of workload on work engagement after controlling for the effect of weekly working hours. Work engagement counterbalances work-related stress reactions. The relatively high workload in ICUs, coupled with an especially heavy emotional burden, may be acknowledged as an integral part of ICU work. This workload does not affect the level of work engagement, which was high for both intensivists and nurses despite the known high job demands. Specific factors that contribute to a healthy and successful work life among ICU professionals need

  19. Evaluating multi-level models to test occupancy state responses of Plethodontid salamanders

    Kroll, Andrew J.; Garcia, Tiffany S.; Jones, Jay E.; Dugger, Catherine; Murden, Blake; Johnson, Josh; Peerman, Summer; Brintz, Ben; Rochelle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Plethodontid salamanders are diverse and widely distributed taxa and play critical roles in ecosystem processes. Due to salamander use of structurally complex habitats, and because only a portion of a population is available for sampling, evaluation of sampling designs and estimators is critical to provide strong inference about Plethodontid ecology and responses to conservation and management activities. We conducted a simulation study to evaluate the effectiveness of multi-scale and hierarchical single-scale occupancy models in the context of a Before-After Control-Impact (BACI) experimental design with multiple levels of sampling. Also, we fit the hierarchical single-scale model to empirical data collected for Oregon slender and Ensatina salamanders across two years on 66 forest stands in the Cascade Range, Oregon, USA. All models were fit within a Bayesian framework. Estimator precision in both models improved with increasing numbers of primary and secondary sampling units, underscoring the potential gains accrued when adding secondary sampling units. Both models showed evidence of estimator bias at low detection probabilities and low sample sizes; this problem was particularly acute for the multi-scale model. Our results suggested that sufficient sample sizes at both the primary and secondary sampling levels could ameliorate this issue. Empirical data indicated Oregon slender salamander occupancy was associated strongly with the amount of coarse woody debris (posterior mean = 0.74; SD = 0.24); Ensatina occupancy was not associated with amount of coarse woody debris (posterior mean = -0.01; SD = 0.29). Our simulation results indicate that either model is suitable for use in an experimental study of Plethodontid salamanders provided that sample sizes are sufficiently large. However, hierarchical single-scale and multi-scale models describe different processes and estimate different parameters. As a result, we recommend careful consideration of study questions

  20. Physiological response to drought in radiata pine: phytohormone implication at leaf level.

    De Diego, N; Pérez-Alfocea, F; Cantero, E; Lacuesta, M; Moncaleán, P

    2012-04-01

    Pinus radiata D. Don is one of the most abundant species in the north of Spain. Knowledge of drought response mechanisms is essential to guarantee plantation survival under reduced water supply as predicted in the future. Tolerance mechanisms are being studied in breeding programs, because information on such mechanisms can be used for genotype selection. In this paper, we analyze the changes of leaf water potential, hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)), stomatal conductance and phytohormones under drought in P. radiata breeds (O1, O2, O3, O4, O5 and O6) from different climatology areas, hypothesizing that they could show variable drought tolerance. As a primary signal, drought decreased cytokinin (zeatin and zeatin riboside-Z + ZR) levels in needles parallel to K(leaf) and gas exchange. When Z + ZR decreased by 65%, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation started as a second signal and increments were higher for IAA than for ABA. When plants decreased by 80%, Z + ZR and K(leaf) doubled their ABA and IAA levels, the photosystem II yield decreased and the electrolyte leakage increased. At the end of the drought period, less tolerant breeds increased IAA over 10-fold compared with controls. External damage also induced jasmonic acid accumulation in all breeds except in O5 (P. radiata var. radiata × var. cedrosensis), which accumulated salicylic acid as a defense mechanism. After rewatering, only the most tolerant plants recovered their K(leaf,) perhaps due to an IAA decrease and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid maintenance. From all phytohormones, IAA was the most representative 'water deficit signal' in P. radiata.

  1. Evaluating Multi-Level Models to Test Occupancy State Responses of Plethodontid Salamanders.

    Andrew J Kroll

    Full Text Available Plethodontid salamanders are diverse and widely distributed taxa and play critical roles in ecosystem processes. Due to salamander use of structurally complex habitats, and because only a portion of a population is available for sampling, evaluation of sampling designs and estimators is critical to provide strong inference about Plethodontid ecology and responses to conservation and management activities. We conducted a simulation study to evaluate the effectiveness of multi-scale and hierarchical single-scale occupancy models in the context of a Before-After Control-Impact (BACI experimental design with multiple levels of sampling. Also, we fit the hierarchical single-scale model to empirical data collected for Oregon slender and Ensatina salamanders across two years on 66 forest stands in the Cascade Range, Oregon, USA. All models were fit within a Bayesian framework. Estimator precision in both models improved with increasing numbers of primary and secondary sampling units, underscoring the potential gains accrued when adding secondary sampling units. Both models showed evidence of estimator bias at low detection probabilities and low sample sizes; this problem was particularly acute for the multi-scale model. Our results suggested that sufficient sample sizes at both the primary and secondary sampling levels could ameliorate this issue. Empirical data indicated Oregon slender salamander occupancy was associated strongly with the amount of coarse woody debris (posterior mean = 0.74; SD = 0.24; Ensatina occupancy was not associated with amount of coarse woody debris (posterior mean = -0.01; SD = 0.29. Our simulation results indicate that either model is suitable for use in an experimental study of Plethodontid salamanders provided that sample sizes are sufficiently large. However, hierarchical single-scale and multi-scale models describe different processes and estimate different parameters. As a result, we recommend careful consideration of

  2. El Lado Socialmente Deseable de las Respuestas a Medidas de Burnout y Engagement: un Estudio Preliminar/The Socially Desirable Side of the Responses to Measures of Burnout and Engagement: A Preliminary Study/O Lado Socialmente Desejável das Respostas a Medidas de Burnout e Engagement: um Estudo Preliminar

    Manuel Fernández-Arata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio reporta la asociación divergente entre la deseabilidad social y las respuestas al mbi-gs y uwes, dos instrumentos que miden constructos considerados opuestos: burnout y engagement. Esta relación ha sido muy pocas veces explorada, y menos aun en sujetos hispanos. Los participantes fueron trabajadores de tiendas comerciales en la zona central de Lima Metropolitana. Se halló que la deseabilidad social comparte varianza con los puntajes de agotamiento emocional e indiferencia, pero esta relación estuvo influenciada por el instrumento de medición de la deseabilidad social. Las correlaciones parciales entre los puntajes del mbi no fueron prácticamente diferentes de sus correlaciones de orden cero. El uwes no covarió con deseabilidad social. Se concluye que la deseabilidad social tiene poca influencia sobre los puntajes orientados hacia el burnout en el mbi.

  3. Transcription-Replication Conflict Orientation Modulates R-Loop Levels and Activates Distinct DNA Damage Responses.

    Hamperl, Stephan; Bocek, Michael J; Saldivar, Joshua C; Swigut, Tomek; Cimprich, Karlene A

    2017-08-10

    Conflicts between transcription and replication are a potent source of DNA damage. Co-transcriptional R-loops could aggravate such conflicts by creating an additional barrier to replication fork progression. Here, we use a defined episomal system to investigate how conflict orientation and R-loop formation influence genome stability in human cells. R-loops, but not normal transcription complexes, induce DNA breaks and orientation-specific DNA damage responses during conflicts with replication forks. Unexpectedly, the replisome acts as an orientation-dependent regulator of R-loop levels, reducing R-loops in the co-directional (CD) orientation but promoting their formation in the head-on (HO) orientation. Replication stress and deregulated origin firing increase the number of HO collisions leading to genome-destabilizing R-loops. Our findings connect DNA replication to R-loop homeostasis and suggest a mechanistic basis for genome instability resulting from deregulated DNA replication, observed in cancer and other disease states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of cardiorespiratory responses between Surya Namaskar and bicycle exercise at similar energy expenditure level.

    Sinha, Biswajit; Sinha, Tulika Dasgupta; Pathak, Anjana; Tomer, O S

    2013-01-01

    Surya Namaskar (SN), a popular traditional Indian yogic practice called "Sun Salutations", includes practice of twelve physical postures involving alternate backward bending and forward bending postures. The practice of twelve postures in succession makes one round of its practice. Many people practise it as part of their daily physical fitness regimen. No study is available to compare cardiorespiratory responses of SN with bicycle exercise (BE). 20 healthy Yoga instructors practicing various Yogic practices including SN since last 7-8 years participated in the study. They performed SN in the laboratory according to their customary daily practice routine. The subject also performed incremental load bicycle exercise test till exhaustion on their second visit for measuring their VO2 max. SN and BE were compared at three similar exercise intensity levels in terms of % of VO2 max. The exercise intensities were light (10-20% VO2 max), moderate (21-40% VO2 max) and high intensities (41-50% VO2 max). Heart rate at high work intensity was significantly higher in BE than SN (P < .001). Ventilation and carbon dioxide output were significantly higher in BE than SN at high exercise intensity (P < 0.001). Overall, cardiorespiratory stress is less in SN than BE at similar work intensities.

  5. Growth, Physiological, Biochemical, and Ionic Responses of Morus alba L. Seedlings to Various Salinity Levels

    Nan Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry (Morus alba L., a moderately salt-tolerant tree species, is considered to be economically important. In this study, 1-year-old mulberry seedlings cultivated in soil under greenhouse conditions were treated with five concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl; 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.5% for 3 and 21 days. Plant growth parameters were not affected by 0.1% NaCl, but significant reductions were observed after treatment with 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.5% NaCl. The malondialdehyde content and cell membrane stability of mulberry seedlings exposed to 0.1% NaCl did not change, indicating that mulberry is not significantly affected by low-salinity conditions. The Na contents of various organs did not increase significantly in response to 0.1% NaCl, but the K:Na, Mg:Na, and Ca:Na ratios of various organs were affected by NaCl. Marked changes in the levels of major compatible solutes (proline, soluble sugars, and soluble proteins occurred in both the leaves and roots of NaCl-treated seedlings relative to control seedlings. Under severe saline conditions (0.5% NaCl, the ability of mulberry to synthesize enzymatic antioxidants may be impaired.

  6. Assessing the sensitivity of human skin hyperspectral responses to increasing anemia severity levels

    Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.; Dey, Ankita; Chen, Tenn F.

    2015-09-01

    Anemia is a prevalent medical condition that seriously affects millions of people all over the world. In many regions, not only its initial detection but also its monitoring are hindered by limited access to laboratory facilities. This situation has motivated the development of a wide range of optical devices and procedures to assist physicians in these tasks. Although noticeable progress has been achieved in this area, the search for reliable, low-cost, and risk-free solutions still continues, and the strengthening of the knowledge base about this disorder and its effects is essential for the success of these initiatives. We contribute to these efforts by closely examining the sensitivity of human skin hyperspectral responses (within and outside the visible region of the light spectrum) to reduced hemoglobin concentrations associated with increasing anemia severity levels. This investigation, which involves skin specimens with distinct biophysical and morphological characteristics, is supported by controlled in silico experiments performed using a predictive light transport model and measured data reported in the biomedical literature. We also propose a noninvasive procedure to be employed in the monitoring of this condition at the point-of-care.

  7. Response of the Water Level in a Well to Earth Tides and Atmospheric Loading Under Unconfined Conditions

    Rojstaczer, Stuart; Riley, Francis S.

    1990-08-01

    The response of the water level in a well to Earth tides and atmospheric loading under unconfined conditions can be explained if the water level is controlled by the aquifer response averaged over the saturated depth of the well. Because vertical averaging tends to diminish the influence of the water table, the response is qualitatively similar to the response of a well under partially confined conditions. When the influence of well bore storage can be ignored, the response to Earth tides is strongly governed by a dimensionless aquifer frequency Q'u. The response to atmospheric loading is strongly governed by two dimensionless vertical fluid flow parameters: a dimensionless unsaturated zone frequency, R, and a dimensionless aquifer frequency Qu. The differences between Q'u and Qu are generally small for aquifers which are highly sensitive to Earth tides. When Q'u and Qu are large, the response of the well to Earth tides and atmospheric loading approaches the static response of the aquifer under confined conditions. At small values of Q'u and Qu, well response to Earth tides and atmospheric loading is strongly influenced by water table drainage. When R is large relative to Qu, the response to atmospheric loading is strongly influenced by attenuation and phase shift of the pneumatic pressure signal in the unsaturated zone. The presence of partial penetration retards phase advance in well response to Earth tides and atmospheric loading. When the theoretical response of a phreatic well to Earth tides and atmospheric loading is fit to the well response inferred from cross-spectral estimation, it is possible to obtain estimates of the pneumatic diffusivity of the unsaturated zone and the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer.

  8. How employee engagement matters for hospital performance.

    Lowe, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Managers increasingly understand that employee engagement is a prerequisite for high performance. This article examines how job, work environment, management and organizational factors influence levels of engagement among healthcare employees. Original data come from the Ontario Hospital Association-NRC Picker Employee Experience Survey, involving over 10,000 employees in 16 Ontario hospitals. The article provides a clear definition and measure of engagement relevant to healthcare. In addition to identifying the main drivers of engagement, findings shows that a high level of employee engagement is related to retention, patient-centred care, patient safety culture and employees' positive assessments of the quality of care or services provided by their team. Implications of these findings for healthcare leaders are briefly considered.

  9. Work engagement in the public service context

    Noesgaard, Mette Strange; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg

    2016-01-01

    Work engagement has increasingly captured the attention of researchers and practitioners due to its positive impact on employee level outcomes and overall organizational performance (e.g. Bakker and Bal, 2010, Hallberg and Schaufeli, 2006). Therefore, several studies have been conducted in variou...... investigates the role of public service motivation (PSM) in relation to engagement and how it may be used to enhance engagement in a challenging public context characterized by high levels of emotional labor, control and increasing demands for efficiency....... contexts although the vast majority focus on private organizations. Yet there are limitations in the understanding of work engagement in public sector context (Lavigna, 2011) and in particular knowledge of how PSM influence work engagement (Bakker, 2015). To address this gap, this qualitative study...

  10. Engaging youth and transferring knowledge

    Mantagaris, E.

    2011-01-01

    Youth engagement is a key component of the work of the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) as it collaborates with Canadians to implement Adaptive Phased Management (APM), Canada's plan for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel. Knowledge transfer is an important aspect of APM implementation, which will span several decades and will need to be flexible enough to adjust to changing societal values and new information. By engaging youth, the NWMO is putting in place mechanisms for ongoing societal learning and capacity building, so that future generations will be well-equipped to make decisions and participate in future dialogues on APM. The NWMO convened a Youth Roundtable, comprised of 18- to 25-year-olds with a diversity of backgrounds and experience, to seek advice on the best approaches to engaging youth on this topic. In May 2009, the Roundtable presented its recommendations to the NWMO and its Advisory Council, providing valuable guidance on: development of dynamic messages and communications materials that will resonate with young people; use of new technologies and social media to engage youth where they are already connecting and conversing; and a range of activities to engage youth through the educational system and in their communities. The NWMO has begun to implement many of the Youth Roundtable recommendations and is developing longer-term implementation plans, including a framework for education and outreach to youth. Through its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Program, the NWMO is laying the foundation for greater science and technology literacy and enhanced community engagement among young Canadians. Additionally, the NWMO is working with Aboriginal peoples to develop strategies for further engagement of Aboriginal youth, as part of the organization's ongoing collaborative work with Aboriginal peoples that could be affected by the implementation of APM. Youth engagement will continue to be a NWMO priority moving

  11. Engaging youth and transferring knowledge

    Mantagaris, E. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Youth engagement is a key component of the work of the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) as it collaborates with Canadians to implement Adaptive Phased Management (APM), Canada's plan for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel. Knowledge transfer is an important aspect of APM implementation, which will span several decades and will need to be flexible enough to adjust to changing societal values and new information. By engaging youth, the NWMO is putting in place mechanisms for ongoing societal learning and capacity building, so that future generations will be well-equipped to make decisions and participate in future dialogues on APM. The NWMO convened a Youth Roundtable, comprised of 18- to 25-year-olds with a diversity of backgrounds and experience, to seek advice on the best approaches to engaging youth on this topic. In May 2009, the Roundtable presented its recommendations to the NWMO and its Advisory Council, providing valuable guidance on: development of dynamic messages and communications materials that will resonate with young people; use of new technologies and social media to engage youth where they are already connecting and conversing; and a range of activities to engage youth through the educational system and in their communities. The NWMO has begun to implement many of the Youth Roundtable recommendations and is developing longer-term implementation plans, including a framework for education and outreach to youth. Through its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Program, the NWMO is laying the foundation for greater science and technology literacy and enhanced community engagement among young Canadians. Additionally, the NWMO is working with Aboriginal peoples to develop strategies for further engagement of Aboriginal youth, as part of the organization's ongoing collaborative work with Aboriginal peoples that could be affected by the implementation of APM. Youth engagement will continue to be a NWMO priority moving

  12. A Pedagogy of Civic Engagement for the Undergraduate Political Science Classroom

    DeLaet, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of a classroom project, titled the Priorities Project, which is designed to promote responsible and informed civic engagement on the part of students in upper level political science courses at Drake University. It provides an overview of the Priorities Project, a brief summary highlighting the process and results…

  13. Stereogame: An Interactive Computer Game That Engages Students in Reviewing Stereochemistry Concepts

    da Silva, Jose´ Nunes, Jr.; Lima, Mary Anne Sousa; Moreira, Joao Victor Xerez; Alexandre, Francisco Serra Oliveira; de Almeida, Diego Macedo; de Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao Ferreira; Leite, Antonio Jose´ Melo, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    This report provides information about an interactive computer game that allows undergraduate students to review individually stereochemistry topics in an engaging way by responding to 230 novel questions distributed at three difficulty levels. Responses from students and instructors who have played the game have been quite positive. Stereogame is…

  14. Comparative responses of river biofilms at the community level to common organic solvent and herbicide exposure.

    Paule, A; Roubeix, V; Swerhone, G D W; Roy, J; Lauga, B; Duran, R; Delmas, F; Paul, E; Rols, J L; Lawrence, J R

    2016-03-01

    Residual pesticides applied to crops migrate from agricultural lands to surface and ground waters. River biofilms are the first aquatic non-target organisms which interact with pesticides. Therefore, ecotoxicological experiments were performed at laboratory scale under controlled conditions to investigate the community-level responses of river biofilms to a chloroacetanilide herbicide (alachlor) and organic solvent (methanol) exposure through the development referenced to control. Triplicate rotating annular bioreactors, inoculated with river water, were used to cultivate river biofilms under the influence of 1 and 10 μg L(-1) of alachlor and 25 mg L(-1) of methanol. For this purpose, functional (thymidine incorporation and carbon utilization spectra) and structural responses of microbial communities were assessed after 5 weeks of development. Structural aspects included biomass (chlorophyll a, confocal laser scanning microscopy) and composition (fluor-conjugated lectin binding, molecular fingerprinting, and diatom species composition). The addition of alachlor resulted in a significant reduction of bacterial biomass at 1 μg L(-1), whereas at 10 μg L(-1), it induced a significant reduction of exopolymer lectin binding, algal, bacterial, and cyanobacterial biomass. However, there were no changes in biofilm thickness or thymidine incorporation. No significant difference between the bacterial community structures of control and alachlor-treated biofilms was revealed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses. However, the methanol-treated bacterial communities appeared different from control and alachlor-treated communities. Moreover, methanol treatment resulted in an increase of bacterial biomass and thymidine incorporation as well. Changes in dominant lectin binding suggested changes in the exopolymeric substances and community composition. Chlorophyll a and cyanobacterial biomass were also altered by methanol. This study suggested

  15. The leaf-level emission factor of volatile isoprenoids: caveats, model algorithms, response shapes and scaling

    Ü. Niinemets

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In models of plant volatile isoprenoid emissions, the instantaneous compound emission rate typically scales with the plant's emission potential under specified environmental conditions, also called as the emission factor, ES. In the most widely employed plant isoprenoid emission models, the algorithms developed by Guenther and colleagues (1991, 1993, instantaneous variation of the steady-state emission rate is described as the product of ES and light and temperature response functions. When these models are employed in the atmospheric chemistry modeling community, species-specific ES values and parameter values defining the instantaneous response curves are often taken as initially defined. In the current review, we argue that ES as a characteristic used in the models importantly depends on our understanding of which environmental factors affect isoprenoid emissions, and consequently need standardization during experimental ES determinations. In particular, there is now increasing consensus that in addition to variations in light and temperature, alterations in atmospheric and/or within-leaf CO2 concentrations may need to be included in the emission models. Furthermore, we demonstrate that for less volatile isoprenoids, mono- and sesquiterpenes, the emissions are often jointly controlled by the compound synthesis and volatility. Because of these combined biochemical and physico-chemical drivers, specification of ES as a constant value is incapable of describing instantaneous emissions within the sole assumptions of fluctuating light and temperature as used in the standard algorithms. The definition of ES also varies depending on the degree of aggregation of ES values in different parameterization schemes (leaf- vs. canopy- or region-scale, species vs. plant functional type levels and various

  16. Climate-related environmental stress in intertidal grazers: scaling-up biochemical responses to assemblage-level processes

    Elena Maggi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Organisms are facing increasing levels of environmental stress under climate change that may severely affect the functioning of biological systems at different levels of organization. Growing evidence suggests that reduction in body size is a universal response of organisms to global warming. However, a clear understanding of whether extreme climate events will impose selection directly on phenotypic plastic responses and how these responses affect ecological interactions has remained elusive. Methods We experimentally investigated the effects of extreme desiccation events on antioxidant defense mechanisms of a rocky intertidal gastropod (Patella ulyssiponensis, and evaluated how these effects scaled-up at the population and assemblage levels. Results With increasing levels of desiccation stress, limpets showed significant lower levels of total glutathione, tended to grow less and had reduced per capita interaction strength on their resources. Discussion Results suggested that phenotypic plasticity (i.e., reduction in adults’ body size allowed buffering biochemical responses to stress to scale-up at the assemblage level. Unveiling the linkages among different levels of biological organization is key to develop indicators that can anticipate large-scale ecological impacts of climate change.

  17. Rapid evolution of a marsh tidal creek network in response to sea level rise.

    Hughes, Z. J.; Fitzgerald, D. M.; Mahadevan, A.; Wilson, C. A.; Pennings, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    In the Santee River Delta (SRD), South Carolina, tidal creeks are extending rapidly onto the marsh platform. A time-series of aerial photographs establishes that these channels were initiated in the 1950's and are headward eroding at a rate of 1.9 m /yr. Short-term trends in sea level show an average relative sea level rise (RSLR) of 4.6 mm/yr over a 20-year tide gauge record from nearby Winyah Bay and Charleston Harbor (1975-1995). Longer-term (85-year) records in Charleston suggest a rate of 3.2 mm/yr. RSLR in the SRD is likely even higher as sediment cores reveal that the marsh is predominantly composed of fine-grained sediment, making it highly susceptible to compaction and subsidence. Furthermore, loss in elevation will have been exacerbated by the decrease in sediment supply due to the damming of the Santee River in 1939. The rapid rate of headward erosion indicates that the marsh platform is in disequilibrium; unable to keep pace with RSLR through accretionary processes and responding to an increased volume and frequency of inundation through the extension of the drainage network. The observed tidal creeks show no sinuosity and a distinctive morphology associated with their young age and biological mediation during their evolution. Feedbacks between tidal flow, vegetation and infauna play a strong role in the morphological development of the creeks. The creek heads are characterized by a region denuded of vegetation, the edges of which are densely populated and burrowed by Uca Pugnax (fiddler crab). Crab burrowing destabilizes sediment, destroys rooting and impacts drainage. Measured infiltration rates are three orders of magnitude higher in the burrowed regions than in a control area (1000 ml/min and 0.6 ml/min respectively). Infiltration of oxygenated water enhances decomposition of organic matter and root biomass is reduced within the creek head (marsh=4.3 kg/m3, head=0.6 kg/m3). These processes lead to the removal and collapse of the soils, producing

  18. Fitness Level and Not Aging per se, Determines the Oxygen Uptake Kinetics Response

    Mitchell A. George

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although aging has been associated to slower V˙O2 kinetics, some evidence indicates that fitness status and not aging per se might modulate this response. The main goal of this study was to examine the V˙O2, deoxygenated hemoglobin+myoglobin (deoxy-[Hb+Mb] kinetics, and the NIRS-derived vascular reperfusion responses in older compared to young men of different training levels (i.e., inactive, recreationally active, and endurance trained. Ten young inactive [YI; 26 ± 5 yrs.; peak V˙O2 (V˙O2peak, 2.96 ± 0.55 L·min−1], 10 young recreationally active (YR; 26 ± 6 yrs.; 3.92 ± 0.33 L·min−1, 10 young endurance trained (YT; 30 ± 4 yrs.; 4.42 ± 0.32 L·min−1, 7 older inactive (OI; 69 ± 4 yrs.; 2.50 ± 0.31 L·min−1, 10 older recreationally active (OR; 69 ± 5 yrs.; 2.71 ± 0.42 L·min−1, and 10 older endurance trained (OT; 66 ± 3 yrs.; 3.20 ± 0.35 L·min−1 men completed transitions of moderate intensity cycling exercise (MODS to determine V˙O2 and deoxy-[Hb+Mb] kinetics, and the deoxy-[Hb+Mb]/V˙O2 ratio. The time constant of V˙O2 (τV˙O2 was greater in YI (38.8 ± 10.4 s and OI (44.1 ± 10.8 s compared with YR (26.8 ± 7.5 s and OR (26.6 ± 6.5 s, as well as compared to YT (14.8 ± 3.4 s, and OT (17.7 ± 2.7 s (p < 0.05. τV˙O2 was greater in YR and OR compared with YT and OT (p < 0.05. The deoxy-[Hb+Mb]/V˙O2 ratio was greater in YI (1.23 ± 0.05 and OI (1.29 ± 0.08 compared with YR (1.11 ± 0.03 and OR (1.13 ± 0.06, as well as compared to YT (1.01 ± 0.03, and OT (1.06 ± 0.03 (p < 0.05. Similarly, the deoxy-[Hb+Mb]/ V˙O2 ratio was greater in YR and OR compared with YT and OT (p < 0.05. There was a main effect of training (p = 0.033, whereby inactive (p = 0.018 and recreationally active men (p = 0.031 had significantly poorer vascular reperfusion than endurance trained men regardless of age. This study demonstrated not only that age-related slowing of V˙O2 kinetics can be eliminated in endurance trained individuals

  19. Concordant lipoprotein and weight responses to dietary fat changein identical twins with divergent exercise levels

    Williams, Paul T.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Rawlings, Robin; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2004-06-01

    Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to testthe extent that individual lipoprotein responses to diet can beattributed to genes in the presence of divergent exercise levels.Design:Twenty-eight pairs of male monozygotic twins (one mostly sedentary, theother running an average of 50 km/week more than the sedentary twin) wentfrom a 6-week 40 percent fat diet to a 6-week 20 percent fat diet in acrossover design. The diets reduced fat primarily by reducing saturatedand polyunsaturated fat (both from 14 percent to 4 percent), whileincreasing carbohydrate intake from 45 percent to 65 percent. Results:Despite the twins' differences in physical activity, the dietarymanipulation produced significantly correlated changes (P<0.05) in thetwin's total cholesterol (r=0.56), low-density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol (r=0.70), large, buoyant LDL (Sf7-12, r=0.52), apo A-I(r=0.49), Lp(a) (r=0.49), electrophoresis measurements of LDL-I (LDLsbetween 26 and 28.5 nm diameter, r=0.48), LDL-IIB (25.2-24.6 nm, r=0.54),LDL-IV (22-24.1 nm, r=0.50), and body weights (r=0.41). Replacing fatswith carbohydrates significantly decreased the size and ultracentrifugeflotation rate of the major LDL, the LDL mass concentrations of Sf7-12,LDL-I, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apo A-I, andsignificantly increased LDL-IIIA (24.7-25.5 nm diameter) and Lp(a).Conclusions: Even in the presence of extreme exercise difference, genessignificantly affect changes in LDL, apo A-I, Lp(a) and body weight whendietary fats are replaced with carbohydrates.

  20. Community-level policy responses to state marijuana legalization in Washington State.

    Dilley, Julia A; Hitchcock, Laura; McGroder, Nancy; Greto, Lindsey A; Richardson, Susan M

    2017-04-01

    Washington State (WA) legalized a recreational marijuana market - including growing, processing and retail sales - through voter initiative 502 in November 2012. Legalized recreational marijuana retail sales began in July 2014. In response to state legalization of recreational marijuana, some cities and counties within the state have passed local ordinances that either further regulated marijuana markets, or banned them completely. The purpose of this study is to describe local-level marijuana regulations on recreational retail sales within the context of a state that had legalized a recreational marijuana market. Marijuana-related ordinances were collected from all 142 cities in the state with more than 3000 residents and from all 39 counties. Policies that were in place as of June 30, 2016 - two years after the state's recreational market opening - to regulate recreational marijuana retail sales within communities were systematically coded. A total of 125 cities and 30 counties had passed local ordinances to address recreational marijuana retail sales. Multiple communities implemented retail market bans, including some temporary bans (moratoria) while studying whether to pursue other policy options. As of June 30, 2016, 30% of the state population lived in places that had temporarily or permanently banned retail sales. Communities most frequently enacted zoning policies explicitly regulating where marijuana businesses could be established. Other policies included in ordinances placed limits on business hours and distance requirements (buffers) between marijuana businesses and youth-related land use types or other sensitive areas. State legalization does not necessarily result in uniform community environments that regulate recreational marijuana markets. Local ordinances vary among communities within Washington following statewide legalization. Further study is needed to describe how such local policies affect variation in public health and social outcomes

  1. Approaching Engagement towards Human-Engaged Computing

    Niksirat, Kavous Salehzadeh; Sarcar, Sayan; Sun, Huatong

    2018-01-01

    Debates regarding the nature and role of HCI research and practice have intensified in recent years, given the ever increasingly intertwined relations between humans and technologies. The framework of Human-Engaged Computing (HEC) was proposed and developed over a series of scholarly workshops to...

  2. Engaging the aging workforce: the relationship between perceived age similarity, satisfaction with coworkers, and employee engagement.

    Avery, Derek R; McKay, Patrick F; Wilson, David C

    2007-11-01

    Business publications and the popular press have stressed the importance of creating conditions for meaningful employee expression in work roles, also known as engagement. Few empirical studies, however, have examined how individual or situational factors relate to engagement. Consequently, this study examines the interplay between employee age, perceived coworker age composition, and satisfaction with older (older than 55) and younger (younger than 40) coworkers on engagement using a sample of 901 individuals employed in the United Kingdom. Results indicated that satisfaction with one's coworkers related significantly to engagement. Moreover, perceived age similarity was associated with higher levels of engagement among older workers when they were highly satisfied with their coworkers over 55 and lower levels of engagement when they were not. (c) 2007 APA

  3. The Health and Sport Engagement (HASE) Intervention and Evaluation Project: protocol for the design, outcome, process and economic evaluation of a complex community sport intervention to increase levels of physical activity.

    Mansfield, Louise; Anokye, Nana; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Kay, Tess

    2015-10-26

    Sport is being promoted to raise population levels of physical activity for health. National sport participation policy focuses on complex community provision tailored to diverse local users. Few quality research studies exist that examine the role of community sport interventions in raising physical activity levels and no research to date has examined the costs and cost-effectiveness of such provision. This study is a protocol for the design, outcome, process and economic evaluation of a complex community sport intervention to increase levels of physical activity, the Health and Sport Engagement (HASE) project part of the national Get Healthy Get Active programme led by Sport England. The HASE study is a collaborative partnership between local community sport deliverers and sport and public health researchers. It involves designing, delivering and evaluating community sport interventions. The aim is to engage previously inactive people in sustained sporting activity for 1×30 min a week and to examine associated health and well-being outcomes. The study uses mixed methods. Outcomes (physical activity, health, well-being costs to individuals) will be measured by a series of self-report questionnaires and attendance data and evaluated using interrupted time series analysis controlling for a range of sociodemographic factors. Resource use will be identified and measured using diaries, interviews and records and presented alongside effectiveness data as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. A longitudinal process evaluation (focus groups, structured observations, in-depth interview methods) will examine the efficacy of the project for achieving its aim using the principles of thematic analysis. The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, academic conference presentations, Sport England and national public health organisation policy conferences, and practice-based case studies

  4. Water level response measurement in a steel cylindrical liquid storage tank using image filter processing under seismic excitation

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Choi, Hyoung-Suk; Park, Dong-Uk; Baek, Eun-Rim; Kim, Jae-Min

    2018-02-01

    Sloshing refers to the movement of fluid that occurs when the kinetic energy of various storage tanks containing fluid (e.g., excitation and vibration) is continuously applied to the fluid inside the tanks. As the movement induced by an external force gets closer to the resonance frequency of the fluid, the effect of sloshing increases, and this can lead to a serious problem with the structural stability of the system. Thus, it is important to accurately understand the physics of sloshing, and to effectively suppress and reduce the sloshing. Also, a method for the economical measurement of the water level response of a liquid storage tank is needed for the exact analysis of sloshing. In this study, a method using images was employed among the methods for measuring the water level response of a liquid storage tank, and the water level response was measured using an image filter processing algorithm for the reduction of the noise of the fluid induced by light, and for the sharpening of the structure installed at the liquid storage tank. A shaking table test was performed to verify the validity of the method of measuring the water level response of a liquid storage tank using images, and the result was analyzed and compared with the response measured using a water level gauge.

  5. Responsible Leadership in Global Business: A New Approach to Leadership and Its Multi-Level Outcomes

    Voegtlin Christian; Patzer Moritz; Scherer Andreas Georg

    2012-01-01

    The article advances an understanding of responsible leadership in global business and offers an agenda for future research in this field. Our conceptualization of responsible leadership draws on deliberative practices and discursive conflict resolution combining the macro view of the business firm as a political actor with the micro view of leadership. We discuss the concept in relation to existing research in leadership. Further we propose a new model of responsible leadership that shows ho...

  6. Corporate Citizenship and Stakeholder Engagement : Maintaining an Equitable Power Balance

    Ihugba, Bethel Uzoma; Osuji, Onyeka K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an engagement oriented corporation-stakeholder relationship in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programmes. It is a proposition which poses the two connected questions of how to move from solely public relation driven stakeholder management to social development oriented stakeholder participation (engagement) and how Stakeholder Engagement can be measured. On the backdrop of Arnstein’s (1969) citizenship participation model and reasons for Stakeholder Engagement frame...

  7. The Engagement Gap

    Tartari, Valentina; Salter, Ammon

    2013-01-01

    Recently, debate on women in academic science has been extended to academics' engagement with industry. We suggest that women tend to engage less in industry collaboration than their male colleagues of similar status. We argue that differences are mitigated by the presence of other women and by s...

  8. On making engagement tangible

    van den Broek, Egon; Spink, A.J.; Grieco, F; Krips, O.E.; Loijens, L.W.S.; Noldus, L.P.J.J.; Zimmerman, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this article the complexity of the construct engagement and three theories on this topic are discussed. Csikszentmihalyi's theory of flow is taken as starting point for the measurement of engagement. The measurement of each of its eight aspects is discussed, including its pros and cons.

  9. Rules of (Student) Engagement

    Buskist, William; Busler, Jessica N.; Kirby, Lauren A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Teachers often think of student engagement in terms of hands-on activities that get students involved in their courses. They seldom consider the larger aspects of the teaching--learning environment that often influence the extent to which students are willing to become engaged in their coursework. In this chapter, we describe five "rules of…

  10. Students Engaged in Teaching

    Ford, Channing R.; Wilkins, Emily B.; Groccia, James E.

    2018-01-01

    The role of peer teaching has long been established in academia as a means to foster student engagement in the classroom, increase student learning, and as a way to reduce faculty workload. This chapter highlights the direct and powerful positive impacts of engaging students as teachers upon the student providing the instruction, those receiving…

  11. Utility of serum periostin and free IgE levels in evaluating responsiveness to omalizumab in patients with severe asthma.

    Tajiri, T; Matsumoto, H; Gon, Y; Ito, R; Hashimoto, S; Izuhara, K; Suzukawa, M; Ohta, K; Ono, J; Ohta, S; Ito, I; Oguma, T; Inoue, H; Iwata, T; Kanemitsu, Y; Nagasaki, T; Niimi, A; Mishima, M

    2016-10-01

    Omalizumab, a humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, has demonstrated efficacy in patients with severe allergic asthma. However, treatment responses vary widely among individuals. Despite a lack of data, free serum IgE levels following omalizumab treatment have been proposed as a marker of treatment responsiveness. In this prospective, observational study, we assessed the utility of biomarkers of type 2 inflammation in predicting omalizumab treatment responses, as determined by the absence of asthma exacerbation during the first year of treatment. Free serum IgE levels were monitored for 2 years to examine their association with baseline biomarker levels and the number of exacerbations. We enrolled thirty patients who had been treated with omalizumab for at least 1 year, of whom 27 were treated for 2 years. Baseline serum periostin levels and blood eosinophil counts were significantly higher in patients without exacerbations during the first year of treatment than in patients with exacerbations. Baseline serum periostin levels, but not eosinophil counts, were negatively associated with free serum IgE levels after 16 or 32 weeks of treatment. Reduced free serum IgE levels during treatment from those at baseline were associated with reduced exacerbation numbers at 2 years. In 14 patients who continued to have exacerbations during the first year of treatment, exacerbation numbers gradually and significantly decreased over the 2-year study period, with concurrent significant reductions in free serum IgE levels. Baseline serum periostin levels and serum free IgE levels during treatment follow-up may be useful in evaluating responses to omalizumab treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Teaching Ethics and Social Responsibility: An Evaluation of Undergraduate Business Education at the Discipline Level

    Nicholson, Carolyn Y.; DeMoss, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Organizations and society at large recognize that ethically and socially responsible behavior plays a crucial role in good business practices. This realization has led employers to expect and demand that business schools facilitate the training of students in ethics and social responsibility. However, research is mixed on how well business schools…

  13. Is metal contamination responsible for increasing aneuploidy levels in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum?

    Piló , D.; Carvalho, Susana; Pereira, P.; Gaspar, M.B.; Leitã o, A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed the metal genotoxicity potential at chromosome-level in the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum collected along different areas of the Tagus estuary. Higher levels of aneuploidy on gill cells were detected at the most sediment

  14. Engaging 'communities': anthropological insights from the West African Ebola epidemic.

    Wilkinson, A; Parker, M; Martineau, F; Leach, M

    2017-05-26

    The recent Ebola epidemic in West Africa highlights how engaging with the sociocultural dimensions of epidemics is critical to mounting an effective outbreak response. Community engagement was pivotal to ending the epidemic and will be to post-Ebola recovery, health system strengthening and future epidemic preparedness and response. Extensive literatures in the social sciences have emphasized how simple notions of community, which project solidarity onto complex hierarchies and politics, can lead to ineffective policies and unintended consequences at the local level, including doing harm to vulnerable populations. This article reflects on the nature of community engagement during the Ebola epidemic and demonstrates a disjuncture between local realities and what is being imagined in post-Ebola reports about the lessons that need to be learned for the future. We argue that to achieve stated aims of building trust and strengthening outbreak response and health systems, public health institutions need to reorientate their conceptualization of 'the community' and develop ways of working which take complex social and political relationships into account.This article is part of the themed issue 'The 2013-2016 West African Ebola epidemic: data, decision-making and disease control'. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. A bi-level integrated generation-transmission planning model incorporating the impacts of demand response by operation simulation

    Zhang, Ning; Hu, Zhaoguang; Springer, Cecilia; Li, Yanning; Shen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We put forward a novel bi-level integrated power system planning model. • Generation expansion planning and transmission expansion planning are combined. • The effects of two sorts of demand response in reducing peak load are considered. • Operation simulation is conducted to reflect the actual effects of demand response. • The interactions between the two levels can guarantee a reasonably optimal result. - Abstract: If all the resources in power supply side, transmission part, and power demand side are considered together, the optimal expansion scheme from the perspective of the whole system can be achieved. In this paper, generation expansion planning and transmission expansion planning are combined into one model. Moreover, the effects of demand response in reducing peak load are taken into account in the planning model, which can cut back the generation expansion capacity and transmission expansion capacity. Existing approaches to considering demand response for planning tend to overestimate the impacts of demand response on peak load reduction. These approaches usually focus on power reduction at the moment of peak load without considering the situations in which load demand at another moment may unexpectedly become the new peak load due to demand response. These situations are analyzed in this paper. Accordingly, a novel approach to incorporating demand response in a planning model is proposed. A modified unit commitment model with demand response is utilized. The planning model is thereby a bi-level model with interactions between generation-transmission expansion planning and operation simulation to reflect the actual effects of demand response and find the reasonably optimal planning result.

  16. Workplace Disruption following Psychological Trauma: Influence of Incident Severity Level on Organizations' Post-Incident Response Planning and Execution.

    DeFraia, G S

    2016-04-01

    Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents), which occur globally, are increasing in prevalence within the USA. Assisting employers in their response is a growing practice area for occupational medicine, occupational social work, industrial psychology and other occupational health professions. Traumatic workplace events vary greatly in their level of organizational disruption. To explore whether extent of workplace disruption influences organizations' decisions for post-incident response planning and plan execution. Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring extent of workplace disruption associated with organizational decisions regarding post-incident response. The more severe and disruptive the incident, the more likely organizations planned for and followed through to deliver on-site interventions. Following more severe incidents, organizations were also more likely to deliver group sessions and to complete follow-up consultations to ensure ongoing worker recovery. Increasing occupational health practitioners' knowledge of varying levels of organizational disruption and familiarity with a range of organizational response strategies improves incident assessment, consultation and planning, and ensures interventions delivered are consistent with the level of assistance needed on both worker and organizational levels.

  17. Workplace Disruption following Psychological Trauma: Influence of Incident Severity Level on Organizations' Post-Incident Response Planning and Execution

    GS DeFraia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents, which occur globally, are increasing in prevalence within the USA. Assisting employers in their response is a growing practice area for occupational medicine, occupational social work, industrial psychology and other occupational health professions. Traumatic workplace events vary greatly in their level of organizational disruption. Objective: To explore whether extent of workplace disruption influences organizations' decisions for post-incident response planning and plan execution. Methods: Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring extent of workplace disruption associated with organizational decisions regarding post-incident response. Results: The more severe and disruptive the incident, the more likely organizations planned for and followed through to deliver on-site interventions. Following more severe incidents, organizations were also more likely to deliver group sessions and to complete follow-up consultations to ensure ongoing worker recovery. Conclusion: Increasing occupational health practitioners' knowledge of varying levels of organizational disruption and familiarity with a range of organizational response strategies improves incident assessment, consultation and planning, and ensures interventions delivered are consistent with the level of assistance needed on both worker and organizational levels.

  18. Anti-Mullerian hormone levels do not predict response to pulsatile GnRH in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Billington, Emma O; Corenblum, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    Pulsatile GnRH is used to induce ovulation in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), but tools to predict response are lacking. We assessed whether baseline AMH levels are associated with response to pulsatile GnRH in 16 women with HA. AMH levels were compared between non-responders and women who achieved follicular development or pregnancy. Median AMH for the cohort was 2.2 ng/mL. AMH levels were undetectable or low in four women, normal in nine and high in three. Follicular development was observed in 13 (81%) women (82% of cycles) and pregnancy achieved in 10 (63%) women (29% of cycles). All four women with low or undetectable AMH had follicular response and three achieved pregnancy. Of the 12 women with normal or high AMH, 10 had a follicular response and seven achieved pregnancy. Median AMH levels were comparable in those who achieved follicular development and those who did not (2.2 ng/mL versus 1.3 ng/mL, p = 0.78) and in those who became pregnant and those who did not (2.2 ng/mL versus 1.9 ng/mL, p = 0.52). In summary, low AMH does not preclude response to ovulation induction in women with HA, suggesting that ovarian potential may not be the primary determinant of AMH concentrations in this population.

  19. Hormonal modulation of food intake in response to low leptin levels induced by hypergravity

    Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    A loss in fat mass is a common response to centrifugation and it results in low circulating leptin concentrations. However, rats adapted to hypergravity are euphagic. The focus of this study was to examine leptin and other peripheral signals of energy balance in the presence of a hypergravity-induced loss of fat mass and euphagia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were centrifuged for 14 days at gravity levels of 1.25, 1.5, or 2 G, or they remained stationary at 1 G. Urinary catecholamines, urinary corticosterone, food intake, and body mass were measured on Days 11 to 14. Plasma hormones and epididymal fat pad mass were measured on Day 14. Mean body mass of the 1.25, 1.5, and 2 G groups were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than controls, and no differences were found in food intake (g/day/100 g body mass) between the hypergravity groups and controls. Epididymal fat mass was 14%, 14%, and 21% lower than controls in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2.0 G groups, respectively. Plasma leptin was significantly reduced from controls by 46%, 45%, and 65% in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2 G groups, respectively. Plasma insulin was significantly lower in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2.0 G groups than controls by 35%, 38%, and 33%. No differences were found between controls and hypergravity groups in urinary corticosterone. Mean urinary epinephrine was significantly higher in the 1.5 and 2.0 G groups than in controls. Mean urinary norepinephrine was significantly higher in the 1.25, 1.5 and 2.0 G groups than in controls. Significant correlations were found between G load and body mass, fat mass, leptin, urinary epinephrine, and norepinephrine. During hypergravity exposure, maintenance of food intake is the result of a complex relationship between multiple pathways, which abates the importance of leptin as a primary signal.

  20. Philosophiam profiteri or on Derrida's "declarative engagement"

    Savić Mile V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author reconstructs the meaning of Derrida's concept of "declarative engagement". He shows that Derrida revives the modern idea of the "engaged intellectual" and even develops it in a radical, prophetic/messianic form. The final consequence of such a position, in the opinion of the author, is a paradoxical coupling of political decisionism with social escapism, which renews in a specific way the nostalgia for the "heroic role" of the Marxist intellectual vanguard. This is a major reason for Derrida's popularity in Serbia, it is argued, but can also be taken as the starting point for an analysis of the problem of responsibility of engaged intellectuals.