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Sample records for response time measure

  1. Time response measurements of LASL diagnostic detectors

    Hocker, L.P.

    1970-07-01

    The measurement and data analysis techniques developed under the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's detector improvement program were used to characterize the time and frequency response of selected LASL Compton, fluor-photodiode (NPD), and fluor-photomultiplier (NPM) diagnostic detectors. Data acquisition procedures and analysis methods presently in use are summarized, and detector time and frequency data obtained using the EG and G/AEC electron linear accelerator fast pulse (approximately 50 psec FWHM) as the incident radiation driving function are presented. (U.S.)

  2. Use of Response Time for Measuring Cognitive Ability

    Patrick C. Kyllonen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review some of the key literature on response time as it has played a role in cognitive ability measurement, providing a historical perspective as well as covering current research. We discuss the speed-level distinction, dimensions of speed and level in cognitive abilities frameworks, speed–accuracy tradeoff, approaches to addressing speed–accuracy tradeoff, analysis methods, particularly item response theory-based, response time models from cognitive psychology (ex-Gaussian function, and the diffusion model, and other uses of response time in testing besides ability measurement. We discuss several new methods that can be used to provide greater insight into the speed and level aspects of cognitive ability and speed–accuracy tradeoff decisions. These include item-level time limits, the use of feedback (e.g., CUSUMs, explicit scoring rules that combine speed and accuracy information (e.g., count down timing, and cognitive psychology models. We also review some of the key psychometric advances in modeling speed and level, which combine speed and ability measurement, address speed–accuracy tradeoff, allow for distinctions between response times on items responded to correctly and incorrectly, and integrate psychometrics with information-processing modeling. We suggest that the application of these models and tools is likely to advance both the science and measurement of human abilities for theory and applications.

  3. Measuring older adults' sedentary time: reliability, validity, and responsiveness.

    Gardiner, Paul A; Clark, Bronwyn K; Healy, Genevieve N; Eakin, Elizabeth G; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Owen, Neville

    2011-11-01

    With evidence that prolonged sitting has deleterious health consequences, decreasing sedentary time is a potentially important preventive health target. High-quality measures, particularly for use with older adults, who are the most sedentary population group, are needed to evaluate the effect of sedentary behavior interventions. We examined the reliability, validity, and responsiveness to change of a self-report sedentary behavior questionnaire that assessed time spent in behaviors common among older adults: watching television, computer use, reading, socializing, transport and hobbies, and a summary measure (total sedentary time). In the context of a sedentary behavior intervention, nonworking older adults (n = 48, age = 73 ± 8 yr (mean ± SD)) completed the questionnaire on three occasions during a 2-wk period (7 d between administrations) and wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph model GT1M) for two periods of 6 d. Test-retest reliability (for the individual items and the summary measure) and validity (self-reported total sedentary time compared with accelerometer-derived sedentary time) were assessed during the 1-wk preintervention period, using Spearman (ρ) correlations and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Responsiveness to change after the intervention was assessed using the responsiveness statistic (RS). Test-retest reliability was excellent for television viewing time (ρ (95% CI) = 0.78 (0.63-0.89)), computer use (ρ (95% CI) = 0.90 (0.83-0.94)), and reading (ρ (95% CI) = 0.77 (0.62-0.86)); acceptable for hobbies (ρ (95% CI) = 0.61 (0.39-0.76)); and poor for socializing and transport (ρ < 0.45). Total sedentary time had acceptable test-retest reliability (ρ (95% CI) = 0.52 (0.27-0.70)) and validity (ρ (95% CI) = 0.30 (0.02-0.54)). Self-report total sedentary time was similarly responsive to change (RS = 0.47) as accelerometer-derived sedentary time (RS = 0.39). The summary measure of total sedentary time has good repeatability and modest validity and is

  4. Femtosecond response time measurements of a Cs2Te photocathode

    Aryshev, A.; Shevelev, M.; Honda, Y.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.

    2017-07-01

    Success in design and construction of a compact, high-brightness accelerator system is strongly related to the production of ultra-short electron beams. Recently, the approach to generate short electron bunches or pre-bunched beams in RF guns directly illuminating a high quantum efficiency semiconductor photocathode with femtosecond laser pulses has become attractive. The measurements of the photocathode response time in this case are essential. With an approach of the interferometer-type pulse splitter deep integration into a commercial Ti:Sa laser system used for RF guns, it has become possible to generate pre-bunched electron beams and obtain continuously variable electron bunch separation. In combination with a well-known zero-phasing technique, it allows us to estimate the response time of the most commonly used Cs2Te photocathode. It was demonstrated that the peak-to-peak rms time response of Cs2Te is of the order of 370 fs, and thereby, it is possible to generate and control a THz sequence of relativistic electron bunches by a conventional S-band RF gun. This result can also be applied for investigation of other cathode materials and electron beam temporal shaping and further opens a possibility to construct wide-range tunable, table-top THz free electron laser.

  5. In situ response time measurements of RTD temperature sensors

    Goncalves, I.M.P.

    1985-01-01

    The loop-current-step-response test provides a mean for determining the time constant of resistence thermometers. The test consist in heating the sensor a few degrees above ambient temperature by causing a step pertubation in the electric current that flows through the sensor leads. The developed mathematical transformation permits to use data collected during the internal heating transient to predict the sensor response to perturbations in fluid temperature. Experimental data obtained show that the time constant determined by method is within 15 percent of true value. The loop-current-step-response test is a remote in situ test, which can be performed with the sensor installed in the process. Consequently it takes account the local heat transfer conditions, and appropriated for nuclear power plants, where sensors are installed in points of difficult access. (author) [pt

  6. APD Response Time Measurements for Future TOF-E Systems

    Starkey, M. J.; Ogasawara, K.; Dayeh, M. A.; Desai, M. I.

    2017-12-01

    In space physics, the ability to detect ions is crucial to understanding plasma distributions in the solar wind. This usually typically requires the determination of the particle's mass, charge, and total energy. Current ion detection schemes are implemented in three sequential parts; an electrostatic analyzer for energy per charge (E/Q) measurements, a time-of-flight (TOF) for mass per charge (M/Q) measurements, and a solid-state detector (SSD) for total energy (E) measurements. Recent work has suggested the use of avalanche photodiode detectors (APD) for a simultaneous TOF and total energy (TOF-E) measurement system, which would replace traditional SSDs, simplify design, and reduce costs. Although TOF based ion spectrometry typically requires timing resolution of systems.

  7. Time response measurements of pressure sensors using pink noise technique

    Pereira, Iraci Martinez; Santos, Roberto Carlos dos

    2009-01-01

    This work presents an experimental setup for Pink Noise method application on pressure transmitters' response times. The Pink Noise method consists on injecting artificial pressure noise into the pressure transmitter. The artificial pressure noise is generated using a current-to-pressure (I-to-P) converter, which is driven by a random noise signal generator. The output pressure transmitter noise is then analyzed using conventional Noise Analysis Technique. Noise signals may be interpreted using spectral techniques or empirical time series models. The frequency domain method consists of evaluating the Power Spectral Density (PSD) function. The information needed for time constant estimation can be obtained by fitting an all-pole transfer function to this power spectral density. (author)

  8. Validation of a simple response-time measure of listening effort

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; van Rijn, Hedderik; Başkent, Deniz

    This study compares two response-time measures of listening effort that can be combined with a clinical speech test for a more comprehensive evaluation of total listening experience; verbal response times to auditory stimuli (RTaud) and response times to a visual task (RTsvis) in a dual- task

  9. In-situ measurement of response time of RTDs and pressure transmitters in nuclear power plants

    Hashemian, H.M.; Riner, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Response time measurements are performed once every fuel cycle on most safety-related temperature and pressure sensors in a majority of nuclear power plants in the US. This paper provides a review of the methods that are used for these measurements. The methods are referred to as the Loop Current Step Response (LCSR) test, which is used for response time testing of temperature sensors, and noise analysis and power interrupt (PI) tests, which are used for response time testing of pressure, level, and flow transmitters

  10. A new method for measuring the response time of the high pressure ionization chamber

    Wang, Zhentao; Shen, Yixiong; An, Jigang

    2012-01-01

    Time response is an important performance characteristic for gas-pressurized ionization chambers. To study the time response, it is especially crucial to measure the ion drift time in high pressure ionization chambers. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to study the ion drift time in high pressure ionization chambers. It is carried out with a short-pulsed X-ray source and a high-speed digitizer. The ion drift time in the chamber is then determined from the digitized data. By measuring the ion drift time of a 15 atm xenon testing chamber, the method has been proven to be effective in the time response studies of ionization chambers. - Highlights: ► A method for measuring response time of high pressure ionization chamber is proposed. ► A pulsed X-ray producer and a digital oscilloscope are used in the method. ► The response time of a 15 atm Xenon testing ionization chamber has been measured. ► The method has been proved to be simple, feasible and effective.

  11. Using Response Times to Measure Strategic Complexity and the Value of Thinking in Games

    Gill, David; Prowse, Victoria L.

    2017-01-01

    Response times are a simple low-cost indicator of the process of reasoning in strategic games (Rubinstein, 2007; Rubinstein, 2016). We leverage the dynamic nature of response-time data from repeated strategic interactions to measure the strategic complexity of a situation by how long people think on average when they face that situation (where we define situations according to the characteristics of play in the previous round). We find that strategic complexity varies significantly across sit...

  12. Rapid Response Teams: Is it Time to Reframe the Questions of Rapid Response Team Measurement?

    Salvatierra, Gail G; Bindler, Ruth C; Daratha, Kenn B

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an overview of rapid response team (RRT) history in the United States, provide a review of prior RRT effectiveness research, and propose the reframing of four new questions of RRT measurement that are designed to better understand RRTs in the context of contemporary nursing practice as well as patient outcomes. RRTs were adopted in the United States because of their intuitive appeal, and despite a lack of evidence for their effectiveness. Subsequent studies used mortality and cardiac arrest rates to measure whether or not RRTs "work." Few studies have thoroughly examined the effect of RRTs on nurses and on nursing practice. An extensive literature review provided the background. Suppositions and four critical, unanswered questions arising from the literature are suggested. The results of RRT effectiveness, which have focused on patient-oriented outcomes, have been ambiguous, contradictory, and difficult to interpret. Additionally, they have not taken into account the multiple ways in which these teams have impacted nurses and nursing practice as well as patient outcomes. What happens in terms of RRT process and utilization is likely to have a major impact on nurses and nursing care on general medical and surgical wards. What that impact will be depends on what we can learn from measuring with an expanded yardstick, in order to answer the question, "Do RRTs work?" Evidence for the benefits of RRTs depends on proper framing of questions relating to their effectiveness, including the multiple ways RRTs contribute to nursing efficacy. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  13. Time response measurements of Rosemount Pressure Transmitters (model 3154) of Angra-1 power plant

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos; Pereira, Iraci Martinez; Justino, Marcelo C.; Silva, Marcos C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows the Response of time five Rosemount model 3154N pressure transmitter from the Angra I Nuclear Power Plant. The tests were performed using the Hydraulic Ramp and Pressure Step Generator from the Sensor Response Time Measurement laboratory of CEN - Nuclear Engineering Center of IPEN. For each transmitter, damping was adjusted so that the time constant was less than or equal to 500 ms. This value has been determined so that the total value of the protection chain response time does not exceed the established maximum value of 2 seconds. For each transmitter ten tests were performed, obtaining mean values of time constant of 499.7 ms, 464.1 ms, 473.8 ms, 484.7 ms and 511.5 ms, with mean deviations 0.85%, 0.24%, 0.97%, 1.26% and 0.64% respectively. (author)

  14. Time response measurements of Rosemount Pressure Transmitters (model 3154) of Angra-1 power plant

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos; Pereira, Iraci Martinez [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Justino, Marcelo C.; Silva, Marcos C., E-mail: rcsantos@ipen.br, E-mail: justino@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This paper shows the Response of time five Rosemount model 3154N pressure transmitter from the Angra I Nuclear Power Plant. The tests were performed using the Hydraulic Ramp and Pressure Step Generator from the Sensor Response Time Measurement laboratory of CEN - Nuclear Engineering Center of IPEN. For each transmitter, damping was adjusted so that the time constant was less than or equal to 500 ms. This value has been determined so that the total value of the protection chain response time does not exceed the established maximum value of 2 seconds. For each transmitter ten tests were performed, obtaining mean values of time constant of 499.7 ms, 464.1 ms, 473.8 ms, 484.7 ms and 511.5 ms, with mean deviations 0.85%, 0.24%, 0.97%, 1.26% and 0.64% respectively. (author)

  15. Workload Capacity: A Response Time-Based Measure of Automation Dependence.

    Yamani, Yusuke; McCarley, Jason S

    2016-05-01

    An experiment used the workload capacity measure C(t) to quantify the processing efficiency of human-automation teams and identify operators' automation usage strategies in a speeded decision task. Although response accuracy rates and related measures are often used to measure the influence of an automated decision aid on human performance, aids can also influence response speed. Mean response times (RTs), however, conflate the influence of the human operator and the automated aid on team performance and may mask changes in the operator's performance strategy under aided conditions. The present study used a measure of parallel processing efficiency, or workload capacity, derived from empirical RT distributions as a novel gauge of human-automation performance and automation dependence in a speeded task. Participants performed a speeded probabilistic decision task with and without the assistance of an automated aid. RT distributions were used to calculate two variants of a workload capacity measure, COR(t) and CAND(t). Capacity measures gave evidence that a diagnosis from the automated aid speeded human participants' responses, and that participants did not moderate their own decision times in anticipation of diagnoses from the aid. Workload capacity provides a sensitive and informative measure of human-automation performance and operators' automation dependence in speeded tasks. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  16. Application of Time Domain PARET to the measured responses of a building

    Lager, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The application of the Time Domain PARET (TDP) algorithm to data obtained from the measured responses of a three story reinforced concrete building approximately 465 feet long by 220 feet wide by 40 feet high, with 12 to 18 inch thick walls, is described. The measurements were taken by Agbabian Associates, El Segundo, California. The structure was excited by a device developed at Agbabian that uses a mass sliding down a rod to cut metal disks attached to the rod. The result is a series of impulse forces driving the building at the attachment point of the rod. The responses measured were the accelerations at two locations on the structure. A constraint imposed was that the equipment in the building must remain operating during the time the measurements were made

  17. Effect of hip braces on brake response time: Repeated measures designed study.

    Dammerer, Dietmar; Waidmann, Cornelia; Huber, Dennis G; Krismer, Martin; Haid, Christian; Liebensteiner, Michael C

    2017-08-01

    The question whether or not a patient with a hip brace should drive a car is of obvious importance because the advice given to patients to resume driving is often anecdotal as few scientific data are available on this specific subject. To assess driving ability (brake response time) with commonly used hip braces. Repeated measures design. Brake response time was assessed under six conditions: (1) without a brace (control), (2) with a typical postoperative hip brace with adjustable range of motion and the settings: unrestricted, (3) flexion limited to 70°, (4) extension blocked at 20° hip flexion, (5) both flexion and extension limited (20°/70°) and (6) an elastic hip bandage. Brake response time was assessed using a custom-made driving simulator as used in previous studies. The participants were a convenience sample of able-bodied participants. A total of 70 participants (35 women and 35 men) participated in our study. Mean age was 31.1 (standard deviation: 10.6; range: 21.7-66.4) years. A significant within-subject effect for brake response time was found ( p = 0.009), but subsequent post hoc analyses revealed no significant differences between control and the other settings. Based on our findings, it does not seem mandatory to recommend driving abstinence for patients wearing a hip orthosis. We suggest that our results be interpreted with caution, because (1) an underlying pathological hip condition needs to be considered, (2) the ability to drive a car safely is multifactorial and brake response time is only one component thereof and (3) brake response time measurements were performed only with healthy participants. Clinical relevance Hip braces are used in the context of joint-preserving and prosthetic surgery of the hip. Therefore, clinicians are confronted with the question whether to allow driving a car with the respective hip brace or not. Our data suggest that hip braces do not impair brake response time.

  18. Combining Blink, Pupil, and Response Time Measures in a Concealed Knowledge Test

    Travis eSeymour

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The response time (RT based Concealed Knowledge Test (CKT has been shown to accurately detect participants’ knowledge of mock-crime related information. Tests based on ocular measures such as pupil size and blink rate have sometimes resulted in poor classification, or lacked detailed classification analyses. The present study examines the fitness of multiple pupil and blink related responses in the CKT paradigm. To maximize classification efficiency, participants’ concealed knowledge was assessed using both individual test measures and combinations of test measures. Results show that individual pupil-size, pupil-slope, and pre-response blink-rate measures produce efficient classifications. Combining pupil and blink measures yielded more accuracy classifications than individual ocular measures. Although RT-based tests proved efficient, combining RT with ocular measures had little incremental benefit. It is argued that covertly assessing ocular measures during RT-based tests may guard against effective countermeasure use in applied settings. A compound classification procedure was used to categorize individual participants and yielded high hit rates and low false-alarm rates without the need for adjustments between test paradigms or subject populations. We conclude that with appropriate test paradigms and classification analyses, ocular measures may prove as effective as other indices, though additional research is needed.

  19. Measurement of detector neutron energy response using time-of-flight techniques

    Janee, H.S.

    1973-09-01

    The feasibility of using time-of-flight techniques at the EG and G/AEC linear accelerator for measuring the neutron response of relatively sensitive detectors over the energy range 0.5 to 14 MeV has been demonstrated. The measurement technique is described in detail as are the results of neutron spectrum measurements from beryllium and uranium photoneutron targets. The sensitivity of a fluor photomultiplier LASL detector with a 2- by 1-inch NE-111 scintillator was determined with the two targets, and agreement in the region of overlap was very good. (U.S.)

  20. Response Time Measurements of the NIF DANTE XRD-31 X-Ray Diodes (Pre-print)

    Pellinen, Don; Griffin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The XRD-31 is a fast, windowless X-ray vacuum photodiode developed by EG and G. It is currently the primary fast X-ray detector used to diagnose the X-rays on NIF and OMEGA on the multichannel DANTE spectrometer. The XRD-31 has a dynamic range of less than 1e-12 amps to more than 10 amps. A technique is described to measure the impulse response of the diodes to a 150 fs pulse of 200 nm laser light and a method to calculate the 'risetime' for a square pulse and compare it with the computed electron transit time from the photocathode to the anode. Measured response time for 5 XRD-31s assembled in early 2004 was 149.7 ps +-2.75 ps

  1. Combined Characterization of the Time Response of Impression Materials via Traditional and FTIR Measurements

    Giacomo Derchi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the temporal response of four dental impression materials, namely three siloxanes (Imprint 4, Flexitime, Aquasil and one polyether (Impregum. The null hypothesis was that the nominal working times are confirmed by instrumental laboratory tests. We also aimed to identify alternative techniques with strong physical-chemical background for the assessment of temporal response. Traditional characterization was carried out by shark fin test device and durometer at both ambient and body temperature. Additionally, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was performed at room temperature. From shark fin height and Shore hardness versus time the working time and the setting time of the materials were evaluated, respectively. These were in reasonable agreement with the nominal values, except for Impregum, which showed longer working time. Spectroscopy confirmed the different character of the two types of materials, and provided for Imprint 4 and Aquasil an independent evaluation of both evolution times, consistent with the results of the other techniques. Shark fin test and durometer measurements showed deviations in setting time, low sensitivity to temperature for Flexitime, and longer working time at higher temperature for Impregum. Deviations of working time appear in operating conditions from what specified by the manufacturers. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy can provide insight in the correlation between material properties and their composition and structure.

  2. Measurement of response time and detection of degradation in pressure sensor/sensing-line systems

    Buchanan, M.E.; Miller, L.F.; Kerlin, T.W.; Ragan, G.; March-Leuba, J.; Thie, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A team evaluated several methods for remote measurement of the response time and detection of degradation (blockage or air in lines) of pressure sensor/sensing line systems typical of nuclear power plants. A method was developed for obtaining the response time of force-balance pressure transmitters by briefly interrupting the power supply to the transmitter. The data thus generated are then analyzed in conjunction with a model to predict transmitter response to an actual pressure perturbation. The research team also evaluated a pressure perturbation method for determining the asymptotic delay time of a pressure-sensing line and found that this method yields accurate results for essentially unblocked sensing lines. However, these pressure perturbation tests are not recommended for use in nuclear power plants because they are difficult to implement on-line. A third method for remote measurement applied noise analysis method that yielded accurate estimates of asymptotic delay times for blockage or air in sensing lines. Even though noise analysis methods worked well in the laboratory, it is recommended that further evaluation be performed in operating nuclear plants. (orig.)

  3. Measurement of response time and detection of degradation in pressure sensor/sensing line systems

    Buchanan, M.E.; Miller, L.F.; Thie, J.A.; Kerlin, T.W.; Ragan, G.E.; March-Leuba, J.

    1985-09-01

    A team evaluated several methods for remote measurement of the response time and detection of degradation (blockage or air in lines) of pressure sensor/sensing line systems typical of nuclear power plants. A method was developed for obtaining the response time of force-balance pressure transmitters by briefly interrupting the power supply to the transmitter. The data thus generated are then analyzed in conjunction with a model to predict transmitter response to an actual pressure perturbation. The research team also evaluated a pressure perturbation method for determining the asymptotic delay time of a pressure-sensing line and found that this method yields accurate results for essentially unblocked sensing lines. However, these pressure perturbation tests are not recommended for use in nuclear power plants because they are difficult to implement on-line. A third method for remote measurement applied noise analysis methods that yielded accurate estimates of asymptotic delay times for blockage or air in sensing lines. Even though noise analysis methods worked well in the laboratory, it is recommended that further evaluation be performed in operating nuclear plants

  4. Measurement and deconvolution of detector response time for short HPM pulses: Part 1, Microwave diodes

    Bolton, P.R.

    1987-06-01

    A technique is described for measuring and deconvolving response times of microwave diode detection systems in order to generate corrected input signals typical of an infinite detection rate. The method has been applied to cases of 2.86 GHz ultra-short HPM pulse detection where pulse rise time is comparable to that of the detector; whereas, the duration of a few nanoseconds is significantly longer. Results are specified in terms of the enhancement of equivalent deconvolved input voltages for given observed voltages. The convolution integral imposes the constraint of linear detector response to input power levels. This is physically equivalent to the conservation of integrated pulse energy in the deconvolution process. The applicable dynamic range of a microwave diode is therefore limited to a smaller signal region as determined by its calibration

  5. Accelerometer-measured dose-response for physical activity, sedentary time, and mortality in US adults

    Matthews, Charles E; Keadle, S. K.; Troiano, Richard P

    2016-01-01

    Background: Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity is recommended to maintain and improve health, but the mortality benefits of light activity and risk for sedentary time remain uncertain. Objectives: Using accelerometer-based measures, we 1) described the mortality dose-response...... for sedentary time and light-and moderateto-vigorous-intensity activity using restricted cubic splines, and 2) estimated the mortality benefits associated with replacing sedentary time with physical activity, accounting for total activity. Design: US adults (n = 4840) from NHANES (2003-2006) wore...... an accelerometer for #7 d and were followed prospectively for mortality. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for mortality associations with time spent sedentary and in light-and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity. Splines were used to graphically present...

  6. Organic scintillators response function modeling for Monte Carlo simulation of Time-of-Flight measurements

    Carasco, C., E-mail: cedric.carasco@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2012-07-15

    In neutron Time-of-Flight (TOF) measurements performed with fast organic scintillation detectors, both pulse arrival time and amplitude are relevant. Monte Carlo simulation can be used to calculate the time-energy dependant neutron flux at the detector position. To convert the flux into a pulse height spectrum, one must calculate the detector response function for mono-energetic neutrons. MCNP can be used to design TOF systems, but standard MCNP versions cannot reliably calculate the energy deposited by fast neutrons in the detector since multiple scattering effects must be taken into account in an analog way, the individual recoil particles energy deposit being summed with the appropriate scintillation efficiency. In this paper, the energy response function of 2 Double-Prime Multiplication-Sign 2 Double-Prime and 5 Double-Prime Multiplication-Sign 5 Double-Prime liquid scintillation BC-501 A (Bicron) detectors to fast neutrons ranging from 20 keV to 5.0 MeV is computed with GEANT4 to be coupled with MCNPX through the 'MCNP Output Data Analysis' software developed under ROOT (). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GEANT4 has been used to model organic scintillators response to neutrons up to 5 MeV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The response of 2 Double-Prime Multiplication-Sign 2 Double-Prime and 5 Double-Prime Multiplication-Sign 5 Double-Prime BC501A detectors has been parameterized with simple functions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parameterization will allow the modeling of neutron Time of Flight measurements with MCNP using tools based on CERN's ROOT.

  7. Comparative study of on-line response time measurement methods for platinum resistance thermometer

    Zwingelstein, G.; Gopal, R.

    1979-01-01

    This study deals with the in site determination of the response time of platinum resistance sensor. In the first part of this work, two methods furnishing the reference response time of the sensors are studied. In the second part of the work, two methods obtaining the response time without dismounting of the sensor, are studied. A comparative study of the performances of these methods is included for fluid velocities varying from 0 to 10 m/sec, in both laboratory and plant conditions

  8. On-line measurements of response time of temperature and pressure sensors in PWRs

    Hashemian, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    A review of modern techniques for in-situ response time testing of resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), and pressure, level and flow transmitters is presented. These techniques have been developed and validated for use in pressurized and boiling water reactors. The significance of the modern techniques is that they permit testing of installed sensors at process operating conditions and thereby provide the actual in-service response times of the sensors. (author)

  9. Determination of response time of resistance thermometers by in situ measurements

    Goncalves, I.M.P.; Soares, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The loop-current-step-response test provides a mean for determining the time constant of resistance thermometers. The test consists in heating the sensor a few degrees above ambient temperature by causing a step perurbation in the electric current that flows through the sensor leads. The developed mathematical transformation permits to use data collected during the internal heating transient to predict the sensor response to perturbations in fluid temperature. Experimental data obtained show that time constant determined by this method is within 15 percent of the true value. (Author) [pt

  10. Simplified method for measuring the response time of scram release electromagnet in a nuclear reactor

    Patri, Sudheer, E-mail: patri@igcar.gov.in; Mohana, M.; Kameswari, K.; Kumar, S. Suresh; Narmadha, S.; Vijayshree, R.; Meikandamurthy, C.; Venkatesan, A.; Palanisami, K.; Murthy, D. Thirugnana; Babu, B.; Prakash, V.; Rajan, K.K.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • An alternative method for estimating the electromagnet clutch release time. • A systematic approach to develop a computer based measuring system. • Prototype tests on the measurement system. • Accuracy of the method is ±6% and repeatability error is within 2%. - Abstract: The delay time in electromagnet clutch release during a reactor trip (scram action) is an important safety parameter, having a bearing on the plant safety during various design basis events. Generally, it is measured using current decay characteristics of electromagnet coil and its energising circuit. A simplified method of measuring the same in a Sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR) is proposed in this paper. The method utilises the position data of control rod to estimate the delay time in electromagnet clutch release. A computer based real time measurement system for measuring the electromagnet clutch delay time is developed and qualified for retrofitting in prototype fast breeder reactor. Various stages involved in the development of the system are principle demonstration, experimental verification of hardware capabilities and prototype system testing. Tests on prototype system have demonstrated the satisfactory performance of the system with intended accuracy and repeatability.

  11. Measurement of ad libitum food intake, physical activity, and sedentary time in response to overfeeding.

    Jianying He

    Full Text Available Given the wide availability of highly palatable foods, overeating is common. Energy intake and metabolic responses to overfeeding may provide insights into weight gain prevention. We hypothesized a down-regulation in subsequent food intake and sedentary time, and up-regulation in non-exercise activity and core temperature in response to overfeeding in order to maintain body weight constant. In a monitored inpatient clinical research unit using a cross over study design, we investigated ad libitum energy intake (EI, using automated vending machines, core body temperature, and physical activity (using accelerometry following a short term (3-day weight maintaining (WM vs overfeeding (OF diet in healthy volunteers (n = 21, BMI, mean ± SD, 33.2±8.6 kg/m(2, 73.6% male. During the ad libitum periods following the WM vs. OF diets, there was no significant difference in mean 3-d EI (4061±1084 vs. 3926±1284 kcal/day, p = 0.41, and there were also no differences either in core body temperature (37.0±0.2°C vs. 37.1±0.2°C, p = 0.75 or sedentary time (70.9±12.9 vs. 72.0±7.4%, p = 0.88. However, during OF (but not WM, sedentary time was positively associated with weight gain (r = 0.49, p = 0.05, adjusted for age, sex, and initial weight. In conclusion, short term overfeeding did not result in a decrease in subsequent ad libitum food intake or overall change in sedentary time although in secondary analysis sedentary time was associated with weight gain during OF. Beyond possible changes in sedentary time, there is minimal attempt to restore energy balance during or following short term overfeeding.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342732.

  12. Measurement of Responsibility: A Critical Evaluation of Level of Work Measurement by Time-Span of Discretion.

    Laner, S.; And Others

    This report is a critical evaluation based on extended field trials and theoretical analysis of the time-span technique of measuring level of work in organizational hierarchies. It is broadly concluded that the technique does possess many of the desirable features claimed by its originator, but that earlier, less highly structured versions based…

  13. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers-Optimizing Efficiency and Response Time During Setback Operation

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has consistently stated two things: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. The first step is to determine the appropriateness of setback for a particular project. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  14. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers - Optimizing Efficiency and Response Time During Setback Operation

    Arena, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has told us a couple of things consistently for several years now: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step by step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  15. REAL-TIME MEASUREMENT OF AIRWAY RESPONSES TO SULOFUR DIOXIDE (SO2) IN AN INTACT, AWAKE GUINEA PIG MODEL

    Real-time measurment of airway responses to Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) in an intact, awake guinea pig model. J Stanek1,2, Q Krantz2, J Nolan2, D Winsett2, W Watkinson2, and D Costa2. 1College of Veterinary Medicine, NCSU, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, ETD, NHEERL, US...

  16. Inferring a Drive-Response Network from Time Series of Topological Measures in Complex Networks with Transfer Entropy

    Xinbo Ai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Topological measures are crucial to describe, classify and understand complex networks. Lots of measures are proposed to characterize specific features of specific networks, but the relationships among these measures remain unclear. Taking into account that pulling networks from different domains together for statistical analysis might provide incorrect conclusions, we conduct our investigation with data observed from the same network in the form of simultaneously measured time series. We synthesize a transfer entropy-based framework to quantify the relationships among topological measures, and then to provide a holistic scenario of these measures by inferring a drive-response network. Techniques from Symbolic Transfer Entropy, Effective Transfer Entropy, and Partial Transfer Entropy are synthesized to deal with challenges such as time series being non-stationary, finite sample effects and indirect effects. We resort to kernel density estimation to assess significance of the results based on surrogate data. The framework is applied to study 20 measures across 2779 records in the Technology Exchange Network, and the results are consistent with some existing knowledge. With the drive-response network, we evaluate the influence of each measure by calculating its strength, and cluster them into three classes, i.e., driving measures, responding measures and standalone measures, according to the network communities.

  17. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  18. Survey of methods and measurements of nuclear reactor time and frequency responses

    Cummins, J.D.

    1961-11-01

    Methods of measuring reactivity effects in nuclear reactors are described and the main control engineering analytical problems in nuclear reactors are detailed. A description of the use of reactor models and adaptive control in improving the economy of power producing nuclear reactors is included. (author)

  19. Decoupling of modeling and measuring interval in groundwater time series analysis based on response characteristics

    Berendrecht, W.L.; Heemink, A.W.; Geer, F.C. van; Gehrels, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    A state-space representation of the transfer function-noise (TFN) model allows the choice of a modeling (input) interval that is smaller than the measuring interval of the output variable. Since in geohydrological applications the interval of the available input series (precipitation excess) is

  20. Objective measures for detecting the auditory brainstem response: comparisons of specificity, sensitivity and detection time

    Chesnaye, M. A.; Bell, S. L.; Harte, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    of the Hotelling's T-2 test (applied in either time or frequency domain), two versions of the modified q-sample uniform scores test and both the Fsp and Fmp, which were evaluated using both conventional F-distributions with assumed degrees of freedom and a bootstrap approach. Study sample: Data consisted of click......-level when evaluating statistical significance using the bootstrap approach, as opposed to using conventional F-distributions. The FPRs of the remaining methods were slightly higher than expected. Conclusions: In this work, Hotelling's T-2 outperformed the alternative methods for automatically detecting ABRs......-evoked ABRs and recordings of EEG background activity from 12 to 17 normal hearing adults, respectively. Results: An overall advantage in sensitivity and detection time was demonstrated for the Hotelling's T-2 test. The false-positive rates (FPRs) of the Fsp and Fmp were also closer to the nominal alpha...

  1. A Delay Time Measurement of ULTRAS (Ultra-high Temperature Ultrasonic Response Analysis System) for a High Temperature Experiment

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kim, Sang Baik

    2010-01-01

    The temperature measurement of very high temperature core melt is of importance in a high temperature as the molten pool experiment in which gap formation between core melt and the reactor lower head, and the effect of the gap on thermal behavior are to be measured. The existing temperature measurement techniques have some problems, which the thermocouple, one of the contact methods, is restricted to under 2000 .deg. C, and the infrared thermometry, one of the non-contact methods, is unable to measure an internal temperature and very sensitive to the interference from reacted gases. In order to solve these problems, the delay time technique of ultrasonic wavelets due to high temperature has two sorts of stage. As a first stage, a delay time measurement of ULTRAS (Ultra-high Temperature Ultrasonic Response Analysis System) is suggested. As a second stage, a molten material temperature was measured up to 2300 .deg. C. Also, the optimization design of the UTS (ultrasonic temperature sensor) with persistence at the high temperature was suggested in this paper. And the utilization of the theory suggested in this paper and the efficiency of the developed system are performed by special equipment and some experiments supported by KRISS (Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science)

  2. Have Nursing Home Compare quality measure scores changed over time in response to competition?

    Castle, Nicholas G; Engberg, John; Liu, Darren

    2007-06-01

    Currently, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services report on 15 Quality Measures (QMs) on the Nursing Home Compare (NHC) website. It is assumed that nursing homes are able to make improvements on these QMs, and in doing so they will attract more residents. In this investigation, we examine changes in QM scores, and whether competition and/or excess demand have influenced these change scores over a period of 1 year. Data come from NHC and the On-line Survey Certification And Recording (OSCAR) system. QM change scores are calculated using values from January 2003 to January 2004. A series of regression analyses are used to examine the association of competition and excess demand on QM scores. Eight QMs show an average decrease in scores (ie, better quality) and six QMs show an average increase in scores (ie, worse quality). However, for 13 of the 14 QMs these average changes averaged less than 1%. The regression analyses show an association between higher competition and improving QM scores and an association between lower occupancy and improving QM scores. As would be predicted based on the market-driven mechanism underlying quality improvements using report cards, we show that it is in the most competitive markets and those with the lowest average occupancy rates that improvements in the QM scores are more likely.

  3. A fast-time-response extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for measurement of impurity line emissions in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    Zhang, Ling; Xu, Zong; Wu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Pengfei; Wu, Chengrui; Gao, Wei; Shen, Junsong; Chen, Yingjie; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Yumin; Gong, Xianzu; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Junlin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wan, Baonian; Li, Jiangang [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230026, Anhui (China); Morita, Shigeru; Ohishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Department of Fusion Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Dong, Chunfeng [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); and others

    2015-12-15

    A flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in the 20-500 Å wavelength range with fast time response has been newly developed to measure line emissions from highly ionized tungsten in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with a tungsten divertor, while the monitoring of light and medium impurities is also an aim in the present development. A flat-field focal plane for spectral image detection is made by a laminar-type varied-line-spacing concave holographic grating with an angle of incidence of 87°. A back-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) with a total size of 26.6 × 6.6 mm{sup 2} and pixel numbers of 1024 × 255 (26 × 26 μm{sup 2}/pixel) is used for recording the focal image of spectral lines. An excellent spectral resolution of Δλ{sub 0} = 3-4 pixels, where Δλ{sub 0} is defined as full width at the foot position of a spectral line, is obtained at the 80-400 Å wavelength range after careful adjustment of the grating and CCD positions. The high signal readout rate of the CCD can improve the temporal resolution of time-resolved spectra when the CCD is operated in the full vertical binning mode. It is usually operated at 5 ms per frame. If the vertical size of the CCD is reduced with a narrow slit, the time response becomes faster. The high-time response in the spectral measurement therefore makes possible a variety of spectroscopic studies, e.g., impurity behavior in long pulse discharges with edge-localized mode bursts. An absolute intensity calibration of the EUV spectrometer is also carried out with a technique using the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum at 20-150 Å for quantitative data analysis. Thus, the high-time resolution tungsten spectra have been successfully observed with good spectral resolution using the present EUV spectrometer system. Typical tungsten spectra in the EUV wavelength range observed from EAST discharges are presented with absolute intensity and spectral identification.

  4. Using response-time latencies to measure athletes’ doping attitudes: the brief implicit attitude test identifies substance abuse in bodybuilders

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowing and, if necessary, altering competitive athletes’ real attitudes towards the use of banned performance-enhancing substances is an important goal of worldwide doping prevention efforts. However athletes will not always be willing to reporting their real opinions. Reaction time-based attitude tests help conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant and impede strategic answering. This study investigated how well a reaction time-based attitude test discriminated between athletes who were doping and those who were not. We investigated whether athletes whose urine samples were positive for at least one banned substance (dopers) evaluated doping more favorably than clean athletes (non-dopers). Methods We approached a group of 61 male competitive bodybuilders and collected urine samples for biochemical testing. The pictorial doping Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT) was used for attitude measurement. This test quantifies the difference in response latencies (in milliseconds) to stimuli representing related concepts (i.e. doping–dislike/like–[health food]). Results Prohibited substances were found in 43% of all tested urine samples. Dopers had more lenient attitudes to doping than non-dopers (Hedges’s g = -0.76). D-scores greater than -0.57 (CI95 = -0.72 to -0.46) might be indicative of a rather lenient attitude to doping. In urine samples evidence of administration of combinations of substances, complementary administration of substances to treat side effects and use of stimulants to promote loss of body fat was common. Conclusion This study demonstrates that athletes’ attitudes to doping can be assessed indirectly with a reaction time-based test, and that their attitudes are related to their behavior. Although bodybuilders may be more willing to reveal their attitude to doping than other athletes, these results still provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT may be useful in athletes from other sports

  5. Using response-time latencies to measure athletes' doping attitudes: the brief implicit attitude test identifies substance abuse in bodybuilders.

    Brand, Ralf; Wolff, Wanja; Thieme, Detlef

    2014-09-10

    Knowing and, if necessary, altering competitive athletes' real attitudes towards the use of banned performance-enhancing substances is an important goal of worldwide doping prevention efforts. However athletes will not always be willing to reporting their real opinions. Reaction time-based attitude tests help conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant and impede strategic answering. This study investigated how well a reaction time-based attitude test discriminated between athletes who were doping and those who were not. We investigated whether athletes whose urine samples were positive for at least one banned substance (dopers) evaluated doping more favorably than clean athletes (non-dopers). We approached a group of 61 male competitive bodybuilders and collected urine samples for biochemical testing. The pictorial doping Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT) was used for attitude measurement. This test quantifies the difference in response latencies (in milliseconds) to stimuli representing related concepts (i.e. doping-dislike/like-[health food]). Prohibited substances were found in 43% of all tested urine samples. Dopers had more lenient attitudes to doping than non-dopers (Hedges's g = -0.76). D-scores greater than -0.57 (CI95 = -0.72 to -0.46) might be indicative of a rather lenient attitude to doping. In urine samples evidence of administration of combinations of substances, complementary administration of substances to treat side effects and use of stimulants to promote loss of body fat was common. This study demonstrates that athletes' attitudes to doping can be assessed indirectly with a reaction time-based test, and that their attitudes are related to their behavior. Although bodybuilders may be more willing to reveal their attitude to doping than other athletes, these results still provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT may be useful in athletes from other sports, perhaps as a complementary measure in evaluations of

  6. Uniqueness in time measurement

    Lorenzen, P.

    1981-01-01

    According to P. Janich a clock is defined as an apparatus in which a point ( hand ) is moving uniformly on a straight line ( path ). For the definition of uniformly first the scaling (as a constant ratio of velocities) is defined without clocks. Thereafter the uniqueness of the time measurement can be proved using the prove of scaling of all clocks. But the uniqueness can be defined without scaling, as it is pointed out here. (orig.) [de

  7. Measuring Business Cycle Time.

    Stock, James H

    1987-01-01

    The business cycle analysis of Arthur F. Burns and Wesley C. Mitchell and the National Bureau of Economic Research presumed that aggregate economic variables evolve on a time scale defined by business cycle turning points rather than by months or quarters. Do macroeconomic variables appear to evolve on an economic rather than a calendar time scale? Evidence presented here suggests that they do. However, the estimated economic time scales are only weakly related to business cycle time scales, ...

  8. 'Stutter timing' for charge decay time measurement

    Chubb, John; Harbour, John; Pavey, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the approach of 'stutter timing' that has been developed to improve the accuracy of measuring charge decay times in the presence of noise in compact and portable charge decay test instrumentation. The approach involves starting and stopping the timing clock as the noisy signal rises above and falls below the target threshold voltage level.

  9. Measurement of the response time of the delay window for the neutron converter of the SPIRAL2 project

    Acosta, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Andre, T. [GANIL, Caen (France); Bermudez, J. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Blinov, M.F. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Jamet, C. [GANIL, Caen (France); Logatchev, P.V.; Semenov, Y.I.; Starostenko, A.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Tecchio, L.B., E-mail: tecchio@lnl.infn.it [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Tsyganov, A.S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Udup, E. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); University Polytechnic of Bucharest (Romania); Vasquez, J. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2014-09-11

    Research and development of a safety system for the SPIRAL2 facility has been conceived to protect the UCx target from a possible interaction with the 200 kW deuteron beam. The system called “delay window” (DW) is designed as an integral part of the neutron converter module and is located in between the neutron converter and the fission target. The device has been designed as a barrier, located directly behind the neutron converter on the axis of the deuteron beam, with the purpose of “delaying” the eventual interaction of the deuteron beam with the UCx target in case of a failure of the neutron converter. The “delay” must be long enough to allow the interlock to react and safely stop the beam operation, before the beam will reach the UCx target. The working concept of the DW is based on the principle of the electrical fuse. Electrically insulated wires placed on the surface of a Tantalum disk assure a so called “free contact”, normally closed to an electronic circuit located on the HV platform, far from the radioactive environment. The melting temperature of the wires is much less than Tantalum. Once the beam is impinging on the disk, one or more wires are melted and the “free contact” is open. A solid state relay is changing its state and a signal is sent to the interlock device. A prototype of the DW has been constructed and tested with an electron beam of power density equivalent to the SPIRAL2 beam. The measured “delay” is 682.5 ms (σ=116 ms), that is rather long in comparison to the intrinsic delays introduced by the detectors itself (2 ms) and by the associated electronic devices (120 ns). The experimental results confirm that, in the case of a failure of the neutron converter, the DW as conceived is enable to withstand the beam power for a period of time sufficiently long to safely shut down the SPIRAL2 accelerator.

  10. Microfossil measures of rapid sea-level rise: Timing of response of two microfossil groups to a sudden tidal-flooding experiment in Cascadia

    Horton, B.P.; Milker, Yvonne; Dura, T.; Wang, Kelin; Bridgeland, W.T.; Brophy, Laura S.; Ewald, M.; Khan, Nicole; Engelhart, S.E.; Nelson, Alan R.; Witter, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Comparisons of pre-earthquake and post-earthquake microfossils in tidal sequences are accurate means to measure coastal subsidence during past subduction earthquakes, but the amount of subsidence is uncertain, because the response times of fossil taxa to coseismic relative sea-level (RSL) rise are unknown. We measured the response of diatoms and foraminifera to restoration of a salt marsh in southern Oregon, USA. Tidal flooding following dike removal caused an RSL rise of ∼1 m, as might occur by coseismic subsidence during momentum magnitude (Mw) 8.1–8.8 earthquakes on this section of the Cascadia subduction zone. Less than two weeks after dike removal, diatoms colonized low marsh and tidal flats in large numbers, showing that they can record seismically induced subsidence soon after earthquakes. In contrast, low-marsh foraminifera took at least 11 months to appear in sizeable numbers. Where subsidence measured with diatoms and foraminifera differs, their different response times may provide an estimate of postseismic vertical deformation in the months following past megathrust earthquakes.

  11. Cognitive Reflection, Decision Biases, and Response Times.

    Alós-Ferrer, Carlos; Garagnani, Michele; Hügelschäfer, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    We present novel evidence on response times and personality traits in standard questions from the decision-making literature where responses are relatively slow (medians around half a minute or above). To this end, we measured response times in a number of incentivized, framed items (decisions from description) including the Cognitive Reflection Test, two additional questions following the same logic, and a number of classic questions used to study decision biases in probability judgments (base-rate neglect, the conjunction fallacy, and the ratio bias). All questions create a conflict between an intuitive process and more deliberative thinking. For each item, we then created a non-conflict version by either making the intuitive impulse correct (resulting in an alignment question), shutting it down (creating a neutral question), or making it dominant (creating a heuristic question). For CRT questions, the differences in response times are as predicted by dual-process theories, with alignment and heuristic variants leading to faster responses and neutral questions to slower responses than the original, conflict questions. For decision biases (where responses are slower), evidence is mixed. To explore the possible influence of personality factors on both choices and response times, we used standard personality scales including the Rational-Experiential Inventory and the Big Five, and used them as controls in regression analysis.

  12. Sensor response time monitoring using noise analysis

    Hashemian, H.M.; Thie, J.A.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Holbert, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    Random noise techniques in nuclear power plants have been developed for system surveillance and for analysis of reactor core dynamics. The noise signals also contain information about sensor dynamics, and this can be extracted using frequency, amplitude and time domain analyses. Even though noise analysis has been used for sensor response time testing in some nuclear power plants, an adequate validation of this method has never been carried out. This paper presents the results of limited work recently performed to examine the validity of the noise analysis for sensor response time testing in nuclear power plants. The conclusion is that noise analysis has the potential for detecting gross changes in sensor response but it cannot be used for reliable measurement of response time until more laboratory and field experience is accumulated. The method is more advantageous for testing pressure sensors than it is for temperature sensors. This is because: 1) for temperature sensors, a method called Loop Current Step Response test is available which is quantitatively more exact than noise analysis, 2) no method currently exists for on-line testing of pressure transmitters other than the Power-Interrupt test which is applicable only to force balance pressure transmitters, and 3) pressure sensor response time is affected by sensing line degradation which is inherently taken into account by testing with noise analysis. (author)

  13. Drift time variations in CdZnTe detectors measured with alpha-particles: Their correlation with the detector’s responses

    Bolotnikov A. E.; Butcher, J.; Hamade, M.; Petryk, M.; Bolotnikov, A.; Camarda, G.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.; Yang, G.; and James, R.

    2012-05-14

    Homogeneity of properties related to material crystallinity is a critical parameter for achieving high-performance CdZnTe (CZT) radiation detectors. Unfortunately, this requirement is not always satisfied in today's commercial CZT material due to high concentrations of extended defects, in particular subgrain boundaries, which are believed to be part of the causes hampering the energy resolution and efficiency of CZT detectors. In the past, the effects of subgrain boundaries have been studied in Si, Ge and other semiconductors. It was demonstrated that subgrain boundaries tend to accumulate secondary phases and impurities causing inhomogeneous distributions of trapping centers. It was also demonstrated that subgrain boundaries result in local perturbations of the electric field, which affect the carrier transport and other properties of semiconductor devices. The subgrain boundaries in CZT material likely behave in a similar way, which makes them responsible for variations in the electron drift time and carrier trapping in CZT detectors. In this work, we employed the transient current technique to measure variations in the electron drift time and related the variations to the device performances and subgrain boundaries, whose presence in the crystals were confirmed with white beam X-ray diffraction topography and infrared transmission microscopy.

  14. Drift-time measurement electronics

    Pernicka, M.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the construction was to improve the time resolution without using the facility of time stretching, to have a fast read-out possibility, and to be still cheaper in price in comparison to other systems. A possibility was thus foreseen for using the firm Fairchild. These integrated circuits (IC) have, for example, a propagation delay of 0.75 ns for a gate. One can expect therefore less time jitter and less time difference between the different inputs. Furthermore this IC offers a greater flexibility and therefore the number of ICs decreases and distances become smaller. Working with clock frequencies up to 166.6 MHz is easily possible without running into timing problems. On the other hand, to make full use of the advantages of this IC, it was necessary to build the print as a multilayer. The only risk could be in the use of a completely new product. A further aim was to build for this system a second type of drift-time module with a short time range for measuring drift time and pulse length in rotated multiwire proportional chambers. A brief outline of the specifications of the different modules is given in table 1. (Auth.)

  15. Trading of dynamic interaural time and level difference cues and its effect on the auditory motion-onset response measured with electroencephalography.

    Altmann, Christian F; Ueda, Ryuhei; Bucher, Benoit; Furukawa, Shigeto; Ono, Kentaro; Kashino, Makio; Mima, Tatsuya; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2017-10-01

    Interaural time (ITD) and level differences (ILD) constitute the two main cues for sound localization in the horizontal plane. Despite extensive research in animal models and humans, the mechanism of how these two cues are integrated into a unified percept is still far from clear. In this study, our aim was to test with human electroencephalography (EEG) whether integration of dynamic ITD and ILD cues is reflected in the so-called motion-onset response (MOR), an evoked potential elicited by moving sound sources. To this end, ITD and ILD trajectories were determined individually by cue trading psychophysics. We then measured EEG while subjects were presented with either static click-trains or click-trains that contained a dynamic portion at the end. The dynamic part was created by combining ITD with ILD either congruently to elicit the percept of a right/leftward moving sound, or incongruently to elicit the percept of a static sound. In two experiments that differed in the method to derive individual dynamic cue trading stimuli, we observed an MOR with at least a change-N1 (cN1) component for both the congruent and incongruent conditions at about 160-190 ms after motion-onset. A significant change-P2 (cP2) component for both the congruent and incongruent ITD/ILD combination was found only in the second experiment peaking at about 250 ms after motion onset. In sum, this study shows that a sound which - by a combination of counter-balanced ITD and ILD cues - induces a static percept can still elicit a motion-onset response, indicative of independent ITD and ILD processing at the level of the MOR - a component that has been proposed to be, at least partly, generated in non-primary auditory cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Time resolved X-ray micro-diffraction measurements of the dynamic local layer response to electric field in antiferroelectric liquid crystals

    Takahashi, Yumiko; Iida, Atuso E-mail: atsuo.iida@kek.jp; Takanishi, Yoichi; Ogasawara, Toyokazu; Takezoe, Hideo

    2001-07-21

    The time-resolved synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction experiment has been carried out to reveal the local layer response to the electric field in the antiferroelectric liquid crystal. The X-ray microbeam of a few {mu}m spatial resolution was obtained with Kirkpatrick-Baez optics. The time-resolved small angle diffraction experiment was performed with a time resolution ranging from 10 {mu}s to a few ms. The reversible local layer change between the horizontal chevron and the quasi-bookshelf structure was confirmed by the triangular wave form. The transient layer response for the step form electric field was observed. The layer response closely related with an electric field induced antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase transition.

  17. Time resolved X-ray micro-diffraction measurements of the dynamic local layer response to electric field in antiferroelectric liquid crystals

    Takahashi, Yumiko; Iida, Atuso; Takanishi, Yoichi; Ogasawara, Toyokazu; Takezoe, Hideo

    2001-01-01

    The time-resolved synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction experiment has been carried out to reveal the local layer response to the electric field in the antiferroelectric liquid crystal. The X-ray microbeam of a few μm spatial resolution was obtained with Kirkpatrick-Baez optics. The time-resolved small angle diffraction experiment was performed with a time resolution ranging from 10 μs to a few ms. The reversible local layer change between the horizontal chevron and the quasi-bookshelf structure was confirmed by the triangular wave form. The transient layer response for the step form electric field was observed. The layer response closely related with an electric field induced antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase transition

  18. Measuring health inequalities over time

    Gustavo Bergonzoli

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: several methodologies have been used to measure health inequalities. Most of them do so in a cross- sectional fashion, causing significant loss of information. None of them measure health inequalities in social territories over time. Methods: this article presents two approaches measure health inequalities: one approach consists of a refinement of cross-sectional study, by using the analysis of ANOVA variance (ANOVA procedure to explore whether the gap between social territories is real or due to chance. Several adjustments were made to limit errors inevitably found in multiple comparisons. Polynomial procedures were then applied to identify and evaluate any trends. The second sociales se utilizó approach measures the health gap between social territories or strata (as defined in this study over time using the Poisson regression. These approaches were applied using life expectancy and maternal mortality data from Venezuela. Results: a positive relationship between tendenterritories and life expectancy was found, with a significant cia linal trend. The relation between maternal mortality and materna y territorios sociales fue cuadrática. La medición desocial territories was quadratic. The measurement of the la brecha, gap between least developed social territory and the most, a developed territory showed a gap reduction from the first to the second decade, mainly because of an increase of territorio social maternal mortality in the more developed area, rather than a real improvement in the least developed. Conclusions: study helps to clarify the impact that public policies and interventions have in reducing the health gap. Knowledge that a health gap between social territories can decrease without showing improvement in the least developed sector , is an important finding for monitoring and evaluating health interventions for improving living and health conditions in the population.

  19. Time-resolved measurements of luminescence

    Collier, Bradley B. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, 408 Mechanical Engineering Office Building, Spence Street, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); McShane, Michael J., E-mail: mcshane@tamu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, 408 Mechanical Engineering Office Building, Spence Street, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, 408 Mechanical Engineering Office Building, Spence Street, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Luminescence sensing and imaging has become more widespread in recent years in a variety of industries including the biomedical and environmental fields. Measurements of luminescence lifetime hold inherent advantages over intensity-based response measurements, and advances in both technology and methods have enabled their use in a broader spectrum of applications including real-time medical diagnostics. This review will focus on recent advances in analytical methods, particularly calculation techniques, including time- and frequency-domain lifetime approaches as well as other time-resolved measurements of luminescence. -- Highlights: • Developments in technology have led to widespread use of luminescence lifetime. • Growing interest for sensing and imaging applications. • Recent advances in approaches to lifetime calculations are reviewed. • Advantages and disadvantages of various methods are weighed. • Other methods for measurement of luminescence lifetime also described.

  20. Time-resolved measurements of luminescence

    Collier, Bradley B.; McShane, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Luminescence sensing and imaging has become more widespread in recent years in a variety of industries including the biomedical and environmental fields. Measurements of luminescence lifetime hold inherent advantages over intensity-based response measurements, and advances in both technology and methods have enabled their use in a broader spectrum of applications including real-time medical diagnostics. This review will focus on recent advances in analytical methods, particularly calculation techniques, including time- and frequency-domain lifetime approaches as well as other time-resolved measurements of luminescence. -- Highlights: • Developments in technology have led to widespread use of luminescence lifetime. • Growing interest for sensing and imaging applications. • Recent advances in approaches to lifetime calculations are reviewed. • Advantages and disadvantages of various methods are weighed. • Other methods for measurement of luminescence lifetime also described

  1. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor,Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement acquisition method that alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement systems. The shortcomings are a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with measurements, electrical arcing, wire degradations due to wear or chemical decay and the logistics needed to add new sensors. Wire degradation has resulted in aircraft fatalities and critical space launches being delayed. The key to this method is the use of sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits that produce magnetic field responses. The response attributes correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power is wirelessly provided to the sensing element by using Faraday induction. A radio frequency antenna produces a time-varying magnetic field used to power the sensor and receive the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation system for discerning changes in the sensor response frequency, resistance and amplitude has been developed and is presented herein. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The method eliminates the need for a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. The method does not require the sensors to be near the acquisition hardware. Methods of developing magnetic field response sensors and the influence of key parameters on measurement acquisition are discussed. Examples of magnetic field response sensors and the respective measurement characterizations are presented. Implementation of this method on an aerospace system is discussed.

  2. Cognitive Reflection, Decision Biases, and Response Times

    Carlos Alos-Ferrer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present novel evidence on decision times and personality traits in standard questions from the decision-making literature where responses are relatively slow (medians around half a minute or above. To this end, we measured decision times in a number of incentivized, framed items (decisions from description including the Cognitive Reflection Test, two additional questions following the same logic, and a number of classic questions used to study decision biases in probability judgments (base-rate neglect, the conjunction fallacy, and the ratio bias. All questions create a conflict between an intuitive process and more deliberative thinking. For each item, we then created a non-conflict version by either making the intuitive impulse correct (resulting in an alignment question, shutting it down (creating a neutral question, or making it dominant (creating a heuristic question. For CRT questions, the differences in decision times are as predicted by dual-process theories, with alignment and heuristic variants leading to faster responses and neutral questions to slower responses than the original, conflict questions. For decision biases (where responses are slower, evidence is mixed. To explore the possible influence of personality factors on both choices and decision times, we used standard personality scales including the Rational-Experiential Inventory and the Big Five, and used the mas controls in regression analysis.

  3. Transfusion-associated immunomodulation: Quantitative changes in cytokines as a measure of immune responsiveness after one time blood transfusion in neurosurgery patients

    Pandey Prashant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies in humans have investigated the laboratory evidences suggestive of transfusion-associated immunologic changes. In this prospective study, we examined the effects of perioperative blood transfusion on immune response, by measuring various cytokines production, namely, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, interleukin-10 (IL-10, and Fas Ligand (FasL. A total of 40 patients undergoing neurosurgery were randomly allocated into four groups: (a no transfusion, (b allogeneic non-leukofiltered transfusion, (c prestorage leukofiltered transfusion, (d autologous transfusion. Samples were collected before operation (day 0 and postoperative days (post-op 1, 7, and 14. IFN-γ and IL-10 production capacity was measured in supernatant after whole blood culture and serum FasL levels in patients′ sera using commercially available ELISA kits. Change in ratios (cytokine value after PHA stimulation/control value of IFN-γ and IL-10 and percentage change from baseline for serum FasL levels across different transfusion groups during the sampling period were calculated. There was an increase in IL-10 production in patients receiving allogeneic non-leukofiltered transfusion on days 1 and 7 (mean ratio 2.22 (± 2.16, 4.12 (± 1.71, 4.46 (± 1.97 on days 0, 1, and 7, respectively. Similarly there was a significant (P<0.05 decrease in IFN-γ production in patients who received allogeneic non-leukofiltered red cell transfusion on post-op days 1, 7, and 14 (mean ratio 6.88 (± 4.56, 2.53 (± 0.95, 3.04 (± 1.38 and 2.58 (± 1.48 on day 0, 1, 7, and 14, respectively. Serum FasL production was increased across all patients till 7th day except for ′no transfusion′ group and this increase was most significant in the non-leukofiltered group. We conclude that one time transfusion leads to quantitative changes in levels of these cytokines largely through interplay of Th2/Th1 pathways in allogeneic nonleukofiltered blood transfusion; however, soluble mediators like Fas

  4. Fast response densitometer for measuring liquid density

    1972-01-01

    Densitometer was developed which produces linear voltage proportional to changes in density of flowing liquid hydrogen. Unit has fast response time and good system stability, statistical variation, and thermal equilibrium. System accuracy is 2 percent of total density span. Basic design may be altered to include measurement of other flowing materials.

  5. Application of spectral decomposition of 222Rn activity concentration signal series measured in Niedźwiedzia Cave to identification of mechanisms responsible for different time-period variations

    Przylibski, Tadeusz Andrzej; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Zimroz, Radosław; Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    phenomena in the lithosphere. - Highlights: • 222 Rn activity concentration monitoring in cave air; • characterisation of signal series decomposition method; • application of spectral decomposition of 222 Rn activity concentration signal series; • identification and characterisation of processes responsible for temporal changes in 222 Rn activity concentration; • application of methods appropriate to time series analysis

  6. Response moderation models for conditional dependence between response time and response accuracy.

    Bolsinova, Maria; Tijmstra, Jesper; Molenaar, Dylan

    2017-05-01

    It is becoming more feasible and common to register response times in the application of psychometric tests. Researchers thus have the opportunity to jointly model response accuracy and response time, which provides users with more relevant information. The most common choice is to use the hierarchical model (van der Linden, 2007, Psychometrika, 72, 287), which assumes conditional independence between response time and accuracy, given a person's speed and ability. However, this assumption may be violated in practice if, for example, persons vary their speed or differ in their response strategies, leading to conditional dependence between response time and accuracy and confounding measurement. We propose six nested hierarchical models for response time and accuracy that allow for conditional dependence, and discuss their relationship to existing models. Unlike existing approaches, the proposed hierarchical models allow for various forms of conditional dependence in the model and allow the effect of continuous residual response time on response accuracy to be item-specific, person-specific, or both. Estimation procedures for the models are proposed, as well as two information criteria that can be used for model selection. Parameter recovery and usefulness of the information criteria are investigated using simulation, indicating that the procedure works well and is likely to select the appropriate model. Two empirical applications are discussed to illustrate the different types of conditional dependence that may occur in practice and how these can be captured using the proposed hierarchical models. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Material Classification Using Raw Time-of-Flight Measurements

    Su, Shuochen; Heide, Felix; Swanson, Robin J.; Klein, Jonathan; Callenberg, Clara; Hullin, Matthias; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a material classification method using raw time-of-flight (ToF) measurements. ToF cameras capture the correlation between a reference signal and the temporal response of material to incident illumination. Such measurements encode unique

  8. Photoperiodic time measurement in insects

    Doležel, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, Feb 02 (2015), s. 98-103 ISSN 2214-5745 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-32654J; GA MŠk LH14029 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : photoperiodic time Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.719, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214574514001576

  9. Measuring long impulse responses with pseudorandom sequences and sweep signals

    Torras Rosell, Antoni; Jacobsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    In architectural acoustics, background noise, loudspeaker nonlinearities, and time variances are the most common disturbances that can compromise a measurement. The effects of such disturbances on measurement of long impulse responses with pseudorandom sequences (maximum-length sequences (MLS) an...

  10. Incorporating Response Times in Item Response Theory Models of Reading Comprehension Fluency

    Su, Shiyang

    2017-01-01

    With the online assessment becoming mainstream and the recording of response times becoming straightforward, the importance of response times as a measure of psychological constructs has been recognized and the literature of modeling times has been growing during the last few decades. Previous studies have tried to formulate models and theories to…

  11. Immune responses in Eimeria acervulina infected one-day-old broilers compared to amount of Eimeria in the duodenum, measured by real-time PCR

    Swinkels, W.J.C.; Post, J.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Engel, B.; Boerma, S.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    T-cell responses are supposed to be the major immune reactions in broilers infected with Eimeria. The nature of such T-cell responses is influenced by the species of Eimeria involved, age of the host, amount of parasites and the preceding infection history. In young chicks the intestine is still

  12. The Value of Response Times in Item Response Modeling

    Molenaar, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    A new and very interesting approach to the analysis of responses and response times is proposed by Goldhammer (this issue). In his approach, differences in the speed-ability compromise within respondents are considered to confound the differences in ability between respondents. These confounding effects of speed on the inferences about ability can…

  13. A Box-Cox normal model for response times.

    Klein Entink, R H; van der Linden, W J; Fox, J-P

    2009-11-01

    The log-transform has been a convenient choice in response time modelling on test items. However, motivated by a dataset of the Medical College Admission Test where the lognormal model violated the normality assumption, the possibilities of the broader class of Box-Cox transformations for response time modelling are investigated. After an introduction and an outline of a broader framework for analysing responses and response times simultaneously, the performance of a Box-Cox normal model for describing response times is investigated using simulation studies and a real data example. A transformation-invariant implementation of the deviance information criterium (DIC) is developed that allows for comparing model fit between models with different transformation parameters. Showing an enhanced description of the shape of the response time distributions, its application in an educational measurement context is discussed at length.

  14. Measuring device for control rod driving time

    Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Hanabusa, Masatoshi.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a measuring device for control driving time having a function capable of measuring a selected control rod driving time and measuring an entire control rod driving time simultaneously. A calculation means and a store means for the selected rod control rod driving time, and a calculation means and a store means for the entire control rod driving time are disposed individually. Each of them measures the driving time and stores the data independent of each other based on a selected control rod insert ion signal and an entire control rod insertion signal. Even if insertion of selected and entire control rods overlaps, each of the control rod driving times can be measured reliably to provide an advantageous effect capable of more accurately conducting safety evaluation for the nuclear reactor based on the result of the measurement. (N.H.)

  15. Hierarchical Bayes Models for Response Time Data

    Craigmile, Peter F.; Peruggia, Mario; Van Zandt, Trisha

    2010-01-01

    Human response time (RT) data are widely used in experimental psychology to evaluate theories of mental processing. Typically, the data constitute the times taken by a subject to react to a succession of stimuli under varying experimental conditions. Because of the sequential nature of the experiments there are trends (due to learning, fatigue,…

  16. The Effect of Sports and Physical Activity on Elderly Reaction Time and Response Time

    Abdolrahman Khezri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Physical activities ameliorate elderly motor and cognitive performance. The aim of this research is to study the effect of sport and physical activity on elderly reaction time and response time. Methods & Materials: The research method is causal-comparative and its statistical population consists of 60 active and non-active old males over 60 years residing at Mahabad city. Reaction time was measured by reaction timer apparatus, made in Takei Company (YB1000 model. Response time was measured via Nelson’s Choice- Response Movement Test. At first, reaction time and then response time was measured. For data analysis, descriptive statistic, K-S Test and One Sample T Test were used Results K-S Test show that research data was parametric. According to the results of this research, physical activity affected reaction time and response time. Results: of T test show that reaction time (P=0.000 and response time (P=0.000 of active group was statistically shorter than non- active group. Conclusion: The result of current study demonstrate that sport and physical activity, decrease reaction and response time via psychomotor and physiological positive changes.

  17. Responsiveness of Clinical Outcome Measures

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    Background The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of two standardised functional health measurement scales (HMS) recommended. Despite extensive psychometric testing, little is known about HMS behaviour and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in subgroups of LBP patients. Moreover...... obtainable by a certain treatment. Chronic LBP patients seem to have a reasonable idea of an acceptable change in pain but overestimate change in functional and psychological /affective domains....

  18. Time measurements for thermalequilibrium in spodumene crystals

    Fujii, A.T.; Isotani, S.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments for measurement of time taken to reach thermal equilibrium in Spodumene crystals - 2mm to 5,4mm thick - in the temperature range 100 0 to 250 0 C are described. The measurements indicate a linear relationship between time and thickenes for heating as well as for cooling. Difference in thermal equilibrium time for heating and for cooling is about of 20 seconds. (author) [pt

  19. Is direct measurement of time possible?

    Reynolds, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Is direct measurement of time possible? The answer to this question may depend upon how one understands time. Is time an essential constituent of physical reality? Or is what scientists are talking about when they use the symbol ‘t’ or the word ‘time’ an human cultural construct, as the Chief of the USA NIST Divisions of Time and Frequency and of Quantum Physics has suggested. Few aspects of physics do not reference activity to time, but many discussions within either view of time seem to use one same, largely traditional, language of time. Briefly considering the question of measurement, including from a formal measure-theoretic point of view, clarifies the situation.

  20. An USB-based time measurement system

    Qin Xi; Liu Shubin; An Qi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we report the electronics of a timing measurement system of PTB(portable TDC board), which is a handy tool based on USB interface, customized for high precision time measurements without any crates. The time digitization is based on the High Performance TDC Chip (HPTDC). The real-time compensation for HPTDC outputs and the USB master logic are implemented in an ALTERA's Cyclone FPGA. The architecture design and logic design are described in detail. Test of the system showed a time resolution of 13.3 ps. (authors)

  1. Additive measures of travel time variability

    Engelson, Leonid; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper derives a measure of travel time variability for travellers equipped with scheduling preferences defined in terms of time-varying utility rates, and who choose departure time optimally. The corresponding value of travel time variability is a constant that depends only on preference...... parameters. The measure is unique in being additive with respect to independent parts of a trip. It has the variance of travel time as a special case. Extension is provided to the case of travellers who use a scheduled service with fixed headway....

  2. Transit time measurement of Juqueri river waters

    Plata Bedmar, E.; Garcia A, E.; Albuquerque, A.M. de; Sanchez, W.

    1975-01-01

    The time of travel of the Juqueri River water through the east branch of the Pirapora Reservoir was measured using radioactive tracers (6 Ci 131 I in Kl Solution). The changes in Juqueri River flow rate were also measured during the run. The center of mass of the radioactive cloud was used for the time of travel calculations. Six measurements of the Juqueri River flow rate were perfomed in different days, using the total count method. Fifty, millicuries of 131 I were used in each run. The results of time travel obtained under non-steady conditions, and their correction for steady state are also discussed

  3. Nanosecond time measurements of single pulse

    Xing Jingyuan; Cheng Shiyuan

    1986-01-01

    This report mainly describes the principle specification of circuit design and time-interval calibrations of model SHS 500 time-to-digital converter. Its range is 12 to 500 ns, with six ranges: 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ns. The precision of measured time-interval is 0.3% of full scale and time resolution is 0.1% of full scale

  4. Calibration of the time response functions of a quenched plastic scintillator for neutron time of flight

    Chen, J B; Peng, H S; Tang, C H; Zhang, B H; Ding, Y K; Chen, M; Chen, H S; Li, C G; Wen, T S; Yu, R Z

    2002-01-01

    The time response functions of an ultrafast quenched plastic scintillation detector used to measure neutron time of flight spectra were calibrated by utilizing cosmic rays and implosion neutrons from DT-filled capsules at the Shenguang II laser facility. These sources could be regarded as delta function pulses due to their much narrower time widths than those of the time response functions of the detection system. The results showed that the detector responses to DT neutrons and to cosmic rays were 1.18 and 0.96 ns FWHM, respectively.

  5. Double threshold discriminator for timing measurements

    Frolov, A.R.; Oslopova, T.V.; Pestov, Yu.N.

    1995-01-01

    The new type of a discriminator is based on the idea of simultaneous time measurements at two different thresholds for each pulse. Instead of using two independent electronic TDC channels this discriminator produces an output pulse with the timing taking into account the information from two time measurements ''on-line''. The operation principle, analytical calculations and experimental results are presented. The time walk of the discriminator at the level of 10 ps in the range of the input pulse height of 0.2-1.5 V has been obtained. ((orig.))

  6. Real time refractive index measurement by ESPI

    Torroba, R.; Joenathan, C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a method to measure refractive index variations in real time is reported. A technique to introduce reference fringes in real time is discussed. Both the theoretical and experimental results are presented and an example with phase shifting is given. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  7. Measuring multiscaling in financial time-series

    Buonocore, R.J.; Aste, T.; Di Matteo, T.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the origin of multiscaling in financial time-series and investigate how to best quantify it. Our methodology consists in separating the different sources of measured multifractality by analyzing the multi/uni-scaling behavior of synthetic time-series with known properties. We use the results from the synthetic time-series to interpret the measure of multifractality of real log-returns time-series. The main finding is that the aggregation horizon of the returns can introduce a strong bias effect on the measure of multifractality. This effect can become especially important when returns distributions have power law tails with exponents in the range (2, 5). We discuss the right aggregation horizon to mitigate this bias.

  8. Temperature transient response measurement in flowing water

    Rainbird, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    A specially developed procedure is described for determining the thermal transient response of thermocouples and other temperature transducers when totally immersed in flowing water. The high velocity heat transfer conditions associated with this facility enable thermocouple response times to be predicted in other fluids. These predictions can be confirmed by electrical analogue experiments. (author)

  9. Predicting and measuring fluid responsiveness with echocardiography

    Ashley Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Echocardiography is ideally suited to guide fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. It can be used to assess fluid responsiveness by looking at the left ventricle, aortic outflow, inferior vena cava and right ventricle. Static measurements and dynamic variables based on heart–lung interactions all combine to predict and measure fluid responsiveness and assess response to intravenous fluid esuscitation. Thorough knowledge of these variables, the physiology behind them and the pitfalls in their use allows the echocardiographer to confidently assess these patients and in combination with clinical judgement manage them appropriately.

  10. Time response of temperature sensors using neural networks

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos

    2010-01-01

    In a PWR nuclear power plant, the primary coolant temperature and feedwater temperature are measured using RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detectors). These RTDs typically feed the plant's control and safety systems and must, therefore, be very accurate and have good dynamic performance. The response time of RTDs is characterized by a single parameter called the Plunge Time Constant defined as the time it takes the sensor output to achieve 63.2 percent of its final value after a step change in temperature. Nuclear reactor service conditions are difficult to reproduce in the laboratory, and an in-situ test method called LCSR (Loop Current Step Response) test was developed to measure remotely the response time of RTDs. >From this test, the time constant of the sensor is identified by means of the LCSR transformation that involves the dynamic response modal time constants determination using a nodal heat-transfer model. This calculation is not simple and requires specialized personnel. For this reason an Artificial Neural Network has been developed to predict the time constant of RTD from LCSR test transient. It eliminates the transformations involved in the LCSR application. A series of LCSR tests on RTDs generates the response transients of the sensors, the input data of the networks. Plunge tests are used to determine the time constants of the RTDs, the desired output of the ANN, trained using these sets of input/output data. This methodology was firstly applied to theoretical data simulating 10 RTDs with different time constant values, resulting in an average error of about 0.74 %. Experimental data from three different RTDs was used to predict time constant resulting in a maximum error of 3,34 %. The time constants values predicted from ANN were compared with those obtained from traditional way resulting in an average error of about 18 % and that shows the network is able to predict accurately the sensor time constant. (author)

  11. Responses to interracial interactions over time.

    Plant, E Ashby

    2004-11-01

    The current work tested and expanded on Plant and Devine's (2003) model of the antecedents and implications of interracial anxiety by examining people's experiences with interracial interactions at two time points. Study 1 explored non-Black people's responses to interactions with Black people and Study 2 explored Black people's responses to interactions with White people. Non-Black participants' expectancies about coming across as biased in interracial interactions and Black participants' expectancies about White people's bias predicted their interracial anxiety and whether they had positive interactions with outgroup members during the 2 weeks between assessments. Across both studies, interracial anxiety predicted the desire to avoid interactions with outgroup members. In addition, participants who were personally motivated to respond without prejudice reported more positive expectancies. The findings are discussed in terms of the implications for understanding the course and quality of interracial interactions.

  12. Experience with RTD response time testing in nuclear power plants

    Hashemian, H.M.; Kerlin, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    The reactor coolant temperatures in pressurized water reactors are measured with platinum resistance temperature detectors (RTDs). The information furnished by these RTDs is used for plant protection as well as control. As a part of the plant protection system, the RTDs must respond to temperature changes in a timely fashion. The RTD response time requirements are different for the various plant types. These requirements are specified in the plant technical specifications in terms of an RTd time constant. The current time constant requirements for nuclear plant RTDs varies from 0.5 seconds to 13.0 seconds depending on the type of the plant. Therefore, different types of RTDs are used in different plants to achieve the required time constants. In addition, in-situ response time tests are periodically performed on protective system RTDs to ensure that the in-service time constants are within acceptable limits as the plant is operating. The periodic testing is important because response time degradation may occur while the RTD ages in the process. Recent response time tests in operating plants revealed unacceptable time constants for several protection system RTDs. As a result, these plants had to be shut down to resolve the problem which in one case was due to improper installation and in another case was because of degradation of a thermal compound used in the thermowell

  13. Predicting response times for the Spotify backend

    Yanggratoke, Rerngvit; Kreitz, Gunnar; Goldmann, Mikael; Stadler, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    We model and evaluate the performance of a distributed key-value storage system that is part of the Spotify backend. Spotify is an on-demand music streaming service, offering low-latency access to a library of over 16 million tracks and serving over 10 million users currently. We first present a simplified model of the Spotify storage architecture, in order to make its analysis feasible. We then introduce an analytical model for the distribution of the response time, a key metric in the Spoti...

  14. Photoconductivity response time in amorphous semiconductors

    Adriaenssens, G. J.; Baranovskii, S. D.; Fuhs, W.; Jansen, J.; Öktü, Ö.

    1995-04-01

    The photoconductivity response time of amorphous semiconductors is examined theoretically on the basis of standard definitions for free- and trapped-carrier lifetimes, and experimentally for a series of a-Si1-xCx:H alloys with xgeneration rate and temperature. As no satisfactory agreement between models and experiments emerges, a simple theory is developed that can account for the experimental observations on the basis of the usual multiple-trappping ideas, provided a small probability of direct free-carrier recombination is included. The theory leads to a stretched-exponential photocurrent decay.

  15. Uncertainties for pressure-time efficiency measurements

    Ramdal, Jørgen; Jonsson, Pontus; Dahlhaug, Ole Gunnar; Nielsen, Torbjørn; Cervantes, Michel

    2010-01-01

     In connection with the pressure-time project at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology and Luleå University of Technology, a number of tests with the pressure-time method have been performed at the Waterpower Laboratory in Trondheim, Norway. The aim is to lower the uncertainty and improve usability of the method. Also a field test at the Anundsjoe power plant in Sweden has been performed. The pressure-time measurement is affected by random uncertainty. To minimize the effect of t...

  16. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-Sheng

    2007-12-20

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  17. A comparison of two procedures for verbal response time fractionation

    Lotje evan der Linden

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To describe the mental architecture between stimulus and response, cognitive models often divide the stimulus-response (SR interval into stages or modules. Predictions derived from such models are typically tested by focusing on the moment of response emission, through the analysis of response time (RT distributions. To go beyond the single response event, we recently proposed a method to fractionate verbal RTs into two physiologically defined intervals that are assumed to reflect different processing stages. The analysis of the durations of these intervals can be used to study the interaction between cognitive and motor processing during speech production. Our method is inspired by studies on decision making that used manual responses, in which RTs were fractionated into a premotor time (PMT, assumed to reflect cognitive processing, and a motor time (MT, assumed to reflect motor processing. In these studies, surface EMG activity was recorded from participants' response fingers. EMG onsets, reflecting the initiation of a motor response, were used as the point of fractionation. We adapted this method to speech-production research by measuring verbal responses in combination with EMG activity from facial muscles involved in articulation. However, in contrast to button-press tasks, the complex task of producing speech often resulted in multiple EMG bursts within the SR interval. This observation forced us to decide how to operationalize the point of fractionation: as the first EMG burst after stimulus onset (the stimulus-locked approach, or as the EMG burst that is coupled to the vocal response (the response-locked approach. The point of fractionation has direct consequences on how much of the overall task effect is captured by either interval. Therefore, the purpose of the current paper was to compare both onset-detection procedures in order to make an informed decision about which of the two is preferable. We concluded in favour or the response

  18. Using Response Times to Assess Learning Progress: A Joint Model for Responses and Response Times

    Wang, Shiyu; Zhang, Susu; Douglas, Jeff; Culpepper, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Analyzing students' growth remains an important topic in educational research. Most recently, Diagnostic Classification Models (DCMs) have been used to track skill acquisition in a longitudinal fashion, with the purpose to provide an estimate of students' learning trajectories in terms of the change of fine-grained skills overtime. Response time…

  19. Study on time characteristics of fast time response inorganic scintillator CeF3

    Hu Mengchun; Zhou Dianzhong; Guo Cun; Ye Wenying

    2003-01-01

    The cerium fluoride (CeF 3 ) is a kind of new fast time response inorganic scintillator. The physical characteristics of CeF 3 are well suitable for detection of domestic pulse γ-rays. The time response of detector composed by phototube with CeF 3 are measured by use of the pulse radiation source with rise time about 0.8 ns, and FWHM time 1.5-2.2 ns. Experiment results show that the rise time is less than 2 ns, FWHM time is about 10 ns, fall time is about 60 ns, average decay time constant is 20-30 ns, respectively for CeF 3

  20. Deterministic Predictions of Vessel Responses Based on Past Measurements

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with a prediction procedure from which global wave-induced responses can be deterministically predicted a short time, 10-50 s, ahead of current time. The procedure relies on the autocorrelation function and takes into account prior measurements only; i.e. knowledge about wave...

  1. Time-resolved absorption measurements on OMEGA

    Jaanimagi, P.A.; DaSilva, L.; Delettrez, J.; Gregory, G.G.; Richardson, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Time-resolved measurements of the incident laser light that is scattered and/or refracted from targets irradiated by the 24 uv-beam OMEGA laser at LLE, have provided some interesting features related to time-resolved absorption. The decrease in laser absorption characteristic of irradiating a target that implodes during the laser pulse has been observed. The increase in absorption expected as the critical density surface moves from a low to a high Z material in the target has also been noted. The detailed interpretation of these results is made through comparisons with simulation using the code LILAC, as well as with streak data from time-resolved x-ray imaging and spectroscopy. In addition, time and space-resolved imaging of the scattered light yields information on laser irradiation uniformity conditions on the target. The report consists of viewgraphs

  2. Response time in online stated choice experiments

    Campbell, Danny; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we use paradata relating to the length of time respondents required in a self-administered online stated preference surveys. Although this issue has been previously explored, there is little guidance on how to identify and deal with ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ respondents. In this paper, we...... in Denmark. Results from our analysis corroborate that response latency has a bearing on the estimates of utility coefficients and the error variance. Although the results highlight the non-triviality of identifying fast and slow respondents, they signal the need to estimate a large number of candidate...... models to identify the most appropriate ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ thresholds. Not doing so is likely to lead to an inferior model and has repercussions for marginal willingness to pay estimates and choice predictions....

  3. Neutron energy response measurement of scintillation detectors

    Yang Hongqiong; Peng Taiping; Yang Jianlun; Tang Zhengyuan; Yang Gaozhao; Li Linbo; Hu Mengchun; Wang Zhentong; Zhang Jianhua; Li Zhongbao; Wang Lizong

    2004-01-01

    Neutron sensitivities of detectors composed of plastic scintillator ST401, ST1422, ST1423 and phyotomultiplier tube in primary energy range of fission neutron are calibrated by direct current. The energy response curve of the detectors is obtained in this experiment. The experimental result has been compared with the theoretical calculation and they are in agreement within measuring uncertainty. (authors)

  4. Hidden Markov Item Response Theory Models for Responses and Response Times.

    Molenaar, Dylan; Oberski, Daniel; Vermunt, Jeroen; De Boeck, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Current approaches to model responses and response times to psychometric tests solely focus on between-subject differences in speed and ability. Within subjects, speed and ability are assumed to be constants. Violations of this assumption are generally absorbed in the residual of the model. As a result, within-subject departures from the between-subject speed and ability level remain undetected. These departures may be of interest to the researcher as they reflect differences in the response processes adopted on the items of a test. In this article, we propose a dynamic approach for responses and response times based on hidden Markov modeling to account for within-subject differences in responses and response times. A simulation study is conducted to demonstrate acceptable parameter recovery and acceptable performance of various fit indices in distinguishing between different models. In addition, both a confirmatory and an exploratory application are presented to demonstrate the practical value of the modeling approach.

  5. Time-resolved brightness measurements by streaking

    Torrance, Joshua S.; Speirs, Rory W.; McCulloch, Andrew J.; Scholten, Robert E.

    2018-03-01

    Brightness is a key figure of merit for charged particle beams, and time-resolved brightness measurements can elucidate the processes involved in beam creation and manipulation. Here we report on a simple, robust, and widely applicable method for the measurement of beam brightness with temporal resolution by streaking one-dimensional pepperpots, and demonstrate the technique to characterize electron bunches produced from a cold-atom electron source. We demonstrate brightness measurements with 145 ps temporal resolution and a minimum resolvable emittance of 40 nm rad. This technique provides an efficient method of exploring source parameters and will prove useful for examining the efficacy of techniques to counter space-charge expansion, a critical hurdle to achieving single-shot imaging of atomic scale targets.

  6. Planck 2013 results. VII. HFI time response and beams

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bowyer, J W; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Haissinski, J; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hou, Z; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; MacTavish, C J; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matsumura, T; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polegre, A M; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Sauvé, A; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper characterizes the effective beams,the effective beam window functions and the associated errors for the Planck HFI detectors. The effective beam is the angular response including the effect of the optics,detectors,data processing and the scan strategy. The window function is the representation of this beam in the harmonic domain which is required to recover an unbiased measurement of the CMB angular power spectrum. The HFI is a scanning instrument and its effective beams are the convolution of: (a) the optical response of the telescope and feeds;(b)the processing of the time-ordered data and deconvolution of the bolometric and electronic time response; and (c) the merging of several surveys to produce maps. The time response functions are measured using observations of Jupiter and Saturn and by minimizing survey difference residuals. The scanning beam is the post-deconvolution angular response of the instrument, and is characterized with observations of Mars. The main beam solid angles are determin...

  7. Conceptual question response times in Peer Instruction classrooms

    Kelly Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to in-class, conceptual questions [ConcepTests (CTs] in two introductory physics courses taught using Peer Instruction and use item response theory to determine the difficulty of the CTs. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers both before and after the peer discussion for CTs of varying difficulty. We also determine the relationship between response time and student performance on a standardized test of incoming physics knowledge, precourse self-efficacy, and gender. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response time for correct answers is significantly faster than for incorrect answers, both before and after peer discussion, especially for easy CTs. Second, students with greater incoming physics knowledge and higher self-efficacy respond faster in both rounds. Third, there is no gender difference in response rate after controlling for incoming physics knowledge scores, although males register significantly more attempts before committing to a final answer than do female students. These results provide insight into effective CT pacing during Peer Instruction. In particular, in order to maintain a pace that keeps everyone engaged, students should not be given too much time to respond. When around 80% of the answers are in, the ratio of correct to incorrect responses rapidly approaches levels indicating random guessing and instructors should close the poll.

  8. Accurate and efficient calculation of response times for groundwater flow

    Carr, Elliot J.; Simpson, Matthew J.

    2018-03-01

    We study measures of the amount of time required for transient flow in heterogeneous porous media to effectively reach steady state, also known as the response time. Here, we develop a new approach that extends the concept of mean action time. Previous applications of the theory of mean action time to estimate the response time use the first two central moments of the probability density function associated with the transition from the initial condition, at t = 0, to the steady state condition that arises in the long time limit, as t → ∞ . This previous approach leads to a computationally convenient estimation of the response time, but the accuracy can be poor. Here, we outline a powerful extension using the first k raw moments, showing how to produce an extremely accurate estimate by making use of asymptotic properties of the cumulative distribution function. Results are validated using an existing laboratory-scale data set describing flow in a homogeneous porous medium. In addition, we demonstrate how the results also apply to flow in heterogeneous porous media. Overall, the new method is: (i) extremely accurate; and (ii) computationally inexpensive. In fact, the computational cost of the new method is orders of magnitude less than the computational effort required to study the response time by solving the transient flow equation. Furthermore, the approach provides a rigorous mathematical connection with the heuristic argument that the response time for flow in a homogeneous porous medium is proportional to L2 / D , where L is a relevant length scale, and D is the aquifer diffusivity. Here, we extend such heuristic arguments by providing a clear mathematical definition of the proportionality constant.

  9. Are anomalously short tunnelling times measurable?

    Delgado, V.; Muga, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Low and Mende have analyzed the conditions that would make possible an actual measurement of an anomalously short traversal time through a potential barrier concluding that such a measurement cannot be made because it is not possible to describe the tunnelling of a wave packet initially close to the barrier by the open-quote open-quote usual wave packet space time analysis close-quote close-quote. We complement this work in several ways: It is argued that the described failure of the usual formalism occurs under a set of too restrictive conditions, some of them not physically motivated, so it does not necessarily imply the impossibility of such a measurement. However, by retaining only conditions well motivated on physical grounds we have performed a systematic numerical check which shows that the conclusion by Low and Mende is indeed generally valid. It is shown that, as speculated by Low and Mende, the process is dominated by over the barrier transmission. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  10. Time Resolved Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Roquemore, A.L.; Hogan, J.; Wampler, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    Time-resolved measurements of deposition in current tokamaks are crucial to gain a predictive understanding of deposition with a view to mitigating tritium retention and deposition on diagnostic mirrors expected in next-step devices. Two quartz crystal microbalances have been installed on NSTX at a location 0.77m outside the last closed flux surface. This configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. The deposits were analyzed ex-situ and found to be dominantly carbon, oxygen, and deuterium. A rear facing quartz crystal recorded deposition of lower sticking probability molecules at 10% of the rate of the front facing one. Time resolved measurements over a 4-week period with 497 discharges, recorded 29.2 (micro)g/cm 2 of deposition, however surprisingly, 15.9 (micro)g/cm 2 of material loss occurred at 7 discharges. The net deposited mass of 13.3 (micro)g/cm 2 matched the mass of 13.5 (micro)g/cm 2 measured independently by ion beam analysis. Monte Carlo modeling suggests that transient processes are likely to dominate the deposition

  11. Time-dependent onshore tsunami response

    Apotsos, Alex; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    While bulk measures of the onshore impact of a tsunami, including the maximum run-up elevation and inundation distance, are important for hazard planning, the temporal evolution of the onshore flow dynamics likely controls the extent of the onshore destruction and the erosion and deposition of sediment that occurs. However, the time-varying dynamics of actual tsunamis are even more difficult to measure in situ than the bulk parameters. Here, a numerical model based on the non-linear shallow water equations is used to examine the effects variations in the wave characteristics, bed slope, and bottom roughness have on the temporal evolution of the onshore flow. Model results indicate that the onshore flow dynamics vary significantly over the parameter space examined. For example, the flow dynamics over steep, smooth morphologies tend to be temporally symmetric, with similar magnitude velocities generated during the run-up and run-down phases of inundation. Conversely, on shallow, rough onshore topographies the flow dynamics tend to be temporally skewed toward the run-down phase of inundation, with the magnitude of the flow velocities during run-up and run-down being significantly different. Furthermore, for near-breaking tsunami waves inundating over steep topography, the flow velocity tends to accelerate almost instantaneously to a maximum and then decrease monotonically. Conversely, when very long waves inundate over shallow topography, the flow accelerates more slowly and can remain steady for a period of time before beginning to decelerate. These results indicate that a single set of assumptions concerning the onshore flow dynamics cannot be applied to all tsunamis, and site specific analyses may be required.

  12. Shock timing measurements in DT ice layers

    Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.; Sater, J.; Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R. J.; Ross, J. S.; Lepape, S.; Ralph, J. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Kroll, J. J.; Yoxall, B. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Boehly, T. R.; Nikroo, A.; Landen, O. L.; Edwards, M. J.

    2013-10-01

    Shock timing experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are routinely conducted using the keyhole target geometry, in which the strength and timing of multiple shocks are measured in a liquid-deuterium (D2) filled capsule interior. These targets have recently been modified to improve the surrogacy to ignition implosions by replacing the standard, continuous liquid D2 capsule fill with a deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer with a central DT gas fill. These experiments remove any possible material surrogacy difference between D2 and DT as well as incorporating the physics of multiple shock release and recompression events from an ice layer of finite thickness, an effect that is absent in the liquid-filled targets. Experimental results and comparisons with numerical simulation are presented. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Analysis in measurements of gastric emptying time

    Lee, Choon Ho; Lee, Man Koo

    1997-01-01

    Scintigraphic measurement of gastric emptying time has been reported to be influenced by the variation in depth of radionuclide within the stomach. This study was designed to clarify whether a part of the variability in gastric emptying could be ascribed to a relationship between anterior image, the total anteroposterior image and the tissue attenuation correction(geometric mean). A dual-head scintillation camera(ADAC, USA) was used to investigate effect of such changes. We were performed 16 normal subject gastric emptying studies with 99 mTC labelled scramble egg, milk and solid meal(610 Kcal, 300 g). The results are as follows; On anterior image, T 1/2 emptying time was delayed by 5 min, 6.5%(range : 3 ∼ 18 min, 5∼31.4%) compared with the geometric mean. But there was no different gastric emptying time between the total anteroposterior image and geometric mean. Therefore, if will be useful to use the method of geometric mean or the total anteroposterior image to evaluate the gastric emptying time accurately

  14. Analysis in measurements of gastric emptying time

    Lee, Choon Ho [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Man Koo [Wonkwang Health Science College, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    Scintigraphic measurement of gastric emptying time has been reported to be influenced by the variation in depth of radionuclide within the stomach. This study was designed to clarify whether a part of the variability in gastric emptying could be ascribed to a relationship between anterior image, the total anteroposterior image and the tissue attenuation correction(geometric mean). A dual-head scintillation camera(ADAC, USA) was used to investigate effect of such changes. We were performed 16 normal subject gastric emptying studies with {sup 99}mTC labelled scramble egg, milk and solid meal(610 Kcal, 300 g). The results are as follows; On anterior image, T{sub 1/2} emptying time was delayed by 5 min, 6.5%(range : 3 {approx} 18 min, 5{approx}31.4%) compared with the geometric mean. But there was no different gastric emptying time between the total anteroposterior image and geometric mean. Therefore, if will be useful to use the method of geometric mean or the total anteroposterior image to evaluate the gastric emptying time accurately.

  15. Time-Lapse Measurement of Wellbore Integrity

    Duguid, A.

    2017-12-01

    Well integrity is becoming more important as wells are used longer or repurposed. For CO2, shale gas, and other projects it has become apparent that wells represent the most likely unintended migration pathway for fluids out of the reservoir. Comprehensive logging programs have been employed to determine the condition of legacy wells in North America. These studies provide examples of assessment technologies. Logging programs have included pulsed neutron logging, ultrasonic well mapping, and cement bond logging. While these studies provide examples of what can be measured, they have only conducted a single round of logging and cannot show if the well has changed over time. Recent experience with time-lapse logging of three monitoring wells at a US Department of Energy sponsored CO2 project has shown the full value of similar tools. Time-lapse logging has shown that well integrity changes over time can be identified. It has also shown that the inclusion of and location of monitoring technologies in the well and the choice of construction materials must be carefully considered. Two of the wells were approximately eight years old at the time of study; they were constructed with steel and fiberglass casing sections and had lines on the outside of the casing running to the surface. The third well was 68 years old when it was studied and was originally constructed as a production well. Repeat logs were collected six or eight years after initial logging. Time-lapse logging showed the evolution of the wells. The results identified locations where cement degraded over time and locations that showed little change. The ultrasonic well maps show clearly that the lines used to connect the monitoring technology to the surface are visible and have a local effect on cement isolation. Testing and sampling was conducted along with logging. It provided insight into changes identified in the time-lapse log results. Point permeability testing was used to provide an in-situ point

  16. Response Time Analysis of Distributed Web Systems Using QPNs

    Tomasz Rak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A performance model is used for studying distributed Web systems. Performance evaluation is done by obtaining load test measurements. Queueing Petri Nets formalism supports modeling and performance analysis of distributed World Wide Web environments. The proposed distributed Web systems modeling and design methodology have been applied in the evaluation of several system architectures under different external loads. Furthermore, performance analysis is done to determine the system response time.

  17. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-01-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented. (paper)

  18. Electrical interface characteristics (I-V), optical time of flight measurements, and the x-ray (20 keV) signal response of amorphous-selenium/crystalline-silicon heterojunction structures

    Hunter, David M.; Ho, Chu An; Belev, George; De Crescenzo, Giovanni; Kasap, Safa O.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2011-03-01

    We have investigated the dark current, optical TOF (time of flight) properties, and the X-ray response of amorphousselenium (a-Se)/crystalline-silicon (c-Si) heterostructures for application in digital radiography. The structures have been studied to determine if an x-ray generated electron signal, created in an a-Se layer, could be directly transferred to a c-Si based readout device such as a back-thinned CCD (charge coupled device). A simple first order band-theory of the structure indicates that x-ray generated electrons should transfer from the a-Se to the c-Si, while hole transfer from p-doped c-Si to the a-Se should be blocked, permitting a low dark signal as required. The structures we have tested have a thin metal bias electrode on the x-ray facing side of the a-Se which is deposited on the c-Si substrate. The heterostructures made with pure a-Se deposited on epitaxial p-doped (5×10 14 cm-3) c-Si exhibited very low dark current of 15 pA cm-2 at a negative bias field of 10 V μm-1 applied to the a-Se. The optical TOF (time of flight) measurements show that the applied bias drops almost entirely across the a-Se layer and that the a-Se hole and electron mobilities are within the range of commonly accepted values. The x-ray signal measurements demonstrate the structure has the expected x-ray quantum efficiency. We have made a back-thinned CCD coated with a-Se and although most areas of the device show a poor x-ray response, it does contain small regions which do work properly with the expected x-ray sensitivity. Improved understanding of the a-Se/c-Si interface and preparation methods should lead to properly functioning devices.

  19. Transformation Algorithm of Dielectric Response in Time-Frequency Domain

    Ji Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A transformation algorithm of dielectric response from time domain to frequency domain is presented. In order to shorten measuring time of low or ultralow frequency dielectric response characteristics, the transformation algorithm is used in this paper to transform the time domain relaxation current to frequency domain current for calculating the low frequency dielectric dissipation factor. In addition, it is shown from comparing the calculation results with actual test data that there is a coincidence for both results over a wide range of low frequencies. Meanwhile, the time domain test data of depolarization currents in dry and moist pressboards are converted into frequency domain results on the basis of the transformation. The frequency domain curves of complex capacitance and dielectric dissipation factor at the low frequency range are obtained. Test results of polarization and depolarization current (PDC in pressboards are also given at the different voltage and polarization time. It is demonstrated from the experimental results that polarization and depolarization current are affected significantly by moisture contents of the test pressboards, and the transformation algorithm is effective in ultralow frequency of 10−3 Hz. Data analysis and interpretation of the test results conclude that analysis of time-frequency domain dielectric response can be used for assessing insulation system in power transformer.

  20. A Bivariate Generalized Linear Item Response Theory Modeling Framework to the Analysis of Responses and Response Times.

    Molenaar, Dylan; Tuerlinckx, Francis; van der Maas, Han L J

    2015-01-01

    A generalized linear modeling framework to the analysis of responses and response times is outlined. In this framework, referred to as bivariate generalized linear item response theory (B-GLIRT), separate generalized linear measurement models are specified for the responses and the response times that are subsequently linked by cross-relations. The cross-relations can take various forms. Here, we focus on cross-relations with a linear or interaction term for ability tests, and cross-relations with a curvilinear term for personality tests. In addition, we discuss how popular existing models from the psychometric literature are special cases in the B-GLIRT framework depending on restrictions in the cross-relation. This allows us to compare existing models conceptually and empirically. We discuss various extensions of the traditional models motivated by practical problems. We also illustrate the applicability of our approach using various real data examples, including data on personality and cognitive ability.

  1. Application of real time spectrum measurement to radiation monitors

    Matsuno, K.; Watanabe, M.; Sakamaki, T.

    1996-01-01

    A multichannel analyzer (MCA) and two realtime spectrum monitoring methods have been developed for use in radiation monitors. The new MCA was designed to be installed at a local site as a component of a radiation monitor. The MCA repeats spectrum measurement at short intervals (Δt) and, after each measurement, transmits a spectrum datum to the operation console. The authors applied two methods to process Δt spectrum counts for each channel for longer time interval. One method of processing counts is the 'running average (RA) method'. The other method is the 'exponential smoothing (ES) method', which simulates RC rate meters by subtracting a fraction corresponding to the accumulated counts. Relative standard deviations for each channel can be made the same by selecting an appropriate value. The response with the 'ES' method is initially faster than that with the 'RA' method, but the 'RA' method allows a full response to be reached at a predictable time. (author)

  2. Aircraft Fault Detection Using Real-Time Frequency Response Estimation

    Grauer, Jared A.

    2016-01-01

    A real-time method for estimating time-varying aircraft frequency responses from input and output measurements was demonstrated. The Bat-4 subscale airplane was used with NASA Langley Research Center's AirSTAR unmanned aerial flight test facility to conduct flight tests and collect data for dynamic modeling. Orthogonal phase-optimized multisine inputs, summed with pilot stick and pedal inputs, were used to excite the responses. The aircraft was tested in its normal configuration and with emulated failures, which included a stuck left ruddervator and an increased command path latency. No prior knowledge of a dynamic model was used or available for the estimation. The longitudinal short period dynamics were investigated in this work. Time-varying frequency responses and stability margins were tracked well using a 20 second sliding window of data, as compared to a post-flight analysis using output error parameter estimation and a low-order equivalent system model. This method could be used in a real-time fault detection system, or for other applications of dynamic modeling such as real-time verification of stability margins during envelope expansion tests.

  3. Neutron spectrum measurement using rise-time discrimination method

    Luo Zhiping; Suzuki, C.; Kosako, T.; Ma Jizeng

    2009-01-01

    PSD method can be used to measure the fast neutron spectrum in n/γ mixed field. A set of assemblies for measuring the pulse height distribution of neutrons is built up,based on a large volume NE213 liquid scintillator and standard NIM circuits,through the rise-time discrimination method. After that,the response matrix is calculated using Monte Carlo method. The energy calibration of the pulse height distribution is accomplished using 60 Co radioisotope. The neutron spectrum of the mono-energetic accelerator neutron source is achieved by unfolding process. Suggestions for further improvement of the system are presented at last. (authors)

  4. Material Classification Using Raw Time-of-Flight Measurements

    Su, Shuochen

    2016-12-13

    We propose a material classification method using raw time-of-flight (ToF) measurements. ToF cameras capture the correlation between a reference signal and the temporal response of material to incident illumination. Such measurements encode unique signatures of the material, i.e. the degree of subsurface scattering inside a volume. Subsequently, it offers an orthogonal domain of feature representation compared to conventional spatial and angular reflectance-based approaches. We demonstrate the effectiveness, robustness, and efficiency of our method through experiments and comparisons of real-world materials.

  5. Real-time hostile attribution measurement and aggression in children.

    Yaros, Anna; Lochman, John E; Rosenbaum, Jill; Jimenez-Camargo, Luis Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Hostile attributions are an important predictor of aggression in children, but few studies have measured hostile attributions as they occur in real-time. The current study uses an interactive video racing game to measure hostile attributions while children played against a presumed peer. A sample of 75 children, ages 10-13, used nonverbal and verbal procedures to respond to ambiguous provocation by their opponent. Hostile attributions were significantly positively related to parent-rated reactive aggression, when controlling for proactive aggression. Hostile attributions using a nonverbal response procedure were negatively related to proactive aggression, when controlling for reactive aggression. Results suggest hostile attributions in real-time occur quickly and simultaneously with social interaction, which differs from the deliberative, controlled appraisals measured with vignette-based instruments. The relation between real-time hostile attributions and reactive aggression could be accounted for by the impulsive response style that is characteristic of reactive aggression, whereas children exhibiting proactive aggression may be more deliberate and intentional in their responding, resulting in a negative relation with real-time hostile attributions. These findings can be used both to identify children at risk for aggression and to enhance preventive interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Caire - A real-time feedback system for emergency response

    Braun, H.; Brenk, H.D.; de Witt, H.

    1991-01-01

    In cases of nuclear emergencies it is the primary task of emergency response forces and decision making authorities to act properly. Whatever the specific reason for the contingency may be, a quick and most accurate estimate of the radiation exposure in consequence of the emergency must be made. This is a necessary prerequisite for decisions on protective measures and off-site emergency management. With respect to this fact ant the recent experience of the Chernobyl accident, remote monitoring systems have increased their importance as an inherent part of environmental surveillance installations in the FRG and in other countries. The existing systems in Germany are designed to cover both, routine operation and emergency situations. They provide site specific meteorological data, gross effluent dose rates, and dose rate measurements at on-site and approximately 30 off-site locations in the vicinity of a plant. Based on such telemetric surveillance networks an advanced automatic on-line system named CAIRE (Computer Aided Response to Emergencies) has been developed as a real time emergency response tool for nuclear facilities. this tool is designed to provide decision makers with most relevant radiation exposure data of the population at risk. The development phase of CAIRE has already been finished. CAIRE is now in an operational status and available for applications in emergency planning and response

  7. Measuring treatment response in psychotic depression

    Østergaard, Søren D; Meyers, Barnett S; Flint, Alastair J

    2014-01-01

    ). The response to the two regimens was compared using both a mixed effects model and effect size statistics on the total scores of three rating scales: the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17), its 6-item melancholia subscale (HAM-D6), and the 11-item PDAS consisting of the HAM-D6 plus five items......BACKGROUND: There is no established psychometric instrument dedicated to the measurement of severity in psychotic depression (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether a new composite rating scale, the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), covering both the psychotic...... and the depressive domains of PD, could detect differences in effect between two psychopharmacological treatment regimens. METHODS: We reanalyzed the data from the Study of Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression (STOP-PD), which compared the effect of Olanzapine+Sertraline (n=129) versus Olanzapine+Placebo (n=130...

  8. Response time patterns in a stated choice experiment

    Börjesson, Maria; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies how response times vary between unlabelled binary choice occasions in a stated choice (SC) experiment, with alternatives differing with respect to in-vehicle travel time and travel cost. The pattern of response times is interpreted as an indicator of the cognitive processes...... employed by the respondents when making their choices. We find clear signs of reference-dependence in response times in the form of a strong gain–loss asymmetry. Moreover, different patterns of response times for travel time and travel cost indicate that these attributes are processed in different ways...

  9. Investigations on response time of magnetorheological elastomer under compression mode

    Zhu, Mi; Yu, Miao; Qi, Song; Fu, Jie

    2018-05-01

    For efficient fast control of vibration system with magnetorheological elastomer (MRE)-based smart device, the response time of MRE material is the key parameter which directly affects the control performance of the vibration system. For a step coil current excitation, this paper proposed a Maxwell behavior model with time constant λ to describe the normal force response of MRE, and the response time of MRE was extracted through the separation of coil response time. Besides, the transient responses of MRE under compression mode were experimentally investigated, and the effects of (i) applied current, (ii) particle distribution and (iii) compressive strain on the response time of MRE were addressed. The results revealed that the three factors can affect the response characteristic of MRE quite significantly. Besides the intrinsic importance for contributing to the response evaluation and effective design of MRE device, this study may conduce to the optimal design of controller for MRE control system.

  10. Systolic time intervals vs invasive predictors of fluid responsiveness after coronary artery bypass surgery(dagger)

    Smorenberg, A.; Lust, E.J.; Beishuizen, A.; Meijer, J.H.; Verdaasdonk, R.M.; Groeneveld, A.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Haemodynamic parameters for predicting fluid responsiveness in intensive care patients are invasive, technically challenging or not universally applicable. We compared the initial systolic time interval (ISTI), a non-invasive measure of the time interval between the electrical and

  11. Real-time rockmass response from microseismics

    Andrew King; Michael Lofgren; Matt van de Werken [CSIRO Exploration and Mining (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    The primary objective of this project was to develop a prototype real-time microseismic monitoring system for strata control management and forewarning of geotechnical hazards. Power and communications problems have been addressed by developing a wirelessly connected network of solar-powered acquisition nodes, one at the top of each instrumented borehole. The open-source 'earthworm' earthquake acquisition software, which can run on different hardware platforms and use different acquisition cards, was modified for use in a coal environment by developing special new arrival-picking and event-location procedures. The system was field-trialled at Moranbah North mine. The acquisition software performed well, as did wireless communications and solar power. There were issues with the acquisition hardware selected, including problems with timing synchronisation, which is essential for seismic event location. Although these were fixed during the test, different hardware is likely to be used in future installations.

  12. BIAS IN THE MEASUREMENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE: RESPONSE SHIFT

    Yesim SENOL

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of Life (QoL is a descriptive term that refers to people’s emotional, social and physical wellbeing, and their ability to function in the ordinary task of living. The importance of QoL makes it critical to improve and refine measure to understand patients’ experience of health, illness and treatment. However individuals change with time and the basis on which they make a QoL judgment may also change, a phenomenon increasingly referred to as response shift. The definition of response shift is recalibration of internal standards of measurement and reconceptualization of the meaning of item. The purpose of study is to discuss the effects of response shift bias. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(5.000: 382-389

  13. Transic time measures in scattering theory

    MacMillan, L.W.; Osborn, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper studies the time evolution of state vectors that are the solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, characterized by a Hamiltonian h. We employ trace-theorem methods to prove that the transit time of state vectors through a finite space region, Σ, may be used to construct a family in the energy variable, epsilon, of unique, positive, trace-class operators. The matrix elements of these operators, give the transit time of any vector through Σ, It is proved that the trace of these operators, for a fixed energy epsilon, provide a function which simultaneously gives the sum of all orbital transit times through region Σ and represents the state density of all vectors that have support on Σ and energy epsilon. We use the transit-time operators to recover the usual theory of time delay for single-channel scattering systems. In the process we extend the known results on time delay to include scattering by fixed impurities in a periodic medium

  14. Time versus frequency domain measurements: layered model ...

    ... their high frequency content while among TEM data sets with low frequency content, the averaging times for the FEM ellipticity were shorter than the TEM quality. Keywords: ellipticity, frequency domain, frequency electromagnetic method, model parameter, orientation error, time domain, transient electromagnetic method

  15. The Importance of Responsibility in Times of Crisis

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to show the importance of the concept of responsibility as the foundation of ethics in times of crisis in particular in the fields of politics and economics in the modern civilisation marked by globalization and technological progres. I consider the concept of responsibility as the key notion in order to understand the ethical duty in a modern technological civilisation. We can indeed observe a moralization of the concept of responsibility going beyond a strict legal definition in terms of imputability. The paper begins by discussing the humanistic foundations of such a concept of responsibility. It treats the historical origins of responsibility and it relates this concept to the concept of accountability. On the basis of this historical determination of the concept I would like to present the definition of the concept of responsibility as fundamental ethical principle that has increasing importance as the foundation of the principles of governance in modern welfare states. In this context the paper discusses the extension of the concept of responsibility towards institutional or corporate responsibility where responsibility does not only concerns the responsibility of individuals but also deals with the responsibility of institutional collectivities. In this way the paper is based on the following structure : 1 The ethical foundation of the concept of responsibility 2 Responsibility in technological civilisation 3 Political responsibility for good governance in the welfare state 4 Social responsibility of business corporations in times of globalization 5 Conclusion and discussion : changed conditions of responsibility in modern times.

  16. Response times of operators in a control room

    Platz, O.; Rasmussen, J.; Skanborg, P.Z.

    1982-12-01

    A statistical analysis was made of operator response times recorded in the control room of a research reactor during the years 1972-1974. A homogeneity test revealed that the data consist of a mixture of populations. A small but statistically significant difference is found between day and night response times. Lognormal distributions are found to provide the best fit of the day and the night response times. (author)

  17. Measuring student responsibility in Physical Education ...

    The Contextual Self-Responsibility Questionnaire (CSRQ) and Personal and Social Responsibility Questionnaire (PSRQ) were developed to meausre student responsibility within the field of physical education. In the present study, the factor structure of the CSRQ and PSRQ was examined. Unlike previous structure ...

  18. Superhilac real-time velocity measurements

    Feinberg, B.; Meaney, D.; Thatcher, R.; Timossi, C.

    1987-03-01

    Phase probes have been placed in several external beam lines at the LBL heavy ion linear accelerator (SuperHILAC) to provide non-destructive velocity measurements independent of the ion being accelerated. The existing system has been improved to provide the following features: a display refresh rate better than twice per second, a sensitive pseudo-correlation technique to pick out the signal from the noise, simultaneous measurements of up to four ion velocities when more than one beam is being accelerated, and a touch-screen operator interface. These improvements allow the system to be used as a routine tuning aid and beam velocity monitor

  19. Time-based MRPC detector response simulations for the CBM time-of-flight system

    Simon, Christian; Herrmann, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut und Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The design goal of the future Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is to measure rare probes of dense strongly interacting matter with an unprecedented accuracy. Target interaction rates of up to 10 MHz need to be processed by the detector. The time-of-flight (TOF) wall of CBM which should provide hadron identification at particle fluxes of up to a few tens of kHz/cm{sup 2} is composed of high-resolution timing multi-gap resistive plate chambers (MRPCs). Due to the self-triggered digitization and readout scheme of CBM comprising online event reconstruction preparatory Monte Carlo (MC) transport and response simulations including the MRPC array need to be carried out in a time-based fashion. While in an event-based simulation mode interference between MC tracks in a detector volume owing to rate effects or electronics dead time is confined to a single event, time-based response simulations need to take into account track pile-up and interference across events. A proposed time-based digitizer class for CBM-TOF within the CbmRoot software framework is presented.

  20. Study of signal discrimination for timing measurements

    Krepelkova, Marta

    2017-01-01

    The timing detectors of the CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (CT-PPS) are currently read out using discrete components, separated into three boards; the first board hosts the sensors and the amplifiers, the second one hosts the discriminators and the third is dedicated to the Time to Digital Converter (TDC) and to the interface with the data acquisition system (DAQ). This work proposes a new front-end electronics for the timing detector, with sensors, amplifiers and discriminators integrated on the same board. We simulated an updated version of the amplifier together with a discriminator designed using commercial components. We decided to use an LVDS buffer as a discriminator, because of its cost, availability, speed and lo w power consumption. As a proof of concept, we used the LVDS input of an FPGA to discriminate signals produced by a detector prototype, using a radioactive source.

  1. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, D.B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference

  2. A Comparison of Response Rate, Response Time, and Costs of Mail and Electronic Surveys.

    Shannon, David M.; Bradshaw, Carol C.

    2002-01-01

    Compared response rates, response time, and costs of mail and electronic surveys using a sample of 377 college faculty members. Mail surveys yielded a higher response rate and a lower rate of undeliverable surveys, but response time was longer and costs were higher than for electronic surveys. (SLD)

  3. The cost of travel time variability: three measures with properties

    Engelson, Leonid; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between three types of measures of the cost of travel time variability: measures based on scheduling preferences and implicit departure time choice, Bernoulli type measures based on a univariate function of travel time, and mean-dispersion measures. We...

  4. Method of detecting system function by measuring frequency response

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.; Motloch, Chester G.

    2013-01-08

    Methods of rapidly measuring an impedance spectrum of an energy storage device in-situ over a limited number of logarithmically distributed frequencies are described. An energy storage device is excited with a known input signal, and a response is measured to ascertain the impedance spectrum. An excitation signal is a limited time duration sum-of-sines consisting of a select number of frequencies. In one embodiment, magnitude and phase of each frequency of interest within the sum-of-sines is identified when the selected frequencies and sample rate are logarithmic integer steps greater than two. This technique requires a measurement with a duration of one period of the lowest frequency. In another embodiment, where selected frequencies are distributed in octave steps, the impedance spectrum can be determined using a captured time record that is reduced to a half-period of the lowest frequency.

  5. Measurement of Voice Onset Time in Maxillectomy Patients

    Hattori, Mariko; Sumita, Yuka I.; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective speech evaluation using acoustic measurement is needed for the proper rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. For digital evaluation of consonants, measurement of voice onset time is one option. However, voice onset time has not been measured in maxillectomy patients as their consonant sound spectra exhibit unique characteristics that make the measurement of voice onset time challenging. In this study, we established criteria for measuring voice onset time in maxillectomy patients ...

  6. Timing and position response of a block detector for fast neutron time-of-flight imaging

    Laubach, M.A., E-mail: mlaubach@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Hayward, J.P., E-mail: jhayward@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zhang, X., E-mail: xzhang39@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Cates, J.W., E-mail: jcates7@vols.utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Our research effort seeks to improve the spatial and timing performance of a block detector made of a pixilated plastic scintillator (EJ-200), first demonstrated as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Advanced Portable Neutron Imaging System. Improvement of the position and time response is necessary to achieve better resolution and contrast in the images of shielded special nuclear material. Time-of-flight is used to differentiate between gamma and different sources of neutrons (e.g., transmission and fission neutrons). Factors limiting the timing and position performance of the neutron detector have been revealed through simulations and measurements. Simulations have suggested that the degradation in the ability to resolve pixels in the neutron detector is due to those interactions occurring near the light guide. The energy deposition within the neutron detector is shown to affect position performance and imaging efficiency. This examination details how energy cuts improve the position performance and degrade the imaging efficiency. Measurements have shown the neutron detector to have a timing resolution of σ=238 ps. The majority of this timing uncertainty is from the depth-of-interaction (DOI) of the neutron which is confirmed by simulations and analytical calculations.

  7. Time focused measurements of roof runoff quality

    Schriewer, A.; Horn, H.; Helmreich, B.

    2008-01-01

    Runoff properties and their changes during runoff of a 14 year old zinc roof were investigated. Zinc, lead, cadmium, pH value, rain intensity and electric conductivity have been measured for a period of one year. A runoff rate of 3.73 g/m 2 a and a volume weighted mean zinc concentration of 4.9 mg/L were determined. First flush behaviour was observed in 93% of runoff events. Low rain intensities are correlating with higher zinc concentrations in runoff, whereas the duration of antecedent dry periods could not directly be linked with initial zinc concentrations

  8. The Effect of Police Response Time on Crime Detection

    Blanes i Vidal, Jordi; Kirchmaier, Tom

    preferred estimate, a 10% increase in response time leads to a 4.6 percentage points decrease in the likelihood of detection. A faster response time also decreases the number of days that it takes for the police to detect a crime, conditional on eventual detection. We find stronger effects for thefts than...

  9. Real time measurement of air radioactivity

    Galeriu, D.; Craciunescu, T.; Teles, S.

    1998-01-01

    A Local Meteorological and Radiological Monitoring System was developed in our institute for several purposes: local monitoring, extending our experience in other location such as Cernavoda NPP and research. This system has meteorological sensors for wind speed and direction, air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, rainfall, dose ratemeter (Geiger-Muller counter - TIEX), Alpha-Beta Activity-in-Air Monitor (AB96), Iodine Monitor and Eberline Intelligent Ionization Chamber (FHT 6010). All data are collected by a programmable interface Delta-T Logger that is controlled by a software (ODAS - 'On-line Data Acquisition Software'). ODAS was developed in IFIN-HH. It has the capability to acquire, calculate and transmit real meteorological and radiological data through local network. The developed software controls the interface, the flux of input data through the serial port RS232 and after some processing (system, configuration, input data, connection to the network checking, etc) it creates data files. These files are transmitted on-line to our workstation or in any other place connected to Internet. Data can be collected from the logger at any time during logging. There is no need to stop logging. Data output from the logger can be controlled either from the logger's keypad or from other user terminals. ODAS is operated as follows: - First, the last written file and the date-time of acquired readings are checked. For establishing communication with logger a RS232 level signal must be sent to it. The logger wakes if asleep and sends back RDY signal. Powering the logger may take up to 100 ms to establish a correct RS232 level. Noise on the output lines occurs during this period and communication software may need to take into account such spurious signals. A command must be sent to the logger within 2 s to confirm that the last signal received is real and not spurious. Otherwise, the logger interprets the signal as noise and sleeps. The software sends further

  10. A comprehensive tool for measuring mammographic density changes over time.

    Eriksson, Mikael; Li, Jingmei; Leifland, Karin; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per

    2018-06-01

    Mammographic density is a marker of breast cancer risk and diagnostics accuracy. Density change over time is a strong proxy for response to endocrine treatment and potentially a stronger predictor of breast cancer incidence. We developed STRATUS to analyse digital and analogue images and enable automated measurements of density changes over time. Raw and processed images from the same mammogram were randomly sampled from 41,353 healthy women. Measurements from raw images (using FDA approved software iCAD) were used as templates for STRATUS to measure density on processed images through machine learning. A similar two-step design was used to train density measures in analogue images. Relative risks of breast cancer were estimated in three unique datasets. An alignment protocol was developed using images from 11,409 women to reduce non-biological variability in density change. The protocol was evaluated in 55,073 women having two regular mammography screens. Differences and variances in densities were compared before and after image alignment. The average relative risk of breast cancer in the three datasets was 1.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-1.8] per standard deviation of percent mammographic density. The discrimination was AUC 0.62 (CI 0.60-0.64). The type of image did not significantly influence the risk associations. Alignment decreased the non-biological variability in density change and re-estimated the yearly overall percent density decrease from 1.5 to 0.9%, p density measures was not influenced by mammogram type. The alignment protocol reduced the non-biological variability between images over time. STRATUS has the potential to become a useful tool for epidemiological studies and clinical follow-up.

  11. Capturing Real-Time Data in Disaster Response Logistics

    Kezban Yagci Sokat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The volume, accuracy, accessibility and level of detail of near real-time data emerging from disaster-affected regions continue to significantly improve. Integration of dynamically evolving in-field data is an important, yet often overlooked, component of the humanitarian logistics models. In this paper, we present a framework for real-time humanitarian logistics data focused on use in mathematical modeling along with modeling implications of this framework. We also discuss how one might measure the attributes of the framework and describe the application of the presented framework to a case study of near real-time data collection in the days following the landfall of Typhoon Haiyan. We detail our first-hand experience of capturing data as the post-disaster response unfolds starting on November 10, 2013 until March 31, 2014 and assess the characteristics and evolution of data pertaining to humanitarian logistics modeling using the proposed framework. The presented logistical content analysis examines the availability of data and informs modelers about the current state of near real-time data. This analysis illustrates what data is available, how early it is available, and how data changes after the disaster. The study describes how our humanitarian logistics team approached the emergence of dynamic online data after the disaster and the challenges faced during the collection process, as well as recommendations to address these challenges in the future (when possible from an academic humanitarian logistics perspective.

  12. Enzyme reactions and their time resolved measurements

    Hajdu, Janos

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental strategies in data collection with the Laue method and summarises recent results using synchrotron radiation. Then, an assessment is made of the progress towards time resolved studies with protein crystals and the problems that remain. The paper consists of three parts which respectively describe some aspects of Laue diffraction, recent examples of structural results from Laue diffraction, and kinetic Laue crystallography. In the first part, characteristics of Laue diffraction is discussed first, focusing on the harmonics problems, spatials problem, wavelength normalization, low resolution hole, data completeness, and uneven coverage of reciprocal space. Then, capture of the symmetry unique reflection set is discussed focusing on the effect of wavelength range on the number of reciprocal lattice points occupying diffracting positions, effect of crystal to film distance and the film area and shape on the number of reflections captured, and effect of crystal symmetry on the number of unique reflections within the number of reflections captured. The second part addresses the determination of the structure of turkey egg white lysozyme, and calcium binding in tomato bushy stunt virus. The third part describes the initiation of reactions in enzyme crystals, picosecond Laue diffraction at high energy storage rings, and detectors. (N.K.)

  13. Real-time scintillation probe measurement of left ventricular function

    Green, M.V.; Ostrow, H.G.; Bacharach, S.L.; Allen, S.I.; Bonow, R.O.; Johnston, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    The micro-processor based system described in this report was designed for maximum flexibility and utility. While the principle function of the system is to acquire, create, analyze and display (in real-time) left ventricular time activity (or volume) curves, provision is also made to acquire additional physiologic signals (e.g., ECG, flowmeter, etc.) and to calculate and display relationships between these various data. The system was designed for interactive use so that the system user can alter the course of a series of measurements based on previous results. These general capabilities are illustrated with several examples. In the first, LV function was measured continuously in a subject from (supine) rest through exercise and recovery. The second example illustrates the use of the system in acquiring (LV) pressure-volume loops. Several technical problems, such as correction for LV background radiation, appear at present to limit the probes applicability. Even now, however, probe systems are demonstrably useful in the study of global left ventricular function when this function is changing rapidly with time in response to various interventions. (orig.) [de

  14. Extracting Earth's Elastic Wave Response from Noise Measurements

    Snieder, Roel; Larose, Eric

    2013-05-01

    Recent research has shown that noise can be turned from a nuisance into a useful seismic source. In seismology and other fields in science and engineering, the estimation of the system response from noise measurements has proven to be a powerful technique. To convey the essence of the method, we first treat the simplest case of a homogeneous medium to show how noise measurements can be used to estimate waves that propagate between sensors. We provide an overview of physics research—dating back more than 100 years—showing that random field fluctuations contain information about the system response. This principle has found extensive use in surface-wave seismology but can also be applied to the estimation of body waves. Because noise provides continuous illumination of the subsurface, the extracted response is ideally suited for time-lapse monitoring. We present examples of time-lapse monitoring as applied to the softening of soil after the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the detection of a precursor to a landslide, and temporal changes in the lunar soil.

  15. Response Mixture Modeling: Accounting for Heterogeneity in Item Characteristics across Response Times.

    Molenaar, Dylan; de Boeck, Paul

    2018-06-01

    In item response theory modeling of responses and response times, it is commonly assumed that the item responses have the same characteristics across the response times. However, heterogeneity might arise in the data if subjects resort to different response processes when solving the test items. These differences may be within-subject effects, that is, a subject might use a certain process on some of the items and a different process with different item characteristics on the other items. If the probability of using one process over the other process depends on the subject's response time, within-subject heterogeneity of the item characteristics across the response times arises. In this paper, the method of response mixture modeling is presented to account for such heterogeneity. Contrary to traditional mixture modeling where the full response vectors are classified, response mixture modeling involves classification of the individual elements in the response vector. In a simulation study, the response mixture model is shown to be viable in terms of parameter recovery. In addition, the response mixture model is applied to a real dataset to illustrate its use in investigating within-subject heterogeneity in the item characteristics across response times.

  16. [Construction of the Time Management Scale and examination of the influence of time management on psychological stress response].

    Imura, Tomoya; Takamura, Masahiro; Okazaki, Yoshihiro; Tokunaga, Satoko

    2016-10-01

    We developed a scale to measure time management and assessed its reliability and validity. We then used this scale to examine the impact of time management on psychological stress response. In Study 1-1, we developed the scale and assessed its internal consistency and criterion-related validity. Findings from a factor analysis revealed three elements of time management, “time estimation,” “time utilization,” and “taking each moment as it comes.” In Study 1-2, we assessed the scale’s test-retest reliability. In Study 1-3, we assessed the validity of the constructed scale. The results indicate that the time management scale has good reliability and validity. In Study 2, we performed a covariance structural analysis to verify our model that hypothesized that time management influences perceived control of time and psychological stress response, and perceived control of time influences psychological stress response. The results showed that time estimation increases the perceived control of time, which in turn decreases stress response. However, we also found that taking each moment as it comes reduces perceived control of time, which in turn increases stress response.

  17. Measurement of the Dead-Time in a Multichannel Analyser

    Mortensen, L.; Olsen, J.

    1973-01-01

    By means of two simple measurements three different dead-times are determined: the normal dead-time, a dead-time coming from the pile-up, and a dead-time due to the finite width of the timing pulses.......By means of two simple measurements three different dead-times are determined: the normal dead-time, a dead-time coming from the pile-up, and a dead-time due to the finite width of the timing pulses....

  18. Avoiding measurement dogma: a response to Rossiter

    Rigdon, E.E.; Preacher, K.J.; Lee, N.; Howell, R.D.; Franke, G.R.; Borsboom, D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to respond to John Rossiter's call for a "Marketing measurement revolution" in the current issue of EJM, as well as providing broader comment on Rossiter's C-OAR-SE framework, and measurement practice in marketing in general. Design/methodology/approach - The paper is

  19. A time-domain method to generate artificial time history from a given reference response spectrum

    Shin, Gang Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Oh Seop [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Seismic qualification by test is widely used as a way to show the integrity and functionality of equipment that is related to the overall safety of nuclear power plants. Another means of seismic qualification is by direct integration analysis. Both approaches require a series of time histories as an input. However, in most cases, the possibility of using real earthquake data is limited. Thus, artificial time histories are widely used instead. In many cases, however, response spectra are given. Thus, most of the artificial time histories are generated from the given response spectra. Obtaining the response spectrum from a given time history is straightforward. However, the procedure for generating artificial time histories from a given response spectrum is difficult and complex to understand. Thus, this paper presents a simple time-domain method for generating a time history from a given response spectrum; the method was shown to satisfy conditions derived from nuclear regulatory guidance.

  20. A time-domain method to generate artificial time history from a given reference response spectrum

    Shin, Gang Sik; Song, Oh Seop

    2016-01-01

    Seismic qualification by test is widely used as a way to show the integrity and functionality of equipment that is related to the overall safety of nuclear power plants. Another means of seismic qualification is by direct integration analysis. Both approaches require a series of time histories as an input. However, in most cases, the possibility of using real earthquake data is limited. Thus, artificial time histories are widely used instead. In many cases, however, response spectra are given. Thus, most of the artificial time histories are generated from the given response spectra. Obtaining the response spectrum from a given time history is straightforward. However, the procedure for generating artificial time histories from a given response spectrum is difficult and complex to understand. Thus, this paper presents a simple time-domain method for generating a time history from a given response spectrum; the method was shown to satisfy conditions derived from nuclear regulatory guidance

  1. Distinguishing Fast and Slow Processes in Accuracy - Response Time Data.

    Frederik Coomans

    Full Text Available We investigate the relation between speed and accuracy within problem solving in its simplest non-trivial form. We consider tests with only two items and code the item responses in two binary variables: one indicating the response accuracy, and one indicating the response speed. Despite being a very basic setup, it enables us to study item pairs stemming from a broad range of domains such as basic arithmetic, first language learning, intelligence-related problems, and chess, with large numbers of observations for every pair of problems under consideration. We carry out a survey over a large number of such item pairs and compare three types of psychometric accuracy-response time models present in the literature: two 'one-process' models, the first of which models accuracy and response time as conditionally independent and the second of which models accuracy and response time as conditionally dependent, and a 'two-process' model which models accuracy contingent on response time. We find that the data clearly violates the restrictions imposed by both one-process models and requires additional complexity which is parsimoniously provided by the two-process model. We supplement our survey with an analysis of the erroneous responses for an example item pair and demonstrate that there are very significant differences between the types of errors in fast and slow responses.

  2. Dead time effects in laser Doppler anemometry measurements

    Velte, Clara Marika; Buchhave, Preben; George, William K.

    2014-01-01

    frequency range, starting around the cutoff frequency due to the finite size of the MV. Using computer-generated data mimicking the LDA data, these effects have previously been shown to appear due to the effect of dead time, i.e., the finite time during which the system is not able to acquire new...... measurements. These dead times can be traced back to the fact that the burst-mode LDA cannot measure more than one signal burst at a time. Since the dead time is approximately equal to the residence time for a particle traversing a measurement volume, we are dealing with widely varying dead times, which...

  3. Time delays between core power production and external detector response from Monte Carlo calculations

    Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    One primary concern for design of safety systems for reactors is the time response of external detectors to changes in the core. This paper describes a way to estimate the time delay between the core power production and the external detector response using Monte Carlo calculations and suggests a technique to measure the time delay. The Monte Carlo code KENO-NR was used to determine the time delay between the core power production and the external detector response for a conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. The Monte Carlo estimated time delay was determined to be about 10 ms for this conceptual design of the ANS reactor

  4. The Importance of Responsibility in Times of Crisis

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I would like to show the importance of the concept of responsibility as the foundation of ethics in times of crisis in particular in the fields of politics and economics in the modern civilisation marked by globalization and technological progres. I consider the concept of responsibility as the key notion in order to understand the ethical duty in a modern technological civilisation. We can indeed observe a moralization of the concept of responsibility going beyond a strict lega...

  5. Response of orthotropic micropolar elastic medium due to time ...

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    namic response of anisotropic continuum has received the attention of ... linear theory of micropolar elasticity and bending of orthotropic micropolar ... medium due to time harmonic concentrated load, the continuum is divided into two half-.

  6. Congestion Service Facilities Location Problem with Promise of Response Time

    Dandan Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In many services, promise of specific response time is advertised as a commitment by the service providers for the customer satisfaction. Congestion on service facilities could delay the delivery of the services and hurts the overall satisfaction. In this paper, congestion service facilities location problem with promise of response time is studied, and a mixed integer nonlinear programming model is presented with budget constrained. The facilities are modeled as M/M/c queues. The decision variables of the model are the locations of the service facilities and the number of servers at each facility. The objective function is to maximize the demands served within specific response time promised by the service provider. To solve this problem, we propose an algorithm that combines greedy and genetic algorithms. In order to verify the proposed algorithm, a lot of computational experiments are tested. And the results demonstrate that response time has a significant impact on location decision.

  7. The IPERMOB System for Effective Real-Time Road Travel Time Measurement and Prediction

    Martelli, Francesca; Renda, Maria Elena; Santi, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Accurate, real-time measurement and estimation of road travel time is considered a central problem in the design of advanced Intelligent Transportation Systems. In particular, whether eective, real-time collection of travel time measurements in a urban area is possible is, to the best of our knowledge, still an open problem. In this paper, we introduce the IPERMOB system for efficient, real-time collection of travel time measurements in urban areas through vehicular networks. We demonstrate t...

  8. A Box-Cox normal model for response times

    Klein Entink, R.H.; Fox, J.P.; Linden, W.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    The log-transform has been a convenient choice in response time modelling on test items. However, motivated by a dataset of the Medical College Admission Test where the lognormal model violated the normality assumption, the possibilities of the broader class of Box–Cox transformations for response

  9. Peripheral visual response time and visual display layout

    Haines, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were performed on a group of 42 subjects in a study of their peripheral visual response time to visual signals under positive acceleration, during prolonged bedrest, at passive 70 deg headup body lift, under exposures to high air temperatures and high luminance levels, and under normal stress-free laboratory conditions. Diagrams are plotted for mean response times to white, red, yellow, green, and blue stimuli under different conditions.

  10. Picosecond time measurement using ultra fast analog memories

    Breton, D.; Delagnes, E.; Maalmi, J.

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The currently existing electronics dedicated to precise time measurement is mainly based on the use of constant fraction discriminators (CFD) associated with Time to Digital Converters (TDC). The constant fraction technique minimizes the time walk effect (dependency of timing on the pulse amplitude). Several attempts have been made to integrate CFD in multi-channel ASICs. But the time resolution measured on the most advanced one is of the order of 30 ps rms. Two main t...

  11. ISOL yield predictions from holdup-time measurements

    Spejewski, Eugene H.; Carter, H Kennon; Mervin, Brenden T.; Prettyman, Emily S.; Kronenberg, Andreas; Stracener, Daniel W

    2008-01-01

    A formalism based on a simple model is derived to predict ISOL yields for all isotopes of a given element based on a holdup-time measurement of a single isotope of that element. Model predictions, based on parameters obtained from holdup-time measurements, are compared to independently-measured experimental values

  12. Improving OCD time to solution using Signal Response Metrology

    Fang, Fang; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Vaid, Alok; Pandev, Stilian; Sanko, Dimitry; Ramanathan, Vidya; Venkataraman, Kartik; Haupt, Ronny

    2016-03-01

    In recent technology nodes, advanced process and novel integration scheme have challenged the precision limits of conventional metrology; with critical dimensions (CD) of device reduce to sub-nanometer region. Optical metrology has proved its capability to precisely detect intricate details on the complex structures, however, conventional RCWA-based (rigorous coupled wave analysis) scatterometry has the limitations of long time-to-results and lack of flexibility to adapt to wide process variations. Signal Response Metrology (SRM) is a new metrology technique targeted to alleviate the consumption of engineering and computation resources by eliminating geometric/dispersion modeling and spectral simulation from the workflow. This is achieved by directly correlating the spectra acquired from a set of wafers with known process variations encoded. In SPIE 2015, we presented the results of SRM application in lithography metrology and control [1], accomplished the mission of setting up a new measurement recipe of focus/dose monitoring in hours. This work will demonstrate our recent field exploration of SRM implementation in 20nm technology and beyond, including focus metrology for scanner control; post etch geometric profile measurement, and actual device profile metrology.

  13. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Time measurement device with four femtosecond stability

    Panek, Petr; Prochazka, Ivan; Kodet, Jan

    2010-10-01

    We present the experimental results of extremely precise timing in the sense of time-of-arrival measurements in a local time scale. The timing device designed and constructed in our laboratory is based on a new concept using a surface acoustic wave filter as a time interpolator. Construction of the device is briefly described. The experiments described were focused on evaluating the timing precision and stability. Low-jitter test pulses with a repetition frequency of 763 Hz were generated synchronously to the local time base and their times of arrival were measured. The resulting precision of a single measurement was typically 900 fs RMS, and a timing stability TDEV of 4 fs was achieved for time intervals in the range from 300 s to 2 h. To our knowledge this is the best value reported to date for the stability of a timing device. The experimental results are discussed and possible improvements are proposed.

  14. New method for evaluating effective recovery time and single photoelectron response in silicon photomultipliers

    Grodzicka, Martyna, E-mail: m.grodzicka@ncbj.gov.pl; Szczęśniak, Tomasz; Moszyński, Marek; Szawłowski, Marek; Grodzicki, Krystian

    2015-05-21

    The linearity of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) response depends on the number of APD cells and its effective recovery time and it is related to the intensity and duration of the detected light pulses. The aim of this study was to determine the effective recovery time on the basis of the measured SiPM response to light pulses of different durations. A closer analysis of the SiPM response to the light pulses shorter than the effective recovery time of APD cells led to a method for the evaluation of the single photoelectron response of the devices where the single photoelectron peak cannot be clearly measured. This is necessary in the evaluation of the number of fired APD cells (or the number of photoelectrons) in measurements with light pulses of various durations. Measurements were done with SiPMs manufactured by two companies: Hamamatsu and SensL.

  15. Influence of Sensor Ingestion Timing on Consistency of Temperature Measures

    Goodman, Daniel A; Kenefick, Robert W; Cadarette, Bruce S; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2009-01-01

    ... (ITS) to measure core body temperature have been demonstrated. However, the effect of elapsed time between ITS ingestion and Tint measurement has not been thoroughly studied. Methods: Eight volunteers...

  16. Methodological Issues in Measures of Imitative Reaction Times

    Aicken, Michael D.; Wilson, Andrew D.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Ideomotor (IM) theory suggests that observing someone else perform an action activates an internal motor representation of that behaviour within the observer. Evidence supporting the case for an ideomotor theory of imitation has come from studies that show imitative responses to be faster than the same behavioural measures performed in response to…

  17. Search for an optimum time response of spark counters

    Devismes, A.; Finck, Ch.; Kress, T.; Gobbi, A.; Eschke, J.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Koczon, P.; Petrovici, M.

    2002-01-01

    A spark counter of the type developed by Pestov has been tested with the aim of searching for an optimum time response function, changing voltage, content of noble and quencher gases, pressure and energy-loss. Replacing the usual argon by neon has brought an improvement of the resolution and a significant reduction of tails in the time response function. It has been proven that a counter as long as 90 cm can deliver, using neon gas mixture, a time resolution σ<60 ps with about 1% absolute tail and an efficiency of about 90%

  18. Study on time response properties of ionization chamber in profile gauge

    Wang Zhentao; Shen Yixiong; Wang Liqiang; Hao Pengfei

    2011-01-01

    The drift time of ions in the ionization chamber was measured by means of using a shortly pulsed X-ray device and through analyzing the voltage signals on the load resistor of the chamber recorded by a digital oscilloscope. By using this method, the time response properties of the ionization chamber in the profile gauge were studied, results of ion drift time for ionization chambers with different internal structures, different voltages and different gas pressures were introduced and the sources of error were discussed. The experiment results show that the time response of ionization chamber in profile gauge meets the requirement of on-line hot strip measuring. (authors)

  19. Effect of counting system dead time on thyroid uptake measurements

    Simpkin, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Equations are derived and the results of numerical calculations shown that illustrate the effect of counting system dead time on measured thyroid uptake of radioiodine. It is predicted that the observed uptake is higher than the true uptake due to system dead time. This is shown for both paralyzing and nonparalyzing dead time. The effect of increasing the administered activity is shown to increase the measured uptake, in a manner predicted by the paralyzable and nonparalyzable dead time models

  20. Time response of fast-gated microchannel plates used as x-ray detectors

    Turner, R.E.; Bell, P.; Hanks, R.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Landen, N.; Power, G.; Wiedwald, J.; Meier, M.

    1990-01-01

    We report measurements of the time response of fast-gated, micro- channel plate (MCP) detectors, using a <10 ps pulsewidth ultra-violet laser and an electronic sampling system to measure time resolutions to better than 25 ps. The results show that framing times of less than 100 ps are attainable with high gain. The data is compared to a Monte Carlo calculation, which shows good agreement. We also measured the relative sensitivity as a function of DC bias, and saturation effects for large signal inputs. In part B, we briefly describe an electrical ''time-of-flight'' technique, which we have used to measure the response time of a fast-gated microchannel plate (MCP). Thinner MCP's than previously used have been tested, and, as expected, show fast gating times and smaller electron multiplication. A preliminary design for an x-ray pinhole camera, using a thin MCP, is presented. 7 refs., 6 figs

  1. Measurement of voice onset time in maxillectomy patients.

    Hattori, Mariko; Sumita, Yuka I; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective speech evaluation using acoustic measurement is needed for the proper rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. For digital evaluation of consonants, measurement of voice onset time is one option. However, voice onset time has not been measured in maxillectomy patients as their consonant sound spectra exhibit unique characteristics that make the measurement of voice onset time challenging. In this study, we established criteria for measuring voice onset time in maxillectomy patients for objective speech evaluation. We examined voice onset time for /ka/ and /ta/ in 13 maxillectomy patients by calculating the number of valid measurements of voice onset time out of three trials for each syllable. Wilcoxon's signed rank test showed that voice onset time measurements were more successful for /ka/ and /ta/ when a prosthesis was used (Z = -2.232, P = 0.026 and Z = -2.401, P = 0.016, resp.) than when a prosthesis was not used. These results indicate a prosthesis affected voice onset measurement in these patients. Although more research in this area is needed, measurement of voice onset time has the potential to be used to evaluate consonant production in maxillectomy patients wearing a prosthesis.

  2. Measurement of Voice Onset Time in Maxillectomy Patients

    Mariko Hattori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective speech evaluation using acoustic measurement is needed for the proper rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. For digital evaluation of consonants, measurement of voice onset time is one option. However, voice onset time has not been measured in maxillectomy patients as their consonant sound spectra exhibit unique characteristics that make the measurement of voice onset time challenging. In this study, we established criteria for measuring voice onset time in maxillectomy patients for objective speech evaluation. We examined voice onset time for /ka/ and /ta/ in 13 maxillectomy patients by calculating the number of valid measurements of voice onset time out of three trials for each syllable. Wilcoxon’s signed rank test showed that voice onset time measurements were more successful for /ka/ and /ta/ when a prosthesis was used (Z=−2.232, P=0.026 and Z=−2.401, P=0.016, resp. than when a prosthesis was not used. These results indicate a prosthesis affected voice onset measurement in these patients. Although more research in this area is needed, measurement of voice onset time has the potential to be used to evaluate consonant production in maxillectomy patients wearing a prosthesis.

  3. An Energy-Based Similarity Measure for Time Series

    Pierre Brunagel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A new similarity measure, called SimilB, for time series analysis, based on the cross-ΨB-energy operator (2004, is introduced. ΨB is a nonlinear measure which quantifies the interaction between two time series. Compared to Euclidean distance (ED or the Pearson correlation coefficient (CC, SimilB includes the temporal information and relative changes of the time series using the first and second derivatives of the time series. SimilB is well suited for both nonstationary and stationary time series and particularly those presenting discontinuities. Some new properties of ΨB are presented. Particularly, we show that ΨB as similarity measure is robust to both scale and time shift. SimilB is illustrated with synthetic time series and an artificial dataset and compared to the CC and the ED measures.

  4. Reduced computational cost in the calculation of worst case response time for real time systems

    Urriza, José M.; Schorb, Lucas; Orozco, Javier D.; Cayssials, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Modern Real Time Operating Systems require reducing computational costs even though the microprocessors become more powerful each day. It is usual that Real Time Operating Systems for embedded systems have advance features to administrate the resources of the applications that they support. In order to guarantee either the schedulability of the system or the schedulability of a new task in a dynamic Real Time System, it is necessary to know the Worst Case Response Time of the Real Time tasks ...

  5. A measured response: Koop on abortion.

    Koop, C E

    1989-01-01

    The available scientific literature on the health effects of abortion on women in the US neither supports nor refutes the premise that abortion contributes to psychological problems. The 250 studies that have considered the psychological aspects of abortion are all flawed methodologically. Needed to resolve this issue is a prospective study of a cohort of US women of childbearing age focused on the psychological effects of failure to conceive, as well as the physical and mental sequelae of pregnancy whether carried to delivery, miscarried, or terminated by abortion. The most desirable such study could be conducted for about US$100 million over a 5-year period; a less expensive yet satisfactory study could be conducted for $10 million over the same time frame. Before such a study can be undertaken, a survey instrument must be designed to eliminate the discrepancy between the number of abortions on record and the number of women who admit to having an abortion on survey. Another issue is that the health effects of abortion cannot easily be separated from the controversial social issues surrounding pregnancy termination.

  6. Does spending time outdoors reduce stress? A review of real-time stress response to outdoor environments

    Michelle C. Kondo; Sara F. Jacoby; Eugenia C. South

    2018-01-01

    Everyday environmental conditions impact human health. One mechanism underlying this relationship is the experience of stress. Through systematic review of published literature, we explore how stress has been measured in real-time non-laboratory studies of stress responses to deliberate exposure to outdoor environments. The types of exposures evaluated in this review...

  7. Modeling operators' emergency response time for chemical processing operations.

    Murray, Susan L; Harputlu, Emrah; Mentzer, Ray A; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-01-01

    Operators have a crucial role during emergencies at a variety of facilities such as chemical processing plants. When an abnormality occurs in the production process, the operator often has limited time to either take corrective actions or evacuate before the situation becomes deadly. It is crucial that system designers and safety professionals can estimate the time required for a response before procedures and facilities are designed and operations are initiated. There are existing industrial engineering techniques to establish time standards for tasks performed at a normal working pace. However, it is reasonable to expect the time required to take action in emergency situations will be different than working at a normal production pace. It is possible that in an emergency, operators will act faster compared to a normal pace. It would be useful for system designers to be able to establish a time range for operators' response times for emergency situations. This article develops a modeling approach to estimate the time standard range for operators taking corrective actions or following evacuation procedures in emergency situations. This will aid engineers and managers in establishing time requirements for operators in emergency situations. The methodology used for this study combines a well-established industrial engineering technique for determining time requirements (predetermined time standard system) and adjustment coefficients for emergency situations developed by the authors. Numerous videos of workers performing well-established tasks at a maximum pace were studied. As an example, one of the tasks analyzed was pit crew workers changing tires as quickly as they could during a race. The operations in these videos were decomposed into basic, fundamental motions (such as walking, reaching for a tool, and bending over) by studying the videos frame by frame. A comparison analysis was then performed between the emergency pace and the normal working pace operations

  8. Elucidation of time-dependent systems biology cell response patterns with time course network enrichment

    Wiwie, Christian; Rauch, Alexander; Haakonsson, Anders

    2018-01-01

    , no methods exist to integrate time series data with networks, thus preventing the identification of time-dependent systems biology responses. We close this gap with Time Course Network Enrichment (TiCoNE). It combines a new kind of human-augmented clustering with a novel approach to network enrichment...

  9. Characterizing Scintillator Response with Neutron Time-of-Flight

    Palmisano, Kevin; Visca, Hannah; Caves, Louis; Wilkinson, Corey; McClow, Hannah; Padalino, Stephen; Forrest, Chad; Katz, Joe; Sangster, Craig; Regan, Sean

    2017-10-01

    Neutron scintillator diagnostics for ICF can be characterized using the neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) line on Geneseo's 1.7 MV Tandem Pelletron Accelerator. Neutron signals can be differentiated from gamma signals by employing a coincidence method called the associated particle technique (APT). In this measurement, a 2.1 MeV beam of deuterons incident on a deuterated polyethylene target produces neutrons via the d(d,n)3He reaction. A BC-412 plastic scintillator, placed at a scattering angle of 152º, detects 1.76 MeV neutrons in coincidence with the 2.56 MeV 3He ions at an associated angle of 10º. The APT is used to identify the 1.76 MeV neutron while the nTOF line determines its energy. By gating only mono-energetic neutrons, the instrument response function of the scintillator can be determined free from background scattered neutrons and gamma rays. Funded in part by a Grant from the DOE, through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  10. Measurement-theoretic foundations of time discounting in economics

    Conrad Heilmann

    2008-01-01

    In economics, the concept of time discounting introduces weights on future goods to make these less valuable. Yet, both the conceptual motivation for time discounting and its specic functional form remain contested. To address these problems, this paper provides a measurement-theoretic framework of representation for time discounting. The representation theorem characterises time discounting factors by representations of time dierences. This general result can be interpreted with existing the...

  11. Limited information estimation of the diffusion-based item response theory model for responses and response times.

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias; Szardenings, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    Psychological tests are usually analysed with item response models. Recently, some alternative measurement models have been proposed that were derived from cognitive process models developed in experimental psychology. These models consider the responses but also the response times of the test takers. Two such models are the Q-diffusion model and the D-diffusion model. Both models can be calibrated with the diffIRT package of the R statistical environment via marginal maximum likelihood (MML) estimation. In this manuscript, an alternative approach to model calibration is proposed. The approach is based on weighted least squares estimation and parallels the standard estimation approach in structural equation modelling. Estimates are determined by minimizing the discrepancy between the observed and the implied covariance matrix. The estimator is simple to implement, consistent, and asymptotically normally distributed. Least squares estimation also provides a test of model fit by comparing the observed and implied covariance matrix. The estimator and the test of model fit are evaluated in a simulation study. Although parameter recovery is good, the estimator is less efficient than the MML estimator. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Timing criteria for supplemental BWR emergency response equipment

    Bickel, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Tohuku Earthquake and subsequent Tsunami represented a double failure event which destroyed offsite power connections to Fukushima-Daiichi site and then destroyed on-site electrical systems needed to run decay heat removal systems. The accident could have been mitigated had there been supplemental portable battery chargers, supplemental pumps, and in-place piping connections to provide alternate decay heat removal. In response to this event in the USA, two national response centers, one in Memphis, Tennessee, and another in Phoenix, Arizona, will begin operation. They will be able to dispatch supplemental emergency response equipment to any nuclear plant in the U.S. within 24 hours. In order to define requirements for supplemental nuclear power plant emergency response equipment maintained onsite vs. in a regional support center it is necessary to confirm: (a) the earliest time such equipment might be needed depending on the specific scenario, (b) the nominal time to move the equipment from a storage location either on-site or within the region of a nuclear power plant, and (c) the time required to connect in the supplemental equipment to use it. This paper describes an evaluation process for a BWR-4 with a Mark I Containment starting with: (a) severe accident simulation to define best estimate times available for recovery based on the specific scenario, (b) identify the key supplemental response equipment needed at specific times to accomplish recovery of key safety functions, and (c) evaluate what types of equipment should be warehoused on-site vs. in regional response centers. (authors)

  13. Presentation and response timing accuracy in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Web-based research is becoming ubiquitous in the behavioral sciences, facilitated by convenient, readily available participant pools and relatively straightforward ways of running experiments: most recently, through the development of the HTML5 standard. Although in most studies participants give untimed responses, there is a growing interest in being able to record response times online. Existing data on the accuracy and cross-machine variability of online timing measures are limited, and generally they have compared behavioral data gathered on the Web with similar data gathered in the lab. For this article, we took a more direct approach, examining two ways of running experiments online-Adobe Flash and HTML5 with CSS3 and JavaScript-across 19 different computer systems. We used specialist hardware to measure stimulus display durations and to generate precise response times to visual stimuli in order to assess measurement accuracy, examining effects of duration, browser, and system-to-system variability (such as across different Windows versions), as well as effects of processing power and graphics capability. We found that (a) Flash and JavaScript's presentation and response time measurement accuracy are similar; (b) within-system variability is generally small, even in low-powered machines under high load; (c) the variability of measured response times across systems is somewhat larger; and (d) browser type and system hardware appear to have relatively small effects on measured response times. Modeling of the effects of this technical variability suggests that for most within- and between-subjects experiments, Flash and JavaScript can both be used to accurately detect differences in response times across conditions. Concerns are, however, noted about using some correlational or longitudinal designs online.

  14. Controlling response dependence in the measurement of change using the Rasch model.

    Andrich, David

    2017-01-01

    The advantages of using person location estimates from the Rasch model over raw scores for the measurement of change using a common test include the linearization of scores and the automatic handling of statistical properties of repeated measurements. However, the application of the model requires that the responses to the items are statistically independent in the sense that the specific responses to the items on the first time of testing do not affect the responses at a second time. This requirement implies that the responses to the items at both times of assessment are governed only by the invariant location parameters of the items at the two times of testing and the location parameters of each person each time. A specific form of dependence that is pertinent when the same items are used is when the observed response to an item at the second time of testing is affected by the response to the same item at the first time, a form of dependence which has been referred to as response dependence. This paper presents the logic of applying the Rasch model to quantify, control and remove the effect of response dependence in the measurement of change when the same items are used on two occasions. The logic is illustrated with four sets of simulation studies with dichotomous items and with a small example of real data. It is shown that the presence of response dependence can reduce the evidence of change, a reduction which may impact interpretations at the individual, research, and policy levels.

  15. Peculiarity of the FEU-85 photomultiplier use for time measurements

    Akimov, D.Yu.; Samojlenko, V.T.

    1983-01-01

    Regime of the PM-85 operation, ensuring high time resolution with the minimum effects of prepulses, has been described. Zonal characteristics of photocathode as to delay of response and amplitude of signal are presented. Elimination of periphery region of the photocathode PM-85 permits to improve time resolution of scintillation detector. Time characteristics of the detector with plastic scintillator dimensions 24x8x0.5 cm are given

  16. Improvement in MFTF data base system response times

    Lang, N.C.; Nelson, B.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) has been designed as an event driven system. To this end we have designed a data base notification facility in which a task can request that it be loaded and started whenever an element in the data base is changed beyond some user defined range. Our initial implementation of the notify facility exhibited marginal response times whenever a data base table with a large number of outstanding notifies was written into. In this paper we discuss the sources of the slow response and describe in detail a new structure for the list of notifies which minimizes search time resulting in significantly faster response

  17. Fast response time alcohol gas sensor using nanocrystalline F

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 4. Fast response time alcohol gas sensor using nanocrystalline F-doped SnO2 films derived via sol–gel method. Sarbani Basu Yeong-Her Wang C Ghanshyam Pawan Kapur. Volume 36 Issue 4 August 2013 pp 521-533 ...

  18. 48 CFR 5.203 - Publicizing and response time.

    2010-10-01

    ... development if the proposed contract action is expected to exceed the simplified acquisition threshold. (f) Nothing in this subpart prohibits officers or employees of agencies from responding to requests for... response times specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section. Upon learning that a particular...

  19. Response Times of Operators in a Control Room

    Platz, O.; Rasmussen, Jens; Skanborg, Preben Zacho

    A statistical analysis was made of operator response times recorded in the control room of a research reactor during the years 1972-1974. A homogeneity test revealed that the data consist of a mixture of populations. A small but statistically significant difference is found between day and night...

  20. Distinct Response Time Distributions in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    Querne, Laurent; Berquin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To address the issue of response time (RT) profiles in hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI), inattentive (ADHD-IA), and combined (ADHD-C) subtypes of ADHD. We hypothesized that children with ADHD-HI should respond more rapidly than children without ADHD and children with ADHD-IA and ADHD-C should respond more slowly than children without…

  1. Stroop interference and the timing of selective response activation.

    Lansbergen, M.M.; Kenemans, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the exact timing of selective response activation in a manual color-word Stroop task. METHODS: Healthy individuals performed two versions of a manual color-word Stroop task, varying in the probability of incongruent color-words, while EEG was recorded. RESULTS: Stroop

  2. Transducer frequency response variations investigated by time reversal calibration

    Kober, Jan; Převorovský, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2016), A16-A16 ISSN 1213-3825. [Europen Conference on Acoustic Emission Testing /32./. 07.09.2016-09.09.2016, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : calibration * time reversal * transducer * frequency response Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  3. The Effect of Police Response Time on Crime Clearance Rates

    Blanes i Vidal, Jordi; Kirchmaier, Tom

    2018-01-01

    significant effects: in our preferred estimate, a 10% increase in response time leads to a 4.7 percentage points decrease in the likelihood of clearing the crime. We find stronger effects for thefts than for violent offenses, although the effects are large for every type of crime. We find suggestive evidence...

  4. Using random response input in Ibrahim Time Domain

    Olsen, Peter; Brincker, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the time domain technique Ibrahim Time Domain (ITD) is used to analyze random time data. ITD is known to be a technique for identification of output only systems. The traditional formulation of ITD is claimed to be limited, when identifying closely spaced modes, because....... In this article it is showed that when using the modified ITD random time data can be analyzed. The application of the technique is displayed by a case study, with simulations and experimental data....... of the technique being Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO). It has earlier been showed that when modifying ITD with Toeplitz matrix averaging. Identification of time data with closely spaced modes is improved. In the traditional formulation of ITD the time data has to be free decays or impulse response functions...

  5. Time response for sensor sensed to actuator response for mobile robotic system

    Amir, N. S.; Shafie, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    Time and performance of a mobile robot are very important in completing the tasks given to achieve its ultimate goal. Tasks may need to be done within a time constraint to ensure smooth operation of a mobile robot and can result in better performance. The main purpose of this research was to improve the performance of a mobile robot so that it can complete the tasks given within time constraint. The problem that is needed to be solved is to minimize the time interval between sensor detection and actuator response. The research objective is to analyse the real time operating system performance of sensors and actuators on one microcontroller and on two microcontroller for a mobile robot. The task for a mobile robot for this research is line following with an obstacle avoidance. Three runs will be carried out for the task and the time between the sensors senses to the actuator responses were recorded. Overall, the results show that two microcontroller system have better response time compared to the one microcontroller system. For this research, the average difference of response time is very important to improve the internal performance between the occurrence of a task, sensors detection, decision making and actuator response of a mobile robot. This research helped to develop a mobile robot with a better performance and can complete task within the time constraint.

  6. Measurement and Analysis of Horizontal Vibration Response of Pile Foundations

    A. Boominathan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pile foundations are frequently used in very loose and weak deposits, in particular soft marine clays deposits to support various industrial structures, power plants, petrochemical complexes, compressor stations and residential multi-storeyed buildings. Under these circumstances, piles are predominantly subjected to horizontal dynamic loads and the pile response to horizontal vibration is very critical due to its low stiffness. Though many analytical methods have been developed to estimate the horizontal vibration response, but they are not well validated with the experimental studies. This paper presents the results of horizontal vibration tests carried out on model aluminium single piles embedded in a simulated Elastic Half Space filled with clay. The influence of various soil and pile parameters such as pile length, modulus of clay, magnitude of dynamic load and frequency of excitation on the horizontal vibration response of single piles was examined. Measurement of various response quantities, such as the load transferred to the pile, pile head displacement and the strain variation along the pile length were done using a Data Acquisition System. It is found that the pile length, modulus of clay and dynamic load, significantly influences the natural frequency and peak amplitude of the soil-pile system. The maximum bending moment occurs at the fundamental frequency of the soil-pile system. The maximum bending moment of long piles is about 2 to 4 times higher than that of short piles and it increases drastically with the increase in the shear modulus of clay for both short and long piles. The active or effective pile length is found to be increasing under dynamic load and empirical equations are proposed to estimate the active pile length under dynamic loads.

  7. Response Time Analysis and Test of Protection System Instrument Channels for APR1400 and OPR1000

    Lee, Chang Jae; Han, Seung; Yun, Jae Hee; Baek, Seung Min; Lee, Sang Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Safety limits are required to maintain the integrity of physical barriers designed to prevent the uncontrolled release of radioactive materials in nuclear power plants. The safety analysis establishes two critical constraints that include an analytical limit in terms of a measured or calculated variable, and a specific time after the analytical limit is reached to begin protective action. Keeping with the nuclear regulations and industry standards, satisfying these two requirements will ensure that the safety limit will not be exceeded during the design basis event, either an anticipated operational occurrence or a postulated accident. Various studies on the setpoint determination methodology for the safety-related instrumentation have been actively performed to ensure that the requirement of the analytical limit is satisfied. In particular, the protection setpoint methodology for the advanced power reactor 1400 (APP1400) and the optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR1000) has been recently developed to cover both the design basis event and the beyond design basis event. The developed setpoint methodology has also been quantitatively validated using specific computer programs and setpoint calculations. However, the safety of nuclear power plants cannot be fully guaranteed by satisfying the requirement of the analytical limit. In spite of the response time verification requirements of nuclear regulations and industry standards, it is hard to find the studies on the systematically integrated methodology regarding the response time evaluation. In cases of APR1400 and OPR1000, the response time analysis for the plant protection system is partially included in the setpoint calculation and the response time test is separately performed via the specific plant procedure. The test technique has a drawback which is the difficulty to demonstrate completeness of timing test. The analysis technique has also a demerit of resulting in extreme times that not actually possible. Thus

  8. Response Time Analysis and Test of Protection System Instrument Channels for APR1400 and OPR1000

    Lee, Chang Jae; Han, Seung; Yun, Jae Hee; Baek, Seung Min [Department of Instrumentation and Control System Engineering, KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Jeong [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    Safety limits are required to maintain the integrity of physical barriers designed to prevent the uncontrolled release of radioactive materials in nuclear power plants. The safety analysis establishes two critical constraints that include an analytical limit in terms of a measured or calculated variable, and a specific time after the analytical limit is reached to begin protective action. Keeping with the nuclear regulations and industry standards, satisfying these two requirements will ensure that the safety limit will not be exceeded during the design basis event, either an anticipated operational occurrence or a postulated accident. Various studies on the setpoint determination methodology for the safety-related instrumentation have been actively performed to ensure that the requirement of the analytical limit is satisfied. In particular, the protection setpoint methodology for the advanced power reactor 1400 (APP1400) and the optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR1000) has been recently developed to cover both the design basis event and the beyond design basis event. The developed setpoint methodology has also been quantitatively validated using specific computer programs and setpoint calculations. However, the safety of nuclear power plants cannot be fully guaranteed by satisfying the requirement of the analytical limit. In spite of the response time verification requirements of nuclear regulations and industry standards, it is hard to find the studies on the systematically integrated methodology regarding the response time evaluation. In cases of APR1400 and OPR1000, the response time analysis for the plant protection system is partially included in the setpoint calculation and the response time test is separately performed via the specific plant procedure. The test technique has a drawback which is the difficulty to demonstrate completeness of timing test. The analysis technique has also a demerit of resulting in extreme times that not actually possible. Thus

  9. Performance on a simple response time task: Is sleep or work more important for miners?

    Ferguson, Sally A; Paech, Gemma M; Dorrian, Jillian; Roach, Gregory D; Jay, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the impact of work- and sleep-related factors on an objective measure of response time in a field setting. Thirty-five mining operators working 12-h shift patterns completed daily sleep and work diaries, wore activity monitors continuously and completed palm-based psychomotor vigilance tests (palmPVT) at the start and end of each shift. Linear mixed models were used to test the main effects on response time of roster, timing of test, sleep history and prior wake. The time at which the test occurred was a significant predictor of response time (F₃(,)₄₀₃(.)₄ = 6.72, p times than the start of night shifts, and the start or end of day shifts. Further, the amount of sleep obtained in the 24h prior to the test was also a significant predictor of response time (F₃(,)₄₀₇(.)₀ = 3.05, p time indicative of performance impairments. Of more interest however is that immediate sleep history was also predictive of changes in response time with lower amounts of prior sleep related to slower response times. The current data provides further evidence that sleep is a primary mediator of performance, independent of roster pattern. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of LMFBR piping response obtained using response spectrum and time history methods

    Hulbert, G.M.

    1981-04-01

    The dynamic response to a seismic event is calculated for a piping system using a response spectrum analysis method and two time history analysis methods. The results from the analytical methods are compared to identify causes for the differences between the sets of analytical results. Comparative methods are also presented which help to gain confidence in the accuracy of the analytical methods in predicting piping system structure response during seismic events

  11. Measuring work-life balance using time diary data

    Kimberly Fisher; Richard Layte

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines how time diaries facilitate the study of work-life balance. We first compare aggregate time spent in paid work, unpaid work, attending to personal needs, and free time across seven countries using the Multinational Time Use Study. We then measure the overlap of work with other activities in two ways. First, we map the timing of episodes of work over the day, and overlay these maps onto maps of leisure time. A social group can be said to have a work-life balance if their pe...

  12. Time-Lapse and Slow-Motion Tracking of Temperature Changes: Response Time of a Thermometer

    Moggio, L.; Onorato, P.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2017-01-01

    We propose the use of a smartphone based time-lapse and slow-motion video techniques together with tracking analysis as valuable tools for investigating thermal processes such as the response time of a thermometer. The two simple experimental activities presented here, suitable also for high school and undergraduate students, allow one to measure…

  13. The response time distribution in a real-time database with optimistic concurrency control

    Sassen, S.A.E.; Wal, van der J.

    1996-01-01

    For a real-time shared-memory database with optimistic concurrency control, an approximation for the transaction response time distribution is obtained. The model assumes that transactions arrive at the database according to a Poisson process, that every transaction uses an equal number of

  14. On the effects of nonlinearities in room impulse response measurements with exponential sweeps

    Ciric, Dejan; Markovic, Milos; Mijic, Miomir

    2013-01-01

    In room impulse response measurements, there are some common disturbances that affect the measured results. These disturbances include nonlinearity, noise and time variance. In this paper, the effects of nonlinearities in the measurements with exponential sweep-sine signals are analyzed from diff...

  15. Real-time database for high resolution neutron monitor measurements

    Steigies, Christian T.; Rother, Oliver M.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Heber, Bernd [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The worldwide network of standardised neutron monitors is, after 50 years, still the state-of-the-art instrumentation to measure spectral variations of the primary cosmic ray component. These measurements are an ideal complement to space based cosmic ray measurements. Data from the approximately 50 IGY and NM64 neutron monitors is stored locally but also available through data collections sites like the World Data Center (WDC) or the IZMIRAN ftp server. The data from the WDC is in a standard format, but only hourly values are available. IZMIRAN collects the data in the best available time resolution, but the data arrives on the ftp server only hours, sometimes days, after the measurements. Also, the high time-resolution measurements of the different stations do not have a common format, a conversion routine for each station is needed before they can be used for scientific analysis. Supported by the 7th framework program of the European Commission, we are setting up a real-time database where high resolution cosmic ray measurements will be stored and accessible immediately after the measurement. Stations that do not have 1-minute resolution measurements will be upgraded to 1-minute or better resolution with an affordable standard registration system, that will submit the measurements to the database via the internet in real-time.

  16. Perceived Time as a Measure of Mental Workload

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2013-01-01

    The mental workload imposed by systems is important to their operation and usability. Consequently, researchers and practitioners need reliable, valid, and easy-to-administer methods for measuring mental workload. The ratio of perceived time to clock time appears to be such a method, yet mental...... is a performance-related rather than task-related dimension of mental workload. We find a higher perceived time ratio for timed than untimed tasks. According to subjective workload ratings and pupil-diameter measurements the timed tasks impose higher mental workload. This finding contradicts the prospective...... paradigm, which asserts that perceived time decreases with increasing mental workload. We also find a higher perceived time ratio for solved than unsolved tasks, while subjective workload ratings indicate lower mental workload for the solved tasks. This finding shows that the relationship between...

  17. Estimation of waves and ship responses using onboard measurements

    Montazeri, Najmeh

    This thesis focuses on estimation of waves and ship responses using ship-board measurements. This is useful for development of operational safety and performance efficiency in connection with the broader concept of onboard decision support systems. Estimation of sea state is studied using a set...... of measured ship responses, a parametric description of directional wave spectra (a generalised JONSWAP model) and the transfer functions of the ship responses. The difference between the spectral moments of the measured ship responses and the corresponding theoretically calculated moments formulates a cost...... information. The model is tested on simulated data based on known unimodal and bimodal wave scenarios. The wave parameters in the output are then compared with the true wave parameters. In addition to the numerical experiments, two sets of full-scale measurements from container ships are analysed. Herein...

  18. Real-time personal dose measurement and management system

    Zhang Zhiyong; Cheng Chang; Liu Zhengshan; Yang Huating; Deng Changming; Zhang Xiu; Guo Zhanjie

    2001-01-01

    The composition and design of a real-time personal dose measurement and management system are described. Accordingly, some pertinent hardware circuits and software codes including their operation modes are presented

  19. Apparatus for Measurements of Time and Space Correlation

    Favre, Alexandre; Gaviglio, J; Dumas, R

    1955-01-01

    A brief review is made of improvements to an experimental apparatus for time and space correlation designed for study of turbulence. Included is a description of the control of the measurements and a few particular applications.

  20. Time-resolved beam energy measurements at LAMPF

    Hudgings, D.W.; Clark, D.A.; Bryant, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    A narrow atomic photodetachment resonance is used to measure the LAMPF beam energy. Energy and time resolution are adequate to permit the use of this method in studying transient changes in accelerated beam energy

  1. Influence of time pressure in a simple response task, a choice-by-location task, and the Simon task

    van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Jaśkowski, Piotr; Wauschkuhn, Bernd; Verleger, Rolf

    2001-01-01

    Examined the influence of strategy for a simple response task, a choice-by-location task, and the Simon task by varying time pressure in 11 Ss (mean age 28 yrs). Besides reaction time (RT) and accuracy, we measured response force and derived two measures from the event-related EEG potential to form

  2. Residential response to voluntary time-of-use electricity rates

    Mostafa Baladi, S. [Laurits R. Christensen Associates, Inc. Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Herriges, Joseph A. [Iowa State University, 280D Heady Hall, Department of Economics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Sweeney, Thomas J. [MidAmerican Energy, Des Moines, Iowa (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The response of residential households to voluntary Time-of-Use (TOU) electricity rates is estimated using data from a recent experiment at Midwest Power Systems of Iowa. The study`s design allows us to examine both the participation decision and the customer`s load pattern changes once the TOU rate structure was in effect. Substitution elasticities between on-peak and off-peak electricity usage are estimated and compared to those obtained in earlier mandatory programs, indicating whether program volunteers are more responsive to TOU pricing than the typical household. Attitudinal questionnaires allow us to examine the role of usage perceptions in program participation

  3. Filter frequency response of time dependent signal using Laplace transform

    Shestakov, Aleksei I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-16

    We analyze the effect a filter has on a time dependent signal x(t). If X(s) is the Laplace transform of x and H (s) is the filter Transfer function, the response in frequency space is X (s) H (s). Consequently, in real space, the response is the convolution (x*h) (t), where hi is the Laplace inverse of H. Effects are analyzed and analytically for functions such as (t/tc)2 e-t/t$_c$, where tc = const. We consider lowpass, highpass and bandpass filters.

  4. Measuring Levels of Work in Academic Libraries: A Time Based Approach.

    Gould, Donald P.

    1985-01-01

    Using Stratified Systems Theory, which focuses on the manager-subordinate relationship in the bureaucratic structure, a study was conducted to measure level of responsibility in work of 37 professional and nonprofessional positions in four academic library technical services departments. Three levels of work were measured in "time-spans of…

  5. Real-time scatter measurement and correction in film radiography

    Shaw, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for real-time scatter measurement and correction in scanning film radiography is described. With this technique, collimated x-ray fan beams are used to partially reject scattered radiation. Photodiodes are attached to the aft-collimator for sampled scatter measurement. Such measurement allows the scatter distribution to be reconstructed and subtracted from digitized film image data for accurate transmission measurement. In this presentation the authors discuss the physical and technical considerations of this scatter correction technique. Examples are shown that demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. Improved x-ray transmission measurement and dual-energy subtraction imaging are demonstrated with phantoms

  6. Time series analysis of wind speed using VAR and the generalized impulse response technique

    Ewing, Bradley T. [Area of Information Systems and Quantitative Sciences, Rawls College of Business and Wind Science and Engineering Research Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-2101 (United States); Kruse, Jamie Brown [Center for Natural Hazard Research, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Schroeder, John L. [Department of Geosciences and Wind Science and Engineering Research Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Smith, Douglas A. [Department of Civil Engineering and Wind Science and Engineering Research Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2007-03-15

    This research examines the interdependence in time series wind speed data measured in the same location at four different heights. A multiple-equation system known as a vector autoregression is proposed for characterizing the time series dynamics of wind. Additionally, the recently developed method of generalized impulse response analysis provides insight into the cross-effects of the wind series and their responses to shocks. Findings are based on analysis of contemporaneous wind speed time histories taken at 13, 33, 70 and 160 ft above ground level with a sampling rate of 10 Hz. The results indicate that wind speeds measured at 70 ft was the most variable. Further, the turbulence persisted longer at the 70-ft measurement than at the other heights. The greatest interdependence is observed at 13 ft. Gusts at 160 ft led to the greatest persistence to an 'own' shock and led to greatest persistence in the responses of the other wind series. (author)

  7. Measuring caloric response: comparison of different analysis techniques.

    Mallinson, A I; Longridge, N S; Pace-Asciak, P; Ngo, R

    2010-01-01

    Electronystagmography (ENG) testing has been supplanted by newer techniques of measuring eye movement with infrared cameras (VNG). Most techniques of quantifying caloric induced nystagmus measure the slow phase velocity in some manner. Although our analysis is carried out by very experienced assessors, some systems have computer algorithms that have been "taught" to locate and quantify maximum responses. We wondered what differences in measurement might show up when measuring calorics using different techniques and systems, the relevance of this being that if there was a change in slow phase velocity between ENG and VNG testing when measuring caloric response, then normative data would have to be changed. There are also some subjective but important aspects of ENG interpretation which comment on the nature of the response (e.g. responses which might be "sporadic" or "scant"). Our experiment compared caloric responses in 100 patients analyzed four different ways. Each caloric was analyzed by our old ENG system, our new VNG system, an inexperienced assessor and the computer algorithm, and data was compared. All four systems made similar measurements but our inexperienced assessor failed to recognize responses as sporadic or scant, and we feel this is a limitation to be kept in mind in the rural setting, as it is an important aspect of assessment in complex patients. Assessment of complex VNGs should be left to an experienced assessor.

  8. [A new measurement method of time-resolved spectrum].

    Shi, Zhi-gang; Huang, Shi-hua; Liang, Chun-jun; Lei, Quan-sheng

    2007-02-01

    A new method for measuring time-resolved spectrum (TRS) is brought forward. Programming with assemble language controlled the micro-control-processor (AT89C51), and a kind of peripheral circuit constituted the drive circuit, which drived the stepping motor to run the monochromator. So the light of different kinds of expected wavelength could be obtained. The optical signal was transformed to electrical signal by optical-to-electrical transform with the help of photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu 1P28). The electrical signal of spectrum data was transmitted to the oscillograph. Connecting the two serial interfaces of RS232 between the oscillograph and computer, the electrical signal of spectrum data could be transmitted to computer for programming to draw the attenuation curve and time-resolved spectrum (TRS) of the swatch. The method for measuring time-resolved spectrum (TRS) features parallel measurement in time scale but serial measurement in wavelength scale. Time-resolved spectrum (TRS) and integrated emission spectrum of Tb3+ in swatch Tb(o-BBA)3 phen were measured using this method. Compared with the real time-resolved spectrum (TRS). It was validated to be feasible, credible and convenient. The 3D spectra of fluorescence intensity-wavelength-time, and the integrated spectrum of the swatch Tb(o-BBA)3 phen are given.

  9. The response-time distribution in a real-time database with optimistic concurrency control and constant execution times

    Sassen, S.A.E.; Wal, van der J.

    1997-01-01

    For a real-time shared-memory database with optimistic concurrency control, an approximation for the transaction response-time distribution is obtained. The model assumes that transactions arrive at the database according to a Poisson process, that every transaction uses an equal number of

  10. The response-time distribution in a real-time database with optimistic concurrency control and exponential execution times

    Sassen, S.A.E.; Wal, van der J.

    1997-01-01

    For a real-time shared-memory database with optimistic concurrency control, an approximation for the transaction response-time distribution is obtained. The model assumes that transactions arrive at the database according to a Poisson process, that every transaction takes an exponential execution

  11. Ultimate response time of high electron mobility transistors

    Rudin, Sergey; Rupper, Greg; Shur, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present theoretical studies of the response time of the two-dimensional gated electron gas to femtosecond pulses. Our hydrodynamic simulations show that the device response to a short pulse or a step-function signal is either smooth or oscillating time-decay at low and high mobility, μ, values, respectively. At small gate voltage swings, U 0  = U g  − U th , where U g is the gate voltage and U th is the threshold voltage, such that μU 0 /L < v s , where L is the channel length and v s is the effective electron saturation velocity, the decay time in the low mobility samples is on the order of L 2 /(μU 0 ), in agreement with the analytical drift model. However, the decay is preceded by a delay time on the order of L/s, where s is the plasma wave velocity. This delay is the ballistic transport signature in collision-dominated devices, which becomes important during very short time periods. In the high mobility devices, the period of the decaying oscillations is on the order of the plasma wave velocity transit time. Our analysis shows that short channel field effect transistors operating in the plasmonic regime can meet the requirements for applications as terahertz detectors, mixers, delay lines, and phase shifters in ultra high-speed wireless communication circuits

  12. A RECURSIVE ALGORITHM SUITABLE FOR REAL-TIME MEASUREMENT

    Giovanni Bucci

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a recursive algorithm suitable for realtime measurement applications, based on an indirect technique, useful in those applications where the required quantities cannot be measured in a straightforward way. To cope with time constraints a parallel formulation of it, suitable to be implemented on multiprocessor systems, is presented. The adopted concurrent implementation is based on factorization techniques. Some experimental results related to the application of the system for carrying out measurements on synchronous motors are included.

  13. Autonomic response to exercise as measured by cardio- vascular ...

    estimate the involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) influence and balance in ... activity in response to exercise, training and overtraining. This ..... However, a lower HR and higher values for time domain HRV indicators were ...

  14. Investment horizons : A time-dependent measure of asset performance

    Ingve Simonsen; Anders Johansen; Mogens H. Jensen

    2005-01-01

    We review a resent {\\em time-dependent} performance measure for economical time series -- the (optimal) investment horizon approach. For stock indices, the approach shows a pronounced gain-loss asymmetry that is {\\em not} observed for the individual stocks that comprise the index. This difference may hint towards an synchronize of the draw downs of the stocks.

  15. Measuring time and risk preferences: Reliability, stability, domain specificity

    Wölbert, E.M.; Riedl, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To accurately predict behavior economists need reliable measures of individual time preferences and attitudes toward risk and typically need to assume stability of these characteristics over time and across decision domains. We test the reliability of two choice tasks for eliciting discount rates,

  16. Consumer responses to time varying prices for electricity

    Thorsnes, Paul; Williams, John; Lawson, Rob

    2012-01-01

    We report new experimental evidence of the household response to weekday differentials in peak and off-peak electricity prices. The data come from Auckland, New Zealand, where peak residential electricity consumption occurs in winter for heating. Peak/off-peak price differentials ranged over four randomly selected groups from 1.0 to 3.5. On average, there was no response except in winter. In winter, participant households reduced electricity consumption by at least 10%, took advantage of lower off-peak prices but did not respond to the peak price differentials. Response varied with house and household size, time spent away from home, and whether water was heated with electricity. - Highlights: ► Seasonal effects in winter. ► High conservation effect from information. ► Higher peak prices no effect on peak use. ► Low off-peak prices encourage less conservation off-peak.

  17. Accuracy of single photoelectron time spread measurement of fast photomultipliers

    Leskovar, B.

    1975-01-01

    The accuracy of time spread measurements of fast photomultipliers was investigated, using single photoelectrons. The effect of the finite light pulse width on the measurement accuracy was determined and discussed. Experimental data were obtained on a special measuring system for light pulse widths ranging from 200 psec to 10 nsec, using fast photomultipliers 8850 and C31024 with optimized operating conditions for minimum transit time spread. A modified exponential function expression and curve-fitting parameters are given, which fit closely the experimentally obtained data over a wide dynamic range of light pulse widths. (U.S.)

  18. Subtleties in the BABAR measurement of time-reversal violation

    Efrati, Aielet

    2015-01-01

    A first measurement of time-reversal (T) asymmetries that are not also CP asymmetries has been recently achieved by the B A B AR collaboration. In this talk, which follows the work done in Ref. [1], I discuss the subtleties of this measurement in the presence of direct CP violation, CPT violation, wrong strangeness decays and wrong sign semi-leptonic decays. In particular, I explain why, in order to identify the measured asymmetries with time-reversal violation, one needs to assume (i) the absence of wrong strangeness decays or of CPT violation in strangeness changing decays, and (ii) the absence of wrong sign decays. (paper)

  19. Time dependent response of equatorial ionospheric electric fieldsto magnetospheric disturbances

    Fejer, Bela G.; Scherliess, L.

    1995-01-01

    We use extensive radar measurements of F region vertical plasma drifts and auroral electrojet indices to determine the storm time dependence of equatorial zonal electric fields. These disturbance drifts result from the prompt penetration of high latitude electric fields and from the dynamo action of storm time winds which produce largest perturbations a few hours after the onset of magnetic activity. The signatures of the equatorial disturbance electric fields change significantly depending o...

  20. Stability of continuous-time quantum filters with measurement imperfections

    Amini, H.; Pellegrini, C.; Rouchon, P.

    2014-07-01

    The fidelity between the state of a continuously observed quantum system and the state of its associated quantum filter, is shown to be always a submartingale. The observed system is assumed to be governed by a continuous-time Stochastic Master Equation (SME), driven simultaneously by Wiener and Poisson processes and that takes into account incompleteness and errors in measurements. This stability result is the continuous-time counterpart of a similar stability result already established for discrete-time quantum systems and where the measurement imperfections are modelled by a left stochastic matrix.

  1. Timing jitter measurements at the SLC electron source

    Sodja, J.; Browne, M.J.; Clendenin, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The SLC thermionic gun and electron source produce a beam of up to 15 /times/ 10 10 /sub e//minus/ in a single S-band bunch. A 170 keV, 2 ns FWHM pulse out of the gun is compressed by means of two subharmonic buncher cavities followed by an S-band buncher and a standard SLAC accelerating section. Ceramic gaps in the beam pipe at the output of the gun allow a measure of the beam intensity and timing. A measurement at these gaps of the timing jitter, with a resolution of <10 ps, is described. 3 refs., 5 figs

  2. A time-to-amplitude converter with constant fraction timing discriminators for short time interval measurements

    Kostamovaara, J.; Myllylae, R.

    1985-01-01

    The construction and the performance of a time-to-amplitude converter equipped with constant fraction discriminators is described. The TAC consists of digital and analog parts which are constructed on two printed circuit boards, both of which are located in a single width NIM module. The dead time of the TAC for a start pulse which is not followed by a stop pulse within the time range of the device (proportional100 ns) is only proportional100 ns, which enables one to avoid counting rate saturation even with a high random input signal rate. The differential and integral nonlinearities of the TAC are better than +-1.5% and 0.05%, respectively. The resolution for input timing pulses of constant shape is 20 ps (fwhm), and less than 10 ps (fwhm) with a modification in the digital part. The walk error of the constant fraction timing discriminators is presented and various parameters affecting it are discussed. The effect of the various disturbances in linearity caused by the fast ECL logic and their minimization are also discussed. The time-to-amplitude converter has been used in positron lifetime studies and for laser range finding. (orig.)

  3. Optimal time interval for induction of immunologic adaptive response

    Ju Guizhi; Song Chunhua; Liu Shuzheng

    1994-01-01

    The optimal time interval between prior dose (D1) and challenge dose (D2) for the induction of immunologic adaptive response was investigated. Kunming mice were exposed to 75 mGy X-rays at a dose rate of 12.5 mGy/min. 3, 6, 12, 24 or 60 h after the prior irradiation the mice were challenged with a dose of 1.5 Gy at a dose rate of 0.33 Gy/min. 18h after D2, the mice were sacrificed for examination of immunological parameters. The results showed that with an interval of 6 h between D1 and D2, the adaptive response of the reaction of splenocytes to LPS was induced, and with an interval of 12 h the adaptive responses of spontaneous incorporation of 3 H-TdR into thymocytes and the reaction of splenocytes to Con A and LPS were induced with 75 mGy prior irradiation. The data suggested that the optimal time intervals between D1 and D2 for the induction of immunologic adaptive response were 6 h and 12 h with a D1 of 75 mGy and a D2 of 1.5 Gy. The mechanism of immunologic adaptation following low dose radiation is discussed

  4. Calibrating electromagnetic induction conductivities with time-domain reflectometry measurements

    Dragonetti, Giovanna; Comegna, Alessandro; Ajeel, Ali; Piero Deidda, Gian; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Rodriguez, Giuseppe; Vignoli, Giulio; Coppola, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    This paper deals with the issue of monitoring the spatial distribution of bulk electrical conductivity, σb, in the soil root zone by using electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors under different water and salinity conditions. To deduce the actual distribution of depth-specific σb from EMI apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) measurements, we inverted the data by using a regularized 1-D inversion procedure designed to manage nonlinear multiple EMI-depth responses. The inversion technique is based on the coupling of the damped Gauss-Newton method with truncated generalized singular value decomposition (TGSVD). The ill-posedness of the EMI data inversion is addressed by using a sharp stabilizer term in the objective function. This specific stabilizer promotes the reconstruction of blocky targets, thereby contributing to enhance the spatial resolution of the EMI results in the presence of sharp boundaries (otherwise smeared out after the application of more standard Occam-like regularization strategies searching for smooth solutions). Time-domain reflectometry (TDR) data are used as ground-truth data for calibration of the inversion results. An experimental field was divided into four transects 30 m long and 2.8 m wide, cultivated with green bean, and irrigated with water at two different salinity levels and using two different irrigation volumes. Clearly, this induces different salinity and water contents within the soil profiles. For each transect, 26 regularly spaced monitoring soundings (1 m apart) were selected for the collection of (i) Geonics EM-38 and (ii) Tektronix reflectometer data. Despite the original discrepancies in the EMI and TDR data, we found a significant correlation of the means and standard deviations of the two data series; in particular, after a low-pass spatial filtering of the TDR data. Based on these findings, this paper introduces a novel methodology to calibrate EMI-based electrical conductivities via TDR direct measurements. This

  5. Response function measurement of plastic scintillator for high energy neutrons

    Sanami, Toshiya; Ban, Syuichi; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Takada, Masashi

    2003-01-01

    The response function and detection efficiency of 2''φ x 2''L plastic (PilotU) and NE213 liquid (2''NE213) scintillators, which were used for the measurement of secondary neutrons from high energy electron induced reactions, were measured at Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). High energy neutrons were produced via 400 MeV/n C beam bombardment on a thick graphite target. The detectors were placed at 15 deg with respect to C beam axis, 5 m away from the target. As standard, a 5''φ x 5''L NE213 liquid scintillator (5''NE213) was also placed at same position. Neutron energy was determined by the time-of-flight method with the beam pickup scintillator in front of the target. In front of the detectors, veto scintillators were placed to remove charged particle events. All detector signals were corrected with list mode event by event. We deduce neutron spectrum for each detectors. The efficiency curves for pilotU and 2''NE213 were determined on the bases of 5 N E213 neutron spectrum and its efficiency calculated by CECIL code. (author)

  6. Real-time information support for managing plant emergency responses

    Cain, D.G.; Lord, R.J.; Wilkinson, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident highlighted the need to develop a systematic approach to managing plant emergency responses, to identify a better decision-making process, and to implement real-time information support for decision-making. The overall process management function is described and general information requirements for management of plant emergencies are identified. Basic information systems are being incorporated and future extensions and problem areas are discussed. (U.K.)

  7. Collecting response times using Amazon Mechanical Turk and Adobe Flash.

    Simcox, Travis; Fiez, Julie A

    2014-03-01

    Crowdsourcing systems like Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) allow data to be collected from a large sample of people in a short amount of time. This use has garnered considerable interest from behavioral scientists. So far, most experiments conducted on AMT have focused on survey-type instruments because of difficulties inherent in running many experimental paradigms over the Internet. This study investigated the viability of presenting stimuli and collecting response times using Adobe Flash to run ActionScript 3 code in conjunction with AMT. First, the timing properties of Adobe Flash were investigated using a phototransistor and two desktop computers running under several conditions mimicking those that may be present in research using AMT. This experiment revealed some strengths and weaknesses of the timing capabilities of this method. Next, a flanker task and a lexical decision task implemented in Adobe Flash were administered to participants recruited with AMT. The expected effects in these tasks were replicated. Power analyses were conducted to describe the number of participants needed to replicate these effects. A questionnaire was used to investigate previously undescribed computer use habits of 100 participants on AMT. We conclude that a Flash program in conjunction with AMT can be successfully used for running many experimental paradigms that rely on response times, although experimenters must understand the limitations of the method.

  8. Study on time response character for high pressure gas ionization chamber of krypton and xenon

    Tan Chunming; Wu Haifeng; Qing Shangyu; Wang Liqiang

    2006-01-01

    The time response character for Kr and Xe high pressure gas ionization chamber is analyzed and deduced. Compared with the measure data of pulse rising time for three gas-filled ionization chambers, the calculated and experimental results are equal to each other. The rising time less than 10 ms for this kind of ionization chamber can be achieved, so this ionization chamber is able to meet the requirement for imaging detection. (authors)

  9. Comparison of Travel-Time and Amplitude Measurements for Deep-Focusing Time-Distance Helioseismology

    Pourabdian, Majid; Fournier, Damien; Gizon, Laurent

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of deep-focusing time-distance helioseismology is to construct seismic measurements that have a high sensitivity to the physical conditions at a desired target point in the solar interior. With this technique, pairs of points on the solar surface are chosen such that acoustic ray paths intersect at this target (focus) point. Considering acoustic waves in a homogeneous medium, we compare travel-time and amplitude measurements extracted from the deep-focusing cross-covariance functions. Using a single-scattering approximation, we find that the spatial sensitivity of deep-focusing travel times to sound-speed perturbations is zero at the target location and maximum in a surrounding shell. This is unlike the deep-focusing amplitude measurements, which have maximum sensitivity at the target point. We compare the signal-to-noise ratio for travel-time and amplitude measurements for different types of sound-speed perturbations, under the assumption that noise is solely due to the random excitation of the waves. We find that, for highly localized perturbations in sound speed, the signal-to-noise ratio is higher for amplitude measurements than for travel-time measurements. We conclude that amplitude measurements are a useful complement to travel-time measurements in time-distance helioseismology.

  10. Impulse response measurements as dependent on crack depth. Delamination

    Ulriksen, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the project is to investigate the impulse-response method's ability to detect delamination at different depths. This method is of particular interest, since some of it's realizations strongly resembles established methods like 'bomknackning' . Since the personnel that will be responsible for future measurements with new technology, should feel confidence in new methods, it is an advantage if the new methods connect to older, accepted methods. The project consists of three parts and a fourth is planned. The first part of the investigation is made with a vibrator connected to an impedance head which in turn is connected to the surface of the concrete test specimen with internal delaminations at different depths. The vibrator is controlled by a dynamic signal analyze, which also measures the force- and acceleration signals from the impedance head and convert them to impedance. Since the impedance head must be glued to the surface of the concrete this method is only of laboratory interest. This method gives a complete description of the behavior of the concrete for the frequencies investigated. Thus in following investigations the frequencies of interest are known. From the experiment it follows that delamination down to a depth of 80-100 mm can be detected through a clear and solitary resonance peak. This resonance frequency is a function of concrete slab thickness and extension, so if the extension can be measured it may be possible to calculate depth. The second part of the investigation is about using an instrumented hammer to hit the different delamination specimens. The hammer is equipped with a force transducer giving an opportunity to measure the force exerted by the strike against the concrete surface. When a hammer is struck against a concrete surface a spectrum of vibrations is created, dependent on the weight of the hammer and the elasticity of the concrete. A light hammer generates higher frequencies than a heavy one. Three different hammer

  11. 'Stutter timing' for charge decay time measurement

    Chubb, John [Infostatic, 2 Monica Drive, Pittville, Cheltenham, GL50 4NQ (United Kingdom); Harbour, John [Hawthorne Technical Design, The Hawthornes, Startley, Chippenham, SN15 5HG,UK (United Kingdom); Pavey, Ian, E-mail: jchubb@infostatic.co.uk [Chilworth Technology Ltd, Beta House, Southampton Science Park, Southampton, SO16 7NS (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    The paper describes the approach of 'stutter timing' that has been developed to improve the accuracy of measuring charge decay times in the presence of noise in compact and portable charge decay test instrumentation. The approach involves starting and stopping the timing clock as the noisy signal rises above and falls below the target threshold voltage level.

  12. ASIC for time-of-flight measurements with picosecond timing resolution

    Stankova, Vera; Shen, Wei; Harion, Tobias [Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, Heidelberg Univ. (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images are especially affected by a high level of noise. This noise affects the potential to detect and discriminate the tumor in relation to the background. Including Time-of-Flight information, with picosecond time resolution, within the conventional PET scanners will improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and in sequence the quality of the medical images. A mix-mode ASIC (STIC3) has been developed for high precision timing measurements with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). The STiC3 is 64-channel chip, with fully differential analog front-end for crosstalk and electronic noise immunity. It integrates Time to Digital Converters (TDC) with time binning of 50.2 ps for time and energy measurements. Measurements of the of the analog front-end show a time jitter less than 20 ps and jitter of the TDC together with the digital part is around 37 ps. Further the timing of a channel has been tested by injecting a pulse into two channels and measuring the time difference of the recorded timestamps. A Coincidence Time Resolution (CTR) of 215 ps FWHM has been obtained with 3.1 x 3.1 x 15 mm{sup 2} LYSO:Ce scintillator crystals and Hamamatsu SiPM matric (S12643-050CN(x)). Characterization measurements with the chip and its performances are presented.

  13. Potential barrier classification by short-time measurement

    Granot, Er'el; Marchewka, Avi

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the short-time dynamics of a delta-function potential barrier on an initially confined wave packet. There are mainly two conclusions: (A) At short times the probability density of the first particles that passed through the barrier is unaffected by it. (B) When the barrier is absorptive (i.e., its potential is imaginary) it affects the transmitted wave function at shorter times than a real potential barrier. Therefore, it is possible to distinguish between an imaginary and a real potential barrier by measuring its effect at short times only on the transmitting wave function

  14. Potential barrier classification by short-time measurement

    Granot, Er'El; Marchewka, Avi

    2006-03-01

    We investigate the short-time dynamics of a delta-function potential barrier on an initially confined wave packet. There are mainly two conclusions: (A) At short times the probability density of the first particles that passed through the barrier is unaffected by it. (B) When the barrier is absorptive (i.e., its potential is imaginary) it affects the transmitted wave function at shorter times than a real potential barrier. Therefore, it is possible to distinguish between an imaginary and a real potential barrier by measuring its effect at short times only on the transmitting wave function.

  15. MO-FG-BRA-03: A Novel Method for Characterizing Gating Response Time in Radiation Therapy

    Wiersma, R; McCabe, B; Belcher, A; Jenson, P [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Smith, B [University Illinois at Chicago, Orland Park, IL (United States); Aydogan, B [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); University Illinois at Chicago, Orland Park, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Low temporal latency between a gating ON/OFF signal and the LINAC beam ON/OFF during respiratory gating is critical for patient safety. Current film based methods to assess gating response have poor temporal resolution and are highly qualitative. We describe a novel method to precisely measure gating lag times at high temporal resolutions and use it to characterize the temporal response of several gating systems. Methods: A respiratory gating simulator with an oscillating platform was modified to include a linear potentiometer for position measurement. A photon diode was placed at linear accelerator isocenter for beam output measurement. The output signals of the potentiometer and diode were recorded simultaneously at 2500 Hz (0.4 millisecond (ms) sampling interval) with an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC). The techniques was used on three commercial respiratory gating systems. The ON and OFF of the beam signal were located and compared to the expected gating window for both phase and position based gating and the temporal lag times extracted using a polynomial fit method. Results: A Varian RPM system with a monoscopic IR camera was measured to have mean beam ON and OFF lag times of 98.2 ms and 89.6 ms, respectively. A Varian RPM system with a stereoscopic IR camera was measured to have mean beam ON and OFF lag times of 86.0 ms and 44.0 ms, respectively. A Calypso magnetic fiducial tracking system was measured to have mean beam ON and OFF lag times of 209.0 ms and 60.0 ms, respectively. Conclusions: A novel method allowed for quantitative determination of gating timing accuracy for several clinically used gating systems. All gating systems met the 100 ms TG-142 criteria for mean beam OFF times. For beam ON response, the Calypso system exceeded the recommended response time.

  16. Tunneling Time and Weak Measurement in Strong Field Ionization.

    Zimmermann, Tomáš; Mishra, Siddhartha; Doran, Brent R; Gordon, Daniel F; Landsman, Alexandra S

    2016-06-10

    Tunneling delays represent a hotly debated topic, with many conflicting definitions and little consensus on when and if such definitions accurately describe the physical observables. Here, we relate these different definitions to distinct experimental observables in strong field ionization, finding that two definitions, Larmor time and Bohmian time, are compatible with the attoclock observable and the resonance lifetime of a bound state, respectively. Both of these definitions are closely connected to the theory of weak measurement, with Larmor time being the weak measurement value of tunneling time and Bohmian trajectory corresponding to the average particle trajectory, which has been recently reconstructed using weak measurement in a two-slit experiment [S. Kocsis, B. Braverman, S. Ravets, M. J. Stevens, R. P. Mirin, L. K. Shalm, and A. M. Steinberg, Science 332, 1170 (2011)]. We demonstrate a big discrepancy in strong field ionization between the Bohmian and weak measurement values of tunneling time, and we suggest this arises because the tunneling time is calculated for a small probability postselected ensemble of electrons. Our results have important implications for the interpretation of experiments in attosecond science, suggesting that tunneling is unlikely to be an instantaneous process.

  17. Effects of barium concentration on oropharyngeal swallow timing measures.

    Stokely, Shauna L; Molfenter, Sonja M; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-02-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between "thin" (40 % w/v concentration) and "ultrathin" (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; mean age = 31 years) each performed a series of three noncued 5-ml swallows each of ultrathin and thin liquid barium solutions in videofluoroscopy. Timing measures were compared between barium concentrations using a mixed-model ANOVA. The measures of interest were stage transition duration, pharyngeal transit time, and duration of upper esophageal sphincter opening. Significant differences were observed in the timing measures of swallowing with respect to barium concentration. In all cases, longer durations were seen with the higher barium concentration. Barium concentration influences timing parameters in healthy swallowing, even between ultrathin and thin concentrations. Clinicians need to understand and control for the impact of different barium stimuli on swallowing physiology.

  18. Transverse impedance measurement using response matrix fit method at APS

    Sajaev, V.

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation synchrotron light source based on a 7-GeV electron storage ring. In third-generation light sources the synchrotron radiation is mainly produced in undulators. In order to achieve high photon flux and tunability, the magnet gap in undulators has to be as small as possible. Therefore, the undulators are installed on dedicated small-gap insertion device (ID) vacuum chambers. APS has thirty-five 5-m-long straight sections available for undulators. At the time of the measurements, there were 31 straight sections occupied with various insertion devices, and 4 straight sections were still empty. Most of the ID vacuum chambers have a 8-mm in-vacuum gap, and two chambers have a 5-mm gap. These narrow-gap vacuum chambers are believed to be the main source of the transverse impedance of the machine. One can measure the combined impedance by measuring the transverse tune slope with single-bunch current. Comparing this slope before and after installation of the narrow-gap vacuum chamber, one can deduce the impedance of the chamber. It is difficult to accurately measure the change in the tune slope after one or a few new ID chambers are installed. If several identical ID vacuum chambers are installed over a period of time, then one can estimate the contribution of one ID chamber. Over the last few years there have been a number of attempts to measure the impedance of separate components of accelerators. Phase-advance measurements from beam position monitor (BPM) turn-by-turn histories were used at LEP to measure the impedance distribution around the ring. Researches at LEP were able to fit average impedance in the long sections of the LEP arc and determine the impedance of the rf sections. The method was tried at APS; however, the accuracy of the measurements was not enough to determine the small impedance of a single ID vacuum chamber. There is also a different approach that uses local orbit bumps to probe different parts

  19. Review of resistance temperature detector time response characteristics. Safety evaluation report

    1981-08-01

    A Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is used extensively for monitoring water temperatures in nuclear reactor plants. The RTD element does not respond instantaneously to changes in water temperature, but rather there is a time delay before the element senses the temperature change, and in nuclear reactors this delay must be factored into the computation of safety setpoints. For this reason it is necessary to have an accurate description of the RTD time response. This report is a review of the current state of the art of describing and measuring this time response

  20. Temporal response methods for dynamic measurement of in-process inventory of dissolved nuclear materials

    Ziri, S.M.; Seefeldt, W.B.

    1977-08-01

    This analysis has demonstrated that a plant's temporal response to perturbation of feed isotope composition can be used to measure the in-process inventory, without suspending plant operations. The main advantages of the temporal response technique over the step-displacement method are (1) it (the temporal response method) obviates the need for large special feed batches, and (2) it obviates the requirement that all the in-process material have a uniform isotopic composition at the beginning of the measurement. The temporal response method holds promise for essentially continuous real-time determination of in-process SNM. However, the temporal response method requires the measurement of the isotopic composition of many samples, and it works best for a stationary random input time series of tracer perturbations. Both of these requirements appear amenable to satisfaction by practical equipment and procedures if the benefits are deemed sufficiently worthwhile

  1. Sensitivity and response time improvements in millimeter-wave spectrometers

    Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.

    1980-09-01

    A new version of a microwave spectrometer for the detection of gaseous pollutants and other atmospheric constituents is described. The spectrometer, which operates in the vicinity of 70 GHz, employs a Fabry-Perot resonator as a sample cell and uses superhetrodyne detection for high sensitivity. The spectrometer has been modified to incorporate a frequency doubler modulated at 30 MHz to permit operation with a single Gunn oscillator source. As a result, faster response time and somewhat greater sensitivity are obtained. The spectrometer is capable of detecting a minimum concentration of 1 ppM of SO 2 diluted in air with a 1 second time constant. For OCS diluted in air, the minimum detectable concentration is 800 ppB and with a 10 second time constant 300 ppB

  2. Exactly solvable model for the time response function of RPCs

    Mangiarotti, A.; Fonte, P.; Gobbi, A.

    2004-01-01

    The fluctuation theory for the growth of several avalanches is briefly summarized and extended to include the case of electronegative gas mixtures. Based on such physical picture, the intrinsic time response function of an RPC can be calculated in a closed form and its average and rms extracted from series representations. The corresponding timing resolution, expressed in units of 1/((α-η)vd), is a universal function of the mean number of 'effective' clusters n0 reduced by electron attachment: n0(1-η/α). A comparison to a few selected good-quality experimental data is attempted for the timing resolution of both 1-gap and 4-gaps RPCs, finding a reasonable agreement

  3. Identifying Time Measurement Tampering in the Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA Wormhole Detection Algorithm

    Jonny Karlsson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA is a recent wormhole detection algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET which provides enhanced detection performance against all wormhole attack variants and network types. TTHCA involves each node measuring the processing time of routing packets during the route discovery process and then delivering the measurements to the source node. In a participation mode (PM wormhole where malicious nodes appear in the routing tables as legitimate nodes, the time measurements can potentially be altered so preventing TTHCA from successfully detecting the wormhole. This paper analyses the prevailing conditions for time tampering attacks to succeed for PM wormholes, before introducing an extension to the TTHCA detection algorithm called ∆T Vector which is designed to identify time tampering, while preserving low false positive rates. Simulation results confirm that the ∆T Vector extension is able to effectively detect time tampering attacks, thereby providing an important security enhancement to the TTHCA algorithm.

  4. Time resolved measurements of triton burnup in JET plasmas

    Conroy, S.; Jarvis, O.N.; Sadler, G.; Huxtable, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Triton production from one branch of the deuteron-deuteron fusion reaction is routinely measured at 6 ms time intervals in JET plasma discharges by recording the 2.5 MeV neutrons produced in the other branch using a set of calibrated fission chambers. The burnup of the tritons is measured by detecting the 14 MeV t-d neutrons with a 0.2 cm 3 Si(Li) diode. The 2.5 MeV neutron flux can be used in a simple time dependent calculation based on classical slowing-down theory to predict the 14 MeV neutron flux. The measured flux and the triton slowing-down time are systematically lower than the values estimated from the key plasma parameters but the differences are within the experimental errors. (author). 19 refs, 8 figs

  5. Time orientation, planning horizons and responsibility into the future

    Svenson, O.; Nilsson, G.

    1988-01-01

    Subjects of four categories (social science students, engineering students, retired people and nuclear waste experts) were asked about past events, planning, risks and future time with emphasis on energy related issues and in particular questions concerning spent nuclear waste. Among, the results reported it was found that events in the past were located more or less correctly and that events further back systematically too close to the present. Today's responsibility into the future was judged to cover 3 to 6 generations ahead and an adequate planning horizon for a local community to be on the average 11 to 14 years. Adequate planning horizons for the handling of spent nuclear fuel were judged to be from 100 to 500 years. The responsibility for effects of today's decisions was judged to be from about 100 to 300 years into the future for environmental pollution and from about 50 to 600 years for nuclear waste. However, non-negliqable proportions of the subjects choose a more moral standpoint and gave answers indicating that responsibility had to be unlimited. Some sex differences were found and an interaction with age offered as a hypothesis to be investigated in the future. Interrelations between clusters of questions revealed some links from past time and planning to judgements of environmental and nuclear power related risks. (orig.)

  6. Time Synchronized Wireless Sensor Network for Vibration Measurement

    Uchimura, Yutaka; Nasu, Tadashi; Takahashi, Motoichi

    Network based wireless sensing has become an important area of research and various new applications for remote sensing are expected to emerge. One of the promising applications is structural health monitoring of building or civil engineering structure and it often requires vibration measurement. For the vibration measurement via wireless network, time synchronization is indispensable. In this paper, we introduce a newly developed time synchronized wireless sensor network system. The system employs IEEE 802.11 standard based TSF counter and sends the measured data with the counter value. TSF based synchronization enables consistency on common clock among different wireless nodes. We consider the scale effect on the synchronization accuracy and the effect is evaluated by stochastic analysis and simulation studies. A new wireless sensing system is developed and the hardware and software specifications are shown. The experiments are conducted in a reinforced concrete building and results show good performance enough for vibration measurement purpose.

  7. Real-time diamagnetic flux measurements on ASDEX Upgrade.

    Giannone, L; Geiger, B; Bilato, R; Maraschek, M; Odstrčil, T; Fischer, R; Fuchs, J C; McCarthy, P J; Mertens, V; Schuhbeck, K H

    2016-05-01

    Real-time diamagnetic flux measurements are now available on ASDEX Upgrade. In contrast to the majority of diamagnetic flux measurements on other tokamaks, no analog summation of signals is necessary for measuring the change in toroidal flux or for removing contributions arising from unwanted coupling to the plasma and poloidal field coil currents. To achieve the highest possible sensitivity, the diamagnetic measurement and compensation coil integrators are triggered shortly before plasma initiation when the toroidal field coil current is close to its maximum. In this way, the integration time can be chosen to measure only the small changes in flux due to the presence of plasma. Two identical plasma discharges with positive and negative magnetic field have shown that the alignment error with respect to the plasma current is negligible. The measured diamagnetic flux is compared to that predicted by TRANSP simulations. The poloidal beta inferred from the diamagnetic flux measurement is compared to the values calculated from magnetic equilibrium reconstruction codes. The diamagnetic flux measurement and TRANSP simulation can be used together to estimate the coupled power in discharges with dominant ion cyclotron resonance heating.

  8. On response time and cycle time distributions in a two-stage cyclic queue

    Boxma, O.J.; Donk, P.

    1982-01-01

    We consider a two-stage closed cyclic queueing model. For the case of an exponential server at each queue we derive the joint distribution of the successive response times of a custumer at both queues, using a reversibility argument. This joint distribution turns out to have a product form. The

  9. The BCD of response time analysis in experimental economics.

    Spiliopoulos, Leonidas; Ortmann, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    For decisions in the wild, time is of the essence. Available decision time is often cut short through natural or artificial constraints, or is impinged upon by the opportunity cost of time. Experimental economists have only recently begun to conduct experiments with time constraints and to analyze response time (RT) data, in contrast to experimental psychologists. RT analysis has proven valuable for the identification of individual and strategic decision processes including identification of social preferences in the latter case, model comparison/selection, and the investigation of heuristics that combine speed and performance by exploiting environmental regularities. Here we focus on the benefits, challenges, and desiderata of RT analysis in strategic decision making. We argue that unlocking the potential of RT analysis requires the adoption of process-based models instead of outcome-based models, and discuss how RT in the wild can be captured by time-constrained experiments in the lab. We conclude that RT analysis holds considerable potential for experimental economics, deserves greater attention as a methodological tool, and promises important insights on strategic decision making in naturally occurring environments.

  10. Magnetic-Field-Response Measurement-Acquisition System

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2006-01-01

    A measurement-acquisition system uses magnetic fields to power sensors and to acquire measurements from sensors. The system alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement-acquisition systems, which include a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with wires, use limited to a single type of measurement, wire degradation due to wear or chemical decay, and the logistics needed to add new sensors. Eliminating wiring for acquiring measurements can alleviate potential hazards associated with wires, such as damaged wires becoming ignition sources due to arcing. The sensors are designed as electrically passive inductive-capacitive or passive inductive-capacitive-resistive circuits that produce magnetic-field-responses. One or more electrical parameters (inductance, capacitance, and resistance) of each sensor can be variable and corresponds to a measured physical state of interest. The magnetic-field- response attributes (frequency, amplitude, and bandwidth) of the inductor correspond to the states of physical properties for which each sensor measures. For each sensor, the measurement-acquisition system produces a series of increasing magnetic-field harmonics within a frequency range dedicated to that sensor. For each harmonic, an antenna electrically coupled to an oscillating current (the frequency of which is that of the harmonic) produces an oscillating magnetic field. Faraday induction via the harmonic magnetic fields produces an electromotive force and therefore a current in the sensor. Once electrically active, the sensor produces its own harmonic magnetic field as the inductor stores and releases magnetic energy. The antenna of the measurement- acquisition system is switched from a transmitting to a receiving mode to acquire the magnetic-field response of the sensor. The rectified amplitude of the received response is compared to previous responses to prior transmitted harmonics, to ascertain if the measurement system has detected a

  11. Determination of time delay between ventricles contraction using impedance measurements

    Lewandowska, M; Poliński, A; Wtorek, J

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a novel approach to assessment of ventricular dyssynchrony basing on multichannel electrical impedance measurements. Using a proper placement of electrodes, the sensitivity approach allows estimating time difference between chambers contraction from over determined nonlinear system of equations. The theoretical considerations which include Finite Element Method simulations were verified using measurements on healthy 28 year's old woman. The nonlinear least squares method was applied to obtain a time difference between heart chambers contraction. The obtained value was in a good agreement with theoretical values found in literature.

  12. Time expansion chamber and single ionization cluster measurement

    Walenta, A.H.

    1978-10-01

    The time expansion chamber (TEC), a new type of drift chamber, allows the measurement of microscopic details of ionization. The mean drift time interval from subsequent sngle ionization clusters of a relativistic particle in the TEC can be made large enough compared to the width of a anode signal to allow the recording of the clusters separately. Since single primary electrons can be detected, the cluster counting would allow an improved particle separation using the relativistic rise of primary ionization. In another application, very high position accuracy for track detectors or improved energy resolution may be obtained. Basic ionization phenomena and drift properties can be measured at the single electron level

  13. Real-Time 3D Profile Measurement Using Structured Light

    Xu, L; Zhang, Z J; Ma, H; Yu, Y J

    2006-01-01

    The paper builds a real-time system of 3D profile measurement using structured-light imaging. It allows a hand-held object to rotate free in the space-time coded light field, which is projected by the projector. The surface of measured objects with projected coded light is imaged; the system shows surface reconstruction results of objects online. This feedback helps user to adjust object's pose in the light field according to the dismissed or error data, which would achieve the integrality of data used in reconstruction. This method can acquire denser data cloud and have higher reconstruction accuracy and efficiency. According to the real-time requirements, the paper presents the non-restricted light plane modelling which suits stripe structured light system, designs the three-frame stripes space-time coded pattern, and uses the advance ICP algorithms to acquire 3D data alignment from multiple view

  14. Observers' measurements in premetric electrodynamics: Time and radar length

    Gürlebeck, Norman; Pfeifer, Christian

    2018-04-01

    The description of an observer's measurement in general relativity and the standard model of particle physics is closely related to the spacetime metric. In order to understand and interpret measurements, which test the metric structure of the spacetime, like the classical Michelson-Morley, Ives-Stilwell, Kennedy-Thorndike experiments or frequency comparison experiments in general, it is necessary to describe them in theories, which go beyond the Lorentzian metric structure. However, this requires a description of an observer's measurement without relying on a metric. We provide such a description of an observer's measurement of the fundamental quantities time and length derived from a premetric perturbation of Maxwell's electrodynamics and a discussion on how these measurements influence classical relativistic observables like time dilation and length contraction. Most importantly, we find that the modification of electrodynamics influences the measurements at two instances: the propagation of light is altered as well as the observer's proper time normalization. When interpreting the results of a specific experiment, both effects cannot be disentangled, in general, and have to be taken into account.

  15. Implementing unsteady friction in pressure-time measurements

    Jonsson, Pontus; Ramdal, Jorgen; Cervantes, Michel; Nielsen, Torbjørn Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory measurements using the pressure‐time method showed a velocity or Reynolds number dependent error of the flow estimate. It was suspected that the quasi steady friction formulation of the method was the cause. This was investigated, and it was proved that implementing a model for unsteady friction into the calculations improved the result. This paper presents the process of this investigation, and proposes a new method for treatment of the friction term in the pressure‐time method.

  16. Effects of Barium Concentration on Oropharyngeal Swallow Timing Measures

    Stokely, Shauna L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2013-01-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between “thin” (40 % w/v concentration) and “ultrathin” (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; ...

  17. FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT DISPERSION MEASURES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PULSAR TIMING

    Cordes, J. M. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Shannon, R. M. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Stinebring, D. R., E-mail: cordes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: ryan.shannon@csiro.au, E-mail: dan.stinebring@oberlin.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH 44074 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    The dispersion measure (DM), the column density of free electrons to a pulsar, is shown to be frequency dependent because of multipath scattering from small-scale electron-density fluctuations. DMs vary between propagation paths whose transverse extent varies strongly with frequency, yielding arrival times that deviate from the high-frequency scaling expected for a cold, uniform, unmagnetized plasma (1/frequency{sup 2}). Scaling laws for thin phase screens are verified with simulations; extended media are also analyzed. The rms DM difference across an octave band near 1.5 GHz is ∼ 4 × 10{sup −5} pc cm{sup −3} for pulsars at ∼1 kpc distance. The corresponding arrival-time variations are a few to hundreds of nanoseconds for DM ≲ 30 pc cm{sup −3} but increase rapidly to microseconds or more for larger DMs and wider frequency ranges. Chromatic DMs introduce correlated noise into timing residuals with a power spectrum of “low pass” form. The correlation time is roughly the geometric mean of the refraction times for the highest and lowest radio frequencies used, ranging from days to years, depending on the pulsar. We discuss implications for methodologies that use large frequency separations or wide bandwidth receivers for timing measurements. Chromatic DMs are partially mitigable by including an additional chromatic term in arrival time models. Without mitigation, an additional term in the noise model for pulsar timing is implied. In combination with measurement errors from radiometer noise, an arbitrarily large increase in total frequency range (or bandwidth) will yield diminishing benefits and may be detrimental to overall timing precision.

  18. Frequency-dependent Dispersion Measures and Implications for Pulsar Timing

    Cordes, J. M.; Shannon, R. M.; Stinebring, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    The dispersion measure (DM), the column density of free electrons to a pulsar, is shown to be frequency dependent because of multipath scattering from small-scale electron-density fluctuations. DMs vary between propagation paths whose transverse extent varies strongly with frequency, yielding arrival times that deviate from the high-frequency scaling expected for a cold, uniform, unmagnetized plasma (1/frequency2). Scaling laws for thin phase screens are verified with simulations; extended media are also analyzed. The rms DM difference across an octave band near 1.5 GHz is ˜ 4 × 10-5 pc cm-3 for pulsars at ˜1 kpc distance. The corresponding arrival-time variations are a few to hundreds of nanoseconds for DM ≲ 30 pc cm-3 but increase rapidly to microseconds or more for larger DMs and wider frequency ranges. Chromatic DMs introduce correlated noise into timing residuals with a power spectrum of “low pass” form. The correlation time is roughly the geometric mean of the refraction times for the highest and lowest radio frequencies used, ranging from days to years, depending on the pulsar. We discuss implications for methodologies that use large frequency separations or wide bandwidth receivers for timing measurements. Chromatic DMs are partially mitigable by including an additional chromatic term in arrival time models. Without mitigation, an additional term in the noise model for pulsar timing is implied. In combination with measurement errors from radiometer noise, an arbitrarily large increase in total frequency range (or bandwidth) will yield diminishing benefits and may be detrimental to overall timing precision.

  19. Measuring Emotional Responses to TV Commercials: The Warmth Monitor Modernized

    Marc Roy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been a lot of interest in measuring emotional responses to advertising. This study focuses on the measurement of a specific emotional response to television advertising; warmth. Nearly thirty years ago, (Aaker, Stayman and Hagerty, 1986 developed a procedure they called the Warmth Monitor; “paper and pencil” self-report process recording method. The Warmth Monitor has been used in a large number of empirical studies in marketing since, but the most recent versions of the procedure are computerized. The two methods of administering the Warmth Monitor are compared in this research.

  20. What Are the Shapes of Response Time Distributions in Visual Search?

    Palmer, Evan M.; Horowitz, Todd S.; Torralba, Antonio; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2011-01-01

    Many visual search experiments measure response time (RT) as their primary dependent variable. Analyses typically focus on mean (or median) RT. However, given enough data, the RT distribution can be a rich source of information. For this paper, we collected about 500 trials per cell per observer for both target-present and target-absent displays…

  1. Measurement of time delay for a prospectively gated CT simulator.

    Goharian, M; Khan, R F H

    2010-04-01

    For the management of mobile tumors, respiratory gating is the ideal option, both during imaging and during therapy. The major advantage of respiratory gating during imaging is that it is possible to create a single artifact-free CT data-set during a selected phase of the patient's breathing cycle. The purpose of the present work is to present a simple technique to measure the time delay during acquisition of a prospectively gated CT. The time delay of a Philips Brilliance BigBore (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) scanner attached to a Varian Real-Time Position Management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was measured. Two methods were used to measure the CT time delay: using a motion phantom and using a recorded data file from the RPM system. In the first technique, a rotating wheel phantom was altered by placing two plastic balls on its axis and rim, respectively. For a desired gate, the relative positions of the balls were measured from the acquired CT data and converted into corresponding phases. Phase difference was calculated between the measured phases and the desired phases. Using period of motion, the phase difference was converted into time delay. The Varian RPM system provides an external breathing signal; it also records transistor-transistor logic (TTL) 'X-Ray ON' status signal from the CT scanner in a text file. The TTL 'X-Ray ON' indicates the start of CT image acquisition. Thus, knowledge of the start time of CT acquisition, combined with the real-time phase and amplitude data from the external respiratory signal, provides time-stamping of all images in an axial CT scan. The TTL signal with time-stamp was used to calculate when (during the breathing cycle) a slice was recorded. Using the two approaches, the time delay between the prospective gating signal and CT simulator has been determined to be 367 +/- 40 ms. The delay requires corrections both at image acquisition and while setting gates for the treatment delivery

  2. Measurement of time delay for a prospectively gated CT simulator

    Goharian M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For the management of mobile tumors, respiratory gating is the ideal option, both during imaging and during therapy. The major advantage of respiratory gating during imaging is that it is possible to create a single artifact-free CT data-set during a selected phase of the patient′s breathing cycle. The purpose of the present work is to present a simple technique to measure the time delay during acquisition of a prospectively gated CT. The time delay of a Philips Brilliance BigBore™ (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI scanner attached to a Varian Real-Time Position Management™ (RPM system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA was measured. Two methods were used to measure the CT time delay: using a motion phantom and using a recorded data file from the RPM system. In the first technique, a rotating wheel phantom was altered by placing two plastic balls on its axis and rim, respectively. For a desired gate, the relative positions of the balls were measured from the acquired CT data and converted into corresponding phases. Phase difference was calculated between the measured phases and the desired phases. Using period of motion, the phase difference was converted into time delay. The Varian RPM system provides an external breathing signal; it also records transistor-transistor logic (TTL ′X-Ray ON′ status signal from the CT scanner in a text file. The TTL ′X-Ray ON′ indicates the start of CT image acquisition. Thus, knowledge of the start time of CT acquisition, combined with the real-time phase and amplitude data from the external respiratory signal, provides time-stamping of all images in an axial CT scan. The TTL signal with time-stamp was used to calculate when (during the breathing cycle a slice was recorded. Using the two approaches, the time delay between the prospective gating signal and CT simulator has been determined to be 367 ± 40 ms. The delay requires corrections both at image acquisition and while setting gates for

  3. Measurement of time delay for a prospectively gated CT simulator

    Goharian, M.; Khan, R.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    For the management of mobile tumors, respiratory gating is the ideal option, both during imaging and during therapy. The major advantage of respiratory gating during imaging is that it is possible to create a single artifact-free CT data-set during a selected phase of the patient's breathing cycle. The purpose of the present work is to present a simple technique to measure the time delay during acquisition of a prospectively gated CT. The time delay of a Philips Brilliance BigBore (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) scanner attached to a Varian Real-Time Position Management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was measured. Two methods were used to measure the CT time delay: using a motion phantom and using a recorded data file from the RPM system. In the first technique, a rotating wheel phantom was altered by placing two plastic balls on its axis and rim, respectively. For a desired gate, the relative positions of the balls were measured from the acquired CT data and converted into corresponding phases. Phase difference was calculated between the measured phases and the desired phases. Using period of motion, the phase difference was converted into time delay. The Varian RPM system provides an external breathing signal; it also records transistor-transistor logic (TTL) 'X-Ray ON' status signal from the CT scanner in a text file. The TTL 'X-Ray ON' indicates the start of CT image acquisition. Thus, knowledge of the start time of CT acquisition, combined with the real-time phase and amplitude data from the external respiratory signal, provides time-stamping of all images in an axial CT scan. The TTL signal with time-stamp was used to calculate when (during the breathing cycle) a slice was recorded. Using the two approaches, the time delay between the prospective gating signal and CT simulator has been determined to be 367 ± 40 ms. The delay requires corrections both at image acquisition and while setting gates for the treatment delivery

  4. Part-time work as a pre-retirement measure

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 7 December 2006, the Director-General has approved the extension of the Part-time work scheme as a pre-retirement measure for the year 2007, i.e. until 31 December 2007. Human Resources Department Tel. 72808/74128

  5. Part-time work as a pre-retirement measure

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 2 November 2007, the Director-General has approved the extension of the part-time work scheme as a pre-retirement measure for the year 2008, i.e. until 31 December 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 74484/73903

  6. Prospects for direct measurement of time-integrated Bs mixing

    Siccama, I.

    1994-01-01

    This note investigates the prospects of measuring time-integrated B s mixing. Three inclusive decay modes of the B s meson are discussed. For each reconstruction mode, the expected number of events and the different background channels are discussed. Estimates are given for the uncertainty on the mixing parameter χ s . (orig.)

  7. A real-time BWR stability measurement system

    March-Leuba, J.; King, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of a portable, real-time system used for nonperturbational measurements of stability in boiling water reactors. The algorithm used in this system estimates the closed-loop asymptotic decay ratio using only the naturally occurring neutron noise and it is based on the univariate autoregressive methodology. (author)

  8. Improved measurement linearity and precision for AMCW time-of-flight range imaging cameras.

    Payne, Andrew D; Dorrington, Adrian A; Cree, Michael J; Carnegie, Dale A

    2010-08-10

    Time-of-flight range imaging systems utilizing the amplitude modulated continuous wave (AMCW) technique often suffer from measurement nonlinearity due to the presence of aliased harmonics within the amplitude modulation signals. Typically a calibration is performed to correct these errors. We demonstrate an alternative phase encoding approach that attenuates the harmonics during the sampling process, thereby improving measurement linearity in the raw measurements. This mitigates the need to measure the system's response or calibrate for environmental changes. In conjunction with improved linearity, we demonstrate that measurement precision can also be increased by reducing the duty cycle of the amplitude modulated illumination source (while maintaining overall illumination power).

  9. Real Time Optimal Control of Supercapacitor Operation for Frequency Response

    Luo, Yusheng; Panwar, Mayank; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Hovsapian, Rob

    2016-07-01

    Supercapacitors are gaining wider applications in power systems due to fast dynamic response. Utilizing supercapacitors by means of power electronics interfaces for power compensation is a proven effective technique. For applications such as requency restoration if the cost of supercapacitors maintenance as well as the energy loss on the power electronics interfaces are addressed. It is infeasible to use traditional optimization control methods to mitigate the impacts of frequent cycling. This paper proposes a Front End Controller (FEC) using Generalized Predictive Control featuring real time receding optimization. The optimization constraints are based on cost and thermal management to enhance to the utilization efficiency of supercapacitors. A rigorous mathematical derivation is conducted and test results acquired from Digital Real Time Simulator are provided to demonstrate effectiveness.

  10. Fast-Response-Time Shape-Memory-Effect Foam Actuators

    Jardine, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Bulk shape memory alloys, such as Nitinol or CuAlZn, display strong recovery forces undergoing a phase transformation after being strained in their martensitic state. These recovery forces are used for actuation. As the phase transformation is thermally driven, the response time of the actuation can be slow, as the heat must be passively inserted or removed from the alloy. Shape memory alloy TiNi torque tubes have been investigated for at least 20 years and have demonstrated high actuation forces [3,000 in.-lb (approximately equal to 340 N-m) torques] and are very lightweight. However, they are not easy to attach to existing structures. Adhesives will fail in shear at low-torque loads and the TiNi is not weldable, so that mechanical crimp fits have been generally used. These are not reliable, especially in vibratory environments. The TiNi is also slow to heat up, as it can only be heated indirectly using heater and cooling must be done passively. This has restricted their use to on-off actuators where cycle times of approximately one minute is acceptable. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) has been used in the past to make porous TiNi metal foams. Shape Change Technologies has been able to train SHS derived TiNi to exhibit the shape memory effect. As it is an open-celled material, fast response times were observed when the material was heated using hot and cold fluids. A methodology was developed to make the open-celled porous TiNi foams as a tube with integrated hexagonal ends, which then becomes a torsional actuator with fast response times. Under processing developed independently, researchers were able to verify torques of 84 in.-lb (approximately equal to 9.5 Nm) using an actuator weighing 1.3 oz (approximately equal to 37 g) with very fast (less than 1/16th of a second) initial response times when hot and cold fluids were used to facilitate heat transfer. Integrated structural connections were added as part of the net shape process, eliminating

  11. Using item response theory to measure extreme response style in marketing research

    de Jong, Martijn G.; Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E.M.; Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Baumgartner, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Extreme response style (ERS) is an important threat to the validity of survey-based marketing research. In this article, the authors present a new item response theory–based model for measuring ERS. This model contributes to the ERS literature in two ways. First, the method improves on existing

  12. The effect of loading time on flexible pavement dynamic response: a finite element analysis

    Yin, Hao; Solaimanian, Mansour; Kumar, Tanmay; Stoffels, Shelley

    2007-12-01

    Dynamic response of asphalt concrete (AC) pavements under moving load is a key component for accurate prediction of flexible pavement performance. The time and temperature dependency of AC materials calls for utilizing advanced material characterization and mechanistic theories, such as viscoelasticity and stress/strain analysis. In layered elastic analysis, as implemented in the new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG), the time dependency is accounted for by calculating the loading times at different AC layer depths. In this study, the time effect on pavement response was evaluated by means of the concept of “pseudo temperature.” With the pavement temperature measured from instrumented thermocouples, the time and temperature dependency of AC materials was integrated into one single factor, termed “effective temperature.” Via this effective temperature, pavement responses under a transient load were predicted through finite element analysis. In the finite element model, viscoelastic behavior of AC materials was characterized through relaxation moduli, while the layers with unbound granular material were assumed to be in an elastic mode. The analysis was conducted for two different AC mixtures in a simplified flexible pavement structure at two different seasons. Finite element analysis results reveal that the loading time has a more pronounced impact on pavement response in the summer for both asphalt types. The results indicate that for reasonable prediction of dynamic response in flexible pavements, the effect of the depth-dependent loading time on pavement temperature should be considered.

  13. Use of a large time-compensated scintillation detector in neutron time-of-flight measurements

    Goodman, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    A scintillator for neutron time-of-flight measurements is positioned at a desired angle with respect to the neutron beam, and as a function of the energy thereof, such that the sum of the transit times of the neutrons and photons in the scintillator are substantially independent of the points of scintillations within the scintillator. Extrapolated zero timing is employed rather than the usual constant fraction timing. As a result, a substantially larger scintillator can be employed that substantially increases the data rate and shortens the experiment time. 3 claims

  14. Principal response curves: analysis of time-dependent multivariate responses of biological community to stress

    Brink, van den P.J.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a novel multivariate method is proposed for the analysis of community response data from designed experiments repeatedly sampled in time. The long-term effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on the invertebrate community and the dissolved oxygen (DO)–pH–alkalinity–conductivity

  15. Measuring Time in Sporting Competitions with the Domain-Specific Language EasyTime

    Fister Jr., Iztok; Fister, Iztok

    2012-01-01

    Measuring time in mass sporting competitions is unthinkable manually today because of their long duration and unreliability. Besides, automatic timing devices based on the RFID technology have become cheaper. However, these devices cannot operate stand-alone. To work efficiently, they need a computer timing system for monitoring results. Such system should be capable of processing the incoming events, encoding and assigning results to a individual competitor, sorting results according to the ...

  16. Diabetic Driving Studies-Part 1: Brake Response Time in Diabetic Drivers With Lower Extremity Neuropathy.

    Meyr, Andrew J; Spiess, Kerianne E

    Although the effect of lower extremity pathology and surgical intervention on automobile driving function has been a topic of contemporary interest, we are unaware of any analysis of the effect of lower extremity diabetic sensorimotor neuropathy on driving performance. The objective of the present case-control investigation was to assess the mean brake response time in diabetic drivers with lower extremity neuropathy compared with that of a control group and a brake response safety threshold. The driving performances of participants were evaluated using a computerized driving simulator with specific measurement of the mean brake response time and frequency of abnormally delayed brake responses. We analyzed a control group of 25 active drivers with neither diabetes nor lower extremity neuropathy and an experimental group of 25 active drivers with type 2 diabetes and lower extremity neuropathy. The experimental group demonstrated a 37.89% slower mean brake response time (0.757 ± 0.180 versus 0.549 ± 0.076 second; p time in the experimental group was slower than the reported safety brake response threshold of 0.70 second. The results of the present investigation provide original data with respect to abnormally delayed brake responses in diabetic patients with lower extremity neuropathy and might raise the potential for impaired driving function in this population. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Method of detecting system function by measuring frequency response

    Morrison, John L [Butte, MT; Morrison, William H [Manchester, CT; Christophersen, Jon P [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-03

    Real-time battery impedance spectrum is acquired using a one-time record. Fast Summation Transformation (FST) is a parallel method of acquiring a real-time battery impedance spectrum using a one-time record that enables battery diagnostics. An excitation current to a battery is a sum of equal amplitude sine waves of frequencies that are octave harmonics spread over a range of interest. A sample frequency is also octave and harmonically related to all frequencies in the sum. The time profile of this signal has a duration that is a few periods of the lowest frequency. The voltage response of the battery, average deleted, is the impedance of the battery in the time domain. Since the excitation frequencies are known and octave and harmonically related, a simple algorithm, FST, processes the time record by rectifying relative to the sine and cosine of each frequency. Another algorithm yields real and imaginary components for each frequency.

  18. Incorporation of Time Delayed Measurements in a Discrete-time Kalman Filter

    Larsen, Thomas Dall; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    In many practical systems there is a delay in some of the sensor devices, for instance vision measurements that may have a long processing time. How to fuse these measurements in a Kalman filter is not a trivial problem if the computational delay is critical. Depending on how much time...... using past and present estimates of the Kalman filter and calculating an optimal gain for this extrapolated measurement...... there is at hand, the designer has to make trade offs between optimality and computational burden of the filter. In this paper various methods in the literature along with a new method proposed by the authors will be presented and compared. The new method is based on “extrapolating” the measurement to present time...

  19. Measuring the electron bunch timing with femtosecond resolution at FLASH

    Bock, Marie Kristin

    2013-03-01

    Bunch arrival time monitors (BAMs) are an integral part of the laser-based synchronisation system which is being developed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH).The operation principle comprises the measurement of the electron bunch arrival time relative to the optical timing reference, which is provided by actively length-stabilised fibre-links of the synchronisation system. The monitors are foreseen to be used as a standard diagnostic tool, not only for FLASH but also for the future European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (European XFEL). The present bunch arrival time monitors have evolved from proof-of-principle experiments to beneficial diagnostic devices, which are almost permanently available during standard machine operation. This achievement has been a major objective of this thesis. The developments went in parallel to improvements in the reliable and low-maintenance operation of the optical synchronisation system. The key topics of this thesis comprised the characterisation and optimisation of the opto-mechanical front-ends of both, the fibre-links and the BAMs. The extent of applications involving the bunch arrival time information has been enlarged, providing automated measurements for properties of the RF acceleration modules, for instance, the RF on-crest phase determination and the measurement of energy fluctuations. Furthermore, two of the currently installed BAMs are implemented in an active phase and gradient stabilisation of specific modules in order to minimise the arrival time jitter of the electron bunches at the location of the FEL undulators, which is crucial for a high timing resolution of pump-probe experiments.

  20. Measuring the electron bunch timing with femtosecond resolution at FLASH

    Bock, Marie Kristin

    2013-03-15

    Bunch arrival time monitors (BAMs) are an integral part of the laser-based synchronisation system which is being developed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH).The operation principle comprises the measurement of the electron bunch arrival time relative to the optical timing reference, which is provided by actively length-stabilised fibre-links of the synchronisation system. The monitors are foreseen to be used as a standard diagnostic tool, not only for FLASH but also for the future European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (European XFEL). The present bunch arrival time monitors have evolved from proof-of-principle experiments to beneficial diagnostic devices, which are almost permanently available during standard machine operation. This achievement has been a major objective of this thesis. The developments went in parallel to improvements in the reliable and low-maintenance operation of the optical synchronisation system. The key topics of this thesis comprised the characterisation and optimisation of the opto-mechanical front-ends of both, the fibre-links and the BAMs. The extent of applications involving the bunch arrival time information has been enlarged, providing automated measurements for properties of the RF acceleration modules, for instance, the RF on-crest phase determination and the measurement of energy fluctuations. Furthermore, two of the currently installed BAMs are implemented in an active phase and gradient stabilisation of specific modules in order to minimise the arrival time jitter of the electron bunches at the location of the FEL undulators, which is crucial for a high timing resolution of pump-probe experiments.

  1. Time interval measurement between to emission: a systematics

    Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Mahi, M.; Meslin, C.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Wieloch, A.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic study of the evolution of intervals of fragment emission times as a function of the energy deposited in the compound system was performed. Several measurements, Ne at 60 MeV/u, Ar at 30 and 60 MeV/u and two measurements for Kr at 60 MeV/u (central and semi-peripheral collisions) are presented. In all the experiments the target was Au and the mass of the compounds system was around A = 200. The excitation energies per nucleon reached in the case of these heavy systems cover the range of 3 to 5.5 MeV/u. The method used to determine the emission time intervals is based on the correlation functions associated to the relative angle distributions. The gaps between the data and simulations allow to evaluate the emission times. A rapid decrease of these time intervals was observed when the excitation energy increased. This variation starts at 500 fm/c which corresponds to a sequential emission. This relatively long time which indicates a weak interaction between fragments, corresponds practically to the measurement threshold. The shortest intervals (about 50 fm/c) are associated to a spontaneous multifragmentation and were observed in the case of central collisions at Ar+Au and Kr+Au at 60 MeV/u. Two interpretations are possible. The multifragmentation process might be viewed as a sequential process of very short time-separation or else, one can separate two zones heaving in mind that the multifragmentation is predominant from 4,5 MeV/u excitation energy upwards. This question is still open and its study is under way at LPC. An answer could come from the study of the rupture process of an excited nucleus, notably by the determination of its life-time

  2. Passive Time Coincidence Measurements with HEU and DU Metal Castings

    McConchie, Seth M.; Hausladen, Paul; Mihalczo, John T.; Wright, Michael C.; Archer, Daniel E.

    2008-01-01

    A Department of Energy sponsored Oak Ridge National Laboratory/Y-12 National Security Complex program of passive time coincidence measurements has been initiated at Y-12 to evaluate the ability to determine the presence of high enriched uranium (HEU) and distinguish it from depleted uranium (DU). This program uses the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) without an active interrogation source. Previous passive NMIS measurements with Pu metal and Pu oxide have been successful in determining the Pu mass, assuming a known 240Pu content. The spontaneous fission of uranium metal is considerably lower than Pu and measurements of this type have been performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This work presents results of measurements of HEU and DU metal castings using moderated 3He detectors.

  3. Using Arduino microcontroller boards to measure response latencies.

    Schubert, Thomas W; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Canto, Rosario

    2013-12-01

    Latencies of buttonpresses are a staple of cognitive science paradigms. Often keyboards are employed to collect buttonpresses, but their imprecision and variability decreases test power and increases the risk of false positives. Response boxes and data acquisition cards are precise, but expensive and inflexible, alternatives. We propose using open-source Arduino microcontroller boards as an inexpensive and flexible alternative. These boards connect to standard experimental software using a USB connection and a virtual serial port, or by emulating a keyboard. In our solution, an Arduino measures response latencies after being signaled the start of a trial, and communicates the latency and response back to the PC over a USB connection. We demonstrated the reliability, robustness, and precision of this communication in six studies. Test measures confirmed that the error added to the measurement had an SD of less than 1 ms. Alternatively, emulation of a keyboard results in similarly precise measurement. The Arduino performs as well as a serial response box, and better than a keyboard. In addition, our setup allows for the flexible integration of other sensors, and even actuators, to extend the cognitive science toolbox.

  4. Imaging tools to measure treatment response in gout.

    Dalbeth, Nicola; Doyle, Anthony J

    2018-01-01

    Imaging tests are in clinical use for diagnosis, assessment of disease severity and as a marker of treatment response in people with gout. Various imaging tests have differing properties for assessing the three key disease domains in gout: urate deposition (including tophus burden), joint inflammation and structural joint damage. Dual-energy CT allows measurement of urate deposition and bone damage, and ultrasonography allows assessment of all three domains. Scoring systems have been described that allow radiological quantification of disease severity and these scoring systems may play a role in assessing the response to treatment in gout. This article reviews the properties of imaging tests, describes the available scoring systems for quantification of disease severity and discusses the challenges and controversies regarding the use of imaging tools to measure treatment response in gout. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Variable reflectivity signal mirrors and signal response measurements

    Vine, Glenn de; Shaddock, Daniel A; McClelland, David E

    2002-01-01

    Future gravitational wave detectors will include some form of signal mirror in order to alter the signal response of the device. We introduce interferometer configurations which utilize a variable reflectivity signal mirror allowing a tunable peak frequency and variable signal bandwidth. A detector configured with a Fabry-Perot cavity as the signal mirror is compared theoretically with one using a Michelson interferometer for a signal mirror. A system for the measurement of the interferometer signal responses is introduced. This technique is applied to a power-recycled Michelson interferometer with resonant sideband extraction. We present broadband measurements of the benchtop prototype's signal response for a range of signal cavity detunings. This technique is also applicable to most other gravitational wave detector configurations

  6. Variable reflectivity signal mirrors and signal response measurements

    Vine, G D; McClelland, D E

    2002-01-01

    Future gravitational wave detectors will include some form of signal mirror in order to alter the signal response of the device. We introduce interferometer configurations which utilize a variable reflectivity signal mirror allowing a tunable peak frequency and variable signal bandwidth. A detector configured with a Fabry-Perot cavity as the signal mirror is compared theoretically with one using a Michelson interferometer for a signal mirror. A system for the measurement of the interferometer signal responses is introduced. This technique is applied to a power-recycled Michelson interferometer with resonant sideband extraction. We present broadband measurements of the benchtop prototype's signal response for a range of signal cavity detunings. This technique is also applicable to most other gravitational wave detector configurations.

  7. Methodological issues in measures of imitative reaction times.

    Aicken, Michael D; Wilson, Andrew D; Williams, Justin H G; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2007-04-01

    Ideomotor (IM) theory suggests that observing someone else perform an action activates an internal motor representation of that behaviour within the observer. Evidence supporting the case for an ideomotor theory of imitation has come from studies that show imitative responses to be faster than the same behavioural measures performed in response to spatial cues. In an attempt to replicate these findings, we manipulated the salience of the visual cue and found that we could reverse the advantage of the imitative cue over the spatial cue. We suggest that participants utilised a simple visuomotor mechanism to perform all aspects of this task, with performance being driven by the relative visual salience of the stimuli. Imitation is a more complex motor skill that would constitute an inefficient strategy for rapid performance.

  8. Stochastic Measurement Models for Quantifying Lymphocyte Responses Using Flow Cytometry

    Kan, Andrey; Pavlyshyn, Damian; Markham, John F.; Dowling, Mark R.; Heinzel, Susanne; Zhou, Jie H. S.; Marchingo, Julia M.; Hodgkin, Philip D.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive immune responses are complex dynamic processes whereby B and T cells undergo division and differentiation triggered by pathogenic stimuli. Deregulation of the response can lead to severe consequences for the host organism ranging from immune deficiencies to autoimmunity. Tracking cell division and differentiation by flow cytometry using fluorescent probes is a major method for measuring progression of lymphocyte responses, both in vitro and in vivo. In turn, mathematical modeling of cell numbers derived from such measurements has led to significant biological discoveries, and plays an increasingly important role in lymphocyte research. Fitting an appropriate parameterized model to such data is the goal of these studies but significant challenges are presented by the variability in measurements. This variation results from the sum of experimental noise and intrinsic probabilistic differences in cells and is difficult to characterize analytically. Current model fitting methods adopt different simplifying assumptions to describe the distribution of such measurements and these assumptions have not been tested directly. To help inform the choice and application of appropriate methods of model fitting to such data we studied the errors associated with flow cytometry measurements from a wide variety of experiments. We found that the mean and variance of the noise were related by a power law with an exponent between 1.3 and 1.8 for different datasets. This violated the assumptions inherent to commonly used least squares, linear variance scaling and log-transformation based methods. As a result of these findings we propose a new measurement model that we justify both theoretically, from the maximum entropy standpoint, and empirically using collected data. Our evaluation suggests that the new model can be reliably used for model fitting across a variety of conditions. Our work provides a foundation for modeling measurements in flow cytometry experiments thus

  9. Real-time temperature field measurement based on acoustic tomography

    Bao, Yong; Jia, Jiabin; Polydorides, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic tomography can be used to measure the temperature field from the time-of-flight (TOF). In order to capture real-time temperature field changes and accurately yield quantitative temperature images, two improvements to the conventional acoustic tomography system are studied: simultaneous acoustic transmission and TOF collection along multiple ray paths, and an offline iteration reconstruction algorithm. During system operation, all the acoustic transceivers send modulated and filtered wideband Kasami sequences simultaneously to facilitate fast and accurate TOF measurements using cross-correlation detection. For image reconstruction, the iteration process is separated and executed offline beforehand to shorten computation time for online temperature field reconstruction. The feasibility and effectiveness of the developed methods are validated in the simulation study. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can reduce the processing time per frame from 160 ms to 20 ms, while the reconstruction error remains less than 5%. Hence, the proposed method has great potential in the measurement of rapid temperature change with good temporal and spatial resolution. (paper)

  10. The Measurement and Interpretation of Surface Wave Group Arrival Times

    Masters, G.; Kane, D.; Morrow, J.; Zhou, Y.; Tromp, J.

    2005-12-01

    We have recently developed an efficient technique for measuring the relative group arrival times of surface waves by using cross-correlation and cluster analysis of waveform envelope functions. Applying the analysis to minor arc Love and Rayleigh waves in the frequency band 7 to 35 mHz for all events over magnitude 5.5 results in a dataset of over 200,000 measurements at each frequency for long period Rayleigh waves (frequency less than 25 mHz) and about 100,000 measurements at the shorter periods. Analysis of transverse components results in about half as many Love wave measurements. Simple ray theory inversions of the relative arrival times for apparent group velocity produce maps which are accurate representations of the data (often over 90% variance reduction of the relative arrival times) and which show features strongly correlated with tectonics and crustal thickness. The apparent group velocity variations can be extremely large: 30% velocity variations for 20 mHz Rayleigh waves and 40% variations for 30 mHz Rayleigh waves and can have abrupt lateral changes. This raises the concern that non-ray theory effects could be important. Indeed, a recent analysis by Dahlen and Zhou (personal communication) suggests that the group arrival times should be a functions of both the group velocity AND the phase velocity. The simplest way to test the interpretation of the measurements is to perform the analysis on synthetic seismograms computed for a realistic model of the Earth. Here, we use the SEM with a model which incorporates realistic crust and mantle structure. We are currently computing synthetics for a suite of roughly 1000 events recorded globally that extend to a period of 18 seconds. We shall present the results of applying both ray-based and finite frequency inversions to the synthetic data as well as evaluating the effects of off path propagation at short periods using surface wave ray tracing.

  11. Modal response of interior mass based upon external measurements

    Chow, C T; Eli, M; Jorgensen, B R; Woehrle, T.

    1999-01-01

    Modal response testing has been used to predict the motion of interior masses of a system in which only external instrumentation is allowed. Testing of this form may occasionally be necessary in validation of a computer model, but also has potential as a tool for validating individual assemblies in a QA process. Examination of the external frequency response and mode shapes can offer insight into interior response. The interpretation of these results is improved through parallel analytical solutions. A simple, three-mass model has been examined experimentally and analytically to demonstrate modal theory. These results show the limitations of the external measurement in predicting internal response due to transmissibility. A procedure for utilizing external testing is described. The question posed through this research is whether or not modal correlation analysis can be adapted for use in systems for which instrumentation of critical components is missing

  12. [Measuring nursing care times--methodologic and documentation problems].

    Bartholomeyczik, S; Hunstein, D

    2001-08-01

    The time for needed nursing care is one important measurement as a basic for financing care. In Germany the Long Term Care Insurance (LTCI) reimburses nursing care depending on the time family care givers need to complete selected activities. The LTCI recommends certain time ranges for these activities, which are wholly compensatory, as a basic for assessment. The purpose is to enhance assessment justice and comparability. With the example of a German research project, which had to investigate the duration of these activities and the reasons for differences, questions are raised about some definition and interpretation problems. There are definition problems, since caring activities especially in private households are nearly never performed as clearly defined modules. Moreover, often different activities are performed simultaneously. However, the most important question is what exactly time numbers can say about the essentials of nursing care.

  13. Determination of the response time of pressure transducers using the direct method

    Perillo, S.R.P.

    1994-01-01

    The available methods to determine the response time of nuclear safety related pressure transducers are discussed, with emphasis to the direct method. In order to perform the experiments, a Hydraulic Ramp Generator was built. The equipment produces ramp pressure transients simultaneously to a reference transducer and to the transducer under test. The time lag between the output of the two transducers, when they reach a predetermined setpoint, is measured as the time delay of the transducer under test. Some results using the direct method to determine the time delay of pressure transducers (1 E Class Conventional) are presented. (author). 18 refs, 35 figs, 12 tabs

  14. Real-time measurement and control at Jet. Experiment Control

    Felton, R.; Zabeo, L.; Sartori, F.; Piccolo, F.; Farthing, J.; Budd, T.; Dorling, S.; McCullen, P.; Harling, J.; Dalley, S.; Goodyear, A.; Stephen, A.; Card, P.; Bright, M.; Lucock, R.; Jones, E.; Griph, S.; Hogben, C.; Beldishevski, M.; Buckley, M.; Davis, J.; Young, I.; Hemming, O.; Wheatley, M.; Heesterman, P.; Lloyd, G.; Walters, M.; Bridge, R.; Leggate, H.; Howell, D.; Zastrow, K.D.; Giroud, C.; Coffey, I.; Hawkes, N.; Stamp, M.; Barnsley, R.; Edlington, T.; Guenther, K.; Gowers, C.; Popovichef, S.; Huber, A.; Ingesson, C.; Joffrin, E.; Mazon, D.; Moreau, D.; Murari, A.; Riva, M.; Barana, O.; Bolzonella, T.; Valisa, M.; Innocente, P.; Zerbini, M.; Bosak, K.; Blum, J.; Vitale, E.; Crisanti, F.; La Luna, E. de; Sanchez, J.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past few ears, the preparation of ITER-relevant plasma scenarios has been the main focus experimental activity on tokamaks. The development of integrated, simultaneous, real-time controls of plasma shape, current, pressure, temperature, radiation, neutron profiles, and also impurities, ELMs (edge localized modes) and MHD are now seen to be essential for further development of quasi-steady state conditions with feedback, or the stabilisation of transient phenomena with event-driven actions. For this thrust, the EFDA JET Real Time Project has developed a set of real-time plasma measurements, experiment control, and communication facilities. The Plasma Diagnostics used for real-time experiments are Far Infra Red interferometry, polarimetry, visible, UV and X-ray spectroscopy, LIDAR, bolometry, neutron and magnetics. Further analysis systems produce integrated results such as temperature profiles on geometry derived from MHD equilibrium solutions. The Actuators include toroidal, poloidal and divertor coils, gas and pellet fuelling, neutral beam injection, radiofrequency (ICRH) waves and microwaves (LH). The Heating/Fuelling Operators can either define a power or gas request waveform or select the real-time instantaneous power/gas request from the Real Time Experiment Central Control (RTCC) system. The Real Time Experiment Control system provides both a high-level, control-programming environment and interlocks with the actuators. A MATLAB facility is being developed for the development of more complex controllers. The plasma measurement, controller and plant control systems communicate in ATM network. The EFDA Real Time project is essential groundwork for future reactors such as ITER. It involves many staff from several institutions. The facility is now frequently used in experiments. (authors)

  15. Time course of air hunger mirrors the biphasic ventilatory response to hypoxia.

    Moosavi, S H; Banzett, R B; Butler, J P

    2004-12-01

    Determining response dynamics of hypoxic air hunger may provide information of use in clinical practice and will improve understanding of basic dyspnea mechanisms. It is hypothesized that air hunger arises from projection of reflex brain stem ventilatory drive ("corollary discharge") to forebrain centers. If perceptual response dynamics are unmodified by events between brain stem and cortical awareness, this hypothesis predicts that air hunger will exactly track ventilatory response. Thus, during sustained hypoxia, initial increase in air hunger would be followed by a progressive decline reflecting biphasic reflex ventilatory drive. To test this prediction, we applied a sharp-onset 20-min step of normocapnic hypoxia and compared dynamic response characteristics of air hunger with that of ventilation in 10 healthy subjects. Air hunger was measured during mechanical ventilation (minute ventilation = 9 +/- 1.4 l/min; end-tidal Pco(2) = 37 +/- 2 Torr; end-tidal Po(2) = 45 +/- 7 Torr); ventilatory response was measured during separate free-breathing trials in the same subjects. Discomfort caused by "urge to breathe" was rated every 30 s on a visual analog scale. Both ventilatory and air hunger responses were modeled as delayed double exponentials corresponding to a simple linear first-order response but with a separate first-order adaptation. These models provided adequate fits to both ventilatory and air hunger data (r(2) = 0.88 and 0.66). Mean time constant and time-to-peak response for the average perceptual response (0.36 min(-1) and 3.3 min, respectively) closely matched corresponding values for the average ventilatory response (0.39 min(-1) and 3.1 min). Air hunger response to sustained hypoxia tracked ventilatory drive with a delay of approximately 30 s. Our data provide further support for the corollary discharge hypothesis for air hunger.

  16. Sensor response time calculation with no stationary signals from a Nuclear Power Plant

    Vela, O.; Vallejo, I.

    1998-01-01

    Protection systems in a Nuclear Power Plant have to response in a specific time fixed by design requirements. This time includes the event detection (sensor delay) and the actuation time system. This time is obtained in refuel simulating the physics event, which trigger the protection system, with an electric signal and measuring the protection system actuation time. Nowadays sensor delay is calculated with noise analysis techniques. The signals are measured in Control Room during the normal operation of the Plant, decreasing both the cost in time and personal radioactive exposure. The noise analysis techniques require stationary signals but normally the data collected are mixed with process signals that are no stationary. This work shows the signals processing to avoid no-stationary components using conventional filters and new wavelets analysis. (Author) 2 refs

  17. Measurement of the residence time distribution in industrial flotation equipment

    Yianatos, Juan; Diaz, F; Rodriguez, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    This work presents a determination of the effective liquid and solid residence time in mechanical cell banks of primary and sweep flotation, and in cleaning flotation columns, at Codelco-Chile's Salvador Division. The determination was carried out using the residence time distribution (RTD) measurement with radioactive tracers. Br-82 was used as the trace element for the liquid. Different kinds of minerals were used to trace the solid: a) activated global tailing (non floatable), b) tailing activated by size classifications (non floatable) and c) activated floatable mineral. The residence time measurement defined effective volumes of 50-80% of the total volume in flotation cell banks, and effective volumes of 77% of the total volume of large-size flotation solids. The effective residence time of the solid (23%+212 microns) in industrial flotation cell banks was 5% below that for the liquid. The residence time of the mineral decreased with increased particle size. Thick mineral (>150 microns) showed a residence time 8% below that for thin mineral (<45 microns). The RTD of industrial mechanical cell banks is adequately represented with a number of perfect mixers in series equivalent to the number of real bank cells. The RTD of the industrial columns equals less than two perfect mixers in series and adjusts better when considering a perfect mixers in series model, but in a different size. Common operating problems could also be observed and analyzed through the RTD measurement, such as embankment of the equipment and the deficient regulation of the outflow, used to control the pulp level (Cw)

  18. Time poverty in Brazil: measurement and analysis of its determinants

    Lilian Lopes Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes well-being on an individual level, through the allocation of work hours done by adults and children and thus it measures time poverty in Brazil. In order to achieve such measurement, poverty indicators such as Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT were adapted into a time poverty mode. Additionally, an analysis of its determinants was also conducted. Among other findings, the fact that women (either children and adult ones are the time-poorest individuals in urban or rural areas. Another unfortunate finding is that the high rate of time poverty among children, numerically 16,1% is not far from the adult rate which is of 19,7%. The overall composite time poor individual profile is of an African-Brazilian adult woman of little education, not necessarily income poor and residing in an urban area of the northeast region, living in a household of few people, she is the mother of children who are younger than 14 years old.

  19. Real time operation of a multiple gamma measurement installation

    Philippot, J.C.; Lefevre, J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a multiple measurement channel facility for fine gamma spectrometry, its real time operation, and the new possibilities which it offers. The installation is presented in its twofold electronic and processing aspects, by considering its architecture, its hard and software, and its data processing package. Real time operation requires customized general organization, perfect instantaneous knowledge of the status of all the units, and a sound hierarchy between the various participants, operators as well as requestors. The care inherent in the installation itself and in the definition of its operation explains its new possibilities. (Auth.)

  20. Time-dependent coolant velocity measurements in an operating BWR

    Luebbesmeyer, D.; Crowe, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    A method to measure time-dependent fluid velocities in BWR-bundle elements by noise analysis of the incore-neutron-detector signals is shown. Two application examples of the new method are given. The time behaviour of the fluid velocity in the bundle element during a scheduled power excursion of the plant. The change of power was performed by changing the coolant flow through the core The apparent change of the fluid velocity due to thermal elongation of the helix-drive of the TIP-system. A simplified mathematical model was derived for this elongation to use as a reference to check the validity of the new method. (author)

  1. CFD simulation of homogenisation time measured by radiotracers

    Thyn, J.; Novy, M.; Zitny, R.; Mostik, M.; Jahoda, M.

    2004-01-01

    A methodology for CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation of radiotracer experiments was suggested. The most important parts of the methodology for validation of CFD results by radiotracers are: a) successful simulation of tracer experiment by CFD code (numerical solution of tracer dispersion in a stirred tank), which results in tracer concentration field at several time intervals; b) post-process data treatment, which uses detection chain description and which enables to simulate the detector measurement of homogenisation time from the tracer concentration field evaluated by CFD code. (author)

  2. Density measurements of microsecond-conduction-time POS plasmas

    Hinshelwood, D.; Goodrich, P.J.; Weber, B.V.; Commisso, R.J.; Grossmann, J.M.; Kellogg, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the electron density in a coaxial microsecond conduction time plasma opening switch during switch operation are described. Current conduction is observed to cause a radial redistribution of the switch plasma. A local reduction in axial line density of more than an order of magnitude occurs by the time opening begins. This reduction, and the scaling of conduction current with plasma density, indicate that current conduction in this experiment is limited by hydrodynamic effects. It is hypothesized that the density reduction allows the switch to open by an erosion mechanism. Initial numerical modeling efforts have reproduced the principal observed results. A model that predicts accurately the conduction current is presented

  3. Measurement of the Rise-Time in a Single Sided Ladder Detector

    Gerber, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    In this note we report on the measurement of the preamplifier output rise time for a SVXII chip mounted on a D0 single sided ladder. The measurements were performed on the ladder 001-883-L, using the laser test stand of Lab D. The rise time was measured for different values of the response (or bandwidth) of the preamplifier. As a bigger bandwidth results in longer rise times and therefore in less noise, the largest possible bandwidth consistent with the time between bunch crossings should be chosen to operate the detectors. The rise time is defined as the time elapsed between 10% and 90% of the charge is collected. It is also interesting to measure the time for full charge collection and the percentage of charge collected in 132 ns and 396 ns. The results are shown in table 1, for bandwidths between 2 and 63 (binary numbers). The uncertainty on the time measurement is considered to be ∼ 10 ns. Figure 1 schematically defines the four quantities measured: rise time, time of full charge collection, and percentage of charge collected in 132 ns and 396 ns. Figures 2 to 8 are the actual measurements for bandwidths of 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 32 and 63. Figure 9 is a second measurement for BW=24, used as a consistency check of the system and the time measurement performed on the plots. The data indicate that the single sided ladders can be operated at BW=63 for 396 ns and BW=12 for 132 ns, achieving full charge collection. This will result in smaller noise than originally anticipated.

  4. Three measures of longevity: time trends and record values

    Canudas-Romo, V

    2010-01-01

    at birth increased from a level of 44 years in Sweden in 1840 to 82 years in Japan in 2005. The record median age at death shows increasing patterns similar to those observed in life expectancy at birth. However, the record modal age at death changes very little until the second half of the twentieth......This article examines the trend over time in the measures of “typical” longevity experienced by members of a population: life expectancy at birth, and the median and modal ages at death. The article also analyzes trends in record values observed for all three measures. The record life expectancy...... time from a dominance of child mortality reductions to a dominance of adult mortality reductions, which became evident by studying trends in the record modal age at death....

  5. Coherence measures in automatic time-migration velocity analysis

    Maciel, Jonathas S; Costa, Jessé C; Schleicher, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Time-migration velocity analysis can be carried out automatically by evaluating the coherence of migrated seismic events in common-image gathers (CIGs). The performance of gradient methods for automatic time-migration velocity analysis depends on the coherence measures used as the objective function. We compare the results of four different coherence measures, being conventional semblance, differential semblance, an extended differential semblance using differences of more distant image traces and the product of the latter with conventional semblance. In our numerical experiments, the objective functions based on conventional semblance and on the product of conventional semblance with extended differential semblance provided the best velocity models, as evaluated by the flatness of the resulting CIGs. The method can be easily extended to anisotropic media. (paper)

  6. Discrete time interval measurement system: fundamentals, resolution and errors in the measurement of angular vibrations

    Gómez de León, F C; Meroño Pérez, P A

    2010-01-01

    The traditional method for measuring the velocity and the angular vibration in the shaft of rotating machines using incremental encoders is based on counting the pulses at given time intervals. This method is generically called the time interval measurement system (TIMS). A variant of this method that we have developed in this work consists of measuring the corresponding time of each pulse from the encoder and sampling the signal by means of an A/D converter as if it were an analog signal, that is to say, in discrete time. For this reason, we have denominated this method as the discrete time interval measurement system (DTIMS). This measurement system provides a substantial improvement in the precision and frequency resolution compared with the traditional method of counting pulses. In addition, this method permits modification of the width of some pulses in order to obtain a mark-phase on every lap. This paper explains the theoretical fundamentals of the DTIMS and its application for measuring the angular vibrations of rotating machines. It also displays the required relationship between the sampling rate of the signal, the number of pulses of the encoder and the rotating velocity in order to obtain the required resolution and to delimit the methodological errors in the measurement

  7. The fission time scale measured with an atomic clock

    Kravchuk, VL; Wilschut, HW; Hunyadi, M; Kopecky, S; Lohner, H; Rogachevskiy, A; Siemssen, RH; Krasznahorkay, A; Hamilton, JH; Ramayya, AV; Carter, HK

    2003-01-01

    We present a new direct method of measuring the fission absolute time scale using an atomic clock based on the lifetime of a vacancy in the atomic K-shell. We studied the reaction Ne-20 + Th-232 -> O-16 + U-236* at 30 MeV/u. The excitation energy of about 115 MeV in such a reaction is in the range

  8. Time-resolved spectral measurements above 80 A

    Kauffman, R.L.; Ceglio, N.; Medecki, H.

    1983-01-01

    We have made time-resolved spectral measurements above 80 A from laser-produced plasmas. These are made using a transmission grating spectrograph whose primary components are a cylindrically-curved x-ray mirror for light collection, a transmission grating for spectral dispersions, and an x-ray streak camera for temporal resolution. A description of the instrument and an example of the data are given

  9. Change of Measure between Light Travel Time and Euclidean Distances

    Heymann Y.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cosmological distances is approached using a method based on the propagation of light in an expanding Universe. From the chan ge of measure between Light Travel Time and Euclidean Distances, a formula is deri ved to compute distances as a function of redshift. This formula is identical to Matti g’s formula (with q 0 = 1 / 2 which is based on Friedmann’s equations of general relativi ty.

  10. Time optimization of 90Sr measurements: Sequential measurement of multiple samples during ingrowth of 90Y

    Holmgren, Stina; Tovedal, Annika; Björnham, Oscar; Ramebäck, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to a more rapid determination of a series of samples containing 90 Sr by making the Cherenkov measurement of the daughter nuclide 90 Y more time efficient. There are many instances when an optimization of the measurement method might be favorable, such as; situations requiring rapid results in order to make urgent decisions or, on the other hand, to maximize the throughput of samples in a limited available time span. In order to minimize the total analysis time, a mathematical model was developed which calculates the time of ingrowth as well as individual measurement times for n samples in a series. This work is focused on the measurement of 90 Y during ingrowth, after an initial chemical separation of strontium, in which it is assumed that no other radioactive strontium isotopes are present. By using a fixed minimum detectable activity (MDA) and iterating the measurement time for each consecutive sample the total analysis time will be less, compared to using the same measurement time for all samples. It was found that by optimization, the total analysis time for 10 samples can be decreased greatly, from 21 h to 6.5 h, when assuming a MDA of 1 Bq/L and at a background count rate of approximately 0.8 cpm. - Highlights: • An approach roughly a factor of three more efficient than an un-optimized method. • The optimization gives a more efficient use of instrument time. • The efficiency increase ranges from a factor of three to 10, for 10 to 40 samples.

  11. NOTE ON TRAVEL TIME SHIFTS DUE TO AMPLITUDE MODULATION IN TIME-DISTANCE HELIOSEISMOLOGY MEASUREMENTS

    Nigam, R.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    Correct interpretation of acoustic travel times measured by time-distance helioseismology is essential to get an accurate understanding of the solar properties that are inferred from them. It has long been observed that sunspots suppress p-mode amplitude, but its implications on travel times have not been fully investigated so far. It has been found in test measurements using a 'masking' procedure, in which the solar Doppler signal in a localized quiet region of the Sun is artificially suppressed by a spatial function, and using numerical simulations that the amplitude modulations in combination with the phase-speed filtering may cause systematic shifts of acoustic travel times. To understand the properties of this procedure, we derive an analytical expression for the cross-covariance of a signal that has been modulated locally by a spatial function that has azimuthal symmetry and then filtered by a phase-speed filter typically used in time-distance helioseismology. Comparing this expression to the Gabor wavelet fitting formula without this effect, we find that there is a shift in the travel times that is introduced by the amplitude modulation. The analytical model presented in this paper can be useful also for interpretation of travel time measurements for the non-uniform distribution of oscillation amplitude due to observational effects.

  12. Comparing Response Times and Error Rates in a Simultaneous Masking Paradigm

    F Hermens

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In simultaneous masking, performance on a foveally presented target is impaired by one or more flanking elements. Previous studies have demonstrated strong effects of the grouping of the target and the flankers on the strength of masking (e.g., Malania, Herzog & Westheimer, 2007. These studies have predominantly examined performance by measuring offset discrimination thresholds as a measure of performance, and it is therefore unclear whether other measures of performance provide similar outcomes. A recent study, which examined the role of grouping on error rates and response times in a speeded vernier offset discrimination task, similar to that used by Malania et al. (2007, suggested a possible dissociation between the two measures, with error rates mimicking threshold performance, but response times showing differential results (Panis & Hermens, 2014. We here report the outcomes of three experiments examining this possible dissociation, and demonstrate an overall similar pattern of results for error rates and response times across a broad range of mask layouts. Moreover, the pattern of results in our experiments strongly correlates with threshold performance reported earlier (Malania et al., 2007. Our results suggest that outcomes in a simultaneous masking paradigm do not critically depend on the outcome measure used, and therefore provide evidence for a common underlying mechanism.

  13. Community Building at the Time of Nargis: The ASEAN Response

    Julio Santiago Amador III

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclone Nargis was one of the most powerful disasters to hit Myanmar and Southeast Asia. Myanmar was criticized internationally for its allegedly slow effort in allowing international aid to enter into the country. This paper examines the criticism levelled against the ASEAN for its slow response in providing aid to the beleaguered in Myanmar and relates that criticism to ASEAN’s disaster management policy. It focuses on ASEAN’s engagement with Myanmar in order to allow humanitarian aid to flow into the country. The paper suggests that in time ASEAN will have to move from its doctrine of non-intervention in the affairs of a sovereign state to one of non-indifference if it wishes to remain relevant. Ultimately, ASEAN will have to re-evaluate its own goals in order to be a more successful apparatus for interstate and regional affairs, especially with respect to humanitarian crises brought about by natural disasters.

  14. Study of calculated and measured time dependent delayed neutron yields

    Waldo, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    Time-dependent delayed neutron emission is of interest in reactor design, reactor dynamics, and nuclear physics studies. The delayed neutrons from neutron-induced fission of 232 U, 237 Np, 238 Pu, 241 Am, /sup 242m/Am, 245 Cm, and 249 Cf were studied for the first time. The delayed neutron emission from 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu, and 242 Pu were measured as well. The data were used to develop an empirical expression for the total delayed neutron yield. The expression gives accurate results for a large variety of nuclides from 232 Th to 252 Cf. The data measuring the decay of delayed neutrons with time were used to derive another empirical expression predicting the delayed neutron emission with time. It was found that nuclides with similar mass-to-charge ratios have similar decay patterns. Thus the relative decay pattern of one nuclide can be established by any measured nuclide with a similar mass-to-charge ratio. A simple fission product yield model was developed and applied to delayed neutron precursors. It accurately predicts observed yield and decay characteristics. In conclusion, it is possible to not only estimate the total delayed neutron yield for a given nuclide but the time-dependent nature of the delayed neutrons as well. Reactors utilizing recycled fuel or burning actinides are likely to have inventories of fissioning nuclides that have not been studied until now. The delayed neutrons from these nuclides can now be incorporated so that their influence on the stability and control of reactors can be delineated. 8 figures, 39 tables

  15. Delayed system response times affect immediate physiology and the dynamics of subsequent button press behavior.

    Kohrs, Christin; Hrabal, David; Angenstein, Nicole; Brechmann, André

    2014-11-01

    System response time research is an important issue in human-computer interactions. Experience with technical devices and general rules of human-human interactions determine the user's expectation, and any delay in system response time may lead to immediate physiological, emotional, and behavioral consequences. We investigated such effects on a trial-by-trial basis during a human-computer interaction by measuring changes in skin conductance (SC), heart rate (HR), and the dynamics of button press responses. We found an increase in SC and a deceleration of HR for all three delayed system response times (0.5, 1, 2 s). Moreover, the data on button press dynamics was highly informative since subjects repeated a button press with more force in response to delayed system response times. Furthermore, the button press dynamics could distinguish between correct and incorrect decisions and may thus even be used to infer the uncertainty of a user's decision. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  16. Electromagnet Response Time Tests on Primary CRDM of a Prototype Gen-IV SFR

    Lee, Jae-Han; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the electromagnetic response characteristics of the electromagnet of a primary control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) used for the reactor scram function. The test measures the electromagnet response time required to release an armature from a stator controlled by a loss of an electromagnetic force on an armature after shorting a power supply to an electromagnet coil. These tests are carried out while changing the electromagnet core material, an assist spring, and an armature holding current. The main factors influencing the test parameters on the response are found to be the armature holding current for holding the armature loads, and the material type of the electromagnet cores. The minimum response time is 0.13 seconds in the case of using SS410 material as an armature, while the S10C material as an armature has a response time of 0.21 seconds. Electromagnet response time characteristics from the test results will be evaluated by comparing the precise moving data of an electromagnet armature through the use of a high-speed camera and a potentiometer in the future

  17. QUERY RESPONSE TIME COMPARISON NOSQLDB MONGODB WITH SQLDB ORACLE

    Humasak T. A. Simanjuntak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penyimpanan data saat ini terdapat dua jenis yakni relational database dan non-relational database. Kedua jenis DBMS (Database Managemnet System tersebut berbeda dalam berbagai aspek seperti per-formansi eksekusi query, scalability, reliability maupun struktur penyimpanan data. Kajian ini memiliki tujuan untuk mengetahui perbandingan performansi DBMS antara Oracle sebagai jenis relational data-base dan MongoDB sebagai jenis non-relational database dalam mengolah data terstruktur. Eksperimen dilakukan untuk mengetahui perbandingan performansi kedua DBMS tersebut untuk operasi insert, select, update dan delete dengan menggunakan query sederhana maupun kompleks pada database Northwind. Untuk mencapai tujuan eksperimen, 18 query yang terdiri dari 2 insert query, 10 select query, 2 update query dan 2 delete query dieksekusi. Query dieksekusi melalui sebuah aplikasi .Net yang dibangun sebagai perantara antara user dengan basis data. Eksperimen dilakukan pada tabel dengan atau tanpa relasi pada Oracle dan embedded atau bukan embedded dokumen pada MongoDB. Response time untuk setiap eksekusi query dibandingkan dengan menggunakan metode statistik. Eksperimen menunjukkan response time query untuk proses select, insert, dan update pada MongoDB lebih cepatdaripada Oracle. MongoDB lebih cepat 64.8 % untuk select query;MongoDB lebihcepat 72.8 % untuk insert query dan MongoDB lebih cepat 33.9 % untuk update query. Pada delete query, Oracle lebih cepat 96.8 % daripada MongoDB untuk table yang berelasi, tetapi MongoDB lebih cepat 83.8 % daripada Oracle untuk table yang tidak memiliki relasi.Untuk query kompleks dengan Map Reduce pada MongoDB lebih lambat 97.6% daripada kompleks query dengan aggregate function pada Oracle.

  18. Capital and time: uncertainty and qualitative measures of inequality.

    Bear, Laura

    2014-12-01

    This review compares Piketty and Marx's approaches to capital and time in order to argue for the importance of qualitative measures of inequality. These latter measures emphasize varying experiences across classes and through history of uncertainty and insecurity. They explore how the social rhythms of capital profoundly affect the ability to plan a life-course. Quantitative measures such as those used by Piketty that focus on the amount of capital that accrues through time cannot capture such important phenomenon. This is especially because their calculations rest on absolute amounts of capital recorded in formal state statistics. Their limits are particularly revealed if we consider issues of: informal labour, social reproduction, and changing institutional forms of public debt. If we are to build the inter-disciplinary rapprochement between social science and economics that Piketty calls for it must be through asserting the value of qualitative measures of insecurity and its effects on decision making. These are important to track both at the macro-level of institutions and at the micro-level scale of human lives. It is, therefore, through emphasizing the existing strengths of both anthropology and history that we can meet Piketty's important challenge to make our scholarship relevant to current political and social debates. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  19. Taiwan's Travel and Border Health Measures in Response to Zika.

    Ho, Li-Li; Tsai, Yu-Hui; Lee, Wang-Ping; Liao, Szu-Tsai; Wu, Li-Gin; Wu, Yi-Chun

    Zika virus has recently emerged as a worldwide public health concern. Travel and border health measures stand as one of the main strategies and frontline defenses in responding to international epidemics. As of October 31, 2016, Taiwan has reported 13 imported cases, 5 of which were detected through routine entry screening and active monitoring at international airports. This article shares Taiwan's disease surveillance activities at designated points of entry and travel and border health measures in response to Zika. The Taiwan government collaborates with its tourism industry to disseminate information about precautionary measures and encourages tour guides to report suspected individuals or events to activate early response measures. Taiwan also engages in vector control activities at points of entry, including targeting aircraft from countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic, implementing mosquito sweep measures, and collecting vector surveillance data. In future emerging and reemerging disease events, entry surveillance at designated points of entry may enable early detection of diseases of international origin and more rapid activation of public health preparedness activities and international collaboration. Taiwan will continue to maximize border and travel health measures in compliance with IHR (2005) requirements, which rely on continued risk assessment, practical implementation activities, and engagement with all stakeholders.

  20. Taiwan's Travel and Border Health Measures in Response to Zika

    Ho, Li-Li; Tsai, Yu-Hui; Lee, Wang-Ping; Liao, Szu-Tsai; Wu, Li-Gin

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus has recently emerged as a worldwide public health concern. Travel and border health measures stand as one of the main strategies and frontline defenses in responding to international epidemics. As of October 31, 2016, Taiwan has reported 13 imported cases, 5 of which were detected through routine entry screening and active monitoring at international airports. This article shares Taiwan's disease surveillance activities at designated points of entry and travel and border health measures in response to Zika. The Taiwan government collaborates with its tourism industry to disseminate information about precautionary measures and encourages tour guides to report suspected individuals or events to activate early response measures. Taiwan also engages in vector control activities at points of entry, including targeting aircraft from countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic, implementing mosquito sweep measures, and collecting vector surveillance data. In future emerging and reemerging disease events, entry surveillance at designated points of entry may enable early detection of diseases of international origin and more rapid activation of public health preparedness activities and international collaboration. Taiwan will continue to maximize border and travel health measures in compliance with IHR (2005) requirements, which rely on continued risk assessment, practical implementation activities, and engagement with all stakeholders. PMID:28418744

  1. Simplified scintigraphic methods for measuring gastrointestinal transit times

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2000-01-01

    To investigate whether simple transit measurements based on scintigraphy performed only 0, 2, 4 and 24 h after intake of a radiolabelled meal can be used to predict the mean transit time values for the stomach, the small intestine, and the colon, a study was conducted in 16 healthy volunteers....... After ingestion of a meal containing 111indium-labelled water and 99mtechnetium-labelled omelette, imaging was performed at intervals of 30 min until all radioactivity was located in the colon and henceforth at intervals of 24 h until all radioactivity had cleared from the colon. Gastric, small...... intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated for both markers and compared with fractional gastric emptying at 2 h, fractional colonic filling at 4 h, and geometric centre of colonic content at 24 h, respectively. Highly significant correlations were found between gastric mean transit time...

  2. Comparison study of time history and response spectrum responses for multiply supported piping systems

    Wang, Y.K.; Subudhi, M.; Bezler, P.

    1983-01-01

    In the past decade, several investigators have studied the problem of independent support excitation of a multiply supported piping system to identify the real need for such an analysis. This approach offers an increase in accuracy at a small increase in computational costs. To assess the method, studies based on the response spectrum approach using independent support motions for each group of commonly connected supports were performed. The results obtained from this approach were compared with the conventional envelope spectrum and time history solutions. The present study includes a mathematical formulation of the independent support motion analysis method suitable for implementation into an existing all purpose piping code PSAFE2 and a comparison of the solutions for some typical piping system using both Time History and Response Spectrum Methods. The results obtained from the Response Spectrum Methods represent the upper bound solution at most points in the piping system. Similarly, the Seismic Anchor Movement analysis based on the SRP method over predicts the responses near the support points and under predicts at points away from the supports

  3. Time response prediction of Brazilian Nuclear Power Plant temperature sensors using neural networks

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos; Pereira, Iraci Martinez, E-mail: rcsantos@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents the results of the time constants values predicted from ANN using Angra I Brazilian nuclear power plant data. The signals obtained from LCSR loop current step response test sensors installed in the process presents noise end fluctuations that are inherent of operational conditions. Angra I nuclear power plant has 20 RTDs as part of the protection reactor system. The results were compared with those obtained from traditional way. Primary coolant RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detector) typically feed the plant's control and safety systems and must, therefore, be very accurate and have good dynamic performance. An in-situ test method called LCSR - loop current step response test was developed to measure remotely the response time of RTDs. In the LCSR method, the response time of the sensor is identified by means of the LCSR transformation that involves the dynamic response modal time constants determination using a nodal heat transfer model. For this reason, this calculation is not simple and requires specialized personnel. This work combines the two methodologies, Plunge test and LCSR test, using neural networks. With the use of neural networks it will not be necessary to use the LCSR transformation to determine sensor's time constant and this leads to more robust results. (author)

  4. Time response prediction of Brazilian Nuclear Power Plant temperature sensors using neural networks

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos; Pereira, Iraci Martinez

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the time constants values predicted from ANN using Angra I Brazilian nuclear power plant data. The signals obtained from LCSR loop current step response test sensors installed in the process presents noise end fluctuations that are inherent of operational conditions. Angra I nuclear power plant has 20 RTDs as part of the protection reactor system. The results were compared with those obtained from traditional way. Primary coolant RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detector) typically feed the plant's control and safety systems and must, therefore, be very accurate and have good dynamic performance. An in-situ test method called LCSR - loop current step response test was developed to measure remotely the response time of RTDs. In the LCSR method, the response time of the sensor is identified by means of the LCSR transformation that involves the dynamic response modal time constants determination using a nodal heat transfer model. For this reason, this calculation is not simple and requires specialized personnel. This work combines the two methodologies, Plunge test and LCSR test, using neural networks. With the use of neural networks it will not be necessary to use the LCSR transformation to determine sensor's time constant and this leads to more robust results. (author)

  5. Comparison of reliability and responsiveness of patient-reported clinical outcome measures in knee osteoarthritis rehabilitation.

    Williams, Valerie J; Piva, Sara R; Irrgang, James J; Crossley, Chad; Fitzgerald, G Kelley

    2012-08-01

    Secondary analysis, pretreatment-posttreatment observational study. To compare the reliability and responsiveness of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Knee Outcome Survey activities of daily living subscale (KOS-ADL), and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The WOMAC is the current standard in patient-reported measures of function in patients with knee OA. The KOS-ADL and LEFS were designed for potential use in patients with knee OA. If the KOS-ADL and LEFS are to be considered viable alternatives to the WOMAC for measuring patient-reported function in individuals with knee OA, they should have measurement properties comparable to the WOMAC. It would also be important to determine whether either of these instruments may be superior to the WOMAC in terms of reliability or responsiveness in this population. Data from 168 subjects with knee OA, who participated in a rehabilitation program, were used in the analyses. Reliability and responsiveness of each outcome measure were estimated at follow-ups of 2, 6, and 12 months. Reliability was estimated by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) for subjects who were unchanged in status from baseline at each follow-up time, based on a global rating of change score. To examine responsiveness, the standard error of the measurement, minimal detectable change, minimal clinically important difference, and the Guyatt responsiveness index were calculated for each outcome measure at each follow-up time. All 3 outcome measures demonstrated reasonable reliability and responsiveness to change. Reliability and responsiveness tended to decrease somewhat with increasing follow-up time. There were no substantial differences between outcome measures for reliability or any of the 3 measures of responsiveness at any follow-up time. The results do not indicate that one outcome measure is more reliable or responsive than

  6. Computation Offloading for Frame-Based Real-Time Tasks under Given Server Response Time Guarantees

    Anas S. M. Toma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Computation offloading has been adopted to improve the performance of embedded systems by offloading the computation of some tasks, especially computation-intensive tasks, to servers or clouds. This paper explores computation offloading for real-time tasks in embedded systems, provided given response time guarantees from the servers, to decide which tasks should be offloaded to get the results in time. We consider frame-based real-time tasks with the same period and relative deadline. When the execution order of the tasks is given, the problem can be solved in linear time. However, when the execution order is not specified, we prove that the problem is NP-complete. We develop a pseudo-polynomial-time algorithm for deriving feasible schedules, if they exist.  An approximation scheme is also developed to trade the error made from the algorithm and the complexity. Our algorithms are extended to minimize the period/relative deadline of the tasks for performance maximization. The algorithms are evaluated with a case study for a surveillance system and synthesized benchmarks.

  7. Ultrafast time measurements by time-correlated single photon counting coupled with superconducting single photon detector

    Shcheslavskiy, V., E-mail: vis@becker-hickl.de; Becker, W. [Becker & Hickl GmbH, Nahmitzer Damm 30, 12277 Berlin (Germany); Morozov, P.; Divochiy, A. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Vakhtomin, Yu. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1/1 M. Pirogovskaya St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Smirnov, K. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1/1 M. Pirogovskaya St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, 20 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    Time resolution is one of the main characteristics of the single photon detectors besides quantum efficiency and dark count rate. We demonstrate here an ultrafast time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) setup consisting of a newly developed single photon counting board SPC-150NX and a superconducting NbN single photon detector with a sensitive area of 7 × 7 μm. The combination delivers a record instrument response function with a full width at half maximum of 17.8 ps and system quantum efficiency ∼15% at wavelength of 1560 nm. A calculation of the root mean square value of the timing jitter for channels with counts more than 1% of the peak value yielded about 7.6 ps. The setup has also good timing stability of the detector–TCSPC board.

  8. Timely resolved measurements on CdSe nanoparticles

    Holt, B.E. von

    2006-01-01

    By means of infrared spectroscopy the influence of the organic cover on structure and dynamics of CdSe nanoparticles was studied. First a procedure was developed, which allows to get from the static infrared spectrum informations on the quality of the organic cover and the binding behaviour of the ligands. On qualitatively high-grade and well characterized samples thereafter the dynamics of the lowest-energy electron level 1S e was time-resolvedly meausred in thew visible range. As reference served CdSe TOPO, which was supplemented by samples with the ligands octanthiole, octanic acid, octylamine, naphthoquinone, benzoquinone, and pyridine. The studied nanoparticles had a diameter of 4.86 nm. By means of the excitation-scanning or pump=probe procedure first measurements in the picosecond range were performed. The excitation wavelengths were thereby spectrally confined and so chosen that selectively the transitions 1S 3/2 -1S-e and 1P 3/2 -1P e but not the intermediately lyingt transition 2S 3/2 -1S e were excited. The excitation energies were kept so low that the excitation of several excitons in one crystal could be avoided. The scanning wavelength in the infrared corresponded to the energy difference between the electron levels 1S e and 1P e . The transients in the picosecond range are marked by a steep increasement of the signal, on which a multi-exponential decay follows. The increasement, which reproduces the popiulation of the excited state, isa inependent on the choice of the ligands. The influence of the organic cover is first visible in the different decay times of the excited electron levels. the decay of the measurement signal of CdSe TOPO can be approximatively described by three time constants: a decay constant in the early picosecond region, a time constant around hundert picoseconds, and a time constant of some nanoseconds. At increasing scanning wavelength the decay constants become longer. By directed excitation of the 1S 3/2 -1S e and the 1P 3

  9. Lichen Parmelia sulcata time response model to environmental elemental availability

    Reis, M.A.; Alves, L.C.; Freitas, M.C.; Os, B. van; Wolterbeek, H.Th.

    2000-01-01

    Transplants of lichen Parmelia sulcata collected in an area previously identified as non polluted, were placed at six stations, five of which were near Power Plants and the other in an area expected to be a remote station. Together with the lichen transplants, two total deposition collection buckets and an aerosol sampler were installed. Lichens were recollected two every month from each station. At the same time the water collection buckets were replaced by new ones. The aerosol sampler filter was replaced every week, collection being effective only for 10 minutes out of every two hours; in the remote station aerosol filters were replaced only once a month, the collection rate being kept. Each station was run for a period of one year. Both lichens and aerosol filters were analysed by PIXE and INAA at ITN. Total deposition samples were dried under an infrared lamp, and afterwards acid digested and analysed by ICP-MS at the National Geological Survey of The Netherlands. Data for the three types of samples were then produced for a total of 16 elements. In this work we used the data set thus obtained to test a model for the time response of lichen Parmelia sulcata to a new environment. (author)

  10. A Time-Measurement System Based on Isotopic Ratios

    Vo, Duc T.; Karpius, P.J.; MacArthur, D.W.; Thron, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    A time-measurement system can be built based on the ratio of gamma-ray peak intensities from two radioactive isotopes. The ideal system would use a parent isotope with a short half-life decaying to a long half-life daughter. The activities of the parent-daughter isotopes would be measured using a gamma-ray detector system. The time can then be determined from the ratio of the activities. The best-known candidate for such a system is the 241 Pu- 241 Am parent-daughter pair. However, this 241 Pu- 241 Am system would require a high-purity germanium detector system and sophisticated software to separate and distinguish between the many gamma-ray peaks produced by the decays of the two isotopes. An alternate system would use two different isotopes, again one with a short half-life and one with a half-life that is long relative to the other. The pair of isotopes 210 Pb and 241 Am (with half-lives of 22 and 432 years, respectively) appears suitable for such a system. This time-measurement system operates by measuring the change in the ratio of the 47-keV peak of 210 Pb to the 60-keV peak of 241 Am. For the system to work reasonably well, the resolution of the detector would need to be such that the two gamma-ray peaks are well separated so that their peak areas can be accurately determined using a simple region-of-interest (ROI) method. A variety of detectors were tested to find a suitable system for this application. The results of these tests are presented here.

  11. Effect of time of day on performance, hormonal and metabolic response during a 1000-M cycling time trial.

    Alan Lins Fernandes

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of time of day on performance, pacing, and hormonal and metabolic responses during a 1000-m cycling time-trial. Nine male, recreational cyclists visited the laboratory four times. During the 1st visit the participants performed an incremental test and during the 2nd visit they performed a 1000-m cycling familiarization trial. On the 3rd and 4th visits, the participants performed a 1000-m TT at either 8 am or 6 pm, in randomized, repeated-measures, crossover design. The time to complete the time trial was lower in the evening than in the morning (88.2±8.7 versus 94.7±10.9 s, respectively, p0.05, but the norepinephrine response to the exercise was increased in the morning (+46%, p0.05. Our findings suggest that performance was improved in the evening, and it was accompanied by an improved hormonal and metabolic milieu.

  12. Response probability and response time: a straight line, the Tagging/Retagging interpretation of short term memory, an operational definition of meaningfulness and short term memory time decay and search time.

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2008-12-01

    The functional relationship between correct response probability and response time is investigated in data sets from Rubin, Hinton and Wenzel, J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 25:1161-1176, 1999 and Anderson, J Exp Psychol [Hum Learn] 7:326-343, 1981. The two measures are linearly related through stimulus presentation lags from 0 to 594 s in the former experiment and for repeated learning of words in the latter. The Tagging/Retagging interpretation of short term memory is introduced to explain this linear relationship. At stimulus presentation the words are tagged. This tagging level drops slowly with time. When a probe word is reintroduced the tagging level has to increase for the word to be properly identified leading to a delay in response time. The tagging time is related to the meaningfulness of the words used-the more meaningful the word the longer the tagging time. After stimulus presentation the tagging level drops in a logarithmic fashion to 50% after 10 s and to 20% after 240 s. The incorrect recall and recognition times saturate in the Rubin et al. data set (they are not linear for large time lags), suggesting a limited time to search the short term memory structure: the search time for recall of unusual words is 1.7 s. For recognition of nonsense words the corresponding time is about 0.4 s, similar to the 0.243 s found in Cavanagh (1972).

  13. Quantum trajectories and measurements in continuous time. The diffusive case

    Barchielli, Alberto; Gregoratti, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    This course-based monograph introduces the reader to the theory of continuous measurements in quantum mechanics and provides some benchmark applications. The approach chosen, quantum trajectory theory, is based on the stochastic Schroedinger and master equations, which determine the evolution of the a-posteriori state of a continuously observed quantum system and give the distribution of the measurement output. The present introduction is restricted to finite-dimensional quantum systems and diffusive outputs. Two appendices introduce the tools of probability theory and quantum measurement theory which are needed for the theoretical developments in the first part of the book. First, the basic equations of quantum trajectory theory are introduced, with all their mathematical properties, starting from the existence and uniqueness of their solutions. This makes the text also suitable for other applications of the same stochastic differential equations in different fields such as simulations of master equations or dynamical reduction theories. In the next step the equivalence between the stochastic approach and the theory of continuous measurements is demonstrated. To conclude the theoretical exposition, the properties of the output of the continuous measurement are analyzed in detail. This is a stochastic process with its own distribution, and the reader will learn how to compute physical quantities such as its moments and its spectrum. In particular this last concept is introduced with clear and explicit reference to the measurement process. The two-level atom is used as the basic prototype to illustrate the theory in a concrete application. Quantum phenomena appearing in the spectrum of the fluorescence light, such as Mollow's triplet structure, squeezing of the fluorescence light, and the linewidth narrowing, are presented. Last but not least, the theory of quantum continuous measurements is the natural starting point to develop a feedback control theory in

  14. Measuring and managing radiologist workload: measuring radiologist reporting times using data from a Radiology Information System

    Cowan, Ian A.; MacDonald, Sharon L.S.; Floyd, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, there has been no objective method of measuring the time required for radiologists to produce reports during normal work. We have created a technique for semi-automated measurement of radiologist reporting time, and through it produced a robust set of absolute time requirements and relative value units for consultant reporting of diagnostic examinations in our hospital. A large sample of reporting times, recorded automatically by the Radiology Information System (COMRAD, Software Innovations, Christchurch, New Zealand) along with the description of each examination being reported, was placed in a database. Analysis was confined to diagnostic reporting by consultant radiologists. A spreadsheet was produced, listing the total number and the frequency of reporting times of each distinct examination. Outliers with exceptionally long report times (more than 10min for plain radiography, 30min for ultrasound, or 60min for CT or MRI with some exceptions) were culled; this removed 9.5% of the total. Complex CTs requiring separate workstation time were assigned times by consensus. The median time for the remainder of each sample was the assigned absolute reporting time in minutes and seconds. Relative value units were calculated using the reporting time for a single view department chest X-ray of 1min 38s including verifying a report made using speech recognition software. A schedule of absolute and relative values, based on over 179,000 reports, forms Table 2 of this paper. The technique provides a schedule of reporting times with reduced subjective input, which is more robust than existing systems for measuring reporting time.

  15. Reclaiming Spare Capacity and Improving Aperiodic Response Times in Real-Time Environments

    Liu Xue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scheduling recurring task sets that allow some instances of the tasks to be skipped produces holes in the schedule which are nonuniformly distributed. Similarly, when the recurring tasks are not strictly periodic but are sporadic, there is extra processor bandwidth arising because of irregular job arrivals. The additional computation capacity that results from skips or sporadic tasks can be reclaimed to service aperiodic task requests efficiently and quickly. We present techniques for improving the response times of aperiodic tasks by identifying nonuniformly distributed spare capacity—because of skips or sporadic tasks—in the schedule and adding such extra capacity to the capacity queue of a BASH server. These gaps can account for a significant portion of aperiodic capacity, and their reclamation results in considerable improvement to aperiodic response times. We present two schemes: NCLB-CBS, which performs well in periodic real-time environments with firm tasks, and NCLB-CUS, which can be deployed when the basic task set to schedule is sporadic. Evaluation via simulations and implementation suggests that performance improvements for aperiodic tasks can be obtained with limited additional overhead.

  16. Characterization of irradiated APDs for picosecond time measurements

    Centis Vignali, M.; Dalal, R.; Gallinaro, M.; Harrop, B.; Jain, G.; Lu, C.; McClish, M.; McDonald, K. T.; Moll, M.; Newcomer, F. M.; Ugobono, S. Otero; White, S.

    2018-01-01

    For their operation at the CERN High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), the ATLAS and CMS experiments are planning to implement dedicated systems to measure the time of arrival of minimum ionizing particles with an accuracy of about 30 ps. The timing detectors will be subjected to radiation levels corresponding up to a 1-MeV neutrons fluence (Φeq) of 1015 cm-2 for the goal integrated luminosity of HL-LHC of 3000 fb-1. In this paper, deep-diffused Avalanche Photo Diodes (APDs) produced by Radiation Monitoring Devices are examined as candidate timing detectors for HL-LHC applications. These APDs are operated at 1.8 kV, resulting in a gain of up to 500. The timing performance of the detectors is evaluated using a pulsed laser. The effects of radiation damage on current, signal amplitude, noise, and timing performance of the APDs are evaluated using detectors irradiated with neutrons up to Φeq = 1015 cm-2.

  17. Frequency-dependent effects of background noise on subcortical response timing.

    Tierney, A; Parbery-Clark, A; Skoe, E; Kraus, N

    2011-12-01

    The addition of background noise to an auditory signal delays brainstem response timing. This effect has been extensively documented using manual peak selection. Peak picking, however, is impractical for large-scale studies of spectrotemporally complex stimuli, and leaves open the question of whether noise-induced delays are frequency-dependent or occur across the frequency spectrum. Here we use an automated, objective method to examine phase shifts between auditory brainstem responses to a speech sound (/da/) presented with and without background noise. We predicted that shifts in neural response timing would also be reflected in frequency-specific phase shifts. Our results indicate that the addition of background noise causes phase shifts across the subcortical response spectrum (70-1000 Hz). However, this noise-induced delay is not uniform such that some frequency bands show greater shifts than others: low-frequency phase shifts (300-500 Hz) are largest during the response to the consonant-vowel formant transition (/d/), while high-frequency shifts (720-1000 Hz) predominate during the response to the steady-state vowel (/a/). Most importantly, phase shifts occurring in specific frequency bands correlate strongly with shifts in the latencies of the predominant peaks in the auditory brainstem response, while phase shifts in other frequency bands do not. This finding confirms the validity of phase shift detection as an objective measure of timing differences and reveals that this method detects noise-induced shifts in timing that may not be captured by traditional peak latency measurements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of non-white noises in pulse amplitude measurements: a time-domain approach

    Pullia, A.

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of the 1/f-noise to the spectral line broadening in pulse amplitude measurements is derived with a time-domain analysis. The known time-domain relationships which provide the contributions of the series and parallel white noises are generalised for the case of 1/f and other typical non-white noises, by using the fractional derivative of either the system impulse response (time-invariant linear filters) or its weight function folded (time-variant linear filters). It is shown that a time-domain approach is also effective to determine the contribution of Lorentzian noises. A simple rule suitable to derive numerically the fractional derivative is given, which permits to calculate the effect of non-white noises even when the filter impulse response is not known analytically but only in sampled form. (orig.)

  19. Ignition delay time measurements of primary reference fuel blends

    Alabbad, Mohammed

    2017-02-07

    Ignition delay times of four different primary reference fuels (PRF), mixtures of n-heptane and iso-octane, were measured behind reflected shock waves in a high-pressure shock tube facility. The PRFs were formulated to match the RON of two high-octane gasolines (RON 95 and 91) and two prospective low-octane naphtha fuels (RON 80 and 70). Experiments were carried out over a wide range of temperatures (700–1200K), pressures (10, 20, and 40bar) and equivalence ratios (0.5 and 1). Kinetic modeling predictions from four chemical kinetic mechanisms are compared with the experimental data. Ignition delay correlations are developed to reproduce the measured ignition delay times. Brute force sensitivity analyses are carried out to identify reactions that affect ignition delay times at specific temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio. The large experimental data set provided in the current work will serve as a benchmark for the validation of chemical kinetic mechanisms of primary reference fuel blends.

  20. Ignition delay time measurements of primary reference fuel blends

    Alabbad, Mohammed; Javed, Tamour; Khaled, Fathi; Badra, Jihad; Farooq, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    Ignition delay times of four different primary reference fuels (PRF), mixtures of n-heptane and iso-octane, were measured behind reflected shock waves in a high-pressure shock tube facility. The PRFs were formulated to match the RON of two high-octane gasolines (RON 95 and 91) and two prospective low-octane naphtha fuels (RON 80 and 70). Experiments were carried out over a wide range of temperatures (700–1200K), pressures (10, 20, and 40bar) and equivalence ratios (0.5 and 1). Kinetic modeling predictions from four chemical kinetic mechanisms are compared with the experimental data. Ignition delay correlations are developed to reproduce the measured ignition delay times. Brute force sensitivity analyses are carried out to identify reactions that affect ignition delay times at specific temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio. The large experimental data set provided in the current work will serve as a benchmark for the validation of chemical kinetic mechanisms of primary reference fuel blends.

  1. MEASURING THE MASS OF SOLAR SYSTEM PLANETS USING PULSAR TIMING

    Champion, D. J.; Hobbs, G. B.; Manchester, R. N.; Edwards, R. T.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Sarkissian, J. M.; Backer, D. C.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Van Straten, W.; Coles, W.; Demorest, P. B.; Ferdman, R. D.; Purver, M. B.; Folkner, W. M.; Hotan, A. W.; Kramer, M.; Lommen, A. N.; Nice, D. J.; Stairs, I. H.

    2010-01-01

    High-precision pulsar timing relies on a solar system ephemeris in order to convert times of arrival (TOAs) of pulses measured at an observatory to the solar system barycenter. Any error in the conversion to the barycentric TOAs leads to a systematic variation in the observed timing residuals; specifically, an incorrect planetary mass leads to a predominantly sinusoidal variation having a period and phase associated with the planet's orbital motion about the Sun. By using an array of pulsars (PSRs J0437-4715, J1744-1134, J1857+0943, J1909-3744), the masses of the planetary systems from Mercury to Saturn have been determined. These masses are consistent with the best-known masses determined by spacecraft observations, with the mass of the Jovian system, 9.547921(2) x10 -4 M sun , being significantly more accurate than the mass determined from the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft, and consistent with but less accurate than the value from the Galileo spacecraft. While spacecraft are likely to produce the most accurate measurements for individual solar system bodies, the pulsar technique is sensitive to planetary system masses and has the potential to provide the most accurate values of these masses for some planets.

  2. Effect of processing time delay on the dose response of Kodak EDR2 film.

    Childress, Nathan L; Rosen, Isaac I

    2004-08-01

    Kodak EDR2 film is a widely used two-dimensional dosimeter for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) measurements. Our clinical use of EDR2 film for IMRT verifications revealed variations and uncertainties in dose response that were larger than expected, given that we perform film calibrations for every experimental measurement. We found that the length of time between film exposure and processing can affect the absolute dose response of EDR2 film by as much as 4%-6%. EDR2 films were exposed to 300 cGy using 6 and 18 MV 10 x 10 cm2 fields and then processed after time delays ranging from 2 min to 24 h. An ion chamber measured the relative dose for these film exposures. The ratio of optical density (OD) to dose stabilized after 3 h. Compared to its stable value, the film response was 4%-6% lower at 2 min and 1% lower at 1 h. The results of the 4 min and 1 h processing time delays were verified with a total of four different EDR2 film batches. The OD/dose response for XV2 films was consistent for time periods of 4 min and 1 h between exposure and processing. To investigate possible interactions of the processing time delay effect with dose, single EDR2 films were irradiated to eight different dose levels between 45 and 330 cGy using smaller 3 x 3 cm2 areas. These films were processed after time delays of 1, 3, and 6 h, using 6 and 18 MV photon qualities. The results at all dose levels were consistent, indicating that there is no change in the processing time delay effect for different doses. The difference in the time delay effect between the 6 and 18 MV measurements was negligible for all experiments. To rule out bias in selecting film regions for OD measurement, we compared the use of a specialized algorithm that systematically determines regions of interest inside the 10 x 10 cm2 exposure areas to manually selected regions of interest. There was a maximum difference of only 0.07% between the manually and automatically selected regions, indicating that the use of

  3. Time to Response to Citalopram Treatment for Agitation in Alzheimer Disease.

    Weintraub, Daniel; Drye, Lea T; Porsteinsson, Anton P; Rosenberg, Paul B; Pollock, Bruce G; Devanand, Devangere P; Frangakis, Constantine; Ismail, Zahinoor; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L; Mintzer, Jacobo E; Munro, Cynthia A; Pelton, Gregory; Rabins, Peter V; Schneider, Lon S; Shade, David M; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2015-11-01

    Agitation is a common and significant problem in Alzheimer disease (AD). In the recent Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease (CitAD) study, citalopram was efficacious for the treatment of AD agitation. Here we examined the time course and predictors of response to treatment. Response in CitAD was defined as a modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) score of 1 or 2 or a Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A) score reduction ≥ 50% from baseline. "Stable early response" was defined as meeting the aforementioned criteria at both weeks 3 and 9, "late response" was response at week 9 but not at week 3, and "unstable response" was response at week 3 but not at week 9. In the primary analyses, citalopram was superior to placebo on both the CGIC and the NBRS-A response measures. Little between-group differences were found in response rates in the first 3 weeks of the study (21% versus 19% on the CGIC). Citalopram patients were more likely than placebo patients to be a late responder (18% versus 8% on CGIC, Fisher's exact p = 0.09; 31% versus 15% on NBRS-A, Fisher's exact p = 0.02). Approximately half of citalopram responders (45%-56%) at end of study achieved response later in the study compared with 30%-44% of placebo responders. Treatment with citalopram for agitation in AD needs to be at least 9 weeks in duration to allow sufficient time for full response. Study duration is an important factor to consider in the design of clinical trials for agitation in AD. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement of time processing ability and daily time management in children with disabilities.

    Janeslätt, Gunnel; Granlund, Mats; Kottorp, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Improvement is needed in methods for planning and evaluating interventions designed to facilitate daily time management for children with intellectual disability, Asperger syndrome, or other developmental disorders. The aim of this study was to empirically investigate the hypothesized relation between children's time processing ability (TPA), daily time management, and self-rated autonomy. Such a relationship between daily time management and TPA may support the idea that TPA is important for daily time management and that children with difficulties in TPA might benefit from intervention aimed at improving daily time management. Participants were children aged 6 to 11 years with dysfunctions such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, or physical or intellectual disabilities (N = 118). TPA was measured with the instrument KaTid. All data were transformed to interval measures using applications of Rasch models and then further analysed with correlation and regression analysis. The results demonstrate a moderate significant relation between the parents' ratings of daily time management and TPA of the children, and between the self-rating of autonomy and TPA. There was also a significant relation between self-ratings of autonomy and the parents' rating of the children's daily time management. Parents' ratings of their children's daily time management explain 25% of the variation in TPA, age of the children explains 22%, while the child's self-rating of autonomy can explain 9% of the variation in TPA. The three variables together explain 38% of the variation in TPA. The results indicate the viability of the instrument for assessing TPA also in children with disabilities and that the ability measured by KaTid is relevant for daily time management. TPA seems to be a factor for children's daily time management that needs to be taken into consideration when planning and evaluating interventions designed to facilitate everyday functioning for children with

  5. Development of a precise long-time digital integrator for magnetic measurements in a tokamak

    Kurihara, Kenichi; Kawamata, Youichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1997-10-01

    Long-time D-T burning operation in a tokamak requires that a magnetic sensor must work in an environment of 14-MeV intense neutron field, and that the measurement system must output precise magnetic field values. A method of time-integration of voltage produced in a simple pick-up coil seems to have preferable features of good time response, easy maintenance, and resistance to neutron irradiation. However, an inevitably-produced signal drift makes it difficult to apply the method to the long-time integral operation. To solve this problem, we have developed a new digital integrator (a voltage-to-frequency converter and an up-down counter) with testing the trial boards in the JT-60 magnetic measurements. This reports all of the problems and their measures through the development steps in details, and shows how to apply this method to the ITER operation. (author)

  6. Quantum coherence in the time-resolved Auger measurement

    Smirnova, Olga; Yakovlev, Vladislav S; Scrinzi, Armin

    2003-12-19

    We present a quantum mechanical model of the attosecond-XUV (extreme ultraviolet) pump and laser probe measurement of an Auger decay [Drescher et al., Nature (London) 419, 803 (2002)10.1038/nature01143] and investigate effects of quantum coherence. The time-dependent Schroedinger equation is solved by numerical integration and in analytic form. We explain the transition from a quasiclassical energy shift of the spectrum to the formation of sidebands and the enhancement of high- and low-energy tails of the Auger spectrum due to quantum coherence between photoionization and Auger decay.

  7. Some measurements of time and space correlation in wind tunnel

    Favre, A; Gaviglio, J; Dumas, R

    1955-01-01

    Results are presented of research obtained by means of an apparatus for measurement of time and space correlation and of a spectral analyzer in the study of the longitudinal component of turbulence velocities in a wind tunnel downstream of a grid of meshes. Application to the case of a flat-plate boundary layer is illustrated. These researches were made at the Laboratoire de Mecanique de l'Atmosphere de l'I.M.F.M. for the O.N.E.R.A.

  8. Real-time deformation measurement using a transportable shearography system

    Weijers, A. L.; van Brug, Hedser H.; Frankena, Hans J.

    1997-03-01

    A new system for deformation visualization has been developed, being a real time phase stepped shearing speckle interferometer. This system provides the possibility to measure quantitatively deformations of diffusely reflecting objects in an industrial environment. The main characteristics of this interferometer are its speed of operation and its reduced sensitivity to external disturbances. Apart from its semiconductor laser source, this system has a shoe-box size and is mounted on a tripod for easy handling during inspection. This paper describes the shearing speckle interferometry set-up, as it is developed at our laboratory and its potential for detecting defects.

  9. Theoretical information measurement in nonrelativistic time-dependent approach

    Najafizade, S. A.; Hassanabadi, H.; Zarrinkamar, S.

    2018-02-01

    The information-theoretic measures of time-dependent Schrödinger equation are investigated via the Shannon information entropy, variance and local Fisher quantities. In our calculations, we consider the two first states n = 0,1 and obtain the position Sx (t) and momentum Sp (t) Shannon entropies as well as Fisher information Ix (t) in position and momentum Ip (t) spaces. Using the Fourier transformed wave function, we obtain the results in momentum space. Some interesting features of the information entropy densities ρs (x,t) and γs (p,t), as well as the probability densities ρ (x,t) and γ (p,t) for time-dependent states are demonstrated. We establish a general relation between variance and Fisher's information. The Bialynicki-Birula-Mycielski inequality is tested and verified for the states n = 0,1.

  10. Real-time evolvable pulse shaper for radiation measurements

    Lanchares, Juan, E-mail: julandan@dacya.ucm.es [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garnica, Oscar, E-mail: ogarnica@dacya.ucm.es [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Risco-Martín, José L., E-mail: jlrisco@dacya.ucm.es [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ignacio Hidalgo, J., E-mail: hidalgo@dacya.ucm.es [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Regadío, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.regadio@insa.es [Área de Tecnologías Electrónicas, Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA), 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    In the last two decades, recursive algorithms for real-time digital pulse shaping in pulse height measurements have been developed and published in number of articles and textbooks. All these algorithms try to synthesize in real time optimum or near optimum shapes in the presence of noise. Even though some of these shapers can be considered effective designs, some side effects like aging cannot be ignored. We may observe that after sensors degradation, the signal obtained is not valid. In this regard, we present in this paper a novel technique that, based on evolvable hardware concepts, is able to evolve the degenerated shaper into a new design with better performance than the original one under the new sensor features.

  11. Time of flight measurement on the SOFIA experiment

    Bail, A.; Taieb, J.; Chatillon, A.; Belier, G.; Laurent, B.; Pellereau, E.

    2011-01-01

    The SOFIA experiment, which will be held at GSI (Darmstadt (Germany)) will allow to completely determine the mass and charge numbers of fragments produced in the fission reaction of radioactive actinides in reverse kinematics. Therefore, a dedicated setup has been developed for the Time of Flight measurement of relativistic heavy ions. The studies, which led to the choice of the adequate plastic scintillators and photomultipliers, are presented. Tests have been undertaken with the ELSA laser and electron beam facility. They shown that a suitable choice would be EJ-232 plastic scintillator for the ToF wall and EJ-232Q for the start detector and Hamamatsu H6533 and H10580 photomultipliers. This was confirmed by two test experiments realized at GSI with relativistic heavy ion beam ( 56 Fe and 238 U), where a time of flight resolution better than 20 ps FWHM was reached. (authors)

  12. Time of flight measurement on the SOFIA experiment

    Bail, A.; Taieb, J.; Chatillon, A.; Belier, G.; Laurent, B.; Pellereau, E. [CEA/DAM/DIF, Arpajon (France)

    2011-07-01

    The SOFIA experiment, which will be held at GSI (Darmstadt (Germany)) will allow to completely determine the mass and charge numbers of fragments produced in the fission reaction of radioactive actinides in reverse kinematics. Therefore, a dedicated setup has been developed for the Time of Flight measurement of relativistic heavy ions. The studies, which led to the choice of the adequate plastic scintillators and photomultipliers, are presented. Tests have been undertaken with the ELSA laser and electron beam facility. They shown that a suitable choice would be EJ-232 plastic scintillator for the ToF wall and EJ-232Q for the start detector and Hamamatsu H6533 and H10580 photomultipliers. This was confirmed by two test experiments realized at GSI with relativistic heavy ion beam ({sup 56}Fe and {sup 238}U), where a time of flight resolution better than 20 ps FWHM was reached. (authors)

  13. Can state or response entropy be used as a measure of sleep depth?

    Mahon, P

    2012-02-03

    SUMMARY: In this prospective observational study we examined the potential of the spectral entropy measures \\'state\\' and \\'response\\' entropy (Entropy monitor), as measures of sleep depth in 12 healthy adult subjects. Both median state and response entropy values varied significantly with sleep stage (p = 0.017 and p = 0.014 respectively; ANOVA). Median state or response entropy did not decrease significantly during the transition from awake to stage I sleep (p > 0.017). State entropy values decreased significantly between sleep stages I and II (p < 0.001). Both state and response entropy values were significantly less (40 and 45 arbitrary units respectively) in stage III (slow wave sleep) vs stage II sleep (p = 0.008). We conclude that state and response entropy values, when expressed as a function of time, may be a useful means of quantifying aspects of sleep.

  14. Temporal response methods for dynamic measurement of in-process inventory of dissolved nuclear materials

    Zivi, S.M.; Seefeldt, W.B.

    1976-01-01

    This analysis demonstrated that a plant's temporal response to perturbations of feed isotope composition can be used to measure the in-process inventory, without suspending plant operations. The main advantage of the temporal response technique over the step-displacement method are (1) it obviates the need for large special feed batches and (2) it obviates the requirement that all the in-process material have a uniform isotopic composition at the beginning of the measurement. The temporal response method holds promise for essentially continuous real-time determination of in-process SNM. The main disadvantage or problem with the temporal response method is that it requires the measurement of the isotopic composition of a great many samples to moderately high accuracy. This requirement appears amenable to solution by a modest effort in instrument development

  15. Measurement and correction of leaf open times in helical tomotherapy

    Sevillano, David; Mínguez, Cristina; Sánchez, Alicia; Sánchez-Reyes, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The binary multileaf collimator (MLC) is one of the most important components in helical tomotherapy (HT), as it modulates the dose delivered to the patient. However, methods to ensure MLC quality in HT treatments are lacking. The authors obtained data on the performance of the MLC in treatments administered in their department in order to assess possible delivery errors due to the MLC. Correction methods based on their data are proposed. Methods: Twenty sinograms from treatments delivered using both of the authors HT systems were measured and analyzed by recording the fluence collected by the imaging detector. Planned and actual sinograms were compared using distributions of leaf open time (LOT) errors, as well as differences in fluence reconstructed at each of the 51 projections into which the treatment planning system divides each rotation for optimization purposes. They proposed and applied a method based on individual leaf error correction and the increase in projection time to prevent latency effects when LOT is close to projection time. In order to analyze the dosimetric impact of the corrections, inphantom measurements were made for four corrected treatments. Results: The LOTs measured were consistent with those planned. Most of the mean errors in LOT distributions were within 1 ms with standard deviations of over 4 ms. Reconstructed fluences showed good results, with over 90% of points passing the 3% criterion, except in treatments with a short mean LOT, where the percentage of passing points was as low as 66%. Individual leaf errors were as long as 4 ms in some cases. Corrected sinograms improved error distribution, with standard deviations of over 3 ms and increased percentages of points passing 3% in the fluence per angle analysis, especially in treatments with a short mean LOT and those that were more subject to latency effects. The minimum percentage of points within 3% increased to 86%. In-phantom measurements of the corrected treatments

  16. Measurement and correction of leaf open times in helical tomotherapy

    Sevillano, David; Minguez, Cristina; Sanchez, Alicia; Sanchez-Reyes, Alberto [Department of Medical Physics, Tomotherapy Unit, Grupo IMO, Madrid 28010 (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: The binary multileaf collimator (MLC) is one of the most important components in helical tomotherapy (HT), as it modulates the dose delivered to the patient. However, methods to ensure MLC quality in HT treatments are lacking. The authors obtained data on the performance of the MLC in treatments administered in their department in order to assess possible delivery errors due to the MLC. Correction methods based on their data are proposed. Methods: Twenty sinograms from treatments delivered using both of the authors HT systems were measured and analyzed by recording the fluence collected by the imaging detector. Planned and actual sinograms were compared using distributions of leaf open time (LOT) errors, as well as differences in fluence reconstructed at each of the 51 projections into which the treatment planning system divides each rotation for optimization purposes. They proposed and applied a method based on individual leaf error correction and the increase in projection time to prevent latency effects when LOT is close to projection time. In order to analyze the dosimetric impact of the corrections, inphantom measurements were made for four corrected treatments. Results: The LOTs measured were consistent with those planned. Most of the mean errors in LOT distributions were within 1 ms with standard deviations of over 4 ms. Reconstructed fluences showed good results, with over 90% of points passing the 3% criterion, except in treatments with a short mean LOT, where the percentage of passing points was as low as 66%. Individual leaf errors were as long as 4 ms in some cases. Corrected sinograms improved error distribution, with standard deviations of over 3 ms and increased percentages of points passing 3% in the fluence per angle analysis, especially in treatments with a short mean LOT and those that were more subject to latency effects. The minimum percentage of points within 3% increased to 86%. In-phantom measurements of the corrected treatments

  17. Real-Time Alpine Measurement System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Sami A. Malek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the snow pack is crucial for many stakeholders, whether for hydro-power optimization, water management or flood control. Traditional forecasting relies on regression methods, which often results in snow melt runoff predictions of low accuracy in non-average years. Existing ground-based real-time measurement systems do not cover enough physiographic variability and are mostly installed at low elevations. We present the hardware and software design of a state-of-the-art distributed Wireless Sensor Network (WSN-based autonomous measurement system with real-time remote data transmission that gathers data of snow depth, air temperature, air relative humidity, soil moisture, soil temperature, and solar radiation in physiographically representative locations. Elevation, aspect, slope and vegetation are used to select network locations, and distribute sensors throughout a given network location, since they govern snow pack variability at various scales. Three WSNs were installed in the Sierra Nevada of Northern California throughout the North Fork of the Feather River, upstream of the Oroville dam and multiple powerhouses along the river. The WSNs gathered hydrologic variables and network health statistics throughout the 2017 water year, one of northern Sierra’s wettest years on record. These networks leverage an ultra-low-power wireless technology to interconnect their components and offer recovery features, resilience to data loss due to weather and wildlife disturbances and real-time topological visualizations of the network health. Data show considerable spatial variability of snow depth, even within a 1 km 2 network location. Combined with existing systems, these WSNs can better detect precipitation timing and phase in, monitor sub-daily dynamics of infiltration and surface runoff during precipitation or snow melt, and inform hydro power managers about actual ablation and end-of-season date across the landscape.

  18. Real-Time Alpine Measurement System Using Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Malek, Sami A; Avanzi, Francesco; Brun-Laguna, Keoma; Maurer, Tessa; Oroza, Carlos A; Hartsough, Peter C; Watteyne, Thomas; Glaser, Steven D

    2017-11-09

    Monitoring the snow pack is crucial for many stakeholders, whether for hydro-power optimization, water management or flood control. Traditional forecasting relies on regression methods, which often results in snow melt runoff predictions of low accuracy in non-average years. Existing ground-based real-time measurement systems do not cover enough physiographic variability and are mostly installed at low elevations. We present the hardware and software design of a state-of-the-art distributed Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)-based autonomous measurement system with real-time remote data transmission that gathers data of snow depth, air temperature, air relative humidity, soil moisture, soil temperature, and solar radiation in physiographically representative locations. Elevation, aspect, slope and vegetation are used to select network locations, and distribute sensors throughout a given network location, since they govern snow pack variability at various scales. Three WSNs were installed in the Sierra Nevada of Northern California throughout the North Fork of the Feather River, upstream of the Oroville dam and multiple powerhouses along the river. The WSNs gathered hydrologic variables and network health statistics throughout the 2017 water year, one of northern Sierra's wettest years on record. These networks leverage an ultra-low-power wireless technology to interconnect their components and offer recovery features, resilience to data loss due to weather and wildlife disturbances and real-time topological visualizations of the network health. Data show considerable spatial variability of snow depth, even within a 1 km 2 network location. Combined with existing systems, these WSNs can better detect precipitation timing and phase in, monitor sub-daily dynamics of infiltration and surface runoff during precipitation or snow melt, and inform hydro power managers about actual ablation and end-of-season date across the landscape.

  19. AMPLITUDE AND TIME MEASUREMENT ASIC WITH ANALOG DERANDOMIZATION

    O CONNOR, P.; DE GERONIMO, G.; KANDASAMY, A.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a new ASIC for accurate and efficient processing of high-rate pulse signals from highly segmented detectors. In contrast to conventional approaches, this circuit affords a dramatic reduction in data volume through the use of analog techniques (precision peak detectors and time-to-amplitude converters) together with fast arbitration and sequencing logic to concentrate the data before digitization. In operation the circuit functions like a data-driven analog first-in, first-out (FIFO) memory between the preamplifiers and the ADC. Peak amplitudes of pulses arriving at any one of the 32 inputs are sampled, stored, and queued for readout and digitization through a single output port. Hit timing, pulse risetime, and channel address are also available at the output. Prototype chips have been fabricated in 0.35 micron CMOS and tested. First results indicate proper functionality for pulses down to 30 ns peaking time and input rates up to 1.6 MHz/channel. Amplitude accuracy of the peak detect and hold circuit is 0.3% (absolute). TAC accuracy is within 0.3% of full scale. Power consumption is less than 2 mW/channel. Compared with conventional techniques such as track-and-hold and analog memory, this new ASIC will enable efficient pulse height measurement at 20 to 300 times higher rates

  20. Real-time Responsiveness for Ethics Oversight During Disaster Research.

    Eckenwiler, Lisa; Pringle, John; Boulanger, Renaud; Hunt, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Disaster research has grown in scope and frequency. Research in the wake of disasters and during humanitarian crises--particularly in resource-poor settings--is likely to raise profound and unique ethical challenges for local communities, crisis responders, researchers, and research ethics committees (RECs). Given the ethical challenges, many have questioned how best to provide research ethics review and oversight. We contribute to the conversation concerning how best to ensure appropriate ethical oversight in disaster research and argue that ethical disaster research requires of researchers and RECs a particular sort of ongoing, critical engagement which may not be warranted in less exceptional research. We present two cases that typify the concerns disaster researchers and RECs may confront, and elaborate upon what this ongoing engagement might look like--how it might be conceptualized and utilized--using the concept of real-time responsiveness (RTR). The central aim of RTR, understood here as both an ethical ideal and practice, is to lessen the potential for research conducted in the wake of disasters to create, perpetuate, or exacerbate vulnerabilities and contribute to injustices suffered by disaster-affected populations. Well cultivated and deployed, we believe that RTR may enhance the moral capacities of researchers and REC members, and RECs as institutions where moral agency is nurtured and sustained. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A generalized linear factor model approach to the hierarchical framework for responses and response times.

    Molenaar, Dylan; Tuerlinckx, Francis; van der Maas, Han L J

    2015-05-01

    We show how the hierarchical model for responses and response times as developed by van der Linden (2007), Fox, Klein Entink, and van der Linden (2007), Klein Entink, Fox, and van der Linden (2009), and Glas and van der Linden (2010) can be simplified to a generalized linear factor model with only the mild restriction that there is no hierarchical model at the item side. This result is valuable as it enables all well-developed modelling tools and extensions that come with these methods. We show that the restriction we impose on the hierarchical model does not influence parameter recovery under realistic circumstances. In addition, we present two illustrative real data analyses to demonstrate the practical benefits of our approach. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Evaluating perceptual integration: uniting response-time- and accuracy-based methodologies.

    Eidels, Ami; Townsend, James T; Hughes, Howard C; Perry, Lacey A

    2015-02-01

    This investigation brings together a response-time system identification methodology (e.g., Townsend & Wenger Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 11, 391-418, 2004a) and an accuracy methodology, intended to assess models of integration across stimulus dimensions (features, modalities, etc.) that were proposed by Shaw and colleagues (e.g., Mulligan & Shaw Perception & Psychophysics 28, 471-478, 1980). The goal was to theoretically examine these separate strategies and to apply them conjointly to the same set of participants. The empirical phases were carried out within an extension of an established experimental design called the double factorial paradigm (e.g., Townsend & Nozawa Journal of Mathematical Psychology 39, 321-359, 1995). That paradigm, based on response times, permits assessments of architecture (parallel vs. serial processing), stopping rule (exhaustive vs. minimum time), and workload capacity, all within the same blocks of trials. The paradigm introduced by Shaw and colleagues uses a statistic formally analogous to that of the double factorial paradigm, but based on accuracy rather than response times. We demonstrate that the accuracy measure cannot discriminate between parallel and serial processing. Nonetheless, the class of models supported by the accuracy data possesses a suitable interpretation within the same set of models supported by the response-time data. The supported model, consistent across individuals, is parallel and has limited capacity, with the participants employing the appropriate stopping rule for the experimental setting.

  3. EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT ACROSS COUNTRIES AND TIMES - MEASUREMENT INVARIANCE

    Dana Mesner Andolšek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Employee organisational commitment has been long and extensively studied until now (Meyer & Allen, 1997; Jaussi, 2007.An emphasis of current analysis was to verify its measurement characteristics, for the purpose of comparisons of levels of commitment across time and countries. A limited set of countries was chosen among those available in a sample from the data on Work Orientations II, ISSP 1997, purpose fully selected to reflect cultural and structural differences that was expected to affect change in levels of organisational commitment. With the use of structural equations models we first confirmed that a model for configural invariance for two factors measuring conceptually distinct components of Affective commitment (AC and Continuance commitment (CC respectively has better support than of one factor model. Metric and error term invariance was subsequently confirmed. Scalar equivalence, needed for valid comparison of mean levels of both components of commitment, was confirmed as well, with the exception of two country specific Tau coefficient. Finally, a model thus established was applied additionally on data from2005 ISSP. Acceptable fit was achieved for a common model containing both points in time and all countries, which allowed making more firm conclusions about the changes in AC and CC in different countries.

  4. Measurement of TLD Albedo response on various calibration phantoms

    Momose, T.; Tsujimura, N.; Shinohara, K.; Ishiguro, H.; Nakamura, T.

    1996-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) has recommended that individual dosemeter should be calibrated on a suitable phantom and has pointed out that the calibration factor of a neutron dosemeter is strongly influenced by the the exact size and shape of the body and the phantom to which the dosemeter is attached. As the principle of an albedo type thermoluminescent personal dosemeter (albedo TLD) is essentially based on a detection of scattered and moderated neutron from a human body, the sensitivity of albedo TLD is strongly influenced by the incident neutron energy and the calibration phantom. (1) Therefore for albedo type thermoluminescent personal dosemeter (albedo TLD), the information of neutron albedo response on the calibration phantom is important for appropriate dose estimation. In order to investigate the effect of phantom type on the reading of the albedo TLD, measurement of the TLD energy response and angular response on some typical calibration phantoms was performed using dynamitron accelerator and 252 Cf neutron source. (author)

  5. Measurements of timing resolution of ultra-fast silicon detectors with the SAMPIC waveform digitizer

    Breton, D. [CNRS/IN2P3/LAL Orsay, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay (France); De Cacqueray, V.; Delagnes, E. [IRFU, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Grabas, H. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics UC Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Maalmi, J. [CNRS/IN2P3/LAL Orsay, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay (France); Minafra, N. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica di Bari, Bari (Italy); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Royon, C. [University of Kansas, Lawrence (United States); Saimpert, M., E-mail: matthias.saimpert@cern.ch [IRFU, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-01

    The SAMpler for PICosecond time (SAMPIC) chip has been designed by a collaboration including CEA/IRFU/SEDI, Saclay and CNRS/LAL/SERDI, Orsay. It benefits from both the quick response of a time to digital converter and the versatility of a waveform digitizer to perform accurate timing measurements. Thanks to the sampled signals, smart algorithms making best use of the pulse shape can be used to improve time resolution. A software framework has been developed to analyse the SAMPIC output data and extract timing information by using either a constant fraction discriminator or a fast cross-correlation algorithm. SAMPIC timing capabilities together with the software framework have been tested using pulses generated by a signal generator or by a silicon detector illuminated by a pulsed infrared laser. Under these ideal experimental conditions, the SAMPIC chip has proven to be capable of timing resolutions down to 4 ps with synthesized signals and 40 ps with silicon detector signals.

  6. Measurements of timing resolution of ultra-fast silicon detectors with the SAMPIC WTDC

    Breton, Dominique

    2016-11-01

    The SAMpler for PICosecond time (SAMPIC) chip has been designed by a collaboration including CEA/IRFU/SEDI, Saclay and CNRS/LAL/SERDI, Orsay. It benefits from both the quick response of a time to digital converter (TDC) and the versatility of a waveform digitizer to perform accurate timing measurements. Thanks to the sampled signals, smart algorithms making best use of the pulse shape can be used to maximize time resolution. A software framework has been developed to analyse the SAMPIC output data and extract timing information by using either a constant fraction discriminator or a fast cross-correlation algorithm. SAMPIC timing capabilities together with the software framework have been tested using Gaussian signals generated by a signal generator or by silicon detectors pulsed with an infra-red laser. Under these ideal experimental conditions, the SAMPIC chip has proven to be capable of timing resolutions down to 4 (40) ps with synthesized (silicon detector) signals.

  7. Improving the psychometric properties of dot-probe attention measures using response-based computation.

    Evans, Travis C; Britton, Jennifer C

    2018-09-01

    Abnormal threat-related attention in anxiety disorders is most commonly assessed and modified using the dot-probe paradigm; however, poor psychometric properties of reaction-time measures may contribute to inconsistencies across studies. Typically, standard attention measures are derived using average reaction-times obtained in experimentally-defined conditions. However, current approaches based on experimentally-defined conditions are limited. In this study, the psychometric properties of a novel response-based computation approach to analyze dot-probe data are compared to standard measures of attention. 148 adults (19.19 ± 1.42 years, 84 women) completed a standardized dot-probe task including threatening and neutral faces. We generated both standard and response-based measures of attention bias, attentional orientation, and attentional disengagement. We compared overall internal consistency, number of trials necessary to reach internal consistency, test-retest reliability (n = 72), and criterion validity obtained using each approach. Compared to standard attention measures, response-based measures demonstrated uniformly high levels of internal consistency with relatively few trials and varying improvements in test-retest reliability. Additionally, response-based measures demonstrated specific evidence of anxiety-related associations above and beyond both standard attention measures and other confounds. Future studies are necessary to validate this approach in clinical samples. Response-based attention measures demonstrate superior psychometric properties compared to standard attention measures, which may improve the detection of anxiety-related associations and treatment-related changes in clinical samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Laser oriented 36K for time reversal symmetry measurements

    Young, A.R.; Anderson, W.S.; Calaprice, F.P.; Cates, G.D.; Jones, G.L.; Krieger, D.A.; Vogelaar, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    We have produced very large nuclear alignments in radioactive 36 K (half-life 0.34 sec) through laser optical pumping techniques. The 36 K was created through (p,n) reactions using a 50 nA, 22 MeV proton beam, and a 3.3 atmosphere 36 Ar target. Measurements were made with the target cell at room temperature, when direct optical pumping produces nuclear orientation in the 36 K, and at elevated temperatures 160 degree C and 180 degree C where the 36 K is oriented through a combination of direct optical pumping and spin exchange. The fraction of the maximal nuclear alignment for the 180 degree C data was determined to be 0.46±0.07 stat±0.05 syst through measurements of the γ-ray anisotropy following positron decay. Roughly 10 5 or more decays of oriented 36 K occurred each second. The application of the superallowed decay of 36 K to measurements of time-reversal symmetry in β decay is discussed

  9. Accuracy of real time radiography burning rate measurement

    Olaniyi, Bisola

    The design of a solid propellant rocket motor requires the determination of a propellant's burning-rate and its dependency upon environmental parameters. The requirement that the burning-rate be physically measured, establishes the need for methods and equipment to obtain such data. A literature review reveals that no measurement has provided the desired burning rate accuracy. In the current study, flash x-ray modeling and digitized film-density data were employed to predict motor-port area to length ratio. The pre-fired port-areas and base burning rate were within 2.5% and 1.2% of their known values, respectively. To verify the accuracy of the method, a continuous x-ray and a solid propellant rocket motor model (Plexiglas cylinder) were used. The solid propellant motor model was translated laterally through a real-time radiography system at different speeds simulating different burning rates. X-ray images were captured and the burning-rate was then determined. The measured burning rate was within 1.65% of the known values.

  10. Development of a geometry-compensated neutron time-of-flight detector for ICF applications with approximately 200 ps time response

    Murphy, T.J.; Lerche, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Current-mode neutron time-of-flight detectors are used on Nova for neutron yield, ion temperature, and neutron emission time measurements. Currently used detectors are limited by the time response of the microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes used with the scintillators, scintillator decay time, scintillator thickness, and oscilloscope response time. A change in the geometry of the scintillator allows one to take advantage of the increased time resolution made possible by more advanced transient recorders and microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes. A prototype detector has been designed to incorporate these changes, and could potentially yield time resolution of less than 150 ps. Experimental results are presented demonstrating an ion temperature measurement of a direct-drive DT implosion on Nova

  11. Time structure measurement of the ATLAS RPC gap current

    Aielli, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The current absorbed by an RPC represents the sum of the charge delivered in the gas by the ionizing events interesting the gap, integrated by the electrodes time constant. This is typically of the order of tens of ms thus dominating the gas discharge time scale and characterizing the granular structure observed in the current signal. In most cases this structure is considered as noise to be further integrated to observe the average gap current, used often as a detector monitoring parameter or to precisely measure the uncorrelated background rate effects. A remarkable case is given if a large number of particles is passing trough the detector within an integration time constant producing a current peak clearly detectable above the average noise. The ATLAS RPC system is equipped with a dedicated current monitoring based on an ADC capable of reading out the average value as well as the transient peaks of the currents above a given threshold. A study on such data was used to spot the gap HV noise, to monitor the...

  12. Evaluation of response function of moderating-type neutron detector and application to environmental neutron measurement

    Kosako, Toshiso; Nakamura, Takashi; Iwai, Satoshi; Katsuki, Shinji; Kamata, Masashi.

    1983-08-01

    The energy-dependent response function of a multi-cylinder moderating-type BF 3 counter, so-called Bonner counter, was calculated by the time-dependent multi-group Monte Carlo code, TMMCR. The calculated response function was evaluated experimentally for neutron energy below about 50 keV down to epithermal energy by the time-of-flight method combining with a large lead pile at the Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo and also above 50 keV by using the monoenergetic neutron standard field a t the Electrotechnical Laboratory. The time delay in the polyethylene moderator of the Bonner counter due to multiple collisions with hydrogen was analyzed by the TMMCR code and used for the time-spectrum analysis of the time-of-flight measurement. The response function obtained by these two experiments showed good agreement with the calculated results. This Bonner counter having a response function evaluated from thermal to MeV energy range was used for spectrometry and dosimetry of environmental neutrons around some nuclear facilities. The neutron spectra and dose measured in the environment around a 252 Cf fission source, fast neutron source reactor and electron synchrotron were all in good agreement with the calculated results and the measured results with other neutron detectors. (author)

  13. Time dependency of local cerebral blood flow measurements caused by regional variations in tissue transit time

    Lear, J.L.; Kasliwal, R.; Feyerabend, A.

    1990-01-01

    Calculated values of local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) using the diffusible tracer model are assumed to be independent of time as long as experiments are brief enough to prevent tissue saturation. This paper investigates the effects of CTT variation on LCBF measurements. Using double-label quantitative digital autoradiography, we compared iodoantipyrine (IAP)-based LCBF measurements obtained with tracer infusions of different lengths of time. Lightly anesthetized rats were given simultaneous ramp infusions of C-14 IAP (45 seconds) and I-123 IAP (15 seconds) and immediately sacrificed. Two autoradiograms of each brain section, one representing I-123 and the other representing C-14, were produced, digitized, and converted into images of LCBF based on the 15- and 45-second infusion periods. The LCBF image pairs were compared on a pixel-by-pixel basis

  14. Stimulus-response time to alarms of the intra-aortic balloon pump: safe care practices

    Andrezza Serpa Franco

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize the sound alarms of the Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP during aortic counterpulsation therapy; to measure the stimulus-response time of the team to these; and to discuss the implications of increasing this time for patient safety from the alarm fatigue perspective. Method: This is an observational and descriptive study with quantitative and qualitative approach, case study type, carried out in a Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit. Results: The most audible IABP alarm was the one of high priority increased-reduced diastolic blood pressure. The stimulus-response time was 33.9 seconds on average. Conclusion: Managing the alarms of these equipment is essential to minimize the occurrence of the alarm fatigue phenomenon and to offer a safer assistance to patients who rely on this technology.

  15. Reliability and responsiveness of algometry for measuring pressure pain threshold in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    Mutlu, Ebru Kaya; Ozdincler, Arzu Razak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish the intrarater reliability and responsiveness of a clinically available algometer in patients with knee osteoarthritis as well as to determine the minimum-detectable-change and standard error of measurement of testing to facilitate clinical interpretation of temporal changes. [Subjects] Seventy-three patients with knee osteoarthritis were included. [Methods] Pressure pain threshold measured by algometry was evaluated 3 times at 2-min intervals over 2 cl...

  16. Measuring physical inactivity: do current measures provide an accurate view of "sedentary" video game time?

    Fullerton, Simon; Taylor, Anne W; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Berry, Narelle

    2014-01-01

    Measures of screen time are often used to assess sedentary behaviour. Participation in activity-based video games (exergames) can contribute to estimates of screen time, as current practices of measuring it do not consider the growing evidence that playing exergames can provide light to moderate levels of physical activity. This study aimed to determine what proportion of time spent playing video games was actually spent playing exergames. Data were collected via a cross-sectional telephone survey in South Australia. Participants aged 18 years and above (n = 2026) were asked about their video game habits, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors. In cases where children were in the household, the video game habits of a randomly selected child were also questioned. Overall, 31.3% of adults and 79.9% of children spend at least some time playing video games. Of these, 24.1% of adults and 42.1% of children play exergames, with these types of games accounting for a third of all time that adults spend playing video games and nearly 20% of children's video game time. A substantial proportion of time that would usually be classified as "sedentary" may actually be spent participating in light to moderate physical activity.

  17. Enhanced Interrupt Response Time in the nMPRA based on Embedded Real Time Microcontrollers

    GAITAN, N. C.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In any real-time operating system, task switching and scheduling, interrupts, synchronization and communication between processes, represent major problems. The implementation of these mechanisms through software generates significant delays for many applications. The nMPRA (Multi Pipeline Register Architecture architecture is designed for the implementation of real-time embedded microcontrollers. It supports the competitive execution of n tasks, enabling very fast switching between them, with a usual delay of one machine cycle and a maximum of 3 machine cycles, for the memory-related work instructions. This is because each task has its own PC (Program Counter, set of pipeline registers and a general registers file. The nMPRA is provided with an advanced distributed interrupt controller that implements the concept of "interrupts as threads". This allows the attachment of one or more interrupts to the same task. In this context, the original contribution of this article is to presents the solutions for improving the response time to interrupts when a task has attached a large number of interrupts. The proposed solutions enhance the original architecture for interrupts logic in order to transfer control, to the interrupt handler as soon as possible, and to create an interrupt prioritization at task level.

  18. Measurement of human normal tissue and tumour responses

    Ross, G.; Yarnold, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The scarcity of quantitative measures of normal tissue damage and tumour response in patients undergoing radiotherapy is an obstacle to the clinical evaluation of new treatment strategies. Retrospective studies of complications in critical normal tissues taught important lessons in the past concerning the potential dangers of hypofractionation. However, it is unethical to use serious complications as planned end-points in prospective studies. This paper reviews the desirable characteristics of clinical end-points required to compare alternative treatments employing radiotherapy, with emphasis on simple scales applied by clinicians or even the patients themselves

  19. In-situ real time measurements of net erosion rates of copper during hydrogen plasma exposure

    Kesler, Leigh; Wright, Graham; Peterson, Ethan; Whyte, Dennis

    2013-10-01

    In order to properly understand the dynamics of net erosion/deposition in fusion reactors, such as tokamaks, a diagnostic measuring the real time rates of net erosion/deposition during plasma exposure is necessary. The DIONISOS experiment produces real time measurements of net erosion/deposition by using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) ion beam analysis simultaneously with plasma exposure from a helicon plasma source. This in-situ method improves on ex-situ weight loss measurements by allowing measurement of possible synergistic effects of high ion implantation rates and net erosion rate and by giving a real time response to changes in plasma parameters. Previous work has validated this new technique for measuring copper (Cu) erosion from helium (He) plasma ion bombardment. This technique is now extended to measure copper erosion due to deuterium and hydrogen plasma ion exposure. Targets used were a 1.5 μm Cu layer on an aluminum substrate. Cu layer thickness is tracked in real time using 1.2 MeV proton RBS. Measured erosion rates will be compared to results from literature and He erosion rates. Supported by US DoE award DE-SC00-02060.

  20. Reliability and responsiveness of algometry for measuring pressure pain threshold in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Mutlu, Ebru Kaya; Ozdincler, Arzu Razak

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish the intrarater reliability and responsiveness of a clinically available algometer in patients with knee osteoarthritis as well as to determine the minimum-detectable-change and standard error of measurement of testing to facilitate clinical interpretation of temporal changes. [Subjects] Seventy-three patients with knee osteoarthritis were included. [Methods] Pressure pain threshold measured by algometry was evaluated 3 times at 2-min intervals over 2 clinically relevant sites-mediolateral to the medial femoral tubercle (distal) and lateral to the medial malleolus (local)-on the same day. Intrarater reliability was estimated by intraclass correlation coefficients. The minimum-detectable-change and standard error of measurement were calculated. As a measure of responsiveness, the effect size was calculated for the results at baseline and after treatment. [Results] The intrarater reliability was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.93-0.97). The standard error of measurement and minimum-detectable-change were 0.70-0.66 and 1.62-1.53, respectively. The pressure pain threshold over the distal site was inadequately responsive in knee osteoarthritis, but the local site was responsive. The effect size was 0.70. [Conclusion] Algometry is reliable and responsive to assess measures of pressure pain threshold for evaluating pain patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  1. Comparison of response times of a mobile-web EHRs system using PHP and JSP languages.

    De la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Antón-Rodríguez, Míriam; Díaz-Pernas, Francisco Javier; Perozo-Rondón, Freddy José

    2012-12-01

    Performance evaluation is highly important in the Electronic Health Records (EHRs) system implementation. Response time's measurement can be considered as one manner to make that evaluation. In the e-health field, after the creation of EHRs available through different platforms such as Web and/or mobile, a performance evaluation is necessary. The operation of the system in the right way is essential. In this paper, a comparison of the response times for the MEHRmobile system is presented. The first version uses PHP language with a MySQL database and the second one employs JSP with an eXist database. Both versions have got the same functionalities. In addition to the technological aspects, a significant difference is the way the information is stored. The main goal of this paper is choosing the version which offers better response times. We have created a new benchmark to calculate the response times. Better results have been obtained for the PHP version. Nowadays, this version is being used for specialists from Fundación Intras, Spain.

  2. Time measurement - technical importance of most exact clocks

    Goebel, E.O.; Riehle, F.

    2004-01-01

    The exactness of the best atomic clocks currently shows a temporal variation of 1 second in 30 million years. This means that we have reached the point of the most exact frequency and time measurement ever. In the past, there was a trend towards increasing the exactness in an increasingly fast sequence. Will this trend continue? And who will profit from it? This article is meant to give answers to these questions. This is done by presenting first the level reached currently with the best atomic clocks and describing the research activities running worldwide with the aim of achieving even more exact clocks. In the second part, we present examples of various areas of technical subjects and research in which the most exact clocks are being applied presently and even more exact ones will be needed in the future [de

  3. Measuring urban sprawl in China by night time light images

    Liu, Lu; Tang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    In the process of urbanization, a phenomenon called “urban sprawl” usually occurs. This phenomenon may exaggerated the negative effects of urbanization on environment, public and social health, energy efficiency, and maintenance of farmland. Therefore, the understanding of this phenomenon is urgently required for us to achieve sustainable development. This study proposed a group of night time lights (NTL) indicators of urban sprawl, which intend to use the distribution of lightness to quantify urban sprawl. These measures are proved to be efficient in describing urban sprawl. In addition, they are consistent and easy calculating, making comparison analysis easy to be done. These indicators are used to study urban sprawl in China during the year 2000 to 2010, the results show that in the last ten years, metropolitan areas in the northern part of China have undergone a more sprawl-like urban growth compared with other parts of China.

  4. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in youth

    Cooper, Ashley R; Goodman, Anna; Page, Angie S

    2015-01-01

    .8-18.4 years) who provided at least three days of valid accelerometer data. Linear regression was used to examine associations between age, sex, weight status, country and physical activity outcomes. RESULTS: Boys were less sedentary and more active than girls at all ages. After 5 years of age......BACKGROUND: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in youth have been reported to vary by sex, age, weight status and country. However, supporting data are often self-reported and/or do not encompass a wide range of ages or geographical locations. This study aimed to describe objectively......-measured physical activity and sedentary time patterns in youth. METHODS: The International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD) consists of ActiGraph accelerometer data from 20 studies in ten countries, processed using common data reduction procedures. Analyses were conducted on 27,637 participants (2...

  5. Holdup time measurement by radioactive tracers in pulp production

    Roetzer, H.; Donhoffer, D.

    1988-12-01

    A batch of pulp was to be labelled before passing two bleaching towers of a pulp plant. Activated glass fibres were used as a tracer, which contained 24-Na with a half-life of 15 hours. It was shown in laboratory tests, that the glass fibres were suitable for transport studies of wood pulp. For use in the tests the fibres were activated and suspended in water. Due to the small diameter of the fibres (2-5 micrometers) this suspension shows physical properties very similar to the pulp. For detection six scintillation probes were mounted at different positions outside the bleaching tower. Radiation protection during the test was very easy due to the low total activity of the tracer material. Residence time distributions for both towers were measured. The successful tracer experiments show, that the method of labelling is suited for investigations of material transport in the pulp and paper industry. 3 figs., 11 refs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  6. Measuring and modelling occupancy time in NHS continuing healthcare

    Millard Peter H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to increasing demand and financial constraints, NHS continuing healthcare systems seek to find better ways of forecasting demand and budgeting for care. This paper investigates two areas of concern, namely, how long existing patients stay in service and the number of patients that are likely to be still in care after a period of time. Methods An anonymised dataset containing information for all funded admissions to placement and home care in the NHS continuing healthcare system was provided by 26 (out of 31 London primary care trusts. The data related to 11289 patients staying in placement and home care between 1 April 2005 and 31 May 2008 were first analysed. Using a methodology based on length of stay (LoS modelling, we captured the distribution of LoS of patients to estimate the probability of a patient staying in care over a period of time. Using the estimated probabilities we forecasted the number of patients that are likely to be still in care after a period of time (e.g. monthly. Results We noticed that within the NHS continuing healthcare system there are three main categories of patients. Some patients are discharged after a short stay (few days, some others staying for few months and the third category of patients staying for a long period of time (years. Some variations in proportions of discharge and transition between types of care as well as between care groups (e.g. palliative, functional mental health were observed. A close agreement of the observed and the expected numbers of patients suggests a good prediction model. Conclusions The model was tested for care groups within the NHS continuing healthcare system in London to support Primary Care Trusts in budget planning and improve their responsiveness to meet the increasing demand under limited availability of resources. Its applicability can be extended to other types of care, such as hospital care and re-ablement. Further work will be geared towards

  7. Estimation of road profile variability from measured vehicle responses

    Fauriat, W.; Mattrand, C.; Gayton, N.; Beakou, A.; Cembrzynski, T.

    2016-05-01

    When assessing the statistical variability of fatigue loads acting throughout the life of a vehicle, the question of the variability of road roughness naturally arises, as both quantities are strongly related. For car manufacturers, gathering information on the environment in which vehicles evolve is a long and costly but necessary process to adapt their products to durability requirements. In the present paper, a data processing algorithm is proposed in order to estimate the road profiles covered by a given vehicle, from the dynamic responses measured on this vehicle. The algorithm based on Kalman filtering theory aims at solving a so-called inverse problem, in a stochastic framework. It is validated using experimental data obtained from simulations and real measurements. The proposed method is subsequently applied to extract valuable statistical information on road roughness from an existing load characterisation campaign carried out by Renault within one of its markets.

  8. Direct measurement of the plasma response to electrostatic ion waves

    Sarfaty, M.; DeSouza-Machado, S.; Skiff, F.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma wave-wave and wave-particle interactions are studied in a linear magnetized plasma. The relatively quiet plasma is produced by an argon gas-discharge. The plasma density is n e ≅ 10 9 cm -3 and the electron/ion temperatures are T e ≅ 5eV and T i = 0.05eV. A grid and a four ring antenna, both mounted on a scanning carriage, are used to launch electrostatic ion waves in the plasma. Laser Induced Fluorescence measurements of both the linear and the nonlinear plasma response to the wave fields are presented. The Vlasov-Poisson equations are used to explain the measured zero, first and second order terms of the ion distribution function in the presence of wave fields. In addition to the broadening (heating) of the ion distribution as the authors increase the wave amplitudes, induced plasma flows are observed both along and across the magnetic field

  9. Technical Note: Response time evolution of XR-QA2 GafChromic™ film models.

    Aldelaijan, Saad; Tomic, Nada; Papaconstadopoulos, Pavlos; Schneider, James; Seuntjens, Jan; Shih, Shelley; Lewis, David; Devic, Slobodan

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the response of the newest XR-QA2 GafChromic™ film model in terms of postexposure signal growth and energy response in comparison with the older XR-QA (Version 2) model. Pieces of film were irradiated to air kerma in air values up to 12 cGy with several beam qualities (5.3-8.25 mm Al) commonly used for CT scanning. Film response was scored in terms of net reflectance from scanned film images at various points in time postirradiation ranging from 1 to 7 days and 5 months postexposure. To reconstruct the measurement signal changes with postirradiation delay, we irradiated one film piece and then scanned it at different point times starting from 2" min and up to 3 days postexposure. For all beam qualities and dose range investigated, it appears that the XR-QA2 film signal completely saturated after 15 h. Compared to 15 h postirradiation scanning time, the observed variation in net reflectance were 3%, 2%, and 1% for film scanned 2" min, 20 min, and 3 h after exposure, respectively, which is well within the measurement uncertainty of the XR-QA2 based reference radiochromic film dosimetry system. A comparison between the XR-QA (Version 2) and the XR-QA2 film response after several months (relative to their responses after 24 h) show differences in up to 8% and 1% for each film model respectively. The replacement of cesium bromide in the older XR-QA (Version 2) film model with bismuth oxide in the newer XR-QA2 film, while keeping the same single sensitive layer structure, lead to a significantly more stable postexposure response. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. Larger Neural Responses Produce BOLD Signals That Begin Earlier in Time

    Serena eThompson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI analyses commonly rely on the assumption that the temporal dynamics of hemodynamic response functions (HRFs are independent of the amplitude of the neural signals that give rise to them. The validity of this assumption is particularly important for techniques that use fMRI to resolve sub-second timing distinctions between responses, in order to make inferences about the ordering of neural processes. Whether or not the detailed shape of the HRF is independent of neural response amplitude remains an open question, however. We performed experiments in which we measured responses in primary visual cortex (V1 to large, contrast-reversing checkerboards at a range of contrast levels, which should produce varying amounts of neural activity. Ten subjects (ages 22-52 were studied in each of two experiments using 3 Tesla scanners. We used rapid, 250 msec, temporal sampling (repetition time, or TR and both short and long inter-stimulus interval (ISI stimulus presentations. We tested for a systematic relationship between the onset of the HRF and its amplitude across conditions, and found a strong negative correlation between the two measures when stimuli were separated in time (long- and medium-ISI experiments, but not the short-ISI experiment. Thus, stimuli that produce larger neural responses, as indexed by HRF amplitude, also produced HRFs with shorter onsets. The relationship between amplitude and latency was strongest in voxels with lowest mean-normalized variance (i.e., parenchymal voxels. The onset differences observed in the longer-ISI experiments are likely attributable to mechanisms of neurovascular coupling, since they are substantially larger than reported differences in the onset of action potentials in V1 as a function of response amplitude.

  11. Mesospheric Water Vapor Retrieved from SABER/TIMED Measurements

    Feofilov, Arte, G.; Yankovsky, Valentine A.; Marshall, Benjamin T.; Russell, J. M., III; Pesnell, W. D.; Kutepov, Alexander A.; Goldberg, Richard A.; Gordley, Larry L.; Petelina, Svetlama; Mauilova, Rada O.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The SABER instrument on board the TIMED satellite is a limb scanning infrared radiometer designed to measure temperature and minor constituent vertical profiles and energetics parameters in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) The H2O concentrations are retrieved from 6.3 micron band radiances. The interpretation of this radiance requires developing a non-LTE H2O model that includes energy exchange processes with the system of O3 and O2 vibrational levels populated at the daytime through a number of photoabsorption and photodissociation processes. We developed a research model base on an extended H2O non-LTE model of Manuilova coupled with the novel model of the electronic kinetics of the O2 and O3 photolysis products suggested by Yankosvky and Manuilova. The performed study of this model helped u to develop and test an optimized operational model for interpretation of SABER 6.3 micron band radiances. The sensitivity of retrievals to the parameters of the model is discussed. The H2O retrievals are compared to other measurements for different seasons and locations.

  12. Impulse response measurement in the HgCdTe avalanche photodiode

    Singh, Anand; Pal, Ravinder

    2018-04-01

    HgCdTe based mid-wave infrared focal plane arrays (MWIR FPAs) are being developed for high resolution imaging and range determination of distant camouflaged targets. Effect of bandgap grading on the response time in the n+/ν/p+ HgCdTe electron avalanche photodiode (e-APD) is evaluated using impulse response measurement. Gain normalized dark current density of 2 × 10-9 A/cm2 at low reverse bias for passive mode and 2 × 10-4 A/cm2 at -8 V for active mode is measured in the fabricated APD device, yielding high gain bandwidth product of 2.4 THZ at the maximum gain. Diffusion of carriers is minimized to achieve transit time limited impulse response by introducing composition grading in the HgCdTe epilayer. The noise equivalent photon performance less than one is achievable in the FPA that is suitable for active cum passive imaging applications.

  13. On the measurement of time-dependent quantum phases

    Barut, A.O.; Bozic, M.; Klarsfeld, S.; Maric, Z.

    1991-11-01

    We have evaluated the exact (Pancharatnam) phase differences between the final state l ψ(t) > and various initial states for a spin 1/2-particle in a rotating magnetic field B(t). For the initial states l n; B ef (0) >, which are eigenstates of the spin component along the direction of the initial effective field B ef (0), the exact phase has an energy dependent part, and an energy independent part. It is shown that these states l n; B ef (0) > are cyclic and their corresponding Aharonov-Anandan phases are evaluated. In the adiabatic limit we discuss different choices of time-dependent bases and the relationship between the exact phase, the Born-Fock-Schiff phase and Berry's phase. We propose experiments (neutron) to verify separately the exact and the adiabatic evolution laws, as well as to measure the adiabatic phases associated with different choices of time-dependent basis vectors. (author). 37 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  14. Dose-Response of Sodium Bicarbonate Ingestion Highlights Individuality in Time Course of Blood Analyte Responses.

    Jones, Rebecca Louise; Stellingwerff, Trent; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Saunders, Bryan; Cooper, Simon; Sale, Craig

    2016-10-01

    To defend against hydrogen cation accumulation and muscle fatigue during exercise, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) ingestion is commonplace. The individualized dose-response relationship between NaHCO 3 ingestion and blood biochemistry is unclear. The present study investigated the bicarbonate, pH, base excess and sodium responses to NaHCO 3 ingestion. Sixteen healthy males (23 ± 2 years; 78.6 ± 15.1 kg) attended three randomized order-balanced, nonblinded sessions, ingesting a single dose of either 0.1, 0.2 or 0.3 g·kg -1 BM of NaHCO 3 (Intralabs, UK). Fingertip capillary blood was obtained at baseline and every 10 min for 1 hr, then every 15 min for a further 2 hr. There was a significant main effect of both time and condition for all assessed blood analytes (p ≤ .001). Blood analyte responses were significantly lower following 0.1 g·kg -1 BM compared with 0.2 g·kg -1 BM; bicarbonate concentrations and base excess were highest following ingestion of 0.3 g·kg -1 BM (p ≤ .01). Bicarbonate concentrations and pH significantly increased from baseline following all doses; the higher the dose the greater the increase. Large interindividual variability was shown in the magnitude of the increase in bicarbonate concentrations following each dose (+2.0-5; +5.1-8.1; and +6.0-12.3 mmol·L -1 for 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 g·kg -1 BM) and in the range of time to peak concentrations (30-150; 40-165; and 75-180 min for 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 g·kg -1 BM). The variability in bicarbonate responses was not affected by normalization to body mass. These results challenge current practices relating to NaHCO 3 supplementation and clearly show the need for athletes to individualize their ingestion protocol and trial varying dosages before competition.

  15. Can Emergency Physicians Perform Common Carotid Doppler Flow Measurements to Assess Volume Responsiveness?

    Stolz, Lori A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Common carotid flow measurements may be clinically useful to determine volume responsiveness. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of emergency physicians (EP to obtain sonographic images and measurements of the common carotid artery velocity time integral (VTi for potential use in assessing volume responsiveness in the clinical setting. Methods: In this prospective observational study, we showed a five-minute instructional video demonstrating a technique to obtain common carotid ultrasound images and measure the common carotid VTi to emergency medicine (EM residents. Participants were then asked to image the common carotid artery and obtain VTi measurements. Expert sonographers observed participants imaging in real time and recorded their performance on nine performance measures. An expert sonographer graded image quality. Participants were timed and answered questions regarding ease of examination and their confidence in obtaining the images. Results: A total of 30 EM residents participated in this study and each performed the examination twice. Average time required to complete one examination was 2.9 minutes (95% CI [2.4-3.4 min]. Participants successfully completed all performance measures greater than 75% of the time, with the exception of obtaining measurements during systole, which was completed in 65% of examinations. Median resident overall confidence in accurately performing carotid VTi measurements was 3 (on a scale of 1 [not confident] to 5 [confident]. Conclusion: EM residents at our institution learned the technique for obtaining common carotid artery Doppler flow measurements after viewing a brief instructional video. When assessed at performing this examination, they completed several performance measures with greater than 75% success. No differences were found between novice and experienced groups. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:255–259.

  16. Public reporting of antibiotic timing in patients with pneumonia: lessons from a flawed performance measure.

    Wachter, Robert M; Flanders, Scott A; Fee, Christopher; Pronovost, Peter J

    2008-07-01

    The administration of antibiotics within 4 hours to patients with community-acquired pneumonia has been criticized as a quality standard because it pressures clinicians to rapidly administer antibiotics despite diagnostic uncertainty at the time of patients' initial presentations. The measure was recently revised (to 6 hours) in response to this criticism. On the basis of the experience with the 4-hour rule, the authors make 5 recommendations for the development of future publicly reported quality measures. First, results from samples with known diagnoses should be extrapolated cautiously, if at all, to patients without a diagnosis. Second, for some measures, "bands" of performance may make more sense than "all-or-nothing" expectations. Third, representative end users of quality measures should participate in measure development. Fourth, quality measurement and reporting programs should build in mechanisms to reassess measures over time. Finally, biases, both financial and intellectual, that may influence quality measure development should be minimized. These steps will increase the probability that future quality measures will improve care without creating negative unintended consequences.

  17. Time to response to citalopram treatment for agitation in Alzheimer's disease

    Weintraub, Daniel; Drye, Lea T.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Devanand, D.P.; Frangakis, Constantine; Ismail, Zahinoor; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Pelton, Gregory; Rabins, Peter V.; Schneider, Lon S.; Shade, David M.; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Agitation is a common and significant problem in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the recent Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer’s Disease (CitAD) study, citalopram was efficacious for the treatment of AD agitation. Here we examined the time course and predictors of response to treatment. Methods Response in CitAD was defined as a modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (mADCS-CGIC) score of 1 or 2, or a Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A) score reduction ≥50% from baseline. “Stable early response” was defined as meeting the aforementioned criteria at both weeks 3 and 9, “late response” was response at week 9 but not at week 3, and “unstable response” was response at week 3 but not at week 9. Results In the primary analyses, citalopram was superior to placebo on both the CGIC and the NBRS-A response measures. There were little between-group differences in response rates in the first three weeks of the study (21% vs 19% on the CGIC). Citalopram patients were more likely than placebo patients to be a late responder (18% vs. 8% on CGIC, Fisher’s exact p=0.09; 31% vs. 15% on NBRS-A, Fisher’s exact p=0.02). Approximately half (45–56%) of citalopram responders at end-of-study achieved response later in the study, compared with 30–44% of placebo responders. Discussion Treatment with citalopram for agitation in AD needs to be at least nine weeks in duration to allow sufficient time for full response, and study duration is an important factor to consider in the design of clinical trials for agitation in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26238225

  18. Continuous performance task in ADHD: Is reaction time variability a key measure?

    Levy, Florence; Pipingas, Andrew; Harris, Elizabeth V; Farrow, Maree; Silberstein, Richard B

    2018-01-01

    To compare the use of the Continuous Performance Task (CPT) reaction time variability (intraindividual variability or standard deviation of reaction time), as a measure of vigilance in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and stimulant medication response, utilizing a simple CPT X-task vs an A-X-task. Comparative analyses of two separate X-task vs A-X-task data sets, and subgroup analyses of performance on and off medication were conducted. The CPT X-task reaction time variability had a direct relationship to ADHD clinician severity ratings, unlike the CPT A-X-task. Variability in X-task performance was reduced by medication compared with the children's unmedicated performance, but this effect did not reach significance. When the coefficient of variation was applied, severity measures and medication response were significant for the X-task, but not for the A-X-task. The CPT-X-task is a useful clinical screening test for ADHD and medication response. In particular, reaction time variability is related to default mode interference. The A-X-task is less useful in this regard.

  19. Intra-examiner repeatability and agreement in accommodative response measurements.

    Antona, B; Sanchez, I; Barrio, A; Barra, F; Gonzalez, E

    2009-11-01

    Clinical measurement of the accommodative response (AR) identifies the focusing plane of a subject with respect to the accommodative target. To establish whether a significant change in AR has occurred, it is important to determine the repeatability of this measurement. This study had two aims: First, to determine the intraexaminer repeatability of AR measurements using four clinical methods: Nott retinoscopy, monocular estimate method (MEM) retinoscopy, binocular crossed cylinder test (BCC) and near autorefractometry. Second, to study the level of agreement between AR measurements obtained with the different methods. The AR of the right eye at one accommodative demand of 2.50 D (40 cm) was measured on two separate occasions in 61 visually normal subjects of mean age 19.7 years (range 18-32 years). The intraexaminer repeatability of the tests, and agreement between them, were estimated by the Bland-Altman method. We determined mean differences (MD) and the 95% limits of agreement [coefficient of repeatability (COR) and coefficient of agreement (COA)]. Nott retinoscopy and BCC offered the best repeatability, showing the lowest MD and narrowest 95% interval of agreement (Nott: -0.10 +/- 0.66 D, BCC: -0.05 +/- 0.75 D). The 95% limits of agreement for the four techniques were similar (COA = +/- 0.92 to +/-1.00 D) yet clinically significant, according to the expected values of the AR. The two dynamic retinoscopy techniques (Nott and MEM) had a better agreement (COA = +/-0.64 D) although this COA must be interpreted in the context of the low MEM repeatability (COR = +/-0.98 D). The best method of assessing AR was Nott retinoscopy. The BCC technique was also repeatable, and both are recommended as suitable methods for clinical use. Despite better agreement between MEM and Nott, agreement among the remaining methods was poor such that their interchangeable use in clinical practice is not recommended.

  20. Can Previewing Sport-Specific Video Influence Reactive-Agility Response Time?

    Holding, Ryan; Meir, Rudi; Zhou, Shi

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a video-based warm-up could provide an acute performance benefit to response time for athletes in a sport-specific agility task. In addition, 2 learning strategies, explicit and implicit, were compared for their effectiveness in facilitating an improvement in sport-specific agility. Thirty representative male junior rugby union players (age 14-16 y, mean age 14.6 ± 1.09 y) were placed in 3 experimental groups (explicit, implicit, and control) and completed 2 intervention sessions. Testing sessions included preintervention testing, completion of the video-based warm-up intervention, and postintervention testing. A 3D motion-analysis system was used to assess response time in the testing battery. The athletes' response times on the pre- to postintervention tests were compared to determine the effectiveness of the video-based warm-up. A 2-way general linear model with repeated-measures analysis indicated that both the explicit (P = .030, d = 0.28) and implicit (P = .049, d = 0.33) groups significantly improved their response time by the intervention compared with the control group (P = .367, d = 0.08). The mean postintervention response time for the explicit group improved by 19.1% (from 0.246 s pre to 0.199 s post), and the implicit group improved by 15.7% (from 0.268 s to 0.226 s). Findings suggest that a video-based warm-up may provide an acute benefit to sport-specific agility performance for junior athletes.

  1. Joint Testlet Cognitive Diagnosis Modeling for Paired Local Item Dependence in Response Times and Response Accuracy

    Peida Zhan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In joint models for item response times (RTs and response accuracy (RA, local item dependence is composed of local RA dependence and local RT dependence. The two components are usually caused by the same common stimulus and emerge as pairs. Thus, the violation of local item independence in the joint models is called paired local item dependence. To address the issue of paired local item dependence while applying the joint cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs, this study proposed a joint testlet cognitive diagnosis modeling approach. The proposed approach is an extension of Zhan et al. (2017 and it incorporates two types of random testlet effect parameters (one for RA and the other for RTs to account for paired local item dependence. The model parameters were estimated using the full Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method. The 2015 PISA computer-based mathematics data were analyzed to demonstrate the application of the proposed model. Further, a brief simulation study was conducted to demonstrate the acceptable parameter recovery and the consequence of ignoring paired local item dependence.

  2. An Analysis of Variance Approach for the Estimation of Response Time Distributions in Tests

    Attali, Yigal

    2010-01-01

    Generalizability theory and analysis of variance methods are employed, together with the concept of objective time pressure, to estimate response time distributions and the degree of time pressure in timed tests. By estimating response time variance components due to person, item, and their interaction, and fixed effects due to item types and…

  3. Electromagnetic velocity gauge: use of multiple gauges, time response, and flow perturbations

    Erickson, L.M.; Johnson, C.B.; Parker, N.L.; Vantine, H.C.; Weingart, R.C.; Lee, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    We have developed an in-situ electromagnetic velocity (EMV) gauge system for use in multiple-gauge studies of initiating and detonating explosives. We have also investigated the risetime of the gauge and the manner in which it perturbs a reactive flow. We report on the special precautions that are necessary in multiple gauge experiments to reduce lead spreading, simplify target fabrication problems and minimize cross talk through the conducting explosive. Agreement between measured stress records and calculations from multiple velocity gauge data give us confidence that our velocity gauges are recording properly. We have used laser velocity interferometry to measure the gauge risetime in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). To resolve the difference in the two methods, we have examined hydrodynamic and material rate effects. In addition, we considered the effects of shock tilt, electronic response and magntic diffusion on the gauge's response time

  4. Time Resolved Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. This presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 µm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as "viable aerosols" or "fluorescent bioparticles" (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. Data from the UVAPS were averaged over 5 minute time intervals. The presence of bioparticles in the observed size range has been

  5. Improved response time of flexible microelectromechanical sensors employing eco-friendly nanomaterials.

    Fan, Shicheng; Dan, Li; Meng, Lingju; Zheng, Wei; Elias, Anastasia; Wang, Xihua

    2017-11-09

    Flexible force/pressure sensors are of interest for academia and industry and have applications in wearable technologies. Most of such sensors on the market or reported in journal publications are based on the operation mechanism of probing capacitance or resistance changes of the materials under pressure. Recently, we reported the microelectromechanical (MEM) sensors based on a different mechanism: mechanical switches. Multiples of such MEM sensors can be integrated to achieve the same function of regular force/pressure sensors while having the advantages of ease of fabrication and long-term stability in operation. Herein, we report the dramatically improved response time (more than one order of magnitude) of these MEM sensors by employing eco-friendly nanomaterials-cellulose nanocrystals. For instance, the incorporation of polydimethysiloxane filled with cellulose nanocrystals shortened the response time of MEM sensors from sub-seconds to several milliseconds, leading to the detection of both diastolic and systolic pressures in the radial arterial blood pressure measurement. Comprehensive mechanical and electrical characterization of the materials and the devices reveal that greatly enhanced storage modulus and loss modulus play key roles in this improved response time. The demonstrated fast-response flexible sensors enabled continuous monitoring of heart rate and complex cardiovascular signals using pressure sensors for future wearable sensing platforms.

  6. On timing response improvement of an NE213 scintillator attached to two PMTs

    Zare, S.; Ghal-Eh, N.; Bayat, E.

    2013-01-01

    A 5 cm diameter by 6 cm height NE213 scintillator attached to two XP2282 PHOTONIS photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) exposed to 241 Americium–Berylium (Am–Be) neutron–gamma source has been used for timing response studies. The neutron–gamma discrimination (NGD) measurements based on a modified zero-crossing (ZC) method show that the discrimination quality, usually expressed in figure-of-merit (FoM) and peak-to-valley (P/V) values, has been improved. The timing response evaluated with Monte Carlo light transport code, PHOTRACK, also verifies this improvement. - Highlights: • An NE213 scintillator attached to two photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) has been proposed. • The neutron–gamma discrimination (NGD) quality factors have been obtained. • The results confirm that the NGD quality of the proposed assembly has been improved

  7. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time.

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence-however measured-also varied throughout the Phanerozoic, reflecting

  8. Detection of advance item knowledge using response times in computer adaptive testing

    Meijer, R.R.; Sotaridona, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new method for detecting item preknowledge in a CAT based on an estimate of “effective response time” for each item. Effective response time is defined as the time required for an individual examinee to answer an item correctly. An unusually short response time relative to the expected

  9. Lifetime measurements in transitional nuclei by fast electronic scintillation timing

    Caprio, M. A.; Zamfir, N. V.; Casten, R. F.; Amro, H.; Barton, C. J.; Beausang, C. W.; Cooper, J. R.; Gürdal, G.; Hecht, A. A.; Hutter, C.; Krücken, R.; McCutchan, E. A.; Meyer, D. A.; Novak, J. R.; Pietralla, N.; Ressler, J. J.; Berant, Z.; Brenner, D. S.; Gill, R. L.; Regan, P. H.

    2002-10-01

    A new generation of experiments studying nuclei in spherical-deformed transition regions has been motivated by the introduction of innovative theoretical approaches to the treatment of these nuclei. The important structural signatures in the transition regions, beyond the basic yrast level properties, involve γ-ray transitions between low-spin, non-yrast levels, and so information on γ-ray branching ratios and absolute matrix elements (or level lifetimes) for these transitions is crucial. A fast electronic scintillation timing (FEST) system [H. Mach, R. L. Gill, and M. Moszyński, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 280, 49 (1989)], making use of BaF2 and plastic scintillation detectors, has been implemented at the Yale Moving Tape Collector for the measurement of lifetimes of states populated in β^ decay. Experiments in the A100 (Pd, Ru) and A150 (Dy, Yb) regions have been carried out, and a few examples will be presented. Supported by the US DOE under grants and contracts DE-FG02-91ER-40609, DE-FG02-88ER-40417, and DE-AC02-98CH10886 and by the German DFG under grant Pi 393/1.

  10. Ultra Fast Timing Measurements at $^{78}$Ni and $^{132}$Sn

    2002-01-01

    We propose to measure level lifetimes in the exotic nuclei of $^{81}$Ga and $^{80}$Ga in the vicinity of $^{78}$Ni and of $^{135}$Sb and $^{134}$Sb above $^{132}$Sn by the time-delayed technique. These are relatively simple nuclear systems with a few particles and/or holes outside of the doubly-magic core thus can be treated rather precisely within the shell model. The anticipated new structure information on these nuclei, and in particular the lifetime results will put constraints on the model parameters and will serve to verify their predictions. The selected nuclei are some of the most exotic ones just above $^{78}$Ni or $^{132}$Sn, where the transition rates can be studied at present. Of the strongest interest is the nucleus of $^{81}$Ga, which has only 3 valence protons outside of $^{78}$Ni with the lowest proton orbits being $p_{3/2}$ and $f_{5/2}$. The Ml transition between these states, although allowed by the selection rules, should be $\\textit{l}$-forbidden thus very slow. This should give rise to a...

  11. A Feedback Optimal Control Algorithm with Optimal Measurement Time Points

    Felix Jost

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear model predictive control has been established as a powerful methodology to provide feedback for dynamic processes over the last decades. In practice it is usually combined with parameter and state estimation techniques, which allows to cope with uncertainty on many levels. To reduce the uncertainty it has also been suggested to include optimal experimental design into the sequential process of estimation and control calculation. Most of the focus so far was on dual control approaches, i.e., on using the controls to simultaneously excite the system dynamics (learning as well as minimizing a given objective (performing. We propose a new algorithm, which sequentially solves robust optimal control, optimal experimental design, state and parameter estimation problems. Thus, we decouple the control and the experimental design problems. This has the advantages that we can analyze the impact of measurement timing (sampling independently, and is practically relevant for applications with either an ethical limitation on system excitation (e.g., chemotherapy treatment or the need for fast feedback. The algorithm shows promising results with a 36% reduction of parameter uncertainties for the Lotka-Volterra fishing benchmark example.

  12. Uncertainty analysis of accident notification time and emergency medical service response time in work zone traffic accidents.

    Meng, Qiang; Weng, Jinxian

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the uncertainty caused by exogenous factors, the accident notification time (ANT) and emergency medical service (EMS) response time were modeled as 2 random variables following the lognormal distribution. Their mean values and standard deviations were respectively formulated as the functions of environmental variables including crash time, road type, weekend, holiday, light condition, weather, and work zone type. Work zone traffic accident data from the Fatality Analysis Report System between 2002 and 2009 were utilized to determine the distributions of the ANT and the EMS arrival time in the United States. A mixed logistic regression model, taking into account the uncertainty associated with the ANT and the EMS response time, was developed to estimate the risk of death. The results showed that the uncertainty of the ANT was primarily influenced by crash time and road type, whereas the uncertainty of EMS response time is greatly affected by road type, weather, and light conditions. In addition, work zone accidents occurring during a holiday and in poor light conditions were found to be statistically associated with a longer mean ANT and longer EMS response time. The results also show that shortening the ANT was a more effective approach in reducing the risk of death than the EMS response time in work zones. To shorten the ANT and the EMS response time, work zone activities are suggested to be undertaken during non-holidays, during the daytime, and in good weather and light conditions.

  13. Measured time-correlated neutron-induced radiations in a sandstone formation. Final report

    Peters, C.; Karaoglan, E.; Ertel, J.; Brotzman, J.; Kennedy, C. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction Operations Office, Department of Energy, via its contractor, The Bendix Field Engineering Corporation, is developing technologies to explore for uranium as a part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. This report is addressed to measurements of the inelastic- and capture-gamma rays induced by 14 MeV neutrons in uranium ore in a simulated sandstone formation. The associated-particle technique and timing correlation was used to measure the production of inelastic-gamma rays versus time and to separate the inelastic-gamma-ray energy spectrum from the capture-gamma-ray energy spectrum. The measurements of the fission-coincidence signal demonstrate that this technique appears to be very sensitive to the presence of uranium. These measurements indicate that the fission-coincidence signal would be improved for uranium assay by using a low-energy neutron source rather than 14-MeV neutrons. The results of these measurements demonstrate that the concept of the Borehole Neutron Diagnostic Probe is a promising new logging tool. Measurements for a wide variety of controlled borehole and formation parameters are needed to determine the optimum design and to calibrate the responses. These measurements should be performed with a prototype logging tool in formations that have densities closer to those found in the field than the simulated formation used in these measurements

  14. Measurement of amplitude fluctuations in a rapid response photomultiplier

    Raimbault, P.

    1961-01-01

    In order to measure amplitude fluctuations in a rapid response photomultiplier, two independent random variables are introduced which determine the shape of the anode pulse. The energy of each pulse, which depends directly on the gain and the variance, is the first variable; amplitude fluctuations, functions of the first variable, depend as well on the pulse width which in turn constitutes the second variable. The results obtained on the variations of the maximum impulse, using a steep-edged pulse broadening circuit, and those obtained on the statistical variations of the gain, are compared to show that the variance relative to the maximum amplitude of the signal is greater than that of the gain. Within the limits of these fluctuations are shown the contribution of the secondary emission coefficient of the first dynode, and that of the mean secondary emission coefficient of the multiplier. (author) [fr

  15. Detailed comparison between computed and measured FBR core seismic responses

    Forni, M.; Martelli, A.; Melloni, R.; Bonacina, G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed comparison between seismic calculations and measurements performed for various mock-ups consisting of groups of seven and nineteen simplified elements of the Italian PEC fast reactor core. Experimental tests had been performed on shaking tables in air and water (simulating sodium) with excitations increasing up to above Safe Shutdown Earthquake. The PEC core-restraint ring had been simulated in some tests. All the experimental tests have been analysed by use of both the one-dimensional computer program CORALIE and the two-dimensional program CLASH. Comparisons have been made for all the instrumented elements, in both the time and the frequency domains. The good agreement between calculations and measurements has confirmed adequacy of the fluid-structure interaction model used for PEC core seismic design verification

  16. Measurement of the open loop plasma equilibrium response in TCV

    Coutlis, A.; Bandyopadhyay, I.; Lister, J.B.; Vyas, P.; Albanese, R.; Limebeer, D.J.N.; Villone, F.; Wainwright, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    A new technique and results are presented for the estimation of the open loop frequency response of the plasma on TCV. Voltages were applied to poloidal field coils and the resulting plasma current, position and shape related parameters were measured. The results are compared with the CREATE-L model, and good agreement is confirmed. The results are a significant advance on previous comparisons with closed loop data, which were limited by the role of feedback in the system. A simpler circuit equation model has also been developed in order to understand the reasons for the good agreement and identify which plasma properties are important in determining the response. The reasons for the good agreement with this model are discussed. An alternative modelling method has been developed, combining features of both the theoretical and experimental techniques. Its advantage is that it incorporates well defined knowledge of the electromagnetic properties of the tokamak with experimental data to derive plasma related parameters. This new model provides further insight into the plasma behaviour. (author)

  17. Measuring Maize Seedling Drought Response in Search of Tolerant Germplasm

    Dirk Hays

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To identify and develop drought tolerant maize (Zea mays L., high-throughput and cost-effective screening methods are needed. In dicot crops, measuring survival and recovery of seedlings has been successful in predicting drought tolerance but has not been reported in C4 grasses such as maize. Seedlings of sixty-two diverse maize inbred lines and their hybrid testcross progeny were evaluated for germination, survival and recovery after a series of drought cycles. Genotypic differences among inbred lines and hybrid testcrosses were best explained approximately 13 and 18 days after planting, respectively. Genotypic effects were significant and explained over 6% of experimental variance. Specifically three inbred lines had significant survival, and 14 hybrids had significant recovery. However, no significant correlation was observed between hybrids and inbreds (R2 = 0.03, indicating seedling stress response is more useful as a secondary screening parameter in hybrids than in inbred lines per se. Field yield data under full and limited irrigation indicated that seedling drought mechanisms were independent of drought responses at flowering in this study.

  18. Leveraging First Response Time into the Knowledge Tracing Model

    Wang, Yutao; Heffernan, Neil T.

    2012-01-01

    The field of educational data mining has been using the Knowledge Tracing model, which only look at the correctness of student first response, for tracking student knowledge. Recently, lots of other features are studied to extend the Knowledge Tracing model to better model student knowledge. The goal of this paper is to analyze whether or not the…

  19. Planck 2013 results. VII. HFI time response and beams

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper characterizes the effective beams, the effective beam window functions (EBWF) and the associated errors for the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) detectors. The effective beam is the angular response including the effect of the optics, detectors, data processing and the scan strat...

  20. Timely Response and Containment of 2016 Cholera Outbreak in ...

    medical, environmental and laboratory staff from district to provincial level was assembled to investigate and manage the outbreak. The district rapid response team was prepared to conduct an Epidemiological investigation of the sudden increase of diarrheal cases and logistics were put aside for the first 20 patients. Case.

  1. Understanding the exposure-time effect on speckle contrast measurements for laser displays

    Suzuki, Koji; Kubota, Shigeo

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of exposure time on speckle noise for laser displays, speckle contrast measurement method was developed observable at a human eye response time using a high-sensitivity camera which has a signal multiplying function. The nonlinearity of camera light sensitivity was calibrated to measure accurate speckle contrasts, and the measuring lower limit noise of speckle contrast was improved by applying spatial-frequency low pass filter to the captured images. Three commercially available laser displays were measured over a wide range of exposure times from tens of milliseconds to several seconds without adjusting the brightness of laser displays. The speckle contrast of raster-scanned mobile projector without any speckle-reduction device was nearly constant over various exposure times. On the contrary to this, in full-frame projection type laser displays equipped with a temporally-averaging speckle-reduction device, some of their speckle contrasts close to the lower limits noise were slightly increased at the shorter exposure time due to the noise. As a result, the exposure-time effect of speckle contrast could not be observed in our measurements, although it is more reasonable to think that the speckle contrasts of laser displays, which are equipped with the temporally-averaging speckle-reduction device, are dependent on the exposure time. This discrepancy may be attributed to the underestimation of temporal averaging factor. We expected that this method is useful for evaluating various laser displays and clarify the relationship between the speckle noise and the exposure time for a further verification of speckle reduction.

  2. Utilizing Response Time Distributions for Item Selection in CAT

    Fan, Zhewen; Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Douglas, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Traditional methods for item selection in computerized adaptive testing only focus on item information without taking into consideration the time required to answer an item. As a result, some examinees may receive a set of items that take a very long time to finish, and information is not accrued as efficiently as possible. The authors propose two…

  3. Project Ancient Acoustics Part 1 of 4 : a method for accurate impulse response measurements in large open air theatres

    Hak, C.C.J.M.; Hoekstra, N.; Nicolai, B.; Wenmaekers, R.H.C.

    2016-01-01

    Selecting an appropriate method for measuring ‘normal’ indoor concert hall acoustics is always a trade-off between time, stimulus type, number of measurements and measurement quality. For ISO 3382 room acoustic parameters to be derived accurately from impulse responses, this tradeoff aims at a

  4. Dissociations of spatial congruence effects across response measures: an examination of delta plots.

    Miller, Jeff; Roüast, Nora M

    2016-09-01

    Spatial congruence ("Simon") effects on reaction time (RT) and response force (RF) were studied in two experiments requiring speeded choice responses to the color of a stimulus located irrelevantly to the left or right of fixation. In Experiment 1 with unimanual responses, both RT and incorrect-hand RF were sensitive to spatial congruence, and both showed larger Simon effects following a congruent trial than following an incongruent one. RT and incorrect-hand RF were dissociated in distributional (i.e., delta plot) analyses, however. As in previous studies, the Simon effect on RT was largest for the fastest responses and diminished as RT increased (i.e., decreasing delta plot). In contrast, Simon effects on RF did not decrease for slower responses; if anything, they increased slightly. In Experiment 2 participants made bimanual responses, allowing measurement of the spatial congruence effect for each trial. Responses were both faster and more forceful with the spatially congruent hand than with the spatially incongruent one, but neither of these effects decreased for slower responses. Overall, the results demonstrate that at least some motor-level effects of irrelevant spatial location persist for slower responses.

  5. Rapid Time Response: A solution for Manufacturing Issue

    Norazlin N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Respond time in manufacturing give the major impact that able to contribute too many manufacturing issues. Based on two worst case scenario occurred where Toyota in 2009 made a massive vehicles call due to car complexity of 11 major models and over 9 million vehicles. The recalls cost at least $2 billion in cost of repair, lost deals and result in lost 5% of its market share in United State of America, while A380 was reported on missing target in new production and leads to delayed market entry due to their weak product life cycle management (PLM. These cases give a sign to all industries to possess and optimize the facilities for better traceability in shortest time period. In Industry 4.0, the traceability and time respond become the factors for high performance manufacturing and rapid time respond able to expedite the traceability process and strengthen the communication level between man, machine and management. The round trip time (RTT experiment gives variant time respond between two difference operating system for intra and inter-platform signal. If this rapid time respond is adopted in any manufacturing process, the delay in traceability on every issue that lead to losses can be successfully avoided.

  6. Real time quality control of meteorological data used in SRP's emergency response system

    Pendergast, M.M.

    1980-05-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory's WIND minicomputer system allows quick and accurate assessment of an accidental release at the Savannah River Plant using data from eight meteorological towers. The accuracy of the assessment is largely determined by the accuracy of the meteorological data; therefore quality control is important in an emergency response system. Real-time quality control of this data will be added to the WIND system to automatically identify inaccurate data. Currently, the system averages the measurements from the towers to minimize the influence of inaccurate data being used in calculations. The computer code used in the real-time quality control has been previously used to identify inaccurate measurements from the archived tower data

  7. Measurement of time-dependent fast neutron energy spectra in a depleted uranium assembly

    Whittlestone, S.

    1980-10-01

    Time-dependent neutron energy spectra in the range 0.6 to 6.4 MeV have been measured in a depleted uranium assembly. By selecting windows in the time range 0.9 to 82 ns after the beam pulse, it was possible to observe the change of the neutron energy distributions from spectra of predominantly 4 to 6 MeV neutrons to spectra composed almost entirely of fission neutrons. The measured spectra were compared to a Monte Carlo calculation of the experiment using the ENDF/B-IV data file. At times and energies at which the calculation predicted a fission spectrum, the experiment agreed with the calculation, confirming the accuracy of the neutron spectroscopy system. However, the presence of discrepancies at other times and energies suggested that there are significant inconsistencies in the inelastic cross sections in the 1 to 6 MeV range. The time response generated concurrently with the energy spectra was compared to the Monte Carlo calculation. From this comparison, and from examination of time spectra measured by other workers using 235 U and 237 Np fission detectors, it would appear that there are discrepancies in the ENDF/B-IV cross sections below 1 MeV. The predicted decay rates were too low below and too high above 0.8 MeV

  8. Real-time earthquake monitoring: Early warning and rapid response

    1991-01-01

    A panel was established to investigate the subject of real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) and suggest recommendations on the feasibility of using a real-time earthquake warning system to mitigate earthquake damage in regions of the United States. The findings of the investigation and the related recommendations are described in this report. A brief review of existing real-time seismic systems is presented with particular emphasis given to the current California seismic networks. Specific applications of a real-time monitoring system are discussed along with issues related to system deployment and technical feasibility. In addition, several non-technical considerations are addressed including cost-benefit analysis, public perceptions, safety, and liability.

  9. Measures of the inflammatory response in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

    Pantin, C.F.; Valind, S.O.; Sweatman, M.; Lawrence, R.; Rhodes, C.G.; Brudin, L.; Britten, A.; Hughes, J.M.; Turner-Warwick, M.

    1988-01-01

    Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) is characterized by interstitial fibrosis and parenchymal inflammation. Eleven patients with CFA (10 proved by lung biopsy) were followed over 2 yr using clinical symptoms, radiographic change, and pulmonary function tests to adjust their treatment. Lung lavage, positron camera (PET) measurements of regional extravascular lung density (Dev), pulmonary blood volume (Vb), and the metabolic rate for 18F-deoxyglucose (MRglc), clearance of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentacetate (99mTc-DTPA) aerosol, and lung uptake of 67Ga were measured initially and at the end of the first year to give a profile of the inflammatory response. Compared with normal subjects, there was an increased percentage of neutrophils and eosinophils in the lung lavage, increased Dev (p less than 0.002) with no significant difference in Vb, increased MRglc (p less than 0.02), 99mTc-DTPA clearance (p less than 0.002), and 67Ga uptake (p less than 0.02). The smallest increases in Dev were seen in the two patients with most destruction shown by lung biopsy. There were inverse correlations between Dev and both FVC and TLC, but a direct correlation between Vb and transfer factor. 99mTc-DTPA clearance changed concordantly with clinical status and radiographic and respiratory function changes during the first year. If glucose utilization (MRglc) remained in the normal range between the initial and first yearly assessment, the patient improved or remained stable during the second year as shown by clinical status and radiographic and respiratory function measurements. If it rose or remained high, the patient's condition deteriorated

  10. Response to gravity by Zea mays seedlings. I. Time course of the response

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.; Dayanandan, P.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    Gravistimulation induces an asymmetric distribution of free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the cortex-epidermis of the Zea mays L. cv 'Stowells Evergreen' mesocotyl within 15 minutes, the shortest time tested. IAA was measured by an isotope dilution method as the pentaflurobenzyl ester. The per cent IAA in the lower half of the mescotyl cortex was 56 to 57% at 15, 30, and 90 minutes after stimulus initiation. Curvature is detectable in the mescotyl within 3 minutes after beginning gravitropic stimulation. The rate of curvature of the mesocotyl increases during the first 60 minutes to maximum of about 30 degrees per hour. Thus, the growth asymmetry continues to increase for 45 minutes after hormone asymmetry is established. Free IAA occurs predominantly in the stele of the mesocotyl whereas esterified IAA is mainly in the mesocotyl cortex-epidermis. This compartmentation may permit determining in which tissue the hormone asymmetry arises. Current data suggest the asymmetry originated in the stele.

  11. A Study of Improving Response Time Verification Method for Pressure Transmitters

    Lee, Jungyang; Ha, Jaehong; Jung, Insoo; Jo, Junghee; Kim, Hangbae

    2007-01-01

    Technical Specifications (TS) of OPR1000 type nuclear power plants in Korea require pressure sensor response time testing (RTT) to ensure sensor performance per assumption in plant safety analyses. However, the need for pressure sensor response time testing is not clear because the nominal sensor response times are in the order of milliseconds while overall loop response time limits being from several seconds to tens of seconds. Additionally, response time testing does not appear to identify response time degradation or failures. Consequently, the need for this testing has been questioned, and a study to determine if response time testing is necessary to justify the assumptions in plant safety analyses in the United States has been conducted and NRC has approved to remove the test requirements for them. A similar study was conducted for OPR1000 type nuclear power plants and the results are presented here

  12. On the Relationship Between Transfer Function-derived Response Times and Hydrograph Analysis Timing Parameters: Are there Similarities?

    Bansah, S.; Ali, G.; Haque, M. A.; Tang, V.

    2017-12-01

    The proportion of precipitation that becomes streamflow is a function of internal catchment characteristics - which include geology, landscape characteristics and vegetation - and influence overall storage dynamics. The timing and quantity of water discharged by a catchment are indeed embedded in event hydrographs. Event hydrograph timing parameters, such as the response lag and time of concentration, are important descriptors of how long it takes the catchment to respond to input precipitation and how long it takes the latter to filter through the catchment. However, the extent to which hydrograph timing parameters relate to average response times derived from fitting transfer functions to annual hydrographs is unknown. In this study, we used a gamma transfer function to determine catchment average response times as well as event-specific hydrograph parameters across a network of eight nested watersheds ranging from 0.19 km2 to 74.6 km2 prairie catchments located in south central Manitoba (Canada). Various statistical analyses were then performed to correlate average response times - estimated using the parameters of the fitted gamma transfer function - to event-specific hydrograph parameters. Preliminary results show significant interannual variations in response times and hydrograph timing parameters: the former were in the order of a few hours to days, while the latter ranged from a few days to weeks. Some statistically significant relationships were detected between response times and event-specific hydrograph parameters. Future analyses will involve the comparison of statistical distributions of event-specific hydrograph parameters with that of runoff response times and baseflow transit times in order to quantity catchment storage dynamics across a range of temporal scales.

  13. Measuring gas-residence times in large municipal incinerators, by means of a pseudo-random binary signal tracer technique

    Nasserzadeh, V.; Swithenbank, J.; Jones, B.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of measuring gas-residence time in large incinerators was studied by the pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) stimulus tracer response technique at the Sheffield municipal solid-waste incinerator (35 MW plant). The steady-state system was disturbed by the superimposition of small fluctuations in the form of a pseudo-random binary sequence of methane pulses, and the response of the incinerator was determined from the CO 2 concentration in flue gases at the boiler exit, measured with a specially developed optical gas analyser with a high-frequency response. For data acquisition, an on-line PC computer was used together with the LAB Windows software system; the output response was then cross-correlated with the perturbation signal to give the impulse response of the incinerator. There was very good agreement between the gas-residence time for the Sheffield MSW incinerator as calculated by computational fluid dynamics (FLUENT Model) and gas-residence time at the plant as measured by the PRBS tracer technique. The results obtained from this research programme clearly demonstrate that the PRBS stimulus tracer response technique can be successfully and economically used to measure gas-residence times in large incinerator plants. It also suggests that the common commercial practice of characterising the incinerator operation by a single-residence-time parameter may lead to a misrepresentation of the complexities involved in describing the operation of the incineration system. (author)

  14. Time-response shaping using output to input saturation transformation

    Chambon, E.; Burlion, L.; Apkarian, P.

    2018-03-01

    For linear systems, the control law design is often performed so that the resulting closed loop meets specific frequency-domain requirements. However, in many cases, it may be observed that the obtained controller does not enforce time-domain requirements amongst which the objective of keeping a scalar output variable in a given interval. In this article, a transformation is proposed to convert prescribed bounds on an output variable into time-varying saturations on the synthesised linear scalar control law. This transformation uses some well-chosen time-varying coefficients so that the resulting time-varying saturation bounds do not overlap in the presence of disturbances. Using an anti-windup approach, it is obtained that the origin of the resulting closed loop is globally asymptotically stable and that the constrained output variable satisfies the time-domain constraints in the presence of an unknown finite-energy-bounded disturbance. An application to a linear ball and beam model is presented.

  15. High time resolution measurements of the thermosphere from Fabry-Perot Interferometer measurements of atomic oxygen

    E. A. K. Ford

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the performance of CCD detectors have enabled a high time resolution study of the high latitude upper thermosphere with Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs to be performed. 10-s integration times were used during a campaign in April 2004 on an FPI located in northern Sweden in the auroral oval. The FPI is used to study the thermosphere by measuring the oxygen red line emission at 630.0 nm, which emits at an altitude of approximately 240 km. Previous time resolutions have been 4 min at best, due to the cycle of look directions normally observed. By using 10 s rather than 40 s integration times, and by limiting the number of full cycles in a night, high resolution measurements down to 15 s were achievable. This has allowed the maximum variability of the thermospheric winds and temperatures, and 630.0 nm emission intensities, at approximately 240 km, to be determined as a few minutes. This is a significantly greater variability than the often assumed value of 1 h or more. A Lomb-Scargle analysis of this data has shown evidence of gravity wave activity with waves with short periods. Gravity waves are an important feature of mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT dynamics, observed using many techniques and providing an important mechanism for energy transfer between atmospheric regions. At high latitudes gravity waves may be generated in-situ by localised auroral activity. Short period waves were detected in all four clear nights when this experiment was performed, in 630.0 nm intensities and thermospheric winds and temperatures. Waves with many periodicities were observed, from periods of several hours, down to 14 min. These waves were seen in all parameters over several nights, implying that this variability is a typical property of the thermosphere.

  16. A critique of response strategies: Measures to induce a paradigmatic shift in response to student writing

    Spencer, Brenda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores response to student writing in entry-level English modules in an Open and Distance Learning (ODL context at the University of South Africa (UNISA. After an evaluation of the research undertaken by Spencer (1999 and Lephalala and Pienaar (2008, both conducted in this specific teaching context, the argument is put forward that the predominantly formalist orientation of the marking can be described as an attractor (Weideman, 2009, since it seems that the system is attracted into this state and has maintained it over a number of years. There is a need to shift towards a cognitive, reader-based orientation. The author uses the categories defined in Lephalala and Pienaar (2008 to describe feedback styles. The categories are L1 (minimal feedback, L2 (general and non-text-specific feedback and L3 (feedback with a focus on content and organisation. Four amendments are proposed to the existing marking code which will encourage markers to operate in the desired L3 feedback category. This paper argues that these additions to the marking code will address limitations inherent in the marking code. At present, marked scripts contain a jumble of recommendations relating to content/form and global/local issues and there is little indication of the relative importance of an error. The marking code is inherently negative in orientation and promotes a formalist L1 style of response. A qualitative investigation into the reaction to the proposed changes was obtained from 33 marked samples of response to student writing provided by external markers. Compared to the data given in Lephalala and Pienaar (2008, the changes tested in this study were unable to influence the dominant L1 response strategy, but caused a shift away from L2 formulaic responses and an increase in the desired L3 feedback. There is a need for intensive investigation into feedback in this ODL teaching context and into measures to promote L3 feedback.

  17. Prediction of the human response time with the similarity and quantity of information

    Lee, Sungjin; Heo, Gyunyoung; Chang, Soon Heung

    2006-01-01

    Memory is one of brain processes that are important when trying to understand how people process information. Although a large number of studies have been made on the human performance, little is known about the similarity effect in human performance. The purpose of this paper is to propose and validate the quantitative and predictive model on the human response time in the user interface with the concept of similarity. However, it is not easy to explain the human performance with only similarity or information amount. We are confronted by two difficulties: making the quantitative model on the human response time with the similarity and validating the proposed model by experimental work. We made the quantitative model based on the Hick's law and the law of practice. In addition, we validated the model with various experimental conditions by measuring participants' response time in the environment of computer-based display. Experimental results reveal that the human performance is improved by the user interface's similarity. We think that the proposed model is useful for the user interface design and evaluation phases

  18. A semi-parametric within-subject mixture approach to the analyses of responses and response times.

    Molenaar, Dylan; Bolsinova, Maria; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2018-05-01

    In item response theory, modelling the item response times in addition to the item responses may improve the detection of possible between- and within-subject differences in the process that resulted in the responses. For instance, if respondents rely on rapid guessing on some items but not on all, the joint distribution of the responses and response times will be a multivariate within-subject mixture distribution. Suitable parametric methods to detect these within-subject differences have been proposed. In these approaches, a distribution needs to be assumed for the within-class response times. In this paper, it is demonstrated that these parametric within-subject approaches may produce false positives and biased parameter estimates if the assumption concerning the response time distribution is violated. A semi-parametric approach is proposed which resorts to categorized response times. This approach is shown to hardly produce false positives and parameter bias. In addition, the semi-parametric approach results in approximately the same power as the parametric approach. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Fast response time alcohol gas sensor using nanocrystalline F ...

    been used in gas sensor applications, i.e. adsorption ability, catalytic ... sity, as well as grain boundary alteration (Yamazoe 1991;. 521 ... oxide surface using a catalyst layer or gas filter layer. Shukla .... mobility and sheet resistance were measured using resisti- .... ation considerably reduces the conversion efficiency in flat.

  20. Modeling an Application's Theoretical Minimum and Average Transactional Response Times

    Paiz, Mary Rose [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The theoretical minimum transactional response time of an application serves as a ba- sis for the expected response time. The lower threshold for the minimum response time represents the minimum amount of time that the application should take to complete a transaction. Knowing the lower threshold is beneficial in detecting anomalies that are re- sults of unsuccessful transactions. On the converse, when an application's response time falls above an upper threshold, there is likely an anomaly in the application that is causing unusual performance issues in the transaction. This report explains how the non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value distribution is used to estimate the lower threshold of an ap- plication's daily minimum transactional response time. It also explains how the seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series model is used to estimate the upper threshold for an application's average transactional response time.

  1. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress.

    Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75-min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex-Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu-RT, sigma-RT, and tau-RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = -.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = -.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = -.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = -.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses. © 2016 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. Time Resolution Dependence of Information Measures for Spiking Neurons: Scaling and Universality

    James P Crutchfield

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mutual information between stimulus and spike-train response is commonly used to monitor neural coding efficiency, but neuronal computation broadly conceived requires more refined and targeted information measures of input-output joint processes. A first step towards that larger goal is todevelop information measures for individual output processes, including information generation (entropy rate, stored information (statisticalcomplexity, predictable information (excess entropy, and active information accumulation (bound information rate. We calculate these for spike trains generated by a variety of noise-driven integrate-and-fire neurons as a function of time resolution and for alternating renewal processes. We show that their time-resolution dependence reveals coarse-grained structural properties of interspike interval statistics; e.g., $tau$-entropy rates that diverge less quickly than the firing rate indicate interspike interval correlations. We also find evidence that the excess entropy and regularized statistical complexity of different types of integrate-and-fire neurons are universal in the continuous-time limit in the sense that they do not depend on mechanism details. This suggests a surprising simplicity in the spike trains generated by these model neurons. Interestingly, neurons with gamma-distributed ISIs and neurons whose spike trains are alternating renewal processes do not fall into the same universality class. These results lead to two conclusions. First, the dependence of information measures on time resolution reveals mechanistic details about spike train generation. Second, information measures can be used as model selection tools for analyzing spike train processes.

  3. Correlates of objectively measured sedentary time and self-reported screen time in Canadian children.

    LeBlanc, Allana G; Broyles, Stephanie T; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Leduc, Geneviève; Boyer, Charles; Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-03-18

    Demographic, family, and home characteristics play an important role in determining childhood sedentary behaviour. The objective of this paper was to identify correlates of total sedentary time (SED) and correlates of self-reported screen time (ST) in Canadian children. Child- and parent-reported household, socio-demographic, behavioural, and diet related data were collected; directly measured anthropometric and accelerometer data were also collected for each child. Participants with complete demographic, anthropometric, and either SED (n=524, 41% boys) or ST (n=567, 42% boys) data from the Canadian site of the International Study of Childhood Obesity Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) were included in analysis. Sixteen potential correlates of SED and ST were examined using multilevel general linear models, adjusting for sex, ethnicity, number of siblings, and socio-economic status. All explanatory variables moderately associated (peducation, and unhealthy eating pattern score and negatively associated with healthy eating pattern score, and weekend breakfast consumption. Few common correlates existed between boys and girls. Several factors were identified as correlates of SED and/or of ST in Canadian children; however, few correlates were common for both SED and ST, and for both boys and girls. This suggests that a single strategy to reduce SED and ST is unlikely to be effective. Future work should examine a variety of other, non-screen based sedentary behaviours and their potential correlates in the hopes of creating tailored public health messages to reduce SED and ST in both boys, and girls.

  4. Standard reference for instrument response function in fluorescence lifetime measurements in visible and near infrared

    Chib, Rahul; Shah, Sunil; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Fudala, Rafal; Borejdo, Julian; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Zelent, Bogumil; Corradini, Maria G; Ludescher, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Allura red (AR) fluorophore, a common dye in the food industry, displays a broad emission spectrum in water (visible-to-near infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum) and has a remarkably short fluorescence lifetime of about 10 ps. This short lifetime does not depend on the emission (observation) wavelength. We examined time responses of AR fluorescence across emission wavelengths from 550 nm to 750 nm and found that it is an ideal candidate for impulse response functions in fluorescence lifetime measurements. (technical note)

  5. A heteroscedastic generalized linear model with a non-normal speed factor for responses and response times.

    Molenaar, Dylan; Bolsinova, Maria

    2017-05-01

    In generalized linear modelling of responses and response times, the observed response time variables are commonly transformed to make their distribution approximately normal. A normal distribution for the transformed response times is desirable as it justifies the linearity and homoscedasticity assumptions in the underlying linear model. Past research has, however, shown that the transformed response times are not always normal. Models have been developed to accommodate this violation. In the present study, we propose a modelling approach for responses and response times to test and model non-normality in the transformed response times. Most importantly, we distinguish between non-normality due to heteroscedastic residual variances, and non-normality due to a skewed speed factor. In a simulation study, we establish parameter recovery and the power to separate both effects. In addition, we apply the model to a real data set. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  6. Negotiating Political Responsibility in Times of National Tragedy

    FlorenţaTOADER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the way political responsibility is constructed through discourse by Romanian politicians in the Web 2.0 era. Drawing on an analytical framework proposed by Augoustinos, Hastie and Wright (2011, based on discursive psychology, and critical discourse analysis, this paper analyses the Facebook messages released by the main political actors in Romania, after the Colectiv nightclub fire. The empirical endeavour is guided by two research objectives: to analyse the discursive strategies used to create discursive identities, to assign political responsibility and to express solidarity with the victims; and to analyse a specific kind of rhetoric, the political apology, focusing on its pragmatic and linguistic features and on the emotion categories (empathy, sympathy, anger, guilt, sadness deployed to deliver the apology. The results of the study show that when faced with a situation where the offender is hard to define, political actors prefer the use of another speech act: the expression of solidarity and compassion. While the political apology is offered only after and explicit demand, the expression of solidarity is offered promptly and willingly.

  7. Integrated response and transit time distributions of watersheds by combining hydrograph separation and long-term transit time modeling

    M. C. Roa-García

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new modeling approach analyzing and predicting the Transit Time Distribution (TTD and the Response Time Distribution (RTD from hourly to annual time scales as two distinct hydrological processes. The model integrates Isotope Hydrograph Separation (IHS and the Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (IUH approach as a tool to provide a more realistic description of transit and response time of water in catchments. Individual event simulations and parameterizations were combined with long-term baseflow simulation and parameterizations; this provides a comprehensive picture of the catchment response for a long time span for the hydraulic and isotopic processes. The proposed method was tested in three Andean headwater catchments to compare the effects of land use on hydrological response and solute transport. Results show that the characteristics of events and antecedent conditions have a significant influence on TTD and RTD, but in general the RTD of the grassland dominated catchment is concentrated in the shorter time spans and has a higher cumulative TTD, while the forest dominated catchment has a relatively higher response distribution and lower cumulative TTD. The catchment where wetlands concentrate shows a flashier response, but wetlands also appear to prolong transit time.

  8. 40 CFR 1601.24 - Timing of responses to requests.

    2010-07-01

    ... an imminent threat to the life or physical safety of an individual; (ii) An urgency to inform the... affect public confidence. (2) A request for expedited processing may be made at the time of the initial... shall notify the requester of the decision. If a request for expedited treatment is granted, the request...

  9. Community Connections. Time Warner Community Responsibility Report, 1998-2000.

    Owens, Jane; Stein, Carol

    This report highlights efforts by Time Warner personnel to strengthen community connections through various programs and services aimed at supporting: education, the arts, volunteerism, diversity, and business-community action. The report is divided into sections focusing on each of these areas. The first section, Education, describes programs…

  10. Real time wave measurements and wave hindcasting in deep waters

    Anand, N.M.; Mandal, S.; SanilKumar, V.; Nayak, B.U.

    Deep water waves off Karwar (lat. 14~'45.1'N, long. 73~'34.8'E) at 75 m water depth pertaining to peak monsoon period have been measured using a Datawell waverider buoy. Measured wave data show that the significant wave height (Hs) predominantly...

  11. Time-dependent leaf proteome alterations of Brachypodium distachyon in response to drought stress.

    Tatli, Ozge; Sogutmaz Ozdemir, Bahar; Dinler Doganay, Gizem

    2017-08-01

    For the first time, a comprehensive proteome analysis was conducted on Brachypodium leaves under drought stress. Gradual changes in response to drought stress were monitored. Drought is one of the major stress factors that dramatically affect the agricultural productivity worldwide. Improving the yield under drought is an urgent challenge in agriculture. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for monocot plants such as wheat, barley and several potential biofuel grasses. In the current study, a comprehensive proteome analysis was conducted on Brachypodium leaves under different levels of drought application. To screen gradual changes upon drought, Brachypodium leaves subjected to drought for 4, 8 and 12 days were collected for each treatment day and relative water content of the leaves was measured for each time point. Cellular responses of Brachypodium were investigated through a proteomic approach involving two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Among 497 distinct spots in Brachypodium protein repertoire, a total of 13 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified as responsive to drought by mass spectrometry and classified according to their functions using bioinformatics tools. The biological functions of DEPs included roles in photosynthesis, protein folding, antioxidant mechanism and metabolic processes, which responded differentially at each time point of drought treatment. To examine further transcriptional expression of the genes that code identified protein, quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed. Identified proteins will contribute to the studies involving development of drought-resistant crop species and lead to the delineation of molecular mechanisms in drought response.

  12. Proper-time resolution function for measurement of time evolution of B mesons at the KEK B-Factory

    Tajima, H.; Aihara, H.; Higuchi, T.; Kawai, H.; Nakadaira, T.; Tanaka, J.; Tomura, T.; Yokoyama, M.; Hazumi, M.; Sakai, Y.; Sumisawa, K.; Kawasaki, T.

    2004-01-01

    The proper-time resolution function for the measurement of the time evolution of B mesons with the Belle detector at KEKB is studied in detail. The obtained resolution function is applied to the measurement of B meson lifetimes, the B0B-bar 0 oscillation frequency and time-dependent CP asymmetries

  13. Maize response to time of nitrogen application and planting seasons

    Parbati Adhikari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N response by maize differs due to growing seasons, growth stages, duration and growing domain as N losses is higher due to leaching as well as volatilization. Objective of this study was to know the response of split applications of N and growing seasons on maize under Chitwan environments. Field experiments were conducted for two consecutive years at the research field of NMRP Rampur during the winter, spring, and summer seasons of 2012/013 and 2013/014. Experiments were laid out in factorial randomized complete block design with four replications for all the seasons. Early maturing maize genotype Arun-1 EV was used for the experiments. Five splits of recommended dose of N were tested. Grain yield, days to flowering, plant height, ear height, kernel rows per ear, no. of kernels per row, ear length and thousand grain weight significantly differed due to growing seasons and split applications of N. Significantly higher grain yield (3911 kg ha-1 was obtained with the application of 30 kg N ha-1 each at 30, 45, 60, and 75 days after sowing as compared to control (2801 kg ha-1. Regarding the growing seasons, highest grain yield was obtained in winter (4393 kg ha-1 followed by spring (3791 kg ha-1 and summer (2468 kg ha-1 season, respectively. Results of these studies revealed that four splits of N viz. application of 30 kg N each at 30, 45, 60, and 75 days after sowing respectively, would be more economical to minimize N losses from the soil and efficient use of N at critical growth and development stages of maize.

  14. Global real-time dose measurements using the Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, D.; Smart, D.; Shea, M.; Bailey, J.; Didkovsky, L.; Judge, K.; Garrett, H.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R.; Bell, D.; Mertens, C.; Xu, X.; Wiltberger, M.; Wiley, S.; Teets, E.; Jones, B.; Hong, S.; Yoon, K.

    2016-11-01

    The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) program has successfully deployed a fleet of six instruments measuring the ambient radiation environment at commercial aircraft altitudes. ARMAS transmits real-time data to the ground and provides quality, tissue-relevant ambient dose equivalent rates with 5 min latency for dose rates on 213 flights up to 17.3 km (56,700 ft). We show five cases from different aircraft; the source particles are dominated by galactic cosmic rays but include particle fluxes for minor radiation periods and geomagnetically disturbed conditions. The measurements from 2013 to 2016 do not cover a period of time to quantify galactic cosmic rays' dependence on solar cycle variation and their effect on aviation radiation. However, we report on small radiation "clouds" in specific magnetic latitude regions and note that active geomagnetic, variable space weather conditions may sufficiently modify the magnetospheric magnetic field that can enhance the radiation environment, particularly at high altitudes and middle to high latitudes. When there is no significant space weather, high-latitude flights produce a dose rate analogous to a chest X-ray every 12.5 h, every 25 h for midlatitudes, and every 100 h for equatorial latitudes at typical commercial flight altitudes of 37,000 ft ( 11 km). The dose rate doubles every 2 km altitude increase, suggesting a radiation event management strategy for pilots or air traffic control; i.e., where event-driven radiation regions can be identified, they can be treated like volcanic ash clouds to achieve radiation safety goals with slightly lower flight altitudes or more equatorial flight paths.

  15. Development of a Scale Measuring Discursive Responsible Leadership

    Voegtlin Christian

    2012-01-01

    The paper advances the conceptual understanding of responsible leadership and develops an empirical scale of discursive responsible leadership. The concept of responsible leadership presented here draws on deliberative practices and discursive conflict resolution combining the macro view of the business firm as a political actor with the micro view of leadership. Ideal responsible leadership conduct thereby goes beyond the dyadic leader–follower interaction to include all stakeholders. The pa...

  16. Measurements of spatial population synchrony: influence of time series transformations.

    Chevalier, Mathieu; Laffaille, Pascal; Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste; Grenouillet, Gaël

    2015-09-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain spatial population synchrony: dispersal among populations, and the spatial correlation of density-independent factors (the "Moran effect"). To identify which of these two mechanisms is driving spatial population synchrony, time series transformations (TSTs) of abundance data have been used to remove the signature of one mechanism, and highlight the effect of the other. However, several issues with TSTs remain, and to date no consensus has emerged about how population time series should be handled in synchrony studies. Here, by using 3131 time series involving 34 fish species found in French rivers, we computed several metrics commonly used in synchrony studies to determine whether a large-scale climatic factor (temperature) influenced fish population dynamics at the regional scale, and to test the effect of three commonly used TSTs (detrending, prewhitening and a combination of both) on these metrics. We also tested whether the influence of TSTs on time series and population synchrony levels was related to the features of the time series using both empirical and simulated time series. For several species, and regardless of the TST used, we evidenced a Moran effect on freshwater fish populations. However, these results were globally biased downward by TSTs which reduced our ability to detect significant signals. Depending on the species and the features of the time series, we found that TSTs could lead to contradictory results, regardless of the metric considered. Finally, we suggest guidelines on how population time series should be processed in synchrony studies.

  17. The time response function of spark counters and RPCs

    Gobbi, A.; Mangiarotti, A.

    2003-01-01

    The fluctuation theory for the avalanche growth with and without space charge effects is briefly summarized and compared to a broad field of applications. These include spark counters as well as timing and trigger RPCs operated in avalanche mode. A large domain in electrical field strength, pressure, gap size and gas mixture type is covered. A reasonable agreement with the experiment is observed, giving confidence on the validity of both assumptions and treatment of the theory

  18. Correlation measure to detect time series distances, whence economy globalization

    Miśkiewicz, Janusz; Ausloos, Marcel

    2008-11-01

    An instantaneous time series distance is defined through the equal time correlation coefficient. The idea is applied to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) yearly increments of 21 rich countries between 1950 and 2005 in order to test the process of economic globalisation. Some data discussion is first presented to decide what (EKS, GK, or derived) GDP series should be studied. Distances are then calculated from the correlation coefficient values between pairs of series. The role of time averaging of the distances over finite size windows is discussed. Three network structures are next constructed based on the hierarchy of distances. It is shown that the mean distance between the most developed countries on several networks actually decreases in time, -which we consider as a proof of globalization. An empirical law is found for the evolution after 1990, similar to that found in flux creep. The optimal observation time window size is found ≃15 years.

  19. Measurement and control of cement set times in waste solidification

    Stone, J.A.; d'Entremont, P.D.

    1976-09-01

    Fixation of radioactive waste in concrete was investigated on laboratory scale. Some cement formulations containing simulated or actual sludges from the Savannah River Plant had set times that would be too short for reliable handling in plant equipment. Set times could be controlled by use of excess water, but the concrete forms produced had inferior strength. A commercial organic retarder was found to be effective for increasing set times of cement-sludge formulations. However, the dosage of retarder required to control set times of high-alumina cement formulations was 1.0 to 1.5 wt percent of dry solids, which is 5 to 10 times the normal dosage for Portland cements. Data were obtained to predict the optimum content of retarder and water

  20. Effect-independent measures of tissue responses to fractionated irradiation

    Thames, H.D. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Tissue repair factors measure the sparing that can be achieved from dose fractionation in the absence of proliferation. Four repair factors are analysed in these terms: Fsub(R),Fsub(rec), the ratio of linear-quadratic survival model parameters β/α and the half-time Tsub(1/2) for intracellular repair processes. Theoretically, Fsub(R) and Fsub(rec) are increasing functions of D 1 , and thus depend on level of effect. This is confirmed by analysis of skin reactions after multifractionated radiation. By contrast, β/α is effect-independent as a measure of repair capacity in skin, gut, and bone marrow, tissues for which it is reasonable to assume that survival of identifiable target cells is the primary determinant of the endpoint. For a functional endpoint not clearly connected with the depletion of a specific target-cell population (late fibrotic reactions in the kidney), there was an increase in β/α with increased levels of injury, but this was statistically insignificant. Tsub(1/2) is independent of fraction size in skin, gut, and spinal cord, and is longer (1.5 hours) in the late-reacting tissues (lung and spinal cord) than in those that react acutely (Tsub(1/2) less than 1 hour), with skin as the exception (Tsub(1/2) approx. 1.3 hours). (author)

  1. The link between response time and preference, variance and processing heterogeneity in stated choice experiments

    Campbell, Danny; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2018-01-01

    In this article we utilize the time respondents require to answer a self-administered online stated preference survey. While the effects of response time have been previously explored, this article proposes a different approach that explicitly recognizes the highly equivocal relationship between ...... between response time and utility coefficients, error variance and processing strategies. Our results thus emphasize the importance of considering response time when modeling stated choice data....... response time and respondents' choices. In particular, we attempt to disentangle preference, variance and processing heterogeneity and explore whether response time helps to explain these three types of heterogeneity. For this, we divide the data (ordered by response time) into approximately equal......-sized subsets, and then derive different class membership probabilities for each subset. We estimate a large number of candidate models and subsequently conduct a frequentist-based model averaging approach using information criteria to derive weights of evidence for each model. Our findings show a clear link...

  2. The usefulness of time-dependent reactor accident consequence modelling for emergency response planning

    Paretzke, H.G.; Jacob, P.; Mueller, H.; Proehl, G.

    1989-01-01

    After major releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere fast reaction of authorities will be necessary to inform the public of potential consequences and to consider and optimize mitigating actions. These activities require availability of well designed computer models, adequate and fast measurements and prior training of responsible persons. The quantitative assessment models should be capable of taking into account of actual atmospheric dispersion conditions, actual deposition situation (dry, rain, snow, fog), seasonal status of the agriculture, food processing and distribution pathways, etc. In this paper the usefulness of such models will be discussed, their limitations, the relative importance of exposure pathways and a selection of important methods to decrease the activity in food products after an accident. Real-time reactor accident consequence models should be considered as a condition sine qua non for responsible use of nuclear power for electricity production

  3. A high-resolution, multi-stop, time-to-digital converter for nuclear time-of-flight measurements

    Spencer, D.F.; Cole, J.; Drigert, M.; Aryaeinejad, R.

    2006-01-01

    A high-resolution, multi-stop, time-to-digital converter (TDC) was designed and developed to precisely measure the times-of-flight (TOF) of incident neutrons responsible for induced fission and capture reactions on actinide targets. The minimum time resolution is ±1 ns. The TDC design was implemented into a single, dual-wide CAMAC module. The CAMAC bus is used for command and control as well as an alternative data output. A high-speed ECL interface, compatible with LeCroy FERA modules, was also provided for the principle data output path. An Actel high-speed field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip was incorporated with an external oscillator and an internal multiple clock phasing system. This device implemented the majority of the high-speed register functions, the state machine for the FERA interface, and the high-speed counting circuit used for the TDC conversion. An external microcontroller was used to monitor and control system-level changes. In this work we discuss the performance of this TDC module as well as its application

  4. Time-of-flight neutron spectra measurements in Zenith

    Barclay, F R; Coates, M S; Diment, K M; Durrani, S A; Gayther, D B; Poole, M J; Reed, D L

    1962-01-15

    Neutron spectra in the second core loading of ZENITH have been measured using a neutron chopper. Spectra at two positions in the reactore core were obtained over a range of temperatures extending to 650 deg C.

  5. Time-Resolved Surface Temperature Measurement for Pulsed Ablative Thrusters

    Antonsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    .... The diagnostic draws on heritage from the experimental dynamic crack propagation community which has used photovoltaic infrared detectors to measure temperature rise in materials in the process of fracture...

  6. Time-of-Flight Measurement of Sound Speed in Air

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a set of simple experiments with a very low cost using a notebook as a measuring instrument without external hardware. The major purpose is to provide demonstration experiments for schools with very low budgets. (Contains 6 figures.)

  7. Studies on climate change problems and response measures in China

    Ruqiu, Y. [China National Environmental Protection Agency, Beijing (China)

    1995-06-01

    Climate has substantial influence on the development of human society. At the same time, the global climate is being affected by human activities. Since industrial revolution large amount of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases have been emitted to the atmosphere, causing significant change in its composition. It is recognized that this change might be sufficient to cause change in global climate. Because of the importance of climate change issues, the Chinese government pays great attention to them. As climate change concerns almost all aspects of the social and economic development, in order to coordinate ministries and agencies of the government in their efforts to deal with climate change problems, the Coordinating Group on Climate Change under the Environmental Protection Committee of the State Council was established in February 1990. There are four working groups under the Coordinating Group, working on scientific assessment, impact assessment and response strategies, economic implication and international convention matters of climate change. A number of research and technological development projects related to climate change issues have been organized, including bilateral cooperation projects and projects supported by GEF, UNEP, UNDP, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and other international organizations. (EG) 11 refs.

  8. Studies on climate change problems and response measures in China

    Ruqiu, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Climate has substantial influence on the development of human society. At the same time, the global climate is being affected by human activities. Since industrial revolution large amount of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases have been emitted to the atmosphere, causing significant change in its composition. It is recognized that this change might be sufficient to cause change in global climate. Because of the importance of climate change issues, the Chinese government pays great attention to them. As climate change concerns almost all aspects of the social and economic development, in order to coordinate ministries and agencies of the government in their efforts to deal with climate change problems, the Coordinating Group on Climate Change under the Environmental Protection Committee of the State Council was established in February 1990. There are four working groups under the Coordinating Group, working on scientific assessment, impact assessment and response strategies, economic implication and international convention matters of climate change. A number of research and technological development projects related to climate change issues have been organized, including bilateral cooperation projects and projects supported by GEF, UNEP, UNDP, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and other international organizations. (EG) 11 refs

  9. Response time distributions in rapid chess: A large-scale decision making experiment

    Mariano Sigman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid chess provides an unparalleled laboratory to understand decision making in a natural environment. In a chess game, players choose consecutively around 40 moves in a finite time budget. The goodness of each choice can be determined quantitatively since current chess algorithms estimate precisely the value of a position. Web-based chess produces vast amounts of data, millions of decisions per day, incommensurable with traditional psychological experiments. We generated a database of response times and position value in rapid chess games. We measured robust emergent statistical observables: 1 Response time (RT distributions are long-tailed and show qualitatively distinct forms at different stages of the game, 2 RT of successive moves are highly correlated both for intra- and inter-player moves. These findings have theoretical implications since they deny two basic assumptions of sequential decision making algorithms: RTs are not stationary and can not be generated by a state function. Our results also have practical implications. First, we characterized the capacity of blunders and score fluctuations to predict a player strength, which is yet an open problem in chess softwares. Second, we show that the winning likelihood can be reliably estimated from a weighted combination of remaining times and position evaluation.

  10. Meteorological data assimilation for real-time emergency response

    Sugiyama, G.; Chan, S.T.

    1996-11-01

    The US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) provides real-time dose assessments of airborne pollutant releases. Diverse data assimilation techniques are required to meet the needs of a new generation of ARAC models and to take advantage of the rapidly expanding availability of meteorological data. We are developing a hierarchy of algorithms to provide gridded meteorological fields which can be used to drive dispersion codes or to provide initial fields for mesoscale models. Data to be processed include winds, temperature, moisture, and turbulence

  11. Measurement and evaluation of transit travel time reliability

    2011-01-01

    Transportation system customers need consistency in their daily travel times to enable them to plan their daily : activities, whether that is a commuter on their way to work, a company setting up delivery schedules for justintime : manufacturin...

  12. Bluetooth-based travel time/speed measuring systems development.

    2010-06-01

    Agencies in the Houston region have traditionally used toll tag readers to provide travel times on : freeways and High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes, but these systems require large amounts of costly and : physically invasive infrastructure. Bluetoot...

  13. Detecting concealed information in less than a second: response latency-based measures

    Verschuere, B.; de Houwer, J.; Verschuere, B.; Ben-Shakhar, G.; Meijer, E.

    2011-01-01

    Concealed information can be accurately assessed with physiological measures. To overcome the practical limitations of physiological measures, an assessment using response latencies has been proposed. At first sight, research findings on response latency based concealed information tests seem

  14. Lesions Responsible for Delayed Oral Transit Time in Post-stroke Dysphagia.

    Moon, Hyun Im; Yoon, Seo Yeon; Yi, Tae Im; Jeong, Yoon Jeong; Cho, Tae Hwan

    2017-10-11

    Some stroke patients show oral phase dysphagia, characterized by a markedly prolonged oral transit time that hinders oral feeding. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical characteristics and lesions responsible for delayed swallowing. We reviewed 90 patients with stroke. The oral processing time plus the postfaucial aggregation time required to swallow semisolid food was assessed. The patients were divided into two groups according to oral transit time, and we analyzed the differences in characteristics such as demographic factors, lesion factors, and cognitive function. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the predictors of delayed oral transit time. Lesion location and volume were measured on brain magnetic resonance images. We generated statistic maps of lesions related to delayed oral phase in swallowing using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM). The group of patients who showed delayed oral transit time had significantly low cognitive function. Also, in a regression model, delayed oral phase was predicted with low K-MMSE (Korean version of the Mini Mental Status Exam). Using VLSM, we found the lesion location to be associated with delayed oral phase after adjusting for K-MMSE score. Although these results did not reach statistical significance, they showed the lesion pattern with predominant distribution in the left frontal lobe. Delayed oral phase in post-stroke patients was not negligible clinically. Patients' cognitive impairments affect the oral transit time. When adjusting it, we found a trend that the lesion responsible for delayed oral phase was located in the left frontal lobe, though the association did not reach significance. The delay might be related to praxis function.

  15. Response times in a two-node queueing network with feedback

    van der Mei, R.D.; Gijsen, B.M.M.; in 't Veld, N.; van den Berg, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The study presented in this paper is motivated by the performance analysis of response times in distributed information systems, where transactions are handled by iterative server and database actions. We model system response times as sojourn times in a two-node open queueing network with a

  16. Response times in a two-node queueing network with feedback

    van der Mei, R.D.; Gijsen, B.M.M.; Gijsen, B.M.M.; in 't Veld, N.; van den Berg, Hans Leo

    The study presented in this paper is motivated by the performance analysis of response times in distributed information systems, where transactions are handled by iterative server and database actions. We model system response times as sojourn times in a two-node open queueing network with a

  17. Broadband Structural Dynamics: Understanding the Impulse-Response of Structures Across Multiple Length and Time Scales

    2010-08-18

    Spectral domain response calculated • Time domain response obtained through inverse transform Approach 4: WASABI Wavelet Analysis of Structural Anomalies...differences at unity scale! Time Function Transform Apply Spectral Domain Transfer Function Time Function Inverse Transform Transform Transform  mtP

  18. Real-time precision measuring device of tree diameter growth

    Guo, Mingming; Chen, Aijun; Li, Dongsheng; Liu, Nan; Yao, Jingyuan

    2016-01-01

    DBH(diameter at breast height) is an important factor to reflect of the quality of plant growth, also an important parameter indispensable in forest resources inventory and forest carbon sink, the accurate measurement of DBH or not is directly related to the research of forest resources inventory and forest carbon sink. In this paper, the principle and the mathematical model of DBH measurement device were introduced, the fixture measuring device and the hardware circuit for this tree diameter were designed, the measurement software programs were compiled, and the precision measuring device of tree diameter growth was developed. Some experiments with Australia fir were conducted. Based on experiment data, the correlations among the DBH variation of Australian fir, the environment temperature, air humility and PAR(photosynthetically active radiation) were obtained. The effects of environmental parameters (environment temperature, air humility and PAR) on tree diameter were analyzed. Experimental results show that there is a positive correlation between DBH variation of Australian fir and environment temperature, a negative correlation between DBH variation of Australian fir and air humility , so is PAR.

  19. Plasmonic-based instrument response function for time-resolved fluorescence: toward proper lifetime analysis

    Szlazak, Radoslaw; Tutaj, Krzysztof; Grudzinski, Wojciech; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I.; Luchowski, Rafal, E-mail: rafal.luchowski@umcs.pl [Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Department of Biophysics, Institute of Physics (Poland)

    2013-06-15

    In this report, we investigated the so-called plasmonic platforms prepared to target ultra-short fluorescence and accurate instrumental response function in a time-domain spectroscopy and microscopy. The interaction of metallic nanoparticles with nearby fluorophores results in the increase of the dye fluorescence quantum yield, photostability and decrease of the lifetime parameter. The mentioned properties of platforms were applied to achieve a picosecond fluorescence lifetime (21 ps) of erythrosin B, used later as a better choice for deconvolution of fluorescence decays measured with 'color' sensitive photo-detectors. The ultra-short fluorescence standard based on combination of thin layers of silver film, silver colloidal nanoparticles (about 60 nm in diameter), and top layer of erythrosin B embedded in 0.2 % poly(vinyl) alcohol. The response functions were monitored on two photo-detectors; microchannel plate photomultiplier and single photon avalanche photodiode as a Rayleigh scattering and ultra-short fluorescence. We demonstrated that use of the plasmonic base fluorescence standard as an instrumental response function results in the absence of systematic error in lifetime measurements and analysis.

  20. Measurement of the time development of particle showers in a uranium scintillator calorimeter

    Caldwell, A.; Hervas, L.; Parsons, J.A.; Sciulli, F.; Sippach, W.; Wai, L.

    1992-11-01

    We report on the time evolution of particle showers, as measured in modules of the uranium-scintillator barrel calorimeter of the ZEUS detector. The time development of hadronic showers differs significantly from that of electromagnetic showers, with about 40% of the response to hadronic showers arising from energy depositions which occur late in the shower development. The degree of compensation and the hadronic energy resolution were measured as a function of integration time, giving a value of e/π=1.02±0.01 for a gate width of 100 ns. The possibilities for electron-hadron separation based on the time structure of the shower were studied, with pion rejection factors in excess of 100 being achieved for electron efficiencies greater than 60%. The custom electronics used to perform these measurements samples the calorimeter signal at close to 60 MHz, stores all samples for a period of over 4 μs using analog switched capacitor pipelines, and digitizes the samples for triggered events with 12-bit ADC's. (orig.)