WorldWideScience

Sample records for response time flow

  1. Accurate and efficient calculation of response times for groundwater flow

    Carr, Elliot J.; Simpson, Matthew J.

    2018-03-01

    We study measures of the amount of time required for transient flow in heterogeneous porous media to effectively reach steady state, also known as the response time. Here, we develop a new approach that extends the concept of mean action time. Previous applications of the theory of mean action time to estimate the response time use the first two central moments of the probability density function associated with the transition from the initial condition, at t = 0, to the steady state condition that arises in the long time limit, as t → ∞ . This previous approach leads to a computationally convenient estimation of the response time, but the accuracy can be poor. Here, we outline a powerful extension using the first k raw moments, showing how to produce an extremely accurate estimate by making use of asymptotic properties of the cumulative distribution function. Results are validated using an existing laboratory-scale data set describing flow in a homogeneous porous medium. In addition, we demonstrate how the results also apply to flow in heterogeneous porous media. Overall, the new method is: (i) extremely accurate; and (ii) computationally inexpensive. In fact, the computational cost of the new method is orders of magnitude less than the computational effort required to study the response time by solving the transient flow equation. Furthermore, the approach provides a rigorous mathematical connection with the heuristic argument that the response time for flow in a homogeneous porous medium is proportional to L2 / D , where L is a relevant length scale, and D is the aquifer diffusivity. Here, we extend such heuristic arguments by providing a clear mathematical definition of the proportionality constant.

  2. Electromagnetic velocity gauge: use of multiple gauges, time response, and flow perturbations

    Erickson, L.M.; Johnson, C.B.; Parker, N.L.; Vantine, H.C.; Weingart, R.C.; Lee, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    We have developed an in-situ electromagnetic velocity (EMV) gauge system for use in multiple-gauge studies of initiating and detonating explosives. We have also investigated the risetime of the gauge and the manner in which it perturbs a reactive flow. We report on the special precautions that are necessary in multiple gauge experiments to reduce lead spreading, simplify target fabrication problems and minimize cross talk through the conducting explosive. Agreement between measured stress records and calculations from multiple velocity gauge data give us confidence that our velocity gauges are recording properly. We have used laser velocity interferometry to measure the gauge risetime in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). To resolve the difference in the two methods, we have examined hydrodynamic and material rate effects. In addition, we considered the effects of shock tilt, electronic response and magntic diffusion on the gauge's response time

  3. Residence times and alluvial architecture of a sediment superslug in response to different flow regimes

    Moody, John A.

    2017-01-01

    A superslug was deposited in a basin in the Colorado Front Range Mountains as a consequence of an extreme flood following a wildfire disturbance in 1996. The subsequent evolution of this superslug was measured by repeat topographic surveys (31 surveys from 1996 through 2014) of 18 cross sections approximately uniformly spaced over 1500 m immediately above the basin outlet. These surveys allowed the identification within the superslug of chronostratigraphic units deposited and eroded by different geomorphic processes in response to different flow regimes.Over the time period of the study, the superslug went through aggradation, incision, and stabilization phases that were controlled by a shift in geomorphic processes from generally short-duration, episodic, large-magnitude floods that deposited new chronostratigraphic units to long-duration processes that eroded units. These phases were not contemporaneous at each channel cross section, which resulted in a complex response that preserved different chronostratigraphic units at each channel cross section having, in general, two dominant types of alluvial architecture—laminar and fragmented. Age and transit-time distributions for these two alluvial architectures evolved with time since the extreme flood. Because of the complex shape of the distributions they were best modeled by two-parameter Weibull functions. The Weibull scale parameter approximated the median age of the distributions, and the Weibull shape parameter generally had a linear relation that increased with time since the extreme flood. Additional results indicated that deposition of new chronostratigraphic units can be represented by a power-law frequency distribution, and that the erosion of units decreases with depth of burial to a limiting depth. These relations can be used to model other situations with different flow regimes where vertical aggradation and incision are dominant processes, to predict the residence time of possible contaminated

  4. Residence times and alluvial architecture of a sediment superslug in response to different flow regimes

    Moody, John A.

    2017-10-01

    A superslug was deposited in a basin in the Colorado Front Range Mountains as a consequence of an extreme flood following a wildfire disturbance in 1996. The subsequent evolution of this superslug was measured by repeat topographic surveys (31 surveys from 1996 through 2014) of 18 cross sections approximately uniformly spaced over 1500 m immediately above the basin outlet. These surveys allowed the identification within the superslug of chronostratigraphic units deposited and eroded by different geomorphic processes in response to different flow regimes. Over the time period of the study, the superslug went through aggradation, incision, and stabilization phases that were controlled by a shift in geomorphic processes from generally short-duration, episodic, large-magnitude floods that deposited new chronostratigraphic units to long-duration processes that eroded units. These phases were not contemporaneous at each channel cross section, which resulted in a complex response that preserved different chronostratigraphic units at each channel cross section having, in general, two dominant types of alluvial architecture-laminar and fragmented. Age and transit-time distributions for these two alluvial architectures evolved with time since the extreme flood. Because of the complex shape of the distributions they were best modeled by two-parameter Weibull functions. The Weibull scale parameter approximated the median age of the distributions, and the Weibull shape parameter generally had a linear relation that increased with time since the extreme flood. Additional results indicated that deposition of new chronostratigraphic units can be represented by a power-law frequency distribution, and that the erosion of units decreases with depth of burial to a limiting depth. These relations can be used to model other situations with different flow regimes where vertical aggradation and incision are dominant processes, to predict the residence time of possible contaminated

  5. The diagnostic utility of sonographic carotid flow time in determining volume responsiveness.

    Shokoohi, Hamid; Berry, Grant W; Shahkolahi, Murteza; King, Jackson; King, Jordan; Salimian, Mohammad; Poshtmashad, Ameneh; Pourmand, Ali

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to predict volume responsiveness and to assess the diagnostic accuracy of carotid flow time (FTc) with the change in hydration status before and after a passive leg raise (PLR) maneuver. Participants who presented at a community health fair in a dehydrated state following a prolonged fast while observing the month of Ramadan were recruited. Sonographic FTc measurements were obtained in the semi-Fowler position and after a PLR maneuver while participants were in a fasting state and repeated approximately 3 hours after breaking their fast. In total, 123 participants with mean age of 47±14 years, 55% male, were enrolled. Participants had fasted for an average of 16.9 hours and consumed an average of 933 mL between the 2 ultrasound measurements. Mean FTc values were significantly lower in the fasting state compared with the nonfasting state (312±22 vs 345±25milliseconds, P value change in FTc of ≥5% provides a reliable diagnostic accuracy for predicting fluid status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analytical Solution for Time-drawdown Response to Constant Pumping from a Homogeneous, Confined Horizontal Aquifer with Unidirectional Flow

    Parrish, K. E.; Zhang, J.; Teasdale, E.

    2007-12-01

    An exact analytical solution to the ordinary one-dimensional partial differential equation is derived for transient groundwater flow in a homogeneous, confined, horizontal aquifer using Laplace transformation. The theoretical analysis is based on the assumption that the aquifer is homogeneous and one-dimensional (horizontal); confined between impermeable formations on top and bottom; and of infinite horizontal extent and constant thickness. It is also assumed that there is only a single pumping well penetrating the entire aquifer; flow is everywhere horizontal within the aquifer to the well; the well is pumping with a constant discharge rate; the well diameter is infinitesimally small; and the hydraulic head is uniform throughout the aquifer before pumping. Similar to the Theis solution, this solution is suited to determine transmissivity and storativity for a two- dimensional, vertically confined aquifer, such as a long vertically fractured zone of high permeability within low permeable rocks or a long, high-permeability trench inside a low-permeability porous media. In addition, it can be used to analyze time-drawdown responses to pumping and injection in similar settings. The solution can also be used to approximate the groundwater flow for unconfined conditions if (1) the variation of transmissivity is negligible (groundwater table variation is small in comparison to the saturated thickness); and (2) the unsaturated flow is negligible. The errors associated with the use of the solution to unconfined conditions depend on the accuracies of the above two assumptions. The solution can also be used to assess the impacts of recharge from a seasonal river or irrigation canal on the groundwater system by assuming uniform, time- constant recharge along the river or canal. This paper presents the details for derivation of the analytical solution. The analytical solution is compared to numerical simulation results with example cases. Its accuracy is also assessed and

  7. A flowing liquid test system for assessing the linearity and time-response of rapid fibre optic oxygen partial pressure sensors.

    Chen, R; Hahn, C E W; Farmery, A D

    2012-08-15

    The development of a methodology for testing the time response, linearity and performance characteristics of ultra fast fibre optic oxygen sensors in the liquid phase is presented. Two standard medical paediatric oxygenators are arranged to provide two independent extracorporeal circuits. Flow from either circuit can be diverted over the sensor under test by means of a system of rapid cross-over solenoid valves exposing the sensor to an abrupt change in oxygen partial pressure, P O2. The system is also capable of testing the oxygen sensor responses to changes in temperature, carbon dioxide partial pressure P CO2 and pH in situ. Results are presented for a miniature fibre optic oxygen sensor constructed in-house with a response time ≈ 50 ms and a commercial fibre optic sensor (Ocean Optics Foxy), when tested in flowing saline and stored blood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Information Flow for Timed Automata

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Vasilikos, Panagiotis

    2017-01-01

    One of the key demands of cyberphysical systems is that they meet their safety goals. Timed Automata has established itself as a formalism for modelling and analysing the real-time safety aspects of cyberphysical systems. Increasingly it is also demanded that cyberphysical systems meet a number o...... of security goals for confidentiality and integrity. Information Flow Control is an approach to ensuring that there are no flows of information that violate the stated security policy....

  9. Phenological response of vegetation to upstream river flow in the Heihe Rive basin by time series analysis of MODIS data

    L. Jia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquid and solid precipitation is abundant in the high elevation, upper reach of the Heihe River basin in northwestern China. The development of modern irrigation schemes in the middle reach of the basin is taking up an increasing share of fresh water resources, endangering the oasis and traditional irrigation systems in the lower reach. In this study, the response of vegetation in the Ejina Oasis in the lower reach of the Heihe River to the water yield of the upper catchment was analyzed by time series analysis of monthly observations of precipitation in the upper and lower catchment, river streamflow downstream of the modern irrigation schemes and satellite observations of vegetation index. Firstly, remotely sensed NDVI data acquired by Terra-MODIS are used to monitor the vegetation dynamic for a seven years period between 2000 and 2006. Due to cloud-contamination, atmospheric influence and different solar and viewing angles, however, the quality and consistence of time series of remotely sensed NDVI data are degraded. A Fourier Transform method – the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS algorithm – is used to reconstruct cloud- and noise-free NDVI time series data from the Terra-MODIS NDVI dataset. Modification is made on HANTS by adding additional parameters to deal with large data gaps in yearly time series in combination with a Temporal-Similarity-Statistics (TSS method developed in this study to seek for initial values for the large gap periods. Secondly, the same Fourier Transform method is used to model time series of the vegetation phenology. The reconstructed cloud-free NDVI time series data are used to study the relationship between the water availability (i.e. the local precipitation and upstream water yield and the evolution of vegetation conditions in Ejina Oasis from 2000 to 2006. Anomalies in precipitation, streamflow, and vegetation index are detected by comparing each year with the average year. The results showed that

  10. Temperature transient response measurement in flowing water

    Rainbird, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    A specially developed procedure is described for determining the thermal transient response of thermocouples and other temperature transducers when totally immersed in flowing water. The high velocity heat transfer conditions associated with this facility enable thermocouple response times to be predicted in other fluids. These predictions can be confirmed by electrical analogue experiments. (author)

  11. Responses of Cells to Flow in Vitro

    Shigehiro Hashimoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of cells to a flow has been studied in vitro. The response of cells was examined in two types of flow channels: a circumnutating flow in a donut-shaped open channel in a culture dish, and a one-way flow in a parallelepiped rhombus flow channel. Variation was made on the material of the parallelepiped channel to study on adhesion of cells to the plates: glass and polydimethylsiloxane. Behavior of cells on the plate was observed under a flow of a medium with an inverted phase-contrast-microscope. The shear stress on the plate is calculated with an estimated parabolic distribution of the velocity between the parallel plates. The adhesion of cells was evaluated with the cumulated shear, which is a product of the shear stress and the exposure time. The experimental results show that cells are responsive to the flow, which governs orientation, exfoliation, and differentiation. The response depends on the kinds of cells: endothelial cells orient along the stream line, although myocytes orient perpendicular to the stream line. The adhesion depends on the combination between scaffold and cell: myocytes are more adhesive to glass than cartilage cells, and fibroblasts are more adhesive to oxygenated polydimethylsiloxane than glass.

  12. Bedform response to flow variability

    Nelson, J.M.; Logan, B.L.; Kinzel, P.J.; Shimizu, Y.; Giri, S.; Shreve, R.L.; McLean, S.R.

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory observations and computational results for the response of bedform fields to rapid variations in discharge are compared and discussed. The simple case considered here begins with a relatively low discharge over a flat bed on which bedforms are initiated, followed by a short high-flow period with double the original discharge, during which the morphology of the bedforms adjusts, followed in turn by a relatively long period of the original low discharge. For the grain size and hydraulic conditions selected, the Froude number remains subcritical during the experiment, and sediment moves predominantly as bedload. Observations show rapid development of quasi-two-dimensional bedforms during the initial period of low flow with increasing wavelength and height over the initial low-flow period. When the flow increases, the bedforms rapidly increase in wavelength and height, as expected from other empirical results. When the flow decreases back to the original discharge, the height of the bedforms quickly decreases in response, but the wavelength decreases much more slowly. Computational results using an unsteady two-dimensional flow model coupled to a disequilibrium bedload transport model for the same conditions simulate the formation and initial growth of the bedforms fairly accurately and also predict an increase in dimensions during the high-flow period. However, the computational model predicts a much slower rate of wavelength increase, and also performs less accurately during the final low-flow period, where the wavelength remains essentially constant, rather than decreasing. In addition, the numerical results show less variability in bedform wavelength and height than the measured values; the bedform shape is also somewhat different. Based on observations, these discrepancies may result from the simplified model for sediment particle step lengths used in the computational approach. Experiments show that the particle step length varies spatially and

  13. Residence Time Distributions in a Cold, Confined Swirl Flow

    Lans, Robert Pieter Van Der; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    Residence time distributions (RTD) in a confined, cold swirling flow have been measured with a fast-response probe and helium as a tracer. The test-rig represented a scaled down version of a burner. The effect of variation of flow velocities and swirl angle on the flow pattern in the near...

  14. Turbine flow meter response in two-phase flows

    Shim, W.J.; Dougherty, T.J.; Cheh, H.Y.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest a simple method of calibrating turbine flow meters to measure the flow rates of each phase in a two-phase flow. The response of two 50.8 mm (2 inch) turbine flow meters to air-water, two-phase mixtures flowing vertically in a 57 mm I.D. (2.25 inch) polycarbonate tube has been investigated for both upflow and downflow. The flow meters were connected in series with an intervening valve to provide an adjustable pressure difference between them. Void fractions were measured by two gamma densitometers, one upstream of the flow meters and the other downstream. The output signal of the turbine flow meters was found to depend only on the actual volumetric flow rate of the gas, F G , and liquid, F L , at the location of the flow meter

  15. Improving ecological response monitoring of environmental flows.

    King, Alison J; Gawne, Ben; Beesley, Leah; Koehn, John D; Nielsen, Daryl L; Price, Amina

    2015-05-01

    Environmental flows are now an important restoration technique in flow-degraded rivers, and with the increasing public scrutiny of their effectiveness and value, the importance of undertaking scientifically robust monitoring is now even more critical. Many existing environmental flow monitoring programs have poorly defined objectives, nonjustified indicator choices, weak experimental designs, poor statistical strength, and often focus on outcomes from a single event. These negative attributes make them difficult to learn from. We provide practical recommendations that aim to improve the performance, scientific robustness, and defensibility of environmental flow monitoring programs. We draw on the literature and knowledge gained from working with stakeholders and managers to design, implement, and monitor a range of environmental flow types. We recommend that (1) environmental flow monitoring programs should be implemented within an adaptive management framework; (2) objectives of environmental flow programs should be well defined, attainable, and based on an agreed conceptual understanding of the system; (3) program and intervention targets should be attainable, measurable, and inform program objectives; (4) intervention monitoring programs should improve our understanding of flow-ecological responses and related conceptual models; (5) indicator selection should be based on conceptual models, objectives, and prioritization approaches; (6) appropriate monitoring designs and statistical tools should be used to measure and determine ecological response; (7) responses should be measured within timeframes that are relevant to the indicator(s); (8) watering events should be treated as replicates of a larger experiment; (9) environmental flow outcomes should be reported using a standard suite of metadata. Incorporating these attributes into future monitoring programs should ensure their outcomes are transferable and measured with high scientific credibility.

  16. Improving Ecological Response Monitoring of Environmental Flows

    King, Alison J.; Gawne, Ben; Beesley, Leah; Koehn, John D.; Nielsen, Daryl L.; Price, Amina

    2015-05-01

    Environmental flows are now an important restoration technique in flow-degraded rivers, and with the increasing public scrutiny of their effectiveness and value, the importance of undertaking scientifically robust monitoring is now even more critical. Many existing environmental flow monitoring programs have poorly defined objectives, nonjustified indicator choices, weak experimental designs, poor statistical strength, and often focus on outcomes from a single event. These negative attributes make them difficult to learn from. We provide practical recommendations that aim to improve the performance, scientific robustness, and defensibility of environmental flow monitoring programs. We draw on the literature and knowledge gained from working with stakeholders and managers to design, implement, and monitor a range of environmental flow types. We recommend that (1) environmental flow monitoring programs should be implemented within an adaptive management framework; (2) objectives of environmental flow programs should be well defined, attainable, and based on an agreed conceptual understanding of the system; (3) program and intervention targets should be attainable, measurable, and inform program objectives; (4) intervention monitoring programs should improve our understanding of flow-ecological responses and related conceptual models; (5) indicator selection should be based on conceptual models, objectives, and prioritization approaches; (6) appropriate monitoring designs and statistical tools should be used to measure and determine ecological response; (7) responses should be measured within timeframes that are relevant to the indicator(s); (8) watering events should be treated as replicates of a larger experiment; (9) environmental flow outcomes should be reported using a standard suite of metadata. Incorporating these attributes into future monitoring programs should ensure their outcomes are transferable and measured with high scientific credibility.

  17. Controlling flow time delays in flexible manufacturing cells

    Slomp, J.; Caprihan, R.; Bokhorst, J. A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Flow time delays in Flexible Manufacturing Cells (FMCs) are caused by transport and clamping/reclamping activities. This paper shows how dynamic scheduling parameters may control the flow times of jobs and the available task windows for flow time delays.

  18. Transient response in granular bounded heap flows

    Xiao, Hongyi; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.

    2017-11-01

    Heap formation, a canonical granular flow, is common in industry and is also found in nature. Here, we study the transition between steady flow states in quasi-2D bounded heaps by suddenly changing the feed rate from one fixed value to another. During the transition, in both experiments and discrete element method simulations, an additional wedge of flowing particles propagates over the rising free surface. The downstream edge of the wedge - the wedge front - moves downstream with velocity inversely proportional to the square root of time. An additional longer duration transient process continues after the wedge front reaches the downstream wall. The transient flux profile during the entire transition is well modeled by a diffusion-like equation derived from local mass balance and a local linear relation between the flux and the surface slope. Scalings for the transient kinematics during the flow transitions are developed based on the flux profiles. Funded by NSF Grant CBET-1511450.

  19. Implicit time accurate simulation of unsteady flow

    van Buuren, René; Kuerten, Hans; Geurts, Bernard J.

    2001-03-01

    Implicit time integration was studied in the context of unsteady shock-boundary layer interaction flow. With an explicit second-order Runge-Kutta scheme, a reference solution to compare with the implicit second-order Crank-Nicolson scheme was determined. The time step in the explicit scheme is restricted by both temporal accuracy as well as stability requirements, whereas in the A-stable implicit scheme, the time step has to obey temporal resolution requirements and numerical convergence conditions. The non-linear discrete equations for each time step are solved iteratively by adding a pseudo-time derivative. The quasi-Newton approach is adopted and the linear systems that arise are approximately solved with a symmetric block Gauss-Seidel solver. As a guiding principle for properly setting numerical time integration parameters that yield an efficient time accurate capturing of the solution, the global error caused by the temporal integration is compared with the error resulting from the spatial discretization. Focus is on the sensitivity of properties of the solution in relation to the time step. Numerical simulations show that the time step needed for acceptable accuracy can be considerably larger than the explicit stability time step; typical ratios range from 20 to 80. At large time steps, convergence problems that are closely related to a highly complex structure of the basins of attraction of the iterative method may occur. Copyright

  20. Time evolution of tokamak states with flow

    Kerner, W.; Weitzner, H.

    1985-12-01

    The general dissipative Braginskii single-fluid model is applied to simulate tokamak transport. An expansion with respect to epsilon = (ω/sub i/tau/sub i/) -1 , the factor by which perpendicular and parallel transport coefficients differ, yields a numerically tractable scheme. The resulting 1-1/2 D procedure requires computation of 2D toroidal equilibria with flow together with the solution of a system of ordinary 1D flux-averaged equations for the time evolution of the profiles. 13 refs

  1. Nonlinear analysis of river flow time sequences

    Porporato, Amilcare; Ridolfi, Luca

    1997-06-01

    Within the field of chaos theory several methods for the analysis of complex dynamical systems have recently been proposed. In light of these ideas we study the dynamics which control the behavior over time of river flow, investigating the existence of a low-dimension deterministic component. The present article follows the research undertaken in the work of Porporato and Ridolfi [1996a] in which some clues as to the existence of chaos were collected. Particular emphasis is given here to the problem of noise and to nonlinear prediction. With regard to the latter, the benefits obtainable by means of the interpolation of the available time series are reported and the remarkable predictive results attained with this nonlinear method are shown.

  2. Distribution, stock composition and timing, and tagging response of wild Chinook Salmon returning to a large, free-flowing river basin

    Eiler, John H.; Masuda, Michele; Spencer, Ted R.; Driscoll, Richard J.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2014-01-01

    Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returns to the Yukon River basin have declined dramatically since the late 1990s, and detailed information on the spawning distribution, stock structure, and stock timing is needed to better manage the run and facilitate conservation efforts. A total of 2,860 fish were radio-tagged in the lower basin during 2002–2004 and tracked upriver. Fish traveled to spawning areas throughout the basin, ranging from several hundred to over 3,000 km from the tagging site. Similar distribution patterns were observed across years, suggesting that the major components of the run were identified. Daily and seasonal composition estimates were calculated for the component stocks. The run was dominated by two regional components comprising over 70% of the return. Substantially fewer fish returned to other areas, ranging from 2% to 9% of the return, but their collective contribution was appreciable. Most regional components consisted of several principal stocks and a number of small, spatially isolated populations. Regional and stock composition estimates were similar across years even though differences in run abundance were reported, suggesting that the differences in abundance were not related to regional or stock-specific variability. Run timing was relatively compressed compared with that in rivers in the southern portion of the species’ range. Most stocks passed through the lower river over a 6-week period, ranging in duration from 16 to 38 d. Run timing was similar for middle- and upper-basin stocks, limiting the use of timing information for management. The lower-basin stocks were primarily later-run fish. Although differences were observed, there was general agreement between our composition and timing estimates and those from other assessment projects within the basin, suggesting that the telemetry-based estimates provided a plausible approximation of the return. However, the short duration of the run, complex stock structure, and

  3. Flow Characteristics of Ground Vehicle Wake and Its Response to Flow Control

    Sellappan, Prabu; McNally, Jonathan; Alvi, Farrukh

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution, fuel shortages, and cost savings are some of the many incentives for improving the aerodynamics of vehicles. Reducing wake-induced aerodynamic drag, which is dependent on flow topology, on modern passenger vehicles is important for improving fuel consumption rates which directly affect the environment. In this research, an active flow control technique is applied on a generic ground vehicle, a 25°Ahmed model, to investigate its effect on the flow topology in the near-wake. The flow field of this canonical bluff body is extremely rich, with complex and unsteady flow features such as trailing wake vortices and c-pillar vortices. The spatio-temporal response of these flow features to the application of steady microjet actuators is investigated. The responses are characterized independently through time-resolved and volumetric velocity field measurements. The accuracy and cost of volumetric measurements in this complex flow field through Stereoscopic- and Tomographic- Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) will also be commented upon. National Science Foundation PIRE Program.

  4. Adaptive Queue Management with Restraint on Non-Responsive Flows

    Lan Li

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive queue management scheme (adaptive RED to improve Random Early Detection (RED on restraining non-responsive flows. Due to a lack of flow control mechanism, non-responsive flows can starve responsive flows for buffer and bandwidth at the gateway. In order to solve the disproportionate resource problem, RED framework is modified in this way: on detecting when the non-responsive flows starve the queue, packet-drop intensity (Max_p in RED can be adaptively adjusted to curb non-responsive flows for resource fair-sharing, such as buffer and bandwidth fair-sharing. Based on detection of traffic behaviors, intentionally restraining nonresponsive flows is to increase the throughput and decrease the drop rate of responsive flows. Our experimental results based on adaptive RED shows that the enhancement of responsive traffic and the better sharing of buffer and bandwidth can be achieved under a variety of traffic scenarios.

  5. An explicit multi-time-stepping algorithm for aerodynamic flows

    Niemann-Tuitman, B.E.; Veldman, A.E.P.

    1997-01-01

    An explicit multi-time-stepping algorithm with applications to aerodynamic flows is presented. In the algorithm, in different parts of the computational domain different time steps are taken, and the flow is synchronized at the so-called synchronization levels. The algorithm is validated for aerodynamic turbulent flows. For two-dimensional flows speedups in the order of five with respect to single time stepping are obtained.

  6. Effective diffusion in time-periodic linear planar flow

    Indeikina, A.; Chang, H.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that when a point source of solute is inserted into a time-periodic, unbounded linear planar flow, the large-time, time-average transport of the solute can be described by classical anisotropic diffusion with constant effective diffusion tensors. For a given vorticity and forcing period, elongational flow is shown to be the most dispersive followed by simple shear and rotational flow. Large-time diffusivity along the major axis of the time-average concentration ellipse, whose alignment is predicted from the theory, is shown to increase with vorticity for all flows and decrease with increasing forcing frequency for elongational flow and simple shear. For the interesting case of rotational flow, there exist discrete resonant frequencies where the time-average major diffusivity reaches local maxima equal to the time-average steady flow case with zero forcing frequency

  7. Real-time 2-D Phased Array Vector Flow Imaging

    Holbek, Simon; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Fogh, Nikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Echocardiography examination of the blood flow is currently either restricted to 1-D techniques in real-time or experimental off-line 2-D methods. This paper presents an implementation of transverse oscillation for real-time 2-D vector flow imaging (VFI) on a commercial BK Ultrasound scanner....... A large field-of-view (FOV) sequence for studying flow dynamics at 11 frames per second (fps) and a sequence for studying peak systolic velocities (PSV) with a narrow FOV at 36 fps were validated. The VFI sequences were validated in a flow-rig with continuous laminar parabolic flow and in a pulsating flow...

  8. Quantification of complex blood flow using real-time in vivo vector flow ultrasound

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative method for distinguishing complex from non-complex flow patterns in ultrasound is presented. A new commercial BK Medical ultrasound scanner uses the Transverse Oscillation vector flow technique for visualising flow patterns in real-time. In vivo vector flow data of the blood flow...... patterns of the common carotid artery and the carotid bulb were obtained simultaneously as the basis for quantifying complex flow. The carotid bifurcation of two healthy volunteers were scanned. The presence of complex flow patterns from eight cardiac cycles were evaluated by three experts in medical...... for automatic detection of complex flow patterns....

  9. Time-delayed feedback technique for suppressing instabilities in time-periodic flow

    Shaabani-Ardali, Léopold; Sipp, Denis; Lesshafft, Lutz

    2017-11-01

    A numerical method is presented that allows to compute time-periodic flow states, even in the presence of hydrodynamic instabilities. The method is based on filtering nonharmonic components by way of delayed feedback control, as introduced by Pyragas [Phys. Lett. A 170, 421 (1992), 10.1016/0375-9601(92)90745-8]. Its use in flow problems is demonstrated here for the case of a periodically forced laminar jet, subject to a subharmonic instability that gives rise to vortex pairing. The optimal choice of the filter gain, which is a free parameter in the stabilization procedure, is investigated in the context of a low-dimensional model problem, and it is shown that this model predicts well the filter performance in the high-dimensional flow system. Vortex pairing in the jet is efficiently suppressed, so that the unstable periodic flow state in response to harmonic forcing is accurately retrieved. The procedure is straightforward to implement inside any standard flow solver. Memory requirements for the delayed feedback control can be significantly reduced by means of time interpolation between checkpoints. Finally, the method is extended for the treatment of periodic problems where the frequency is not known a priori. This procedure is demonstrated for a three-dimensional cubic lid-driven cavity in supercritical conditions.

  10. Minimizing total weighted completion time in a proportionate flow shop

    Shakhlevich, N.V.; Hoogeveen, J.A.; Pinedo, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    We study the special case of the m machine flow shop problem in which the processing time of each operation of job j is equal to pj; this variant of the flow shop problem is known as the proportionate flow shop problem. We show that for any number of machines and for any regular performance

  11. Flow-sensitive type recovery in linear-log time

    Adams, Michael D.; Keep, Andrew W.; Midtgaard, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The flexibility of dynamically typed languages such as JavaScript, Python, Ruby, and Scheme comes at the cost of run-time type checks. Some of these checks can be eliminated via control-flow analysis. However, traditional control-flow analysis (CFA) is not ideal for this task as it ignores flow...

  12. Time-dependent onshore tsunami response

    Apotsos, Alex; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    While bulk measures of the onshore impact of a tsunami, including the maximum run-up elevation and inundation distance, are important for hazard planning, the temporal evolution of the onshore flow dynamics likely controls the extent of the onshore destruction and the erosion and deposition of sediment that occurs. However, the time-varying dynamics of actual tsunamis are even more difficult to measure in situ than the bulk parameters. Here, a numerical model based on the non-linear shallow water equations is used to examine the effects variations in the wave characteristics, bed slope, and bottom roughness have on the temporal evolution of the onshore flow. Model results indicate that the onshore flow dynamics vary significantly over the parameter space examined. For example, the flow dynamics over steep, smooth morphologies tend to be temporally symmetric, with similar magnitude velocities generated during the run-up and run-down phases of inundation. Conversely, on shallow, rough onshore topographies the flow dynamics tend to be temporally skewed toward the run-down phase of inundation, with the magnitude of the flow velocities during run-up and run-down being significantly different. Furthermore, for near-breaking tsunami waves inundating over steep topography, the flow velocity tends to accelerate almost instantaneously to a maximum and then decrease monotonically. Conversely, when very long waves inundate over shallow topography, the flow accelerates more slowly and can remain steady for a period of time before beginning to decelerate. These results indicate that a single set of assumptions concerning the onshore flow dynamics cannot be applied to all tsunamis, and site specific analyses may be required.

  13. Cerebral blood flow response to functional activation

    Paulson, Olaf B; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Rostrup, Egill

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate are normally coupled, that is an increase in metabolic demand will lead to an increase in flow. However, during functional activation, CBF and glucose metabolism remain coupled as they increase in proportion, whereas oxygen metabolism only inc...... the cerebral tissue's increased demand for glucose supply during neural activation with recent evidence supporting a key function for astrocytes in rCBF regulation....

  14. An explicit multi-time-stepping algorithm for aerodynamic flows

    Niemann-Tuitman, B.E.; Veldman, A.E.P.

    1997-01-01

    An explicit multi-time-stepping algorithm with applications to aerodynamic flows is presented. In the algorithm, in different parts of the computational domain different time steps are taken, and the flow is synchronized at the so-called synchronization levels. The algorithm is validated for

  15. Theory for source-responsive and free-surface film modeling of unsaturated flow

    Nimmo, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    A new model explicitly incorporates the possibility of rapid response, across significant distance, to substantial water input. It is useful for unsaturated flow processes that are not inherently diffusive, or that do not progress through a series of equilibrium states. The term source-responsive is used to mean that flow responds sensitively to changing conditions at the source of water input (e.g., rainfall, irrigation, or ponded infiltration). The domain of preferential flow can be conceptualized as laminar flow in free-surface films along the walls of pores. These films may be considered to have uniform thickness, as suggested by field evidence that preferential flow moves at an approximately uniform rate when generated by a continuous and ample water supply. An effective facial area per unit volume quantitatively characterizes the medium with respect to source-responsive flow. A flow-intensity factor dependent on conditions within the medium represents the amount of source-responsive flow at a given time and position. Laminar flow theory provides relations for the velocity and thickness of flowing source-responsive films. Combination with the Darcy-Buckingham law and the continuity equation leads to expressions for both fluxes and dynamic water contents. Where preferential flow is sometimes or always significant, the interactive combination of source-responsive and diffuse flow has the potential to improve prediction of unsaturated-zone fluxes in response to hydraulic inputs and the evolving distribution of soil moisture. Examples for which this approach is efficient and physically plausible include (i) rainstorm-generated rapid fluctuations of a deep water table and (ii) space- and time-dependent soil water content response to infiltration in a macroporous soil. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  16. Monitoring Immune Responses in Organ Recipients by Flow Cytometry

    Al-Mukhalafi Zuha

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Allograft rejection remains a major barrier to successful organ transplan-tation. Cellular and humoral immune responses play a critical role in mediating graft rejection. During the last few years, monoclonal antibodies have been used as a new specific therapeutic approach in the prevention of allograft rejection. Recently, the technology of flow cytometry has become a useful tool for monitoring immunological responses in transplant recipients. The application of this valuable tool in clinical transplantation at the present time is aimed at, i determining the extent of immuno-suppressive therapy through T-cell receptor analysis of cellular components, ii monitoring levels of alloreactive antibodies to identify high-risk recipients (sensitized patients in the pre-operative period and iii to predict rejection by monitoring their development post-operatively. In future, further development of this technology may demonstrate greater benefit to the field of organ transplantation.

  17. Speed scaling for weighted flow time

    Bansal, N.; Pruhs, K.R.; Stein, C.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the traditional goal of efficiently managing time and space, many computers now need to efficiently manage power usage. For example, Intel's SpeedStep and AMD's PowerNOW technologies allow the Windows XP operating system to dynamically change the speed of the processor to prolong

  18. Stirring inertia in time-dependent low Reynolds number flows

    Yecko, Philip; Luchtenburg, Dirk Martin (Mark); Forgoston, Eric; Billings, Lora

    2017-11-01

    Diagnosis of a kinematic flow and its transport using Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) based on finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) neglects dynamical effects, such as pressure, as well as dynamically important constraints, such as potential vorticity conservation. Chaotic advection, on the other hand, often neglects inertial effects, which are prominent in LCS. We present results for very low Reynolds number laboratory flows, including a Stokes double gyre, vertically sheared strain and a four roll mill. Images of tracer (dye) and FTLE fields computed from particle image velocimetry (PIV) reveal complementary sets of flow structures, giving a more complete picture of transport in these flows. We confirm by computing FTLE of an exact time-dependent Stokes flow solution and present implications of these findings for inertial object transport in flows. Support of NSF DMS-1418956 is gratefully acknoweldged.

  19. A transit-time flow meter for measuring milliliter per minute liquid flow

    Yang, Canqian; Kymmel, Mogens; Søeberg, Henrik

    1988-01-01

    A transit-time flow meter, using periodic temperature fluctuations as tracers, has been developed for measuring liquid flow as small as 0.1 ml/min in microchannels. By injecting square waves of heat into the liquid flow upstream with a tiny resistance wire heater, periodic temperature fluctuation....... This flow meter will be used to measure and control the small liquid flow in microchannels in flow injection analysis. Review of Scientific Instruments is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....... are generated downstream. The fundamental frequency phase shift of the temperature signal with respect to the square wave is found to be a linear function of the reciprocal mean velocity of the fluid. The transit-time principle enables the flow meter to have high accuracy, better than 0.2%, and good linearity...

  20. Time varying determinants of bond flows to emerging markets

    Yasemin Erduman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the time varying nature of the determinants of bond flows with a focus on the global financial crisis period. We estimate a time varying regression model using Bayesian estimation methods, where the posterior distribution is approximated by Gibbs sampling algorithm. Our findings suggest that the interest rate differential is the most significant pull factor of portfolio bond flows, along with the inflation rate, while the growth rate does not play a significant role. Among the push factors, global liquidity is the most important driver of bond flows. It matters the most, when unconventional monetary easing policies were first announced; and its importance as a determinant of portfolio bond flows decreases over time, starting with the Eurozone crisis, and diminishes with the tapering talk. Global risk appetite and the risk perception towards the emerging countries also have relatively small and stable significant effects on bond flows.

  1. Children's Brain Responses to Optic Flow Vary by Pattern Type and Motion Speed.

    Rick O Gilmore

    Full Text Available Structured patterns of global visual motion called optic flow provide crucial information about an observer's speed and direction of self-motion and about the geometry of the environment. Brain and behavioral responses to optic flow undergo considerable postnatal maturation, but relatively little brain imaging evidence describes the time course of development in motion processing systems in early to middle childhood, a time when psychophysical data suggest that there are changes in sensitivity. To fill this gap, electroencephalographic (EEG responses were recorded in 4- to 8-year-old children who viewed three time-varying optic flow patterns (translation, rotation, and radial expansion/contraction at three different speeds (2, 4, and 8 deg/s. Modulations of global motion coherence evoked coherent EEG responses at the first harmonic that differed by flow pattern and responses at the third harmonic and dot update rate that varied by speed. Pattern-related responses clustered over right lateral channels while speed-related responses clustered over midline channels. Both children and adults show widespread responses to modulations of motion coherence at the second harmonic that are not selective for pattern or speed. The results suggest that the developing brain segregates the processing of optic flow pattern from speed and that an adult-like pattern of neural responses to optic flow has begun to emerge by early to middle childhood.

  2. Timing of susceptibility to post-fire debris flows in the western USA

    DeGraff, Jerome V.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Watersheds recently burned by wildfires can have an increased susceptibility to debris flow, although little is known about how long this susceptibility persists, and how it changes over time. We here use a compilation of 75 debris-flow response and fire-ignition dates, vegetation and bedrock class, rainfall regime, and initiation process from throughout the western U.S. to address these issues. The great majority (85 percent) of debris flows occurred within the first 12 months following wildfire, with 71 percent within the first six months. Seven percent of the debris flows occurred between 1 and 1.5 years after a fire, or during the second rainy season to impact an area. Within the first 1.5 years following fires, all but one of the debris flows initiated through runoff-dominated processes, and debris flows occurred in similar proportions in forested and non-forested landscapes. Geologic materials affected how long debris-flow activity persisted, and the timing of debris flows varied within different rainfall regimes. A second, later period of increased debris flow susceptibility between 2.2 and 10 years after fires is indicated by the remaining 8 percent of events, which occurred primarily in forested terrains and initiated largely through landslide processes. The short time period between fire and debris-flow response within the first 1.5 years after ignition, and the longer-term response between 2.2 and 10 years after fire, demonstrate the necessity of both rapid and long-term reactions by land managers and emergency-response agencies to mitigate hazards from debris flows from recently burned areas in the western U.S.

  3. Noninvasive measurement of cerebrospinal fluid flow using an ultrasonic transit time flow sensor: a preliminary study.

    Pennell, Thomas; Yi, Juneyoung L; Kaufman, Bruce A; Krishnamurthy, Satish

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT Mechanical failure-which is the primary cause of CSF shunt malfunction-is not readily diagnosed, and the specific reasons for mechanical failure are not easily discerned. Prior attempts to measure CSF flow noninvasively have lacked the ability to either quantitatively or qualitatively obtain data. To address these needs, this preliminary study evaluates an ultrasonic transit time flow sensor in pediatric and adult patients with external ventricular drains (EVDs). One goal was to confirm the stated accuracy of the sensor in a clinical setting. A second goal was to observe the sensor's capability to record real-time continuous CSF flow. The final goal was to observe recordings during instances of flow blockage or lack of flow in order to determine the sensor's ability to identify these changes. METHODS A total of 5 pediatric and 11 adult patients who had received EVDs for the treatment of hydrocephalus were studied in a hospital setting. The primary EVD was connected to a secondary study EVD that contained a fluid-filled pressure transducer and an in-line transit time flow sensor. Comparisons were made between the weight of the drainage bag and the flow measured via the sensor in order to confirm its accuracy. Data from the pressure transducer and the flow sensor were recorded continuously at 100 Hz for a period of 24 hours by a data acquisition system, while the hourly CSF flow into the drip chamber was recorded manually. Changes in the patient's neurological status and their time points were noted. RESULTS The flow sensor demonstrated a proven accuracy of ± 15% or ± 2 ml/hr. The flow sensor allowed real-time continuous flow waveform data recordings. Dynamic analysis of CSF flow waveforms allowed the calculation of the pressure-volume index. Lastly, the sensor was able to diagnose a blocked catheter and distinguish between the blockage and lack of flow. CONCLUSIONS The Transonic flow sensor accurately measures CSF output within ± 15% or ± 2 ml

  4. Sensitivity analysis of time-dependent laminar flows

    Hristova, H.; Etienne, S.; Pelletier, D.; Borggaard, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a general sensitivity equation method (SEM) for time dependent incompressible laminar flows. The SEM accounts for complex parameter dependence and is suitable for a wide range of problems. The formulation is verified on a problem with a closed form solution obtained by the method of manufactured solution. Systematic grid convergence studies confirm the theoretical rates of convergence in both space and time. The methodology is then applied to pulsatile flow around a square cylinder. Computations show that the flow starts with symmetrical vortex shedding followed by a transition to the traditional Von Karman street (alternate vortex shedding). Simulations show that the transition phase manifests itself earlier in the sensitivity fields than in the flow field itself. Sensitivities are then demonstrated for fast evaluation of nearby flows and uncertainty analysis. (author)

  5. The Value of Response Times in Item Response Modeling

    Molenaar, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    A new and very interesting approach to the analysis of responses and response times is proposed by Goldhammer (this issue). In his approach, differences in the speed-ability compromise within respondents are considered to confound the differences in ability between respondents. These confounding effects of speed on the inferences about ability can…

  6. Cognitive Reflection, Decision Biases, and Response Times.

    Alós-Ferrer, Carlos; Garagnani, Michele; Hügelschäfer, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    We present novel evidence on response times and personality traits in standard questions from the decision-making literature where responses are relatively slow (medians around half a minute or above). To this end, we measured response times in a number of incentivized, framed items (decisions from description) including the Cognitive Reflection Test, two additional questions following the same logic, and a number of classic questions used to study decision biases in probability judgments (base-rate neglect, the conjunction fallacy, and the ratio bias). All questions create a conflict between an intuitive process and more deliberative thinking. For each item, we then created a non-conflict version by either making the intuitive impulse correct (resulting in an alignment question), shutting it down (creating a neutral question), or making it dominant (creating a heuristic question). For CRT questions, the differences in response times are as predicted by dual-process theories, with alignment and heuristic variants leading to faster responses and neutral questions to slower responses than the original, conflict questions. For decision biases (where responses are slower), evidence is mixed. To explore the possible influence of personality factors on both choices and response times, we used standard personality scales including the Rational-Experiential Inventory and the Big Five, and used them as controls in regression analysis.

  7. Theory, methods and tools for determining environmental flows for riparian vegetation: Riparian vegetation-flow response guilds

    Merritt, D.M.; Scott, M.L.; Leroy, Poff N.; Auble, G.T.; Lytle, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Riparian vegetation composition, structure and abundance are governed to a large degree by river flow regime and flow-mediated fluvial processes. Streamflow regime exerts selective pressures on riparian vegetation, resulting in adaptations (trait syndromes) to specific flow attributes. Widespread modification of flow regimes by humans has resulted in extensive alteration of riparian vegetation communities. Some of the negative effects of altered flow regimes on vegetation may be reversed by restoring components of the natural flow regime. 2. Models have been developed that quantitatively relate components of the flow regime to attributes of riparian vegetation at the individual, population and community levels. Predictive models range from simple statistical relationships, to more complex stochastic matrix population models and dynamic simulation models. Of the dozens of predictive models reviewed here, most treat one or a few species, have many simplifying assumptions such as stable channel form, and do not specify the time-scale of response. In many cases, these models are very effective in developing alternative streamflow management plans for specific river reaches or segments but are not directly transferable to other rivers or other regions. 3. A primary goal in riparian ecology is to develop general frameworks for prediction of vegetation response to changing environmental conditions. The development of riparian vegetation-flow response guilds offers a framework for transferring information from rivers where flow standards have been developed to maintain desirable vegetation attributes, to rivers with little or no existing information. 4. We propose to organise riparian plants into non-phylogenetic groupings of species with shared traits that are related to components of hydrologic regime: life history, reproductive strategy, morphology, adaptations to fluvial disturbance and adaptations to water availability. Plants from any river or region may be grouped

  8. Sensor response time monitoring using noise analysis

    Hashemian, H.M.; Thie, J.A.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Holbert, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    Random noise techniques in nuclear power plants have been developed for system surveillance and for analysis of reactor core dynamics. The noise signals also contain information about sensor dynamics, and this can be extracted using frequency, amplitude and time domain analyses. Even though noise analysis has been used for sensor response time testing in some nuclear power plants, an adequate validation of this method has never been carried out. This paper presents the results of limited work recently performed to examine the validity of the noise analysis for sensor response time testing in nuclear power plants. The conclusion is that noise analysis has the potential for detecting gross changes in sensor response but it cannot be used for reliable measurement of response time until more laboratory and field experience is accumulated. The method is more advantageous for testing pressure sensors than it is for temperature sensors. This is because: 1) for temperature sensors, a method called Loop Current Step Response test is available which is quantitatively more exact than noise analysis, 2) no method currently exists for on-line testing of pressure transmitters other than the Power-Interrupt test which is applicable only to force balance pressure transmitters, and 3) pressure sensor response time is affected by sensing line degradation which is inherently taken into account by testing with noise analysis. (author)

  9. Hierarchical Bayes Models for Response Time Data

    Craigmile, Peter F.; Peruggia, Mario; Van Zandt, Trisha

    2010-01-01

    Human response time (RT) data are widely used in experimental psychology to evaluate theories of mental processing. Typically, the data constitute the times taken by a subject to react to a succession of stimuli under varying experimental conditions. Because of the sequential nature of the experiments there are trends (due to learning, fatigue,…

  10. Uncertainty analysis of power monitoring transit time ultrasonic flow meters

    Orosz, A.; Miller, D. W.; Christensen, R. N.; Arndt, S.

    2006-01-01

    A general uncertainty analysis is applied to chordal, transit time ultrasonic flow meters that are used in nuclear power plant feedwater loops. This investigation focuses on relationships between the major parameters of the flow measurement. For this study, mass flow rate is divided into three components, profile factor, density, and a form of volumetric flow rate. All system parameters are used to calculate values for these three components. Uncertainty is analyzed using a perturbation method. Sensitivity coefficients for major system parameters are shown, and these coefficients are applicable to a range of ultrasonic flow meters used in similar applications. Also shown is the uncertainty to be expected for density along with its relationship to other system uncertainties. One other conclusion is that pipe diameter sensitivity coefficients may be a function of the calibration technique used. (authors)

  11. Real-Time Video Stylization Using Object Flows.

    Lu, Cewu; Xiao, Yao; Tang, Chi-Keung

    2017-05-05

    We present a real-time video stylization system and demonstrate a variety of painterly styles rendered on real video inputs. The key technical contribution lies on the object flow, which is robust to inaccurate optical flow, unknown object transformation and partial occlusion as well. Since object flows relate regions of the same object across frames, shower-door effect can be effectively reduced where painterly strokes and textures are rendered on video objects. The construction of object flows is performed in real time and automatically after applying metric learning. To reduce temporal flickering, we extend the bilateral filtering into motion bilateral filtering. We propose quantitative metrics to measure the temporal coherence on structures and textures of our stylized videos, and perform extensive experiments to compare our stylized results with baseline systems and prior works specializing in watercolor and abstraction.

  12. Identification of flow paths and quantification of return flow volumes and timing at field scale

    Claes, N.; Paige, G. B.; Parsekian, A.

    2017-12-01

    Flood irrigation, which constitutes a large part of agricultural water use, accounts for a significant amount of the water that is diverted from western streams. Return flow, the portion of the water applied to irrigated areas that returns to the stream, is important for maintaining base flows in streams and ecological function of riparian zones and wetlands hydrologically linked with streams. Prediction of timing and volumes of return flow during and after flood irrigation pose a challenge due to the heterogeneity of pedogenic and soil physical factors that influence vadose zone processes. In this study, we quantify volumes of return flow and potential pathways in the subsurface through a vadose zone flow model that is informed by both hydrological and geophysical observations in a Bayesian setting. We couple a two-dimensional vadose zone flow model through a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach with time lapse ERT, borehole NMR datasets that are collected during and after flood irrigation experiments, and soil physical lab analysis. The combination of both synthetic models and field observations leads to flow path identification and allows for quantification of volumes and timing and associated uncertainties of subsurface return that stems from flood irrigation. The quantification of the impact of soil heterogeneity enables us to translate these results to other sites and predict return flow under different soil physical settings. This is key when managing irrigation water resources and predictions of outcomes of different scenarios have to be evaluated.

  13. Real-time display of flow-pressure-volume loops.

    Morozoff, P E; Evans, R W

    1992-01-01

    Graphic display of respiratory waveforms can be valuable for monitoring the progress of ventilated patients. A system has been developed that can display flow-pressure-volume loops as derived from a patient's respiratory circuit in real time. It can also display, store, print, and retrieve ventilatory waveforms. Five loops can be displayed at once: current, previous, reference, "ideal," and previously saved. Two components, the data-display device (DDD) and the data-collection device (DCD), comprise the system. An IBM 286/386 computer with a graphics card (VGA) and bidirectional parallel port is used for the DDD; an eight-bit microprocessor card and an A/D convertor card make up the DCD. A real-time multitasking operating system was written to control the DDD, while the DCD operates from in-line assembly code. The DCD samples the pressure and flow sensors at 100 Hz and looks for a complete flow waveform pattern based on flow slope. These waveforms are then passed to the DDD via the mutual parallel port. Within the DDD a process integrates the flow to create a volume signal and performs a multilinear regression on the pressure, flow, and volume data to calculate the elastance, resistance, pressure offset, and coefficient of determination. Elastance, resistance, and offset are used to calculate Pr and Pc where: Pr[k] = P[k]-offset-(elastance.V[k]) and Pc[k] = P[k]-offset-(resistance.F[k]). Volume vs. Pc and flow vs. Pr can be displayed in real time. Patient data from previous clinical tests were loaded into the device to verify the software calculations. An analog waveform generator was used to simulate flow and pressure waveforms that validated the system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Batch Scheduling for Hybrid Assembly Differentiation Flow Shop to Minimize Total Actual Flow Time

    Maulidya, R.; Suprayogi; Wangsaputra, R.; Halim, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    A hybrid assembly differentiation flow shop is a three-stage flow shop consisting of Machining, Assembly and Differentiation Stages and producing different types of products. In the machining stage, parts are processed in batches on different (unrelated) machines. In the assembly stage, each part of the different parts is assembled into an assembly product. Finally, the assembled products will further be processed into different types of final products in the differentiation stage. In this paper, we develop a batch scheduling model for a hybrid assembly differentiation flow shop to minimize the total actual flow time defined as the total times part spent in the shop floor from the arrival times until its due date. We also proposed a heuristic algorithm for solving the problems. The proposed algorithm is tested using a set of hypothetic data. The solution shows that the algorithm can solve the problems effectively.

  15. Sleep Management on Multiple Machines for Energy and Flow Time

    Chan, Sze-Hang; Lam, Tak-Wah; Lee, Lap Kei

    2011-01-01

    In large data centers, determining the right number of operating machines is often non-trivial, especially when the workload is unpredictable. Using too many machines would waste energy, while using too few would affect the performance. This paper extends the traditional study of online flow-time...... scheduling on multiple machines to take sleep management and energy into consideration. Specifically, we study online algorithms that can determine dynamically when and which subset of machines should wake up (or sleep), and how jobs are dispatched and scheduled. We consider schedules whose objective...... is to minimize the sum of flow time and energy, and obtain O(1)-competitive algorithms for two settings: one assumes machines running at a fixed speed, and the other allows dynamic speed scaling to further optimize energy usage. Like the previous work on the tradeoff between flow time and energy, the analysis...

  16. Quantum dynamical time evolutions as stochastic flows on phase space

    Combe, P.; Rodriguez, R.; Guerra, F.; Sirigue, M.; Sirigue-Collin, M.

    1984-01-01

    We are mainly interested in describing the time development of the Wigner functions by means of stochastic processes. In the second section we recall the main properties of the Wigner functions as well as those of their Fourier transform. In the next one we derive the evolution equation of these functions for a class of Hamiltonians and we give a probabilistic expression for the solution of these equations by means of a stochastic flow in phase space which reminds of the classical flows. In the last section we remark that the previously defined flow can be extended to the bounded continuous functions on phase space and that this flow conserves the cone generated by the Wigner functions. (orig./HSI)

  17. Cognitive Reflection, Decision Biases, and Response Times

    Carlos Alos-Ferrer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present novel evidence on decision times and personality traits in standard questions from the decision-making literature where responses are relatively slow (medians around half a minute or above. To this end, we measured decision times in a number of incentivized, framed items (decisions from description including the Cognitive Reflection Test, two additional questions following the same logic, and a number of classic questions used to study decision biases in probability judgments (base-rate neglect, the conjunction fallacy, and the ratio bias. All questions create a conflict between an intuitive process and more deliberative thinking. For each item, we then created a non-conflict version by either making the intuitive impulse correct (resulting in an alignment question, shutting it down (creating a neutral question, or making it dominant (creating a heuristic question. For CRT questions, the differences in decision times are as predicted by dual-process theories, with alignment and heuristic variants leading to faster responses and neutral questions to slower responses than the original, conflict questions. For decision biases (where responses are slower, evidence is mixed. To explore the possible influence of personality factors on both choices and decision times, we used standard personality scales including the Rational-Experiential Inventory and the Big Five, and used the mas controls in regression analysis.

  18. Complex blood flow quantification using real-time in vivo vector flow ultrasound

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Per, Haugaard

    A new method to define and quantify complex blood flow is presented. The standard deviations of real-time in vivo vector flow angle estimates are used. Using vector flow ultrasound imaging both carotid bifurcations of two healthy volunteers were scanned. Scanning was performed with a 7.6 MHz linear...... transducer (8670, B-K Medical, Denmark) and a commercial vector flow ultrasound scanner (ProFocus 2202, B-K Medical). Eight video sequences of one cardiac cycle were obtained. In every frame boxes were placed to define the common carotid artery(box1) and the carotid bulb(box2). The standard deviation...... for the vector angle estimates was calculated for each box in every frame. For comparison three ultrasound experts evaluated the presence of complex flow in every box. The trial was blinded. For every sequence the mean standard deviation of the vector angle estimates were calculated for box1 {39...

  19. Bleaching response of Symbiodinium (zooxanthellae): determination by flow cytometry.

    Lee, Co Sin; Yeo, Yin Sheng Wilson; Sin, Tsai Min

    2012-10-01

    Coral bleaching is of increasing concern to reef management and stakeholders. Thus far, quantification of coral bleaching tends to be heavily reliant on the enumeration of zooxanthellae, with less emphasis on assessment of photosynthetic or physiological condition, these being often assessed separately by techniques such as liquid chromatography. Traditional methods of enumeration using microscopy are time consuming, subjected to low precision and great observer error. In this study, we presented a method for the distinction of physoiological condition and rapid enumeration of zooxanthellae using flow cytometry (FCM). Microscopy verified that healthy looking/live versus damaged/dead zooxanthellae could be reliably and objectively distinguished and counted by FCM on the basis of red and green fluorescence and light scatter. Excellent correlations were also determined between FCM and microscopy estimates of cell concentrations of fresh zooxanthellae isolates from Pocillopora damicornis. The relative intensities of chlorophyll and β-carotene fluorescences were shown to be important in understanding the results of increased cell counts in freshly isolated zooxanthellae experimentally exposed to high temperatures (34, 36, and 38°C) over 24 h, with ambient temperature (29°C) used as controls. The ability to simultaneously identify and enumerate subpopulations of different physiological states in the same sample provides an enormous advantage in not just determining bleaching responses, but elucidating adaptive response and mechanisms for tolerance. Therefore, this approach might provide a rapid, convenient, and reproducible methodology for climate change studies and reef management programs. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  20. In situ response time measurements of RTD temperature sensors

    Goncalves, I.M.P.

    1985-01-01

    The loop-current-step-response test provides a mean for determining the time constant of resistence thermometers. The test consist in heating the sensor a few degrees above ambient temperature by causing a step pertubation in the electric current that flows through the sensor leads. The developed mathematical transformation permits to use data collected during the internal heating transient to predict the sensor response to perturbations in fluid temperature. Experimental data obtained show that the time constant determined by method is within 15 percent of true value. The loop-current-step-response test is a remote in situ test, which can be performed with the sensor installed in the process. Consequently it takes account the local heat transfer conditions, and appropriated for nuclear power plants, where sensors are installed in points of difficult access. (author) [pt

  1. Response timescales for martian ice masses and implications for ice flow on Mars

    Koutnik, Michelle Rebecca; Waddington, E.D.; Winebrener, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    a predictable shape, which is a function of ice temperature, ice rheology, and surface mass-exchange rate. In addition, the time for surface-shape adjustment is shorter than the characteristic time for significant deformation or displacement of internal layers within a flowing ice mass; as a result, surface......On Earth and on Mars, ice masses experience changes in precipitation, temperature, and radiation. In a new climate state, flowing ice masses will adjust in length and in thickness, and this response toward a new steady state has a characteristic timescale. However, a flowing ice mass has...... topography is more diagnostic of flow than are internal-layer shapes. Because the shape of Gemina Lingula, North Polar Layered Deposits indicates that it flowed at some time in the past, we use its current topography to infer characteristics of those past ice conditions, or past climate conditions, in which...

  2. Riparian Vegetation Response to the March 2008 Short-Duration, High-Flow Experiment-Implications of Timing and Frequency of Flood Disturbance on Nonnative Plant Establishment Along the Colorado River Below Glen Canyon Dam

    Ralston, Barbara E.

    2010-01-01

    Riparian plant communities exhibit various levels of diversity and richness. These communities are affected by flooding and are vulnerable to colonization by nonnative species. Since 1996, a series of three high-flow experiments (HFE), or water releases designed to mimic natural seasonal flooding, have been conducted at Glen Canyon Dam, Ariz., primarily to determine the effectiveness of using high flows to conserve sediment, a limited resource. These experiments also provide opportunities to examine the susceptibility of riparian plant communities to nonnative species invasions. The third and most recent HFE was conducted from March 5 to 9, 2008, and scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center examined the effects of high flows on riparian vegetation as part of the overall experiment. Total plant species richness, nonnative species richness, percent plant cover, percent organic matter, and total carbon measured from sediment samples were compared for Grand Canyon riparian vegetation zones immediately following the HFE and 6 months later. These comparisons were used to determine if susceptibility to nonnative species establishment varied among riparian vegetation zones and if the timing of the HFE affected nonnative plant establishment success. The 2008 HFE primarily buried vegetation rather than scouring it. Percent nonnative cover did not differ among riparian vegetation zones; however, in the river corridor affected by Glen Canyon Dam operations, nonnative species richness showed significant variation. For example, species richness was significantly greater immediately after and 6 months following the HFE in the hydrologic zone farthest away from the shoreline, the area that represents the oldest riparian zone within the post-dam riparian area. In areas closer to the river channel, tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima X chinensis) seedling establishment occurred (tamarisk seed production, or in 1986, a year following several

  3. Complexity analysis of the turbulent environmental fluid flow time series

    Mihailović, D. T.; Nikolić-Đorić, E.; Drešković, N.; Mimić, G.

    2014-02-01

    We have used the Kolmogorov complexities, sample and permutation entropies to quantify the randomness degree in river flow time series of two mountain rivers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, representing the turbulent environmental fluid, for the period 1926-1990. In particular, we have examined the monthly river flow time series from two rivers (the Miljacka and the Bosnia) in the mountain part of their flow and then calculated the Kolmogorov complexity (KL) based on the Lempel-Ziv Algorithm (LZA) (lower-KLL and upper-KLU), sample entropy (SE) and permutation entropy (PE) values for each time series. The results indicate that the KLL, KLU, SE and PE values in two rivers are close to each other regardless of the amplitude differences in their monthly flow rates. We have illustrated the changes in mountain river flow complexity by experiments using (i) the data set for the Bosnia River and (ii) anticipated human activities and projected climate changes. We have explored the sensitivity of considered measures in dependence on the length of time series. In addition, we have divided the period 1926-1990 into three subintervals: (a) 1926-1945, (b) 1946-1965, (c) 1966-1990, and calculated the KLL, KLU, SE, PE values for the various time series in these subintervals. It is found that during the period 1946-1965, there is a decrease in their complexities, and corresponding changes in the SE and PE, in comparison to the period 1926-1990. This complexity loss may be primarily attributed to (i) human interventions, after the Second World War, on these two rivers because of their use for water consumption and (ii) climate change in recent times.

  4. Tempered fractional time series model for turbulence in geophysical flows

    Meerschaert, Mark M.; Sabzikar, Farzad; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2014-09-01

    We propose a new time series model for velocity data in turbulent flows. The new model employs tempered fractional calculus to extend the classical 5/3 spectral model of Kolmogorov. Application to wind speed and water velocity in a large lake are presented, to demonstrate the practical utility of the model.

  5. Tempered fractional time series model for turbulence in geophysical flows

    Meerschaert, Mark M; Sabzikar, Farzad; Phanikumar, Mantha S; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new time series model for velocity data in turbulent flows. The new model employs tempered fractional calculus to extend the classical 5/3 spectral model of Kolmogorov. Application to wind speed and water velocity in a large lake are presented, to demonstrate the practical utility of the model. (paper)

  6. Time-Dependent Natural Convection Couette Flow of Heat ...

    Time-Dependent Natural Convection Couette Flow of Heat Generating/Absorbing Fluid between Vertical Parallel Plates Filled With Porous Material. ... The numerical simulation conducted for some saturated liquids reveled that at t ≥ Pr the steady and unsteady state velocities (as well as the temperature of the fluid) ...

  7. Financial Crisis and Corporate Social Responsible Mutual Fund Flows

    Sitikantha Parida; Zhihong Wang

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate investment flows into mutual funds that hold more high corporate social responsible stocks (top CSR funds) vs. mutual funds that hold more low corporate social responsible stocks (bottom CSR funds). Using a large sample of equity mutual funds spanning 2003–2012, we find that top CSR funds on average receive about 5% less investment per annum compared to the other funds; whereas bottom CSR funds receive about 5.6% more investments. These relative negative and posi...

  8. SAP FLOW RESPONSE OF CHERRY TREES TO WEATHER CONDITION

    Á. JUHÁSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow response of cherry trees to weather condition. Themain goal of our study is to measure water-demand of cherry trees budded ontodifferent rootstocks by sapflow equipment and to study the sap flow response to themeteorological factors. The investigations are carried out in Soroksár in Hungary at‘Rita’ sweet cherry orchard. The pattern of sapflow was analyzed in relation ofsolar radiation, vapour pressure deficit and air temperature. Between solar radiationand sap flow was found a parabolic relation, daily pattern of sapflow is in closerelation (cubic also to vapour pressure deficit. No significant relationship existedbetween sapflow and air temperature. The sapflow performance of sweet cherrytrees on different rootstocks showed typical daily characters.

  9. Time response measurements of LASL diagnostic detectors

    Hocker, L.P.

    1970-07-01

    The measurement and data analysis techniques developed under the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's detector improvement program were used to characterize the time and frequency response of selected LASL Compton, fluor-photodiode (NPD), and fluor-photomultiplier (NPM) diagnostic detectors. Data acquisition procedures and analysis methods presently in use are summarized, and detector time and frequency data obtained using the EG and G/AEC electron linear accelerator fast pulse (approximately 50 psec FWHM) as the incident radiation driving function are presented. (U.S.)

  10. Dynamic ADMM for Real-time Optimal Power Flow: Preprint

    Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-23

    This paper considers distribution networks featuring distributed energy resources (DERs), and develops a dynamic optimization method to maximize given operational objectives in real time while adhering to relevant network constraints. The design of the dynamic algorithm is based on suitable linearizations of the AC power flow equations, and it leverages the so-called alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). The steps of the ADMM, however, are suitably modified to accommodate appropriate measurements from the distribution network and the DERs. With the aid of these measurements, the resultant algorithm can enforce given operational constraints in spite of inaccuracies in the representation of the AC power flows, and it avoids ubiquitous metering to gather the state of non-controllable resources. Optimality and convergence of the propose algorithm are established in terms of tracking of the solution of a convex surrogate of the AC optimal power flow problem.

  11. Immune response to mycobacterial infection: lessons from flow cytometry.

    Rovina, Nikoletta; Panagiotou, Marios; Pontikis, Konstantinos; Kyriakopoulou, Magdalini; Koulouris, Nikolaos G; Koutsoukou, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Detecting and treating active and latent tuberculosis are pivotal elements for effective infection control; yet, due to their significant inherent limitations, the diagnostic means for these two stages of tuberculosis (TB) to date remain suboptimal. This paper reviews the current diagnostic tools for mycobacterial infection and focuses on the application of flow cytometry as a promising method for rapid and reliable diagnosis of mycobacterial infection as well as discrimination between active and latent TB: it summarizes diagnostic biomarkers distinguishing the two states of infection and also features of the distinct immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) at certain stages of infection as revealed by flow cytometry to date.

  12. Immune Response to Mycobacterial Infection: Lessons from Flow Cytometry

    Nikoletta Rovina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting and treating active and latent tuberculosis are pivotal elements for effective infection control; yet, due to their significant inherent limitations, the diagnostic means for these two stages of tuberculosis (TB to date remain suboptimal. This paper reviews the current diagnostic tools for mycobacterial infection and focuses on the application of flow cytometry as a promising method for rapid and reliable diagnosis of mycobacterial infection as well as discrimination between active and latent TB: it summarizes diagnostic biomarkers distinguishing the two states of infection and also features of the distinct immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb at certain stages of infection as revealed by flow cytometry to date.

  13. Responses to interracial interactions over time.

    Plant, E Ashby

    2004-11-01

    The current work tested and expanded on Plant and Devine's (2003) model of the antecedents and implications of interracial anxiety by examining people's experiences with interracial interactions at two time points. Study 1 explored non-Black people's responses to interactions with Black people and Study 2 explored Black people's responses to interactions with White people. Non-Black participants' expectancies about coming across as biased in interracial interactions and Black participants' expectancies about White people's bias predicted their interracial anxiety and whether they had positive interactions with outgroup members during the 2 weeks between assessments. Across both studies, interracial anxiety predicted the desire to avoid interactions with outgroup members. In addition, participants who were personally motivated to respond without prejudice reported more positive expectancies. The findings are discussed in terms of the implications for understanding the course and quality of interracial interactions.

  14. Response of small pitot tubes in gas-liquid flows

    Davis, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The pressure rise experienced by a pitot tube immersed in a bubbly gas-liquid mixture flow exceeds that predicted by homogeneous flow analysis under conditions where the pitot is smaller than the mean bubble size. A systematic dependence of the deviation from homogeneous flow analysis exists, depending upon the mixture void fraction. A maximum effect is observed at a void fraction of 0.60, where the pressure rise was found to be 1.73 times the predicted stagnation pressure rise or 0.87 of the mixture momentum flux density. The magnitude of these effects is comparable with similar effects reported elsewhere for gas/solid mixture flow due to relative motion between phases in the vicinity of the sensing probe tip. (orig.)

  15. Controlling mixing and segregation in time periodic granular flows

    Bhattacharya, Tathagata

    Segregation is a major problem for many solids processing industries. Differences in particle size or density can lead to flow-induced segregation. In the present work, we employ the discrete element method (DEM)---one type of particle dynamics (PD) technique---to investigate the mixing and segregation of granular material in some prototypical solid handling devices, such as a rotating drum and chute. In DEM, one calculates the trajectories of individual particles based on Newton's laws of motion by employing suitable contact force models and a collision detection algorithm. Recently, it has been suggested that segregation in particle mixers can be thwarted if the particle flow is inverted at a rate above a critical forcing frequency. Further, it has been hypothesized that, for a rotating drum, the effectiveness of this technique can be linked to the probability distribution of the number of times a particle passes through the flowing layer per rotation of the drum. In the first portion of this work, various configurations of solid mixers are numerically and experimentally studied to investigate the conditions for improved mixing in light of these hypotheses. Besides rotating drums, many studies of granular flow have focused on gravity driven chute flows owing to its practical importance in granular transportation and to the fact that the relative simplicity of this type of flow allows for development and testing of new theories. In this part of the work, we observe the deposition behavior of both mono-sized and polydisperse dry granular materials in an inclined chute flow. The effects of different parameters such as chute angle, particle size, falling height and charge amount on the mass fraction distribution of granular materials after deposition are investigated. The simulation results obtained using DEM are compared with the experimental findings and a high degree of agreement is observed. Tuning of the underlying contact force parameters allows the achievement

  16. Storm-time meridional flows: a comparison of CINDI observations and model results

    M. Hairston

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During a large geomagnetic storm, the electric field from the polar ionosphere can expand far enough to affect the mid-latitude and equatorial electric fields. These changes in the equatorial zonal electric field, called the penetration field, will cause changes in the meridional ion flows that can be observed by radars and spacecraft. In general this E × B ion flow near the equator caused by the penetration field during undershielding conditions will be upward on the dayside and downward on the nightside of the Earth. Previous analysis of the equatorial meridional flows observed by CINDI instrument on the C/NOFS spacecraft during the 26 September 2011 storm showed that all of the response flows on the dayside were excess downward flows instead of the expected upward flows. These observed storm-time responses are compared to a prediction from a physics-based coupled model of thermosphere–ionosphere–inner-magnetosphere in an effort to explain these observations. The model results suggest that the equatorial downward flow could be attributed to a combined effect of the overshielding and disturbance dynamo processes. However, some discrepancy between the model and observation indicates a need for improving our understanding of how sensitive the equatorial electric field is to various model input parameters that describe the magnetosphere–ionosphere coupling processes.

  17. Tracer responses and control of vessels with variable flow and volume

    Niemi, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Continuous flow vessels which are subject to variation of flow and volume are characterized by time-variable parameters. It is shown that their residence time distributions and weighting functions obtained by tracer testing are made invariant with regard to the integrated flow variables which are introduced. Under variable flow but constant volume, one such integrated variable is sufficient. Under variable volume, two different variables are suggested for the residence time distribution and weighting function, while the appropriate variable of the perfect mixer differs distinctly from that of vessels with a distinct velocity profile. It is shown through a number of example cases, that an agreement with their mathematical models is reached. The approach is extended to include also arbitrary, non-analytic response functions obtained by tracer measurements. Applications of the derived models and their incorporation in automatic control algorithms is discussed. (orig.) [de

  18. Predicting response times for the Spotify backend

    Yanggratoke, Rerngvit; Kreitz, Gunnar; Goldmann, Mikael; Stadler, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    We model and evaluate the performance of a distributed key-value storage system that is part of the Spotify backend. Spotify is an on-demand music streaming service, offering low-latency access to a library of over 16 million tracks and serving over 10 million users currently. We first present a simplified model of the Spotify storage architecture, in order to make its analysis feasible. We then introduce an analytical model for the distribution of the response time, a key metric in the Spoti...

  19. Photoconductivity response time in amorphous semiconductors

    Adriaenssens, G. J.; Baranovskii, S. D.; Fuhs, W.; Jansen, J.; Öktü, Ö.

    1995-04-01

    The photoconductivity response time of amorphous semiconductors is examined theoretically on the basis of standard definitions for free- and trapped-carrier lifetimes, and experimentally for a series of a-Si1-xCx:H alloys with xgeneration rate and temperature. As no satisfactory agreement between models and experiments emerges, a simple theory is developed that can account for the experimental observations on the basis of the usual multiple-trappping ideas, provided a small probability of direct free-carrier recombination is included. The theory leads to a stretched-exponential photocurrent decay.

  20. Lagrangian structures in time-periodic vortical flows

    S. V. Kostrykin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lagrangian trajectories of fluid particles are experimentally studied in an oscillating four-vortex velocity field. The oscillations occur due to a loss of stability of a steady flow and result in a regular reclosure of streamlines between the vortices of the same sign. The Eulerian velocity field is visualized by tracer displacements over a short time period. The obtained data on tracer motions during a number of oscillation periods show that the Lagrangian trajectories form quasi-regular structures. The destruction of these structures is determined by two characteristic time scales: the tracers are redistributed sufficiently fast between the vortices of the same sign and much more slowly transported into the vortices of opposite sign. The observed behavior of the Lagrangian trajectories is quantitatively reproduced in a new numerical experiment with two-dimensional model of the velocity field with a small number of spatial harmonics. A qualitative interpretation of phenomena observed on the basis of the theory of adiabatic chaos in the Hamiltonian systems is given. The Lagrangian trajectories are numerically simulated under varying flow parameters. It is shown that the spatial-temporal characteristics of the Lagrangian structures depend on the properties of temporal change in the streamlines topology and on the adiabatic parameter corresponding to the flow. The condition for the occurrence of traps (the regions where the Lagrangian particles reside for a long time is obtained.

  1. Accuracy of tracer stimulus response experiments in laminar flows

    Chlup, Hynek; Novotný, Pavel; Žitný, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 55, 23-24 (2012), s. 6458-6462 ISSN 0017-9310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : residence time distribution * tracer injection * laminar convective dominated flow Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 2.315, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001793101200470X

  2. Using Response Times to Assess Learning Progress: A Joint Model for Responses and Response Times

    Wang, Shiyu; Zhang, Susu; Douglas, Jeff; Culpepper, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Analyzing students' growth remains an important topic in educational research. Most recently, Diagnostic Classification Models (DCMs) have been used to track skill acquisition in a longitudinal fashion, with the purpose to provide an estimate of students' learning trajectories in terms of the change of fine-grained skills overtime. Response time…

  3. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Flow Alteration

    Introduction to the flow alteration module, when to list flow alteration as a candidate cause, ways to measure flow alteration, simple and detailed conceptual model diagrams for flow alteration, flow alteration module references and literature reviews.

  4. Using travel times to simulate multi-dimensional bioreactive transport in time-periodic flows.

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2016-04-01

    In travel-time models, the spatially explicit description of reactive transport is replaced by associating reactive-species concentrations with the travel time or groundwater age at all locations. These models have been shown adequate for reactive transport in river-bank filtration under steady-state flow conditions. Dynamic hydrological conditions, however, can lead to fluctuations of infiltration velocities, putting the validity of travel-time models into question. In transient flow, the local travel-time distributions change with time. We show that a modified version of travel-time based reactive transport models is valid if only the magnitude of the velocity fluctuates, whereas its spatial orientation remains constant. We simulate nonlinear, one-dimensional, bioreactive transport involving oxygen, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, aerobic and denitrifying bacteria, considering periodic fluctuations of velocity. These fluctuations make the bioreactive system pulsate: The aerobic zone decreases at times of low velocity and increases at those of high velocity. For the case of diurnal fluctuations, the biomass concentrations cannot follow the hydrological fluctuations and a transition zone containing both aerobic and obligatory denitrifying bacteria is established, whereas a clear separation of the two types of bacteria prevails in the case of seasonal velocity fluctuations. We map the 1-D results to a heterogeneous, two-dimensional domain by means of the mean groundwater age for steady-state flow in both domains. The mapped results are compared to simulation results of spatially explicit, two-dimensional, advective-dispersive-bioreactive transport subject to the same relative fluctuations of velocity as in the one-dimensional model. The agreement between the mapped 1-D and the explicit 2-D results is excellent. We conclude that travel-time models of nonlinear bioreactive transport are adequate in systems of time-periodic flow if the flow direction does not change

  5. Response time in online stated choice experiments

    Campbell, Danny; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we use paradata relating to the length of time respondents required in a self-administered online stated preference surveys. Although this issue has been previously explored, there is little guidance on how to identify and deal with ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ respondents. In this paper, we...... in Denmark. Results from our analysis corroborate that response latency has a bearing on the estimates of utility coefficients and the error variance. Although the results highlight the non-triviality of identifying fast and slow respondents, they signal the need to estimate a large number of candidate...... models to identify the most appropriate ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ thresholds. Not doing so is likely to lead to an inferior model and has repercussions for marginal willingness to pay estimates and choice predictions....

  6. Non-clairvoyant weighted flow time scheduling with rejection penalty

    Chan, Ho-Leung; Chan, Sze-Hang; Lam, Tak-Wah

    2012-01-01

    is defined as the weighted flow time of the job plus the penalty if it is rejected before completion. Previous work on minimizing the total user cost focused on the clairvoyant single-processor setting [BBC+03,CLL11] and has produced O(1)-competitive online algorithm for jobs with arbitrary weights...... algorithm has to decide job rejection and determine the order and speed of job execution. It is interesting to study the tradeoff between the above-mentioned user cost and energy. This paper gives two O(1)-competitive non-clairvoyant algorithms for minimizing the user cost plus energy on a single processor......This paper initiates the study of online scheduling with rejection penalty in the non-clairvoyant setting, i.e., the size (processing time) of a job is not assumed to be known at its release time. In the rejection penalty model, jobs can be rejected with a penalty, and the user cost of a job...

  7. Hidden Markov Item Response Theory Models for Responses and Response Times.

    Molenaar, Dylan; Oberski, Daniel; Vermunt, Jeroen; De Boeck, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Current approaches to model responses and response times to psychometric tests solely focus on between-subject differences in speed and ability. Within subjects, speed and ability are assumed to be constants. Violations of this assumption are generally absorbed in the residual of the model. As a result, within-subject departures from the between-subject speed and ability level remain undetected. These departures may be of interest to the researcher as they reflect differences in the response processes adopted on the items of a test. In this article, we propose a dynamic approach for responses and response times based on hidden Markov modeling to account for within-subject differences in responses and response times. A simulation study is conducted to demonstrate acceptable parameter recovery and acceptable performance of various fit indices in distinguishing between different models. In addition, both a confirmatory and an exploratory application are presented to demonstrate the practical value of the modeling approach.

  8. Arrival-Time Detection and Ultrasonic Flow-Meter Applications

    Willatzen, Morten; Soendergaard, Peter; Latino, Carl; Voss, Frands; Andersen, Niels Lervad; Brokate, Martin; Bounaim, Aicha

    2006-01-01

    The Danfoss problem on ultrasonic flow measurement has been separated into three parts each handled by a subgroup of the authors listed above. The first subgroup deals with a presentation of modelling equations describing the physics of ultrasonic flow meters employing reciprocal ultrasonic transducer systems. The mathematical model presented allows the electrical output signal to be determined corresponding to any time-dependent electrical input signal. The transducers modelled consist of a piezoceramic material layer and a passive acoustic matching layer. The second subgroup analyzes the possibility of coding the input signal so as to simplify arrival-time detection by re.nding the coded input sequence in the received signal. The narrow-band nature of the transducers makes this problem non-trivial but suggestions for improvement are proposed. The analysis given is based on traditional autoand cross-correlation techniques. The third subgroup attempts to improve existing correlation methods in determining arrival-time detection of signals. A mathematical formulation of the problem is given and the application to a set of real signals provided by Danfoss A/S is performed with good results

  9. Stochastic Measurement Models for Quantifying Lymphocyte Responses Using Flow Cytometry

    Kan, Andrey; Pavlyshyn, Damian; Markham, John F.; Dowling, Mark R.; Heinzel, Susanne; Zhou, Jie H. S.; Marchingo, Julia M.; Hodgkin, Philip D.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive immune responses are complex dynamic processes whereby B and T cells undergo division and differentiation triggered by pathogenic stimuli. Deregulation of the response can lead to severe consequences for the host organism ranging from immune deficiencies to autoimmunity. Tracking cell division and differentiation by flow cytometry using fluorescent probes is a major method for measuring progression of lymphocyte responses, both in vitro and in vivo. In turn, mathematical modeling of cell numbers derived from such measurements has led to significant biological discoveries, and plays an increasingly important role in lymphocyte research. Fitting an appropriate parameterized model to such data is the goal of these studies but significant challenges are presented by the variability in measurements. This variation results from the sum of experimental noise and intrinsic probabilistic differences in cells and is difficult to characterize analytically. Current model fitting methods adopt different simplifying assumptions to describe the distribution of such measurements and these assumptions have not been tested directly. To help inform the choice and application of appropriate methods of model fitting to such data we studied the errors associated with flow cytometry measurements from a wide variety of experiments. We found that the mean and variance of the noise were related by a power law with an exponent between 1.3 and 1.8 for different datasets. This violated the assumptions inherent to commonly used least squares, linear variance scaling and log-transformation based methods. As a result of these findings we propose a new measurement model that we justify both theoretically, from the maximum entropy standpoint, and empirically using collected data. Our evaluation suggests that the new model can be reliably used for model fitting across a variety of conditions. Our work provides a foundation for modeling measurements in flow cytometry experiments thus

  10. Response moderation models for conditional dependence between response time and response accuracy.

    Bolsinova, Maria; Tijmstra, Jesper; Molenaar, Dylan

    2017-05-01

    It is becoming more feasible and common to register response times in the application of psychometric tests. Researchers thus have the opportunity to jointly model response accuracy and response time, which provides users with more relevant information. The most common choice is to use the hierarchical model (van der Linden, 2007, Psychometrika, 72, 287), which assumes conditional independence between response time and accuracy, given a person's speed and ability. However, this assumption may be violated in practice if, for example, persons vary their speed or differ in their response strategies, leading to conditional dependence between response time and accuracy and confounding measurement. We propose six nested hierarchical models for response time and accuracy that allow for conditional dependence, and discuss their relationship to existing models. Unlike existing approaches, the proposed hierarchical models allow for various forms of conditional dependence in the model and allow the effect of continuous residual response time on response accuracy to be item-specific, person-specific, or both. Estimation procedures for the models are proposed, as well as two information criteria that can be used for model selection. Parameter recovery and usefulness of the information criteria are investigated using simulation, indicating that the procedure works well and is likely to select the appropriate model. Two empirical applications are discussed to illustrate the different types of conditional dependence that may occur in practice and how these can be captured using the proposed hierarchical models. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Time complexity and linear-time approximation of the ancient two-machine flow shop

    Rote, G.; Woeginger, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    We consider the scheduling problems F2¿Cmax and F2|no-wait|Cmax, i.e. makespan minimization in a two-machine flow shop, with and without no wait in process. For both problems solution algorithms based on sorting with O(n log n) running time are known, where n denotes the number of jobs. [1, 2]. We

  12. Near Real-Time Call Detail Record ETL Flows

    Cochinwala, Munir; Panagos, Euthimios

    Telecommunication companies face significant business challenges as they strive to reduce subscriber churn and increase average revenue per user (ARPU) by offering new services and incorporating new functionality into existing services. The increased number of service offerings and available functionality result in an ever growing volume of call detail records (CDRs). For many services (e.g., pre-paid), CDRs need to be processed and analyzed in near real-time for several reasons, including charging, on-line subscriber access to their accounts, and analytics for predicting subscriber usage and preventing fraudulent activity. In this paper, we describe the challenges associated with near real-time extract, transform, and load (ETL) of CDR data warehouse flows for supporting both the operational and business intelligence needs of telecommunication services, and we present our approach to addressing these challenges.

  13. The Time-Frequency Signatures of Advanced Seismic Signals Generated by Debris Flows

    Chu, C. R.; Huang, C. J.; Lin, C. R.; Wang, C. C.; Kuo, B. Y.; Yin, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The seismic monitoring is expected to reveal the process of debris flow from the initial area to alluvial fan, because other field monitoring techniques, such as the video camera and the ultrasonic sensor, are limited by detection range. For this reason, seismic approaches have been used as the detection system of debris flows over the past few decades. The analysis of the signatures of the seismic signals in time and frequency domain can be used to identify the different phases of debris flow. This study dedicates to investigate the different stages of seismic signals due to debris flow, including the advanced signal, the main front, and the decaying tail. Moreover, the characteristics of the advanced signals forward to the approach of main front were discussed for the warning purpose. This study presents a permanent system, composed by two seismometers, deployed along the bank of Ai-Yu-Zi Creek in Nantou County, which is one of the active streams with debris flow in Taiwan. The three axes seismometer with frequency response of 7 sec - 200 Hz was developed by the Institute of Earth Sciences (IES), Academia Sinica for the purpose to detect debris flow. The original idea of replacing the geophone system with the seismometer technique was for catching the advanced signals propagating from the upper reach of the stream before debris flow arrival because of the high sensitivity. Besides, the low frequency seismic waves could be also early detected because of the low attenuation. However, for avoiding other unnecessary ambient vibrations, the sensitivity of seismometer should be lower than the general seismometer for detecting teleseism. Three debris flows with different mean velocities were detected in 2013 and 2014. The typical triangular shape was obviously demonstrated in time series data and the spectrograms of the seismic signals from three events. The frequency analysis showed that enormous debris flow bearing huge boulders would induce low frequency seismic

  14. Real-time magnetic resonance imaging of deep venous flow during muscular exercise-preliminary experience.

    Joseph, Arun Antony; Merboldt, Klaus-Dietmar; Voit, Dirk; Dahm, Johannes; Frahm, Jens

    2016-12-01

    The accurate assessment of peripheral venous flow is important for the early diagnosis and treatment of disorders such as deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) which is a major cause of post-thrombotic syndrome or even death due to pulmonary embolism. The aim of this work is to quantitatively determine blood flow in deep veins during rest and muscular exercise using a novel real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method for velocity-encoded phase-contrast (PC) MRI at high spatiotemporal resolution. Real-time PC MRI of eight healthy volunteers and one patient was performed at 3 Tesla (Prisma fit, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) using a flexible 16-channel receive coil (Variety, NORAS, Hoechberg, Germany). Acquisitions were based on a highly undersampled radial FLASH sequence with image reconstruction by regularized nonlinear inversion at 0.5×0.5×6 mm 3 spatial resolution and 100 ms temporal resolution. Flow was assessed in two cross-sections of the lower leg at the level of the calf muscle and knee using a protocol of 10 s rest, 20 s flexion and extension of the foot, and 10 s rest. Quantitative analyses included through-plane flow in the right posterior tibial, right peroneal and popliteal vein (PC maps) as well as signal intensity changes due to flow and muscle movements (corresponding magnitude images). Real-time PC MRI successfully monitored the dynamics of venous flow at high spatiotemporal resolution and clearly demonstrated increased flow in deep veins in response to flexion and extension of the foot. In normal subjects, the maximum velocity (averaged across vessel lumen) during exercise was 9.4±5.7 cm·s -1 for the right peroneal vein, 8.5±4.6 cm·s -1 for the right posterior tibial vein and 17.8±5.8 cm·s -1 for the popliteal vein. The integrated flow volume per exercise (20 s) was 1.9, 1.6 and 50 mL (mean across subjects) for right peroneal, right posterior tibial and popliteal vein, respectively. A patient with DVT presented with peak flow velocities of only

  15. Continuous vs. pulsating flow boiling. Part 2: Statistical comparison using response surface methodology

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2016-01-01

    Response surface methodology is used to investigate an active method for flow boiling heat transfer enhancement by means of fluid flow pulsation. The flow pulsations are introduced by a flow modulating expansion device and compared with the baseline continuous flow provided by a stepper...

  16. In Depth Analysis of AVCOAT TPS Response to a Reentry Flow

    Titov, E. V.; Kumar, Rakesh; Levin, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of the high altitude portion of reentry vehicle trajectories with DSMC or statistical BGK solvers requires accurate evaluation of the boundary conditions at the ablating TPS surface. Presented in this article is a model which takes into account the complex ablation physics including the production of pyrolysis gases, and chemistry at the TPS surface. Since the ablation process is time dependent the modeling of the material response to the high energy reentry flow starts with the solution of the rarefied flow over the vehicle and then loosely couples with the material response. The objective of the present work is to carry out conjugate thermal analysis by weakly coupling a flow solver to a material thermal response model. The latter model solves the one dimensional heat conduction equation accounting for the pyrolysis process that takes place in the reaction zone of an ablative thermal protection system (TPS) material. An estimate of the temperature range within which the pyrolysis reaction (decomposition and volatilization) takes place is obtained from Ref. [1]. The pyrolysis reaction results in the formation of char and the release of gases through the porous charred material. These gases remove additional amount of heat as they pass through the material, thus cooling the material (the process known as transpiration cooling). In the present work, we incorporate the transpiration cooling model in the material thermal response code in addition to the pyrolysis model. The flow in the boundary layer and in the vicinity of the TPS material is in the transitional flow regime. Therefore, we use a previously validated statistical BGK method to model the flow physics in the vicinity of the micro-cracks, since the BGK method allows simulations of flow at pressures higher than can be computed using DSMC.

  17. Dynamic response of piping system subject to flow acoustic excitation

    Wang, T.; Sun, Y.S.

    1988-01-01

    Through the use of a theoretically derived and test data-calibrated forcing function, the dynamic response of a piping system subject to flow-acoustic induced vibration is analyzed. It is shown that the piping behavior can be predicted when consideration is given to both the wall flexural vibration and the piping system vibration. Piping responded as a system to the transversal excitation due to the swirling motion of the fluid flow, as well as flexurally to the high-frequency acoustic excitations. The transverse piping system response was calculated using a lumped mass piping model. The piping model has more stringent requirements than its counterpart for waterhammer and seismic modeling due to the shorter spiral wavelength and higher frequency of the forcing function. Proper modeling ensured that both the moment stress caused by system excitation and the local stress induced by the support reaction load were properly accounted for. Flexural vibration not only poses a threat to nipples and branch connections, but also contributes substantially to the resultant total stress experienced by the pipe. The forcing function approach has the advantage that the critical locations on the piping system can be identified by means of analysis, facilitating surveillance and inspection, as well as fatigue evaluation

  18. Financial Crisis and Corporate Social Responsible Mutual Fund Flows

    Sitikantha Parida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate investment flows into mutual funds that hold more high corporate social responsible stocks (top CSR funds vs. mutual funds that hold more low corporate social responsible stocks (bottom CSR funds. Using a large sample of equity mutual funds spanning 2003–2012, we find that top CSR funds on average receive about 5% less investment per annum compared to the other funds; whereas bottom CSR funds receive about 5.6% more investments. These relative negative and positive flows into the top and bottom CSR funds respectively were larger during the pre-financial crisis period (2003–2007. This trend, however, reversed during the financial crisis (2008–2009. Top CSR funds attracted about 8.7% more investments during the financial crisis compared to the pre-crisis period; whereas bottom CSR funds received about 9.8% less investment. This higher investment into the top CSR funds during the crisis seems to have disappeared during the post-crisis period (2009–2012. Additional analysis shows that the corporate social ratings of top CSR funds improved through the crisis, whereas it deteriorated for the bottom CSR funds. Our findings are consistent with the “flight to quality” phenomenon observed in financial markets during market crises, indicating that investors perceive top CSR fund investments as relatively safe or of higher quality and hence, invest more in them during financial crises.

  19. Portable real time analysis system for regional cerebral blood flow

    Tiernan, T.; Entine, G.; Stump, D.A.; Prough, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    A very portable, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) analysis instrument system suitable for use in the operating theater during surgery is under development. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solid state radiation detectors, an 8086 based data acquisition and communications module and a DEC Microvax computer are used so that the instrument is very compact, yet has the computational power to provide real time data analysis in the clinical environment. The instrument is currently being used at Bowman Gray School of Medicine to study rCBF during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (CPB). Preliminary studies indicate that monitoring rCBF during this surgical procedure may provide insights into the mechanism that causes a significant fraction of these patients to suffer post operative neuropsychological deficit

  20. Community Building at the Time of Nargis: The ASEAN Response

    Julio Santiago Amador III

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclone Nargis was one of the most powerful disasters to hit Myanmar and Southeast Asia. Myanmar was criticized internationally for its allegedly slow effort in allowing international aid to enter into the country. This paper examines the criticism levelled against the ASEAN for its slow response in providing aid to the beleaguered in Myanmar and relates that criticism to ASEAN’s disaster management policy. It focuses on ASEAN’s engagement with Myanmar in order to allow humanitarian aid to flow into the country. The paper suggests that in time ASEAN will have to move from its doctrine of non-intervention in the affairs of a sovereign state to one of non-indifference if it wishes to remain relevant. Ultimately, ASEAN will have to re-evaluate its own goals in order to be a more successful apparatus for interstate and regional affairs, especially with respect to humanitarian crises brought about by natural disasters.

  1. Experimental studies of occupation times in turbulent flows

    Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Pécseli, H.L.

    2003-01-01

    The motion of passively convected particles in turbulent flows is studied experimentally in approximately homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flows, generated in water by two moving grids. The simultaneous trajectories of many small passively convected, neutrally buoyant, polystyrene particles...

  2. In-situ measurement of response time of RTDs and pressure transmitters in nuclear power plants

    Hashemian, H.M.; Riner, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Response time measurements are performed once every fuel cycle on most safety-related temperature and pressure sensors in a majority of nuclear power plants in the US. This paper provides a review of the methods that are used for these measurements. The methods are referred to as the Loop Current Step Response (LCSR) test, which is used for response time testing of temperature sensors, and noise analysis and power interrupt (PI) tests, which are used for response time testing of pressure, level, and flow transmitters

  3. Salix response to different flow regimes in controlled experiments: first results

    Gorla, Lorenzo; Signarbieux, Constant; Buttler, Alexandre; Perona, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    fluorescence, together with pictures of each plant. Sap flow was measured for thirty cuttings using a time resolution of thirty minutes, whereas psychrometers measuring the water potential were sampling data every fifteen minutes. Soil moisture and meteo data have also been collected as essential drivers of plant response: these data as well as sap flow measurements can be later compared to a similar field installation along Thur River (Switzerland). After the first season of measurement, in 2012, part of the cuttings have been carefully removed and further analyzed as far as the below ground biomass is concerned. Strong differences in terms of stress and growth performances were observed in correspondence of the transitional phase, following the alterations of the natural flow regime. A later adjustment in the roots distribution allowed survivors to re-sprout and to withstand new conditions.

  4. Air-Flow-Driven Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Self-Powered Real-Time Respiratory Monitoring.

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Jiahao; Tang, Yingjie; Li, Jun; Zhang, Baosen; Liang, Erjun; Mao, Yanchao; Wang, Xudong

    2018-06-04

    Respiration is one of the most important vital signs of humans, and respiratory monitoring plays an important role in physical health management. A low-cost and convenient real-time respiratory monitoring system is extremely desirable. In this work, we demonstrated an air-flow-driven triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) for self-powered real-time respiratory monitoring by converting mechanical energy of human respiration into electric output signals. The operation of the TENG was based on the air-flow-driven vibration of a flexible nanostructured polytetrafluoroethylene (n-PTFE) thin film in an acrylic tube. This TENG can generate distinct real-time electric signals when exposed to the air flow from different breath behaviors. It was also found that the accumulative charge transferred in breath sensing corresponds well to the total volume of air exchanged during the respiration process. Based on this TENG device, an intelligent wireless respiratory monitoring and alert system was further developed, which used the TENG signal to directly trigger a wireless alarm or dial a cell phone to provide timely alerts in response to breath behavior changes. This research offers a promising solution for developing self-powered real-time respiratory monitoring devices.

  5. Characterization of Flow Paths, Residence Time and Media Chemistry in Complex Landscapes to Integrate Surface, Groundwater and Stream Processes and Inform Models of Hydrologic and Water Quality Response to Land Use Activities; Savannah River Site

    Bitew, Menberu [Univ. of Georgia Research Foundation, Inc., Athens, GA (United States); Jackson, Rhett [University of Georgia Research Foundation, Inc.

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this report is to document the methodology used to calculate the three hydro-geomorphic indices: C Index, Nhot spot, and Interflow Contributing Area (IFC Area). These indices were applied in the Upper Four Mile Creek Watershed in order to better understand the potential mechanisms controlling retention time, path lengths, and potential for nutrient and solute metabolism and exchange associated with the geomorphic configurations of the upland contributing areas, groundwater, the riparian zone, and stream channels.

  6. Fluid flow profile in a packed bead column using residence time curves and radiotracer techniques

    Almeida, Ana Paula F. de; Gonçalves, Eduardo Ramos; Brandão, Luis Eduardo B.; Salgado, Cesar M., E-mail: anacamiqui@gmail.com, E-mail: egoncalves@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Filling columns are extremely important in the chemical industry and are used for purification, separation and treatment processes of gas or liquid mixtures. The objective of this work is to study the hydrodynamics of the fluid for a characterization of aqueous phase flow patterns in the filling column, associating with the methodology of the Curves of Residence Time Distribution (RTD) to analyze and associate theoretical models that put as conditions column operating. RTD can be obtained by using the pulse-stimulus response technique which is characterized by the instantaneous injection of a radiotracer into the system input. In this work, 68Ga was used as radiotracer. Five shielded and collimated NaI (Tl) 1 x 1″ scintillator detectors were suitably positioned to record the movement of the radiotracer's path in the conveying line and filling column. Making possible the analysis of the RTD curve in the regions of interest. With the data generated by the NaI (Tl) detectors with the passage of the radiotracer in the transport line and inside the column, it was possible to evaluate the flow profile of the aqueous phase and to identify operational failures, such as internal conduit and the existence of a retention zone in the inside the column. Theoretical models were used for different flow flows: the piston flow and perfect mixing. (author)

  7. Fluid flow profile in a packed bead column using residence time curves and radiotracer techniques

    Almeida, Ana Paula F. de; Gonçalves, Eduardo Ramos; Brandão, Luis Eduardo B.; Salgado, Cesar M.

    2017-01-01

    Filling columns are extremely important in the chemical industry and are used for purification, separation and treatment processes of gas or liquid mixtures. The objective of this work is to study the hydrodynamics of the fluid for a characterization of aqueous phase flow patterns in the filling column, associating with the methodology of the Curves of Residence Time Distribution (RTD) to analyze and associate theoretical models that put as conditions column operating. RTD can be obtained by using the pulse-stimulus response technique which is characterized by the instantaneous injection of a radiotracer into the system input. In this work, 68Ga was used as radiotracer. Five shielded and collimated NaI (Tl) 1 x 1″ scintillator detectors were suitably positioned to record the movement of the radiotracer's path in the conveying line and filling column. Making possible the analysis of the RTD curve in the regions of interest. With the data generated by the NaI (Tl) detectors with the passage of the radiotracer in the transport line and inside the column, it was possible to evaluate the flow profile of the aqueous phase and to identify operational failures, such as internal conduit and the existence of a retention zone in the inside the column. Theoretical models were used for different flow flows: the piston flow and perfect mixing. (author)

  8. Grey Forecast Rainfall with Flow Updating Algorithm for Real-Time Flood Forecasting

    Jui-Yi Ho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic relationship between watershed characteristics and rainfall-runoff has been widely studied in recent decades. Since watershed rainfall-runoff is a non-stationary process, most deterministic flood forecasting approaches are ineffective without the assistance of adaptive algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to propose an effective flow forecasting system that integrates a rainfall forecasting model, watershed runoff model, and real-time updating algorithm. This study adopted a grey rainfall forecasting technique, based on existing hourly rainfall data. A geomorphology-based runoff model can be used for simulating impacts of the changing geo-climatic conditions on the hydrologic response of unsteady and non-linear watershed system, and flow updating algorithm were combined to estimate watershed runoff according to measured flow data. The proposed flood forecasting system was applied to three watersheds; one in the United States and two in Northern Taiwan. Four sets of rainfall-runoff simulations were performed to test the accuracy of the proposed flow forecasting technique. The results indicated that the forecast and observed hydrographs are in good agreement for all three watersheds. The proposed flow forecasting system could assist authorities in minimizing loss of life and property during flood events.

  9. Cerebral Blood Flow Responses to Aquatic Treadmill Exercise.

    Parfitt, Rhodri; Hensman, Marianne Y; Lucas, Samuel J E

    2017-07-01

    Aquatic treadmills are used as a rehabilitation method for conditions such as spinal cord injury, osteoarthritis, and stroke, and can facilitate an earlier return to exercise training for athletes. However, their effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses has not been examined. We tested the hypothesis that aquatic treadmill exercise would augment CBF and lower HR compared with land-based treadmill exercise. Eleven participants completed incremental exercise (crossover design) starting from walking pace (4 km·h, immersed to iliac crest [aquatic], 6 km·h [land]) and increasing 1 km·h every 2 min up to 10 km·h for aquatic (maximum belt speed) or 12 km·h for land. After this, participants completed two 2-min bouts of exercise immersed to midthigh and midchest at constant submaximal speed (aquatic), or were ramped to exhaustion (land; increased gradient 2° every min). Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv) and HR were measured throughout, and the initial 10 min of each protocol and responses at each immersion level were compared. Compared with land-based treadmill, MCAvmean increased more from baseline for aquatic exercise (21% vs 12%, P aquatic walking compared with land-based moderate intensity running (~10 cm·s, P = 0.56). Greater water immersion lowered HR (139 vs 178 bpm for midchest vs midthigh), whereas MCAvmean remained constant (P = 0.37). Findings illustrate the potential for aquatic treadmill exercise to enhance exercise-induced elevations in CBF and thus optimize shear stress-mediated adaptation of the cerebrovasculature.

  10. On-line measurements of response time of temperature and pressure sensors in PWRs

    Hashemian, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    A review of modern techniques for in-situ response time testing of resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), and pressure, level and flow transmitters is presented. These techniques have been developed and validated for use in pressurized and boiling water reactors. The significance of the modern techniques is that they permit testing of installed sensors at process operating conditions and thereby provide the actual in-service response times of the sensors. (author)

  11. Effects of Time-Dependent Inflow Perturbations on Turbulent Flow in a Street Canyon

    Duan, G.; Ngan, K.

    2017-12-01

    Urban flow and turbulence are driven by atmospheric flows with larger horizontal scales. Since building-resolving computational fluid dynamics models typically employ steady Dirichlet boundary conditions or forcing, the accuracy of numerical simulations may be limited by the neglect of perturbations. We investigate the sensitivity of flow within a unit-aspect-ratio street canyon to time-dependent perturbations near the inflow boundary. Using large-eddy simulation, time-periodic perturbations to the streamwise velocity component are incorporated via the nudging technique. Spatial averages of pointwise differences between unperturbed and perturbed velocity fields (i.e., the error kinetic energy) show a clear dependence on the perturbation period, though spatial structures are largely insensitive to the time-dependent forcing. The response of the error kinetic energy is maximized for perturbation periods comparable to the time scale of the mean canyon circulation. Frequency spectra indicate that this behaviour arises from a resonance between the inflow forcing and the mean motion around closed streamlines. The robustness of the results is confirmed using perturbations derived from measurements of roof-level wind speed.

  12. FLOW-SHOP SCHEDULING WITH MULTIPLE OPERATIONS AND TIME LAGS

    RIEZEBOS, J; GAALMAN, GJC; GUPTA, JND

    A scheduling system is proposed and developed for a special type of flow shop. Ln this flow shop there is one machine at each stage. A job may require multiple operations at each stage. The first operation of a job on stage j cannot start until the last operation of the job on stage j - 1 has

  13. Stream biofilm responses to flow intermittency: from cells to ecosystems

    Sergi eSabater

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporary streams are characterized by the alternation of dry and wet hydrological phases, creating both a harsh environment for the biota as well as a high diversity of opportunities for adaptation. These systems are eminently microbial-based during several of these hydrological phases, and those growing on all solid substrata (biofilms accordingly change their physical structure and community composition. Biofilms experience large decreases on cell densities and biomass, both of bacteria and algae, during dryness. Algal and bacterial communities show remarkable decreases in their diversity, at least locally (at the habitat scale. Biofilms also respond with significant physiological plasticity to each of the hydrological changes. The decreasing humidity of the substrata through the drying process, and the changing quantity and quality of organic matter and nutrients available in the stream during that process, causes unequal responses on the biofilm bacteria and algae. Biofilm algae are affected faster than bacteria by the hydric stress, and as a result the ecosystem respiration resists longer than gross primary production to the increasing duration of flow intermittency. This response implies enhancing ecosystem heterotrophy, a pattern that can be exacerbated in temporary streams suffering of longer dry periods under global change.

  14. Response time patterns in a stated choice experiment

    Börjesson, Maria; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies how response times vary between unlabelled binary choice occasions in a stated choice (SC) experiment, with alternatives differing with respect to in-vehicle travel time and travel cost. The pattern of response times is interpreted as an indicator of the cognitive processes...... employed by the respondents when making their choices. We find clear signs of reference-dependence in response times in the form of a strong gain–loss asymmetry. Moreover, different patterns of response times for travel time and travel cost indicate that these attributes are processed in different ways...

  15. RRAWFLOW: Rainfall-Response Aquifer and Watershed Flow Model (v1.15)

    Long, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The Rainfall-Response Aquifer and Watershed Flow Model (RRAWFLOW) is a lumped-parameter model that simulates streamflow, spring flow, groundwater level, or solute transport for a measurement point in response to a system input of precipitation, recharge, or solute injection. I introduce the first version of RRAWFLOW available for download and public use and describe additional options. The open-source code is written in the R language and is available at http://sd.water.usgs.gov/projects/RRAWFLOW/RRAWFLOW.html along with an example model of streamflow. RRAWFLOW includes a time-series process to estimate recharge from precipitation and simulates the response to recharge by convolution, i.e., the unit-hydrograph approach. Gamma functions are used for estimation of parametric impulse-response functions (IRFs); a combination of two gamma functions results in a double-peaked IRF. A spline fit to a set of control points is introduced as a new method for estimation of nonparametric IRFs. Several options are included to simulate time-variant systems. For many applications, lumped models simulate the system response with equal accuracy to that of distributed models, but moreover, the ease of model construction and calibration of lumped models makes them a good choice for many applications (e.g., estimating missing periods in a hydrologic record). RRAWFLOW provides professional hydrologists and students with an accessible and versatile tool for lumped-parameter modeling.

  16. Investigations on response time of magnetorheological elastomer under compression mode

    Zhu, Mi; Yu, Miao; Qi, Song; Fu, Jie

    2018-05-01

    For efficient fast control of vibration system with magnetorheological elastomer (MRE)-based smart device, the response time of MRE material is the key parameter which directly affects the control performance of the vibration system. For a step coil current excitation, this paper proposed a Maxwell behavior model with time constant λ to describe the normal force response of MRE, and the response time of MRE was extracted through the separation of coil response time. Besides, the transient responses of MRE under compression mode were experimentally investigated, and the effects of (i) applied current, (ii) particle distribution and (iii) compressive strain on the response time of MRE were addressed. The results revealed that the three factors can affect the response characteristic of MRE quite significantly. Besides the intrinsic importance for contributing to the response evaluation and effective design of MRE device, this study may conduce to the optimal design of controller for MRE control system.

  17. Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR: a flow-like mental state

    Emma L. Barratt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR is a previously unstudied sensory phenomenon, in which individuals experience a tingling, static-like sensation across the scalp, back of the neck and at times further areas in response to specific triggering audio and visual stimuli. This sensation is widely reported to be accompanied by feelings of relaxation and well-being. The current study identifies several common triggers used to achieve ASMR, including whispering, personal attention, crisp sounds and slow movements. Data obtained also illustrates temporary improvements in symptoms of depression and chronic pain in those who engage in ASMR. A high prevalence of synaesthesia (5.9% within the sample suggests a possible link between ASMR and synaesthesia, similar to that of misophonia. Links between number of effective triggers and heightened flow state suggest that flow may be necessary to achieve sensations associated with ASMR.

  18. Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR): a flow-like mental state.

    Barratt, Emma L; Davis, Nick J

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) is a previously unstudied sensory phenomenon, in which individuals experience a tingling, static-like sensation across the scalp, back of the neck and at times further areas in response to specific triggering audio and visual stimuli. This sensation is widely reported to be accompanied by feelings of relaxation and well-being. The current study identifies several common triggers used to achieve ASMR, including whispering, personal attention, crisp sounds and slow movements. Data obtained also illustrates temporary improvements in symptoms of depression and chronic pain in those who engage in ASMR. A high prevalence of synaesthesia (5.9%) within the sample suggests a possible link between ASMR and synaesthesia, similar to that of misophonia. Links between number of effective triggers and heightened flow state suggest that flow may be necessary to achieve sensations associated with ASMR.

  19. Real-time rockmass response from microseismics

    Andrew King; Michael Lofgren; Matt van de Werken [CSIRO Exploration and Mining (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    The primary objective of this project was to develop a prototype real-time microseismic monitoring system for strata control management and forewarning of geotechnical hazards. Power and communications problems have been addressed by developing a wirelessly connected network of solar-powered acquisition nodes, one at the top of each instrumented borehole. The open-source 'earthworm' earthquake acquisition software, which can run on different hardware platforms and use different acquisition cards, was modified for use in a coal environment by developing special new arrival-picking and event-location procedures. The system was field-trialled at Moranbah North mine. The acquisition software performed well, as did wireless communications and solar power. There were issues with the acquisition hardware selected, including problems with timing synchronisation, which is essential for seismic event location. Although these were fixed during the test, different hardware is likely to be used in future installations.

  20. Predictive Flow Control to Minimize Convective Time Delays

    2013-08-19

    external flows around air vehicles or ground based systems such as bridges and buildings, internal flows in pipes and propulsion systems, acoustical...3437, 1977. [4] Bridges , D. H., "The Asymmetric Vortex Wake Problem - Asking the Right Question," A/AA Paper 2006-3553, 2006. [5) Deng, X. Y., Tian, W...Aircraft, Vol. 42, No. 2, 2003, pp. 42~23. [8] Darden, L. and Komerath, N., "Forebody Vortex Control at High Incidence using a Moveable Nose Stagnation

  1. Time-averaged second-order pressure and velocity measurements in a pressurized oscillating flow prime mover

    Paridaens, Richard [DynFluid, Arts et Metiers, 151 boulevard de l' Hopital, Paris (France); Kouidri, Smaine [LIMSI-CNRS, Orsay Cedex (France)

    2016-11-15

    Nonlinear phenomena in oscillating flow devices cause the appearance of a relatively minor secondary flow known as acoustic streaming, which is superimposed on the primary oscillating flow. Knowledge of control parameters, such as the time-averaged second-order velocity and pressure, would elucidate the non-linear phenomena responsible for this part of the decrease in the system's energetic efficiency. This paper focuses on the characterization of a travelling wave oscillating flow engine by measuring the time-averaged second order pressure and velocity. Laser Doppler velocimetry technique was used to measure the time-averaged second-order velocity. As streaming is a second-order phenomenon, its measurement requires specific settings especially in a pressurized device. Difficulties in obtaining the proper settings are highlighted in this study. The experiments were performed for mean pressures varying from 10 bars to 22 bars. Non-linear effect does not constantly increase with pressure.

  2. PIV quantification of the flow induced by an ultrasonic horn and numerical modeling of the flow and related processing times.

    Schenker, M C; Pourquié, M J B M; Eskin, D G; Boersma, B J

    2013-01-01

    The flow in a confined container induced by an ultrasonic horn is measured by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). This flow is caused by acoustic streaming and highly influenced by the presence of cavitation. The jet-like experimentally observed flow is compared with the available theoretical solution for a turbulent free round jet. The similarity between both flows enables a simplified numerical model to be made, whilst the phenomenon is very difficult to simulate otherwise. The numerical model requires only two parameters, i.e. the flow momentum and turbulent kinetic energy at the position of the horn tip. The simulated flow is used as a basis for the calculation of the time required for the entire liquid volume to pass through the active cavitation region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Importance of Responsibility in Times of Crisis

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to show the importance of the concept of responsibility as the foundation of ethics in times of crisis in particular in the fields of politics and economics in the modern civilisation marked by globalization and technological progres. I consider the concept of responsibility as the key notion in order to understand the ethical duty in a modern technological civilisation. We can indeed observe a moralization of the concept of responsibility going beyond a strict legal definition in terms of imputability. The paper begins by discussing the humanistic foundations of such a concept of responsibility. It treats the historical origins of responsibility and it relates this concept to the concept of accountability. On the basis of this historical determination of the concept I would like to present the definition of the concept of responsibility as fundamental ethical principle that has increasing importance as the foundation of the principles of governance in modern welfare states. In this context the paper discusses the extension of the concept of responsibility towards institutional or corporate responsibility where responsibility does not only concerns the responsibility of individuals but also deals with the responsibility of institutional collectivities. In this way the paper is based on the following structure : 1 The ethical foundation of the concept of responsibility 2 Responsibility in technological civilisation 3 Political responsibility for good governance in the welfare state 4 Social responsibility of business corporations in times of globalization 5 Conclusion and discussion : changed conditions of responsibility in modern times.

  4. Time dependency of local cerebral blood flow measurements caused by regional variations in tissue transit time

    Lear, J.L.; Kasliwal, R.; Feyerabend, A.

    1990-01-01

    Calculated values of local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) using the diffusible tracer model are assumed to be independent of time as long as experiments are brief enough to prevent tissue saturation. This paper investigates the effects of CTT variation on LCBF measurements. Using double-label quantitative digital autoradiography, we compared iodoantipyrine (IAP)-based LCBF measurements obtained with tracer infusions of different lengths of time. Lightly anesthetized rats were given simultaneous ramp infusions of C-14 IAP (45 seconds) and I-123 IAP (15 seconds) and immediately sacrificed. Two autoradiograms of each brain section, one representing I-123 and the other representing C-14, were produced, digitized, and converted into images of LCBF based on the 15- and 45-second infusion periods. The LCBF image pairs were compared on a pixel-by-pixel basis

  5. Effect of Unsaturated Flow on Delayed Response of Unconfined Aquifiers to Pumping

    Tartakovsky, G.; Neuman, S. P.

    2005-12-01

    A new analytical solution is presented for the delayed response process characterizing flow to a partially penetrating well in an unconfined aquifer. The new solution generalizes that of Neuman [1972, 1974] by accounting for unsaturated flow above the water table. Axially symmetric three-dimensional flow in the unsaturated zone is described by a linearized version of Richards' equation in which hydraulic conductivity and water content vary exponentially with incremental capillary pressure head relative to its air entry value (defining the interface between the saturated and unsaturated zones). Unsaturated soil properties are characterized by an exponent κ having the dimension of inverse length and a dimensionless exponent κD = κb where b is initial saturated thickness. Our treatment of the unsaturated zone is similar to that of Kroszynski and Dagan [1975] who however have ignored internal (artesian) aquifer storage. It has been suggested by Boulton [1954, 1963, 1970] and Neuman [1972, 1974], and is confirmed by our solution, that internal storage is required to reproduce the early increase in drawdown characterizing delayed response to pumping in typical aquifers. According to our new solution such aquifers are characterized by relatively large κ_ D values, typically 10 or larger; in the limit as κD tends to infinity (the soil unsaturated water retention capacity becomes insignificant and/or aquifer thickness become large), unsaturated flow becomes unimportant and our solution reduces to that of Neuman. In typical cases corresponding to κD larger than or equal to 10, unsaturated flow is found to have little impact on early and late dimensionless time behaviors of drawdown measured wholly or in part at some distance below the water table; unsaturated flow causes drawdown to increase slightly at intermediate dimensionless time values that represent transition from an early artesian dominated to a late water-table dominated flow regime. The increase in drawdown

  6. Acoustic response of Helmholtz dampers in the presence of hot grazing flow

    Ćosić, B.; Wassmer, D.; Terhaar, S.; Paschereit, C. O.

    2015-01-01

    Thermoacoustic instabilities are high amplitude instabilities of premixed gas turbine combustors. Cooled passive dampers are used to attenuate or suppress these instabilities in the combustion chamber. For the first time, the influence of temperature differences between the grazing flow in the combustor and the cross-flow emanating from the Helmholtz damper is comprehensively investigated in the linear and nonlinear amplitude regime. The flow field inside the resonator and in the vicinity of the neck is measured with high-speed particle image velocimetry for various amplitudes and at different momentum-flux ratios of grazing and purging flow. Seeding is used as a tracer to qualitatively assess the mixing of the grazing and purging flow as well as the ingestion into the neck of the resonator. Experimentally, the acoustic response for various temperature differences between grazing and purging flow is investigated. The multi-microphone method, in combination with two microphones flush-mounted in the resonator volume and two microphones in the plane of the resonator entrance, is used to determine the impedance of the Helmholtz resonator in the linear and nonlinear amplitude regime for various temperatures and different momentum-flux ratios. Additionally, a thermocouple was used to measure the temperature in the neck. The acoustic response and the temperature measurements are used to obtain the virtual neck length and the effective area jump from a detailed impedance model. This model is extended to include the observed acoustic energy dissipation caused by the density gradients at the neck vicinity. A clear correlation between temperature differences and changes of the mass end-correction is confirmed. The capabilities of the impedance model are demonstrated.

  7. Response times of operators in a control room

    Platz, O.; Rasmussen, J.; Skanborg, P.Z.

    1982-12-01

    A statistical analysis was made of operator response times recorded in the control room of a research reactor during the years 1972-1974. A homogeneity test revealed that the data consist of a mixture of populations. A small but statistically significant difference is found between day and night response times. Lognormal distributions are found to provide the best fit of the day and the night response times. (author)

  8. Measurements of Overtopping Flow Time Series on the Wave Dragon, Wave Energy Converter

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2009-01-01

    A study of overtopping flow series on the Wave Dragon prototype, a low crested device designed to maximise flow, in a real sea, is presented. This study aims to fill the gap in the literature on time series of flow overtopping low crested structures. By comparing to a simulated flow the character......A study of overtopping flow series on the Wave Dragon prototype, a low crested device designed to maximise flow, in a real sea, is presented. This study aims to fill the gap in the literature on time series of flow overtopping low crested structures. By comparing to a simulated flow...... the characteristics of the overtopping flow are discussed and the simulation algorithm is tested. Measured data is shown from a storm build up in October 2006, from theWave Dragon prototype situated in an inland sea in Northern Denmark. This wave energy converter extracts energy from the waves, by funnelling them...

  9. Numerical analysis of thermal response tests with a groundwater flow and heat transfer model

    Raymond, J.; Therrien, R. [Departement de Geologie et de Genie Ggeologique, Universite Laval, 1065 avenue de la medecine, Quebec (Qc) G1V 0A6 (Canada); Gosselin, L. [Departement de Genie Mecanique, Universite Laval, 1065 avenue de la medecine, Quebec (Qc) G1V 0A6 (Canada); Lefebvre, R. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Quebec (Qc) G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    The Kelvin line-source equation, used to analyze thermal response tests, describes conductive heat transfer in a homogeneous medium with a constant temperature at infinite boundaries. The equation is based on assumptions that are valid for most ground-coupled heat pump environments with the exception of geological settings where there is significant groundwater flow, heterogeneous distribution of subsurface properties, a high geothermal gradient or significant atmospheric temperature variations. To address these specific cases, an alternative method to analyze thermal response tests was developed. The method consists in estimating parameters by reproducing the output temperature signal recorded during a test with a numerical groundwater flow and heat transfer model. The input temperature signal is specified at the entrance of the ground heat exchanger, where flow and heat transfer are computed in 2D planes representing piping and whose contributions are added to the 3D porous medium. Results obtained with this method are compared to those of the line-source model for a test performed under standard conditions. A second test conducted in waste rock at the South Dump of the Doyon Mine, where conditions deviate from the line-source assumptions, is analyzed with the numerical model. The numerical model improves the representation of the physical processes involved during a thermal response test compared to the line-source equation, without a significant increase in computational time. (author)

  10. A Comparison of Response Rate, Response Time, and Costs of Mail and Electronic Surveys.

    Shannon, David M.; Bradshaw, Carol C.

    2002-01-01

    Compared response rates, response time, and costs of mail and electronic surveys using a sample of 377 college faculty members. Mail surveys yielded a higher response rate and a lower rate of undeliverable surveys, but response time was longer and costs were higher than for electronic surveys. (SLD)

  11. Microreactortechnology: Real-Time Flow Measurements in Organic Synthesis

    Pieter J. Nieuwland

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With the commercial availability of integrated microreactor systems, the numbers of chemical processes that are performed nowadays in a continuous flow is growing rapidly. The control over mixing efficiency and homogeneous heating in these reactors allows industrial scale production that was often hampered by the use of large amounts of hazardous chemicals. Accurate actuation and in line measurements of the flows, to have a better control over the chemical reaction, is of added value for increasing reproducibility and a safe production.

  12. Flow characterization and patch clamp dose responses using jet microfluidics in a tubeless microfluidic device.

    Resto, Pedro J; Bhat, Abhishek; Stava, Eric; Lor, Chong; Merriam, Elliot; Diaz-Rivera, Ruben E; Pearce, Robert; Blick, Robert; Williams, Justin C

    2017-11-01

    Surface tension passive pumping is a way to actuate flow without the need for pumps, tubing or valves by using the pressure inside small drop to move liquid via a microfluidic channel. These types of tubeless devices have typically been used in cell biology. Herein we present the use of tubeless devices as a fluid exchange platform for patch clamp electrophysiology. Inertia from high-speed droplets and jets is used to create flow and perform on-the-fly mixing of solutions. These are then flowed over GABA transfected HEK cells under patch in order to perform a dose response analysis. TIRF imaging and electrical recordings are used to study the fluid exchange properties of the microfluidic device, resulting in 0-90% fluid exchange times of hundreds of milliseconds. COMSOL is used to model flow and fluid exchange within the device. Patch-clamping experiments show the ability to use high-speed passive pumping and its derivatives for studying peak dose responses, but not for studying ion channel kinetics. Our system results in fluid exchange times slower than when using a standard 12-barrel application system and is not as stable as traditional methods, but it offers a new platform with added functionality. Surface tension passive pumping and tubeless devices can be used in a limited fashion for electrophysiology. Users may obtain peak dose responses but the system, in its current form, is not capable of fluid exchange fast enough to study the kinetics of most ion channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Box-Cox normal model for response times.

    Klein Entink, R H; van der Linden, W J; Fox, J-P

    2009-11-01

    The log-transform has been a convenient choice in response time modelling on test items. However, motivated by a dataset of the Medical College Admission Test where the lognormal model violated the normality assumption, the possibilities of the broader class of Box-Cox transformations for response time modelling are investigated. After an introduction and an outline of a broader framework for analysing responses and response times simultaneously, the performance of a Box-Cox normal model for describing response times is investigated using simulation studies and a real data example. A transformation-invariant implementation of the deviance information criterium (DIC) is developed that allows for comparing model fit between models with different transformation parameters. Showing an enhanced description of the shape of the response time distributions, its application in an educational measurement context is discussed at length.

  14. Role of Coronary Myogenic Response in Pressure-Flow Autoregulation in Swine: A Meta-Analysis With Coronary Flow Modeling

    Dick, Gregory M.; Namani, Ravi; Patel, Bhavesh; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2018-01-01

    Myogenic responses (pressure-dependent contractions) of coronary arterioles play a role in autoregulation (relatively constant flow vs. pressure). Publications on myogenic reactivity in swine coronaries vary in caliber, analysis, and degree of responsiveness. Further, data on myogenic responses and autoregulation in swine have not been completely compiled, compared, and modeled. Thus, it has been difficult to understand these physiological phenomena. Our purpose was to: (a) analyze myogenic data with standard criteria; (b) assign results to diameter categories defined by morphometry; and (c) use our novel multiscale flow model to determine the extent to which ex vivo myogenic reactivity can explain autoregulation in vivo. When myogenic responses from the literature are an input for our model, the predicted coronary autoregulation approaches in vivo observations. More complete and appropriate data are now available to investigate the regulation of coronary blood flow in swine, a highly relevant model for human physiology and disease. PMID:29875686

  15. Role of Coronary Myogenic Response in Pressure-Flow Autoregulation in Swine: A Meta-Analysis With Coronary Flow Modeling

    Gregory M. Dick

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Myogenic responses (pressure-dependent contractions of coronary arterioles play a role in autoregulation (relatively constant flow vs. pressure. Publications on myogenic reactivity in swine coronaries vary in caliber, analysis, and degree of responsiveness. Further, data on myogenic responses and autoregulation in swine have not been completely compiled, compared, and modeled. Thus, it has been difficult to understand these physiological phenomena. Our purpose was to: (a analyze myogenic data with standard criteria; (b assign results to diameter categories defined by morphometry; and (c use our novel multiscale flow model to determine the extent to which ex vivo myogenic reactivity can explain autoregulation in vivo. When myogenic responses from the literature are an input for our model, the predicted coronary autoregulation approaches in vivo observations. More complete and appropriate data are now available to investigate the regulation of coronary blood flow in swine, a highly relevant model for human physiology and disease.

  16. Adaptation of perceptual responses to low-load blood flow restriction training

    Martín-Hernández, Juan; Ruiz-Aguado, Jorge; Herrero, Azael Juan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the adaptive response of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and pain over six consecutive training sessions. Thirty subjects were assigned to either a blood flow restricted training group (BFRT) or a high intensity group (HIT). BFRT group performed four...... sets (30+15+15+15, respectively) of unilateral leg extension at an intensity of 20% one repetition maximum (1RM) while a restrictive cuff was applied to the most proximal part of the leg. HIT group performed 3 sets of eight repetitions with 85%1RM. RPE and pain were assessed following every exercise.......01). No between-group differences were found at any time point. In summary, BFRT induces a high perceptual response to training. However, this perceptual response is rapidly attenuated, leading to values similar to those experienced during HIT. Low load BFRT should not be limited to highly motivated individuals...

  17. Validation of a 1-mm transit time flow probe and the potential for use in microsurgery

    Bonde, Christian T; Elberg, Jens J; Holstein-Rathlou, N.-H.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate a prototype transit time ultrasound flow probe (Medi-Stim Butterfly Flowmeter BF 2004) of only 1 mm and to evaluate its potential for use in microsurgery. Knowledge of the ability of this kind of system to measure flow in small vessels and at small flow...

  18. The Effect of Police Response Time on Crime Detection

    Blanes i Vidal, Jordi; Kirchmaier, Tom

    preferred estimate, a 10% increase in response time leads to a 4.6 percentage points decrease in the likelihood of detection. A faster response time also decreases the number of days that it takes for the police to detect a crime, conditional on eventual detection. We find stronger effects for thefts than...

  19. Role of Coronary Myogenic Response in Pressure-Flow Autoregulation in Swine: A Meta-Analysis With Coronary Flow Modeling

    Gregory M. Dick; Ravi Namani; Bhavesh Patel; Ghassan S. Kassab

    2018-01-01

    Myogenic responses (pressure-dependent contractions) of coronary arterioles play a role in autoregulation (relatively constant flow vs. pressure). Publications on myogenic reactivity in swine coronaries vary in caliber, analysis, and degree of responsiveness. Further, data on myogenic responses and autoregulation in swine have not been completely compiled, compared, and modeled. Thus, it has been difficult to understand these physiological phenomena. Our purpose was to: (a) analyze myogenic d...

  20. Hardware solution for continuous time-resolved burst detection of single molecules in flow

    Wahl, Michael; Erdmann, Rainer; Lauritsen, Kristian; Rahn, Hans-Juergen

    1998-04-01

    Time Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) is a valuable tool for Single Molecule Detection (SMD). However, existing TCSPC systems did not support continuous data collection and processing as is desirable for applications such as SMD for e.g. DNA-sequencing in a liquid flow. First attempts at using existing instrumentation in this kind of operation mode required additional routing hardware to switch between several memory banks and were not truly continuous. We have designed a hard- and software system to perform continuous real-time TCSPC based upon a modern solid state Time to Digital Converter (TDC). Short dead times of the fully digital TDC design combined with fast Field Programmable Gay Array logic permit a continuous data throughput as high as 3 Mcounts/sec. The histogramming time may be set as short as 100 microsecond(s) . Every histogram or every single fluorescence photon can be real-time tagged at 200 ns resolution in addition to recording its arrival time relative to the excitation pulse. Continuous switching between memory banks permits concurrent histogramming and data read-out. The instrument provides a time resolution of 60 ps and up to 4096 histogram channels. The overall instrument response function in combination with a low cost picosecond diode laser and an inexpensive photomultiplier tube was found to be 180 ps and well sufficient to measure sub-nanosecond fluorescence lifetimes.

  1. Sensor response monitoring in pressurized water reactors using time series modeling

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Kerlin, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Random data analysis in nuclear power reactors for purposes of process surveillance, pattern recognition and monitoring of temperature, pressure, flow and neutron sensors has gained increasing attention in view of their potential for helping to ensure safe plant operation. In this study, application of autoregressive moving-average (ARMA) time series modeling for monitoring temperature sensor response characteristrics is presented. The ARMA model is used to estimate the step and ramp response of the sensors and the related time constant and ramp delay time. The ARMA parameters are estimated by a two-stage algorithm in the spectral domain. Results of sensor testing for an operating pressurized water reactor are presented. 16 refs

  2. Blood flow response to electrically induced twitch and tetanic lower-limb muscle contractions.

    Janssen, T.W.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of electric stimulation (ES)-induced twitch with tetanic leg muscle contractions on blood flow responses and to assess blood flow responses in the contralateral inactive leg. DESIGN: Intervention with within-subject comparisons. SETTING: University research

  3. Cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular response to acetazolamide in patients with chronic alcoholism

    Oishi, M; Mochizuki, Y; Takasu, T

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular response to acetazolamide were studied in 12 patients with chronic alcoholism and 12 age matched healthy controls. Blood flows in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and putamen were significantly lower in the chronic alcoholic group than in the healthy control group. The increase in blood flow caused by acetazolamide did not show any significant difference between the two groups. These findings suggest that the decreased cerebral blood flow i...

  4. A fast response miniature probe for wet steam flow field measurements

    Bosdas, Ilias; Mansour, Michel; Abhari, Reza S; Kalfas, Anestis I

    2016-01-01

    Modern steam turbines require operational flexibility due to renewable energies’ increasing share of the electrical grid. Additionally, the continuous increase in energy demand necessitates efficient design of the steam turbines as well as power output augmentation. The long turbine rotor blades at the machines’ last stages are prone to mechanical vibrations and as a consequence time-resolved experimental data under wet steam conditions are essential for the development of large-scale low-pressure steam turbines. This paper presents a novel fast response miniature heated probe for unsteady wet steam flow field measurements. The probe has a tip diameter of 2.5 mm, and a miniature heater cartridge ensures uncontaminated pressure taps from condensed water. The probe is capable of providing the unsteady flow angles, total and static pressure as well as the flow Mach number. The operating principle and calibration procedure are described in the current work and a detailed uncertainty analysis demonstrates the capability of the new probe to perform accurate flow field measurements under wet steam conditions. In order to exclude any data possibly corrupted by droplets’ impact or evaporation from the heating process, a filtering algorithm was developed and implemented in the post-processing phase of the measured data. In the last part of this paper the probe is used in an experimental steam turbine test facility and measurements are conducted at the inlet and exit of the last stage with an average wetness mass fraction of 8.0%. (paper)

  5. Time lags between crown and basal sap flows in tropical lianas and co-occurring trees.

    Chen, Ya-Jun; Bongers, Frans; Tomlinson, Kyle; Fan, Ze-Xin; Lin, Hua; Zhang, Shu-Bin; Zheng, Yu-Long; Li, Yang-Ping; Cao, Kun-Fang; Zhang, Jiao-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Water storage in the stems of woody plants contributes to their responses to short-term water shortages. To estimate the contribution of water storage to the daily water budget of trees, time lags of sap flow between different positions of trunk are used as a proxy of stem water storage. In lianas, another large group of woody species, it has rarely been studied whether stored water functions in their daily water use, despite their increasing roles in the carbon and water dynamics of tropical forests caused by their increasing abundance. We hypothesized that lianas would exhibit large time lags due to their extremely long stems, wide vessels and large volume of parenchyma in the stem. We examined time lags in sap flow, diel changes of stem volumetric water content (VWC) and biophysical properties of sapwood of 19 lianas and 26 co-occurring trees from 27 species in 4 forests (karst, tropical seasonal, flood plain and savanna) during a wet season. The plants varied in height/length from 60 m. The results showed that lianas had significantly higher saturated water content (SWC) and much lower wood density than trees. Seven of 19 liana individuals had no time lags; in contrast, only 3 of 26 tree individuals had no time lags. In general, lianas had shorter time lags than trees in our data set, but this difference was not significant for our most conservative analyses. Across trees and lianas, time lag duration increased with diurnal maximum changeable VWC but was independent of the body size, path length, wood density and SWC. The results suggest that in most lianas, internal stem water storage contributes little to daily water budget, while trees may rely more on stored water in the stem. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Correlation Between Contrast Time-Density Time on Digital Subtraction Angiography and Flow: An in Vitro Study.

    Brunozzi, Denise; Shakur, Sophia F; Ismail, Rahim; Linninger, Andreas; Hsu, Chih-Yang; Charbel, Fady T; Alaraj, Ali

    2018-02-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) provides an excellent anatomic characterization of cerebral vasculature, but hemodynamic assessment is often qualitative and subjective. Various clinical algorithms have been produced to semiquantify flow from the data obtained from DSA, but few have tested them against reliable flow values. An arched flow model was created and injected with contrast material. Seventeen injections were acquired in anterior-posterior and lateral DSA projections, and 4 injections were acquired in oblique projection. Image intensity change over the angiogram cycle of each DSA run was analyzed through a custom MATLAB code. Time-density plots obtained were divided into 3 components (time-density times, TDTs): TDT 10%-100% (time needed for contrast material to change image intensity from 10% to 100%), TDT 100%-10% (time needed for contrast material to change image intensity from 100% to 10%), and TDT 25%-25% (time needed for contrast material to change from 25% image intensity to 25%). Time-density index (TDI) was defined as model cross-sectional area to TDT ratio, and it was measured against different flow rates. TDI 10%-100% , TDI 100%-10% , and TDI 25%-25% all correlated significantly with flow (P < 0.001). TDI 10%-100% , TDI 100%-10% , and TDI 25%-25% showed, respectively, a correlation coefficient of 0.91, 0.91, and 0.97 in the anterior-posterior DSA projections (P < 0.001). In the lateral DSA projection, TDI 100%-10% showed a weaker correlation (r = 0.57; P = 0.03). Also in the oblique DSA projection, TDIs correlated significantly with flow. TDI on DSA correlates significantly with flow. Although in vitro studies might overlook conditions that occur in patients, this method appears to correlate with the flow and could offer a semiquantitative method to evaluate the cerebral blood flow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. RRAWFLOW: Rainfall-Response Aquifer and Watershed Flow Model (v1.11)

    Long, A. J.

    2014-09-01

    The Rainfall-Response Aquifer and Watershed Flow Model (RRAWFLOW) is a lumped-parameter model that simulates streamflow, springflow, groundwater level, solute transport, or cave drip for a measurement point in response to a system input of precipitation, recharge, or solute injection. The RRAWFLOW open-source code is written in the R language and is included in the Supplement to this article along with an example model of springflow. RRAWFLOW includes a time-series process to estimate recharge from precipitation and simulates the response to recharge by convolution; i.e., the unit hydrograph approach. Gamma functions are used for estimation of parametric impulse-response functions (IRFs); a combination of two gamma functions results in a double-peaked IRF. A spline fit to a set of control points is introduced as a new method for estimation of nonparametric IRFs. Other options include the use of user-defined IRFs and different methods to simulate time-variant systems. For many applications, lumped models simulate the system response with equal accuracy to that of distributed models, but moreover, the ease of model construction and calibration of lumped models makes them a good choice for many applications. RRAWFLOW provides professional hydrologists and students with an accessible and versatile tool for lumped-parameter modeling.

  8. Response Mixture Modeling: Accounting for Heterogeneity in Item Characteristics across Response Times.

    Molenaar, Dylan; de Boeck, Paul

    2018-06-01

    In item response theory modeling of responses and response times, it is commonly assumed that the item responses have the same characteristics across the response times. However, heterogeneity might arise in the data if subjects resort to different response processes when solving the test items. These differences may be within-subject effects, that is, a subject might use a certain process on some of the items and a different process with different item characteristics on the other items. If the probability of using one process over the other process depends on the subject's response time, within-subject heterogeneity of the item characteristics across the response times arises. In this paper, the method of response mixture modeling is presented to account for such heterogeneity. Contrary to traditional mixture modeling where the full response vectors are classified, response mixture modeling involves classification of the individual elements in the response vector. In a simulation study, the response mixture model is shown to be viable in terms of parameter recovery. In addition, the response mixture model is applied to a real dataset to illustrate its use in investigating within-subject heterogeneity in the item characteristics across response times.

  9. Real-Time Analysis and Forecasting of Multisite River Flow Using a Distributed Hydrological Model

    Mingdong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A spatial distributed hydrological forecasting system was developed to promote the analysis of river flow dynamic state in a large basin. The research presented the real-time analysis and forecasting of multisite river flow in the Nakdong River Basin using a distributed hydrological model with radar rainfall forecast data. A real-time calibration algorithm of hydrological distributed model was proposed to investigate the particular relationship between the water storage and basin discharge. Demonstrate the approach of simulating multisite river flow using a distributed hydrological model couple with real-time calibration and forecasting of multisite river flow with radar rainfall forecasts data. The hydrographs and results exhibit that calibrated flow simulations are very approximate to the flow observation at all sites and the accuracy of forecasting flow is gradually decreased with lead times extending from 1 hr to 3 hrs. The flow forecasts are lower than the flow observation which is likely caused by the low estimation of radar rainfall forecasts. The research has well demonstrated that the distributed hydrological model is readily applicable for multisite real-time river flow analysis and forecasting in a large basin.

  10. Periodic flows to chaos in time-delay systems

    Luo, Albert C J

    2017-01-01

    This book for the first time examines periodic motions to chaos in time-delay systems, which exist extensively in engineering. For a long time, the stability of time-delay systems at equilibrium has been of great interest from the Lyapunov theory-based methods, where one cannot achieve the ideal results. Thus, time-delay discretization in time-delay systems was used for the stability of these systems. In this volume, Dr. Luo presents an accurate method based on the finite Fourier series to determine periodic motions in nonlinear time-delay systems. The stability and bifurcation of periodic motions are determined by the time-delayed system of coefficients in the Fourier series and the method for nonlinear time-delay systems is equivalent to the Laplace transformation method for linear time-delay systems. Facilitates discovery of analytical solutions of nonlinear time-delay systems; Illustrates bifurcation trees of periodic motions to chaos; Helps readers identify motion complexity and singularity; Explains pro...

  11. Time-resolved blood flow measurement in the in vivo mouse model by optical frequency domain imaging

    Walther, Julia; Mueller, Gregor; Meissner, Sven; Cimalla, Peter; Homann, Hanno; Morawietz, Henning; Koch, Edmund

    2009-07-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that phase-resolved Doppler optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) is very suitable to quantify the pulsatile blood flow within a vasodynamic measurement in the in vivo mouse model. For this, an OFDI-system with a read-out rate of 20 kHz and a center wavelength of 1320 nm has been used to image the time-resolved murine blood flow in 300 μμm vessels. Because OFDI is less sensitive to fringe washout due to axial sample motion, it is applied to analyze the blood flow velocities and the vascular dynamics in six-week-old C57BL/6 mice compared to one of the LDLR knockout strain kept under sedentary conditions or with access to voluntary wheel running. We have shown that the systolic as well as the diastolic phase of the pulsatile arterial blood flow can be well identified at each vasodynamic state. Furthermore, the changes of the flow velocities after vasoconstriction and -dilation were presented and interpreted in the entire physiological context. With this, the combined measurement of time-resolved blood flow and vessel diameter provides the basis to analyze the vascular function and its influence on the blood flow of small arteries of different mouse strains in response to different life styles.

  12. Flow time analysis of load management late arrival discrete time queueing system with dual service rate using hypo geometrical distribution

    Shah, S.A.; Shah, W.; Shaikh, F.K.

    2012-01-01

    Flow time analysis is a powerful concept to analyze the flow time of any arriving customer in any system at any instant. A load management mechanism can be employed very effectively in any queueing system by utilizing a system which provides probability of dual service rate. In this paper, we develop and demonstrate the flow and service processes transition diagram to determine the flow time of a customer in a load management late arrival state dependent finite discrete time queueing system with dual service rate where customers are hypo geometrically distributed. We compute the probability mass function of each starting state and total probability mass function. The obtained analytical results are validated with simulation results for varying values of arrival and service probabilities. (author)

  13. A Database and Meta-Analysis of Ecological Responses to Flow in the South Atlantic Region

    McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Orth, Dr. Donald J [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Davis, Dr, Mary [Southeastern Aquatic Resources Partnership; Kauffman, John [John Kauffman LLC.

    2013-01-01

    Generalized and quantitative relationships between flow and ecology are pivotal to developing environmental flow standards based on socially acceptable ecological conditions. Informing management at regional scales requires compiling sufficient hydrologic and ecological sources of information, identifying information gaps, and creating a framework for hypothesis development and testing. We compiled studies of empirical and theoretical relationships between flow and ecology in the South Atlantic region (SAR) of the United States to evaluate their utility for the development of environmental flow standards. Using database searches, internet searches, and agency contacts, we gathered 186 sources of information that provided a qualitative or quantitative relationship between flow and ecology within states encompassing the SAR. A total of 109 of the 186 sources had sufficient information to support quantitative analyses. Ecological responses to natural changes in flow magnitude, frequency, and duration were highly variable regardless of the direction and magnitude of changes in flow. In contrast, the majority of ecological responses to anthropogenic-induced flow alterations were negative. Fish consistently showed negative responses to anthropogenic flow alterations whereas other ecological groups showed somewhat variable responses (e.g. macroinvertebrates and riparian vegetation) and even positive responses (e.g. algae). Fish and organic matter had sufficient sample sizes to stratify natural flow-ecology relationships by specific flow categories (e.g. high flow, baseflows) or by region (e.g. coastal plain, uplands). After stratifying relationships, we found that significant correlations existed between changes in natural flow and ecological responses. In addition, a regression tree explained 57% of the variation in fish responses to anthropogenic and natural changes in flow. Because of some ambiguity in interpreting the directionality in ecological responses, we

  14. Two-phase fluid flow measurements in small diameter channels using real-time neutron radiography

    Carlisle, B.S.; Johns, R.C.; Hassan, Y.A.

    2004-01-01

    A series of real-time, neutron radiography, experiments are ongoing at the Texas A and M Nuclear Science Center Reactor (NSCR). These tests determine the resolving capabilities for radiographic imaging of two phase water and air flow regimes through small diameter flow channels. Though both film and video radiographic imaging is available, the real-time video imaging was selected to capture the dynamic flow patterns with results that continue to improve. (author)

  15. Gas flow characteristics of a time modulated APPJ: the effect of gas heating on flow dynamics

    Zhang, S; Sobota, A; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Bruggeman, P J

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the flow dynamics of a radio-frequency (RF) non-equilibrium argon atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The RF power is at a frequency of 50 Hz or 20 kHz. Combined flow pattern visualizations (obtained by shadowgraphy) and gas temperature distributions (obtained by Rayleigh scattering) are used to study the formation of transient vortex structures in initial flow field shortly after the plasma is switched on and off in the case of 50 Hz modulation. The transient vortex structures correlate well with observed temperature differences. Experimental results of the fast modulated (20 kHz) plasma jet that does not induce changes of the gas temperature are also presented. The latter result suggests that momentum transfer by ions does not have dominant effect on the flow pattern close to the tube. It is argued that the increased gas temperature and corresponding gas velocity increase at the tube exit due to the plasma heating increases the admixing of surrounding air and reduces the effective potential core length. With increasing plasma power a reduction of the effective potential core length is observed with a minimum length for 5.6 W after which the length extends again. Possible mechanisms related to viscosity effects and ionic momentum transfer are discussed. (paper)

  16. A time-domain method to generate artificial time history from a given reference response spectrum

    Shin, Gang Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Oh Seop [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Seismic qualification by test is widely used as a way to show the integrity and functionality of equipment that is related to the overall safety of nuclear power plants. Another means of seismic qualification is by direct integration analysis. Both approaches require a series of time histories as an input. However, in most cases, the possibility of using real earthquake data is limited. Thus, artificial time histories are widely used instead. In many cases, however, response spectra are given. Thus, most of the artificial time histories are generated from the given response spectra. Obtaining the response spectrum from a given time history is straightforward. However, the procedure for generating artificial time histories from a given response spectrum is difficult and complex to understand. Thus, this paper presents a simple time-domain method for generating a time history from a given response spectrum; the method was shown to satisfy conditions derived from nuclear regulatory guidance.

  17. A time-domain method to generate artificial time history from a given reference response spectrum

    Shin, Gang Sik; Song, Oh Seop

    2016-01-01

    Seismic qualification by test is widely used as a way to show the integrity and functionality of equipment that is related to the overall safety of nuclear power plants. Another means of seismic qualification is by direct integration analysis. Both approaches require a series of time histories as an input. However, in most cases, the possibility of using real earthquake data is limited. Thus, artificial time histories are widely used instead. In many cases, however, response spectra are given. Thus, most of the artificial time histories are generated from the given response spectra. Obtaining the response spectrum from a given time history is straightforward. However, the procedure for generating artificial time histories from a given response spectrum is difficult and complex to understand. Thus, this paper presents a simple time-domain method for generating a time history from a given response spectrum; the method was shown to satisfy conditions derived from nuclear regulatory guidance

  18. Distinguishing Fast and Slow Processes in Accuracy - Response Time Data.

    Frederik Coomans

    Full Text Available We investigate the relation between speed and accuracy within problem solving in its simplest non-trivial form. We consider tests with only two items and code the item responses in two binary variables: one indicating the response accuracy, and one indicating the response speed. Despite being a very basic setup, it enables us to study item pairs stemming from a broad range of domains such as basic arithmetic, first language learning, intelligence-related problems, and chess, with large numbers of observations for every pair of problems under consideration. We carry out a survey over a large number of such item pairs and compare three types of psychometric accuracy-response time models present in the literature: two 'one-process' models, the first of which models accuracy and response time as conditionally independent and the second of which models accuracy and response time as conditionally dependent, and a 'two-process' model which models accuracy contingent on response time. We find that the data clearly violates the restrictions imposed by both one-process models and requires additional complexity which is parsimoniously provided by the two-process model. We supplement our survey with an analysis of the erroneous responses for an example item pair and demonstrate that there are very significant differences between the types of errors in fast and slow responses.

  19. The effect of flow limitation on the cardiorespiratory response to arousal from sleep under controlled conditions of chemostimulation in healthy older adults.

    Goff, Elizabeth A; Nicholas, Christian L; Kleiman, Jan; Spear, Owen; Morrell, Mary J; Trinder, John

    2012-12-01

    The influence of flow limitation on the magnitude of the cardiorespiratory response to arousal from sleep is of interest in older people, because they experience considerable flow limitation and frequent arousals from sleep. We studied older flow-limiting subjects, testing the hypothesis that the cardiorespiratory activation response would be larger when arousal occurred during flow limitation, compared to no flow limitation, and chemical stimuli were controlled. In 11 older adults [mean ± standard deviation (SD) age: 68 ± 5 years] ventilation was stabilized using continuous positive airway pressure, and flow limitation was induced by dialling down the pressure. Partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO(2)) was maintained by titration of the inspired CO(2) and hyperoxia was maintained using 40% O(2) balanced with nitrogen. Flow limitation at the time of arousal did not augment cardiovascular activation response (heart rate P = 0.7; systolic blood pressure P = 0.6; diastolic blood pressure P = 0.3), whereas ventilation was greater following arousals during flow limitation compared to no flow limitation (P sleep is not influenced by flow limitation at the time of arousal, when chemical stimuli are controlled in older adults. This finding may contribute to the decreased cardiovascular burden associated with sleep-disordered breathing reported in older adults, although our data do not exclude the possibility that flow limitation in the presence of mild hypoxic hypercapnia could increase the cardiovascular response to arousal. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Flight control of fruit flies: dynamic response to optic flow and headwind.

    Lawson, Kiaran K K; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2017-06-01

    Insects are magnificent fliers that are capable of performing many complex tasks such as speed regulation, smooth landings and collision avoidance, even though their computational abilities are limited by their small brain. To investigate how flying insects respond to changes in wind speed and surrounding optic flow, the open-loop sensorimotor response of female Queensland fruit flies ( Bactrocera tryoni ) was examined. A total of 136 flies were exposed to stimuli comprising sinusoidally varying optic flow and air flow (simulating forward movement) under tethered conditions in a virtual reality arena. Two responses were measured: the thrust and the abdomen pitch. The dynamics of the responses to optic flow and air flow were measured at various frequencies, and modelled as a multicompartment linear system, which accurately captured the behavioural responses of the fruit flies. The results indicate that these two behavioural responses are concurrently sensitive to changes of optic flow as well as wind. The abdomen pitch showed a streamlining response, where the abdomen was raised higher as the magnitude of either stimulus was increased. The thrust, in contrast, exhibited a counter-phase response where maximum thrust occurred when the optic flow or wind flow was at a minimum, indicating that the flies were attempting to maintain an ideal flight speed. When the changes in the wind and optic flow were in phase (i.e. did not contradict each other), the net responses (thrust and abdomen pitch) were well approximated by an equally weighted sum of the responses to the individual stimuli. However, when the optic flow and wind stimuli were presented in counterphase, the flies seemed to respond to only one stimulus or the other, demonstrating a form of 'selective attention'. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Simulation of compressible viscous flow in time-dependent domains

    Česenek, J.; Feistauer, M.; Horáček, Jaromír; Kučera, V.; Prokopova, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 219, č. 13 (2013), s. 7139-7150 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0207 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : time dependent domain * ALE method * semi-implicit time discretization * shock indicator Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.600, year: 2013

  2. Incorporating Response Times in Item Response Theory Models of Reading Comprehension Fluency

    Su, Shiyang

    2017-01-01

    With the online assessment becoming mainstream and the recording of response times becoming straightforward, the importance of response times as a measure of psychological constructs has been recognized and the literature of modeling times has been growing during the last few decades. Previous studies have tried to formulate models and theories to…

  3. The Effect of Sports and Physical Activity on Elderly Reaction Time and Response Time

    Abdolrahman Khezri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Physical activities ameliorate elderly motor and cognitive performance. The aim of this research is to study the effect of sport and physical activity on elderly reaction time and response time. Methods & Materials: The research method is causal-comparative and its statistical population consists of 60 active and non-active old males over 60 years residing at Mahabad city. Reaction time was measured by reaction timer apparatus, made in Takei Company (YB1000 model. Response time was measured via Nelson’s Choice- Response Movement Test. At first, reaction time and then response time was measured. For data analysis, descriptive statistic, K-S Test and One Sample T Test were used Results K-S Test show that research data was parametric. According to the results of this research, physical activity affected reaction time and response time. Results: of T test show that reaction time (P=0.000 and response time (P=0.000 of active group was statistically shorter than non- active group. Conclusion: The result of current study demonstrate that sport and physical activity, decrease reaction and response time via psychomotor and physiological positive changes.

  4. The Importance of Responsibility in Times of Crisis

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I would like to show the importance of the concept of responsibility as the foundation of ethics in times of crisis in particular in the fields of politics and economics in the modern civilisation marked by globalization and technological progres. I consider the concept of responsibility as the key notion in order to understand the ethical duty in a modern technological civilisation. We can indeed observe a moralization of the concept of responsibility going beyond a strict lega...

  5. Response of orthotropic micropolar elastic medium due to time ...

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    namic response of anisotropic continuum has received the attention of ... linear theory of micropolar elasticity and bending of orthotropic micropolar ... medium due to time harmonic concentrated load, the continuum is divided into two half-.

  6. Congestion Service Facilities Location Problem with Promise of Response Time

    Dandan Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In many services, promise of specific response time is advertised as a commitment by the service providers for the customer satisfaction. Congestion on service facilities could delay the delivery of the services and hurts the overall satisfaction. In this paper, congestion service facilities location problem with promise of response time is studied, and a mixed integer nonlinear programming model is presented with budget constrained. The facilities are modeled as M/M/c queues. The decision variables of the model are the locations of the service facilities and the number of servers at each facility. The objective function is to maximize the demands served within specific response time promised by the service provider. To solve this problem, we propose an algorithm that combines greedy and genetic algorithms. In order to verify the proposed algorithm, a lot of computational experiments are tested. And the results demonstrate that response time has a significant impact on location decision.

  7. A Box-Cox normal model for response times

    Klein Entink, R.H.; Fox, J.P.; Linden, W.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    The log-transform has been a convenient choice in response time modelling on test items. However, motivated by a dataset of the Medical College Admission Test where the lognormal model violated the normality assumption, the possibilities of the broader class of Box–Cox transformations for response

  8. Determination of response time of resistance thermometers by in situ measurements

    Goncalves, I.M.P.; Soares, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The loop-current-step-response test provides a mean for determining the time constant of resistance thermometers. The test consists in heating the sensor a few degrees above ambient temperature by causing a step perurbation in the electric current that flows through the sensor leads. The developed mathematical transformation permits to use data collected during the internal heating transient to predict the sensor response to perturbations in fluid temperature. Experimental data obtained show that time constant determined by this method is within 15 percent of the true value. (Author) [pt

  9. Peripheral visual response time and visual display layout

    Haines, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were performed on a group of 42 subjects in a study of their peripheral visual response time to visual signals under positive acceleration, during prolonged bedrest, at passive 70 deg headup body lift, under exposures to high air temperatures and high luminance levels, and under normal stress-free laboratory conditions. Diagrams are plotted for mean response times to white, red, yellow, green, and blue stimuli under different conditions.

  10. Experience with RTD response time testing in nuclear power plants

    Hashemian, H.M.; Kerlin, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    The reactor coolant temperatures in pressurized water reactors are measured with platinum resistance temperature detectors (RTDs). The information furnished by these RTDs is used for plant protection as well as control. As a part of the plant protection system, the RTDs must respond to temperature changes in a timely fashion. The RTD response time requirements are different for the various plant types. These requirements are specified in the plant technical specifications in terms of an RTd time constant. The current time constant requirements for nuclear plant RTDs varies from 0.5 seconds to 13.0 seconds depending on the type of the plant. Therefore, different types of RTDs are used in different plants to achieve the required time constants. In addition, in-situ response time tests are periodically performed on protective system RTDs to ensure that the in-service time constants are within acceptable limits as the plant is operating. The periodic testing is important because response time degradation may occur while the RTD ages in the process. Recent response time tests in operating plants revealed unacceptable time constants for several protection system RTDs. As a result, these plants had to be shut down to resolve the problem which in one case was due to improper installation and in another case was because of degradation of a thermal compound used in the thermowell

  11. Subsurface Flow and Moisture Dynamics in Response to Swash Motions: Effects of Beach Hydraulic Conductivity and Capillarity

    Geng, Xiaolong; Heiss, James W.; Michael, Holly A.; Boufadel, Michel C.

    2017-12-01

    A combined field and numerical study was conducted to investigate dynamics of subsurface flow and moisture response to waves in the swash zone of a sandy beach located on Cape Henlopen, DE. A density-dependent variably saturated flow model MARUN was used to simulate subsurface flow beneath the swash zone. Values of hydraulic conductivity (K) and characteristic pore size (α, a capillary fringe property) were varied to evaluate their effects on subsurface flow and moisture dynamics in response to swash motions in beach aquifers. The site-specific modeling results were validated against spatiotemporal measurements of moisture and pore pressure in the beach. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the hydraulic conductivity and capillary fringe thickness of the beach greatly influenced groundwater flow pathways and associated transit times in the swash zone. A higher value of K enhanced swash-induced seawater infiltration into the beach, thereby resulting in a faster expansion of a wedge of high moisture content induced by swash cycles, and a flatter water table mound beneath the swash zone. In contrast, a thicker capillary fringe retained higher moisture content near the beach surface, and thus, significantly reduced the available pore space for infiltration of seawater. This attenuated wave effects on pore water flow in the unsaturated zone of the beach. Also, a thicker capillary fringe enhanced horizontal flow driven by the larger-scale hydraulic gradient caused by tides.

  12. Can Emergency Physicians Perform Common Carotid Doppler Flow Measurements to Assess Volume Responsiveness?

    Stolz, Lori A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Common carotid flow measurements may be clinically useful to determine volume responsiveness. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of emergency physicians (EP to obtain sonographic images and measurements of the common carotid artery velocity time integral (VTi for potential use in assessing volume responsiveness in the clinical setting. Methods: In this prospective observational study, we showed a five-minute instructional video demonstrating a technique to obtain common carotid ultrasound images and measure the common carotid VTi to emergency medicine (EM residents. Participants were then asked to image the common carotid artery and obtain VTi measurements. Expert sonographers observed participants imaging in real time and recorded their performance on nine performance measures. An expert sonographer graded image quality. Participants were timed and answered questions regarding ease of examination and their confidence in obtaining the images. Results: A total of 30 EM residents participated in this study and each performed the examination twice. Average time required to complete one examination was 2.9 minutes (95% CI [2.4-3.4 min]. Participants successfully completed all performance measures greater than 75% of the time, with the exception of obtaining measurements during systole, which was completed in 65% of examinations. Median resident overall confidence in accurately performing carotid VTi measurements was 3 (on a scale of 1 [not confident] to 5 [confident]. Conclusion: EM residents at our institution learned the technique for obtaining common carotid artery Doppler flow measurements after viewing a brief instructional video. When assessed at performing this examination, they completed several performance measures with greater than 75% success. No differences were found between novice and experienced groups. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:255–259.

  13. A comparison of two procedures for verbal response time fractionation

    Lotje evan der Linden

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To describe the mental architecture between stimulus and response, cognitive models often divide the stimulus-response (SR interval into stages or modules. Predictions derived from such models are typically tested by focusing on the moment of response emission, through the analysis of response time (RT distributions. To go beyond the single response event, we recently proposed a method to fractionate verbal RTs into two physiologically defined intervals that are assumed to reflect different processing stages. The analysis of the durations of these intervals can be used to study the interaction between cognitive and motor processing during speech production. Our method is inspired by studies on decision making that used manual responses, in which RTs were fractionated into a premotor time (PMT, assumed to reflect cognitive processing, and a motor time (MT, assumed to reflect motor processing. In these studies, surface EMG activity was recorded from participants' response fingers. EMG onsets, reflecting the initiation of a motor response, were used as the point of fractionation. We adapted this method to speech-production research by measuring verbal responses in combination with EMG activity from facial muscles involved in articulation. However, in contrast to button-press tasks, the complex task of producing speech often resulted in multiple EMG bursts within the SR interval. This observation forced us to decide how to operationalize the point of fractionation: as the first EMG burst after stimulus onset (the stimulus-locked approach, or as the EMG burst that is coupled to the vocal response (the response-locked approach. The point of fractionation has direct consequences on how much of the overall task effect is captured by either interval. Therefore, the purpose of the current paper was to compare both onset-detection procedures in order to make an informed decision about which of the two is preferable. We concluded in favour or the response

  14. Carotid Flow Time Test Performance for the Detection of Dehydration in Children With Diarrhea.

    Mackenzie, David C; Nasrin, Sabiha; Atika, Bita; Modi, Payal; Alam, Nur H; Levine, Adam C

    2017-11-09

    Unstructured clinical assessments of dehydration in children are inaccurate. Point-of-care ultrasound is a noninvasive diagnostic tool that can help evaluate the volume status; the corrected carotid artery flow time has been shown to predict volume depletion in adults. We sought to determine the ability of the corrected carotid artery flow time to identify dehydration in a population of children presenting with acute diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Children presenting with acute diarrhea were recruited and rehydrated according to hospital protocols. The corrected carotid artery flow time was measured at the time of presentation. The percentage of weight change with rehydration was used to categorize each child's dehydration as severe (>9%), some (3%-9%), or none (dehydration. Linear regression was used to model the relationship between the corrected carotid artery flow time and percentage of dehydration. A total of 350 children (0-60 months) were enrolled. The mean corrected carotid artery flow time was 326 milliseconds (interquartile range, 295-351 milliseconds). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the detection of severe dehydration was 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.42, 0.61). Linear regression modeling showed a weak association between the flow time and dehydration. The corrected carotid artery flow time was a poor predictor of severe dehydration in this population of children with diarrhea. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. Time response of temperature sensors using neural networks

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos

    2010-01-01

    In a PWR nuclear power plant, the primary coolant temperature and feedwater temperature are measured using RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detectors). These RTDs typically feed the plant's control and safety systems and must, therefore, be very accurate and have good dynamic performance. The response time of RTDs is characterized by a single parameter called the Plunge Time Constant defined as the time it takes the sensor output to achieve 63.2 percent of its final value after a step change in temperature. Nuclear reactor service conditions are difficult to reproduce in the laboratory, and an in-situ test method called LCSR (Loop Current Step Response) test was developed to measure remotely the response time of RTDs. >From this test, the time constant of the sensor is identified by means of the LCSR transformation that involves the dynamic response modal time constants determination using a nodal heat-transfer model. This calculation is not simple and requires specialized personnel. For this reason an Artificial Neural Network has been developed to predict the time constant of RTD from LCSR test transient. It eliminates the transformations involved in the LCSR application. A series of LCSR tests on RTDs generates the response transients of the sensors, the input data of the networks. Plunge tests are used to determine the time constants of the RTDs, the desired output of the ANN, trained using these sets of input/output data. This methodology was firstly applied to theoretical data simulating 10 RTDs with different time constant values, resulting in an average error of about 0.74 %. Experimental data from three different RTDs was used to predict time constant resulting in a maximum error of 3,34 %. The time constants values predicted from ANN were compared with those obtained from traditional way resulting in an average error of about 18 % and that shows the network is able to predict accurately the sensor time constant. (author)

  16. Dynamic pressure probe response tests for robust measurements in periodic flows close to probe resonating frequency

    Ceyhun Şahin, Fatma; Schiffmann, Jürg

    2018-02-01

    A single-hole probe was designed to measure steady and periodic flows with high fluctuation amplitudes and with minimal flow intrusion. Because of its high aspect ratio, estimations showed that the probe resonates at a frequency two orders of magnitude lower than the fast response sensor cut-off frequencies. The high fluctuation amplitudes cause a non-linear behavior of the probe and available models are neither adequate for a quantitative estimation of the resonating frequencies nor for predicting the system damping. Instead, a non-linear data correction procedure based on individual transfer functions defined for each harmonic contribution is introduced for pneumatic probes that allows to extend their operating range beyond the resonating frequencies and linear dynamics. This data correction procedure was assessed on a miniature single-hole probe of 0.35 mm inner diameter which was designed to measure flow speed and direction. For the reliable use of such a probe in periodic flows, its frequency response was reproduced with a siren disk, which allows exciting the probe up to 10 kHz with peak-to-peak amplitudes ranging between 20%-170% of the absolute mean pressure. The effect of the probe interior design on the phase lag and amplitude distortion in periodic flow measurements was investigated on probes with similar inner diameters and different lengths or similar aspect ratios (L/D) and different total interior volumes. The results suggest that while the tube length consistently sets the resonance frequency, the internal total volume affects the non-linear dynamic response in terms of varying gain functions. A detailed analysis of the introduced calibration methodology shows that the goodness of the reconstructed data compared to the reference data is above 75% for fundamental frequencies up to twice the probe resonance frequency. The results clearly suggest that the introduced procedure is adequate to capture non-linear pneumatic probe dynamics and to

  17. A Modeling Approach for Evaluating the Coupled Riparian Vegetation-Geomorphic Response to Altered Flow Regimes

    Manners, R.; Wilcox, A. C.; Merritt, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    The ecogeomorphic response of riparian ecosystems to a change in hydrologic properties is difficult to predict because of the interactions and feedbacks among plants, water, and sediment. Most riparian models of community dynamics assume a static channel, yet geomorphic processes strongly control the establishment and survival of riparian vegetation. Using a combination of approaches that includes empirical relationships and hydrodynamic models, we model the coupled vegetation-topographic response of three cross-sections on the Yampa and Green Rivers in Dinosaur National Monument, to a shift in the flow regime. The locations represent the variable geomorphology and vegetation composition of these canyon-bound rivers. We account for the inundation and hydraulic properties of vegetation plots surveyed over three years within International River Interface Cooperative (iRIC) Fastmech, equipped with a vegetation module that accounts for flexible stems and plant reconfiguration. The presence of functional groupings of plants, or those plants that respond similarly to environmental factors such as water availability and disturbance are determined from flow response curves developed for the Yampa River. Using field measurements of vegetation morphology, distance from the channel centerline, and dominant particle size and modeled inundation properties we develop an empirical relationship between these variables and topographic change. We evaluate vegetation and channel form changes over decadal timescales, allowing for the integration of processes over time. From our analyses, we identify thresholds in the flow regime that alter the distribution of plants and reduce geomorphic complexity, predominately through side-channel and backwater infilling. Simplification of some processes (e.g., empirically-derived sedimentation) and detailed treatment of others (e.g., plant-flow interactions) allows us to model the coupled dynamics of riparian ecosystems and evaluate the impact of

  18. Water cut measurement of oil–water flow in vertical well by combining total flow rate and the response of a conductance probe

    Chen, Jianjun; Xu, Lijun; Cao, Zhang; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a conductance probe-based well logging instrument was developed and the total flow rate is combined with the response of the conductance probe to estimate the water cut of the oil–water flow in a vertical well. The conductance probe records the time-varying electrical characteristics of the oil–water flow. Linear least squares regression (LSR) and nonlinear support vector regression (SVR) were used to establish models to map the total flow rate and features extracted from the probe response onto the water cut, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares analysis (PLSA) techniques were employed to reduce data redundancy within the extracted features. An experiment was carried out in a vertical pipe with an inner diameter of 125 mm and a height of 24 m in an experimental multi-phase flow setup, Daqing Oilfield, China. In the experiment, oil–water flow was used and the total flow rate varied from 10 to 200 m 3 per day and the water cut varied from 0% to 100%. As a direct comparison, the cases were also studied when the total flow rate was not used as an independent input to the models. The results obtained demonstrate that: (1) the addition of the total flow rate as an input to the regression models can greatly improve the accuracy of water cut prediction, (2) the nonlinear SVR model performs much better than the linear LSR model, and (3) for the SVR model with the total flow rate as an input, the adoption of PCA or PLSA not only decreases the dimensions of inputs, but also increases prediction accuracy. The SVR model with five PCA-treated features plus the total flow rate achieves the best performance in water cut prediction, with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) as high as 0.9970. The corresponding root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean quoted error (MQE) are 0.0312% and 1.99%, respectively. (paper)

  19. Stopped-flow technique for transit time measurement in a gas jet

    Rengan, K.; Lin, J.; Lim, T.; Meyer, R.A.; Harrell, J.

    1985-01-01

    A 'stopped-flow' technique for the measurement of transit time of reaction products in a gas jet is described. The method involved establishing the gas flow through the jet system when the reactor is operating steadily and allowing the pressure to reach equilibrium values. The gas flow is stopped by means of electrically operated valves. The transit-time measurement is achieved by opening the valves and initiating the multiscanning of total activity simultaneously. The value obtained agrees well with the transit time measured by pulsing the reactor. The 'stopped-flow' technique allows on-line measurement of transit time in any gas jet system where the physical transportation time is the major component of the transit time. This technique is especially useful for systems installed in reactors which do not have pulsing capability. (orig.)

  20. Calibration of the time response functions of a quenched plastic scintillator for neutron time of flight

    Chen, J B; Peng, H S; Tang, C H; Zhang, B H; Ding, Y K; Chen, M; Chen, H S; Li, C G; Wen, T S; Yu, R Z

    2002-01-01

    The time response functions of an ultrafast quenched plastic scintillation detector used to measure neutron time of flight spectra were calibrated by utilizing cosmic rays and implosion neutrons from DT-filled capsules at the Shenguang II laser facility. These sources could be regarded as delta function pulses due to their much narrower time widths than those of the time response functions of the detection system. The results showed that the detector responses to DT neutrons and to cosmic rays were 1.18 and 0.96 ns FWHM, respectively.

  1. Flow-Injection Responses of Diffusion Processes and Chemical Reactions

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2000-01-01

    tool of automated analytical chemistry. The need for an even lower consumption of chemicals and for computer analysis has motivated a study of the FIA peak itself, that is, a theoretical model was developed, that provides detailed knowledge of the FIA profile. It was shown that the flow in a FIA...... manifold may be characterised by a diffusion coefficient that depends on flow rate, denoted as the kinematic diffusion coefficient. The description was applied to systems involving species of chromium, both in the case of simple diffusion and in the case of chemical reactions. It is suggested that it may...... be used in the resolution of FIA profiles to obtain information about the content of interference’s, in the study of chemical reaction kinetics and to measure absolute concentrations within the FIA-detector cell....

  2. Immune Response to Mycobacterial Infection: Lessons from Flow Cytometry

    Rovina, Nikoletta; Panagiotou, Marios; Pontikis, Konstantinos; Kyriakopoulou, Magdalini; Koulouris, Nikolaos G.; Koutsoukou, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Detecting and treating active and latent tuberculosis are pivotal elements for effective infection control; yet, due to their significant inherent limitations, the diagnostic means for these two stages of tuberculosis (TB) to date remain suboptimal. This paper reviews the current diagnostic tools for mycobacterial infection and focuses on the application of flow cytometry as a promising method for rapid and reliable diagnosis of mycobacterial infection as well as discrimination between active...

  3. Use of Response Time for Measuring Cognitive Ability

    Patrick C. Kyllonen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review some of the key literature on response time as it has played a role in cognitive ability measurement, providing a historical perspective as well as covering current research. We discuss the speed-level distinction, dimensions of speed and level in cognitive abilities frameworks, speed–accuracy tradeoff, approaches to addressing speed–accuracy tradeoff, analysis methods, particularly item response theory-based, response time models from cognitive psychology (ex-Gaussian function, and the diffusion model, and other uses of response time in testing besides ability measurement. We discuss several new methods that can be used to provide greater insight into the speed and level aspects of cognitive ability and speed–accuracy tradeoff decisions. These include item-level time limits, the use of feedback (e.g., CUSUMs, explicit scoring rules that combine speed and accuracy information (e.g., count down timing, and cognitive psychology models. We also review some of the key psychometric advances in modeling speed and level, which combine speed and ability measurement, address speed–accuracy tradeoff, allow for distinctions between response times on items responded to correctly and incorrectly, and integrate psychometrics with information-processing modeling. We suggest that the application of these models and tools is likely to advance both the science and measurement of human abilities for theory and applications.

  4. Evaluation of setting time and flow properties of self-synthesize alginate impressions

    Halim, Calista; Cahyanto, Arief; Sriwidodo, Harsatiningsih, Zulia

    2018-02-01

    Alginate is an elastic hydrocolloid dental impression materials to obtain negative reproduction of oral mucosa such as to record soft-tissue and occlusal relationships. The aim of the present study was to synthesize alginate and to determine the setting time and flow properties. There were five groups of alginate consisted of fifty samples self-synthesize alginate and commercial alginate impression product. Fifty samples were divided according to two tests, each twenty-five samples for setting time and flow test. Setting time test was recorded in the s unit, meanwhile, flow test was recorded in the mm2 unit. The fastest setting time result was in the group three (148.8 s) and the latest was group fours). The highest flow test result was in the group three (69.70 mm2) and the lowest was group one (58.34 mm2). Results were analyzed statistically by one way ANOVA (α= 0.05), showed that there was a statistical significance of setting time while no statistical significance of flow properties between self-synthesize alginate and alginate impression product. In conclusion, the alginate impression was successfully self-synthesized and variation composition gives influence toward setting time and flow properties. The most resemble setting time of control group is group three. The most resemble flow of control group is group four.

  5. Similarity solutions of time-dependent relativistic radiation-hydrodynamical plane-parallel flows

    Fukue, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Similarity solutions are examined for the frequency-integrated relativistic radiation-hydrodynamical flows, which are described by the comoving quantities. The flows are vertical plane-parallel time-dependent ones with a gray opacity coefficient. For adequate boundary conditions, the flows are accelerated in a somewhat homologous manner, but terminate at some singular locus, which originates from the pathological behavior in relativistic radiation moment equations truncated in finite orders.

  6. Search for an optimum time response of spark counters

    Devismes, A.; Finck, Ch.; Kress, T.; Gobbi, A.; Eschke, J.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Koczon, P.; Petrovici, M.

    2002-01-01

    A spark counter of the type developed by Pestov has been tested with the aim of searching for an optimum time response function, changing voltage, content of noble and quencher gases, pressure and energy-loss. Replacing the usual argon by neon has brought an improvement of the resolution and a significant reduction of tails in the time response function. It has been proven that a counter as long as 90 cm can deliver, using neon gas mixture, a time resolution σ<60 ps with about 1% absolute tail and an efficiency of about 90%

  7. Cross flow response of a cylindrical structure under local shear flow

    Yoo-Chul Kim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The VIV (Vortex-Induced Vibration analysis of a flexible cylindrical structure under locally strong shear flow is presented. The model is made of Teflon and has 9.5m length, 0.0127m diameter, and 0.001m wall thickness. 11 2-dimensional accelerometers are installed along the model. The experiment has been conducted at the ocean engineering basin in the University of Tokyo in which uniform current can be generated. The model is installed at about 30 degree of slope and submerged by almost overall length. Local shear flow is made by superposing uniform current and accelerated flow generated by an impeller. The results of frequency and modal analysis are presented.

  8. Procrastination, Flow, and Academic Performance in Real Time Using the Experience Sampling Method.

    Sumaya, Isabel C; Darling, Emily

    2018-01-01

    The authors' aim was to first provide an alternative methodology in the assessment of procrastination and flow that would not reply on retrospective or prospective self-reports. Using real-time assessment of both procrastination and flow, the authors investigated how these factors impact academic performance by using the Experience Sampling Method. They assessed flow by measuring student self-reported skill versus challenge, and procrastination by measuring the days to completion of an assignment. Procrastination and flow were measured for six days before a writing assignment due date while students (n = 14) were enrolled in a research methods course. Regardless of status of flow, both the nonflow and flow groups showed high levels of procrastination. Students who experienced flow as they worked on their paper, in real time, earned significantly higher grades (M = 3.05 ± 0.30: an average grade of B) as compared with the nonflow group (M = 1.16 ± 0.33: an average grade of D; p = .007). Additionally, students experiencing flow were more accurate in predicting their grade (difference scores, flow M = 0.12 ± 0.33 vs. nonflow M = 1.39 ± 0.29; p = .015). Students in the nonflow group were nearly a grade and a half off in their prediction of their grade on the paper. To the authors' knowledge, the study is the first to provide experimental evidence showing differences in academic performance between students experiencing flow and nonflow students.

  9. Impact of meander geometry and stream flow events on residence times and solute transport in the intra-meander flow

    Nasir Mahmood, Muhammad; Schmidt, Christian; Trauth, Nico

    2017-04-01

    Stream morphological features, in combination with hydrological variability play a key role in water and solute exchange across surface and subsurface waters. Meanders are prominent morphological features within stream systems which exhibit unique hydrodynamics. The water surface elevation difference across the inner bank of a meander induces lateral hyporheic exchange within the intra-meander region. This hyporheic flow is characterized by considerably prolonged flow paths and residence times (RT) compared to smaller scales of hyporheic exchange. In this study we examine the impact of different meander geometries on the intra-meander hyporheic flow field and solute mobilization under both steady state and transient flow conditions. We developed a number of artificial meander shape scenarios, representing various meander evolution stages, ranging from a typical initial to advanced stage (near cut off ) meander. Three dimensional steady state numerical groundwater flow simulations including the unsaturated zone were performed for the intra-meander region. The meandering stream was implemented in the model by adjusting the top layers of the modelling domain to the streambed elevation and assigning linearly decreasing head boundary conditions to the streambed cells. Residence times for the intra-meander region were computed by advective particle tracking across the inner bank of meander. Selected steady state cases were extended to transient flow simulations to evaluate the impact of stream discharge events on the temporal behavior of the water exchange and solute transport in the intra-meander region. The transient stream discharge was simulated for a number of discharge events of variable duration and peak height using the surface water model HEC-RAS. Transient hydraulic heads obtained from the surface water model were applied as transient head boundary conditions to the streambed cells of the groundwater model. A solute concentration source was added in the

  10. Determination of flow times and flow velocities in the upper Rhine river using 3HHO as tracer

    Krause, W.J.; Mundschenk, H.

    1990-01-01

    The behaviour of water bodies of the Upper Rhine river discretely traced with 3 HHO-loaded waste waters from the nuclear power plants of Beznau, Fessenheim, Philippsburg and Biblis was investigated along a distance of nearly 385 km down to Nierstein. The passage of the distinct entrainment charged by different emissions was measured at the sampling points of Bad Saeckingen, Weil, Weisweil, Iffezheim and Nierstein. From these profiles the flow times and flow velocities were calculated for the discharge range from 0.6 to 1.7 MQ (mean discharge), taking the begin, end and duration of the individual releases into account. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Scale-model characterization of flow-induced vibrational response of FFTF reactor internals

    Ryan, J.A.; Mahoney, J.J.

    1980-10-01

    Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed for flow-induced vibrational characteristics under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup as an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program. The Hydraulic Core Mockup was an 0.285 geometric scale model of the Fast Test Reactor internals designed to simulate prototype vibrational and hydraulic characteristics. Using water to simulate sodium coolant, vibrational characteristics were measured and determined for selected model components over the scaled flow range of 36 to 110%. Additionally, in-situ shaker tests were conducted on selected Hydraulic Core Mockup outlet plenum components to establish modal characteristics. Most components exhibited resonant response at all test flow rates; however, the measured dynamic response was neither abnormal nor anomalously flow-rate dependent, and the predicted prototype components' response were deemed acceptable

  12. Real-time algorithm for the measurement of liquid metal coolant flow velocity with correlated thermal signals

    Moazzeni, Taleb; Jiang, Yingtao; Ma, Jian; Li, Ning

    2009-01-01

    One flow meter was developed especially for the environment of high irradiation, pressure, and temperature. The transit time of natural random temperature fluctuation in process, for example nuclear reactor, can be obtained based on the cross-correlation method, which has already been shown that it is capable in situations where no other flow meter can be used. Thereby, the flow rate can be derived in pipe flow if the area of cross-section is known. In practice, the evaluation of the integrals over the measurement time in cross-correlation method will lead errors caused by peak detection from flat cross correlation coefficient distribution or additional peaks. One Auto-Adaptive Impulse Response Function estimation is introduced and significantly narrower peak will be obtained. Fiber optic sensors are advantageous for temperature measurements in the reactor pressure vessels. However, the corrosive coolant (as liquid lead/lead alloy or molten salt coolant) is a barrier of the optic sensor in such application. Thermocouple with grounded stainless steel shielding material would have same life time with structure material in reactor, although thermocouple has relatively slow response. The degradation due to corrosion/erosion will not introduce measurement error or necessary calibration, because only the correlation between signals is taken into consideration during measurements. Experiments conducted in a testing hydraulic facility approved the considerable improvement of accuracy by this new algorithm using thermocouple temperature sensors. (author)

  13. A Hybrid Metaheuristic Approach for Minimizing the Total Flow Time in A Flow Shop Sequence Dependent Group Scheduling Problem

    Antonio Costa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Production processes in Cellular Manufacturing Systems (CMS often involve groups of parts sharing the same technological requirements in terms of tooling and setup. The issue of scheduling such parts through a flow-shop production layout is known as the Flow-Shop Group Scheduling (FSGS problem or, whether setup times are sequence-dependent, the Flow-Shop Sequence-Dependent Group Scheduling (FSDGS problem. This paper addresses the FSDGS issue, proposing a hybrid metaheuristic procedure integrating features from Genetic Algorithms (GAs and Biased Random Sampling (BRS search techniques with the aim of minimizing the total flow time, i.e., the sum of completion times of all jobs. A well-known benchmark of test cases, entailing problems with two, three, and six machines, is employed for both tuning the relevant parameters of the developed procedure and assessing its performances against two metaheuristic algorithms recently presented by literature. The obtained results and a properly arranged ANOVA analysis highlight the superiority of the proposed approach in tackling the scheduling problem under investigation.

  14. Carpooling and Driver Responses to Fuel Price Changes: Evidence from Traffic Flows in Los Angeles

    Antonio M. Bento; Jonathan E. Hughes; Daniel T. Kaffine

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how drivers respond to fuel price changes has important implications for highway congestion, accidents, carbon policy, local air pollution and taxation. We examine the underexplored relationship between fuel prices and carpooling. Using a simple theoretical model we show that traffic flows in mainline lanes decrease when fuel prices increase. However in carpool (HOV) lanes, flow can either increase or decrease. Traffic flows in mainline lanes are shown to be more responsive to p...

  15. Importance of vegetation, topography and flow paths for water transit times of base flow in alpine headwater catchments

    M. H. Mueller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mean transit time (MTT of water in a catchment gives information about storage, flow paths, sources of water and thus also about retention and release of solutes in a catchment. To our knowledge there are only a few catchment studies on the influence of vegetation cover changes on base flow MTTs. The main changes in vegetation cover in the Swiss Alps are massive shrub encroachment and forest expansion into formerly open habitats. Four small and relatively steep headwater catchments in the Swiss Alps (Ursern Valley were investigated to relate different vegetation cover to water transit times. Time series of water stable isotopes were used to calculate MTTs. The high temporal variation of the stable isotope signals in precipitation was strongly dampened in stream base flow samples. MTTs of the four catchments were 70 to 102 weeks. The strong dampening of the stable isotope input signal as well as stream water geochemistry points to deeper flow paths and mixing of waters of different ages at the catchments' outlets. MTTs were neither related to topographic indices nor vegetation cover. The major part of the quickly infiltrating precipitation likely percolates through fractured and partially karstified deeper rock zones, which increases the control of bedrock flow paths on MTT. Snow accumulation and the timing of its melt play an important role for stable isotope dynamics during spring and early summer. We conclude that, in mountainous headwater catchments with relatively shallow soil layers, the hydrogeological and geochemical patterns (i.e. geochemistry, porosity and hydraulic conductivity of rocks and snow dynamics influence storage, mixing and release of water in a stronger way than vegetation cover or topography do.

  16. Conceptual question response times in Peer Instruction classrooms

    Kelly Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to in-class, conceptual questions [ConcepTests (CTs] in two introductory physics courses taught using Peer Instruction and use item response theory to determine the difficulty of the CTs. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers both before and after the peer discussion for CTs of varying difficulty. We also determine the relationship between response time and student performance on a standardized test of incoming physics knowledge, precourse self-efficacy, and gender. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response time for correct answers is significantly faster than for incorrect answers, both before and after peer discussion, especially for easy CTs. Second, students with greater incoming physics knowledge and higher self-efficacy respond faster in both rounds. Third, there is no gender difference in response rate after controlling for incoming physics knowledge scores, although males register significantly more attempts before committing to a final answer than do female students. These results provide insight into effective CT pacing during Peer Instruction. In particular, in order to maintain a pace that keeps everyone engaged, students should not be given too much time to respond. When around 80% of the answers are in, the ratio of correct to incorrect responses rapidly approaches levels indicating random guessing and instructors should close the poll.

  17. Response of surface buoy moorings in steady and wave flows

    Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.; SanilKumar, V.

    A numerical model has been developed to evaluate the dynamics of surface buoy mooring systems under wave and current loading. System tension response and variation of tension in the mooring line at various depths have been evaluated for deep water...

  18. Saturation flow versus green time at two-stage signal controlled intersections

    A. Boumediene

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intersections are the key components of road networks considerably affecting capacity. As flow levels and experience have increased over the years, methods and means have been developed to cope with growing demand for traffic at road junctions. Among various traffic control devices and techniques developed to cope with conflicting movements, traffic signals create artificial gaps to accommodate the impeded traffic streams. The majority of parameters that govern signalised intersection control and operations such as a degree of saturation, delays, queue lengths, the level of service etc. are very sensitive to saturation flow. Therefore, it is essential to reliably evaluate saturation flow for correctly setting traffic signals to avoid unnecessary delays and conflicts. Generally, almost all guidelines support the constancy of saturation flow irrespective of green time duration. This paper presents the results of field studies carried out to enable the performance of signalised intersections to be compared at different green time durations. It was found that saturation flow decreased slightly with growing green time. Reduction corresponded to between 2 and 5 pcus/gh per second of green time. However, the analyses of the discharge rate during the successive time intervals of 6-seconds showed a substantial reduction of 10% to 13% in saturation flow levels after 36 seconds of green time compared to those relating to 6–36 seconds range. No reduction in saturation flow levels was detected at the sites where only green periods of 44 seconds or less were implemented.

  19. The money-flows of socially responsible investment funds around the world

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Zhang, C.; Baker, H.K.; Nofsinger, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter studies the money flows into and out of socially responsible investment (SRI) funds around the world. In their investment decisions, investors in SRI funds may be more concerned with ethical or social issues than with fund performance. Therefore, SRI money flows are less related to past

  20. Real-time DDoS attack detection for Cisco IOS using NetFlow

    van der Steeg, Daniël; Hofstede, R.J.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    Flow-based DDoS attack detection is typically performed by analysis applications that are installed on or close to a flow collector. Although this approach allows for easy deployment, it makes detection far from real-time and susceptible to DDoS attacks for the following reasons. First, the fact

  1. Markov transition probability-based network from time series for characterizing experimental two-phase flow

    Gao Zhong-Ke; Hu Li-Dan; Jin Ning-De

    2013-01-01

    We generate a directed weighted complex network by a method based on Markov transition probability to represent an experimental two-phase flow. We first systematically carry out gas—liquid two-phase flow experiments for measuring the time series of flow signals. Then we construct directed weighted complex networks from various time series in terms of a network generation method based on Markov transition probability. We find that the generated network inherits the main features of the time series in the network structure. In particular, the networks from time series with different dynamics exhibit distinct topological properties. Finally, we construct two-phase flow directed weighted networks from experimental signals and associate the dynamic behavior of gas-liquid two-phase flow with the topological statistics of the generated networks. The results suggest that the topological statistics of two-phase flow networks allow quantitative characterization of the dynamic flow behavior in the transitions among different gas—liquid flow patterns. (general)

  2. Reduced computational cost in the calculation of worst case response time for real time systems

    Urriza, José M.; Schorb, Lucas; Orozco, Javier D.; Cayssials, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Modern Real Time Operating Systems require reducing computational costs even though the microprocessors become more powerful each day. It is usual that Real Time Operating Systems for embedded systems have advance features to administrate the resources of the applications that they support. In order to guarantee either the schedulability of the system or the schedulability of a new task in a dynamic Real Time System, it is necessary to know the Worst Case Response Time of the Real Time tasks ...

  3. Time-varying vector fields and their flows

    Jafarpour, Saber

    2014-01-01

    This short book provides a comprehensive and unified treatment of time-varying vector fields under a variety of regularity hypotheses, namely finitely differentiable, Lipschitz, smooth, holomorphic, and real analytic. The presentation of this material in the real analytic setting is new, as is the manner in which the various hypotheses are unified using functional analysis. Indeed, a major contribution of the book is the coherent development of locally convex topologies for the space of real analytic sections of a vector bundle, and the development of this in a manner that relates easily to classically known topologies in, for example, the finitely differentiable and smooth cases. The tools used in this development will be of use to researchers in the area of geometric functional analysis.

  4. Wairarapa Valley groundwater : residence time, flow pattern, and hydrochemistry trends

    Morgenstern, U.

    2005-01-01

    The Wairarapa groundwater system has a complicated hydrogeological setting as it evolved from sea level changes, tectonic activity, and geomorphic process. Due to increasing groundwater demand a better understanding of the groundwater resources is required to help achieve effective management and sustainable use. In addition to previous 'classical' hydrogeology studies, this report represents the first stage of a comprehensive approach using age dating and chemistry time trends for understanding the Wairarapa groundwater system. The methodology of groundwater age dating and mixing models is described in Appendix 1. Historic tritium data were evaluated, and combined with new tritium and CFC/SF 6 data to allow for robust age dating. (author). 14 refs., 30 figs

  5. Polar cap flow channel events: spontaneous and driven responses

    P. E. Sandholt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present two case studies of specific flow channel events appearing at the dusk and/or dawn polar cap boundary during passage at Earth of interplanetary (IP coronal mass ejections (ICMEs on 10 January and 25 July 2004. The channels of enhanced (>1 km/s antisunward convection are documented by SuperDARN radars and dawn-dusk crossings of the polar cap by the DMSP F13 satellite. The relationship with Birkeland currents (C1–C2 located poleward of the traditional R1–R2 currents is demonstrated. The convection events are manifest in ground magnetic deflections obtained from the IMAGE (International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects Svalbard chain of ground magnetometer stations located within 71–76° MLAT. By combining the ionospheric convection data and the ground magnetograms we are able to study the temporal behaviour of the convection events. In the two ICME case studies the convection events belong to two different categories, i.e., directly driven and spontaneous events. In the 10 January case two sharp southward turnings of the ICME magnetic field excited corresponding convection events as detected by IMAGE and SuperDARN. We use this case to determine the ground magnetic signature of enhanced flow channel events (the NH-dusk/By<0 variant. In the 25 July case a several-hour-long interval of steady southwest ICME field (Bz<0; By<0 gave rise to a long series of spontaneous convection events as detected by IMAGE when the ground stations swept through the 12:00–18:00 MLT sector. From the ground-satellite conjunction on 25 July we infer the pulsed nature of the polar cap ionospheric flow channel events in this case. The typical duration of these convection enhancements in the polar cap is 10 min.

  6. Assessment of prism responses to loss of flow events

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.; Sands, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), with Brookhaven national Laboratory providing technical support, is continuing a preapplication review of the 471 MWt, advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR), PRISM by General Electric. The revised design has been evaluated using the SSC code, for a series of loss of flow events (LOF) with and without gas expansion modules (GEMs). These devices have a net worth of 69 cents and have reduced the seriousness of the LOF in PRISM. However, it was found that the extremely low probability case of an instantaneous loss of 4 EM pumps without scram could lead to sodium boiling even with the GEMs

  7. Response of a laminar premixed flame to flow oscillations: A kinematic model and thermoacoustic instability results

    Fleifil, M.; Annaswamy, A.M.; Ghoneim, A.F. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ghoneim, Z.A. [Ain Shams Univ., Abassia (Egypt)

    1996-09-01

    Combustion instability is a resonance phenomenon that arises due to the coupling between the system acoustics and the unsteady heat release. The constructive feedback between the two processes, which is known to occur as a certain phase relationship between the pressure and the unsteady heat release rate is satisfied, depends on many parameters among which is the acoustic mode, the flame holder characteristics, and the dominant burning pattern. In this paper, the authors construct an analytical model to describe the dynamic response of a laminar premixed flame stabilized on the rim of a tube to velocity oscillation. They consider uniform and nonuniform velocity perturbations superimposed on a pipe flow velocity profile. The model results show that the magnitude of heat release perturbation and its phase with respect to the dynamic perturbation dependent primarily on the flame Strohal number, representing the ratio of the dominant frequency times the tube radius to the laminar burning velocity. In terms of this number, high-frequency perturbations pass through the flame while low frequencies lead to a strong response. The phase with respect to the velocity perturbation behaves in the opposite way. Results of this model are shown to agree with experimental observations and to be useful in determining how the combustion excited model is selected among all the acoustic unstable modes. The model is then used to obtain a time-domain differential equation describing the relationship between the velocity perturbation and the heat release response over the entire frequency range.

  8. 2-D CFD time-dependent thermal-hydraulic simulations of CANDU-6 moderator flows

    Mehdi Zadeh, Foad [Department of Engineering Physics/Polytechnique Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada); Étienne, Stéphane [Department of Mechanical Engineering/Polytechnique Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada); Teyssedou, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.teyssedou@polymtl.ca [Department of Engineering Physics/Polytechnique Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • 2-D time-dependent CFD simulations of CANDU-6 moderator flows are presented. • A thermal-hydraulic code using thermal physical fluid properties is used. • The numerical approach and convergence is validated against available data. • Flow configurations are correlated using Richardson’s number. • Frequency components indicate moderator flow oscillations vs. Richardson numbers. - Abstract: The distribution of the fluid temperature and mass density of the moderator flow in CANDU-6 nuclear power reactors may affect the reactivity coefficient. For this reason, any possible moderator flow configuration and consequently the corresponding temperature distributions must be studied. In particular, the variations of the reactivity may result in major safety issues. For instance, excessive temperature excursions in the vicinity of the calandria tubes nearby local flow stagnation zones, may bring about partial boiling. Moreover, steady-state simulations have shown that for operating condition, intense buoyancy forces may be dominant, which can trigger a thermal stratification. Therefore, the numerical study of the time-dependent flow transition to such a condition, is of fundamental safety concern. Within this framework, this paper presents detailed time-dependent numerical simulations of CANDU-6 moderator flow for a wide range of flow conditions. To get a better insight of the thermal-hydraulic phenomena, the simulations were performed by covering long physical-time periods using an open-source code (Code-Saturne V3) developed by Électricité de France. The results show not only a region where the flow is characterized by coherent structures of flow fluctuations but also the existence of two limit cases where fluid oscillations disappear almost completely.

  9. Modeling operators' emergency response time for chemical processing operations.

    Murray, Susan L; Harputlu, Emrah; Mentzer, Ray A; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-01-01

    Operators have a crucial role during emergencies at a variety of facilities such as chemical processing plants. When an abnormality occurs in the production process, the operator often has limited time to either take corrective actions or evacuate before the situation becomes deadly. It is crucial that system designers and safety professionals can estimate the time required for a response before procedures and facilities are designed and operations are initiated. There are existing industrial engineering techniques to establish time standards for tasks performed at a normal working pace. However, it is reasonable to expect the time required to take action in emergency situations will be different than working at a normal production pace. It is possible that in an emergency, operators will act faster compared to a normal pace. It would be useful for system designers to be able to establish a time range for operators' response times for emergency situations. This article develops a modeling approach to estimate the time standard range for operators taking corrective actions or following evacuation procedures in emergency situations. This will aid engineers and managers in establishing time requirements for operators in emergency situations. The methodology used for this study combines a well-established industrial engineering technique for determining time requirements (predetermined time standard system) and adjustment coefficients for emergency situations developed by the authors. Numerous videos of workers performing well-established tasks at a maximum pace were studied. As an example, one of the tasks analyzed was pit crew workers changing tires as quickly as they could during a race. The operations in these videos were decomposed into basic, fundamental motions (such as walking, reaching for a tool, and bending over) by studying the videos frame by frame. A comparison analysis was then performed between the emergency pace and the normal working pace operations

  10. Elucidation of time-dependent systems biology cell response patterns with time course network enrichment

    Wiwie, Christian; Rauch, Alexander; Haakonsson, Anders

    2018-01-01

    , no methods exist to integrate time series data with networks, thus preventing the identification of time-dependent systems biology responses. We close this gap with Time Course Network Enrichment (TiCoNE). It combines a new kind of human-augmented clustering with a novel approach to network enrichment...

  11. Real-Time Aerodynamic Parameter Estimation without Air Flow Angle Measurements

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2010-01-01

    A technique for estimating aerodynamic parameters in real time from flight data without air flow angle measurements is described and demonstrated. The method is applied to simulated F-16 data, and to flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft. Modeling results obtained with the new approach using flight data without air flow angle measurements were compared to modeling results computed conventionally using flight data that included air flow angle measurements. Comparisons demonstrated that the new technique can provide accurate aerodynamic modeling results without air flow angle measurements, which are often difficult and expensive to obtain. Implications for efficient flight testing and flight safety are discussed.

  12. Time Resolved Digital PIV Measurements of Flow Field Cyclic Variation in an Optical IC Engine

    Jarvis, S; Justham, T; Clarke, A; Garner, C P; Hargrave, G K; Halliwell, N A [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    Time resolved digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experimental data is presented for the in-cylinder flow field development of a motored four stroke spark ignition (SI) optical internal combustion (IC) engine. A high speed DPIV system was employed to quantify the velocity field development during the intake and compression stroke at an engine speed of 1500 rpm. The results map the spatial and temporal development of the in-cylinder flow field structure allowing comparison between traditional ensemble average and cycle average flow field structures. Conclusions are drawn with respect to engine flow field cyclic variations.

  13. Time Resolved Digital PIV Measurements of Flow Field Cyclic Variation in an Optical IC Engine

    Jarvis, S; Justham, T; Clarke, A; Garner, C P; Hargrave, G K; Halliwell, N A

    2006-01-01

    Time resolved digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experimental data is presented for the in-cylinder flow field development of a motored four stroke spark ignition (SI) optical internal combustion (IC) engine. A high speed DPIV system was employed to quantify the velocity field development during the intake and compression stroke at an engine speed of 1500 rpm. The results map the spatial and temporal development of the in-cylinder flow field structure allowing comparison between traditional ensemble average and cycle average flow field structures. Conclusions are drawn with respect to engine flow field cyclic variations

  14. Time Resolved Digital PIV Measurements of Flow Field Cyclic Variation in an Optical IC Engine

    Jarvis, S.; Justham, T.; Clarke, A.; Garner, C. P.; Hargrave, G. K.; Halliwell, N. A.

    2006-07-01

    Time resolved digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experimental data is presented for the in-cylinder flow field development of a motored four stroke spark ignition (SI) optical internal combustion (IC) engine. A high speed DPIV system was employed to quantify the velocity field development during the intake and compression stroke at an engine speed of 1500 rpm. The results map the spatial and temporal development of the in-cylinder flow field structure allowing comparison between traditional ensemble average and cycle average flow field structures. Conclusions are drawn with respect to engine flow field cyclic variations.

  15. Increasing blood flow to exercising muscle attenuates systemic cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise in humans.

    Ichinose, Masashi; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-11-15

    Reducing blood flow to working muscles during dynamic exercise causes metabolites to accumulate within the active muscles and evokes systemic pressor responses. Whether a similar cardiovascular response is elicited with normal blood flow to exercising muscles during dynamic exercise remains unknown, however. To address that issue, we tested whether cardiovascular responses are affected by increases in blood flow to active muscles. Thirteen healthy subjects performed dynamic plantarflexion exercise for 12 min at 20%, 40%, and 60% of peak workload (EX20, EX40, and EX60) with their lower thigh enclosed in a negative pressure box. Under control conditions, the box pressure was the same as the ambient air pressure. Under negative pressure conditions, beginning 3 min after the start of the exercise, the box pressure was decreased by 20, 45, and then 70 mmHg in stepwise fashion with 3-min step durations. During EX20, the negative pressure had no effect on blood flow or the cardiovascular responses measured. However, application of negative pressure increased blood flow to the exercising leg during EX40 and EX60. This increase in blood flow had no significant effect on systemic cardiovascular responses during EX40, but it markedly attenuated the pressor responses otherwise seen during EX60. These results demonstrate that during mild exercise, normal blood flow to exercising muscle is not a factor eliciting cardiovascular responses, whereas it elicits an important pressor effect during moderate exercise. This suggests blood flow to exercising muscle is a major determinant of cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise at higher than moderate intensity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. A Comparison of the Plastic Flow Response of a Powder Metallurgy Nickel Base Superalloy (Postprint)

    2017-04-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0225 A COMPARISON OF THE PLASTIC-FLOW RESPONSE OF A POWDER- METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY (POSTPRINT) S.L...COMPARISON OF THE PLASTIC-FLOW RESPONSE OF A POWDER- METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT...behavior at hot-working temperatures and strain rates of the powder- metallurgy superalloy LSHR was determined under nominally-isothermal and transient

  17. The Space-Time Conservative Schemes for Large-Scale, Time-Accurate Flow Simulations with Tetrahedral Meshes

    Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Streett, Craig L.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Friedlander, David J.; Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of development of unstructured mesh methods, high-fidelity time-accurate simulations are still predominantly carried out on structured, or unstructured hexahedral meshes by using high-order finite-difference, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO), or hybrid schemes formed by their combinations. In this work, the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method is used to simulate several flow problems including supersonic jet/shock interaction and its impact on launch vehicle acoustics, and direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows using tetrahedral meshes. This paper provides a status report for the continuing development of the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) numerical and software framework under the Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences (RCA) project. Solution accuracy and large-scale parallel performance of the numerical framework is assessed with the goal of providing a viable paradigm for future high-fidelity flow physics simulations.

  18. Model simulations of flood and debris flow timing in steep catchments after wildfire

    Rengers, Francis K.; McGuire, Luke; Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.; Hobley, D.E.J

    2016-01-01

    Debris flows are a typical hazard on steep slopes after wildfire, but unlike debris flows that mobilize from landslides, most post-wildfire debris flows are generated from water runoff. The majority of existing debris-flow modeling has focused on landslide-triggered debris flows. In this study we explore the potential for using process-based rainfall-runoff models to simulate the timing of water flow and runoff-generated debris flows in recently burned areas. Two different spatially distributed hydrologic models with differing levels of complexity were used: the full shallow water equations and the kinematic wave approximation. Model parameter values were calibrated in two different watersheds, spanning two orders of magnitude in drainage area. These watersheds were affected by the 2009 Station Fire in the San Gabriel Mountains, CA, USA. Input data for the numerical models were constrained by time series of soil moisture, flow stage, and rainfall collected at field sites, as well as high-resolution lidar-derived digital elevation models. The calibrated parameters were used to model a third watershed in the burn area, and the results show a good match with observed timing of flow peaks. The calibrated roughness parameter (Manning's $n$) was generally higher when using the kinematic wave approximation relative to the shallow water equations, and decreased with increasing spatial scale. The calibrated effective watershed hydraulic conductivity was low for both models, even for storms occurring several months after the fire, suggesting that wildfire-induced changes to soil-water infiltration were retained throughout that time. Overall the two model simulations were quite similar suggesting that a kinematic wave model, which is simpler and more computationally efficient, is a suitable approach for predicting flood and debris flow timing in steep, burned watersheds.

  19. Model simulations of flood and debris flow timing in steep catchments after wildfire

    Rengers, F. K.; McGuire, L. A.; Kean, J. W.; Staley, D. M.; Hobley, D. E. J.

    2016-08-01

    Debris flows are a typical hazard on steep slopes after wildfire, but unlike debris flows that mobilize from landslides, most postwildfire debris flows are generated from water runoff. The majority of existing debris flow modeling has focused on landslide-triggered debris flows. In this study we explore the potential for using process-based rainfall-runoff models to simulate the timing of water flow and runoff-generated debris flows in recently burned areas. Two different spatially distributed hydrologic models with differing levels of complexity were used: the full shallow water equations and the kinematic wave approximation. Model parameter values were calibrated in two different watersheds, spanning two orders of magnitude in drainage area. These watersheds were affected by the 2009 Station Fire in the San Gabriel Mountains, CA, USA. Input data for the numerical models were constrained by time series of soil moisture, flow stage, and rainfall collected at field sites, as well as high-resolution lidar-derived digital elevation models. The calibrated parameters were used to model a third watershed in the burn area, and the results show a good match with observed timing of flow peaks. The calibrated roughness parameter (Manning's n) was generally higher when using the kinematic wave approximation relative to the shallow water equations, and decreased with increasing spatial scale. The calibrated effective watershed hydraulic conductivity was low for both models, even for storms occurring several months after the fire, suggesting that wildfire-induced changes to soil-water infiltration were retained throughout that time. Overall, the two model simulations were quite similar suggesting that a kinematic wave model, which is simpler and more computationally efficient, is a suitable approach for predicting flood and debris flow timing in steep, burned watersheds.

  20. Renal sympathetic nerve, blood flow, and epithelial transport responses to thermal stress.

    Wilson, Thad E

    2017-05-01

    Thermal stress is a profound sympathetic stress in humans; kidney responses involve altered renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), renal blood flow, and renal epithelial transport. During mild cold stress, RSNA spectral power but not total activity is altered, renal blood flow is maintained or decreased, and epithelial transport is altered consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with central volume loaded state. Hypothermia decreases RSNA, renal blood flow, and epithelial transport. During mild heat stress, RSNA is increased, renal blood flow is decreased, and epithelial transport is increased consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with a central volume unloaded state. Hyperthermia extends these directional changes, until heat illness results. Because kidney responses are very difficult to study in humans in vivo, this review describes and qualitatively evaluates an in vivo human skin model of sympathetically regulated epithelial tissue compared to that of the nephron. This model utilizes skin responses to thermal stress, involving 1) increased skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), decreased skin blood flow, and suppressed eccrine epithelial transport during cold stress; and 2) increased SSNA, skin blood flow, and eccrine epithelial transport during heat stress. This model appears to mimic aspects of the renal responses. Investigations of skin responses, which parallel certain renal responses, may aid understanding of epithelial-sympathetic nervous system interactions during cold and heat stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthetic river flow time series generator for dispatch and spot price forecast

    Flores, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Decision-making in electricity markets is complicated by uncertainties in demand growth, power supplies and fuel prices. In Peru, where the electrical power system is highly dependent on water resources at dams and river flows, hydrological uncertainties play a primary role in planning, price and dispatch forecast. This paper proposed a signal processing method for generating new synthetic river flow time series as a support for planning and spot market price forecasting. River flow time series are natural phenomena representing a continuous-time domain process. As an alternative synthetic representation of the original river flow time series, this proposed signal processing method preserves correlations, basic statistics and seasonality. It takes into account deterministic, periodic and non periodic components such as those due to the El Nino Southern Oscillation phenomenon. The new synthetic time series has many correlations with the original river flow time series, rendering it suitable for possible replacement of the classical method of sorting historical river flow time series. As a dispatch and planning approach to spot pricing, the proposed method offers higher accuracy modeling by decomposing the signal into deterministic, periodic, non periodic and stochastic sub signals. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs

  2. The Effect of Quantity, Quality and Timing of Headquarters-Initiated Knowledge Flows on Subsidiary Performance

    Tran, Yen; Mahnke, Volker; Ambos, Björn

    2010-01-01

    quality/performance relationship and a curvilinear quantity/performance relationship, indicating that too much knowledge sharing can be detrimental to the receiving subsidiary. Most importantly, we show that the timing of a knowledge flow significantly affects subsidiary sales performance....

  3. Time-Accurate Simulations of Synthetic Jet-Based Flow Control for An Axisymmetric Spinning Body

    Sahu, Jubaraj

    2004-01-01

    .... A time-accurate Navier-Stokes computational technique has been used to obtain numerical solutions for the unsteady jet-interaction flow field for a spinning projectile at a subsonic speed, Mach...

  4. Inflow measurements from blade-mounted flow sensors: Flow analysis, application and aeroelastic response

    Pedersen, Mads Mølgaard

    -mounted flow sensor, BMFS, e.g. a five-hole pitot tube, which has been used in several research experiments over the last 30 years. The BMFS measured flow velocity is, however, located inside the induction zone and thereby influenced by the aerodynamic properties, the control strategy and the operational......The power and load performance of wind turbines are both crucial for the development and expansion of wind energy. The power and loads are highly dependent on the inflow conditions, which can be measured using different types of sensors mounted on nearby met masts, on the nacelle, at the spinner...... or at the blade. Each combination of sensor type and mounting position has advantages and shortcomings. To characterise the inflow that results in high and low fatigue loads, information about the temporal and spatial variations within the rotor area is required. This information can be obtained from a blade...

  5. Evolution of Pine Island Glacier subglacial conditions in response to 18 years of ice flow acceleration

    Brisbourne, A.; Bougamont, M. H.; Christoffersen, P.; Cornford, S. L.; Nias, I.; Vaughan, D.; Smith, A.

    2017-12-01

    Antarctica's main contribution to sea-level rise originates from the Amundsen Coast, when warm ocean water intrudes onto the continental shelf. As a result, strong melting beneath the ice shelves induces thinning near the grounding line of glaciers, which is ensued by large ice flow speed up diffusing rapidly inland. In particular, ice loss from Pine Island Glacier (PIG) accounts for 20% of the total ice loss in West Antarctica, amounting to 0.12 mm yr-1 of global sea-level rise. Forecasting the future flow of Amundsen Coast glaciers is however hindered by large uncertainties regarding how the thinning initiated at the grounding line is transmitted upstream, and how the grounded flow will ultimately respond. This work aims at elucidating the role of subglacial processes beneath PIG tributaries in modulating the ice flow response to frontal perturbations. We used the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM 2.0) to perform numerical inversions of PIG surface velocity as observed in 1996 and 2014. Over that time period, ice flow acceleration has been widespread over PIG's basin, and the inversions provide insights into the related evolution of the basal thermal and stress conditions. We assume the latter to be directly related to changes in the properties of a soft sediment (till) layer known to exist beneath PIG. We find that the overall bed strength has weakened by 18% in the region of enhanced flow, and that the annual melt production for PIG catchment increased by 25% between 1996 and 2014. Specifically, regions of high melt production are located in the southern tributaries, where the overall stronger bed allows for more frictional melting. However, we find no significant and widespread change in the basal strength of that region, and we infer that the water produced is transported away in a concentrated hydrological system, without much interaction with the till layer. In contrast, we find that relatively less basal melting occurs elsewhere in the catchment, where the

  6. Study on time characteristics of fast time response inorganic scintillator CeF3

    Hu Mengchun; Zhou Dianzhong; Guo Cun; Ye Wenying

    2003-01-01

    The cerium fluoride (CeF 3 ) is a kind of new fast time response inorganic scintillator. The physical characteristics of CeF 3 are well suitable for detection of domestic pulse γ-rays. The time response of detector composed by phototube with CeF 3 are measured by use of the pulse radiation source with rise time about 0.8 ns, and FWHM time 1.5-2.2 ns. Experiment results show that the rise time is less than 2 ns, FWHM time is about 10 ns, fall time is about 60 ns, average decay time constant is 20-30 ns, respectively for CeF 3

  7. Timing criteria for supplemental BWR emergency response equipment

    Bickel, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Tohuku Earthquake and subsequent Tsunami represented a double failure event which destroyed offsite power connections to Fukushima-Daiichi site and then destroyed on-site electrical systems needed to run decay heat removal systems. The accident could have been mitigated had there been supplemental portable battery chargers, supplemental pumps, and in-place piping connections to provide alternate decay heat removal. In response to this event in the USA, two national response centers, one in Memphis, Tennessee, and another in Phoenix, Arizona, will begin operation. They will be able to dispatch supplemental emergency response equipment to any nuclear plant in the U.S. within 24 hours. In order to define requirements for supplemental nuclear power plant emergency response equipment maintained onsite vs. in a regional support center it is necessary to confirm: (a) the earliest time such equipment might be needed depending on the specific scenario, (b) the nominal time to move the equipment from a storage location either on-site or within the region of a nuclear power plant, and (c) the time required to connect in the supplemental equipment to use it. This paper describes an evaluation process for a BWR-4 with a Mark I Containment starting with: (a) severe accident simulation to define best estimate times available for recovery based on the specific scenario, (b) identify the key supplemental response equipment needed at specific times to accomplish recovery of key safety functions, and (c) evaluate what types of equipment should be warehoused on-site vs. in regional response centers. (authors)

  8. New Li-Yau-Hamilton Inequalities for the Ricci Flow via the Space-Time Approach

    Chow, Bennett; Knopf, Dan

    2002-01-01

    We generalize Hamilton's matrix Li-Yau-type Harnack estimate for the Ricci flow by considering the space of all LYH (Li-Yau-Hamilton) quadratics that arise as curvature tensors of space-time connections satisfying the Ricci flow with respect to the natural space-time degenerate metric. As a special case, we employ scaling arguments to derive a linear-type matrix LYH estimate. The new LYH quadratics obtained in this way are associated to the system of the Ricci flow coupled to a 1-form and a 2...

  9. Design Flow Instantiation for Run-Time Reconfigurable Systems: A Case Study

    Yang Qu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Reconfigurable system is a promising alternative to deliver both flexibility and performance at the same time. New reconfigurable technologies and technology-dependent tools have been developed, but a complete overview of the whole design flow for run-time reconfigurable systems is missing. In this work, we present a design flow instantiation for such systems using a real-life application. The design flow is roughly divided into two parts: system level and implementation. At system level, our supports for hardware resource estimation and performance evaluation are applied. At implementation level, technology-dependent tools are used to realize the run-time reconfiguration. The design case is part of a WCDMA decoder on a commercially available reconfigurable platform. The results show that using run-time reconfiguration can save over 40% area when compared to a functionally equivalent fixed system and achieve 30 times speedup in processing time when compared to a functionally equivalent pure software design.

  10. Planck 2013 results. VII. HFI time response and beams

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bowyer, J W; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Haissinski, J; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hou, Z; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; MacTavish, C J; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matsumura, T; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polegre, A M; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Sauvé, A; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper characterizes the effective beams,the effective beam window functions and the associated errors for the Planck HFI detectors. The effective beam is the angular response including the effect of the optics,detectors,data processing and the scan strategy. The window function is the representation of this beam in the harmonic domain which is required to recover an unbiased measurement of the CMB angular power spectrum. The HFI is a scanning instrument and its effective beams are the convolution of: (a) the optical response of the telescope and feeds;(b)the processing of the time-ordered data and deconvolution of the bolometric and electronic time response; and (c) the merging of several surveys to produce maps. The time response functions are measured using observations of Jupiter and Saturn and by minimizing survey difference residuals. The scanning beam is the post-deconvolution angular response of the instrument, and is characterized with observations of Mars. The main beam solid angles are determin...

  11. Transformation Algorithm of Dielectric Response in Time-Frequency Domain

    Ji Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A transformation algorithm of dielectric response from time domain to frequency domain is presented. In order to shorten measuring time of low or ultralow frequency dielectric response characteristics, the transformation algorithm is used in this paper to transform the time domain relaxation current to frequency domain current for calculating the low frequency dielectric dissipation factor. In addition, it is shown from comparing the calculation results with actual test data that there is a coincidence for both results over a wide range of low frequencies. Meanwhile, the time domain test data of depolarization currents in dry and moist pressboards are converted into frequency domain results on the basis of the transformation. The frequency domain curves of complex capacitance and dielectric dissipation factor at the low frequency range are obtained. Test results of polarization and depolarization current (PDC in pressboards are also given at the different voltage and polarization time. It is demonstrated from the experimental results that polarization and depolarization current are affected significantly by moisture contents of the test pressboards, and the transformation algorithm is effective in ultralow frequency of 10−3 Hz. Data analysis and interpretation of the test results conclude that analysis of time-frequency domain dielectric response can be used for assessing insulation system in power transformer.

  12. Improvement in MFTF data base system response times

    Lang, N.C.; Nelson, B.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) has been designed as an event driven system. To this end we have designed a data base notification facility in which a task can request that it be loaded and started whenever an element in the data base is changed beyond some user defined range. Our initial implementation of the notify facility exhibited marginal response times whenever a data base table with a large number of outstanding notifies was written into. In this paper we discuss the sources of the slow response and describe in detail a new structure for the list of notifies which minimizes search time resulting in significantly faster response

  13. Fast response time alcohol gas sensor using nanocrystalline F

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 4. Fast response time alcohol gas sensor using nanocrystalline F-doped SnO2 films derived via sol–gel method. Sarbani Basu Yeong-Her Wang C Ghanshyam Pawan Kapur. Volume 36 Issue 4 August 2013 pp 521-533 ...

  14. 48 CFR 5.203 - Publicizing and response time.

    2010-10-01

    ... development if the proposed contract action is expected to exceed the simplified acquisition threshold. (f) Nothing in this subpart prohibits officers or employees of agencies from responding to requests for... response times specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section. Upon learning that a particular...

  15. Response Times of Operators in a Control Room

    Platz, O.; Rasmussen, Jens; Skanborg, Preben Zacho

    A statistical analysis was made of operator response times recorded in the control room of a research reactor during the years 1972-1974. A homogeneity test revealed that the data consist of a mixture of populations. A small but statistically significant difference is found between day and night...

  16. Distinct Response Time Distributions in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    Querne, Laurent; Berquin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To address the issue of response time (RT) profiles in hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI), inattentive (ADHD-IA), and combined (ADHD-C) subtypes of ADHD. We hypothesized that children with ADHD-HI should respond more rapidly than children without ADHD and children with ADHD-IA and ADHD-C should respond more slowly than children without…

  17. Stroop interference and the timing of selective response activation.

    Lansbergen, M.M.; Kenemans, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the exact timing of selective response activation in a manual color-word Stroop task. METHODS: Healthy individuals performed two versions of a manual color-word Stroop task, varying in the probability of incongruent color-words, while EEG was recorded. RESULTS: Stroop

  18. Transducer frequency response variations investigated by time reversal calibration

    Kober, Jan; Převorovský, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2016), A16-A16 ISSN 1213-3825. [Europen Conference on Acoustic Emission Testing /32./. 07.09.2016-09.09.2016, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : calibration * time reversal * transducer * frequency response Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  19. The Effect of Police Response Time on Crime Clearance Rates

    Blanes i Vidal, Jordi; Kirchmaier, Tom

    2018-01-01

    significant effects: in our preferred estimate, a 10% increase in response time leads to a 4.7 percentage points decrease in the likelihood of clearing the crime. We find stronger effects for thefts than for violent offenses, although the effects are large for every type of crime. We find suggestive evidence...

  20. Flow modelling to estimate suspended sediment travel times for two Canadian Deltas

    S. R. Fassnacht

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The approximate travel times for suspended sediment transport through two multi-channel networks are estimated using flow modelling. The focus is on the movement of high sediment concentrations that travel rapidly downstream. Since suspended sediment transport through river confluences and bifurcation movement is poorly understood, it is assumed that the sediment moves at approximately the average channel velocity during periods of high sediment load movement. Calibration of the flow model is discussed, with an emphasis on the incorporation of cross-section data, that are not referenced to a datum, using a continuous water surface profile. Various flow regimes are examined for the Mackenzie and the Slave River Deltas in the Northwest Territories, Canada, and a significant variation in travel times is illustrated. One set of continuous daily sediment measurements throughout the Mackenzie Delta is used to demonstrate that the travel time estimates are reasonable. Keywords: suspended sediment; multi-channel river systems; flow modelling; sediment transport

  1. Using random response input in Ibrahim Time Domain

    Olsen, Peter; Brincker, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the time domain technique Ibrahim Time Domain (ITD) is used to analyze random time data. ITD is known to be a technique for identification of output only systems. The traditional formulation of ITD is claimed to be limited, when identifying closely spaced modes, because....... In this article it is showed that when using the modified ITD random time data can be analyzed. The application of the technique is displayed by a case study, with simulations and experimental data....... of the technique being Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO). It has earlier been showed that when modifying ITD with Toeplitz matrix averaging. Identification of time data with closely spaced modes is improved. In the traditional formulation of ITD the time data has to be free decays or impulse response functions...

  2. Time response for sensor sensed to actuator response for mobile robotic system

    Amir, N. S.; Shafie, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    Time and performance of a mobile robot are very important in completing the tasks given to achieve its ultimate goal. Tasks may need to be done within a time constraint to ensure smooth operation of a mobile robot and can result in better performance. The main purpose of this research was to improve the performance of a mobile robot so that it can complete the tasks given within time constraint. The problem that is needed to be solved is to minimize the time interval between sensor detection and actuator response. The research objective is to analyse the real time operating system performance of sensors and actuators on one microcontroller and on two microcontroller for a mobile robot. The task for a mobile robot for this research is line following with an obstacle avoidance. Three runs will be carried out for the task and the time between the sensors senses to the actuator responses were recorded. Overall, the results show that two microcontroller system have better response time compared to the one microcontroller system. For this research, the average difference of response time is very important to improve the internal performance between the occurrence of a task, sensors detection, decision making and actuator response of a mobile robot. This research helped to develop a mobile robot with a better performance and can complete task within the time constraint.

  3. A modified GO-FLOW methodology with common cause failure based on Discrete Time Bayesian Network

    Fan, Dongming; Wang, Zili; Liu, Linlin; Ren, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Identification of particular causes of failure for common cause failure analysis. • Comparison two formalisms (GO-FLOW and Discrete Time Bayesian network) and establish the correlation between them. • Mapping the GO-FLOW model into Bayesian network model. • Calculated GO-FLOW model with common cause failures based on DTBN. - Abstract: The GO-FLOW methodology is a success-oriented system reliability modelling technique for multi-phase missions involving complex time-dependent, multi-state and common cause failure (CCF) features. However, the analysis algorithm cannot easily handle the multiple shared signals and CCFs. In addition, the simulative algorithm is time consuming when vast multi-state components exist in the model, and the multiple time points of phased mission problems increases the difficulty of the analysis method. In this paper, the Discrete Time Bayesian Network (DTBN) and the GO-FLOW methodology are integrated by the unified mapping rules. Based on these rules, the multi operators can be mapped into DTBN followed by, a complete GO-FLOW model with complex characteristics (e.g. phased mission, multi-state, and CCF) can be converted to the isomorphic DTBN and easily analyzed by utilizing the DTBN. With mature algorithms and tools, the multi-phase mission reliability parameter can be efficiently obtained via the proposed approach without considering the shared signals and the various complex logic operation. Meanwhile, CCF can also arise in the computing process.

  4. Statistical analysis of hydrological response in urbanising catchments based on adaptive sampling using inter-amount times

    ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; Schleiss, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Urban catchments are typically characterised by a more flashy nature of the hydrological response compared to natural catchments. Predicting flow changes associated with urbanisation is not straightforward, as they are influenced by interactions between impervious cover, basin size, drainage connectivity and stormwater management infrastructure. In this study, we present an alternative approach to statistical analysis of hydrological response variability and basin flashiness, based on the distribution of inter-amount times. We analyse inter-amount time distributions of high-resolution streamflow time series for 17 (semi-)urbanised basins in North Carolina, USA, ranging from 13 to 238 km2 in size. We show that in the inter-amount-time framework, sampling frequency is tuned to the local variability of the flow pattern, resulting in a different representation and weighting of high and low flow periods in the statistical distribution. This leads to important differences in the way the distribution quantiles, mean, coefficient of variation and skewness vary across scales and results in lower mean intermittency and improved scaling. Moreover, we show that inter-amount-time distributions can be used to detect regulation effects on flow patterns, identify critical sampling scales and characterise flashiness of hydrological response. The possibility to use both the classical approach and the inter-amount-time framework to identify minimum observable scales and analyse flow data opens up interesting areas for future research.

  5. Measuring older adults' sedentary time: reliability, validity, and responsiveness.

    Gardiner, Paul A; Clark, Bronwyn K; Healy, Genevieve N; Eakin, Elizabeth G; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Owen, Neville

    2011-11-01

    With evidence that prolonged sitting has deleterious health consequences, decreasing sedentary time is a potentially important preventive health target. High-quality measures, particularly for use with older adults, who are the most sedentary population group, are needed to evaluate the effect of sedentary behavior interventions. We examined the reliability, validity, and responsiveness to change of a self-report sedentary behavior questionnaire that assessed time spent in behaviors common among older adults: watching television, computer use, reading, socializing, transport and hobbies, and a summary measure (total sedentary time). In the context of a sedentary behavior intervention, nonworking older adults (n = 48, age = 73 ± 8 yr (mean ± SD)) completed the questionnaire on three occasions during a 2-wk period (7 d between administrations) and wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph model GT1M) for two periods of 6 d. Test-retest reliability (for the individual items and the summary measure) and validity (self-reported total sedentary time compared with accelerometer-derived sedentary time) were assessed during the 1-wk preintervention period, using Spearman (ρ) correlations and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Responsiveness to change after the intervention was assessed using the responsiveness statistic (RS). Test-retest reliability was excellent for television viewing time (ρ (95% CI) = 0.78 (0.63-0.89)), computer use (ρ (95% CI) = 0.90 (0.83-0.94)), and reading (ρ (95% CI) = 0.77 (0.62-0.86)); acceptable for hobbies (ρ (95% CI) = 0.61 (0.39-0.76)); and poor for socializing and transport (ρ < 0.45). Total sedentary time had acceptable test-retest reliability (ρ (95% CI) = 0.52 (0.27-0.70)) and validity (ρ (95% CI) = 0.30 (0.02-0.54)). Self-report total sedentary time was similarly responsive to change (RS = 0.47) as accelerometer-derived sedentary time (RS = 0.39). The summary measure of total sedentary time has good repeatability and modest validity and is

  6. Mortality in patients with TIMI 3 flow after PCI in relation to time delay to reperfusion.

    Vichova, Teodora; Maly, Marek; Ulman, Jaroslav; Motovska, Zuzana

    2016-03-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed within 12 h from symptom onset enables complete blood flow restoration in infarct-related artery in 90% of patients. Nevertheless, even with complete restoration of epicardial blood flow in culprit vessel (postprocedural Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade 3), myocardial perfusion at tissue level may be insufficient. We hypothesized that the outcome of patients with STEMI/bundle branch block (BBB)-myocardial infarction and post-PCI TIMI 3 flow is related to the time to reperfusion. Observational study based on a retrospective analysis of population of 635 consecutive patients with STEMI/BBB-MI and post-PCI TIMI 3 flow from January 2009 to December 2011 (mean age 63 years, 69.6% males). Mortality of patients was evaluated in relation to the time from symptom onset to reperfusion. A total of 83 patients (13.07%) with postprocedural TIMI 3 flow after PCI had died at 1-year follow-up. Median TD in patients who survived was 3.92 h (iqr 5.43), in patients who died 6.0 h (iqr 11.42), P = 0.004. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified time delay ≥ 9 h as significantly related to 1-year mortality of patients with STEMI/BBB-MI and post-PCI TIMI 3 flow (OR 1.958, P = 0.026). Other significant variables associated with mortality in multivariate regression analysis were: left ventricle ejection fraction 65 years (P 2 (P PCI.

  7. Comparison of LMFBR piping response obtained using response spectrum and time history methods

    Hulbert, G.M.

    1981-04-01

    The dynamic response to a seismic event is calculated for a piping system using a response spectrum analysis method and two time history analysis methods. The results from the analytical methods are compared to identify causes for the differences between the sets of analytical results. Comparative methods are also presented which help to gain confidence in the accuracy of the analytical methods in predicting piping system structure response during seismic events

  8. Characterizing human skin blood flow regulation in response to different local skin temperature perturbations

    Wu, Y.; Nieuwenhoff, M.D.; Huygen, Frank J.P.M.; van der Helm, F. C.T.; Niehof, S.P.; Schouten, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Small nerve fibers regulate local skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbations. Small nerve fiber function is difficult to assess with classical neurophysiological tests. In this study, a vasomotor response model in combination with a heating protocol was developed to quantitatively

  9. Aircraft Fault Detection Using Real-Time Frequency Response Estimation

    Grauer, Jared A.

    2016-01-01

    A real-time method for estimating time-varying aircraft frequency responses from input and output measurements was demonstrated. The Bat-4 subscale airplane was used with NASA Langley Research Center's AirSTAR unmanned aerial flight test facility to conduct flight tests and collect data for dynamic modeling. Orthogonal phase-optimized multisine inputs, summed with pilot stick and pedal inputs, were used to excite the responses. The aircraft was tested in its normal configuration and with emulated failures, which included a stuck left ruddervator and an increased command path latency. No prior knowledge of a dynamic model was used or available for the estimation. The longitudinal short period dynamics were investigated in this work. Time-varying frequency responses and stability margins were tracked well using a 20 second sliding window of data, as compared to a post-flight analysis using output error parameter estimation and a low-order equivalent system model. This method could be used in a real-time fault detection system, or for other applications of dynamic modeling such as real-time verification of stability margins during envelope expansion tests.

  10. Time-Lapse and Slow-Motion Tracking of Temperature Changes: Response Time of a Thermometer

    Moggio, L.; Onorato, P.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2017-01-01

    We propose the use of a smartphone based time-lapse and slow-motion video techniques together with tracking analysis as valuable tools for investigating thermal processes such as the response time of a thermometer. The two simple experimental activities presented here, suitable also for high school and undergraduate students, allow one to measure…

  11. The response time distribution in a real-time database with optimistic concurrency control

    Sassen, S.A.E.; Wal, van der J.

    1996-01-01

    For a real-time shared-memory database with optimistic concurrency control, an approximation for the transaction response time distribution is obtained. The model assumes that transactions arrive at the database according to a Poisson process, that every transaction uses an equal number of

  12. Identification of two-phase flow regimes by time-series modeling

    King, C.H.; Ouyang, M.S.; Pei, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    The identification of two-phase flow patterns in pipes or ducts is important to the design and operation of thermal-hydraulic systems, especially in the nuclear reactor cores of boiling water reactors or in the steam generators of pressurized water reactors. Basically, two-phase flow shows some fluctuating characteristics even at steady-state conditions. These fluctuating characteristics can be analyzed by statistical methods for obtaining flow signatures. There have been a number of experimental studies conducted that are concerned with the statistical properties of void fraction or pressure pulsation in two-phase flow. In this study, the authors propose a new technique of identifying the patterns of air-water two-phase flow in a vertical pipe. This technique is based on analyzing the statistic characteristics of the pressure signals of the test loop by time-series modeling

  13. Vibration response of a pipe subjected to two-phase flow: Analytical formulations and experiments

    Ortiz-Vidal, L. Enrique, E-mail: leortiz@sc.usp.br [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sao Carlos School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av., Trabalhador São-carlense, 400, 13566-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Mureithi, Njuki W., E-mail: njuki.mureithi@polymtl.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, Département de Géniemécanique 2900, H3T 1J7 Montreal, QC (Canada); Rodriguez, Oscar M.H., E-mail: oscarmhr@sc.usp.br [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sao Carlos School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av., Trabalhador São-carlense, 400, 13566-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Analytical formulations for two-phase flow-induced vibration (2-FIV) are presented. • Standard deviation of acceleration pipe response is a function of the square of shear velocity. • Peak frequency is correlated to hydrodynamic mass and consequently to void fraction. • Dynamic pipe response increases with increasing mixture velocity and void fraction. • Hydrodynamic mass in 2-FIV in horizontal pipe is proportional to mixture density. - Abstract: This paper treats the two-phase flow-induced vibration in pipes. A broad range of two-phase flow conditions, including bubbly, dispersed and slug flow, were tested in a clamped-clamped straight horizontal pipe. The vibration response of both transversal directions for two span lengths was measured. From experimental results, an in-depth discussion on the nature of the flow excitation and flow-parameters influence is presented. The hydrodynamic mass parameter is also studied. Experimental results suggest that it is proportional to mixture density. On the other hand, two analytical formulations were developed and tested against experimental results. One formulation predicts the quadratic trend between standard deviation of acceleration and shear velocity found in experiments. The other formulation indicates that the peak-frequency of vibration response depends strongly on void fraction. It provides accurate predictions of peak-frequency, predicting 97.6% of the data within ±10% error bands.

  14. Flow time prediction for a single-server order picking workstation using aggregate process times

    Andriansyah, R.; Etman, L.F.P.; Rooda, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a simulation modeling approach based on aggregate process times for the performance analysis of order picking workstations in automated warehouses. The aggregate process time distribution is calculated from tote arrival and departure times. We refer to the aggregate process

  15. Residential response to voluntary time-of-use electricity rates

    Mostafa Baladi, S. [Laurits R. Christensen Associates, Inc. Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Herriges, Joseph A. [Iowa State University, 280D Heady Hall, Department of Economics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Sweeney, Thomas J. [MidAmerican Energy, Des Moines, Iowa (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The response of residential households to voluntary Time-of-Use (TOU) electricity rates is estimated using data from a recent experiment at Midwest Power Systems of Iowa. The study`s design allows us to examine both the participation decision and the customer`s load pattern changes once the TOU rate structure was in effect. Substitution elasticities between on-peak and off-peak electricity usage are estimated and compared to those obtained in earlier mandatory programs, indicating whether program volunteers are more responsive to TOU pricing than the typical household. Attitudinal questionnaires allow us to examine the role of usage perceptions in program participation

  16. Filter frequency response of time dependent signal using Laplace transform

    Shestakov, Aleksei I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-16

    We analyze the effect a filter has on a time dependent signal x(t). If X(s) is the Laplace transform of x and H (s) is the filter Transfer function, the response in frequency space is X (s) H (s). Consequently, in real space, the response is the convolution (x*h) (t), where hi is the Laplace inverse of H. Effects are analyzed and analytically for functions such as (t/tc)2 e-t/t$_c$, where tc = const. We consider lowpass, highpass and bandpass filters.

  17. Flow cytometric quantification of radiation responses of murine peritoneal cells

    Tokita, N.; Raju, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Methods have been developed to distinguish subpopulations of murine peritoneal cells, and these were applied to the measurement of early changes in peritoneal cells after irradiation. The ratio of the two major subpopulations in the peritoneal fluid, lymphocytes and macrophages, was measured rapidly by means of cell volume distribution analysis as well as by hypotonic propidium iodide (PI) staining. After irradiation, dose and time dependent changes were noted in the cell volume distributions: a rapid loss of peritoneal lymphocytes, and an increase in the mean cell volume of macrophages. The hypotonic PI staining characteristics of the peritoneal cells showed two or three distinctive G 1 peaks. The ratio of the areas of these peaks was also found to be dependent of the radiation dose and the time after irradiation. These results demonstrate that these two parameters may be used to monitor changes induced by irradiation (biological dosimetry), and to sort different peritoneal subpopulations

  18. A bio-inspired real-time capable artificial lateral line system for freestream flow measurements.

    Abels, C; Qualtieri, A; De Vittorio, M; Megill, W M; Rizzi, F

    2016-06-03

    To enhance today's artificial flow sensing capabilities in aerial and underwater robotics, future robots could be equipped with a large number of miniaturized sensors distributed over the surface to provide high resolution measurement of the surrounding fluid flow. In this work we show a linear array of closely separated bio-inspired micro-electro-mechanical flow sensors whose sensing mechanism is based on a piezoresistive strain-gauge along a stress-driven cantilever beam, mimicking the biological superficial neuromasts found in the lateral line organ of fishes. Aiming to improve state-of-the-art flow sensing capability in autonomously flying and swimming robots, our artificial lateral line system was designed and developed to feature multi-parameter freestream flow measurements which provide information about (1) local flow velocities as measured by the signal amplitudes from the individual cantilevers as well as (2) propagation velocity, (3) linear forward/backward direction along the cantilever beam orientation and (4) periodicity of pulses or pulse trains determined by cross-correlating sensor signals. A real-time capable cross-correlation procedure was developed which makes it possible to extract freestream flow direction and velocity information from flow fluctuations. The computed flow velocities deviate from a commercial system by 0.09 m s(-1) at 0.5 m s(-1) and 0.15 m s(-1) at 1.0 m s(-1) flow velocity for a sampling rate of 240 Hz and a sensor distance of 38 mm. Although experiments were performed in air, the presented flow sensing system can be applied to underwater vehicles as well, once the sensors are embedded in a waterproof micro-electro-mechanical systems package.

  19. The response-time distribution in a real-time database with optimistic concurrency control and constant execution times

    Sassen, S.A.E.; Wal, van der J.

    1997-01-01

    For a real-time shared-memory database with optimistic concurrency control, an approximation for the transaction response-time distribution is obtained. The model assumes that transactions arrive at the database according to a Poisson process, that every transaction uses an equal number of

  20. The response-time distribution in a real-time database with optimistic concurrency control and exponential execution times

    Sassen, S.A.E.; Wal, van der J.

    1997-01-01

    For a real-time shared-memory database with optimistic concurrency control, an approximation for the transaction response-time distribution is obtained. The model assumes that transactions arrive at the database according to a Poisson process, that every transaction takes an exponential execution

  1. Ultimate response time of high electron mobility transistors

    Rudin, Sergey; Rupper, Greg; Shur, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present theoretical studies of the response time of the two-dimensional gated electron gas to femtosecond pulses. Our hydrodynamic simulations show that the device response to a short pulse or a step-function signal is either smooth or oscillating time-decay at low and high mobility, μ, values, respectively. At small gate voltage swings, U 0  = U g  − U th , where U g is the gate voltage and U th is the threshold voltage, such that μU 0 /L < v s , where L is the channel length and v s is the effective electron saturation velocity, the decay time in the low mobility samples is on the order of L 2 /(μU 0 ), in agreement with the analytical drift model. However, the decay is preceded by a delay time on the order of L/s, where s is the plasma wave velocity. This delay is the ballistic transport signature in collision-dominated devices, which becomes important during very short time periods. In the high mobility devices, the period of the decaying oscillations is on the order of the plasma wave velocity transit time. Our analysis shows that short channel field effect transistors operating in the plasmonic regime can meet the requirements for applications as terahertz detectors, mixers, delay lines, and phase shifters in ultra high-speed wireless communication circuits

  2. Real-Time and In-Flow Sensing Using a High Sensitivity Porous Silicon Microcavity-Based Sensor

    Raffaele Caroselli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous silicon seems to be an appropriate material platform for the development of high-sensitivity and low-cost optical sensors, as their porous nature increases the interaction with the target substances, and their fabrication process is very simple and inexpensive. In this paper, we present the experimental development of a porous silicon microcavity sensor and its use for real-time in-flow sensing application. A high-sensitivity configuration was designed and then fabricated, by electrochemically etching a silicon wafer. Refractive index sensing experiments were realized by flowing several dilutions with decreasing refractive indices, and measuring the spectral shift in real-time. The porous silicon microcavity sensor showed a very linear response over a wide refractive index range, with a sensitivity around 1000 nm/refractive index unit (RIU, which allowed us to directly detect refractive index variations in the 10−7 RIU range.

  3. Real-Time and In-Flow Sensing Using a High Sensitivity Porous Silicon Microcavity-Based Sensor.

    Caroselli, Raffaele; Martín Sánchez, David; Ponce Alcántara, Salvador; Prats Quilez, Francisco; Torrijos Morán, Luis; García-Rupérez, Jaime

    2017-12-05

    Porous silicon seems to be an appropriate material platform for the development of high-sensitivity and low-cost optical sensors, as their porous nature increases the interaction with the target substances, and their fabrication process is very simple and inexpensive. In this paper, we present the experimental development of a porous silicon microcavity sensor and its use for real-time in-flow sensing application. A high-sensitivity configuration was designed and then fabricated, by electrochemically etching a silicon wafer. Refractive index sensing experiments were realized by flowing several dilutions with decreasing refractive indices, and measuring the spectral shift in real-time. The porous silicon microcavity sensor showed a very linear response over a wide refractive index range, with a sensitivity around 1000 nm/refractive index unit (RIU), which allowed us to directly detect refractive index variations in the 10 -7 RIU range.

  4. From medium heterogeneity to flow and transport: A time-domain random walk approach

    Hakoun, V.; Comolli, A.; Dentz, M.

    2017-12-01

    The prediction of flow and transport processes in heterogeneous porous media is based on the qualitative and quantitative understanding of the interplay between 1) spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity, 2) groundwater flow and 3) solute transport. Using a stochastic modeling approach, we study this interplay through direct numerical simulations of Darcy flow and advective transport in heterogeneous media. First, we study flow in correlated hydraulic permeability fields and shed light on the relationship between the statistics of log-hydraulic conductivity, a medium attribute, and the flow statistics. Second, we determine relationships between Eulerian and Lagrangian velocity statistics, this means, between flow and transport attributes. We show how Lagrangian statistics and thus transport behaviors such as late particle arrival times are influenced by the medium heterogeneity on one hand and the initial particle velocities on the other. We find that equidistantly sampled Lagrangian velocities can be described by a Markov process that evolves on the characteristic heterogeneity length scale. We employ a stochastic relaxation model for the equidistantly sampled particle velocities, which is parametrized by the velocity correlation length. This description results in a time-domain random walk model for the particle motion, whose spatial transitions are characterized by the velocity correlation length and temporal transitions by the particle velocities. This approach relates the statistical medium and flow properties to large scale transport, and allows for conditioning on the initial particle velocities and thus to the medium properties in the injection region. The approach is tested against direct numerical simulations.

  5. FlowMax: A Computational Tool for Maximum Likelihood Deconvolution of CFSE Time Courses.

    Maxim Nikolaievich Shokhirev

    Full Text Available The immune response is a concerted dynamic multi-cellular process. Upon infection, the dynamics of lymphocyte populations are an aggregate of molecular processes that determine the activation, division, and longevity of individual cells. The timing of these single-cell processes is remarkably widely distributed with some cells undergoing their third division while others undergo their first. High cell-to-cell variability and technical noise pose challenges for interpreting popular dye-dilution experiments objectively. It remains an unresolved challenge to avoid under- or over-interpretation of such data when phenotyping gene-targeted mouse models or patient samples. Here we develop and characterize a computational methodology to parameterize a cell population model in the context of noisy dye-dilution data. To enable objective interpretation of model fits, our method estimates fit sensitivity and redundancy by stochastically sampling the solution landscape, calculating parameter sensitivities, and clustering to determine the maximum-likelihood solution ranges. Our methodology accounts for both technical and biological variability by using a cell fluorescence model as an adaptor during population model fitting, resulting in improved fit accuracy without the need for ad hoc objective functions. We have incorporated our methodology into an integrated phenotyping tool, FlowMax, and used it to analyze B cells from two NFκB knockout mice with distinct phenotypes; we not only confirm previously published findings at a fraction of the expended effort and cost, but reveal a novel phenotype of nfkb1/p105/50 in limiting the proliferative capacity of B cells following B-cell receptor stimulation. In addition to complementing experimental work, FlowMax is suitable for high throughput analysis of dye dilution studies within clinical and pharmacological screens with objective and quantitative conclusions.

  6. The Ricci flow part IV : long-time solutions and related topics

    Chow, Bennett; Glickenstein, David; Isenberg, James

    2015-01-01

    Ricci flow is a powerful technique using a heat-type equation to deform Riemannian metrics on manifolds to better metrics in the search for geometric decompositions. With the fourth part of their volume on techniques and applications of the theory, the authors discuss long-time solutions of the Ricci flow and related topics. In dimension 3, Perelman completed Hamilton's program to prove Thurston's geometrization conjecture. In higher dimensions the Ricci flow has remarkable properties, which indicates its usefulness to understand relations between the geometry and topology of manifolds. This b

  7. Real-Time GPU Implementation of Transverse Oscillation Vector Velocity Flow Imaging

    Bradway, David; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Krebs, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Rapid estimation of blood velocity and visualization of complex flow patterns are important for clinical use of diagnostic ultrasound. This paper presents real-time processing for two-dimensional (2-D) vector flow imaging which utilizes an off-the-shelf graphics processing unit (GPU). In this work...... vector flow acquisition takes 2.3 milliseconds seconds on an Advanced Micro Devices Radeon HD 7850 GPU card. The detected velocities are accurate to within the precision limit of the output format of the display routine. Because this tool was developed as a module external to the scanner’s built...

  8. Stopping times in cessation flows of Bingham plastics with slip at the wall

    Philippou, Maria; Damianou, Yiolanda; Kaoullas, George; Georgiou, Georgios C.

    2012-09-01

    We solve numerically the cessation of axisymmetric Poiseuille flow of a Bingham plastic assuming that slip occurs along the wall. A power-law expression is used to relate the wall shear stress to the slip velocity. The numerical results show that the velocity becomes and remains uniform before complete cessation and that the stopping time is finite only when the exponent sBingham number and the volumetric flow rate decays exponentially. When s>1, the decay is much slower, i.e. polynomial. The asymptotic expressions for the volumetric flow rate in the case of full-slip are also derived.

  9. Type and timing of stream flow changes in urbanizing watersheds in the Eastern U.S.

    Kristina G. Hopkins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Linking the type and timing of hydrologic changes with patterns of urban growth is essential to identifying the underlying mechanisms that drive declines in urban aquatic ecosystems. In six urbanizing watersheds surrounding three U.S. cities (Baltimore, MD, Boston, MA, and Pittsburgh, PA, we reconstructed the history of development patterns since 1900 and assessed the magnitude and timing of stream flow changes during watershed development. Development reconstructions indicated that the majority of watershed development occurred during a period of peak population growth, typically between 1950 and 1970. Stream flow records indicated significant increases in annual frequency of high-flow events in all six watersheds and increases in annual runoff efficiency in five watersheds. Annual development intensity during the peak growth period had the strongest association with the magnitude of changes in high-flow frequency from the pre- to post-development periods. Results suggest the timing of the peak growth period is particularly important to understanding hydrologic changes, because it can set the type of stormwater infrastructure installed within a watershed. In three watersheds there was a rapid (∼10-15 years shift toward more frequent high-flow events, and in four watersheds there was a shift toward higher runoff efficiency. Breakpoint analyses indicated these shifts occurred between 1969 and 1976 for high-flow frequency and between 1962 and 1984 for runoff efficiency. Results indicated that the timing of high-flow changes were mainly driven by the development trajectory of each watershed, whereas the timing of runoff-efficiency changes were driven by a combination of development trajectories and extreme weather events. Our results underscore the need to refine the causes of urban stream degradation to incorporate the impact of gradual versus rapid urbanization on hydrologic changes and aquatic ecosystem function, as well as to

  10. Implementation of Real-Time Feedback Flow Control Algorithms on a Canonical Testbed

    Tian, Ye; Song, Qi; Cattafesta, Louis

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities on "Implementation of Real-Time Feedback Flow Control Algorithms on a Canonical Testbed." The work summarized consists primarily of two parts. The first part summarizes our previous work and the extensions to adaptive ID and control algorithms. The second part concentrates on the validation of adaptive algorithms by applying them to a vibration beam test bed. Extensions to flow control problems are discussed.

  11. Obtaining location/arrival-time and location/outflow-quantity distributions for steady flow systems

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A steady, two-dimensional flow system is used to demonstrate the application of location/arrival-time and location/outflow-quantity curves in determining the environmental consequences of groundwater contamination. The subsurface geologic and hydrologic evaluations needed to obtain the arrival results involve a sequence of four phases: system identification, new potential determination, flow systems kinematics, and contaminant transport analysis. Once these phases are completed, they are effectively summarized and easily used to evaluate environmental consequences through the arrival distributions

  12. Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry

    Crua, Cyril; Heikal, Morgan R.

    2015-01-01

    In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a three dimensional laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limitin...

  13. Consumer responses to time varying prices for electricity

    Thorsnes, Paul; Williams, John; Lawson, Rob

    2012-01-01

    We report new experimental evidence of the household response to weekday differentials in peak and off-peak electricity prices. The data come from Auckland, New Zealand, where peak residential electricity consumption occurs in winter for heating. Peak/off-peak price differentials ranged over four randomly selected groups from 1.0 to 3.5. On average, there was no response except in winter. In winter, participant households reduced electricity consumption by at least 10%, took advantage of lower off-peak prices but did not respond to the peak price differentials. Response varied with house and household size, time spent away from home, and whether water was heated with electricity. - Highlights: ► Seasonal effects in winter. ► High conservation effect from information. ► Higher peak prices no effect on peak use. ► Low off-peak prices encourage less conservation off-peak.

  14. Towards real-time intrusion detection for NetFlow and IPFIX

    Hofstede, R.J.; Bartos, Vaclav; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    DDoS attacks bring serious economic and technical damage to networks and enterprises. Timely detection and mitigation are therefore of great importance. However, when flow monitoring systems are used for intrusion detection, as it is often the case in campus, enterprise and backbone networks, timely

  15. FFTF scale-model characterization of flow-induced vibrational response of reactor internals

    Ryan, J.A.; Julyk, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36 percent to 111 percent of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable

  16. FFTF scale-model characterization of flow induced vibrational response of reactor internals

    Ryan, J A; Julyk, L J [Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1977-12-01

    As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36% to 111% of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable. (author)

  17. FFTF scale-model characterization of flow induced vibrational response of reactor internals

    Ryan, J.A.; Julyk, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36% to 111% of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable. (author)

  18. The role of heater thermal response in reactor thermal limits during oscillartory two-phase flows

    Ruggles, A.E.; Brown, N.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Vasil`ev, A.D. [Nuclear Safety Institute, Moscow, (Russian Federation); Wendel, M.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Analytical and numerical investigations of critical heat flux (CHF) and reactor thermal limits are conducted for oscillatory two-phase flows often associated with natural circulation conditions. It is shown that the CHF and associated thermal limits depend on the amplitude of the flow oscillations, the period of the flow oscillations, and the thermal properties and dimensions of the heater. The value of the thermal limit can be much lower in unsteady flow situations than would be expected using time average flow conditions. It is also shown that the properties of the heater strongly influence the thermal limit value in unsteady flow situations, which is very important to the design of experiments to evaluate thermal limits for reactor fuel systems.

  19. Optimal time interval for induction of immunologic adaptive response

    Ju Guizhi; Song Chunhua; Liu Shuzheng

    1994-01-01

    The optimal time interval between prior dose (D1) and challenge dose (D2) for the induction of immunologic adaptive response was investigated. Kunming mice were exposed to 75 mGy X-rays at a dose rate of 12.5 mGy/min. 3, 6, 12, 24 or 60 h after the prior irradiation the mice were challenged with a dose of 1.5 Gy at a dose rate of 0.33 Gy/min. 18h after D2, the mice were sacrificed for examination of immunological parameters. The results showed that with an interval of 6 h between D1 and D2, the adaptive response of the reaction of splenocytes to LPS was induced, and with an interval of 12 h the adaptive responses of spontaneous incorporation of 3 H-TdR into thymocytes and the reaction of splenocytes to Con A and LPS were induced with 75 mGy prior irradiation. The data suggested that the optimal time intervals between D1 and D2 for the induction of immunologic adaptive response were 6 h and 12 h with a D1 of 75 mGy and a D2 of 1.5 Gy. The mechanism of immunologic adaptation following low dose radiation is discussed

  20. Coronary flow response to remote ischemic preconditioning is preserved in old cardiac patients.

    Santillo, Elpidio; Migale, Monica; Balestrini, Fabrizio; Postacchini, Demetrio; Bustacchini, Silvia; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Antonelli-Incalzi, Raffaele

    2017-10-20

    The effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) on coronary flow in elderly cardiac patients has not been investigated yet. Thus, we aimed to study the change of coronary flow subsequent to RIPC in old patients with heart diseases and to identify its main correlates. Ninety-five elderly patients (aged ≥ 65 years) accessing cardiac rehabilitation ward underwent transthoracic ultrasound evaluation of peak diastolic flow velocity of left anterior descending artery. Measurements of coronary flow velocity were performed on baseline and after an RIPC protocol (three cycles of 5 min ischemia of right arm alternating 5 min reperfusion). Differences between subjects with coronary flow velocity change over or equal the 75° percentile (high-responders) and subjects with a coronary flow velocity change under the 75° percentile (low-responders) were assessed. In enrolled elderly heart patients, coronary flow velocity significantly augmented from baseline after RIPC [0.23 m/s (0.18-0.28) vs 0.27 m/s (0.22-0.36); p < 0.001 by Wilcoxon test]. High-responders to RIPC were significantly younger and in better functional status than low-responders. Heart failure resulted as the main variable associated with impairment of RIPC responsiveness (R 2  = 0.202; p = 0.002)]. Our sample of old cardiac patients presented a significant median increment of coronary flow velocity after RIPC. The magnitude of the observed change of coronary flow velocity was comparable to that previously described in healthy subjects. The coronary response to RIPC was attenuated by heart failure. Further research should define whether such RIPC responsiveness is associated with cardioprotection and carries prognostic implications.

  1. Real-time information support for managing plant emergency responses

    Cain, D.G.; Lord, R.J.; Wilkinson, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident highlighted the need to develop a systematic approach to managing plant emergency responses, to identify a better decision-making process, and to implement real-time information support for decision-making. The overall process management function is described and general information requirements for management of plant emergencies are identified. Basic information systems are being incorporated and future extensions and problem areas are discussed. (U.K.)

  2. Response Time Analysis of Distributed Web Systems Using QPNs

    Tomasz Rak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A performance model is used for studying distributed Web systems. Performance evaluation is done by obtaining load test measurements. Queueing Petri Nets formalism supports modeling and performance analysis of distributed World Wide Web environments. The proposed distributed Web systems modeling and design methodology have been applied in the evaluation of several system architectures under different external loads. Furthermore, performance analysis is done to determine the system response time.

  3. Collecting response times using Amazon Mechanical Turk and Adobe Flash.

    Simcox, Travis; Fiez, Julie A

    2014-03-01

    Crowdsourcing systems like Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) allow data to be collected from a large sample of people in a short amount of time. This use has garnered considerable interest from behavioral scientists. So far, most experiments conducted on AMT have focused on survey-type instruments because of difficulties inherent in running many experimental paradigms over the Internet. This study investigated the viability of presenting stimuli and collecting response times using Adobe Flash to run ActionScript 3 code in conjunction with AMT. First, the timing properties of Adobe Flash were investigated using a phototransistor and two desktop computers running under several conditions mimicking those that may be present in research using AMT. This experiment revealed some strengths and weaknesses of the timing capabilities of this method. Next, a flanker task and a lexical decision task implemented in Adobe Flash were administered to participants recruited with AMT. The expected effects in these tasks were replicated. Power analyses were conducted to describe the number of participants needed to replicate these effects. A questionnaire was used to investigate previously undescribed computer use habits of 100 participants on AMT. We conclude that a Flash program in conjunction with AMT can be successfully used for running many experimental paradigms that rely on response times, although experimenters must understand the limitations of the method.

  4. Femtosecond response time measurements of a Cs2Te photocathode

    Aryshev, A.; Shevelev, M.; Honda, Y.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.

    2017-07-01

    Success in design and construction of a compact, high-brightness accelerator system is strongly related to the production of ultra-short electron beams. Recently, the approach to generate short electron bunches or pre-bunched beams in RF guns directly illuminating a high quantum efficiency semiconductor photocathode with femtosecond laser pulses has become attractive. The measurements of the photocathode response time in this case are essential. With an approach of the interferometer-type pulse splitter deep integration into a commercial Ti:Sa laser system used for RF guns, it has become possible to generate pre-bunched electron beams and obtain continuously variable electron bunch separation. In combination with a well-known zero-phasing technique, it allows us to estimate the response time of the most commonly used Cs2Te photocathode. It was demonstrated that the peak-to-peak rms time response of Cs2Te is of the order of 370 fs, and thereby, it is possible to generate and control a THz sequence of relativistic electron bunches by a conventional S-band RF gun. This result can also be applied for investigation of other cathode materials and electron beam temporal shaping and further opens a possibility to construct wide-range tunable, table-top THz free electron laser.

  5. Simulation of Cavity Flow by the Lattice Boltzmann Method using Multiple-Relaxation-Time scheme

    Ryu, Seung Yeob; Kang, Ha Nok; Seo, Jae Kwang; Yun, Ju Hyeon; Zee, Sung Quun

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the lattice Boltzmann method(LBM) has gained much attention for its ability to simulate fluid flows, and for its potential advantages over conventional CFD method. The key advantages of LBM are, (1) suitability for parallel computations, (2) absence of the need to solve the time-consuming Poisson equation for pressure, and (3) ease with multiphase flows, complex geometries and interfacial dynamics may be treated. The LBM using relaxation technique was introduced by Higuerea and Jimenez to overcome some drawbacks of lattice gas automata(LGA) such as large statistical noise, limited range of physical parameters, non- Galilean invariance, and implementation difficulty in three-dimensional problem. The simplest LBM is the lattice Bhatnager-Gross-Krook(LBGK) equation, which based on a single-relaxation-time(SRT) approximation. Due to its extreme simplicity, the lattice BGK(LBGK) equation has become the most popular lattice Boltzmann model in spite of its well-known deficiencies, for example, in simulating high-Reynolds numbers flow. The Multiple-Relaxation-Time(MRT) LBM was originally developed by D'Humieres. Lallemand and Luo suggests that the use of a Multiple-Relaxation-Time(MRT) models are much more stable than LBGK, because the different relaxation times can be individually tuned to achieve 'optimal' stability. A lid-driven cavity flow is selected as the test problem because it has geometrically singular points in the flow, but geometrically simple. Results are compared with those using SRT, MRT model in the LBGK method and previous simulation data using Navier-Stokes equations for the same flow conditions. In summary, LBM using MRT model introduces much less spatial oscillations near geometrical singular points, which is important for the successful simulation of higher Reynolds number flows

  6. Unsaturated-zone fast-path flow calculations for Yucca Mountain groundwater travel time analyses (GWTT-94)

    Arnold, B.W.; Altman, S.J.; Robey, T.H.

    1995-08-01

    Evaluation of groundwater travel time (GWTT) is required as part of the investigation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential high-level nuclear-waste repository site. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's GWTT regulation is considered to be a measure of the intrinsic ability of the site to contain radionuclide releases from the repository. The work reported here is the first step in a program to provide an estimate of GWTT at the Yucca Mountain site in support of the DOE's Technical Site Suitability and as a component of a license application. Preliminary estimation of the GWTT distribution in the unsaturated zone was accomplished using a numerical model of the physical processes of groundwater flow in the fractured, porous medium of the bedrock. Based on prior investigations of groundwater flow at the site, fractures are thought to provide the fastest paths for groundwater flow; conditions that lead to flow in fractures were investigated and simulated. Uncertainty in the geologic interpretation of Yucca Mountain was incorporated through the use of geostatistical simulations, while variability of hydrogeologic parameters within each unit was accounted for by the random sampling of parameter probability density functions. The composite-porosity formulation of groundwater flow was employed to simulate flow in both the matrix and fracture domains. In this conceptualization, the occurrence of locally saturated conditions within the unsaturated zone is responsible for the initiation of fast-path flow through fractures. The results of the GWTT-94 study show that heterogeneity in the hydraulic properties of the model domain is an important factor in simulating local regions of high groundwater saturation. Capillary-pressure conditions at the surface boundary influence the extent of the local saturation simulated

  7. Time resolved mass flow measurements for a fast gas delivery system

    Ruden, E.L.; Degnan, J.H.; Hussey, T.W.; Scott, M.C.; Graham, J.D.; Coffey, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    A technique is demonstrated whereby the delivered mass and flow rate vs. time of a short rise time gas delivery system may be accurately determined. The gas mass M which flows past a point in a gas delivery system by an arbitrary time t may be accurately measured if that point is sealed off within a time interval short compared to the mass flow time scale. If the ejected mass is allowed to equilibrate in a known volume after being cut off from its source, a conventional static pressure measurement before and after injection, and application of the ideal gas law suffices. Assuming reproducibility, a time history M(t) may be generated, allowing the flow rate vs. time dM(t)/dt to be determined. Mass flow measurements are presented for a fast delivery system in which the flow of argon through a 3.2 mm I.D., 0.76 mm thick copper tube is cut off by imploding (θ pinching) the tube using a single turn tungsten magnetic field coil. Pinch discharge parameters are 44 μf, 20 kV, 47 nH, 3.5 mΩ, 584 kA, and 8.63 ps current period. Optical measurements of the tube's internal area vs. time indicate that the tube is sealed 2 ps from the time the tube is still 90% open (7 μs from the start of pinch current). The pinch delay is varied from 500--1,500 ps from the valve trigger (0--1,000 ps from the start of gas flow). The mass injected into the test volume is ∼ 100 μg during this interval. The leak rate of the sealed tube results in a mass increase of only ∼ 0.1 μg by the time the pressure gauge stabilizes (6 s). Results are correlated with piezoelectric probe measurements of the gas flow and 2-D axisymmetric numerical simulations of the θ pinch process. Simulations of a θ pinch suitable for characterizing an annular supersonic nozzle typical of those used in gas puff z pinches are discussed

  8. Complexity in the validation of ground-water travel time in fractured flow and transport systems

    Davies, P.B.; Hunter, R.L.; Pickens, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-water travel time is a widely used concept in site assessment for radioactive waste disposal. While ground-water travel time was originally conceived to provide a simple performance measure for evaluating repository sites, its definition in many flow and transport environments is ambiguous. The U.S. Department of Energy siting guidelines (10 CFR 960) define ground-water travel time as the time required for a unit volume of water to travel between two locations, calculated by dividing travel-path length by the quotient of average ground-water flux and effective porosity. Defining a meaningful effective porosity in a fractured porous material is a significant problem. Although the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is not subject to specific requirements for ground-water travel time, travel times have been computed under a variety of model assumptions. Recently completed model analyses for WIPP illustrate the difficulties in applying a ground-water travel-time performance measure to flow and transport in fractured, fully saturated flow systems. Computer code used: SWIFT II (flow and transport code). 4 figs., 12 refs

  9. Experimental and computational analysis of pressure response in a multiphase flow loop

    Morshed, Munzarin; Amin, Al; Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Imtiaz, Syed

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of multiphase fluid flow in pipes are useful to understand fluid mechanics encountered in the oil and gas industries. In the present day oil and gas exploration is successively inducing subsea operation in the deep sea and arctic condition. During the transport of petroleum products, understanding the fluid dynamics inside the pipe network is important for flow assurance. In this case the information regarding static and dynamic pressure response, pressure loss, optimum flow rate, pipe diameter etc. are the important parameter for flow assurance. The principal aim of this research is to represents computational analysis and experimental analysis of multi-phase (L/G) in a pipe network. This computational study considers a two-phase fluid flow through a horizontal flow loop with at different Reynolds number in order to determine the pressure distribution, frictional pressure loss profiles by volume of fluid (VOF) method. However, numerical simulations are validated with the experimental data. The experiment is conducted in 76.20 mm ID transparent circular pipe using water and air in the flow loop. Static pressure transducers are used to measure local pressure response in multiphase pipeline.

  10. Non-linear time series analysis on flow instability of natural circulation under rolling motion condition

    Zhang, Wenchao; Tan, Sichao; Gao, Puzhen; Wang, Zhanwei; Zhang, Liansheng; Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Natural circulation flow instabilities in rolling motion are studied. • The method of non-linear time series analysis is used. • Non-linear evolution characteristic of flow instability is analyzed. • Irregular complex flow oscillations are chaotic oscillations. • The effect of rolling parameter on the threshold of chaotic oscillation is studied. - Abstract: Non-linear characteristics of natural circulation flow instabilities under rolling motion conditions were studied by the method of non-linear time series analysis. Experimental flow time series of different dimensionless power and rolling parameters were analyzed based on phase space reconstruction theory. Attractors which were reconstructed in phase space and the geometric invariants, including correlation dimension, Kolmogorov entropy and largest Lyapunov exponent, were determined. Non-linear characteristics of natural circulation flow instabilities under rolling motion conditions was studied based on the results of the geometric invariant analysis. The results indicated that the values of the geometric invariants first increase and then decrease as dimensionless power increases which indicated the non-linear characteristics of the system first enhance and then weaken. The irregular complex flow oscillation is typical chaotic oscillation because the value of geometric invariants is at maximum. The threshold of chaotic oscillation becomes larger as the rolling frequency or rolling amplitude becomes big. The main influencing factors that influence the non-linear characteristics of the natural circulation system under rolling motion are thermal driving force, flow resistance and the additional forces caused by rolling motion. The non-linear characteristics of the natural circulation system under rolling motion changes caused by the change of the feedback and coupling degree among these influencing factors when the dimensionless power or rolling parameters changes

  11. Tracer concentration curves and residence time analysis in technological flow systems. 2

    Pippel, W.

    1976-01-01

    Tracer concentration curves measured in flow systems by means of radioactive isotopes are treated as a two dimensional random process. Comparing them with the family distribution functions described in part I, it follows that only in case of ergodic behaviour of the system tracer curves can be considered as age distribution functions. The conception of ergodicity in residence time systems has been explained with the aid of a time function measurable by a special method of radioactive tracer technique and by the mean value of the residence time obtainable from this function. Furthermore, technological consequences in evaluating tracer concentration curves of real flow systems are discussed with respect to supposed ergodic or nonergodic behaviour. These considerations are of special importance for flow systems with temporary fluctuations in structure. (author)

  12. Time-dependent liquid metal flows with free convection and free surfaces

    McClelland, M.A.

    1990-11-01

    A finite element analysis is given for time-dependent liquid metal flows with free convection and free surfaces. Consideration is given to a two-dimensional shallow trough with vertical walls maintained at different temperatures. The spatial formulation incorporates mixed Lagrangian approximations to the velocity, pressure, temperature, and interface position. The time integration method is performed using the Trapezoid Rule with step-size control. The Galerkin method is employed to reduce the problem to a set of nonlinear algebraic equations which are solved with the Newton-Raphson method. Calculations are performed for conditions relevant to the electron beam vaporization of refractory metals. The Prandtl number is 0.015, and Grashof numbers are in the transition region between laminar and turbulent flow. The results reveal the effects of flow intensity, surface-tension gradients, and mesh and time-step refinement

  13. Stability of Intelligent Transportation Network Dynamics: A Daily Path Flow Adjustment considering Travel Time Differentiation

    Ming-Chorng Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretic formulation on how traffic time information distributed by ITS operations influences the trajectory of network flows is presented in this paper. The interactions between users and ITS operator are decomposed into three parts: (i travel time induced path flow dynamics (PFDTT; (ii demand induced path flow dynamics (PFDD; and (iii predicted travel time dynamics for an origin-destination (OD pair (PTTDOD. PFDTT describes the collective results of user’s daily route selection by pairwise comparison of path travel time provided by ITS services. The other two components, PTTDOD and PFDD, are concentrated on the evolutions of system variables which are predicted and observed, respectively, by ITS operators to act as a benchmark in guiding the target system towards an expected status faster. In addition to the delivered modelings, the stability theorem of the equilibrium solution in the sense of Lyapunov stability is also provided. A Lyapunov function is developed and employed to the proof of stability theorem to show the asymptotic behavior of the aimed system. The information of network flow dynamics plays a key role in traffic control policy-making. The evaluation of ITS-based strategies will not be reasonable without a well-established modeling of network flow evolutions.

  14. Time resolved flow-field measurements of a turbulent mixing layer over a rectangular cavity

    Bian, Shiyao; Driscoll, James F.; Elbing, Brian R.; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2011-07-01

    High Reynolds number, low Mach number, turbulent shear flow past a rectangular, shallow cavity has been experimentally investigated with the use of dual-camera cinematographic particle image velocimetry (CPIV). The CPIV had a 3 kHz sampling rate, which was sufficient to monitor the time evolution of large-scale vortices as they formed, evolved downstream and impinged on the downstream cavity wall. The time-averaged flow properties (velocity and vorticity fields, streamwise velocity profiles and momentum and vorticity thickness) were in agreement with previous cavity flow studies under similar operating conditions. The time-resolved results show that the separated shear layer quickly rolled-up and formed eddies immediately downstream of the separation point. The vortices convect downstream at approximately half the free-stream speed. Vorticity strength intermittency as the structures approach the downstream edge suggests an increase in the three-dimensionality of the flow. Time-resolved correlations reveal that the in-plane coherence of the vortices decays within 2-3 structure diameters, and quasi-periodic flow features are present with a vortex passage frequency of ~1 kHz. The power spectra of the vertical velocity fluctuations within the shear layer revealed a peak at a non-dimensional frequency corresponding to that predicted using linear, inviscid instability theory.

  15. Multi-frequency complex network from time series for uncovering oil-water flow structure.

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Yang, Yu-Xuan; Fang, Peng-Cheng; Jin, Ning-De; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Hu, Li-Dan

    2015-02-04

    Uncovering complex oil-water flow structure represents a challenge in diverse scientific disciplines. This challenge stimulates us to develop a new distributed conductance sensor for measuring local flow signals at different positions and then propose a novel approach based on multi-frequency complex network to uncover the flow structures from experimental multivariate measurements. In particular, based on the Fast Fourier transform, we demonstrate how to derive multi-frequency complex network from multivariate time series. We construct complex networks at different frequencies and then detect community structures. Our results indicate that the community structures faithfully represent the structural features of oil-water flow patterns. Furthermore, we investigate the network statistic at different frequencies for each derived network and find that the frequency clustering coefficient enables to uncover the evolution of flow patterns and yield deep insights into the formation of flow structures. Current results present a first step towards a network visualization of complex flow patterns from a community structure perspective.

  16. A Bivariate Generalized Linear Item Response Theory Modeling Framework to the Analysis of Responses and Response Times.

    Molenaar, Dylan; Tuerlinckx, Francis; van der Maas, Han L J

    2015-01-01

    A generalized linear modeling framework to the analysis of responses and response times is outlined. In this framework, referred to as bivariate generalized linear item response theory (B-GLIRT), separate generalized linear measurement models are specified for the responses and the response times that are subsequently linked by cross-relations. The cross-relations can take various forms. Here, we focus on cross-relations with a linear or interaction term for ability tests, and cross-relations with a curvilinear term for personality tests. In addition, we discuss how popular existing models from the psychometric literature are special cases in the B-GLIRT framework depending on restrictions in the cross-relation. This allows us to compare existing models conceptually and empirically. We discuss various extensions of the traditional models motivated by practical problems. We also illustrate the applicability of our approach using various real data examples, including data on personality and cognitive ability.

  17. Understanding characteristics in multivariate traffic flow time series from complex network structure

    Yan, Ying; Zhang, Shen; Tang, Jinjun; Wang, Xiaofei

    2017-07-01

    Discovering dynamic characteristics in traffic flow is the significant step to design effective traffic managing and controlling strategy for relieving traffic congestion in urban cities. A new method based on complex network theory is proposed to study multivariate traffic flow time series. The data were collected from loop detectors on freeway during a year. In order to construct complex network from original traffic flow, a weighted Froenius norm is adopt to estimate similarity between multivariate time series, and Principal Component Analysis is implemented to determine the weights. We discuss how to select optimal critical threshold for networks at different hour in term of cumulative probability distribution of degree. Furthermore, two statistical properties of networks: normalized network structure entropy and cumulative probability of degree, are utilized to explore hourly variation in traffic flow. The results demonstrate these two statistical quantities express similar pattern to traffic flow parameters with morning and evening peak hours. Accordingly, we detect three traffic states: trough, peak and transitional hours, according to the correlation between two aforementioned properties. The classifying results of states can actually represent hourly fluctuation in traffic flow by analyzing annual average hourly values of traffic volume, occupancy and speed in corresponding hours.

  18. Determination of flow patterns in industrial gold leaching tank by radiotracer residence time distribution measurement

    Stegowski, Z.; Furman, L.; Dagadu, Ch.P.K.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Danso, K.A.; Mumuni, I.I.; Adu, P.S; Amoah, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    The carbon-in-leach (CIL) process is one the most efficient methods of gold recovery from gold bearing ores. The efficiency of the leaching process greatly depends on the flow structure created by mechanical agitation (in some cases air agitation) in the leaching tanks. Residence time distribution (RTD) measurement was conducted in the CIL section of a gold processing plant in order to determine the flow structure in the first tank using the 131 I radioactive tracer. The shape of the experimental data revealed that the flow behaviour in the tank was close to an ideal mixer. Modelling of the experimental data, however, revealed that the tank was not behaving as a single perfect mixer, but consisted of two mixing zones. The flow structure in the tank was best described by the '' perfect mixers with exchange '' model consisting of two mixing zones. The model allowed the determination of flow parameters including the mean residence time, flow rate and volumes of the mixing zones. (authors)

  19. Multi-scale simulations of droplets in generic time-dependent flows

    Milan, Felix; Biferale, Luca; Sbragaglia, Mauro; Toschi, Federico

    2017-11-01

    We study the deformation and dynamics of droplets in time-dependent flows using a diffuse interface model for two immiscible fluids. The numerical simulations are at first benchmarked against analytical results of steady droplet deformation, and further extended to the more interesting case of time-dependent flows. The results of these time-dependent numerical simulations are compared against analytical models available in the literature, which assume the droplet shape to be an ellipsoid at all times, with time-dependent major and minor axis. In particular we investigate the time-dependent deformation of a confined droplet in an oscillating Couette flow for the entire capillary range until droplet break-up. In this way these multi component simulations prove to be a useful tool to establish from ``first principles'' the dynamics of droplets in complex flows involving multiple scales. European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No 642069. & European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Program, ERC Grant Agreement No 339032.

  20. Sensitivity and response time improvements in millimeter-wave spectrometers

    Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.

    1980-09-01

    A new version of a microwave spectrometer for the detection of gaseous pollutants and other atmospheric constituents is described. The spectrometer, which operates in the vicinity of 70 GHz, employs a Fabry-Perot resonator as a sample cell and uses superhetrodyne detection for high sensitivity. The spectrometer has been modified to incorporate a frequency doubler modulated at 30 MHz to permit operation with a single Gunn oscillator source. As a result, faster response time and somewhat greater sensitivity are obtained. The spectrometer is capable of detecting a minimum concentration of 1 ppM of SO 2 diluted in air with a 1 second time constant. For OCS diluted in air, the minimum detectable concentration is 800 ppB and with a 10 second time constant 300 ppB

  1. Time response measurements of pressure sensors using pink noise technique

    Pereira, Iraci Martinez; Santos, Roberto Carlos dos

    2009-01-01

    This work presents an experimental setup for Pink Noise method application on pressure transmitters' response times. The Pink Noise method consists on injecting artificial pressure noise into the pressure transmitter. The artificial pressure noise is generated using a current-to-pressure (I-to-P) converter, which is driven by a random noise signal generator. The output pressure transmitter noise is then analyzed using conventional Noise Analysis Technique. Noise signals may be interpreted using spectral techniques or empirical time series models. The frequency domain method consists of evaluating the Power Spectral Density (PSD) function. The information needed for time constant estimation can be obtained by fitting an all-pole transfer function to this power spectral density. (author)

  2. Exactly solvable model for the time response function of RPCs

    Mangiarotti, A.; Fonte, P.; Gobbi, A.

    2004-01-01

    The fluctuation theory for the growth of several avalanches is briefly summarized and extended to include the case of electronegative gas mixtures. Based on such physical picture, the intrinsic time response function of an RPC can be calculated in a closed form and its average and rms extracted from series representations. The corresponding timing resolution, expressed in units of 1/((α-η)vd), is a universal function of the mean number of 'effective' clusters n0 reduced by electron attachment: n0(1-η/α). A comparison to a few selected good-quality experimental data is attempted for the timing resolution of both 1-gap and 4-gaps RPCs, finding a reasonable agreement

  3. Residence-Time Distributions in Laminar Flows and During the Passage of Granular Solids Through Rotary Kilns

    Beek, W. J.; De Ridder, H. J. [Technische Hogeschool, Delft (Netherlands); Houtman, J. P.W.; Kuiper, D. [Reactor Instituut, Delft (Netherlands)

    1967-06-15

    Data on residence-time distributions are important in the design of apparatus for the chemical industry. Radioactive tracers can be useful in many cases, e.g. where a pulse technique is desired. Two examples are given in which a pulse of radioactive tracer is used. The first example deals with the residence-time distribution of a laminar, Newtonian flow in an annulus. This problem arises especially in the extrusion and injection moulding of polymers and in the coating of wires with plastics. In these cases the fractions of polymer with long residence times may have other properties than the polymer that flows fastest, because the polymerization reaction or the degradation reactions go on during the process. Two difficulties are to be considered: (a) the tracer pulse (a radioactive Au-sol suspended in the liquid used) cannot be distributed over the cross-section in proportion to the local flow velocity, and (b) the outflowing liquid must be sampled discontinuously. Both effects have been studied and corrections are indicated. When these corrections are applied to the measured distribution curve, the result is in fair agreement with the calculated residence-time distribution. The second example considers the residence-time distribution in a granular solid (sand) passing through a rotary kiln. The response was measured at the outlet to a pulse at the inlet of radioactive material (sand impregnated with a solution of radioactive AuCl{sub 3}). When calculating the residence-time distribution from the experimental data, difficulties were encountered because the duration of the pulse was of the same order of magnitude as the average residence time. Considering this, it was found that the axial dispersion of the flow of sand could be described by an effective dispersion coefficient. This dispersion coefficient proved to be very low (order of magnitude 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/s); hence, in practical situations, the flow of granular material through a rotary kiln may often be

  4. Predicting Flow Breakdown Probability and Duration in Stochastic Network Models: Impact on Travel Time Reliability

    Dong, Jing [ORNL; Mahmassani, Hani S. [Northwestern University, Evanston

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to produce random flow breakdown endogenously in a mesoscopic operational model, by capturing breakdown probability and duration. Based on previous research findings that probability of flow breakdown can be represented as a function of flow rate and the duration can be characterized by a hazard model. By generating random flow breakdown at various levels and capturing the traffic characteristics at the onset of the breakdown, the stochastic network simulation model provides a tool for evaluating travel time variability. The proposed model can be used for (1) providing reliability related traveler information; (2) designing ITS (intelligent transportation systems) strategies to improve reliability; and (3) evaluating reliability-related performance measures of the system.

  5. Tomographic reconstruction of the time-averaged density distribution in two-phase flow

    Fincke, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of reconstructive tomography has been applied to the measurement of time-average density and density distribution in a two-phase flow field. The technique of reconstructive tomography provides a model-independent method of obtaining flow-field density information. A tomographic densitometer system for the measurement of two-phase flow has two unique problems: a limited number of data values and a correspondingly coarse reconstruction grid. These problems were studied both experimentally through the use of prototype hardware on a 3-in. pipe, and analytically through computer generation of simulated data. The prototype data were taken on phantoms constructed of all Plexiglas and Plexiglas laminated with wood and polyurethane foam. Reconstructions obtained from prototype data are compared with reconstructions from the simulated data. Also presented are some representative results in a horizontal air/water flow

  6. A polynomial time algorithm for solving the maximum flow problem in directed networks

    Tlas, M.

    2015-01-01

    An efficient polynomial time algorithm for solving maximum flow problems has been proposed in this paper. The algorithm is basically based on the binary representation of capacities; it solves the maximum flow problem as a sequence of O(m) shortest path problems on residual networks with nodes and m arcs. It runs in O(m"2r) time, where is the smallest integer greater than or equal to log B , and B is the largest arc capacity of the network. A numerical example has been illustrated using this proposed algorithm.(author)

  7. Time orientation, planning horizons and responsibility into the future

    Svenson, O.; Nilsson, G.

    1988-01-01

    Subjects of four categories (social science students, engineering students, retired people and nuclear waste experts) were asked about past events, planning, risks and future time with emphasis on energy related issues and in particular questions concerning spent nuclear waste. Among, the results reported it was found that events in the past were located more or less correctly and that events further back systematically too close to the present. Today's responsibility into the future was judged to cover 3 to 6 generations ahead and an adequate planning horizon for a local community to be on the average 11 to 14 years. Adequate planning horizons for the handling of spent nuclear fuel were judged to be from 100 to 500 years. The responsibility for effects of today's decisions was judged to be from about 100 to 300 years into the future for environmental pollution and from about 50 to 600 years for nuclear waste. However, non-negliqable proportions of the subjects choose a more moral standpoint and gave answers indicating that responsibility had to be unlimited. Some sex differences were found and an interaction with age offered as a hypothesis to be investigated in the future. Interrelations between clusters of questions revealed some links from past time and planning to judgements of environmental and nuclear power related risks. (orig.)

  8. Using stable isotope tracers to assess hydrological flow paths, residence times and landscape influences in a nested mesoscale catchment

    P. Rodgers

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available δ18O measurements in precipitation and stream waters were used to investigate hydrological flow paths and residence times at nested spatial scales in the mesoscale (233 km2 River Feugh catchment in the northeast of Scotland over the 2001-2002 hydrological year. Precipitation δ18O exhibited strong seasonal variation, which although significantly damped within the catchment, was reflected in stream water at six sampling sites. This allowed δ18O variations to be used to infer the relative influence of soil-derived storm flows with a seasonally variable isotopic signature, and groundwater of apparently more constant isotopic composition. Periodic regression analysis was then used to examine the sub-catchment difference using an exponential flow model to provide indicative estimates of mean stream water residence times, which varied between approximately 3 and 14 months. This showed that the effects of increasing scale on estimated mean stream water residence time was minimal beyond that of the smallest (ca. 1 km2 headwater catchment scale. Instead, the interaction of catchment soil cover and topography appeared to be the dominant controlling influence. Where sub-catchments had extensive peat coverage, responsive hydrological pathways produced seasonally variable δ18O signatures in runoff with short mean residence times (ca. 3 months. In contrast, areas dominated by steeper slopes, more freely draining soils and larger groundwater storage in shallow valley-bottom aquifers, deeper flow paths allow for more effective mixing and damping of δ18O indicating longer residence times (>12 months. These insights from δ18O measurements extend the hydrological understanding of the Feugh catchment gained from previous geochemical tracer studies, and demonstrate the utility of isotope tracers in investigating the interaction of hydrological processes and catchment characteristics at larger spatial scales.

  9. On response time and cycle time distributions in a two-stage cyclic queue

    Boxma, O.J.; Donk, P.

    1982-01-01

    We consider a two-stage closed cyclic queueing model. For the case of an exponential server at each queue we derive the joint distribution of the successive response times of a custumer at both queues, using a reversibility argument. This joint distribution turns out to have a product form. The

  10. Caire - A real-time feedback system for emergency response

    Braun, H.; Brenk, H.D.; de Witt, H.

    1991-01-01

    In cases of nuclear emergencies it is the primary task of emergency response forces and decision making authorities to act properly. Whatever the specific reason for the contingency may be, a quick and most accurate estimate of the radiation exposure in consequence of the emergency must be made. This is a necessary prerequisite for decisions on protective measures and off-site emergency management. With respect to this fact ant the recent experience of the Chernobyl accident, remote monitoring systems have increased their importance as an inherent part of environmental surveillance installations in the FRG and in other countries. The existing systems in Germany are designed to cover both, routine operation and emergency situations. They provide site specific meteorological data, gross effluent dose rates, and dose rate measurements at on-site and approximately 30 off-site locations in the vicinity of a plant. Based on such telemetric surveillance networks an advanced automatic on-line system named CAIRE (Computer Aided Response to Emergencies) has been developed as a real time emergency response tool for nuclear facilities. this tool is designed to provide decision makers with most relevant radiation exposure data of the population at risk. The development phase of CAIRE has already been finished. CAIRE is now in an operational status and available for applications in emergency planning and response

  11. The BCD of response time analysis in experimental economics.

    Spiliopoulos, Leonidas; Ortmann, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    For decisions in the wild, time is of the essence. Available decision time is often cut short through natural or artificial constraints, or is impinged upon by the opportunity cost of time. Experimental economists have only recently begun to conduct experiments with time constraints and to analyze response time (RT) data, in contrast to experimental psychologists. RT analysis has proven valuable for the identification of individual and strategic decision processes including identification of social preferences in the latter case, model comparison/selection, and the investigation of heuristics that combine speed and performance by exploiting environmental regularities. Here we focus on the benefits, challenges, and desiderata of RT analysis in strategic decision making. We argue that unlocking the potential of RT analysis requires the adoption of process-based models instead of outcome-based models, and discuss how RT in the wild can be captured by time-constrained experiments in the lab. We conclude that RT analysis holds considerable potential for experimental economics, deserves greater attention as a methodological tool, and promises important insights on strategic decision making in naturally occurring environments.

  12. Simulations of Bingham plastic flows with the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model

    Chen, SongGui; Sun, QiCheng; Jin, Feng; Liu, JianGuo

    2014-03-01

    Fresh cement mortar is a type of workable paste, which can be well approximated as a Bingham plastic and whose flow behavior is of major concern in engineering. In this paper, Papanastasiou's model for Bingham fluids is solved by using the multiplerelaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model (MRT-LB). Analysis of the stress growth exponent m in Bingham fluid flow simulations shows that Papanastasiou's model provides a good approximation of realistic Bingham plastics for values of m > 108. For lower values of m, Papanastasiou's model is valid for fluids between Bingham and Newtonian fluids. The MRT-LB model is validated by two benchmark problems: 2D steady Poiseuille flows and lid-driven cavity flows. Comparing the numerical results of the velocity distributions with corresponding analytical solutions shows that the MRT-LB model is appropriate for studying Bingham fluids while also providing better numerical stability. We further apply the MRT-LB model to simulate flow through a sudden expansion channel and the flow surrounding a round particle. Besides the rich flow structures obtained in this work, the dynamics fluid force on the round particle is calculated. Results show that both the Reynolds number Re and the Bingham number Bn affect the drag coefficients C D , and a drag coefficient with Re and Bn being taken into account is proposed. The relationship of Bn and the ratio of unyielded zone thickness to particle diameter is also analyzed. Finally, the Bingham fluid flowing around a set of randomly dispersed particles is simulated to obtain the apparent viscosity and velocity fields. These results help simulation of fresh concrete flowing in porous media.

  13. Size-selective sorting in bubble streaming flows: Particle migration on fast time scales

    Thameem, Raqeeb; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2015-11-01

    Steady streaming from ultrasonically driven microbubbles is an increasingly popular technique in microfluidics because such devices are easily manufactured and generate powerful and highly controllable flows. Combining streaming and Poiseuille transport flows allows for passive size-sensitive sorting at particle sizes and selectivities much smaller than the bubble radius. The crucial particle deflection and separation takes place over very small times (milliseconds) and length scales (20-30 microns) and can be rationalized using a simplified geometric mechanism. A quantitative theoretical description is achieved through the application of recent results on three-dimensional streaming flow field contributions. To develop a more fundamental understanding of the particle dynamics, we use high-speed photography of trajectories in polydisperse particle suspensions, recording the particle motion on the time scale of the bubble oscillation. Our data reveal the dependence of particle displacement on driving phase, particle size, oscillatory flow speed, and streaming speed. With this information, the effective repulsive force exerted by the bubble on the particle can be quantified, showing for the first time how fast, selective particle migration is effected in a streaming flow. We acknowledge support by the National Science Foundation under grant number CBET-1236141.

  14. Flow characteristics of a pilot-scale high temperature, short time pasteurizer.

    Tomasula, P M; Kozempel, M F

    2004-09-01

    In this study, we present a method for determining the fastest moving particle (FMP) and residence time distribution (RTD) in a pilot-scale high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurizer to ensure that laboratory or pilot-scale HTST apparatus meets the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance standards for pasteurization of milk and can be used for obtaining thermal inactivation data. The overall dimensions of the plate in the pasteurizer were 75 x 115 mm, with a thickness of 0.5 mm and effective diameter of 3.0 mm. The pasteurizer was equipped with nominal 21.5- and 52.2-s hold tubes, and flow capacity was variable from 0 to 20 L/h. Tracer studies were used to determine FMP times and RTD data to establish flow characteristics. Using brine milk as tracer, the FMP time for the short holding section was 18.6 s and for the long holding section was 36 s at 72 degrees C, compared with the nominal times of 21.5 and 52.2 s, respectively. The RTD study indicates that the short hold section was 45% back mixed and 55% plug flow for whole milk at 72 degrees C. The long hold section was 91% plug and 9% back mixed for whole milk at 72 degrees C. This study demonstrates that continuous laboratory and pilot-scale pasteurizers may be used to study inactivation of microorganisms only if the flow conditions in the holding tube are established for comparison with commercial HTST systems.

  15. Branch Point Withdrawal in Elongational Startup Flow by Time-Resolved Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    Ruocco, N.; Auhl, D.; Bailly, C.; Lindner, P.; Pyckhout-Hintzen, W.; Wischnewski, A.; Leal, L. G.; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Richter, D.

    2016-01-01

    We present a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigation of a blend composed of a dendritic polymer and a linear matrix with comparable viscosity in start-up of an elongational flow at Tg + 50. The two-generation dendritic polymer is diluted to 10% by weight in a matrix of a long well-entangled linear chains. Both components consist of mainly 1,4-cis-polyisoprene but differ in isotopic composition. The resulting scattering contrast is sufficiently high to permit time-resolved measurements of the system structure factor during the start-up phase and to follow the retraction processes involving the inner sections of the branched polymer in the nonlinear deformation response. The outer branches and the linear matrix, on the contrary, are in the linear deformation regime. The linear matrix dominates the rheological signature of the blend and the influence of the branched component can barely be detected. However, the neutron scattering intensity is predominantly that of the (branched) minority component so that its dynamics is clearly evident. In the present paper, we use the neutron scattering data to validate the branch point withdrawal process, which could not be unambiguously discerned from rheological measurements in this blend. The maximal tube stretch that the inner branches experience, before the relaxed outer arm material is incorporated into the tube is determined. The in situ scattering experiments demonstrate for the first time the leveling-off of the strain as the result of branch point withdrawal and chain retraction directly on the molecular level. We conclude that branch point motion in the mixture of architecturally complex polymers occurs earlier than would be expected in a purely branched system, presumably due to the different topological environment that the linear matrix presents to the hierarchically deep-buried tube sections. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  16. Branch Point Withdrawal in Elongational Startup Flow by Time-Resolved Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    Ruocco, N.

    2016-05-27

    We present a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigation of a blend composed of a dendritic polymer and a linear matrix with comparable viscosity in start-up of an elongational flow at Tg + 50. The two-generation dendritic polymer is diluted to 10% by weight in a matrix of a long well-entangled linear chains. Both components consist of mainly 1,4-cis-polyisoprene but differ in isotopic composition. The resulting scattering contrast is sufficiently high to permit time-resolved measurements of the system structure factor during the start-up phase and to follow the retraction processes involving the inner sections of the branched polymer in the nonlinear deformation response. The outer branches and the linear matrix, on the contrary, are in the linear deformation regime. The linear matrix dominates the rheological signature of the blend and the influence of the branched component can barely be detected. However, the neutron scattering intensity is predominantly that of the (branched) minority component so that its dynamics is clearly evident. In the present paper, we use the neutron scattering data to validate the branch point withdrawal process, which could not be unambiguously discerned from rheological measurements in this blend. The maximal tube stretch that the inner branches experience, before the relaxed outer arm material is incorporated into the tube is determined. The in situ scattering experiments demonstrate for the first time the leveling-off of the strain as the result of branch point withdrawal and chain retraction directly on the molecular level. We conclude that branch point motion in the mixture of architecturally complex polymers occurs earlier than would be expected in a purely branched system, presumably due to the different topological environment that the linear matrix presents to the hierarchically deep-buried tube sections. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  17. Effect of automatic recirculation flow control on the transient response for Lungmen ABWR plant

    Tzang, Y.-C., E-mail: yctzang@aec.gov.t [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Engineering and System Science, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chiang, R.-F.; Ferng, Y.-M.; Pei, B.-S. [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Engineering and System Science, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2009-12-15

    In this study the automatic mode of the recirculation flow control system (RFCS) for the Lungmen ABWR plant has been modeled and incorporated into the basic RETRAN-02 system model. The integrated system model is then used to perform the analyses for the two transients in which the automatic RFCS is involved. The two transients selected are: (1) one reactor internal pump (RIP) trip, and (2) loss of feedwater heating. In general, the integrated system model can predict well the response of key system parameters, including neutron flux, steam dome pressure, heat flux, RIP flow, core inlet flow, feedwater flow, steam flow, and reactor water level. The transients are also analyzed for manual RFCS case, between the automatic RFCS and the manual RFCS cases, comparisons of the transient response for the key system parameter show that the difference of transient response can be clearly identified. Also, the results show that the DELTACPR (delta critical power ratio) for the transients analyzed may not be less limiting for the automatic RFCS case under certain combination of control system settings.

  18. Robust and Optimal Control of Magnetic Microparticles inside Fluidic Channels with Time-Varying Flow Rates

    Islam S.M. Khalil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapy using magnetic microparticles and nanoparticles has the potential to mitigate the negative side-effects associated with conventional medical treatment. Major technological challenges still need to be addressed in order to translate these particles into in vivo applications. For example, magnetic particles need to be navigated controllably in vessels against flowing streams of body fluid. This paper describes the motion control of paramagnetic microparticles in the flowing streams of fluidic channels with time-varying flow rates (maximum flow is 35 ml.hr−1. This control is designed using a magnetic-based proportional-derivative (PD control system to compensate for the time-varying flow inside the channels (with width and depth of 2 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively. First, we achieve point-to-point motion control against and along flow rates of 4 ml.hr−1, 6 ml.hr−1, 17 ml.hr−1, and 35 ml.hr−1. The average speeds of single microparticle (with average diameter of 100 μm against flow rates of 6 ml.hr−1 and 30 ml.hr−1 are calculated to be 45 μm.s−1 and 15 μm.s−1, respectively. Second, we implement PD control with disturbance estimation and compensation. This control decreases the steady-state error by 50%, 70%, 73%, and 78% at flow rates of 4 ml.hr−1, 6 ml.hr−1, 17 ml.hr−1, and 35 ml.hr−1, respectively. Finally, we consider the problem of finding the optimal path (minimal kinetic energy between two points using calculus of variation, against the mentioned flow rates. Not only do we find that an optimal path between two collinear points with the direction of maximum flow (middle of the fluidic channel decreases the rise time of the microparticles, but we also decrease the input current that is supplied to the electromagnetic coils by minimizing the kinetic energy of the microparticles, compared to a PD control with disturbance compensation.

  19. A method of modeling time-dependent rock damage surrounding underground excavations in multiphase groundwater flow

    Christian-Frear, T.; Freeze, G.

    1997-01-01

    Underground excavations produce damaged zones surrounding the excavations which have disturbed hydrologic and geomechanical properties. Prediction of fluid flow in these zones must consider both the mechanical and fluid flow processes. Presented here is a methodology which utilizes a mechanical model to predict damage and disturbed rock zone (DRZ) development around the excavation and then uses the predictions to develop time-dependent DRZ porosity relationships. These relationships are then used to adjust the porosity of the DRZ in the fluid flow model based upon the time and distance from the edge of the excavation. The application of this methodology is presented using a site-specific example from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a US Department of Energy facility in bedded salts being evaluated for demonstration of the safe underground disposal of transuranic waste from US defense-related activities

  20. Automated high-throughput flow-through real-time diagnostic system

    Regan, John Frederick

    2012-10-30

    An automated real-time flow-through system capable of processing multiple samples in an asynchronous, simultaneous, and parallel fashion for nucleic acid extraction and purification, followed by assay assembly, genetic amplification, multiplex detection, analysis, and decontamination. The system is able to hold and access an unlimited number of fluorescent reagents that may be used to screen samples for the presence of specific sequences. The apparatus works by associating extracted and purified sample with a series of reagent plugs that have been formed in a flow channel and delivered to a flow-through real-time amplification detector that has a multiplicity of optical windows, to which the sample-reagent plugs are placed in an operative position. The diagnostic apparatus includes sample multi-position valves, a master sample multi-position valve, a master reagent multi-position valve, reagent multi-position valves, and an optical amplification/detection system.

  1. Determination of flow times and longitudinal dispersion coefficients in the Main river using 3HHO as tracer

    Krause, W.J.; Mundschenk, H.

    1989-01-01

    Single discharges from nuclear power plants as well as discrete labeling with tritiated water are used to determine flow times, flow velocities and longitudinal dispersion coefficients in German rivers as shown here, for example, for the Main river. (orig.)

  2. The effect of the moisture content of a local heat source on the blood flow response of the skin.

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott; Bains, Gurinder; Raju, Chinna; Lohman, Everett; Berk, Lee; Prowse, Michelle; Gunda, Shashi; Madani, Piyush; Batt, Jennifer

    2009-09-01

    Numerous studies have examined the effect of local and global heating of the body on skin blood flow. However, the effect of the moisture content of the heat source on the skin blood flow response has not been examined. Thirty-three subjects, without diabetes or cardiovascular disease, between the ages of 22 and 32 were examined to determine the relationship between the effects of dry vs. moist heat applied for the same length of time and with the skin clamped at the same skin temperature on the blood flow response of the skin. The skin, heated with an infrared heat lamp (skin temperature monitored with a thermocouple) to 40 degrees C for 15 min, was either kept moist with wet towels or, in a separate experiment, kept dry with Drierite (a desiccant) between the towels to remove any moisture. Before and after heat exposure of the forearm, blood pressure, heart rate, skin moisture content, skin temperature, and skin blood flow were recorded. The results of the experiment showed that there was no change in skin moisture after 15 min exposure to dry heat at 40 degrees C. However, with moist heat, skin moisture increased by 43.7%, a significant increase (P heat, blood flow increased from the resting value by 282.3% whereas with moist heat, blood flow increased by 386% over rest, a significant increase over dry heat (P heat was a better heating modality than dry heat. The reason may be linked to moisture sensitivity in calcium channels in the vascular endothelial cell.

  3. Central Pulsatile Pressure and Flow Relationship in the Time and Frequency Domain to Characterise Hydraulic Input to the Brain and Cerebral Vascular Impedance.

    Kim, Mi Ok; O'Rourke, Michael F; Adji, Audrey; Avolio, Alberto P

    2016-01-01

    In the time domain, pulsatile flow and pressure can be characterised as the ratio of the late systolic boost of flow or pressure to the pulse amplitude so as to estimate the hydraulic input to the brain. While vascular impedance has been widely used to represent the load presented to the heart by the systemic circulation, it has not been applied to the cerebral circulation.We set out to study the relationship between the pressure and the flow augmentation index (AIx) in the time domain and to determine cerebral vascular impedance using aortic blood pressure and cerebral blood flow waveforms in the frequency domain. Twenty-four young subjects (aged 21-39 years) were recruited; aortic pressure was derived using SphygmoCor from radial pressure. Flow waveforms were recorded from the middle cerebral artery. In three subjects, we performed the Valsalva manoeuvre to investigate their response to physiological intervention. There was a linear relationship between flow and pressure AIx, and cerebral impedance values were similar to those estimated for low resistance vascular beds. Substantial change in pressure and flow wave contour was observed during the Valsalva manoeuvre; however, the relationship in both the time and the frequency domains were unchanged. This confirms that aortic pressure and cerebral flow waveform can be used to study cerebral impedance.

  4. Response of EBR-II to a complete loss of primary forced flow during power operation

    Singer, R.M.; Gillette, J.L.; Mohr, D.; Tokar, J.V.; Sullivan, J.E.; Dean, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed measurements of the thermal, hydraulic, and neutronic response of EBR-II to a complete loss of primary forced flow followed by a PPS-activated scram are presented. The experimental results clearly indicate a smooth transition to natural convective flow with a quite modest incore temperature transient. The accompanying calculations using the NATDEMO code agree quite well with the measured temperatures and flow rates throughout the primary system. The only region of the plant where a significant discrepancy between the measurements and calculations occurred was in the IHX. The reasons for this result could not be definitively determined, but it is speculated that the one-dimensional assumptions used in the modeling may not be valid in the IHX during buoyancy driver flows

  5. [Evaluation and Optimization of Microvascular Arterial Anastomoses by Transit Time Flow Measurement].

    Herberhold, S; Röttker, J; Bartmann, D; Solbach, A; Keiner, S; Welz, A; Bootz, F; Laffers, W

    2016-03-01

    INDRODUCTION: The regular application of transit time flow measurement in microvascular anastomoses during heart surgery has lead to improvements of the outcome of coronary artery bypass grafts. Our study was meant to discover whether this measurement method was also applicable for evaluation and optimization of microvascular arterial anastomoses of radial forearm flaps. In this prospective examination a combining ultrasound imaging and transit time flow measurement device (VeriQ, MediStim) was used during surgery to assess anastomotic quality of 15 radial forearm flaps. Pulsatility index (PI) and mean blood flow were measured immediately after opening the arterial anastomosis as well as 15 min afterwards. Furthermore, application time and description of handling were recorded seperately for every assessment. Mean blood flow immediately after opening the anastomosis and 15 min later were 3.9 and 3.4 ml/min resepectively showing no statistically significant difference (p=0.96). There was no significance in the increase of pulsatility index from 22.1 to 27.2 (p=0.09) during the same time range, either. Due to measurement results showing atypical pulse curves in 2 cases decision for surgical revision of the anastomoses was made. All forearm flaps showed good vascularisation during follow-up. Time for device set up, probe placement and measurements was about 20 min. Handling was described to be uncomplicated without exception. There were no noteworthy problems. Transit time flow measurement contributes to the improvement of anastomotic quality and therefore to the overall outcome of radial forearm flaps. The examined measurement method provides objective results and is useful for documentation purposes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Functional dilatation and medial remodeling of the renal artery in response to chronic increased blood flow.

    Roan, Jun-Neng; Yeh, Chin-Yi; Chiu, Wen-Cheng; Lee, Chou-Hwei; Chang, Shih-Wei; Jiangshieh, Ya-Fen; Tsai, Yu-Chuan; Lam, Chen-Fuh

    2011-01-01

    Renal blood flow (RBF) is tightly regulated by several intrinsic pathways in maintaining optimal kidney blood supply. Using a rat model of aortocaval (AC) fistula, we investigated remodeling of the renal artery following prolonged increased blood flow. An AC fistula was created in the infrarenal aorta of anesthetized rats, and changes of blood flow in the renal artery were assessed using an ultrasonic flow probe. Morphological changes and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in the remodeled renal artery were analyzed. Blood flow in the renal artery increased immediately after creation of AC fistula, but normal RBF was restored 8 weeks later. The renal artery dilated significantly 8 weeks after operation. Expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 was upregulated shortly after blood flow increase, and returned to baseline levels after 3 weeks. Histological sections showed luminal dilatation with medial thickening and endothelial cell-to-smooth muscle cell attachments in the remodeled renal artery. Increased RBF was accommodated by functional dilatation and remodeling in the medial layer of the renal artery in order to restore normal blood flow. Our results provide important mechanistic insight into the intrinsic regulation of the renal artery in response to increased RBF. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Neuronal responses to water flow in the marine slug tritonia diomedea

    Jeffrey Blackwell

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The marine slug Tritonia diomedea must rely on its ability to touch and smell in order to navigate because it is blind. The primary factor that influences its crawling direction is the direction of water flow (caused by tides in nature. The sensory cells that detect flow and determine flow direction have not been identified. The lateral branch of Cerebral Nerve 2 (latCeN2 has been identified as the nerve that carries sensory axons to the brain from the flow receptors inthe oral tentacles. Backfilling this nerve to the brain resulted in the labeling of a number of cells located throughout the brain. Most of the labeled cells are concentrated in the cerebral ganglion where the nerve enters the brain. The medial and lateral branches of CeN2 were backfilled for comparison of the pattern of cells from each nerve. A map of the cells innervated by latCeN2 reveals the location of the stained cells. Extracellular recording from latCeN2 revealed its involvement in the detection of water flow and orientation. The nerve becomes active in response to water flow stimulation. Intracellular recordings of the electrical activity of these cells in a live animal will be the next step to determine if these cells are the flow receptors.

  8. Velocity landscape correlation resolves multiple flowing protein populations from fluorescence image time series.

    Pandžić, Elvis; Abu-Arish, Asmahan; Whan, Renee M; Hanrahan, John W; Wiseman, Paul W

    2018-02-16

    Molecular, vesicular and organellar flows are of fundamental importance for the delivery of nutrients and essential components used in cellular functions such as motility and division. With recent advances in fluorescence/super-resolution microscopy modalities we can resolve the movements of these objects at higher spatio-temporal resolutions and with better sensitivity. Previously, spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy has been applied to map molecular flows by correlation analysis of fluorescence fluctuations in image series. However, an underlying assumption of this approach is that the sampled time windows contain one dominant flowing component. Although this was true for most of the cases analyzed earlier, in some situations two or more different flowing populations can be present in the same spatio-temporal window. We introduce an approach, termed velocity landscape correlation (VLC), which detects and extracts multiple flow components present in a sampled image region via an extension of the correlation analysis of fluorescence intensity fluctuations. First we demonstrate theoretically how this approach works, test the performance of the method with a range of computer simulated image series with varying flow dynamics. Finally we apply VLC to study variable fluxing of STIM1 proteins on microtubules connected to the plasma membrane of Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial (CFBE) cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Big Data-Driven Based Real-Time Traffic Flow State Identification and Prediction

    Hua-pu Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban informatization, the era of big data is coming. To satisfy the demand of traffic congestion early warning, this paper studies the method of real-time traffic flow state identification and prediction based on big data-driven theory. Traffic big data holds several characteristics, such as temporal correlation, spatial correlation, historical correlation, and multistate. Traffic flow state quantification, the basis of traffic flow state identification, is achieved by a SAGA-FCM (simulated annealing genetic algorithm based fuzzy c-means based traffic clustering model. Considering simple calculation and predictive accuracy, a bilevel optimization model for regional traffic flow correlation analysis is established to predict traffic flow parameters based on temporal-spatial-historical correlation. A two-stage model for correction coefficients optimization is put forward to simplify the bilevel optimization model. The first stage model is built to calculate the number of temporal-spatial-historical correlation variables. The second stage model is present to calculate basic model formulation of regional traffic flow correlation. A case study based on a real-world road network in Beijing, China, is implemented to test the efficiency and applicability of the proposed modeling and computing methods.

  10. Structure analysis of bubble driven flow by time-resolved PIV and POD techniques

    Kim, Hyun Dong; Yi, Seung Jae; Kim, Jong Wook; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the recirculation flow motion and turbulence characteristics of liquid flow driven by air bubble stream in a rectangular water tank are studied. The time-resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique is adopted for the quantitative visualization and analysis. 532nm Diode CW laser is used for illumination and orange fluorescent (λex = 540nm, λem = 584nm) particle images are acquired by a 1280X1024 high-speed camera. To obtain clean particle images, 545nm long pass optical filter and an image intensifier are employed and the flow rate of compressed air is 3/min at 0.5MPa. The recirculation and mixing flow field is further investigated by timeresolved Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) analysis technique. It is observed that the large scale recirculation resulting from the interaction between rising bubble stream and side wall is the most dominant flow structure and there are small scale vortical structures moving along with the large scale recirculation flow. It is also verified that the sum of 20 modes of velocity field has about 67.4% of total turbulent energy

  11. Complexity in the validation of ground-water travel time in fractured flow and transport systems

    Davies, P.B; Hunter, R.L.; Pickens, J.F.

    1991-02-01

    Ground-water travel time is a widely used concept in site assessment for radioactive waste disposal. While ground-water travel time was originally conceived to provide a simple performance measure for evaluating repository sites, its definition in many flow and transport environments is ambiguous. The US Department of Energy siting guidelines (10 CFR 960) define ground-water travel time as the time required for a unit volume of water to travel between two locations, calculated by dividing travel-path length by the quotient of average ground-water flux and effective porosity. Defining a meaningful effective porosity in a fractured porous material is a significant problem. Although the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is not subject to specific requirements for ground-water travel time, travel times have been computed under a variety of model assumptions. Recently completed model analyses for WIPP illustrate the difficulties in applying a ground-water travel-time performance measure to flow and transport in fractured, fully saturated flow systems. 12 refs., 4 figs

  12. Real Time Optimal Control of Supercapacitor Operation for Frequency Response

    Luo, Yusheng; Panwar, Mayank; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Hovsapian, Rob

    2016-07-01

    Supercapacitors are gaining wider applications in power systems due to fast dynamic response. Utilizing supercapacitors by means of power electronics interfaces for power compensation is a proven effective technique. For applications such as requency restoration if the cost of supercapacitors maintenance as well as the energy loss on the power electronics interfaces are addressed. It is infeasible to use traditional optimization control methods to mitigate the impacts of frequent cycling. This paper proposes a Front End Controller (FEC) using Generalized Predictive Control featuring real time receding optimization. The optimization constraints are based on cost and thermal management to enhance to the utilization efficiency of supercapacitors. A rigorous mathematical derivation is conducted and test results acquired from Digital Real Time Simulator are provided to demonstrate effectiveness.

  13. Effects of hypothyroidism on the skeletal muscle blood flow response to contractions.

    Bausch, L; McAllister, R M

    2003-04-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with impaired blood flow to skeletal muscle under whole body exercise conditions. It is unclear whether poor cardiac and/or vascular function account for blunted muscle blood flow. Our experiment isolated a small group of hindlimb muscles and simulated exercise via tetanic contractions. We hypothesized that muscle blood flow would be attenuated in hypothyroid rats (HYPO) compared with euthyroid rats (EUT). Rats were made hypothyroid by mixing propylthiouracil in their drinking water (2.35 x 10-3 mol/l). Treatment efficacy was evidenced by lower serum T3 concentrations and resting heart rates in HYPO (both Pmuscles at a rate of 30 tetani/min were induced via sciatic nerve stimulation. Regional blood flows were determined by the radiolabelled microsphere method at three time points: rest, 2 min of contractions and 10 min of contractions. Muscle blood flow generally increased from rest ( approximately 5-10 ml/min per 100 g) through contractions for both groups. Further, blood flow during contractions did not differ between groups for any muscle (eg. red section of gastrocnemius muscle; EUT, 59.9 +/- 14.1; HYPO, 61.1 +/- 15.0; NS between groups). These findings indicate that hypothyroidism does not significantly impair skeletal muscle blood flow when only a small muscle mass is contracting. Our findings suggest that impaired blood flow under whole body exercise is accounted for by inadequate cardiac function rather than abnormal vascular function.

  14. USING RESPONSES OF OYSTERS IN ESTABLISHING MINIMUM FLOWS AND LEVELS IN THE CALOOSAHATCHEE ESTUARY, FLORIDA

    Volety, Aswani K., S. Gregory Tolley and James T. Winstead. 2002. Using Responses of Oysters in Establishing Minimum Flows and Levels in the Caloosahatchee Estuary, Florida (Abstract). Presented at the 6th International Conference on Shellfish Restoration, 20-24 November 2002, Ch...

  15. Comparing heat flow models for interpretation of precast quadratic pile heat exchanger thermal response tests

    Alberdi Pagola, Maria; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Loveridge, Fleur

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of currently available analytical, empirical and numerical heat flow models for interpreting thermal response tests (TRT) of quadratic cross section precast pile heat exchangers. A 3D finite element model (FEM) is utilised for interpreting five TRTs by in...

  16. Fast-Response-Time Shape-Memory-Effect Foam Actuators

    Jardine, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Bulk shape memory alloys, such as Nitinol or CuAlZn, display strong recovery forces undergoing a phase transformation after being strained in their martensitic state. These recovery forces are used for actuation. As the phase transformation is thermally driven, the response time of the actuation can be slow, as the heat must be passively inserted or removed from the alloy. Shape memory alloy TiNi torque tubes have been investigated for at least 20 years and have demonstrated high actuation forces [3,000 in.-lb (approximately equal to 340 N-m) torques] and are very lightweight. However, they are not easy to attach to existing structures. Adhesives will fail in shear at low-torque loads and the TiNi is not weldable, so that mechanical crimp fits have been generally used. These are not reliable, especially in vibratory environments. The TiNi is also slow to heat up, as it can only be heated indirectly using heater and cooling must be done passively. This has restricted their use to on-off actuators where cycle times of approximately one minute is acceptable. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) has been used in the past to make porous TiNi metal foams. Shape Change Technologies has been able to train SHS derived TiNi to exhibit the shape memory effect. As it is an open-celled material, fast response times were observed when the material was heated using hot and cold fluids. A methodology was developed to make the open-celled porous TiNi foams as a tube with integrated hexagonal ends, which then becomes a torsional actuator with fast response times. Under processing developed independently, researchers were able to verify torques of 84 in.-lb (approximately equal to 9.5 Nm) using an actuator weighing 1.3 oz (approximately equal to 37 g) with very fast (less than 1/16th of a second) initial response times when hot and cold fluids were used to facilitate heat transfer. Integrated structural connections were added as part of the net shape process, eliminating

  17. Eulerian short-time statistics of turbulent flow at large Reynolds number

    Brouwers, J.J.H.

    2004-01-01

    An asymptotic analysis is presented of the short-time behavior of second-order temporal velocity structure functions and Eulerian acceleration correlations in a frame that moves with the local mean velocity of the turbulent flow field. Expressions in closed-form are derived which cover the viscous

  18. 3D time-dependent flow computations using a molecular stress function model with constraint release

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2002-01-01

    The numerical simulation of time dependent viscoelastic flow (in three dimensions) is of interest in connection with a variety of polymer processing operations. The application of the numerical simulation techniques is in the analysis and design of polymer processing problems. This is operations,......, such as thermoforming, blow moulding, compression moulding, gas-assisted injection moulding, simultaneous multi-component injection moulding....

  19. A quenched-flow system for measuring heterogeneous enzyme kinetics with sub-second time resolution

    Olsen, Johan Pelck; Kari, Jeppe; Borch, Kim

    2017-01-01

    of insoluble substrate. Perhaps for this reason, transient kinetics has rarely been reported for heterogeneous enzyme reactions. Here, we describe a quenched-flow system using peristaltic pumps and stirred substrate suspensions with a dead time below 100 ms. The general performance was verified by alkali...

  20. Flipping the analytical coin : closing the information flow loop in high speed (real time) analysis

    K.E. Shahroudi

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis modules tend to be set up as one way flow of information, i.e a clear distinction between cause and effect or input and output. However, as the speed of analysis approaches real time (or faster than movie rate), it becomes increasingly difficult for an external user to

  1. On the Mutual Dynamics of Interregional Gross Migration Flows in Space and Time

    Mitze, Timo

    2016-01-01

    This paper applies spatial dynamic panel data models to analyse the labor market dimension of interregional population flows among German federal states in the period 1993–2009. Making use of recent improvements in the estimation of space-time dynamic panel data models and the computation of mean...

  2. Analysis of time integration methods for the compressible two-fluid model for pipe flow simulations

    B. Sanderse (Benjamin); I. Eskerud Smith (Ivar); M.H.W. Hendrix (Maurice)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyse different time integration methods for the two-fluid model and propose the BDF2 method as the preferred choice to simulate transient compressible multiphase flow in pipelines. Compared to the prevailing Backward Euler method, the BDF2 scheme has a significantly

  3. Principal response curves: analysis of time-dependent multivariate responses of biological community to stress

    Brink, van den P.J.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a novel multivariate method is proposed for the analysis of community response data from designed experiments repeatedly sampled in time. The long-term effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on the invertebrate community and the dissolved oxygen (DO)–pH–alkalinity–conductivity

  4. Simulation of turbulent flow over staggered tube bundles using multi-relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method

    Park, Jong Woon; Choi, Hyun Gyung

    2014-01-01

    A turbulent fluid flow over staggered tube bundles is of great interest in many engineering fields including nuclear fuel rods, heat exchangers and especially a gas cooled reactor lower plenum. Computational methods have evolved for the simulation of such flow for decades and lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is one of the attractive methods due to its sound physical basis and ease of computerization including parallelization. In this study to find computational performance of the LBM in turbulent flows over staggered tubes, a fluid flow analysis code employing multi-relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method (MRT-LBM) is developed based on a 2-dimensional D2Q9 lattice model and classical sub-grid eddy viscosity model of Smagorinsky. As a first step, fundamental performance MRT-LBM is investigated against a standard problem of a flow past a cylinder at low Reynolds number in terms of drag forces. As a major step, benchmarking of the MRT-LBM is performed over a turbulent flow through staggered tube bundles at Reynolds number of 18,000. For a flow past a single cylinder, the accuracy is validated against existing experimental data and previous computations in terms of drag forces on the cylinder. Mainly, the MRT-LBM computation for a flow through staggered tube bundles is performed and compared with experimental data and general purpose computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses with standard k-ω turbulence and large eddy simulation (LES) equipped with turbulence closures of Smagrinsky-Lilly and wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity (WALE) model. The agreement between the experimental and the computational results from the present MRT-LBM is found to be reasonably acceptable and even comparable to the LES whereas the computational efficiency is superior. (orig.)

  5. Simulation of turbulent flow over staggered tube bundles using multi-relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method

    Park, Jong Woon; Choi, Hyun Gyung [Dongguk Univ., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of). Nuclear and Energy Engineering Dept.

    2014-02-15

    A turbulent fluid flow over staggered tube bundles is of great interest in many engineering fields including nuclear fuel rods, heat exchangers and especially a gas cooled reactor lower plenum. Computational methods have evolved for the simulation of such flow for decades and lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is one of the attractive methods due to its sound physical basis and ease of computerization including parallelization. In this study to find computational performance of the LBM in turbulent flows over staggered tubes, a fluid flow analysis code employing multi-relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method (MRT-LBM) is developed based on a 2-dimensional D2Q9 lattice model and classical sub-grid eddy viscosity model of Smagorinsky. As a first step, fundamental performance MRT-LBM is investigated against a standard problem of a flow past a cylinder at low Reynolds number in terms of drag forces. As a major step, benchmarking of the MRT-LBM is performed over a turbulent flow through staggered tube bundles at Reynolds number of 18,000. For a flow past a single cylinder, the accuracy is validated against existing experimental data and previous computations in terms of drag forces on the cylinder. Mainly, the MRT-LBM computation for a flow through staggered tube bundles is performed and compared with experimental data and general purpose computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses with standard k-ω turbulence and large eddy simulation (LES) equipped with turbulence closures of Smagrinsky-Lilly and wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity (WALE) model. The agreement between the experimental and the computational results from the present MRT-LBM is found to be reasonably acceptable and even comparable to the LES whereas the computational efficiency is superior. (orig.)

  6. Characterisation of cerebral blood flow via determining the vascular mean transit time

    Lindner, P.; Thelen, M.

    1987-01-01

    By using a recently developed algorithm it is possible to quantify the dynamic information of a DSA sequence of the brain. The theory of algorithm allows to calculate vascular mean transit from time density curves. The algorithm minimizes the problems of densitometry with regard to 'quantitative DSA'. There is a strong correlation between vascular mean transit times and cerebral blood flow values, and therefore the results for mean transit times also correspond to the results obtained for cerebral blood flow. By computerized postprocessing of DSA-images it is possible to generate functional images of the brain with a spatial resolution that had not been attainable so far. The images represent the distribution pattern of reverse vascular mean transit times. The results from 36 patients with proven stenoses of the cervical vessels are reported. (orig.) [de

  7. Time averaging procedure for calculating the mass and energy transfer rates in adiabatic two phase flow

    Boccaccini, L.V.

    1986-07-01

    To take advantages of the semi-implicit computer models - to solve the two phase flow differential system - a proper averaging procedure is also needed for the source terms. In fact, in some cases, the correlations normally used for the source terms - not time averaged - fail using the theoretical time step that arises from the linear stability analysis used on the right handside. Such a time averaging procedure is developed with reference to the bubbly flow regime. Moreover, the concept of mass that must be exchanged to reach equilibrium from a non-equilibrium state is introduced to limit the mass transfer during a time step. Finally some practical calculations are performed to compare the different correlations for the average mass transfer rate developed in this work. (orig.) [de

  8. Relative performance of priority rules for hybrid flow shop scheduling with setup times

    Helio Yochihiro Fuchigami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses the hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with explicit and sequence-independent setup times. This production environment is a multistage system with unidirectional flow of jobs, wherein each stage may contain multiple machines available for processing. The optimized measure was the total time to complete the schedule (makespan. The aim was to propose new priority rules to support the schedule and to evaluate their relative performance at the production system considered by the percentage of success, relative deviation, standard deviation of relative deviation, and average CPU time. Computational experiments have indicated that the rules using ascending order of the sum of processing and setup times of the first stage (SPT1 and SPT1_ERD performed better, reaching together more than 56% of success.

  9. A Fourier Collocation Approach for Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flowmeter Under Multi-Phase Flow Conditions

    Simurda, Matej; Lassen, Benny; Duggen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    A numerical model for a clamp-on transit-time ultrasonic flowmeter (TTUF) under multi-phase flow conditions is presented. The method solves equations of linear elasticity for isotropic heterogeneous materials with background flow where acoustic media are modeled by setting shear modulus to zero....... Spatial derivatives are calculated by a Fourier collocation method allowing the use of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and time derivatives are approximated by a finite difference (FD) scheme. This approach is sometimes referred to as a pseudospectral time-domain method. Perfectly matched layers (PML......) are used to avoid wave-wrapping and staggered grids are implemented to improve stability and efficiency. The method is verified against exact analytical solutions and the effect of the time-staggering and associated lowest number of points per minimum wavelengths value is discussed. The method...

  10. The time scale for the transition to turbulence in a high Reynolds number, accelerated flow

    Robey, H.F.; Zhou Ye; Buckingham, A.C.; Keiter, P.; Remington, B.A.; Drake, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment is described in which an interface between materials of different density is subjected to an acceleration history consisting of a strong shock followed by a period of deceleration. The resulting flow at this interface, initiated by the deposition of strong laser radiation into the initially well characterized solid materials, is unstable to both the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities. These experiments are of importance in their ability to access a difficult experimental regime characterized by very high energy density (high temperature and pressure) as well as large Reynolds number and Mach number. Such conditions are of interest, for example, in the study of the RM/RT induced mixing that occurs during the explosion of a core-collapse supernova. Under these experimental conditions, the flow is in the plasma state and given enough time will transition to turbulence. By analysis of the experimental data and a corresponding one-dimensional numerical simulation of the experiment, it is shown that the Reynolds number is sufficiently large (Re>10 5 ) to support a turbulent flow. An estimate of three key turbulence length scales (the Taylor and Kolmogorov microscales and a viscous diffusion scale), however, shows that the temporal duration of the present flow is insufficient to allow for the development of a turbulent inertial subrange. A methodology is described for estimating the time required under these conditions for the development of a fully turbulent flow

  11. A Modified Groundwater Flow Model Using the Space Time Riemann-Liouville Fractional Derivatives Approximation

    Abdon Atangana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of uncertainty in groundwater hydrology is of great importance as it is known to result in misleading output when neglected or not properly accounted for. In this paper we examine this effect in groundwater flow models. To achieve this, we first introduce the uncertainties functions u as function of time and space. The function u accounts for the lack of knowledge or variability of the geological formations in which flow occur (aquifer in time and space. We next make use of Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives that were introduced by Kobelev and Romano in 2000 and its approximation to modify the standard version of groundwater flow equation. Some properties of the modified Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative approximation are presented. The classical model for groundwater flow, in the case of density-independent flow in a uniform homogeneous aquifer is reformulated by replacing the classical derivative by the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives approximations. The modified equation is solved via the technique of green function and the variational iteration method.

  12. Investigation of liquid phase axial dispersion in Taylor bubble flow by radiotracer residence time distribution analysis

    Jin J.H.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A gas-liquid Taylor bubble flow occurs in small diameter channels in which gas bubbles are separated by slugs of pure liquid. This type of flow regime is well suited for solid catalyzed gas-liquid reactors in which the reaction efficiency is a strong function of axial dispersion in the regions of pure liquid. This paper presents an experimental study of liquid phase axial dispersion in a Taylor bubble flow developed in a horizontal tube using high speed photography and radiotracer residence time distribution (RTD analysis. A parametric dependence of axial dispersion on average volume fraction of gas phase was also investigated by varying the relative volumetric flow rates of the two phases. 137mBa produced from a 137Cs/137mBa radionuclide generator was used as radiotracer and measurements were made using the NaI(Tl scintillation detectors. Validation of 137mBa in the form of barium chloride as aqueous phase radiotracer was also carried out. Axial Dispersion Model (ADM was used to simulate the hydrodynamics of the system and the results of the experiment are presented. It was observed that the system is characterized by very high values of Peclet Number (Pe∼102 which reveals an approaching plug type flow. The experimental and model estimated values of mean residence times were observed in agreement with each other.

  13. Time-based MRPC detector response simulations for the CBM time-of-flight system

    Simon, Christian; Herrmann, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut und Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The design goal of the future Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is to measure rare probes of dense strongly interacting matter with an unprecedented accuracy. Target interaction rates of up to 10 MHz need to be processed by the detector. The time-of-flight (TOF) wall of CBM which should provide hadron identification at particle fluxes of up to a few tens of kHz/cm{sup 2} is composed of high-resolution timing multi-gap resistive plate chambers (MRPCs). Due to the self-triggered digitization and readout scheme of CBM comprising online event reconstruction preparatory Monte Carlo (MC) transport and response simulations including the MRPC array need to be carried out in a time-based fashion. While in an event-based simulation mode interference between MC tracks in a detector volume owing to rate effects or electronics dead time is confined to a single event, time-based response simulations need to take into account track pile-up and interference across events. A proposed time-based digitizer class for CBM-TOF within the CbmRoot software framework is presented.

  14. A point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems

    Kadioglu, Samet Y., E-mail: kadioglu@yildiz.edu.tr [Department of Mathematical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34210 Davutpasa-Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Berry, Ray A., E-mail: ray.berry@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 3840, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Martineau, Richard C. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 3840, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • This new method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods. • It is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. • It exhibits the simplicity of implementation of an explicit method. • It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration such as can occur inside nuclear reactor coolant systems. • Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very efficiently; and its implementation is very robust. - Abstract: We introduce a point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems. The method treats the solution variables of interest (that can be located at cell centers, cell edges, or cell nodes) implicitly and the rest of the information related to same or other variables are handled explicitly. The method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods, except it involves a few additional function(s) evaluation steps. Moreover, the method is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. This new approach exhibits the simplicity of implementation of explicit methods and the stability of implicit methods. It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration wherein one would like to perform time integrations with very large time steps. Because the method can be time inaccurate for fast transient problems, particularly with larger time steps, an appropriate solution strategy for a problem that evolves from a fast to a slow transient would be to integrate the fast transient with an explicit or semi-implicit technique and then switch to this point implicit method as soon as the time variation slows sufficiently. We have solved several test problems that result from scalar or systems of flow equations. Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very

  15. A point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems

    Kadioglu, Samet Y.; Berry, Ray A.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This new method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods. • It is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. • It exhibits the simplicity of implementation of an explicit method. • It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration such as can occur inside nuclear reactor coolant systems. • Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very efficiently; and its implementation is very robust. - Abstract: We introduce a point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems. The method treats the solution variables of interest (that can be located at cell centers, cell edges, or cell nodes) implicitly and the rest of the information related to same or other variables are handled explicitly. The method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods, except it involves a few additional function(s) evaluation steps. Moreover, the method is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. This new approach exhibits the simplicity of implementation of explicit methods and the stability of implicit methods. It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration wherein one would like to perform time integrations with very large time steps. Because the method can be time inaccurate for fast transient problems, particularly with larger time steps, an appropriate solution strategy for a problem that evolves from a fast to a slow transient would be to integrate the fast transient with an explicit or semi-implicit technique and then switch to this point implicit method as soon as the time variation slows sufficiently. We have solved several test problems that result from scalar or systems of flow equations. Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very

  16. Bifurcation and stability of an improved time-delayed fluid flow model in internet congestion control

    Yu-Liang, Liu; Jie, Zhu; Xiao-Shu, Luo

    2009-01-01

    Based on the fluid flow time-delayed model proposed by Misra et al in internet congestion control, one modified time-delayed model is presented, where the influence of the communication delay on the router queue length is investigated in detail. The main advantage of the new model is that its stability domain is larger even without an extra controller. By linear stability analysis and numerical simulation, the effectiveness and feasibility of the novel model in internet congestion control are verified

  17. Bifurcation and stability of an improved time-delayed fluid flow model in internet congestion control

    Liu, Yu-Liang; Zhu, Jie; Luo, Xiao-Shu

    2009-09-01

    Based on the fluid flow time-delayed model proposed by Misra et al in internet congestion control, one modified time-delayed model is presented, where the influence of the communication delay on the router queue length is investigated in detail. The main advantage of the new model is that its stability domain is larger even without an extra controller. By linear stability analysis and numerical simulation, the effectiveness and feasibility of the novel model in internet congestion control are verified.

  18. Idealized flow patterns and transit times in gas/liquid contacting trays with multiple box downcomers

    D'Arcy, D.

    1977-08-01

    Trays with multiple box downcomers are often used in chemical process plants nowadays. In order to make a theoretical assessment of the mass transfer efficiency of such trays, knowledge is needed of the time spent by the liquid at various parts of the tray. An idealized but reasonable flow pattern has been assumed and the local velocities and transit times along ten equally-spaced stream lines have been computed. Numerical and graphical results are presented. (author)

  19. Capturing Real-Time Data in Disaster Response Logistics

    Kezban Yagci Sokat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The volume, accuracy, accessibility and level of detail of near real-time data emerging from disaster-affected regions continue to significantly improve. Integration of dynamically evolving in-field data is an important, yet often overlooked, component of the humanitarian logistics models. In this paper, we present a framework for real-time humanitarian logistics data focused on use in mathematical modeling along with modeling implications of this framework. We also discuss how one might measure the attributes of the framework and describe the application of the presented framework to a case study of near real-time data collection in the days following the landfall of Typhoon Haiyan. We detail our first-hand experience of capturing data as the post-disaster response unfolds starting on November 10, 2013 until March 31, 2014 and assess the characteristics and evolution of data pertaining to humanitarian logistics modeling using the proposed framework. The presented logistical content analysis examines the availability of data and informs modelers about the current state of near real-time data. This analysis illustrates what data is available, how early it is available, and how data changes after the disaster. The study describes how our humanitarian logistics team approached the emergence of dynamic online data after the disaster and the challenges faced during the collection process, as well as recommendations to address these challenges in the future (when possible from an academic humanitarian logistics perspective.

  20. Multiscale time-splitting strategy for multiscale multiphysics processes of two-phase flow in fractured media

    Sun, S.; Kou, J.; Yu, B.

    2011-01-01

    The temporal discretization scheme is one important ingredient of efficient simulator for two-phase flow in the fractured porous media. The application of single-scale temporal scheme is restricted by the rapid changes of the pressure and saturation in the fractured system with capillarity. In this paper, we propose a multi-scale time splitting strategy to simulate multi-scale multi-physics processes of two-phase flow in fractured porous media. We use the multi-scale time schemes for both the pressure and saturation equations; that is, a large time-step size is employed for the matrix domain, along with a small time-step size being applied in the fractures. The total time interval is partitioned into four temporal levels: the first level is used for the pressure in the entire domain, the second level matching rapid changes of the pressure in the fractures, the third level treating the response gap between the pressure and the saturation, and the fourth level applied for the saturation in the fractures. This method can reduce the computational cost arisen from the implicit solution of the pressure equation. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  1. Flow-rate measurement using radioactive tracers and transit time method

    Turtiainen, Heikki

    1986-08-01

    The transit time method is a flow measurement method based on tracer techniques. Measurement is done by injecting to the flow a pulse of tracer and measuring its transit time between two detection positions. From the transit time the mean flow velosity and - using the pipe cross section area - the volume flow rate can be calculated. When a radioisotope tracer is used the measurement can be done from outside the pipe and without disturbing the process (excluding the tracer injection). The use of the transit time method has been limited because of difficulties associated with handling and availability of radioactive tracers and lack of equipment suitable for routine use in industrial environments. The purpose of this study was to find out if these difficulties may be overcome by using a portable isotope generator as a tracer source and automating the measurement. In the study a test rig and measuring equipment based on the use of a ''1''3''7Cs/''1''3''7''''mBa isotope generator were constructed. They were used to study the accuracy and error sources of the method and to compare different algorithms to calculate the transit time. The usability of the method and the equipment in industrial environments were studied by carrying out over 20 flow measurements in paper and pulp mills. On the basis of the results of the study, a project for constructing a compact radiatracer flowmeter for industrial use has been started. The application range of this kind of meter is very large. The most obvious applications are in situ calibration of flowmeters, material and energy balance studies, process equipment analyses (e.g. pump efficiency analyses). At the moment tracer techniques are the only methods applicable to these measurements on-line and with sufficient accuracy

  2. Exposure Time Distributions reveal Denitrification Rates along Groundwater Flow Path of an Agricultural Unconfined Aquifer

    Kolbe, T.; Abbott, B. W.; Thomas, Z.; Labasque, T.; Aquilina, L.; Laverman, A.; Babey, T.; Marçais, J.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Peiffer, S.; De Dreuzy, J. R.; Pinay, G.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater contamination by nitrate is nearly ubiquitous in agricultural regions. Nitrate is highly mobile in groundwater and though it can be denitrified in the aquifer (reduced to inert N2 gas), this process requires the simultaneous occurrence of anoxia, an electron donor (e.g. organic carbon, pyrite), nitrate, and microorganisms capable of denitrification. In addition to this the ratio of the time groundwater spent in a denitrifying environment (exposure time) to the characteristic denitrification reaction time plays an important role, because denitrification can only occur if the exposure time is longer than the characteristic reaction time. Despite a long history of field studies and numerical models, it remains exceedingly difficult to measure or model exposure times in the subsurface at the catchment scale. To approach this problem, we developed a unified modelling approach combining measured environmental proxies with an exposure time based reactive transport model. We measured groundwater age, nitrogen and sulfur isotopes, and water chemistry from agricultural wells in an unconfined aquifer in Brittany, France, to quantify changes in nitrate concentration due to dilution and denitrification. Field data showed large differences in nitrate concentrations among wells, associated with differences in the exposure time distributions. By constraining a catchment-scale characteristic reaction time for denitrification with water chemistry proxies and exposure times, we were able to assess rates of denitrification along groundwater flow paths. This unified modeling approach is transferable to other catchments and could be further used to investigate how catchment structure and flow dynamics interact with biogeochemical processes such as denitrification.

  3. Prediction about chaotic times series of natural circulation flow under rolling motion

    Yuan Can; Cai Qi; Guo Li; Yan Feng

    2014-01-01

    The paper have proposed a chaotic time series prediction model, which combined phase space reconstruction with support vector machines. The model has been used to predict the coolant volume flow, in which a synchronous parameter optimization method was brought up based on particle swarm optimization algorithm, since the numerical value selection of related parameter was a key factor for the prediction precision. The average relative error of prediction values and actual observation values was l,5% and relative precision was 0.9879. The result indicated that the model could apply for the natural circulation coolant volume flow prediction under rolling motion condition with high accuracy and robustness. (authors)

  4. Positivity-preserving space-time CE/SE scheme for high speed flows

    Shen, Hua

    2017-03-02

    We develop a space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme using a simple slope limiter to preserve the positivity of the density and pressure in computations of inviscid and viscous high-speed flows. In general, the limiter works with all existing CE/SE schemes. Here, we test the limiter on a central Courant number insensitive (CNI) CE/SE scheme implemented on hybrid unstructured meshes. Numerical examples show that the proposed limiter preserves the positivity of the density and pressure without disrupting the conservation law; it also improves robustness without losing accuracy in solving high-speed flows.

  5. Positivity-preserving space-time CE/SE scheme for high speed flows

    Shen, Hua; Parsani, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    We develop a space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme using a simple slope limiter to preserve the positivity of the density and pressure in computations of inviscid and viscous high-speed flows. In general, the limiter works with all existing CE/SE schemes. Here, we test the limiter on a central Courant number insensitive (CNI) CE/SE scheme implemented on hybrid unstructured meshes. Numerical examples show that the proposed limiter preserves the positivity of the density and pressure without disrupting the conservation law; it also improves robustness without losing accuracy in solving high-speed flows.

  6. Simulation of time-dependent free-surface Navier-Stokes flows

    Muldowney, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    Two numerical methods for simulation of time-dependent free-surface Navier-Stokes flows are developed. Both techniques are based on semi-implicit time advancement of the momentum equations, integral formulation of the spatial problem at each timestep, and spectral-element discretization to solve the resulting integral equation. Central to each algorithm is a boundary-specific solution step which permits the spatial treatment in two dimensions to be performed in O(N 3 ) operations per timestep despite the presence of deforming geometry. The first approach is a domain-integral formulation involving integrals over the entire flow domain of kernel functions which arise in time-differencing the Navier-Stokes equations. The second is a particular-solution formulation which replaces domain integration with an iterative scheme to generate particular velocity and pressure fields on individual elements, followed by a patching step to produce a particular solution continuous over the full domain. Two of the most difficult aspects of viscous free-surface flow simulations, namely time-dependent geometry and nontrivial boundary conditions, are well accommodated by these integral equation techniques. In addition the methods offer spectral accuracy in space and admit arbitrarily high-order discretization in time. For large-scale computations and/or long-term time advancement the domain-integral algorithm must be executed on a supercomputer to deliver results in reasonable processing time. A detailed simulation of gas liquid flow with full resolution of the free phase boundary requires approximately five CPU hours at 80 megaflops

  7. Measurements of time-dependent liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic flows in a flat rectangular duct

    Buehler, L.; Horanyi, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the helium-cooled lead lithium (HCLL) blanket, which has been chosen as a reference concept for a liquid-metal breeding blanket to be tested in ITER, the heat is removed by helium cooled plates aligned with the strong toroidal magnetic field that confines the fusion plasma. The liquid breeder lead lithium circulates through gaps of rectangular cross-section between the cooling plates to transport the generated tritium towards external extraction facilities. Under the action of the strong magnetic field, liquid metal flows in conducting rectangular ducts exhibit jet-like velocity profiles in the thin boundary layers near the side walls, which are parallel to the magnetic field like the cooling plates in HCLL blankets. The velocity in these side layers may exceed several times the mean velocity in the duct and it is known that these layers become unstable for sufficiently high Reynolds numbers. The present paper summarizes experimental results for such unstable time-dependent flows in strong magnetic fields, which have been obtained in the MEKKA liquid metal laboratory of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. In particular, spatial and temporal scales of perturbation patterns are identified. The results suggest that the flow between cooling plates in a HCLL blanket is laminar and stable. The observed time-dependent flow behavior appears at larger velocities so that the present results are more relevant for applications in dual coolant concepts where high-velocity jets have been predicted along side walls.

  8. A better understanding of long-range temporal dependence of traffic flow time series

    Feng, Shuo; Wang, Xingmin; Sun, Haowei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Li

    2018-02-01

    Long-range temporal dependence is an important research perspective for modelling of traffic flow time series. Various methods have been proposed to depict the long-range temporal dependence, including autocorrelation function analysis, spectral analysis and fractal analysis. However, few researches have studied the daily temporal dependence (i.e. the similarity between different daily traffic flow time series), which can help us better understand the long-range temporal dependence, such as the origin of crossover phenomenon. Moreover, considering both types of dependence contributes to establishing more accurate model and depicting the properties of traffic flow time series. In this paper, we study the properties of daily temporal dependence by simple average method and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based method. Meanwhile, we also study the long-range temporal dependence by Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA). The results show that both the daily and long-range temporal dependence exert considerable influence on the traffic flow series. The DFA results reveal that the daily temporal dependence creates crossover phenomenon when estimating the Hurst exponent which depicts the long-range temporal dependence. Furthermore, through the comparison of the DFA test, PCA-based method turns out to be a better method to extract the daily temporal dependence especially when the difference between days is significant.

  9. Real-time monitoring of capacity loss for vanadium redox flow battery

    Wei, Zhongbao; Bhattarai, Arjun; Zou, Changfu; Meng, Shujuan; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2018-06-01

    The long-term operation of the vanadium redox flow battery is accompanied by ion diffusion across the separator and side reactions, which can lead to electrolyte imbalance and capacity loss. The accurate online monitoring of capacity loss is therefore valuable for the reliable and efficient operation of vanadium redox flow battery system. In this paper, a model-based online monitoring method is proposed to detect capacity loss in the vanadium redox flow battery in real time. A first-order equivalent circuit model is built to capture the dynamics of the vanadium redox flow battery. The model parameters are online identified from the onboard measureable signals with the recursive least squares, in seeking to keep a high modeling accuracy and robustness under a wide range of working scenarios. Based on the online adapted model, an observer is designed with the extended Kalman Filter to keep tracking both the capacity and state of charge of the battery in real time. Experiments are conducted on a lab-scale battery system. Results suggest that the online adapted model is able to simulate the battery behavior with high accuracy. The capacity loss as well as the state of charge can be estimated accurately in a real-time manner.

  10. A proposal simulated annealing algorithm for proportional parallel flow shops with separated setup times

    Helio Yochihiro Fuchigami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the problem of minimizing makespan on two parallel flow shops with proportional processing and setup times. The setup times are separated and sequence-independent. The parallel flow shop scheduling problem is a specific case of well-known hybrid flow shop, characterized by a multistage production system with more than one machine working in parallel at each stage. This situation is very common in various kinds of companies like chemical, electronics, automotive, pharmaceutical and food industries. This work aimed to propose six Simulated Annealing algorithms, their perturbation schemes and an algorithm for initial sequence generation. This study can be classified as “applied research” regarding the nature, “exploratory” about the objectives and “experimental” as to procedures, besides the “quantitative” approach. The proposed algorithms were effective regarding the solution and computationally efficient. Results of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA revealed no significant difference between the schemes in terms of makespan. It’s suggested the use of PS4 scheme, which moves a subsequence of jobs, for providing the best percentage of success. It was also found that there is a significant difference between the results of the algorithms for each value of the proportionality factor of the processing and setup times of flow shops.

  11. The nitrate response of a lowland catchment and groundwater travel times

    van der Velde, Ype; Rozemeijer, Joachim; de Rooij, Gerrit; van Geer, Frans

    2010-05-01

    Intensive agriculture in lowland catchments causes eutrophication of downstream waters. To determine effective measures to reduce the nutrient loads from upstream lowland catchments, we need to understand the origin of long-term and daily variations in surface water nutrient concentrations. Surface water concentrations are often linked to travel time distributions of water passing through the saturated and unsaturated soil of the contributing catchment. This distribution represents the contact time over which sorption, desorption and degradation takes place. However, travel time distributions are strongly influenced by processes like tube drain flow, overland flow and the dynamics of draining ditches and streams and therefore exhibit strong daily and seasonal variations. The study we will present is situated in the 6.6 km2 Hupsel brook catchment in The Netherlands. In this catchment nitrate and chloride concentrations have been intensively monitored for the past 26 years under steadily decreasing agricultural inputs. We described the complicated dynamics of subsurface water fluxes as streams, ditches and tube drains locally switch between active or passive depending on the ambient groundwater level by a groundwater model with high spatial and temporal resolutions. A transient particle tracking approach is used to derive a unique catchment-scale travel time distribution for each day during the 26 year model period. These transient travel time distributions are not smooth distributions, but distributions that are strongly spiked reflecting the contribution of past rainfall events to the current discharge. We will show that a catchment-scale mass response function approach that only describes catchment-scale mixing and degradation suffices to accurately reproduce observed chloride and nitrate surface water concentrations as long as the mass response functions include the dynamics of travel time distributions caused by the highly variable connectivity of the surface

  12. Analysis of interaction between TGF and the myogenic response in renal blood flow autoregulation

    Feldberg, R; Colding-Jørgensen, M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1995-01-01

    . The contribution of TGF to smooth muscle activity is assumed to be a linear function of the glomerular capillary pressure. The results show that the myogenic response plays an important role in renal blood flow autoregulation. Without a myogenic response, mechanisms such as TGF that are localized in the distal......The present study investigates the interaction between the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) response and the myogenic mechanism by use of a mathematical model. The two control mechanisms are implemented in a spatially distributed model of the rat renal juxtamedullary afferent arteriole. The model...

  13. Period variations in pulsating X-ray sources. I. Accretion flow parameters and neutron star structure from timing observations

    Lamb, F.K.; Pines, D.; Shaham, J.

    1978-01-01

    We show that valuable information about both accretion flows and neutron star structure can be obtained from X-ray timing observations of period variations in pulsating sources. Such variations can result from variations in the accretion flow, or from internal torque variations, associated with oscillations of the fluid core or the unpinning of vortices in the inner crust. We develop a statistical description of torque variations in terms of noise processes, indicate how the applicability of such a description may be tested observationally, and show how it may be used to determine from observation both the properties of accretion flows and the internal structure of neutron stars, including the relative inertial moments of the crust and superfluid neutron core, the crust-core coupling time, and the frequencies of any low-frequency internal collective modes. Particular attention is paid to the physical origin of spin-down episodes; it is shown that usyc episodes may result either from external torque reversals or from internal torque variations.With the aid of the statistical description, the response of the star to torque fluctuations is calculated for three stellar models: (i) a completely rigid star; (ii) a two-component star; and (iii) a two-component star with a finite-frequency internal mode, such as the Tkachenko mode of a rotating neutron superfluid. Our calculations show that fluctuating torques could account for the period the period variations and spin-down episodes observed in Her X-1 and Cen X-3, including the large spin-down event observed in the latter source during 1972 September-October. The torque noise strengths inferred from current timing observations using the simple two-component models are shown to be consistent with those to be expected from fluctuations in accretion flows onto magnetic neutron stars

  14. Hydromagnetic natural convection flow between vertical parallel plates with time-periodic boundary conditions

    Adesanya, S.O.; Oluwadare, E.O.; Falade, J.A.; Makinde, O.D.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the free convective flow of magnetohydrodynamic fluid through a channel with time periodic boundary condition is investigated by taking the effects of Joule dissipation into consideration. Based on simplifying assumptions, the coupled governing equations are reduced to a set of nonlinear boundary valued problem. Approximate solutions are obtained by using semi-analytical Adomian decomposition method. The effect of pertinent parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature distribution, Nusselt number and skin friction are presented graphically and discussed. The result of the computation shows that an increase in the magnetic field intensity has significant influence on the fluid flow. - Highlights: • The influence of magnetic field on the free convective fluid flow is considered. • The coupled equations are solved by using Adomian decomposition method. • The Adomian series solution agreed with previously obtained result. • Magnetic field decreases the velocity maximum but enhances temperature field

  15. Radionuclide determination of brain blood flow time and its clinical significance

    Vlakhov, N.; Vylkanov, P.; Kirkov, M.

    1986-01-01

    Brain blood flow time in the two cerebral hemispheres was measured by the method of radioisotope circulography. The radiopharmaceutical used was 131 I-hypuran with activity 3,7 μBq in volume 0,3 ml. Registrations were made with two-channel radiograph GAMMA (Hungary) with external diameter of the colimator 50 mm. Tape speed was 160 mm/min at time costant 10. Patients with neurological and neurosurgical symptoms, as well as a group of normal subjects, were examined. Brain blood flow time varied within the range 5,5-7,5 s for either sex. It was increased in patients with concussion of the brain, epilepsy, atherosclerosis and tumors and shortened in patients with arterio-venous aneurysm. Conclusion is made that the diagnosis value of the method is high, it is practicable with no radiation load and furnisches reliable information on the effectiveness of surgical or drug treatment

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow and CSF pressures during Cushing response induced by a supratentorial expanding mass

    Schrader, H.; Zwetnow, N.N.; Moerkrid, L.

    1985-01-01

    In order to delineate the critical blood flow pattern during the Cushing response in intracranial hypertension, regional cerebral blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres in 12 anesthetized dogs at respiratory arrest caused either by expansion of an epidural supratentorial balloon or by cisternal infusion. Regional cerebrospinal fluid pressures were recorded and the local cerebral perfusion pressure calculated in various cerebrospinal compartments. In the 8 dogs of the balloon expansion group, the systemic arterial pressure was unmanipulated in 4, while it was kept at a constant low level (48 and 70 mm Hg) in 2 dogs and, in another 2 dogs, at a constant high level (150 and 160 mm Hg) induced by infusion of Aramine. At respiratory arrest, regional cerebral blood flow had a stereotyped pattern and was largely independent of the blood pressure level. In contrast, concomitant pressure gradients between the various cerebrospinal compartments varied markedly in the 3 animal groups increasing with higher arterial pressure. Flow decreased by 85-100% supratentorially and by 70-100% in the upper brain stem down to the level of the upper pons, while changes in the lower brain stem were minor, on the average 25%. When intracranial pressure was raised by cisternal infusion in 4 dogs, the supratentorial blood flow pattern at respiratory arrest was appriximately similar to the flow pattern in the balloon inflation group. However, blood flow decreased markedly (74-85%) also in the lower brain stem. The results constitute another argument in favour of the Cushing response in supratentorial expansion being caused by ischemia in the brain stem. The critical ischemic region seems to be located rostrally to the oblongate medulla, probably in the pons. (author)

  17. Finite-time barriers to front propagation in two-dimensional fluid flows

    Mahoney, John R.; Mitchell, Kevin A.

    2015-08-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated the role of certain invariant manifolds, termed burning invariant manifolds (BIMs), as one-way dynamical barriers to reaction fronts propagating within a flowing fluid. These barriers form one-dimensional curves in a two-dimensional fluid flow. In prior studies, the fluid velocity field was required to be either time-independent or time-periodic. In the present study, we develop an approach to identify prominent one-way barriers based only on fluid velocity data over a finite time interval, which may have arbitrary time-dependence. We call such a barrier a burning Lagrangian coherent structure (bLCS) in analogy to Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) commonly used in passive advection. Our approach is based on the variational formulation of LCSs using curves of stationary "Lagrangian shear," introduced by Farazmand et al. [Physica D 278-279, 44 (2014)] in the context of passive advection. We numerically validate our technique by demonstrating that the bLCS closely tracks the BIM for a time-independent, double-vortex channel flow with an opposing "wind."

  18. Dynamic response characteristics of dual flow-path integrally bladed rotors

    Beck, Joseph A.; Brown, Jeffrey M.; Scott-Emuakpor, Onome E.; Cross, Charles J.; Slater, Joseph C.

    2015-02-01

    New turbine engine designs requiring secondary flow compression often look to dual flow-path integrally bladed rotors (DFIBRs) since these stages have the ability to perform work on the secondary, or bypassed, flow-field. While analogous to traditional integrally bladed rotor stages, DFIBR designs have many differences that result in unique dynamic response characteristics that must be understood to avoid fatigue. This work investigates these characteristics using reduced-order models (ROMs) that incorporate mistuning through perturbations to blade frequencies. This work provides an alternative to computationally intensive geometric-mistuning approaches for DFIBRs by utilizing tuned blade mode reductions and substructure coupling in cyclic coordinates. Free and forced response results are compared to full finite element model (FEM) solutions to determine if any errors are related to the reduced-order model formulation reduction methods. It is shown that DFIBRs have many more frequency veering regions than their single flow-path integrally blade rotor (IBR) counterparts. Modal families are shown to transition between system, inner-blade, and outer-blade motion. Furthermore, findings illustrate that while mode localization of traditional IBRs is limited to a single or small subset of blades, DFIBRs can have modal energy localized to either an inner- or outer-blade set resulting in many blades responding above tuned levels. Lastly, ROM forced response predictions compare well to full FEM predictions for the two test cases shown.

  19. Radiotracer method for residence time distribution study in multiphase flow system

    Sugiharto, S.; Su'ud, Z.; Kurniadi, R.; Wibisono, W.; Abidin, Z.

    2009-01-01

    [ 131 I] isotope in different chemical compounds have been injected into 24 in hydrocarbon transmission pipeline containing approximately 95% water, 3% crude oil, 2% gas and negligible solid material, respectively. The system is operated at the temperature around 70 deg. C enabling fluids flow is easier in the pipeline. The segment of measurement was chosen far from the junction point of the pipeline, therefore, it was reasonably to assume that the fluids in such multiphase system were separated distinctively. Expandable tubing of injector was used to ensure that the isotopes were injected at the proper place in the sense that [ 131 I]Na isotope was injected into water layer and iodo-benzene, [131] IC 6 H 5, was injected into crude oil regime. The radiotracer selection was based on the compatibility of radiotracer with each of fluids under investigation. [ 131 I]Na was used for measuring flow of water while iodo-benzene, [131] IC 6 H 5, was used for measuring flow of crude oil. Two scintillation detectors were used and they are put at the distances 80 and 100 m, respectively, from injection point. The residence time distribution data were utilized for calculation water and crude oil flows. Several injections were conducted in the experiments. Although the crude oil density is lighter than the density of water, the result of measurement shows that the water flow is faster than the crude oil flow. As the system is water-dominated, water may act as carrier and the movement of crude oil is slowed due to friction between crude oil with water and crude oil with gas at top layer. Above of all, this result was able to give answer on the question why crude oil always arrives behind water as it is checked at gathering station. In addition, the flow patterns of the water in the pipeline calculated by Reynolds number and predicted by simple tank-in-series model is turbulence in character.

  20. A study of fluid flow and combustion with variable valve timing

    Soederberg, F

    1998-10-01

    The effects of variable valve timing (VVT) were examined by in-cylinder Laser Doppler Velocimetry flow measurements and heat-release calculations. A single-cylinder Volvo B5254 engine was used for all experiments and the valve timing was altered by phasing or exchanging the camshaft. Special cam lobes were developed for simulation of throttle-less operation. With the standard double camshaft, a tumbling flow was generated and with valve deactivation, a swirling flow was generated. The turbulence was increased with valve deactivation. This increased the combustion rate making lean burn possible. The standard camshaft with inlet valve deactivation and late cam phasing had a faster combustion at {lambda} = 1.8 than the standard camshaft with normal cam phasing at {lambda} = 1.0. Early and late inlet valve closing was used for enabling throttle-less operation. Early inlet valve closing (EIVC) generated a very slow tumble with low turbulence. Late inlet valve closing generated both very high and low turbulence. The net indicated efficiency was improved with up to 10%. Some reduction was observed for the gross indicated efficiency, due to a too large reduction in effective compression ratio. A very stable combustion was obtained for EIVC with gasoline, possibly due to a sheering flow over the inlet valves resulting in improved fuel-air preparation. Wavelet analysis was used for dividing LDV flow measurements into time and frequency resolved information. The technique rendered the same flow results as the moving window technique, but with a separation of the turbulence into different frequencies. The choice of wavelet was shown not to be crucial. The frequency resolved turbulence was studied for tumble and swirl. A tumbling flow had a larger transfer of energy from low frequency turbulence into high frequency turbulence than a swirling flow. This is caused by the tumble breakdown. A correlation against heat-release indicated that high frequency turbulence have a larger

  1. Investigation of the effects of time periodic pressure and engpotential gradients on viscoelastic fluid flow in circular narrow confinements

    Nguyen, Trieu; van der Meer, Devaraj; van den Berg, Albert

    2017-01-01

    -Boltzmann equation, together with the incompressible Cauchy momentum equation under no-slip boundary conditions for viscoelastic fluid in the case of a combination of time periodic pressure-driven and electro-osmotic flow. The resulting solutions allow us to predict the electrical current and solution flow rate...... conversion applications. We also found that time periodic electro-osmotic flow in many cases is much stronger enhanced than time periodic pressure-driven flow when comparing the flow profiles of oscillating PDF and EOF in micro-and nanochannels. The findings advance our understanding of time periodic......In this paper we present an in-depth analysis and analytical solution for time periodic hydrodynamic flow (driven by a time-dependent pressure gradient and electric field) of viscoelastic fluid through cylindrical micro-and nanochannels. Particularly, we solve the linearized Poisson...

  2. Microfluidic Imaging Flow Cytometry by Asymmetric-detection Time-stretch Optical Microscopy (ATOM).

    Tang, Anson H L; Lai, Queenie T K; Chung, Bob M F; Lee, Kelvin C M; Mok, Aaron T Y; Yip, G K; Shum, Anderson H C; Wong, Kenneth K Y; Tsia, Kevin K

    2017-06-28

    Scaling the number of measurable parameters, which allows for multidimensional data analysis and thus higher-confidence statistical results, has been the main trend in the advanced development of flow cytometry. Notably, adding high-resolution imaging capabilities allows for the complex morphological analysis of cellular/sub-cellular structures. This is not possible with standard flow cytometers. However, it is valuable for advancing our knowledge of cellular functions and can benefit life science research, clinical diagnostics, and environmental monitoring. Incorporating imaging capabilities into flow cytometry compromises the assay throughput, primarily due to the limitations on speed and sensitivity in the camera technologies. To overcome this speed or throughput challenge facing imaging flow cytometry while preserving the image quality, asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (ATOM) has been demonstrated to enable high-contrast, single-cell imaging with sub-cellular resolution, at an imaging throughput as high as 100,000 cells/s. Based on the imaging concept of conventional time-stretch imaging, which relies on all-optical image encoding and retrieval through the use of ultrafast broadband laser pulses, ATOM further advances imaging performance by enhancing the image contrast of unlabeled/unstained cells. This is achieved by accessing the phase-gradient information of the cells, which is spectrally encoded into single-shot broadband pulses. Hence, ATOM is particularly advantageous in high-throughput measurements of single-cell morphology and texture - information indicative of cell types, states, and even functions. Ultimately, this could become a powerful imaging flow cytometry platform for the biophysical phenotyping of cells, complementing the current state-of-the-art biochemical-marker-based cellular assay. This work describes a protocol to establish the key modules of an ATOM system (from optical frontend to data processing and visualization

  3. Jet Engine Fan Response to Inlet Distortions Generated by Ingesting Boundary Layer Flow

    Giuliani, James Edward

    Future civil transport designs may incorporate engines integrated into the body of the aircraft to take advantage of efficiency increases due to weight and drag reduction. Additional increases in engine efficiency are predicted if the inlets ingest the lower momentum boundary layer flow that develops along the surface of the aircraft. Previous studies have shown, however, that the efficiency benefits of Boundary Layer Ingesting (BLI) inlets are very sensitive to the magnitude of fan and duct losses, and blade structural response to the non-uniform flow field that results from a BLI inlet has not been studied in-depth. This project represents an effort to extend the modeling capabilities of TURBO, an existing rotating turbomachinery unsteady analysis code, to include the ability to solve the external and internal flow fields of a BLI inlet. The TURBO code has been a successful tool in evaluating fan response to flow distortions for traditional engine/inlet integrations. Extending TURBO to simulate the external and inlet flow field upstream of the fan will allow accurate pressure distortions that result from BLI inlet configurations to be computed and used to analyze fan aerodynamics and structural response. To validate the modifications for the BLI inlet flow field, an experimental NASA project to study flush-mounted S-duct inlets with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion was modeled. Results for the flow upstream and in the inlet are presented and compared to experimental data for several high Reynolds number flows to validate the modifications to the solver. Once the inlet modifications were validated, a hypothetical compressor fan was connected to the inlet, matching the inlet operating conditions so that the effect on the distortion could be evaluated. Although the total pressure distortion upstream of the fan was symmetrical for this geometry, the pressure rise generated by the fan blades was not, because of the velocity non-uniformity of the distortion

  4. QUERY RESPONSE TIME COMPARISON NOSQLDB MONGODB WITH SQLDB ORACLE

    Humasak T. A. Simanjuntak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penyimpanan data saat ini terdapat dua jenis yakni relational database dan non-relational database. Kedua jenis DBMS (Database Managemnet System tersebut berbeda dalam berbagai aspek seperti per-formansi eksekusi query, scalability, reliability maupun struktur penyimpanan data. Kajian ini memiliki tujuan untuk mengetahui perbandingan performansi DBMS antara Oracle sebagai jenis relational data-base dan MongoDB sebagai jenis non-relational database dalam mengolah data terstruktur. Eksperimen dilakukan untuk mengetahui perbandingan performansi kedua DBMS tersebut untuk operasi insert, select, update dan delete dengan menggunakan query sederhana maupun kompleks pada database Northwind. Untuk mencapai tujuan eksperimen, 18 query yang terdiri dari 2 insert query, 10 select query, 2 update query dan 2 delete query dieksekusi. Query dieksekusi melalui sebuah aplikasi .Net yang dibangun sebagai perantara antara user dengan basis data. Eksperimen dilakukan pada tabel dengan atau tanpa relasi pada Oracle dan embedded atau bukan embedded dokumen pada MongoDB. Response time untuk setiap eksekusi query dibandingkan dengan menggunakan metode statistik. Eksperimen menunjukkan response time query untuk proses select, insert, dan update pada MongoDB lebih cepatdaripada Oracle. MongoDB lebih cepat 64.8 % untuk select query;MongoDB lebihcepat 72.8 % untuk insert query dan MongoDB lebih cepat 33.9 % untuk update query. Pada delete query, Oracle lebih cepat 96.8 % daripada MongoDB untuk table yang berelasi, tetapi MongoDB lebih cepat 83.8 % daripada Oracle untuk table yang tidak memiliki relasi.Untuk query kompleks dengan Map Reduce pada MongoDB lebih lambat 97.6% daripada kompleks query dengan aggregate function pada Oracle.

  5. Time-domain Green's Function Method for three-dimensional nonlinear subsonic flows

    Tseng, K.; Morino, L.

    1978-01-01

    The Green's Function Method for linearized 3D unsteady potential flow (embedded in the computer code SOUSSA P) is extended to include the time-domain analysis as well as the nonlinear term retained in the transonic small disturbance equation. The differential-delay equations in time, as obtained by applying the Green's Function Method (in a generalized sense) and the finite-element technique to the transonic equation, are solved directly in the time domain. Comparisons are made with both linearized frequency-domain calculations and existing nonlinear results.

  6. Determination of the water use and water use response of canola to solar radiation and temperature by using heat balance stem flow gauges

    Angadi, S.V.; Cutforth, H.W.; McConkey, B.G.

    2003-01-01

    Sap flow gauges using a heat balance have been reliable for measuring real-time transpiration in a number of crops. However, information on the accuracy of sap flow gauges in canola is lacking. Therefore, a study was conducted to validate the sap flow system in canola and to observe sap flow response to variations in temperature and solar radiation. There were strong relationships between sap flow measured with sap flow gauges and actual transpiration measured by the gravimetric method over short periods of 1 h (r 2 = 0.93 and RMSE = 2.34 g h -1 ), and over longer periods of 1 d (r 2 0.83 and RMSE = 48 g d -1 ), although sap flow slightly overestimated transpiration. In both cases the slope was not significantly different from 1. Water use in canola, estimated with sap flow gauges or from actual transpiration measurement, was dependent upon temperature (r 2 = 0.94 to 0.96). Water use increased until daytime temperatures reached 36 o C, after which water use decreased. Sap flow followed solar radiation trends in the field. Heat is lost or dissipated from the gauges convectively as the sap flows through the stem, conductively through the solid stem material, and radially into the surrounding air. As the convective proportion of the heat loss from the gauge increased, the accuracy of the water use estimation using the sap flow gauges increased. For sunny days, convective heat loss through sap flow accounted for a major portion of the total heat input to the gauges, while on cloudy days radial heat loss from the gauges accounted for a, major portion of the heat input. Thus, at low sap flow rates during cloudy days, the possibility of error in the sap flow system was high. Overall, sap flow in canola was strongly related to daily solar radiation (r 2 = 0.92). The sensitive response to weather variations and the possibility of improving the accuracy at high flow rates in the field makes the use of sap flow gauges a viable option for measuring real-time transpiration in

  7. Renal blood flow, fractional excretion of sodium and acute kidney injury: time for a new paradigm?

    Prowle, John; Bagshaw, Sean M; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2012-12-01

    Global renal blood flow is considered pivotal to renal function. Decreased global renal blood flow (decreased perfusion) is further considered the major mechanism of reduced glomerular filtration rate responsible for the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients. Additionally, urinary biochemical tests are widely taught to allow the differential diagnosis of prerenal (functional) AKI and intrinsic [structural AKI (so-called acute tubular necrosis)]. In this review we will examine recent evidence regarding these two key clinical paradigms. Recent animal experiments and clinical studies in humans using cine-phase contrast magnetic resonance technology are not consistent with the decreased perfusion paradigm. They suggest instead that changes in the intra-renal circulation including modification in efferent arteriolar function and intra-renal shunting are much more likely to be responsible for AKI, especially in sepsis. Similarly, recent human studies indicate the urinary biochemistry has limited diagnostic or prognostic ability and is dissociated form biomarker and microscopic evidence of tubular injury. Intra-renal microcirculatory changes are likely more important than changes in global blood flow in the development of AKI. Urinary biochemistry is not a clinically useful diagnostic or prognostic tool in critically ill patients at risk of or with AKI.

  8. Stability of time dependent and spatially varying flows; Proceedings of the Symposium, Hampton, VA, Aug. 19-23, 1985

    Dwoyer, D.L.; Hussaini, M.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Papers are presented on the application of stability theory to laminar flow control, secondary instabilities in boundary layers, a Floquet analysis of secondary instability in shear flows, and the generation of Tollmien-Schlichting waves by long wavelength free stream disturbances. Also considered are numerical experiments on boundary-layer receptivity, short-scale inviscid instabilities in the flow past surface-mounted obstacles, wave phenomena in a high Reynolds number compressible boundary layer, and instability of time-periodic flows. Other topics include high frequency Rayleigh instability of Stokes layers, stability and resonance in grooved-channel flows, finite length Taylor Couette flow, and vortical structures in the breakdown stage of transition

  9. Can we trace biotic dispersals back in time? Introducing backward flow connectivity

    Alessandro Ferrarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Connectivity in ecology deals with the problem of how species dispersal will happen given actual landscape and species presence/absence over such landscape. Hence it can be considered a forward (ahead in time scientific problem. I observe here that a backward theory of connectivity could be of deep interest as well: given the actual species presence/absence on the landscape, where with the highest probability such species is coming from? In other words, can we trace biotic dispersals back in time? Recently I have introduced a modelling and theoretical approach to ecological connectivity that is alternative to circuit theory and is able to fix the weak point of the "from-to" connectivity approach. The proposed approach holds also for mountain and hilly landscapes. In addition, it doesn't assume any intention for a species to go from source points to sink ones, because the expected path for the species is determined locally (pixel by pixel by landscape features. In this paper, I introduce a new theoretical and modelling approach called "backward flow connectivity". While flow connectivity predicts future species dispersal by minimizing at each step the potential energy due to fictional gravity over a frictional landscape, backward flow connectivity does exactly the opposite, i.e. maximizes potential energy at each step sending back the species to higher levels of potential energy due to fictional gravity on the frictional landscape. Using backward flow connectivity, one has at hand a new tool to revert timeline of species dispersal, hence being able to trace backward biotic dispersals. With few modifications, the applications of backward flow connectivity can be countless, for instance tracing back-in-time not only plants and animals but also ancient human migrations and viral paths.

  10. Wavelet time-frequency analysis of accelerating and decelerating flows in a tube bank

    Indrusiak, M.L.S.; Goulart, J.V.; Olinto, C.R.; Moeller, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    In the present work, the steady approximation for accelerating and decelerating flows through tube banks is discussed. With this purpose, the experimental study of velocity and pressure fluctuations of transient turbulent cross-flow in a tube bank with square arrangement and a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.26 is performed. The Reynolds number at steady-state flow, computed with the tube diameter and the flow velocity in the narrow gap between the tubes, is 8 x 10 4 . Air is the working fluid. The accelerating and decelerating transients are obtained by means of start and stop of the centrifugal blower. Wavelet and wavelet packet multiresolution analysis were applied to decompose the signal in frequency intervals, using Daubechies 20 wavelet and scale functions, thus allowing the analysis of phenomena in a time-frequency domain. The continuous wavelet transform was also applied, using the Morlet function. The signals in the steady state, which presented a bistable behavior, were separated in two modes and analyzed with usual statistic tools. The results were compared with the steady-state assumption, demonstrating the ability of wavelets for analyzing time varying signals

  11. Time-resolved near-infrared technique for bedside monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow

    Diop, Mamadou; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Migueis, Mark; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2010-02-01

    A primary focus of neurointensive care is monitoring the injured brain to detect harmful events that can impair cerebral blood flow (CBF). Since current non-invasive bedside methods can only indirectly assess blood flow, the goal of this research was to develop an optical technique for measuring absolute CBF. A time-resolved near-infrared (NIR) apparatus was built and its ability to accurately measure changes in optical properties was demonstrated in tissue-mimicking phantoms. The time-resolved system was combined with a bolus-tracking method for measuring CBF using the dye indocyanine green (ICG) as an intravascular flow tracer. Cerebral blood flow was measured in newborn piglets and for comparison, CBF was concurrently measured using a previously developed continuous-wave NIR method. Measurements were acquired with both techniques under three conditions: normocapnia, hypercapnia and following occlusion of the carotid arteries. Mean CBF values (N = 3) acquired with the TR-NIR system were 31.9 +/- 11.7 ml/100g/min during occlusion, 39.7 +/- 1.6 ml/100g/min at normocapnia, and 58.8 +/- 9.9 ml/100g/min at hypercapnia. Results demonstrate that the developed TR-NIR technique has the sensitivity to measure changes in CBF; however, the CBF measurements were approximately 25% lower than the values obtained with the CW-NIRS technique.

  12. Why do they not answer and do they really learn? A case study in analysing student response flows in introductory physics using an audience response system

    Jääskeläinen, Markku; Lagerkvist, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate teaching with a classroom response system in introductory physics with emphasis on two issues. First, we discuss retention between question rounds and the reasons why students avoid answering the question a second time. A question with declining response rate was followed by a question addressing the student reasons for not answering. We find that there appear to be several reasons for the observed decline, and that the students need to be reminded. We argue that small drops are unimportant as the process appears to work despite the drops. Second, we discuss the dynamics of learning in a concept-sequence in electromagnetism, where a majority of the students, despite poor statistics in a first round, manage to answer a followup question correctly. In addition, we analyse the response times for both situations to connect with research on student reasoning on situations with misconception-like answers. From the combination of the answer flows and response time behaviours we find it plausible that conceptual learning occurred during the discussion phase. (paper)

  13. Identification of appropriate lags and temporal resolutions for low flow indicators in the River Rhine to forecast low flows with different lead times

    Demirel, M.C.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the relative importance of low flow indicators for the River Rhine and to identify their appropriate temporal lag and resolution. This is done in the context of low flow forecasting with lead times of 14 and 90 days. First, the Rhine basin is subdivided into seven

  14. Comparison study of time history and response spectrum responses for multiply supported piping systems

    Wang, Y.K.; Subudhi, M.; Bezler, P.

    1983-01-01

    In the past decade, several investigators have studied the problem of independent support excitation of a multiply supported piping system to identify the real need for such an analysis. This approach offers an increase in accuracy at a small increase in computational costs. To assess the method, studies based on the response spectrum approach using independent support motions for each group of commonly connected supports were performed. The results obtained from this approach were compared with the conventional envelope spectrum and time history solutions. The present study includes a mathematical formulation of the independent support motion analysis method suitable for implementation into an existing all purpose piping code PSAFE2 and a comparison of the solutions for some typical piping system using both Time History and Response Spectrum Methods. The results obtained from the Response Spectrum Methods represent the upper bound solution at most points in the piping system. Similarly, the Seismic Anchor Movement analysis based on the SRP method over predicts the responses near the support points and under predicts at points away from the supports

  15. Transport on intermediate time scales in flows with cat's eye patterns

    Pöschke, Patrick; Sokolov, Igor M.; Zaks, Michael A.; Nepomnyashchy, Alexander A.

    2017-12-01

    We consider the advection-diffusion transport of tracers in a one-parameter family of plane periodic flows where the patterns of streamlines feature regions of confined circulation in the shape of "cat's eyes," separated by meandering jets with ballistic motion inside them. By varying the parameter, we proceed from the regular two-dimensional lattice of eddies without jets to the sinusoidally modulated shear flow without eddies. When a weak thermal noise is added, i.e., at large Péclet numbers, several intermediate time scales arise, with qualitatively and quantitatively different transport properties: depending on the parameter of the flow, the initial position of a tracer, and the aging time, motion of the tracers ranges from subdiffusive to superballistic. We report on results of extensive numerical simulations of the mean-squared displacement for different initial conditions in ordinary and aged situations. These results are compared with a theory based on a Lévy walk that describes the intermediate-time ballistic regime and gives a reasonable description of the behavior for a certain class of initial conditions. The interplay of the walk process with internal circulation dynamics in the trapped state results at intermediate time scales in nonmonotonic characteristics of aging not captured by the Lévy walk model.

  16. Retrieval-travel-time model for free-fall-flow-rack automated storage and retrieval system

    Metahri, Dhiyaeddine; Hachemi, Khalid

    2018-03-01

    Automated storage and retrieval systems (AS/RSs) are material handling systems that are frequently used in manufacturing and distribution centers. The modelling of the retrieval-travel time of an AS/RS (expected product delivery time) is practically important, because it allows us to evaluate and improve the system throughput. The free-fall-flow-rack AS/RS has emerged as a new technology for drug distribution. This system is a new variation of flow-rack AS/RS that uses an operator or a single machine for storage operations, and uses a combination between the free-fall movement and a transport conveyor for retrieval operations. The main contribution of this paper is to develop an analytical model of the expected retrieval-travel time for the free-fall flow-rack under a dedicated storage assignment policy. The proposed model, which is based on a continuous approach, is compared for accuracy, via simulation, with discrete model. The obtained results show that the maximum deviation between the continuous model and the simulation is less than 5%, which shows the accuracy of our model to estimate the retrieval time. The analytical model is useful to optimise the dimensions of the rack, assess the system throughput, and evaluate different storage policies.

  17. Rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for postfire debris-flow emergency-response planning

    Cannon, S.H.; Boldt, E.M.; Laber, J.L.; Kean, J.W.; Staley, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Following wildfires, emergency-response and public-safety agencies can be faced with evacuation and resource-deployment decisions well in advance of coming winter storms and during storms themselves. Information critical to these decisions is provided for recently burned areas in the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California. A compilation of information on the hydrologic response to winter storms from recently burned areas in southern California steeplands is used to develop a system for classifying magnitudes of hydrologic response. The four-class system describes combinations of reported volumes of individual debris flows, consequences of debris flows and floods in an urban setting, and spatial extents of the hydrologic response. The range of rainfall conditions associated with different magnitude classes is defined by integrating local rainfall data with the response magnitude information. Magnitude I events can be expected when within-storm rainfall accumulations (A) of given durations (D) fall above the threshold A = 0.4D0.5 and below A = 0.5D0.6 for durations greater than 1 h. Magnitude II events will be generated in response to rainfall accumulations and durations between A = 0.4D0.5 and A = 0.9D0.5 for durations less than 1 h, and between A = 0.5D0.6 and A = 0.9D0.5 or durations greater than 1 h. Magnitude III events can be expected in response to rainfall conditions above the threshold A = 0.9D0.5. Rainfall threshold-magnitude relations are linked with potential emergency-response actions as an emergency-response decision chart, which leads a user through steps to determine potential event magnitudes and identify possible evacuation and resource-deployment levels. Use of this information in planning and response decision-making process could result in increased safety for both the public and emergency responders. ?? 2011 US Government.

  18. Timing and position response of a block detector for fast neutron time-of-flight imaging

    Laubach, M.A., E-mail: mlaubach@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Hayward, J.P., E-mail: jhayward@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zhang, X., E-mail: xzhang39@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Cates, J.W., E-mail: jcates7@vols.utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Our research effort seeks to improve the spatial and timing performance of a block detector made of a pixilated plastic scintillator (EJ-200), first demonstrated as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Advanced Portable Neutron Imaging System. Improvement of the position and time response is necessary to achieve better resolution and contrast in the images of shielded special nuclear material. Time-of-flight is used to differentiate between gamma and different sources of neutrons (e.g., transmission and fission neutrons). Factors limiting the timing and position performance of the neutron detector have been revealed through simulations and measurements. Simulations have suggested that the degradation in the ability to resolve pixels in the neutron detector is due to those interactions occurring near the light guide. The energy deposition within the neutron detector is shown to affect position performance and imaging efficiency. This examination details how energy cuts improve the position performance and degrade the imaging efficiency. Measurements have shown the neutron detector to have a timing resolution of σ=238 ps. The majority of this timing uncertainty is from the depth-of-interaction (DOI) of the neutron which is confirmed by simulations and analytical calculations.

  19. Computation Offloading for Frame-Based Real-Time Tasks under Given Server Response Time Guarantees

    Anas S. M. Toma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Computation offloading has been adopted to improve the performance of embedded systems by offloading the computation of some tasks, especially computation-intensive tasks, to servers or clouds. This paper explores computation offloading for real-time tasks in embedded systems, provided given response time guarantees from the servers, to decide which tasks should be offloaded to get the results in time. We consider frame-based real-time tasks with the same period and relative deadline. When the execution order of the tasks is given, the problem can be solved in linear time. However, when the execution order is not specified, we prove that the problem is NP-complete. We develop a pseudo-polynomial-time algorithm for deriving feasible schedules, if they exist.  An approximation scheme is also developed to trade the error made from the algorithm and the complexity. Our algorithms are extended to minimize the period/relative deadline of the tasks for performance maximization. The algorithms are evaluated with a case study for a surveillance system and synthesized benchmarks.

  20. Adaptive Time Stepping for Transient Network Flow Simulation in Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Majumdar, Alok K.; Ravindran, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Fluid and thermal transients found in rocket propulsion systems such as propellant feedline system is a complex process involving fast phases followed by slow phases. Therefore their time accurate computation requires use of short time step initially followed by the use of much larger time step. Yet there are instances that involve fast-slow-fast phases. In this paper, we present a feedback control based adaptive time stepping algorithm, and discuss its use in network flow simulation of fluid and thermal transients. The time step is automatically controlled during the simulation by monitoring changes in certain key variables and by feedback. In order to demonstrate the viability of time adaptivity for engineering problems, we applied it to simulate water hammer and cryogenic chill down in pipelines. Our comparison and validation demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of this adaptive strategy.

  1. Lichen Parmelia sulcata time response model to environmental elemental availability

    Reis, M.A.; Alves, L.C.; Freitas, M.C.; Os, B. van; Wolterbeek, H.Th.

    2000-01-01

    Transplants of lichen Parmelia sulcata collected in an area previously identified as non polluted, were placed at six stations, five of which were near Power Plants and the other in an area expected to be a remote station. Together with the lichen transplants, two total deposition collection buckets and an aerosol sampler were installed. Lichens were recollected two every month from each station. At the same time the water collection buckets were replaced by new ones. The aerosol sampler filter was replaced every week, collection being effective only for 10 minutes out of every two hours; in the remote station aerosol filters were replaced only once a month, the collection rate being kept. Each station was run for a period of one year. Both lichens and aerosol filters were analysed by PIXE and INAA at ITN. Total deposition samples were dried under an infrared lamp, and afterwards acid digested and analysed by ICP-MS at the National Geological Survey of The Netherlands. Data for the three types of samples were then produced for a total of 16 elements. In this work we used the data set thus obtained to test a model for the time response of lichen Parmelia sulcata to a new environment. (author)

  2. Evaluating the performance of constructive heuristics for the blocking flow shop scheduling problem with setup times

    Mauricio Iwama Takano

    2019-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the minimization of makespan for the permutation flow shop scheduling problem with blocking and sequence and machine dependent setup times, a problem not yet studied in previous studies. The 14 best known heuristics for the permutation flow shop problem with blocking and no setup times are pre-sented and then adapted to the problem in two different ways; resulting in 28 different heuristics. The heuristics are then compared using the Taillard database. As there is no other work that addresses the problem with blocking and sequence and ma-chine dependent setup times, a database for the setup times was created. The setup time value was uniformly distributed between 1% and 10%, 50%, 100% and 125% of the processing time value. Computational tests are then presented for each of the 28 heuristics, comparing the mean relative deviation of the makespan, the computational time and the percentage of successes of each method. Results show that the heuristics were capable of providing interesting results.

  3. Road Short-Term Travel Time Prediction Method Based on Flow Spatial Distribution and the Relations

    Mingjun Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many short-term road travel time forecasting studies based on time series, but indeed, road travel time not only relies on the historical travel time series, but also depends on the road and its adjacent sections history flow. However, few studies have considered that. This paper is based on the correlation of flow spatial distribution and the road travel time series, applying nearest neighbor and nonparametric regression method to build a forecasting model. In aspect of spatial nearest neighbor search, three different space distances are defined. In addition, two forecasting functions are introduced: one combines the forecasting value by mean weight and the other uses the reciprocal of nearest neighbors distance as combined weight. Three different distances are applied in nearest neighbor search, which apply to the two forecasting functions. For travel time series, the nearest neighbor and nonparametric regression are applied too. Then minimizing forecast error variance is utilized as an objective to establish the combination model. The empirical results show that the combination model can improve the forecast performance obviously. Besides, the experimental results of the evaluation for the computational complexity show that the proposed method can satisfy the real-time requirement.

  4. A mixed-mode traffic assignment model with new time-flow impedance function

    Lin, Gui-Hua; Hu, Yu; Zou, Yuan-Yang

    2018-01-01

    Recently, with the wide adoption of electric vehicles, transportation network has shown different characteristics and been further developed. In this paper, we present a new time-flow impedance function, which may be more realistic than the existing time-flow impedance functions. Based on this new impedance function, we present an optimization model for a mixed-mode traffic network in which battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and gasoline vehicles (GVs) are chosen. We suggest two approaches to handle the model: One is to use the interior point (IP) algorithm and the other is to employ the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm. Three numerical examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency of these approaches. In particular, our numerical results show that more travelers prefer to choosing BEVs when the distance limit of BEVs is long enough and the unit operating cost of GVs is higher than that of BEVs, and the SQP algorithm is faster than the IP algorithm.

  5. Infrared Tomography: Data Distribution System for Real-time Mass Flow Rate Measurement

    Ruzairi Abdul Rahim

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The system developed in this research has the objective of measuring mass flow rate in an online mode. If a single computer is used as data processing unit, a longer time is needed to produce a measurement result. In the research carried out by previous researcher shows about 11.2 seconds is needed to obtain one mass flow rate result in the offline mode (using offline data. This insufficient real-time result will cause problems in a feedback control process when applying the system on industrial plants. To increase the refreshing rate of the measurement result, an investigation on a data distribution system is performed to replace the existing data processing unit.

  6. Accuracy and Numerical Stabilty Analysis of Lattice Boltzmann Method with Multiple Relaxation Time for Incompressible Flows

    Pradipto; Purqon, Acep

    2017-07-01

    Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is the novel method for simulating fluid dynamics. Nowadays, the application of LBM ranges from the incompressible flow, flow in the porous medium, until microflows. The common collision model of LBM is the BGK with a constant single relaxation time τ. However, BGK suffers from numerical instabilities. These instabilities could be eliminated by implementing LBM with multiple relaxation time. Both of those scheme have implemented for incompressible 2 dimensions lid-driven cavity. The stability analysis has done by finding the maximum Reynolds number and velocity for converged simulations. The accuracy analysis is done by comparing the velocity profile with the benchmark results from Ghia, et al and calculating the net velocity flux. The tests concluded that LBM with MRT are more stable than BGK, and have a similar accuracy. The maximum Reynolds number that converges for BGK is 3200 and 7500 for MRT respectively.

  7. Real-Time Corrected Traffic Correlation Model for Traffic Flow Forecasting

    Hua-pu Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problems of short-term traffic flow forecasting. The main goal is to put forward traffic correlation model and real-time correction algorithm for traffic flow forecasting. Traffic correlation model is established based on the temporal-spatial-historical correlation characteristic of traffic big data. In order to simplify the traffic correlation model, this paper presents correction coefficients optimization algorithm. Considering multistate characteristic of traffic big data, a dynamic part is added to traffic correlation model. Real-time correction algorithm based on Fuzzy Neural Network is presented to overcome the nonlinear mapping problems. A case study based on a real-world road network in Beijing, China, is implemented to test the efficiency and applicability of the proposed modeling methods.

  8. Simulating variable-density flows with time-consistent integration of Navier-Stokes equations

    Lu, Xiaoyi; Pantano, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    In this talk, we present several features of a high-order semi-implicit variable-density low-Mach Navier-Stokes solver. A new formulation to solve pressure Poisson-like equation of variable-density flows is highlighted. With this formulation of the numerical method, we are able to solve all variables with a uniform order of accuracy in time (consistent with the time integrator being used). The solver is primarily designed to perform direct numerical simulations for turbulent premixed flames. Therefore, we also address other important elements, such as energy-stable boundary conditions, synthetic turbulence generation, and flame anchoring method. Numerical examples include classical non-reacting constant/variable-density flows, as well as turbulent premixed flames.

  9. Reclaiming Spare Capacity and Improving Aperiodic Response Times in Real-Time Environments

    Liu Xue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scheduling recurring task sets that allow some instances of the tasks to be skipped produces holes in the schedule which are nonuniformly distributed. Similarly, when the recurring tasks are not strictly periodic but are sporadic, there is extra processor bandwidth arising because of irregular job arrivals. The additional computation capacity that results from skips or sporadic tasks can be reclaimed to service aperiodic task requests efficiently and quickly. We present techniques for improving the response times of aperiodic tasks by identifying nonuniformly distributed spare capacity—because of skips or sporadic tasks—in the schedule and adding such extra capacity to the capacity queue of a BASH server. These gaps can account for a significant portion of aperiodic capacity, and their reclamation results in considerable improvement to aperiodic response times. We present two schemes: NCLB-CBS, which performs well in periodic real-time environments with firm tasks, and NCLB-CUS, which can be deployed when the basic task set to schedule is sporadic. Evaluation via simulations and implementation suggests that performance improvements for aperiodic tasks can be obtained with limited additional overhead.

  10. Acute Cutaneous Microvascular Flow Responses to Whole-Body Tilting in Humans

    Breit, Gregory A.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Ballard, Richard E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    The transition from upright to head-down tilt (HDT) posture in humans increases blood pressure superior to the heart and decreases pressure inferior to the heart. Consequently, above heart level, myogenic arteriolar tone probably increases with HDT, in opposition to the withdrawal of baroreceptor-mediated sympathetic tone. We hypothesized that due to antagonism between central and local controls, the response of the facial cutaneous microcirculation to acute postural change will be weaker than that in the leg, where these two mechanisms reinforce each other. Cutaneous microvascular flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry simultaneously at the shin and the neck of 7 male and 3 female subjects. Subjects underwent a stepwise tilt protocol from standing control to 54 deg head-up tilt (HUT), 30 deg, 12 deg, O deg, -6 deg (HDT), -12 deg, -6 deg, O deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 54 deg, and standing, for 30-sec periods with 10-sec transitions between postures. Flows at the shin and the neck increased significantly (P less than 0.05) from standing baseline to 12 deg HUT (252 +/- 55 and 126 +/- 9% (bar X +/- SE) of baseline, respectively). From 12 deg to -12 deg tilt, flows continued to increase at the shin (509 +/- 71% of baseline) but decreased at the neck to baseline levels (100 +/- 15% of baseline). Cutaneous microvascular flow recovered at both sites during the return to standing posture with significant hysteresis. Flow increases from standing to near-supine posture are attributed at both sites to baroreceptor-mediated vasodilation. The great dissimilarity in flow response magnitudes at the two measurement sites may be indicative of central/local regulatory antagonism above heart level and reinforcement below heart level.

  11. Fine particle retention within stream storage areas at base flow and in response to a storm event

    Drummond, J. D.; Larsen, L. G.; González-Pinzón, R.; Packman, A. I.; Harvey, Judson

    2017-01-01

    Fine particles (1–100 µm), including particulate organic carbon (POC) and fine sediment, influence stream ecological functioning because they may contain or have a high affinity to sorb nitrogen and phosphorus. These particles are immobilized within stream storage areas, especially hyporheic sediments and benthic biofilms. However, fine particles are also known to remobilize under all flow conditions. This combination of downstream transport and transient retention, influenced by stream geomorphology, controls the distribution of residence times over which fine particles influence stream ecosystems. The main objective of this study was to quantify immobilization and remobilization rates of fine particles in a third-order sand-and-gravel bed stream (Difficult Run, Virginia, USA) within different geomorphic units of the stream (i.e., pool, lateral cavity, and thalweg). During our field injection experiment, a thunderstorm-driven spate allowed us to observe fine particle dynamics during both base flow and in response to increased flow. Solute and fine particles were measured within stream surface waters, pore waters, sediment cores, and biofilms on cobbles. Measurements were taken at four different subsurface locations with varying geomorphology and at multiple depths. Approximately 68% of injected fine particles were retained during base flow until the onset of the spate. Retention was evident even after the spate, with 15.4% of the fine particles deposited during base flow still retained within benthic biofilms on cobbles and 14.9% within hyporheic sediment after the spate. Thus, through the combination of short-term remobilization and long-term retention, fine particles can serve as sources of carbon and nutrients to downstream ecosystems over a range of time scales.

  12. Fine particle retention within stream storage areas at base flow and in response to a storm event

    Drummond, J. D.; Larsen, L. G.; González-Pinzón, R.; Packman, A. I.; Harvey, J. W.

    2017-07-01

    Fine particles (1-100 µm), including particulate organic carbon (POC) and fine sediment, influence stream ecological functioning because they may contain or have a high affinity to sorb nitrogen and phosphorus. These particles are immobilized within stream storage areas, especially hyporheic sediments and benthic biofilms. However, fine particles are also known to remobilize under all flow conditions. This combination of downstream transport and transient retention, influenced by stream geomorphology, controls the distribution of residence times over which fine particles influence stream ecosystems. The main objective of this study was to quantify immobilization and remobilization rates of fine particles in a third-order sand-and-gravel bed stream (Difficult Run, Virginia, USA) within different geomorphic units of the stream (i.e., pool, lateral cavity, and thalweg). During our field injection experiment, a thunderstorm-driven spate allowed us to observe fine particle dynamics during both base flow and in response to increased flow. Solute and fine particles were measured within stream surface waters, pore waters, sediment cores, and biofilms on cobbles. Measurements were taken at four different subsurface locations with varying geomorphology and at multiple depths. Approximately 68% of injected fine particles were retained during base flow until the onset of the spate. Retention was evident even after the spate, with 15.4% of the fine particles deposited during base flow still retained within benthic biofilms on cobbles and 14.9% within hyporheic sediment after the spate. Thus, through the combination of short-term remobilization and long-term retention, fine particles can serve as sources of carbon and nutrients to downstream ecosystems over a range of time scales.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic flow of a rarefied gas near a time-varying accelerated plate

    Mishra, S.P.; Mohapatra, Priti

    1975-01-01

    The flow of an electrically conducting rarefied gas due to the time-varying motion of an infinite flat plate has been studied in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. The magnetic lines of force are taken to be fixed relative to the fluid. General expressions of the velocity and the skin friction have been compared by means of some qraphs and tables. (author)

  14. Time evolution of the eddy viscosity in two-dimensional navier-stokes flow

    Chaves; Gama

    2000-02-01

    The time evolution of the eddy viscosity associated with an unforced two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes flow is analyzed by direct numerical simulation. The initial condition is such that the eddy viscosity is isotropic and negative. It is shown by concrete examples that the Navier-Stokes dynamics stabilizes negative eddy viscosity effects. In other words, this dynamics moves monotonically the initial negative eddy viscosity to positive values before relaxation due to viscous term occurs.

  15. A Statistical Method to Predict Flow Permanence in Dryland Streams from Time Series of Stream Temperature

    Ivan Arismendi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent and ephemeral streams represent more than half of the length of the global river network. Dryland freshwater ecosystems are especially vulnerable to changes in human-related water uses as well as shifts in terrestrial climates. Yet, the description and quantification of patterns of flow permanence in these systems is challenging mostly due to difficulties in instrumentation. Here, we took advantage of existing stream temperature datasets in dryland streams in the northwest Great Basin desert, USA, to extract critical information on climate-sensitive patterns of flow permanence. We used a signal detection technique, Hidden Markov Models (HMMs, to extract information from daily time series of stream temperature to diagnose patterns of stream drying. Specifically, we applied HMMs to time series of daily standard deviation (SD of stream temperature (i.e., dry stream channels typically display highly variable daily temperature records compared to wet stream channels between April and August (2015–2016. We used information from paired stream and air temperature data loggers as well as co-located stream temperature data loggers with electrical resistors as confirmatory sources of the timing of stream drying. We expanded our approach to an entire stream network to illustrate the utility of the method to detect patterns of flow permanence over a broader spatial extent. We successfully identified and separated signals characteristic of wet and dry stream conditions and their shifts over time. Most of our study sites within the entire stream network exhibited a single state over the entire season (80%, but a portion of them showed one or more shifts among states (17%. We provide recommendations to use this approach based on a series of simple steps. Our findings illustrate a successful method that can be used to rigorously quantify flow permanence regimes in streams using existing records of stream temperature.

  16. Heuristics methods for the flow shop scheduling problem with separated setup times

    Marcelo Seido Nagano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the permutation flow shop scheduling problem with separated machine setup times. As a result of an investigation on the problem characteristics, four heuristics methods are proposed with procedures of the construction sequencing solution by an analogy with the asymmetric traveling salesman problem with the objective of minimizing makespan. Experimental results show that one of the new heuristics methods proposed provide high quality solutions in comparisons with the evaluated methods considered in the literature.

  17. A statistical method to predict flow permanence in dryland streams from time series of stream temperature

    Arismendi, Ivan; Dunham, Jason B.; Heck, Michael; Schultz, Luke; Hockman-Wert, David

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent and ephemeral streams represent more than half of the length of the global river network. Dryland freshwater ecosystems are especially vulnerable to changes in human-related water uses as well as shifts in terrestrial climates. Yet, the description and quantification of patterns of flow permanence in these systems is challenging mostly due to difficulties in instrumentation. Here, we took advantage of existing stream temperature datasets in dryland streams in the northwest Great Basin desert, USA, to extract critical information on climate-sensitive patterns of flow permanence. We used a signal detection technique, Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), to extract information from daily time series of stream temperature to diagnose patterns of stream drying. Specifically, we applied HMMs to time series of daily standard deviation (SD) of stream temperature (i.e., dry stream channels typically display highly variable daily temperature records compared to wet stream channels) between April and August (2015–2016). We used information from paired stream and air temperature data loggers as well as co-located stream temperature data loggers with electrical resistors as confirmatory sources of the timing of stream drying. We expanded our approach to an entire stream network to illustrate the utility of the method to detect patterns of flow permanence over a broader spatial extent. We successfully identified and separated signals characteristic of wet and dry stream conditions and their shifts over time. Most of our study sites within the entire stream network exhibited a single state over the entire season (80%), but a portion of them showed one or more shifts among states (17%). We provide recommendations to use this approach based on a series of simple steps. Our findings illustrate a successful method that can be used to rigorously quantify flow permanence regimes in streams using existing records of stream temperature.

  18. Inner ocular blood flow responses to an acute decrease in blood pressure in resting humans

    Ikemura, Tsukasa; Kashima, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Miyaji, Akane; Hayashi, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Whether inner ocular vessels have an autoregulatory response to acute fluctuations in blood pressure is unclear. We tried to examine the validity of acute hypotension elicited by thigh-cuff release as to assess the dynamic autoregulation in the ocular circulation. Blood flow velocity in the superior nasal and inferior temporal retinal arterioles, and in the retinal and choroidal vasculature were measured with the aid of laser speckle flowgraphy before and immediately after an acute decrease in blood pressure in 20 healthy subjects. Acute hypotension was induced by a rapid release of bilateral thigh occlusion cuffs that had been inflated to 220 mmHg for 2 min. The ratio of the relative change in retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity to the relative change in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was calculated. Immediately after cuff release, the MAP and blood flows in the all ocular target vessels decreased significantly from the baseline values obtained before thigh-cuff release. The ratio of the relative change in inner ocular blood flow velocity to that in the MAP exceeded 1% / %mmHg. An explicit dynamic autoregulation in inner ocular vessels cannot be demonstrated in response to an acute hypotension induced by the thigh-cuff release technique. (paper)

  19. Theory of the mechanical response of focal adhesions to shear flow

    Biton, Y Y; Safran, S A

    2010-01-01

    The response of cells to shear flow is primarily determined by the asymmetry of the external forces and moments that are sensed by each member of a focal adhesion pair connected by a contractile stress fiber. In the theory presented here, we suggest a physical model in which each member of such a pair of focal adhesions is treated as an elastic body subject to both a myosin-activated contractile force and the shear stress induced by the external flow. The elastic response of a focal adhesion complex is much faster than the active cellular processes that determine the size of the associated focal adhesions and the direction of the complex relative to the imposed flow. Therefore, the complex attains its mechanical equilibrium configuration which may change because of the cellular activity. Our theory is based on the experimental observation that focal adhesions modulate their cross-sectional area in order to attain an optimal shear. Using this assumption, our elastic model shows that such a complex can passively change its orientation to align parallel to the direction of the flow.

  20. Intraventricular hemorrhage in the preterm neonate: timing and cerebral blood flow changes

    Ment, L.R.; Duncan, C.C.; Ehrenkranz, R.A.; Lange, R.C.; Taylor, K.J.; Kleinman, C.S.; Scott, D.T.; Sivo, J.; Gettner, P.

    1984-01-01

    Serial cranial ultrasound studies, 133xenon inhalation cerebral blood flow determinations, and risk factor analyses were performed in 31 preterm neonates. Contrast echocardiographic studies were additionally performed in 16 of these 31 infants. Sixty-one percent were found to have germinal matrix or intraventricular hemorrhage. Seventy-four percent of all hemorrhages were detected by the thirtieth postnatal hour. The patients were divided into three groups: early GMH/IVH by the sixth postnatal hour (eight infants) interval GMH/IVH from 6 hours through 5 days (10), and no GMH/IVH (12). Cerebral blood flow values at 6 postnatal hours were significantly lower for the early GMH/IVH group than for the no GMH/IVH group (P less than 0.01). Progression of GMH/IVH was observed only in those infants with early hemorrhage, and these infants had a significantly higher incidence of neonatal mortality. Ventriculomegaly as determined by ultrasound studies was noted equally in infants with and without GMH/IVH (50%) and was not found to correlate with low cerebral blood flow. The patients with early hemorrhage were distinguishable by their need for more vigorous resuscitation at the time of birth and significantly higher ventilator settings during the first 36 postnatal hours, during which time they also had higher values of PCO2. An equal incidence of patent ductus arteriosus was found across all of the groups. We propose that early GMH/IVH may be related to perinatal events and that the significant decrease in cerebral blood flow found in infants with early GMH/IVH is secondary to the presence of the hemorrhage itself. Progression of early GMH/IVH and new interval GMH/IVH may be related to later neonatal events known to alter cerebral blood flow

  1. New scheduling rules for a dynamic flexible flow line problem with sequence-dependent setup times

    Kia, Hamidreza; Ghodsypour, Seyed Hassan; Davoudpour, Hamid

    2017-09-01

    In the literature, the application of multi-objective dynamic scheduling problem and simple priority rules are widely studied. Although these rules are not efficient enough due to simplicity and lack of general insight, composite dispatching rules have a very suitable performance because they result from experiments. In this paper, a dynamic flexible flow line problem with sequence-dependent setup times is studied. The objective of the problem is minimization of mean flow time and mean tardiness. A 0-1 mixed integer model of the problem is formulated. Since the problem is NP-hard, four new composite dispatching rules are proposed to solve it by applying genetic programming framework and choosing proper operators. Furthermore, a discrete-event simulation model is made to examine the performances of scheduling rules considering four new heuristic rules and the six adapted heuristic rules from the literature. It is clear from the experimental results that composite dispatching rules that are formed from genetic programming have a better performance in minimization of mean flow time and mean tardiness than others.

  2. Determination of the hydraulic residence time of two subsurface-flow constructed wetlands using radiotracers

    Debien, Bruno R.

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of constructed wetland systems (CW's) with subsuperficial drainage for sewage treatment is increasingly growing in places with low technological resources and available land. The efficient removal of pollutants depends on the internal flow characteristics in the CW and on its hydraulic residence time (HRT). In the present work 82 Br - a gamma radiation emitter, produced from soluble potassium bromide irradiated in the TRIGA reactor at the Centre for the Development of Nuclear Energy (CDTN) - was used as a pseudo-conservative tracer for the comparative study of aqueous phase flow dynamics in two CW's: one in which plants were grown (WP) whereas the other had no plants (WNP). Experimental hydraulic residence time values were found to be very close to the theoretical one, while dispersion numbers obtained for both CW's were quite small. Besides these measured hydrodynamic parameters, the residence time distribution (RTD) curves of the tracer test and the results of modeling of experimental data also demonstrate the tendency of the units to display a plug flow-like effluent hydraulic transport within their systems, as expected from their designs, considering the large length/width ratio (L/W=8). (author)

  3. Determination of the hydraulic residence time of two subsurface-flow constructed wetlands using radiotracers

    Debien, Bruno R., E-mail: brunordebien@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept de Geografia. Lab. de Geomorfologia; Barreto, Alberto A.; Pinto, Amenonia M.F.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: aab@cdtn.br, E-mail: amfp@cdtn.br, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The adoption of constructed wetland systems (CW's) with subsuperficial drainage for sewage treatment is increasingly growing in places with low technological resources and available land. The efficient removal of pollutants depends on the internal flow characteristics in the CW and on its hydraulic residence time (HRT). In the present work {sup 82}Br - a gamma radiation emitter, produced from soluble potassium bromide irradiated in the TRIGA reactor at the Centre for the Development of Nuclear Energy (CDTN) - was used as a pseudo-conservative tracer for the comparative study of aqueous phase flow dynamics in two CW's: one in which plants were grown (WP) whereas the other had no plants (WNP). Experimental hydraulic residence time values were found to be very close to the theoretical one, while dispersion numbers obtained for both CW's were quite small. Besides these measured hydrodynamic parameters, the residence time distribution (RTD) curves of the tracer test and the results of modeling of experimental data also demonstrate the tendency of the units to display a plug flow-like effluent hydraulic transport within their systems, as expected from their designs, considering the large length/width ratio (L/W=8). (author)

  4. Meridional-Flow Measurements from 15 Years of GONG Spherical-Harmonic Time Series

    Kholikov, S; Hernandez, I Gonzalez; Hill, F; Leibacher, J

    2011-01-01

    We present results of meridional-flow measurements for 1995-2009, using travel-time differences from velocity images reconstructed using GONG spherical harmonic (SH) coefficients after applying phase-velocity and low-m filters. This filtering technique increases the signal-to-noise ratio and thus extends travel-time measurements to relatively high latitudes and deep into the convection zone. Preliminary analyses shows a strong one-year periodicity presumably due to solar pole misalignment and B 0 -angle artifacts, which makes it difficult to see underlying temporal variations. Removing a simple one-year-period sine wave fit reveals long-term temporal variations of the flow on top of this yearly periodicity. High-latitude measurements are affected more stronger by foreshortening and B 0 -angle artifacts. We analyze different B 0 -angle intervals separately, so in each hemisphere better high-latitude visibility comes six months apart. This approach suggests why at high latitudes travel-time measurements of meridional flow shows a tendency to change sign instead of continuing towards the poles.

  5. Real-time direct measurement of spinal cord blood flow at the site of compression: relationship between blood flow recovery and motor deficiency in spinal cord injury.

    Hamamoto, Yuichiro; Ogata, Tadanori; Morino, Tadao; Hino, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Haruyasu

    2007-08-15

    An in vivo study to measure rat spinal cord blood flow in real-time at the site of compression using a newly developed device. To evaluate the change in thoracic spinal cord blood flow by compression force and to clarify the association between blood flow recovery and motor deficiency after a spinal cord compression injury. Until now, no real-time measurement of spinal cord blood flow at the site of compression has been conducted. In addition, it has not been clearly determined whether blood flow recovery is related to motor function after a spinal cord injury. Our blood flow measurement system was a combination of a noncontact type laser Doppler system and a spinal cord compression device. The rat thoracic spinal cord was exposed at the 11th vertebra and spinal cord blood flow at the site of compression was continuously measured before, during, and after the compression. The functioning of the animal's hind-limbs was evaluated by the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scoring scale and the frequency of voluntary standing. Histologic changes such as permeability of blood-spinal cord barrier, microglia proliferation, and apoptotic cell death were examined in compressed spinal cord tissue. The spinal blood flow decreased on each increase in the compression force. After applying a 5-g weight, the blood flow decreased to compression), while no significant difference was observed between the 20-minute ischemia group and the sham group. In the 20-minute ischemia group, the rats whose spinal cord blood flow recovery was incomplete showed significant motor function loss compared with rats that completely recovered blood flow. Extensive breakdown of blood-spinal cord barrier integrity and the following microglia proliferation and apoptotic cell death were detected in the 40-minute complete ischemia group. Duration of ischemia/compression and blood flow recovery of the spinal cord are important factors in the recovery of motor function after a spinal cord injury.

  6. Real-time monitoring/emergency response modeling workstation for a tritium facility

    Lawver, B.S.; Sims, J.M.; Baskett, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we have developed a real-time system to monitor two stacks on our tritium handling facility. The monitors transmit the stack data to a workstation, which computes a three-dimensional numerical model of atmospheric dispersion. The workstation also collects surface and upper air data from meteorological towers and a sodar. The complex meteorological and terrain setting in the Livermore Valley demands more sophisticated resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere to reliably calculate plume dispersion than afforded by Gaussian models. We experience both mountain valley and sea breeze flows. To address these complexities, we have implemented the three-dimensional diagnostic MATHEW mass-adjusted wind field and ADPIC particle-in-cell dispersion models on the workstation for use in real-time emergency response modeling. Both MATHEW and ADPIC have shown their utility in a variety of complex settings over the last 15 yr within the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project. Faster workstations and real-time instruments allow utilization of more complex three-dimensional models, which provides a foundation for building a real-time monitoring and emergency response workstation for a tritium facility. The stack monitors are two ion chambers per stack

  7. Aberrant Cerebral Blood Flow in Response to Hunger and Satiety in Women Remitted from Anorexia Nervosa

    Christina E. Wierenga; Amanda Bischoff-Grethe; Grace Rasmusson; Ursula F. Bailer; Ursula F. Bailer; Laura A. Berner; Thomas T. Liu; Walter H. Kaye

    2017-01-01

    The etiology of pathological eating in anorexia nervosa (AN) remains poorly understood. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is an indirect marker of neuronal function. In healthy adults, fasting increases CBF, reflecting increased delivery of oxygen and glucose to support brain metabolism. This study investigated whether women remitted from restricting-type AN (RAN) have altered CBF in response to hunger that may indicate homeostatic dysregulation contributing to their ability to restrict food. We comp...

  8. Functional response of cerebral blood flow induced by somatosensory stimulation in rats with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Li, Zhiguo; Huang, Qin; Liu, Peng; Li, Pengcheng; Ma, Lianting; Lu, Jinling

    2015-09-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often accompanied by cerebral vasospasm (CVS), which is the phenomenon of narrowing of large cerebral arteries, and then can produce delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) such as lateralized sensory dysfunction. CVS was regarded as a major contributor to DIND in patients with SAH. However, therapy for preventing vasospasm after SAH to improve the outcomes may not work all the time. It is important to find answers to the relationship between CVS and DIND after SAH. How local cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated during functional activation after SAH still remains poorly understood, whereas, the regulation of CBF may play an important role in weakening the impact of CVS on cortex function. Therefore, it is worthwhile to evaluate the functional response of CBF in the activated cortex in an SAH animal model. Most evaluation of the effect of SAH is presently carried out by neurological behavioral scales. The functional imaging of cortical activation during sensory stimulation may help to reflect the function of the somatosensory cortex more locally than the behavioral scales do. We investigated the functional response of CBF in the somatosensory cortex induced by an electrical stimulation to contralateral forepaw via laser speckle imaging in a rat SAH model. Nineteen Sprague-Dawley rats from two groups (control group, n=10 and SAH group, n=9) were studied. SAH was induced in rats by double injection of autologous blood into the cisterna magna after CSF aspiration. The same surgical procedure was applied in the control group without CSF aspiration or blood injection. Significant CVS was found in the SAH group. Meanwhile, we observed a delayed peak of CBF response in rats with SAH compared with those in the control group, whereas no significant difference was found in magnitude, duration, and areas under curve of relative CBF changes between the two groups. The results suggest that the regulation function of local CBF during

  9. Effects of milk flow on the physiological and behavioural responses to feeding in an infant with hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    Pados, Britt F; Thoyre, Suzanne M; Estrem, Hayley H; Park, Jinhee; Knafl, George J; Nix, Brant

    2017-01-01

    Infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome often experience difficulty with oral feeding, which contributes to growth failure, morbidity, and mortality. In response to feeding difficulty, clinicians often change the bottle nipple, and thus milk flow rate. Slow-flow nipples have been found to reduce the stress of feeding in other fragile infants, but no research has evaluated the responses of infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome to alterations in milk flow. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological and behavioural responses of an infant with hypoplastic left heart syndrome to bottle feeding with either a slow-flow (Dr. Brown's Preemie) or a standard-flow (Dr. Brown's Level 2) nipple. A single infant was studied for three feedings: two slow-flow and one standard-flow. Oral feeding, whether with a slow-flow or a standard-flow nipple, was distressing for this infant. During slow-flow feeding, she experienced more coughing events, whereas during standard-flow she experienced more gagging. Disengagement and compelling disorganisation were most common during feeding 3, that is slow-flow, which occurred 2 days after surgical placement of a gastrostomy tube. Clinically significant changes in heart rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate were seen during all feedings. Heart rate was higher during standard-flow and respiratory rate was higher during slow-flow. Further research is needed to examine the responses of infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome to oral feeding and to identify strategies that will support these fragile infants as they learn to feed. Future research should evaluate an even slower-flow nipple along with additional supportive feeding strategies.

  10. Vibrational response of a rectangular duct of finite length excited by a turbulent internal flow

    David, Antoine; Hugues, Florian; Dauchez, Nicolas; Perrey-Debain, Emmanuel

    2018-05-01

    Gas transport ductwork in industrial plants or air conditioning networks can be subject to vibrations induced by the internal flow. Most studies in this matter have been carried out on circular ducts. This paper focuses specifically on the vibratory response of a rectangular duct of finite length excited by an internal turbulent flow. A semi-analytical model taking into account the modal response of the structure due to both aerodynamic and acoustic contributions is derived. The aerodynamic component of the excitation is applied on the basis of Corcos model where the power spectral density of the wall pressure is determined experimentally. The acoustic component is based on the propagating modes in the duct where the acoustic modal contribution are extracted via cross-spectral densities. The vibrational response is given for a 0.2 × 0.1 × 0.5 m3 duct made of 3 mm steel plates excited by 20 m/s or 30 m/s flows. Comparisons between experimental results and numerical predictions show a good agreement. The competition between acoustic and aerodynamic components is highlighted.

  11. Reshaping of bulbar odor response by nasal flow rate in the rat.

    Emmanuelle Courtiol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of respiratory dynamics on odor response has been poorly studied at the olfactory bulb level. However, it has been shown that sniffing in the behaving rodent is highly dynamic and varies both in frequency and flow rate. Bulbar odor response could vary with these sniffing parameter variations. Consequently, it is necessary to understand how nasal airflow can modify and shape odor response at the olfactory bulb level.To assess this question, we used a double cannulation and simulated nasal airflow protocol on anesthetized rats to uncouple nasal airflow from animal respiration. Both mitral/tufted cell extracellular unit activity and local field potentials (LFPs were recorded. We found that airflow changes in the normal range were sufficient to substantially reorganize the response of the olfactory bulb. In particular, cellular odor-evoked activities, LFP oscillations and spike phase-locking to LFPs were strongly modified by nasal flow rate.Our results indicate the importance of reconsidering the notion of odor coding as odor response at the bulbar level is ceaselessly modified by respiratory dynamics.

  12. Simulation of three-dimensional, time-dependent, incompressible flows by a finite element method

    Chan, S.T.; Gresho, P.M.; Lee, R.L.; Upson, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    A finite element model has been developed for simulating the dynamics of problems encountered in atmospheric pollution and safety assessment studies. The model is based on solving the set of three-dimensional, time-dependent, conservation equations governing incompressible flows. Spatial discretization is performed via a modified Galerkin finite element method, and time integration is carried out via the forward Euler method (pressure is computed implicitly, however). Several cost-effective techniques (including subcycling, mass lumping, and reduced Gauss-Legendre quadrature) which have been implemented are discussed. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the model

  13. Time-optimal path planning in uncertain flow fields using ensemble method

    Wang, Tong

    2016-01-06

    An ensemble-based approach is developed to conduct time-optimal path planning in unsteady ocean currents under uncertainty. We focus our attention on two-dimensional steady and unsteady uncertain flows, and adopt a sampling methodology that is well suited to operational forecasts, where a set deterministic predictions is used to model and quantify uncertainty in the predictions. In the operational setting, much about dynamics, topography and forcing of the ocean environment is uncertain, and as a result a single path produced by a model simulation has limited utility. To overcome this limitation, we rely on a finitesize ensemble of deterministic forecasts to quantify the impact of variability in the dynamics. The uncertainty of flow field is parametrized using a finite number of independent canonical random variables with known densities, and the ensemble is generated by sampling these variables. For each the resulting realizations of the uncertain current field, we predict the optimal path by solving a boundary value problem (BVP), based on the Pontryagin maximum principle. A family of backward-in-time trajectories starting at the end position is used to generate suitable initial values for the BVP solver. This allows us to examine and analyze the performance of sampling strategy, and develop insight into extensions dealing with regional or general circulation models. In particular, the ensemble method enables us to perform a statistical analysis of travel times, and consequently develop a path planning approach that accounts for these statistics. The proposed methodology is tested for a number of scenarios. We first validate our algorithms by reproducing simple canonical solutions, and then demonstrate our approach in more complex flow fields, including idealized, steady and unsteady double-gyre flows.

  14. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Flow Alteration - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    Introduction to the flow alteration module, when to list flow alteration as a candidate cause, ways to measure flow alteration, simple and detailed conceptual model diagrams for flow alteration, flow alteration module references and literature reviews.

  15. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Flow Alteration - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Introduction to the flow alteration module, when to list flow alteration as a candidate cause, ways to measure flow alteration, simple and detailed conceptual model diagrams for flow alteration, flow alteration module references and literature reviews.

  16. Estimation of Saturation Flow Rate and Start-Up Lost Time for Signal Timing Based on Headway Distribution

    Yi Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to calibrate saturation flow rate (SFR and start-up lost time (SLT when developing signal timing. In current commonly used methods, SFR for one given lane is usually calibrated from many subjective adjustment factors and a fixed result. SLT is calculated based on the fixed SFR, which prevents local applications in China. Considering the importance of traffic behavior (headway in determining SFR and SLT, this study started from headway distribution and attempted to specify the relationships between headway and vehicle position directly. A common intersection in Nanjing, China, was selected to implement field study and data from 920 queues was collected. Headway distribution was explored and the 78th percentile of headway at each position was selected to build model. Based on the developed relationships, SFR and SLT were calibrated. The results showed that SFR and SLT were correlated with queue length. Moreover, the results showed that it was difficult to reach saturated state even with a long queue length. This paper provides a new perspective on calibrating important parameters in signal timing, which will be useful for traffic agencies to complete signal timing by making the process simpler.

  17. Tetrahedral-Mesh Simulation of Turbulent Flows with the Space-Time Conservative Schemes

    Chang, Chau-Lyan; Venkatachari, Balaji; Cheng, Gary C.

    2015-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows are predominantly carried out using structured, hexahedral meshes despite decades of development in unstructured mesh methods. Tetrahedral meshes offer ease of mesh generation around complex geometries and the potential of an orientation free grid that would provide un-biased small-scale dissipation and more accurate intermediate scale solutions. However, due to the lack of consistent multi-dimensional numerical formulations in conventional schemes for triangular and tetrahedral meshes at the cell interfaces, numerical issues exist when flow discontinuities or stagnation regions are present. The space-time conservative conservation element solution element (CESE) method - due to its Riemann-solver-free shock capturing capabilities, non-dissipative baseline schemes, and flux conservation in time as well as space - has the potential to more accurately simulate turbulent flows using unstructured tetrahedral meshes. To pave the way towards accurate simulation of shock/turbulent boundary-layer interaction, a series of wave and shock interaction benchmark problems that increase in complexity, are computed in this paper with triangular/tetrahedral meshes. Preliminary computations for the normal shock/turbulence interactions are carried out with a relatively coarse mesh, by direct numerical simulations standards, in order to assess other effects such as boundary conditions and the necessity of a buffer domain. The results indicate that qualitative agreement with previous studies can be obtained for flows where, strong shocks co-exist along with unsteady waves that display a broad range of scales, with a relatively compact computational domain and less stringent requirements for grid clustering near the shock. With the space-time conservation properties, stable solutions without any spurious wave reflections can be obtained without a need for buffer domains near the outflow/farfield boundaries. Computational results for the

  18. Characterizing Scintillator Response with Neutron Time-of-Flight

    Palmisano, Kevin; Visca, Hannah; Caves, Louis; Wilkinson, Corey; McClow, Hannah; Padalino, Stephen; Forrest, Chad; Katz, Joe; Sangster, Craig; Regan, Sean

    2017-10-01

    Neutron scintillator diagnostics for ICF can be characterized using the neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) line on Geneseo's 1.7 MV Tandem Pelletron Accelerator. Neutron signals can be differentiated from gamma signals by employing a coincidence method called the associated particle technique (APT). In this measurement, a 2.1 MeV beam of deuterons incident on a deuterated polyethylene target produces neutrons via the d(d,n)3He reaction. A BC-412 plastic scintillator, placed at a scattering angle of 152º, detects 1.76 MeV neutrons in coincidence with the 2.56 MeV 3He ions at an associated angle of 10º. The APT is used to identify the 1.76 MeV neutron while the nTOF line determines its energy. By gating only mono-energetic neutrons, the instrument response function of the scintillator can be determined free from background scattered neutrons and gamma rays. Funded in part by a Grant from the DOE, through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  19. Real-time Responsiveness for Ethics Oversight During Disaster Research.

    Eckenwiler, Lisa; Pringle, John; Boulanger, Renaud; Hunt, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Disaster research has grown in scope and frequency. Research in the wake of disasters and during humanitarian crises--particularly in resource-poor settings--is likely to raise profound and unique ethical challenges for local communities, crisis responders, researchers, and research ethics committees (RECs). Given the ethical challenges, many have questioned how best to provide research ethics review and oversight. We contribute to the conversation concerning how best to ensure appropriate ethical oversight in disaster research and argue that ethical disaster research requires of researchers and RECs a particular sort of ongoing, critical engagement which may not be warranted in less exceptional research. We present two cases that typify the concerns disaster researchers and RECs may confront, and elaborate upon what this ongoing engagement might look like--how it might be conceptualized and utilized--using the concept of real-time responsiveness (RTR). The central aim of RTR, understood here as both an ethical ideal and practice, is to lessen the potential for research conducted in the wake of disasters to create, perpetuate, or exacerbate vulnerabilities and contribute to injustices suffered by disaster-affected populations. Well cultivated and deployed, we believe that RTR may enhance the moral capacities of researchers and REC members, and RECs as institutions where moral agency is nurtured and sustained. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Improving OCD time to solution using Signal Response Metrology

    Fang, Fang; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Vaid, Alok; Pandev, Stilian; Sanko, Dimitry; Ramanathan, Vidya; Venkataraman, Kartik; Haupt, Ronny

    2016-03-01

    In recent technology nodes, advanced process and novel integration scheme have challenged the precision limits of conventional metrology; with critical dimensions (CD) of device reduce to sub-nanometer region. Optical metrology has proved its capability to precisely detect intricate details on the complex structures, however, conventional RCWA-based (rigorous coupled wave analysis) scatterometry has the limitations of long time-to-results and lack of flexibility to adapt to wide process variations. Signal Response Metrology (SRM) is a new metrology technique targeted to alleviate the consumption of engineering and computation resources by eliminating geometric/dispersion modeling and spectral simulation from the workflow. This is achieved by directly correlating the spectra acquired from a set of wafers with known process variations encoded. In SPIE 2015, we presented the results of SRM application in lithography metrology and control [1], accomplished the mission of setting up a new measurement recipe of focus/dose monitoring in hours. This work will demonstrate our recent field exploration of SRM implementation in 20nm technology and beyond, including focus metrology for scanner control; post etch geometric profile measurement, and actual device profile metrology.

  1. A generalized linear factor model approach to the hierarchical framework for responses and response times.

    Molenaar, Dylan; Tuerlinckx, Francis; van der Maas, Han L J

    2015-05-01

    We show how the hierarchical model for responses and response times as developed by van der Linden (2007), Fox, Klein Entink, and van der Linden (2007), Klein Entink, Fox, and van der Linden (2009), and Glas and van der Linden (2010) can be simplified to a generalized linear factor model with only the mild restriction that there is no hierarchical model at the item side. This result is valuable as it enables all well-developed modelling tools and extensions that come with these methods. We show that the restriction we impose on the hierarchical model does not influence parameter recovery under realistic circumstances. In addition, we present two illustrative real data analyses to demonstrate the practical benefits of our approach. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Transient response in granular quasi-two-dimensional bounded heap flow.

    Xiao, Hongyi; Ottino, Julio M; Lueptow, Richard M; Umbanhowar, Paul B

    2017-10-01

    We study the transition between steady flows of noncohesive granular materials in quasi-two-dimensional bounded heaps by suddenly changing the feed rate. In both experiments and simulations, the primary feature of the transition is a wedge of flowing particles that propagates downstream over the rising free surface with a wedge front velocity inversely proportional to the square root of time. An additional longer duration transient process continues after the wedge front reaches the downstream wall. The entire transition is well modeled as a moving boundary problem with a diffusionlike equation derived from local mass balance and a local relation between the flux and the surface slope.

  3. Sub-millisecond time-resolved SAXS using a continuous-flow mixer and X-ray microbeam

    Graceffa, Rita; Nobrega, R. Paul; Barrea, Raul A.; Kathuria, Sagar V.; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Bilsel, Osman; Irving, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a high-duty-cycle microsecond time-resolution SAXS capability at the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team beamline (BioCAT) 18ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, USA, is reported. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a well established technique to probe the nanoscale structure and interactions in soft matter. It allows one to study the structure of native particles in near physiological environments and to analyze structural changes in response to variations in external conditions. The combination of microfluidics and SAXS provides a powerful tool to investigate dynamic processes on a molecular level with sub-millisecond time resolution. Reaction kinetics in the sub-millisecond time range has been achieved using continuous-flow mixers manufactured using micromachining techniques. The time resolution of these devices has previously been limited, in part, by the X-ray beam sizes delivered by typical SAXS beamlines. These limitations can be overcome using optics to focus X-rays to the micrometer size range providing that beam divergence and photon flux suitable for performing SAXS experiments can be maintained. Such micro-SAXS in combination with microfluidic devices would be an attractive probe for time-resolved studies. Here, the development of a high-duty-cycle scanning microsecond-time-resolution SAXS capability, built around the Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror-based microbeam system at the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team (BioCAT) beamline 18ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, is reported. A detailed description of the microbeam small-angle-scattering instrument, the turbulent flow mixer, as well as the data acquisition and control and analysis software is provided. Results are presented where this apparatus was used to study the folding of cytochrome c. Future prospects for this technique are discussed

  4. Sub-millisecond time-resolved SAXS using a continuous-flow mixer and X-ray microbeam

    Graceffa, Rita, E-mail: rita.graceffa@gmail.com [Illinois Institute of Technology, 3101 South Dearborn, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Nobrega, R. Paul [University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, LRB 919, Worcester, MA 01605 (United States); Barrea, Raul A. [Illinois Institute of Technology, 3101 South Dearborn, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Kathuria, Sagar V. [University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, LRB 919, Worcester, MA 01605 (United States); Chakravarthy, Srinivas [Illinois Institute of Technology, 3101 South Dearborn, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Bilsel, Osman [University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, LRB 919, Worcester, MA 01605 (United States); Irving, Thomas C. [Illinois Institute of Technology, 3101 South Dearborn, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The development of a high-duty-cycle microsecond time-resolution SAXS capability at the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team beamline (BioCAT) 18ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, USA, is reported. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a well established technique to probe the nanoscale structure and interactions in soft matter. It allows one to study the structure of native particles in near physiological environments and to analyze structural changes in response to variations in external conditions. The combination of microfluidics and SAXS provides a powerful tool to investigate dynamic processes on a molecular level with sub-millisecond time resolution. Reaction kinetics in the sub-millisecond time range has been achieved using continuous-flow mixers manufactured using micromachining techniques. The time resolution of these devices has previously been limited, in part, by the X-ray beam sizes delivered by typical SAXS beamlines. These limitations can be overcome using optics to focus X-rays to the micrometer size range providing that beam divergence and photon flux suitable for performing SAXS experiments can be maintained. Such micro-SAXS in combination with microfluidic devices would be an attractive probe for time-resolved studies. Here, the development of a high-duty-cycle scanning microsecond-time-resolution SAXS capability, built around the Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror-based microbeam system at the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team (BioCAT) beamline 18ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, is reported. A detailed description of the microbeam small-angle-scattering instrument, the turbulent flow mixer, as well as the data acquisition and control and analysis software is provided. Results are presented where this apparatus was used to study the folding of cytochrome c. Future prospects for this technique are discussed.

  5. Tracers Reveal Recharge Elevations, Groundwater Flow Paths and Travel Times on Mount Shasta, California

    Elizabeth Peters

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mount Shasta (4322 m is famous for its spring water. Water for municipal, domestic and industrial use is obtained from local springs and wells, fed by annual snow melt and sustained perennially by the groundwater flow system. We examined geochemical and isotopic tracers in samples from wells and springs on Mount Shasta, at the headwaters of the Sacramento River, in order to better understand the hydrologic system. The topographic relief in the study area imparts robust signatures of recharge elevation to both stable isotopes of the water molecule (δ18O and δD and to dissolved noble gases, offering tools to identify recharge areas and delineate groundwater flow paths. Recharge elevations determined using stable isotopes and noble gas recharge temperatures are in close agreement and indicate that most snowmelt infiltrates at elevations between 2000 m and 2900 m, which coincides with areas of thin soils and barren land cover. Large springs in Mt Shasta City discharge at an elevation more than 1600 m lower. High elevation springs (>2000 m yield very young water (<2 years while lower elevation wells (1000–1500 m produce water with a residence time ranging from 6 years to over 60 years, based on observed tritium activities. Upslope movement of the tree line in the identified recharge elevation range due to a warming climate is likely to decrease infiltration and recharge, which will decrease spring discharge and production at wells, albeit with a time lag dependent upon the length of groundwater flow paths.

  6. Thin liquid films with time-dependent chemical reactions sheared by an ambient gas flow

    Bender, Achim; Stephan, Peter; Gambaryan-Roisman, Tatiana

    2017-08-01

    Chemical reactions in thin liquid films are found in many industrial applications, e.g., in combustion chambers of internal combustion engines where a fuel film can develop on pistons or cylinder walls. The reactions within the film and the turbulent outer gas flow influence film stability and lead to film breakup, which in turn can lead to deposit formation. In this work we examine the evolution and stability of a thin liquid film in the presence of a first-order chemical reaction and under the influence of a turbulent gas flow. Long-wave theory with a double perturbation analysis is used to reduce the complexity of the problem and obtain an evolution equation for the film thickness. The chemical reaction is assumed to be slow compared to film evolution and the amount of reactant in the film is limited, which means that the reaction rate decreases with time as the reactant is consumed. A linear stability analysis is performed to identify the influence of reaction parameters, material properties, and environmental conditions on the film stability limits. Results indicate that exothermic reactions have a stabilizing effect whereas endothermic reactions destabilize the film and can lead to rupture. It is shown that an initially unstable film can become stable with time as the reaction rate decreases. The shearing of the film by the external gas flow leads to the appearance of traveling waves. The shear stress magnitude has a nonmonotonic influence on film stability.

  7. Flow immune photoacoustic sensor for real-time and fast sampling of trace gases

    Petersen, Jan C.; Balslev-Harder, David; Pelevic, Nikola; Brusch, Anders; Persijn, Stefan; Lassen, Mikael

    2018-02-01

    A photoacoustic (PA) sensor for fast and real-time gas sensing is demonstrated. The PA cell has been designed for flow noise immunity using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. PA measurements were conducted at different flow rates by exciting molecular C-H stretch vibrational bands of hexane (C6H14) in clean air at 2950cm-1 (3.38 μm) with a custom made mid-infrared interband cascade laser (ICL). The PA sensor will contribute to solve a major problem in a number of industries using compressed air by the detection of oil contaminants in high purity compressed air. We observe a (1σ, standard deviation) sensitivity of 0.4 +/-0.1 ppb (nmol/mol) for hexane in clean air at flow rates up to 2 L/min, corresponding to a normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficient of 2.5×10-9 W cm-1 Hz1/2, thus demonstrating high sensitivity and fast and real-time gas analysis. The PA sensor is not limited to molecules with C-H stretching modes, but can be tailored to measure any trace gas by simply changing the excitation wavelength (i.e. the laser source) making it useful for many different applications where fast and sensitive trace gas measurements are needed.

  8. Competitive autocatalytic reactions in chaotic flows with diffusion: Prediction using finite-time Lyapunov exponents

    Schlick, Conor P.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate chaotic advection and diffusion in autocatalytic reactions for time-periodic sine flow computationally using a mapping method with operator splitting. We specifically consider three different autocatalytic reaction schemes: a single autocatalytic reaction, competitive autocatalytic reactions, which can provide insight into problems of chiral symmetry breaking and homochirality, and competitive autocatalytic reactions with recycling. In competitive autocatalytic reactions, species B and C both undergo an autocatalytic reaction with species A such that A+B→2B and A+C→2C. Small amounts of initially spatially localized B and C and a large amount of spatially homogeneous A are advected by the velocity field, diffuse, and react until A is completely consumed and only B and C remain. We find that local finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs) can accurately predict the final average concentrations of B and C after the reaction completes. The species that starts in the region with the larger FTLE has, with high probability, the larger average concentration at the end of the reaction. If B and C start in regions with similar FTLEs, their average concentrations at the end of the reaction will also be similar. When a recycling reaction is added, the system evolves towards a single species state, with the FTLE often being useful in predicting which species fills the entire domain and which is depleted. The FTLE approach is also demonstrated for competitive autocatalytic reactions in journal bearing flow, an experimentally realizable flow that generates chaotic dynamics

  9. Sensitivity studies of unsaturated groundwater flow modeling for groundwater travel time calculations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Altman, S.J.; Ho, C.K.; Arnold, B.W.; McKenna, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Unsaturated flow has been modeled through four cross-sections at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the purpose of determining groundwater particle travel times from the potential repository to the water table. This work will be combined with the results of flow modeling in the saturated zone for the purpose of evaluating the suitability of the potential repository under the criteria of 10CFR960. One criterion states, in part, that the groundwater travel time (GWTT) from the repository to the accessible environment must exceed 1,000 years along the fastest path of likely and significant radionuclide travel. Sensitivity analyses have been conducted for one geostatistical realization of one cross-section for the purpose of (1) evaluating the importance of hydrological parameters having some uncertainty and (2) examining conceptual models of flow by altering the numerical implementation of the conceptual model (dual permeability (DK) and the equivalent continuum model (ECM). Results of comparisons of the ECM and DK model are also presented in Ho et al

  10. Studying circulation times of liver cancer cells by in vivo flow cytometry

    Liu, G; Li, Y; Fan, Z; Guo, J; Tan, X; Wei, X, E-mail: xwei@fudan.edu.cn [Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai, 200032 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may metastasize to lung kidney and many other organs. The survival rate is almost zero for metastatic HCC patients. Molecular mechanisms of HCC metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed. A recently developed 'in vivo flow cytometer' combined with real-time confocal fluorescence imaging are used to assess spreading and the circulation kinetics of liver tumor cells. The in vivo flow cytometer has the capability to detect and quantify continuously the number and flow characteristics of fluorescently labeled cells in vivo in real time without extracting blood sample. We have measured the depletion kinetics of two related human HCC cell lines high-metastatic HCCLM3 cells and low-metastatic HepG2 cells which were from the same origin and obtained by repetitive screenings in mice. >60% HCCLM3 cells are depleted within the first hour. Interestingly the low-metastatic HepG2 cells possess noticeably slower depletion kinetics. In comparison <40% HepG2 cells are depleted within the first hour. The differences in depletion kinetics might provide insights into early metastasis processes.

  11. The significance and lag-time of deep through flow: an example from a small, ephemeral catchment with contrasting soil types in the Adelaide Hills, South Australia

    J. VanLeeuwen

    2009-07-01

    infiltration excess overland flow. A pulse of macropore through flow was observed in the sandy soils three days after the rainfall event largely ended. The macropore water was a mixture of pre-event and event water, demonstrating the lag-time and mixing of the water masses in the sandy soil system. By contrast, the clayey soil horizons were not dominated by pre-event water, demonstrating the quicker response and shallow through flow of the clayey soil system. Thus, the sandy terrain has a greater vadose zone storage and greater lag time of through flow than the clayey terrain.

  12. Time-dependent particle migration and margination in the pressure-driven channel flow of blood

    Qi, Qin M.; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.

    2018-03-01

    We present a theory to describe the time evolution of the red blood cell (RBC) and platelet concentration distributions in pressure-driven flow through a straight channel. This model is based on our previous theory for the steady-state distributions [Qi and Shaqfeh, Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 093102 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.2.093102] and captures the flow-induced nonuniformity of the concentrations of RBCs and platelets in the cross-flow direction. Starting with a uniform concentration, RBCs migrate away from the channel walls due to a shear-induced lift force and eventually reach steady state due to shear-induced diffusion, i.e., hydrodynamic "collisions" with other RBCs. On the other hand, platelets exit the cell-laden region due to RBC-platelet interactions and enter the cell-free layer, resulting in margination. To validate the theory, we also perform boundary integral simulations of blood flow in microchannels and directly compare various measureables between theory and simulation. The timescales associated with RBC migration and platelet margination are discussed in the context of the simulation and theory, and their importance in the function of microfluidic devices as well as the vascular network are elucidated. Due to the varying shear rate in pressure-driven flow and the wall-induced RBC lift, we report a separation of timescales for the transport in the near-wall region and in the bulk region. We also relate the transient problem to the axial variation of migration and margination, and we demonstrate how the relevant timescales can be used to predict corresponding entrance lengths. Our theory can serve as a fast and convenient alternative to large-scale simulations of these phenomena.

  13. Run-Time HW/SW Scheduling of Data Flow Applications on Reconfigurable Architectures

    Ghaffari Fakhreddine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient dynamic and run-time Hardware/Software scheduling approach. This scheduling heuristic consists in mapping online the different tasks of a highly dynamic application in such a way that the total execution time is minimized. We consider soft real-time data flow graph oriented applications for which the execution time is function of the input data nature. The target architecture is composed of two processors connected to a dynamically reconfigurable hardware accelerator. Our approach takes advantage of the reconfiguration property of the considered architecture to adapt the treatment to the system dynamics. We compare our heuristic with another similar approach. We present the results of our scheduling method on several image processing applications. Our experiments include simulation and synthesis results on a Virtex V-based platform. These results show a better performance against existing methods.

  14. Efficient bounding schemes for the two-center hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with removal times.

    Hidri, Lotfi; Gharbi, Anis; Louly, Mohamed Aly

    2014-01-01

    We focus on the two-center hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with identical parallel machines and removal times. The job removal time is the required duration to remove it from a machine after its processing. The objective is to minimize the maximum completion time (makespan). A heuristic and a lower bound are proposed for this NP-Hard problem. These procedures are based on the optimal solution of the parallel machine scheduling problem with release dates and delivery times. The heuristic is composed of two phases. The first one is a constructive phase in which an initial feasible solution is provided, while the second phase is an improvement one. Intensive computational experiments have been conducted to confirm the good performance of the proposed procedures.

  15. Aerothermal and aeroelastic response prediction of aerospace structures in high-speed flows using direct numerical simulation

    Ostoich, Christopher Mark

    due to a dome-induced horseshoe vortex scouring the panel's surface. Comparisons with reduced-order models of heat transfer indicate that they perform with varying levels of accuracy around some portions of the geometry while completely failing to predict significant heat loads in re- gions where the dome-influenced flow impacts the ceramic panel. Cumulative effects of flow-thermal coupling at later simulation times on the reduction of panel drag and surface heat transfer are quantified. The second fluid-structure study investigates the interaction between a thin metallic panel and a Mach 2.25 turbulent boundary layer with an ini- tial momentum thickness Reynolds number of 1200. A transient, non-linear, large deformation, 3D finite element solver is developed to compute the dynamic response of the panel. The solver is coupled at the fluid-structure interface with the compressible Navier-Stokes solver, the latter of which is used for a direct numerical simulation of the turbulent boundary layer. In this approach, no simplifying assumptions regarding the structural solution or turbulence modeling are made in order to get detailed solution data. It is found that the thin panel state evolves into a flutter type response char- acterized by high-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations into the flow. The oscillating panel disturbs the supersonic flow by introducing compression waves, modifying the turbulence, and generating fluctuations in the power exiting the top of the flow domain. The work in this thesis serves as a step forward in structural response prediction in high-speed flows. The results demonstrate the ability of high- fidelity numerical approaches to serve as a guide for reduced-order model improvement and as well as provide accurate and detailed solution data in scenarios where experimental approaches are difficult or impossible.

  16. Cerebral blood flow response to flavanol-rich cocoa in healthy elderly humans

    Farzaneh A Sorond

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Farzaneh A Sorond1,2, Lewis A Lipsitz2,4, Norman K Hollenberg3,5, Naomi DL Fisher31Department of Neurology, Stroke Division; 2Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA; 3Department of Medicine, Endocrine-Hypertension Division; 4Department of Medicine, Gerontology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 5Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MABackground and Purpose: Cerebral ischemia is a common, morbid condition accompanied by cognitive decline. Recent reports on the vascular health benefits of flavanol-containing foods signify a promising approach to the treatment of cerebral ischemia. Our study was designed to investigate the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa (FRC consumption on cerebral blood flow in older healthy volunteers.Methods: We used transcranial Doppler (TCD ultrasound to measure mean blood flow velocity (MFV in the middle cerebral artery (MCA in thirty-four healthy elderly volunteers (72 ± 6 years in response to the regular intake of FRC or flavanol-poor cocoa (FPC.Results: In response to two weeks of FRC intake, MFV increased by 8% ± 4% at one week (p = 0.01 and 10% ± 4% (p = 0.04 at two weeks. In response to one week of cocoa, significantly more subjects in the FRC as compared with the FPC group had an increase in their MFV (p < 0.05.Conclusions: In summary, we show that dietary intake of FRC is associated with a significant increase in cerebral blood flow velocity in the MCA as measured by TCD. Our data suggest a promising role for regular cocoa flavanol’s consumption in the treatment of cerebrovascular ischemic syndromes, including dementias and stroke.Keywords: cerebral blood flow, flavanol, cocoa, transcranial Doppler ultrasound

  17. Shocks and finite-time singularities in Hele-Shaw flow

    Teodorescu, Razvan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiegmann, P [UNIV OF MONTREAL; Lee, S-y [UNIV OF CHICAGO

    2008-01-01

    Hele-Shaw flow at vanishing surface tension is ill-defined. In finite time, the flow develops cusplike singularities. We show that the ill-defined problem admits a weak dispersive solution when singularities give rise to a graph of shock waves propagating in the viscous fluid. The graph of shocks grows and branches. Velocity and pressure jump across the shock. We formulate a few simple physical principles which single out the dispersive solution and interpret shocks as lines of decompressed fluid. We also formulate the dispersive solution in algebro-geometrical terms as an evolution of Krichever-Boutroux complex curve. We study in details the most generic (2,3) cusp singularity which gives rise to an elementary branching event. This solution is self-similar and expressed in terms of elliptic functions.

  18. Improving stability of stabilized and multiscale formulations in flow simulations at small time steps

    Hsu, Ming-Chen

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to show that use of the element-vector-based definition of stabilization parameters, introduced in [T.E. Tezduyar, Computation of moving boundaries and interfaces and stabilization parameters, Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids 43 (2003) 555-575; T.E. Tezduyar, Y. Osawa, Finite element stabilization parameters computed from element matrices and vectors, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 190 (2000) 411-430], circumvents the well-known instability associated with conventional stabilized formulations at small time steps. We describe formulations for linear advection-diffusion and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and test them on three benchmark problems: advection of an L-shaped discontinuity, laminar flow in a square domain at low Reynolds number, and turbulent channel flow at friction-velocity Reynolds number of 395. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. MOSS spectroscopic camera for imaging time resolved plasma species temperature and flow speed

    Michael, Clive; Howard, John

    2000-01-01

    A MOSS (Modulated Optical Solid-State) spectroscopic camera has been devised to monitor the spatial and temporal variations of temperatures and flow speeds of plasma ion species, the Doppler broadening measurement being made of spectroscopic lines specified. As opposed to a single channel MOSS spectrometer, the camera images light from plasma onto an array of light detectors, being mentioned 2D imaging of plasma ion temperatures and flow speeds. In addition, compared to a conventional grating spectrometer, the MOSS camera shows an excellent light collecting performance which leads to the improvement of signal to noise ratio and of time resolution. The present paper first describes basic items of MOSS spectroscopy, then follows MOSS camera with an emphasis on the optical system of 2D imaging. (author)

  20. Ultrabroadband THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy of a Free-Flowing Water Film

    Wang, Tianwu; Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2014-01-01

    of liquid water using two different THz-TDS setups. The extracted absorption coefficient and refractive index of water are in agreement with previous results reported in the literature. With this we show that the thin free-flowing liquid film is a versatile tool for windowless, ultrabroadband THz......We demonstrate quantitative ultrabroadband THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) of water by application of a 17-$\\mu$m thick gravity-driven wire-guided flow jet of water. The thickness and stability of the water film is accurately measured by an optical intensity crosscorrelator, and the standard...... deviation of the film thickness is less than 500 nm. The cross section of the water film is found to have a biconcave cylindrical lens shape. By transmitting through such a thin film, we perform the first ultrabroadband (0.2–30 THz) THz-TDS across the strongest absorbing part of the infrared spectrum...

  1. MOSS spectroscopic camera for imaging time resolved plasma species temperature and flow speed

    Michael, Clive; Howard, John [Australian National Univ., Plasma Research Laboratory, Canberra (Australia)

    2000-03-01

    A MOSS (Modulated Optical Solid-State) spectroscopic camera has been devised to monitor the spatial and temporal variations of temperatures and flow speeds of plasma ion species, the Doppler broadening measurement being made of spectroscopic lines specified. As opposed to a single channel MOSS spectrometer, the camera images light from plasma onto an array of light detectors, being mentioned 2D imaging of plasma ion temperatures and flow speeds. In addition, compared to a conventional grating spectrometer, the MOSS camera shows an excellent light collecting performance which leads to the improvement of signal to noise ratio and of time resolution. The present paper first describes basic items of MOSS spectroscopy, then follows MOSS camera with an emphasis on the optical system of 2D imaging. (author)

  2. A hybrid method of estimating pulsating flow parameters in the space-time domain

    Pałczyński, Tomasz

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating pulsating flow parameters in partially open pipes, such as pipelines, internal combustion engine inlets, exhaust pipes and piston compressors. The procedure is based on the method of characteristics, and employs a combination of measurements and simulations. An experimental test rig is described, which enables pressure, temperature and mass flow rate to be measured within a defined cross section. The second part of the paper discusses the main assumptions of a simulation algorithm elaborated in the Matlab/Simulink environment. The simulation results are shown as 3D plots in the space-time domain, and compared with proposed models of phenomena relating to wave propagation, boundary conditions, acoustics and fluid mechanics. The simulation results are finally compared with acoustic phenomena, with an emphasis on the identification of resonant frequencies.

  3. Facial skin blood flow responses during exposures to emotionally charged movies.

    Matsukawa, Kanji; Endo, Kana; Ishii, Kei; Ito, Momoka; Liang, Nan

    2018-03-01

    The changes in regional facial skin blood flow and vascular conductance have been assessed for the first time with noninvasive two-dimensional laser speckle flowmetry during audiovisually elicited emotional challenges for 2 min (comedy, landscape, and horror movie) in 12 subjects. Limb skin blood flow and vascular conductance and systemic cardiovascular variables were simultaneously measured. The extents of pleasantness and consciousness for each emotional stimulus were estimated by the subjective rating from -5 (the most unpleasant; the most unconscious) to +5 (the most pleasant; the most conscious). Facial skin blood flow and vascular conductance, especially in the lips, decreased during viewing of comedy and horror movies, whereas they did not change during viewing of a landscape movie. The decreases in facial skin blood flow and vascular conductance were the greatest with the comedy movie. The changes in lip, cheek, and chin skin blood flow negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the subjective ratings of pleasantness and consciousness. The changes in lip skin vascular conductance negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the subjective rating of pleasantness, while the changes in infraorbital, subnasal, and chin skin vascular conductance negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the subjective rating of consciousness. However, none of the changes in limb skin blood flow and vascular conductance and systemic hemodynamics correlated with the subjective ratings. The mental arithmetic task did not alter facial and limb skin blood flows, although the task influenced systemic cardiovascular variables. These findings suggest that the more emotional status becomes pleasant or conscious, the more neurally mediated vasoconstriction may occur in facial skin blood vessels.

  4. Novel techniques of real-time blood flow and functional mapping: technical note.

    Kamada, Kyousuke; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Saito, Masato; Tamura, Yukie; Anei, Ryogo; Kapeller, Christoph; Hayashi, Hideaki; Prueckl, Robert; Guger, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    There are two main approaches to intraoperative monitoring in neurosurgery. One approach is related to fluorescent phenomena and the other is related to oscillatory neuronal activity. We developed novel techniques to visualize blood flow (BF) conditions in real time, based on indocyanine green videography (ICG-VG) and the electrophysiological phenomenon of high gamma activity (HGA). We investigated the use of ICG-VG in four patients with moyamoya disease and two with arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and we investigated the use of real-time HGA mapping in four patients with brain tumors who underwent lesion resection with awake craniotomy. Real-time data processing of ICG-VG was based on perfusion imaging, which generated parameters including arrival time (AT), mean transit time (MTT), and BF of brain surface vessels. During awake craniotomy, we analyzed the frequency components of brain oscillation and performed real-time HGA mapping to identify functional areas. Processed results were projected on a wireless monitor linked to the operating microscope. After revascularization for moyamoya disease, AT and BF were significantly shortened and increased, respectively, suggesting hyperperfusion. Real-time fusion images on the wireless monitor provided anatomical, BF, and functional information simultaneously, and allowed the resection of AVMs under the microscope. Real-time HGA mapping during awake craniotomy rapidly indicated the eloquent areas of motor and language function and significantly shortened the operation time. These novel techniques, which we introduced might improve the reliability of intraoperative monitoring and enable the development of rational and objective surgical strategies.

  5. An efficient genetic algorithm for a hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with time lags and sequence-dependent setup time

    Farahmand-Mehr Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with a new approach considering time lags and sequence-dependent setup time in realistic situations is presented. Since few works have been implemented in this field, the necessity of finding better solutions is a motivation to extend heuristic or meta-heuristic algorithms. This type of production system is found in industries such as food processing, chemical, textile, metallurgical, printed circuit board, and automobile manufacturing. A mixed integer linear programming (MILP model is proposed to minimize the makespan. Since this problem is known as NP-Hard class, a meta-heuristic algorithm, named Genetic Algorithm (GA, and three heuristic algorithms (Johnson, SPTCH and Palmer are proposed. Numerical experiments of different sizes are implemented to evaluate the performance of presented mathematical programming model and the designed GA in compare to heuristic algorithms and a benchmark algorithm. Computational results indicate that the designed GA can produce near optimal solutions in a short computational time for different size problems.

  6. How can streamflow and climate-landscape data be used to estimate baseflow mean response time?

    Zhang, Runrun; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zhicai; Soulsby, Chris; Gao, Man

    2018-02-01

    Mean response time (MRT) is a metric describing the propagation of catchment hydraulic behavior that reflects both hydro-climatic conditions and catchment characteristics. To provide a comprehensive understanding of catchment response over a longer-time scale for hydraulic processes, the MRT function for baseflow generation was derived using an instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH) model that describes the subsurface response to effective rainfall inputs. IUH parameters were estimated based on the "match test" between the autocorrelation function (ACFs) derived from the filtered base flow time series and from the IUH parameters, under the GLUE framework. Regionalization of MRT was conducted using estimates and hydroclimate-landscape indices in 22 sub-basins of the Jinghe River Basin (JRB) in the Loess Plateau of northwest China. Results indicate there is strong equifinality in determination of the best parameter sets but the median values of the MRT estimates are relatively stable in the acceptable range of the parameters. MRTs vary markedly over the studied sub-basins, ranging from tens of days to more than a year. Climate, topography and geomorphology were identified as three first-order controls on recharge-baseflow response processes. Human activities involving the cultivation of permanent crops may elongate the baseflow MRT and hence increase the dynamic storage. Cross validation suggests the model can be used to estimate MRTs in ungauged catchments in similar regions of throughout the Loess Plateau. The proposed method provides a systematic approach for MRT estimation and regionalization in terms of hydroclimate and catchment characteristics, which is helpful in the sustainable water resources utilization and ecological protection in the Loess Plateau.

  7. A New Real Time Lyapunov Based Controller for Power Quality Improvement in Unified Power Flow Controllers Using Direct Matrix Converters

    Joaquim Monteiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Direct Matrix Converter operating as a Unified Power Flow Controller (DMC-UPFC with an advanced control method for UPFC, based on the Lyapunov direct method, presenting good results in power quality assessment. This control method is used for real-time calculation of the appropriate matrix switching state, determining which switching state should be applied in the following sampling period. The control strategy takes into account active and reactive power flow references to choose the vector converter closest to the optimum. Theoretical principles for this new real-time vector modulation and control applied to the DMC-UPFC with input filter are established. The method needs DMC-UPFC dynamic equations to be solved just once in each control cycle, to find the required optimum vector, in contrast to similar control methods that need 27 vector estimations per control cycle. The designed controller’s performance was evaluated using Matlab/Simulink software. Controllers were also implemented using a digital signal processing (DSP system and matrix hardware. Simulation and experimental results show decoupled transmission line active (P and reactive (Q power control with zero theoretical error tracking and fast response. Output currents and voltages show small ripple and low harmonic content.

  8. Enhanced Interrupt Response Time in the nMPRA based on Embedded Real Time Microcontrollers

    GAITAN, N. C.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In any real-time operating system, task switching and scheduling, interrupts, synchronization and communication between processes, represent major problems. The implementation of these mechanisms through software generates significant delays for many applications. The nMPRA (Multi Pipeline Register Architecture architecture is designed for the implementation of real-time embedded microcontrollers. It supports the competitive execution of n tasks, enabling very fast switching between them, with a usual delay of one machine cycle and a maximum of 3 machine cycles, for the memory-related work instructions. This is because each task has its own PC (Program Counter, set of pipeline registers and a general registers file. The nMPRA is provided with an advanced distributed interrupt controller that implements the concept of "interrupts as threads". This allows the attachment of one or more interrupts to the same task. In this context, the original contribution of this article is to presents the solutions for improving the response time to interrupts when a task has attached a large number of interrupts. The proposed solutions enhance the original architecture for interrupts logic in order to transfer control, to the interrupt handler as soon as possible, and to create an interrupt prioritization at task level.

  9. Homeostatic response to sleep/rest deprivation by constant water flow in larval zebrafish in both dark and light conditions.

    Aho, Vilma; Vainikka, Maija; Puttonen, Henri A J; Ikonen, Heidi M K; Salminen, Tiia; Panula, Pertti; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Wigren, Henna-Kaisa

    2017-06-01

    Sleep-or sleep-like states-have been reported in adult and larval zebrafish using behavioural criteria. These reversible quiescent periods, displaying circadian rhythmicity, have been used in pharmacological, genetic and neuroanatomical studies of sleep-wake regulation. However, one of the important criteria for sleep, namely sleep homeostasis, has not been demonstrated unequivocally. To study rest homeostasis in zebrafish larvae, we rest-deprived 1-week-old larvae with a novel, ecologically relevant method: flow of water. Stereotyped startle responses to sensory stimuli were recorded after the rest deprivation to study arousal threshold using a high-speed camera, providing an appropriate time resolution to detect species-specific behavioural responses occurring in a millisecond time-scale. Rest-deprived larvae exhibited fewer startle responses than control larvae during the remaining dark phase and the beginning of the light phase, which can be interpreted as a sign of rest homeostasis-often used as equivalent of sleep homeostasis. To address sleep homeostasis further, we probed the adenosinergic system, which in mammals regulates sleep homeostasis. The adenosine A1 receptor agonist, cyclohexyladenosine, administered during the light period, decreased startle responses and increased immobility bouts, while the adenosine antagonist, caffeine, administered during the dark period, decreased immobility bouts. These results suggest that the regulation of sleep homeostasis in zebrafish larvae consists of the same elements as that of other species. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  10. Sub-millisecond time-resolved SAXS using a continuous-flow mixer and X-ray microbeam.

    Graceffa, Rita; Nobrega, R Paul; Barrea, Raul A; Kathuria, Sagar V; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Bilsel, Osman; Irving, Thomas C

    2013-11-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a well established technique to probe the nanoscale structure and interactions in soft matter. It allows one to study the structure of native particles in near physiological environments and to analyze structural changes in response to variations in external conditions. The combination of microfluidics and SAXS provides a powerful tool to investigate dynamic processes on a molecular level with sub-millisecond time resolution. Reaction kinetics in the sub-millisecond time range has been achieved using continuous-flow mixers manufactured using micromachining techniques. The time resolution of these devices has previously been limited, in part, by the X-ray beam sizes delivered by typical SAXS beamlines. These limitations can be overcome using optics to focus X-rays to the micrometer size range providing that beam divergence and photon flux suitable for performing SAXS experiments can be maintained. Such micro-SAXS in combination with microfluidic devices would be an attractive probe for time-resolved studies. Here, the development of a high-duty-cycle scanning microsecond-time-resolution SAXS capability, built around the Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror-based microbeam system at the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team (BioCAT) beamline 18ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, is reported. A detailed description of the microbeam small-angle-scattering instrument, the turbulent flow mixer, as well as the data acquisition and control and analysis software is provided. Results are presented where this apparatus was used to study the folding of cytochrome c. Future prospects for this technique are discussed.

  11. Spatio-temporal dynamics of impulse responses to figure motion in optic flow neurons.

    Yu-Jen Lee

    Full Text Available White noise techniques have been used widely to investigate sensory systems in both vertebrates and invertebrates. White noise stimuli are powerful in their ability to rapidly generate data that help the experimenter decipher the spatio-temporal dynamics of neural and behavioral responses. One type of white noise stimuli, maximal length shift register sequences (m-sequences, have recently become particularly popular for extracting response kernels in insect motion vision. We here use such m-sequences to extract the impulse responses to figure motion in hoverfly lobula plate tangential cells (LPTCs. Figure motion is behaviorally important and many visually guided animals orient towards salient features in the surround. We show that LPTCs respond robustly to figure motion in the receptive field. The impulse response is scaled down in amplitude when the figure size is reduced, but its time course remains unaltered. However, a low contrast stimulus generates a slower response with a significantly longer time-to-peak and half-width. Impulse responses in females have a slower time-to-peak than males, but are otherwise similar. Finally we show that the shapes of the impulse response to a figure and a widefield stimulus are very similar, suggesting that the figure response could be coded by the same input as the widefield response.

  12. The role of bed surface configuration on river response under increasing flows

    Ferrer-Boix, Carles; Elgueta, María A.; Hassan, Marwan A.

    2017-04-01

    This research aims to explore how bed surface configuration influence channel evolution, vertical and downstream sediment sorting, and sediment transport in gravel bed streams under varying flows. While a significant body of research has been focused on channel evolution under constant flow regimes, few studies have focused on the impacts of flow variations in channel adjustments. Particularly, we are interested in examining the impact of the degree of bed surface coarsening and particle arrangement on channel adjustments and sediment transport rates. To this end, we conducted a set of experiments in a 0.55 m-wide, 5 m-long tilting flume. Flow discharge during the runs was initially held constant at 25 l/s for a period of time after which discharge was gradually increased at steps of certain duration. Flow rates during the rising limb of the hydrographs ranged from 26 l/s to 40 l/s. Initial bed slope was 0.04 m/m for all runs. Some of the experiments were conducted under no feed conditions while others were carried out with sediment supply, which ranged from 1 kg/h to 10 kg/h. The feed texture in these latter runs was identical to that of the original mixture (Dg = 5.65 mm and σg = 3.05). Bed slopes and surface configuration were obtained after varying times of conditioning under constant flow and no feed. Data acquisition included: 1) bed surface images covering the entire flume, 2) bed scans at 2 mm resolution of the whole flume and 3) real-time measurements of bedload transport (rate and texture) at the outlet of the flume. This set up allows us to obtain fractional particle mobility, i.e. how much bed area covered by a particular grain size changed at a given time and to link to sediment transport rates. Data gathered from this study 1) will contribute to better understanding of river dynamics under unsteady flow conditions (floods) and 2) will help us improve sediment transport predictions under such conditions.

  13. Turbulent Flow Characteristics and Dynamics Response of a Vertical-Axis Spiral Rotor

    Yuli Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a vertical-axis spiral wind rotor is proposed and implemented in the interest of adapting it to air flows from all directions and improving the rotor’s performance. A comparative study is performed between the proposed rotor and conventional Savonius rotor. Turbulent flow features near the rotor blades are simulated with Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The torque coefficient of the proposed rotor is satisfactory in terms of its magnitude and variation through the rotational cycle. Along the height of the rotor, distinct spatial turbulent flow patterns vary with the upstream air velocity. Subsequent experiments involving a disk generator gives an in-depth understanding of the dynamic response of the proposed rotor under different operation conditions. The optimal tip-speed ratio of the spiral rotor is 0.4–0.5, as is shown in both simulation and experiment. Under normal and relative-motion flow conditions, and within the range of upstream air velocity from 1 to 12 m/s, the output voltage of the generator was monitored and statistically analyzed. It was found that normal air velocity fluctuations lead to a non-synchronous correspondence between upstream air velocity and output voltage. In contrast, the spiral rotor’s performance when operating from the back of a moving truck was significantly different to its performance under the natural conditions.

  14. Temporal evolution of photon energy emitted from two-component advective flows: origin of time lag

    Chatterjee, Arka; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Ghosh, Himadri

    2017-12-01

    X-ray time lag of black hole candidates contains important information regarding the emission geometry. Recently, study of time lags from observational data revealed very intriguing properties. To investigate the real cause of this lag behavior with energy and spectral states, we study photon paths inside a two-component advective flow (TCAF) which appears to be a satisfactory model to explain the spectral and timing properties. We employ the Monte Carlo simulation technique to carry out the Comptonization process. We use a relativistic thick disk in Schwarzschild geometry as the CENtrifugal pressure supported BOundary Layer (CENBOL) which is the Compton cloud. In TCAF, this is the post-shock region of the advective component. Keplerian disk on the equatorial plane which is truncated at the inner edge i.e. at the outer boundary of the CENBOL, acts as the soft photon source. Ray-tracing code is employed to track the photons to a distantly located observer. We compute the cumulative time taken by a photon during Comptonization, reflection and following the curved geometry on the way to the observer. Time lags between various hard and soft bands have been calculated. We study the variation of time lags with accretion rates, CENBOL size and inclination angle. Time lags for different energy channels are plotted for different inclination angles. The general trend of variation of time lag with QPO frequency and energy as observed in satellite data is reproduced.

  15. Effective Iterated Greedy Algorithm for Flow-Shop Scheduling Problems with Time lags

    ZHAO, Ning; YE, Song; LI, Kaidian; CHEN, Siyu

    2017-05-01

    Flow shop scheduling problem with time lags is a practical scheduling problem and attracts many studies. Permutation problem(PFSP with time lags) is concentrated but non-permutation problem(non-PFSP with time lags) seems to be neglected. With the aim to minimize the makespan and satisfy time lag constraints, efficient algorithms corresponding to PFSP and non-PFSP problems are proposed, which consist of iterated greedy algorithm for permutation(IGTLP) and iterated greedy algorithm for non-permutation (IGTLNP). The proposed algorithms are verified using well-known simple and complex instances of permutation and non-permutation problems with various time lag ranges. The permutation results indicate that the proposed IGTLP can reach near optimal solution within nearly 11% computational time of traditional GA approach. The non-permutation results indicate that the proposed IG can reach nearly same solution within less than 1% computational time compared with traditional GA approach. The proposed research combines PFSP and non-PFSP together with minimal and maximal time lag consideration, which provides an interesting viewpoint for industrial implementation.

  16. The effect of light level, CO2 flow rate, and anesthesia on the stress response of mice during CO2 euthanasia.

    Powell, Karin; Ethun, Kelly; Taylor, Douglas K

    2016-09-21

    Euthanasia protocols are designed to mitigate the stress experienced by animals, and an environment that induces minimal stress helps achieve that goal. A protocol that is efficient and practical in a typical animal research facility is also important. Light intensity, isoflurane, and CO2 flow rate were studied for their impact on the stress response of mice during CO2 euthanasia. Behavior was observed and scored during euthanasia and serum corticosterone was measured immediately after death. Unsurprisingly, animals euthanized with a high-flow rate of CO2 became unconscious in the least amount of time, while animals euthanized with a low-flow rate required the most time to reach unconsciousness. There was a significant increase in anxious behaviors in animals in the isoflurane group (F1,12 = 6.67, P = 0.024), the high-flow rate CO2 group (F1,12 = 10.24, P = 0.007), and bright chamber group (F1,12 = 7.27, P = 0.019). Serum corticosterone was highest in the isoflurane group (124.72 ± 83.98 ng/ml), however there was no significant difference in corticosterone levels observed for the other study variables of light and flow-rate. A darkened chamber and low CO2 flow rates help to decrease stress experienced during CO2 euthanasia, while the use of isoflurane was observed to increase the stress response during euthanasia.

  17. Beneficial aspects of real time flow measurements for the management of acute right ventricular heart failure following continuous flow ventricular assist device implantation

    Spiliopoulos Sotirios

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal management of acute right heart failure following the implantation of a left ventricular assist device requires a reliable estimation of left ventricular preload and contractility. This is possible by real-time pump blood flow measurements. Clinical case We performed implantation of a continuous flow left ventricular assist device in a 66 years old female patient with an end-stage heart failure on the grounds of a dilated cardiomyopathy. Real-time pump blood flow was directly measured by an ultrasonic flow probe placed around the outflow graft. Diagnosis The progressive decline of real time flow and the loss of pulsatility were associated with an increase of central venous pressure, inotropic therapy and progressive renal failure suggesting the presence of an acute right heart failure. Diagnosis was validated by echocardiography and thermodilution measurements. Treatment Temporary mechanical circulatory support of the right ventricle was successfully performed. Real time flow measurement proved to be a useful tool for the diagnosis and ultimately for the management of right heart failure including the weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

  18. Synthetic jet flow control of two-dimensional NACA 65(1)-412 airfoil flow with finite-time lyapunov exponent analysis of Lagrangian coherent structures

    Jeong, Peter Inuk

    Synthetic jet (SJ) control of a low-Reynolds number, unsteady, compressible, viscous flow over a NACA 65-(1)412 airfoil, typical for unmanned air vehicles and gas turbines, has been investigated computationally. A particular focus was placed in the development and control of Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) and the associated Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) fields. The FTLE fields quantitatively measure of the repulsion rate in forward-time and the attraction rate in backward-time, and provide a unique perspective on effective flow control. A Discontinuous-Galerkin (DG) methods, high-fidelity Navier-Stokes solver performs direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the airfoil flow. Three SJ control strategies have been investigated: immediately downstream of flow separation, normal to the separated shear layer; near the leading edge, normal to the airfoil suction side; near the trailing edge, normal to the airfoil pressure side. A finite difference algorithm computes the FTLE from DNS velocity data. A baseline flow without SJ control is compared to SJ actuated flows. The baseline flow forms a regular, time-periodic, asymmetric von Karman vortex street in the wake. The SJ downstream of flow separation increases recirculation region vorticity and reduces the effective angle of attack. This decreases the time-averaged lift by 2:98% and increases the time-averaged drag by 5:21%. The leading edge SJ produces small vortices that deflect the shear layer downwards, and decreases the effective angle of attack. This reduces the time-averaged lift by 1:80%, and the time-averaged drag by 1:84%. The trailing edge SJ produces perturbations that add to pressure side vortices without affecting global flow characteristics. The time-averaged lift decreases by 0:47%, and the time-averaged drag increases by 0:20%. For all SJ cases, the aerodynamic performance is much more dependent on changes to the pressure distribution than changes to the skin friction distribution. No proposed

  19. Intake flow and time step analysis in the modeling of a direct injection Diesel engine

    Zancanaro Junior, Flavio V.; Vielmo, Horacio A. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.], E-mails: zancanaro@mecanica.ufrgs.br, vielmoh@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses the effects of the time step on turbulence flow structure in the intake and in-cylinder systems of a Diesel engine during the intake process, under the motored condition. The three-dimensional modeling of a reciprocating engine geometry comprising a bowl-in-piston combustion chamber, intake port of shallow ramp helical type and exhaust port of conventional type. The equations are numerically solved, including a transient analysis, valves and piston movements, for engine speed of 1500 rpm, using a commercial Finite Volumes CFD code. A parallel computation is employed. For the purpose of examining the in-cylinder turbulence characteristics two parameters are observed: the discharge coefficient and swirl ratio. This two parameters quantify the fluid flow characteristics inside cylinder in the intake stroke, therefore, it is very important their study and understanding. Additionally, the evolution of the discharge coefficient and swirl ratio, along crank angle, are correlated and compared, with the objective of clarifying the physical mechanisms. Regarding the turbulence, computations are performed with the Eddy Viscosity Model k-u SST, in its Low-Reynolds approaches, with standard near wall treatment. The system of partial differential equations to be solved consists of the Reynolds-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations with the constitutive relations for an ideal gas, and using a segregated solution algorithm. The enthalpy equation is also solved. A moving hexahedral trimmed mesh independence study is presented. In the same way many convergence tests are performed, and a secure criterion established. The results of the pressure fields are shown in relation to vertical plane that passes through the valves. Areas of low pressure can be seen in the valve curtain region, due to strong jet flows. Also, it is possible to note divergences between the time steps, mainly for the smaller time step. (author)

  20. Lifetime, turnover time, and fast magnetic field regeneration in random flows

    Tanner, S. E. M.

    2007-01-01

    The fast dynamo is thought to be relevant in the regeneration of magnetic fields in astrophysics where the value of the magnetic Reynolds number (Rm) is immense. The fast dynamo picture is one in which chaotic flows provide a mechanism for the stretching of magnetic field lines. Furthermore, a cascade of energy down to small scales results in intermittent regions of a small-scale, intense magnetic field. Given this scenario it is natural to invoke the use of kinematic random flows in order to understand field regeneration mechanisms better. Here a family of random flows is used to study the effects that L, the lifetime of the cell, and τ, the turnover time of the cell, may have on magnetic field regeneration. Defining the parameter Γ=L/τ, it has been varied according to Γ>1, Γ<1, Γ∼O(1). In the kinematic regime, dynamo growth rates and Lyapunov exponents are examined at varying values of Rm. The possibility of fast dynamo action is considered. In the nonlinear regime, magnetic and kinetic energies are examined. Results indicate that there does appear to be a relationship between Γ and dynamo efficiency. In particular, the most efficient dynamos seem to operate at lower values of Γ

  1. A flow time model for melt-cast insensitive explosive process

    Guillemin, Jean-Philippe; Brunet, Luc [Nexter Munitions, 7 Route de Guerry, 18023 Bourges Cedex (France); Bonnefoy, Olivier; Thomas, Gerard [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SPIN/LPMG, UMR CNRS 5148, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France)

    2007-06-15

    Diphasic flows of concentrated suspensions of melt-cast insensitive explosives exhibit specific rheological properties. In order to limit the handling of pyrotechnical products presenting a risk with respect to the mechanical and thermal shocks, a lot of work has been undertaken for many years in the civil engineering sector. The objective of this study is to propose a predictive model of the flow time of a concentrated suspension through a nozzle located at the bottom of a tank. Similar to our industrial process, the suspension is made out of insensitive energetic materials and flows under gravity. Experimental results are compared to three models (Quemada, Krieger-Dougherty, and Mooney) predicting the viscosity {mu} of a suspension as a function of the solid volume fraction {phi}, the maximum packing density {phi}{sub m} and the viscosity {mu}{sub 0} of the interstitial liquid. De Larrard's model is used to calculate {phi}{sub m}. The value of viscosity measured for the pure liquid is close to the one predicted by the Bernoulli theorem, where liquids are considered as incompressible and inviscid. Finally, it was found that the Quemada's model gives a fair agreement between predictions and experiments. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Five-hole pitot probe time-mean velocity measurements in confined swirling flows

    Yoon, H. K.; Lilley, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Nonswirling and swirling nonreacting flows in an axisymmetric test section with an expansion ratio D/d = 2, which may be equipped with contraction nozzles of area ratios 2 and 4, are investigated. The effects of a number of geometric parameters on the flow-field are investigated, among them side-wall expansion angles of 90 and 45 deg, swirl vane angles of 0, 38, 45, 60, and 70 deg, and contraction nozzle locations L/D = 1 and 2 (if present). Data are acquired by means of a five-hole pitot probe enabling three time-mean velocity components in the axial, radial, and azimuthal directions to be measured. The velocities are extensively plotted and artistic impressions of recirculation zones are set forth. The presence of a swirler is found to shorten the corner recirculation zone and to generate a central recirculation zone followed by a precessing vortex core. A gradual inlet expansion has the effect of encouraging the flow to remain close to the sidewall and shortening the extent of the corner recirculation zone in all cases investigated.

  3. Real-time tracking with a 3D-Flow processor array

    Crosetto, D.

    1993-06-01

    The problem of real-time track-finding has been performed to date with CAM (Content Addressable Memories) or with fast coincidence logic, because the processing scheme was thought to have much slower performance. Advances in technology together with a new architectural approach make it feasible to also explore the computing technique for real-time track finding thus giving the advantages of implementing algorithms that can find more parameters such as calculate the sagitta, curvature, pt, etc., with respect to the CAM approach. The report describes real-time track finding using new computing approach technique based on the 3D-Flow array processor system. This system consists of a fixed interconnection architecture scheme, allowing flexible algorithm implementation on a scalable platform. The 3D-Flow parallel processing system for track finding is scalable in size and performance by either increasing the number of processors, or increasing the speed or else the number of pipelined stages. The present article describes the conceptual idea and the design stage of the project

  4. Real-time tracking with a 3D-flow processor array

    Crosetto, D.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of real-time track-finding has been performed to date with CAM (Content Addressable Memories) or with fast coincidence logic, because the processing scheme was though to have much slower performance. Advances in technology together with a new architectural approach make it feasible to also explore the computing technique for real-time track finding thus giving the advantages of implementing algorithms that can find more parameters such as calculate the sagitta, curvature, pt, etc. with respect to the CAM approach. This report describes real-time track finding using a new computing approach technique based on the 3D-flow array processor system. This system consists of a fixed interconnection architexture scheme, allowing flexible algorithm implementation on a scalable platform. The 3D-Flow parallel processing system for track finding is scalable in size and performance by either increasing the number of processors, or increasing the speed or else the number of pipelined stages. The present article describes the conceptual idea and the design stage of the project

  5. Near-Optimal Heuristics for Just-In-Time Jobs Maximization in Flow Shop Scheduling

    Helio Yochihiro Fuchigami

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of just-in-time jobs maximization in a permutation flow shop scheduling problem is considered. A mixed integer linear programming model to represent the problem as well as solution approaches based on enumeration and constructive heuristics were proposed and computationally implemented. Instances with up to 10 jobs and five machines are solved by the mathematical model in an acceptable running time (3.3 min on average while the enumeration method consumes, on average, 1.5 s. The 10 constructive heuristics proposed show they are practical especially for large-scale instances (up to 100 jobs and 20 machines, with very good-quality results and efficient running times. The best two heuristics obtain near-optimal solutions, with only 0.6% and 0.8% average relative deviations. They prove to be better than adaptations of the NEH heuristic (well-known for providing very good solutions for makespan minimization in flow shop for the considered problem.

  6. Traffic flow model at fixed control signals with discrete service time distribution

    Lucky I. Igbinosun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the models of road traffic flow at fixed-cycle controlled intersection assume stationary distributions and provide steady state results. The assumption that a constant number of vehicles can leave the system during the green phase is unrealistic in real life situations. A discrete time queuing model was developed to describe the operation of traffic flow at a road intersection with fixed-cycle signalized control and to account for the randomness in the number of vehicles that can leave the system. The results show the expected queue size in the system when the traffic is light and for a busy period, respectively. For the light period, when the traffic intensity is less than one, it takes a shorter green cycle time for vehicles to clear up than during high traffic intensity (the road junction is saturated. Increasing the number of cars that can leave the junction at the turn of the green phase reduces the number of cycle times before the queue is cleared.

  7. The role of flow field structure in determining the aerodynamic response of a delta wing

    Addington, Gregory Alan

    Delta wings have long been known to exhibit nonlinear aerodynamic responses as a result of the presence of helical leading-edge vortices. This nonlinearity, found under both steady-state and unsteady conditions, is particularly profound in the presence of vortex burst. Modeling such aerodynamic responses with the Nonlinear Indicial Response (NIR) methodology provides a means of simulating these nonlinearities through its inclusion of motion history in addition to superposition. The NIR model also includes provisions for a finite number of discrete locations where the aerodynamic response is discontinuous with response to a state variable. These critical states also separate regions of states where the unsteady aerodynamic responses are potentially of highly-disparate characters. Although these critical states have been found in the past, their relationship with flow field bifurcation is uncertain. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the relationship between nonlinear aerodynamic responses, critical states and flow field bifurcations from an experimental approach. This task has been accomplished by comparing a comprehensive database of skin-friction line topologies with static and unsteady aerodynamic responses. These data were collected using a 65sp° delta wing which rolled about an inclined longitudinal body axis. In this study, compelling, but not conclusive, evidence was found to suggest that a bifurcation in the skin-friction line topology was a necessary condition for the presence of a critical state. Although the presence of critical states was well predicted through careful observation and analysis of highly-resolved static loading data alone, their precise placement as a function of the independent variable was aided through the consideration of the locations of skin-friction line bifurcations. Furthermore, these static data were found to contain indications of the basic lagged or unlagged behavior of the unsteady aerodynamic response. This

  8. Analysis of passive scalar advection in parallel shear flows: Sorting of modes at intermediate time scales

    Camassa, Roberto; McLaughlin, Richard M.; Viotti, Claudio

    2010-11-01

    The time evolution of a passive scalar advected by parallel shear flows is studied for a class of rapidly varying initial data. Such situations are of practical importance in a wide range of applications from microfluidics to geophysics. In these contexts, it is well-known that the long-time evolution of the tracer concentration is governed by Taylor's asymptotic theory of dispersion. In contrast, we focus here on the evolution of the tracer at intermediate time scales. We show how intermediate regimes can be identified before Taylor's, and in particular, how the Taylor regime can be delayed indefinitely by properly manufactured initial data. A complete characterization of the sorting of these time scales and their associated spatial structures is presented. These analytical predictions are compared with highly resolved numerical simulations. Specifically, this comparison is carried out for the case of periodic variations in the streamwise direction on the short scale with envelope modulations on the long scales, and show how this structure can lead to "anomalously" diffusive transients in the evolution of the scalar onto the ultimate regime governed by Taylor dispersion. Mathematically, the occurrence of these transients can be viewed as a competition in the asymptotic dominance between large Péclet (Pe) numbers and the long/short scale aspect ratios (LVel/LTracer≡k), two independent nondimensional parameters of the problem. We provide analytical predictions of the associated time scales by a modal analysis of the eigenvalue problem arising in the separation of variables of the governing advection-diffusion equation. The anomalous time scale in the asymptotic limit of large k Pe is derived for the short scale periodic structure of the scalar's initial data, for both exactly solvable cases and in general with WKBJ analysis. In particular, the exactly solvable sawtooth flow is especially important in that it provides a short cut to the exact solution to the

  9. A feedback control model for network flow with multiple pure time delays

    Press, J.

    1972-01-01

    A control model describing a network flow hindered by multiple pure time (or transport) delays is formulated. Feedbacks connect each desired output with a single control sector situated at the origin. The dynamic formulation invokes the use of differential difference equations. This causes the characteristic equation of the model to consist of transcendental functions instead of a common algebraic polynomial. A general graphical criterion is developed to evaluate the stability of such a problem. A digital computer simulation confirms the validity of such criterion. An optimal decision making process with multiple delays is presented.

  10. GARUSO - Version 1.0. Uncertainty model for multipath ultrasonic transit time gas flow meters

    Lunde, Per; Froeysa, Kjell-Eivind; Vestrheim, Magne

    1997-09-01

    This report describes an uncertainty model for ultrasonic transit time gas flow meters configured with parallel chords, and a PC program, GARUSO Version 1.0, implemented for calculation of the meter`s relative expanded uncertainty. The program, which is based on the theoretical uncertainty model, is used to carry out a simplified and limited uncertainty analysis for a 12`` 4-path meter, where examples of input and output uncertainties are given. The model predicts a relative expanded uncertainty for the meter at a level which further justifies today`s increasing tendency to use this type of instruments for fiscal metering of natural gas. 52 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Unitarity Bounds and RG Flows in Time Dependent Quantum Field Theory

    Dong, Xi; Horn, Bart; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2012-04-05

    We generalize unitarity bounds on operator dimensions in conformal field theory to field theories with spacetime dependent couplings. Below the energy scale of spacetime variation of the couplings, their evolution can strongly affect the physics, effectively shifting the infrared operator scaling and unitarity bounds determined from correlation functions in the theory. We analyze this explicitly for large-N double-trace flows, and connect these to UV complete field theories. One motivating class of examples comes from our previous work on FRW holography, where this effect explains the range of flavors allowed in the dual, time dependent, field theory.

  12. Real-time Implementation of Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging on a Consumer-level Tablet

    di Ianni, Tommaso; Kjeldsen, Thomas Kim; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a 2-D vector flow imaging (VFI) method based on synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) and directional transverse oscillation is implemented on a commercially available tablet. The SASB technique divides the beamforming process in two parts, whereby the required data rate ......’s built-in GPU (Nvidia Tegra K1) through the OpenGL ES 3.1 API. Real-time performance was achieved with rates up to 26 VFI frames per second (38 ms/frame) for concurrent processing and Wi-Fi transmission....

  13. Time-Dependent Thermally-Driven Interfacial Flows in Multilayered Fluid Structures

    Haj-Hariri, Hossein; Borhan, A.

    1996-01-01

    A computational study of thermally-driven convection in multilayered fluid structures will be performed to examine the effect of interactions among deformable fluid-fluid interfaces on the structure of time-dependent flow in these systems. Multilayered fluid structures in two models configurations will be considered: the differentially heated rectangular cavity with a free surface, and the encapsulated cylindrical liquid bridge. An extension of a numerical method developed as part of our recent NASA Fluid Physics grant will be used to account for finite deformations of fluid-fluid interfaces.

  14. Diurnal measurement of equilibrium equivalent radon/thoron concentration using time integrated flow mode grab sampler

    Pant, P.; Kandari, T.; Ramola, R.C.; Semwal, C.P.; Prasad, M.

    2018-01-01

    The basic processes which influenced the concentration of radon and thoron decay products are- attachment, recoil and deposition and by the room specific parameters of radon exhalation and ventilation. The freshly formed decay products have a high diffusivities (especially in air) and ability to stick to surfaces. According to UNSCEAR 1977, radon daughters may be combined as the so called equilibrium equivalent concentration which is related to the potential alpha energy distribution concentration. In the present study an effort has been made to see the diurnal variation of radon and thoron progeny concentration using time integrated flow mode sampler

  15. Determination of flow times and longitudinal dispersion in the Rhine using 3HHO as a tracer

    Krause, W.J.; Mundschenk, H.

    1993-01-01

    Flow times and longitudinal dispersion in the Rhine river under natural conditions are determined by use of single emissions of tritiated waste water from nuclear power plants during normal operation. The influence of the discharge of the Rhine on the most relevant parameters is investigated thoroughly. In a case of accidental release of radioactive material, these data would be the basis of a prognosis by which the behaviour of the contaminated river section along the course can be described and the radiological consequences within the so-called critical impact area estimated. (orig.) [de

  16. Applied measuring techniques for the investigation of time-dependent flow phenomena in centrifugal compressors

    Hass, U.; Haupt, U.; Jansen, M.; Kassens, K.; Knapp, P.; Rautenberg, M.

    1978-01-01

    During the past 10 years new measuring techniques have been developed for the experimental investigation of highly loaded centrifugal compressors. These measuring techniques take into account the time dependency of the fluctuating physical quantities such as pressure, temperature, and velocity. Some key points of these experimental techniques are shown and explained in this paper. An important basis for such measurements is the accurate dynamic calibration of the measuring apparatus. In addition, some problems involved analyzing measured signals are dealt with and pressure measurements and their interpretation are shown. Finally optical, acoustical and vibrational measuring procedures are described which are additionally used for the investigation of non-stationary flow phenomena. (orig.) [de

  17. A century of changing flows: Forest management changed flow magnitudes and warming advanced the timing of flow in a southwestern US river.

    Marcos D Robles

    Full Text Available The continued provision of water from rivers in the southwestern United States to downstream cities, natural communities and species is at risk due to higher temperatures and drought conditions in recent decades. Snowpack and snowfall levels have declined, snowmelt and peak spring flows are arriving earlier, and summer flows have declined. Concurrent to climate change and variation, a century of fire suppression has resulted in dramatic changes to forest conditions, and yet, few studies have focused on determining the degree to which changing forests have altered flows. In this study, we evaluated changes in flow, climate, and forest conditions in the Salt River in central Arizona from 1914-2012 to compare and evaluate the effects of changing forest conditions and temperatures on flows. After using linear regression models to remove the influence of precipitation and temperature, we estimated that annual flows declined by 8-29% from 1914-1963, coincident with a 2-fold increase in basal area, a 2-3-fold increase in canopy cover, and at least a 10-fold increase in forest density within ponderosa pine forests. Streamflow volumes declined by 37-56% in summer and fall months during this period. Declines in climate-adjusted flows reversed at mid-century when spring and annual flows increased by 10-31% from 1964-2012, perhaps due to more winter rainfall. Additionally, peak spring flows occurred about 12 days earlier in this period than in the previous period, coincident with winter and spring temperatures that increased by 1-2°C. While uncertainties remain, this study adds to the knowledge gained in other regions that forest change has had effects on flow that were on par with climate variability and, in the case of mid-century declines, well before the influence of anthropogenic warming. Current large-scale forest restoration projects hold some promise of recovering seasonal flows.

  18. Dose-Response of Sodium Bicarbonate Ingestion Highlights Individuality in Time Course of Blood Analyte Responses.

    Jones, Rebecca Louise; Stellingwerff, Trent; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Saunders, Bryan; Cooper, Simon; Sale, Craig

    2016-10-01

    To defend against hydrogen cation accumulation and muscle fatigue during exercise, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) ingestion is commonplace. The individualized dose-response relationship between NaHCO 3 ingestion and blood biochemistry is unclear. The present study investigated the bicarbonate, pH, base excess and sodium responses to NaHCO 3 ingestion. Sixteen healthy males (23 ± 2 years; 78.6 ± 15.1 kg) attended three randomized order-balanced, nonblinded sessions, ingesting a single dose of either 0.1, 0.2 or 0.3 g·kg -1 BM of NaHCO 3 (Intralabs, UK). Fingertip capillary blood was obtained at baseline and every 10 min for 1 hr, then every 15 min for a further 2 hr. There was a significant main effect of both time and condition for all assessed blood analytes (p ≤ .001). Blood analyte responses were significantly lower following 0.1 g·kg -1 BM compared with 0.2 g·kg -1 BM; bicarbonate concentrations and base excess were highest following ingestion of 0.3 g·kg -1 BM (p ≤ .01). Bicarbonate concentrations and pH significantly increased from baseline following all doses; the higher the dose the greater the increase. Large interindividual variability was shown in the magnitude of the increase in bicarbonate concentrations following each dose (+2.0-5; +5.1-8.1; and +6.0-12.3 mmol·L -1 for 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 g·kg -1 BM) and in the range of time to peak concentrations (30-150; 40-165; and 75-180 min for 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 g·kg -1 BM). The variability in bicarbonate responses was not affected by normalization to body mass. These results challenge current practices relating to NaHCO 3 supplementation and clearly show the need for athletes to individualize their ingestion protocol and trial varying dosages before competition.

  19. Effects of forcing time scale on the simulated turbulent flows and turbulent collision statistics of inertial particles

    Rosa, B.; Parishani, H.; Ayala, O.; Wang, L.-P.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study systematically the effects of forcing time scale in the large-scale stochastic forcing scheme of Eswaran and Pope [“An examination of forcing in direct numerical simulations of turbulence,” Comput. Fluids 16, 257 (1988)] on the simulated flow structures and statistics of forced turbulence. Using direct numerical simulations, we find that the forcing time scale affects the flow dissipation rate and flow Reynolds number. Other flow statistics can be predicted using the altered flow dissipation rate and flow Reynolds number, except when the forcing time scale is made unrealistically large to yield a Taylor microscale flow Reynolds number of 30 and less. We then study the effects of forcing time scale on the kinematic collision statistics of inertial particles. We show that the radial distribution function and the radial relative velocity may depend on the forcing time scale when it becomes comparable to the eddy turnover time. This dependence, however, can be largely explained in terms of altered flow Reynolds number and the changing range of flow length scales present in the turbulent flow. We argue that removing this dependence is important when studying the Reynolds number dependence of the turbulent collision statistics. The results are also compared to those based on a deterministic forcing scheme to better understand the role of large-scale forcing, relative to that of the small-scale turbulence, on turbulent collision of inertial particles. To further elucidate the correlation between the altered flow structures and dynamics of inertial particles, a conditional analysis has been performed, showing that the regions of higher collision rate of inertial particles are well correlated with the regions of lower vorticity. Regions of higher concentration of pairs at contact are found to be highly correlated with the region of high energy dissipation rate

  20. Spectroscopic sensitivity of real-time, rapidly induced phytochemical change in response to damage.

    Couture, John J; Serbin, Shawn P; Townsend, Philip A

    2013-04-01

    An ecological consequence of plant-herbivore interactions is the phytochemical induction of defenses in response to insect damage. Here, we used reflectance spectroscopy to characterize the foliar induction profile of cardenolides in Asclepias syriaca in response to damage, tracked in vivo changes and examined the influence of multiple plant traits on cardenolide concentrations. Foliar cardenolide concentrations were measured at specific time points following damage to capture their induction profile. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) modeling was employed to calibrate cardenolide concentrations to reflectance spectroscopy. In addition, subsets of plants were either repeatedly sampled to track in vivo changes or modified to reduce latex flow to damaged areas. Cardenolide concentrations and the induction profile of A. syriaca were well predicted using models derived from reflectance spectroscopy, and this held true for repeatedly sampled plants. Correlations between cardenolides and other foliar-related variables were weak or not significant. Plant modification for latex reduction inhibited an induced cardenolide response. Our findings show that reflectance spectroscopy can characterize rapid phytochemical changes in vivo. We used reflectance spectroscopy to identify the mechanisms behind the production of plant secondary metabolites, simultaneously characterizing multiple foliar constituents. In this case, cardenolide induction appears to be largely driven by enhanced latex delivery to leaves following damage. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.