Item response theory - A first approach
Nunes, Sandra; Oliveira, Teresa; Oliveira, Amílcar
2017-07-01
The Item Response Theory (IRT) has become one of the most popular scoring frameworks for measurement data, frequently used in computerized adaptive testing, cognitively diagnostic assessment and test equating. According to Andrade et al. (2000), IRT can be defined as a set of mathematical models (Item Response Models - IRM) constructed to represent the probability of an individual giving the right answer to an item of a particular test. The number of Item Responsible Models available to measurement analysis has increased considerably in the last fifteen years due to increasing computer power and due to a demand for accuracy and more meaningful inferences grounded in complex data. The developments in modeling with Item Response Theory were related with developments in estimation theory, most remarkably Bayesian estimation with Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms (Patz & Junker, 1999). The popularity of Item Response Theory has also implied numerous overviews in books and journals, and many connections between IRT and other statistical estimation procedures, such as factor analysis and structural equation modeling, have been made repeatedly (Van der Lindem & Hambleton, 1997). As stated before the Item Response Theory covers a variety of measurement models, ranging from basic one-dimensional models for dichotomously and polytomously scored items and their multidimensional analogues to models that incorporate information about cognitive sub-processes which influence the overall item response process. The aim of this work is to introduce the main concepts associated with one-dimensional models of Item Response Theory, to specify the logistic models with one, two and three parameters, to discuss some properties of these models and to present the main estimation procedures.
Linear response theory an analytic-algebraic approach
De Nittis, Giuseppe
2017-01-01
This book presents a modern and systematic approach to Linear Response Theory (LRT) by combining analytic and algebraic ideas. LRT is a tool to study systems that are driven out of equilibrium by external perturbations. In particular the reader is provided with a new and robust tool to implement LRT for a wide array of systems. The proposed formalism in fact applies to periodic and random systems in the discrete and the continuum. After a short introduction describing the structure of the book, its aim and motivation, the basic elements of the theory are presented in chapter 2. The mathematical framework of the theory is outlined in chapters 3–5: the relevant von Neumann algebras, noncommutative $L^p$- and Sobolev spaces are introduced; their construction is then made explicit for common physical systems; the notion of isopectral perturbations and the associated dynamics are studied. Chapter 6 is dedicated to the main results, proofs of the Kubo and Kubo-Streda formulas. The book closes with a chapter about...
A modular approach for item response theory modeling with the R package flirt.
Jeon, Minjeong; Rijmen, Frank
2016-06-01
The new R package flirt is introduced for flexible item response theory (IRT) modeling of psychological, educational, and behavior assessment data. flirt integrates a generalized linear and nonlinear mixed modeling framework with graphical model theory. The graphical model framework allows for efficient maximum likelihood estimation. The key feature of flirt is its modular approach to facilitate convenient and flexible model specifications. Researchers can construct customized IRT models by simply selecting various modeling modules, such as parametric forms, number of dimensions, item and person covariates, person groups, link functions, etc. In this paper, we describe major features of flirt and provide examples to illustrate how flirt works in practice.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Guo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Recent experimental progress allows for exploring some important physical quantities of ultracold Fermi gases, such as the compressibility, spin susceptibility, viscosity, optical conductivity, and spin diffusivity. Theoretically, these quantities can be evaluated from suitable linear response theories. For BCS superfluid, it has been found that the gauge invariant linear response theories can be fully consistent with some stringent consistency constraints. When the theory is generalized to stronger than BCS regime, one may meet serious difficulties to satisfy the gauge invariance conditions. In this paper, we try to construct density and spin linear response theories which are formally gauge invariant for a Fermi gas undergoing BCS-Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC crossover, especially below the superfluid transition temperature Tc. We adapt a particular t-matrix approach which is close to the G0G formalism to incorporate noncondensed pairing in the normal state. We explicitly show that the fundamental constraints imposed by the Ward identities and Q-limit Ward identity are indeed satisfied.
Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Li, Xin; Sandberg, Jaime A R; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Ågren, Hans
2014-03-11
We introduce a density functional theory/molecular mechanical approach for computation of linear response properties of molecules in heterogeneous environments, such as metal surfaces or nanoparticles embedded in solvents. The heterogeneous embedding environment, consisting from metallic and nonmetallic parts, is described by combined force fields, where conventional force fields are used for the nonmetallic part and capacitance-polarization-based force fields are used for the metallic part. The presented approach enables studies of properties and spectra of systems embedded in or placed at arbitrary shaped metallic surfaces, clusters, or nanoparticles. The capability and performance of the proposed approach is illustrated by sample calculations of optical absorption spectra of thymidine absorbed on gold surfaces in an aqueous environment, where we study how different organizations of the gold surface and how the combined, nonadditive effect of the two environments is reflected in the optical absorption spectrum.
Asemani, Omid; Iman, Mohammad Taghi; Moattari, Marzieh; Khayyer, Mohammad; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Tabei, Seyed Ziaaddin
2015-09-01
It seems we are now experiencing "responsibility problems" among medical trainees (MTs) and some of those recently graduated from medical schools in Iran. Training responsible professionals have always been one of the main concerns of medical educators. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of research in the literature on "responsibility" especially from the medical education point of view. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the aim of presenting a theoretical based framework for understanding how MTs approach their responsibilities in educational settings. This qualitative study was conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) using the grounded theory methodology. 15 MTs and 10 clinical experts and professional nurses were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was analyzed using the methodology suggested by Corbin and Strauss, 1998. "Try to find acceptance toward expectations", "try to be committed to meet the expectations" and "try to cope with unacceptable expectations" were three main categories extracted based on the research data. Abstractly, the main objective for using these processes was "to preserve the integrity of student identity" which was the core category of this research too. Moreover, it was also found that practically, "responsibility" is considerably influenced by lots of positive and negative contextual and intervening conditions. "Acceptance" was the most decisive variable highly effective in MTs' responsibility. Therefore, investigating the "process of acceptance" regarding the involved contextual and intervening conditions might help medical educators correctly identify and effectively control negative factors and reinforce the constructive ones that affect the concept of responsibility in MTs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omid Asemani
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Background: It seems we are now experiencing “responsibility problems” among medical trainees (MTs and some of those recently graduated from medical schools in Iran. Training responsible professionals have always been one of the main concerns of medical educators. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of research in the literature on “responsibility” especially from the medical education point of view. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the aim of presenting a theoretical based framework for understanding how MTs approach their responsibilities in educational settings. Method: This qualitative study was conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS using the grounded theory methodology. 15 MTs and 10 clinical experts and professional nurses were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was analyzed using the methodology suggested by Corbin and Strauss, 1998. Results: “Try to find acceptance toward expectations”, “try to be committed to meet the expectations” and “try to cope with unacceptable expectations” were three main categories extracted based on the research data. Abstractly, the main objective for using these processes was “to preserve the integrity of student identity” which was the core category of this research too. Moreover, it was also found that practically, “responsibility” is considerably influenced by lots of positive and negative contextual and intervening conditions. Conclusion: “Acceptance” was the most decisive variable highly effective in MTs’ responsibility. Therefore, investigating the “process of acceptance” regarding the involved contextual and intervening conditions might help medical educators correctly identify and effectively control negative factors and reinforce the constructive ones that affect the concept of responsibility in MTs.
Psychometric Properties of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure: An Item Response Theory Approach.
Shou, Yiyun; Sellbom, Martin; Xu, Jing
2017-02-06
There is cumulative evidence for the cross-cultural validity of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM; Patrick, 2010) among non-Western populations. Recent studies using correlational and regression analyses show promising construct validity of the TriPM in Chinese samples. However, little is known about the efficiency of items in TriPM in assessing the proposed latent traits. The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese TriPM at the item level using item response theory analyses. It also examined the measurement invariance of the TriPM between the Chinese and the U.S. student samples by applying differential item functioning analyses under the item response theory framework. The results supported the unidimensional nature of the Disinhibition and Meanness scales. Both scales had a greater level of precision in the respective underlying constructs at the positive ends. The two scales, however, had several items that were weakly associated with their respective latent traits in the Chinese student sample. Boldness, on the other hand, was found to be multidimensional, and reflected a more normally distributed range of variation. The examination of measurement bias via differential item functioning analyses revealed that a number of items of the TriPM were not equivalent across the Chinese and the U.S. Some modification and adaptation of items might be considered for improving the precision of the TriPM for Chinese participants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Seemala, G. K.; R, S.; Bhaskara, V.; Ramesh, D. S.
2014-12-01
The importance of space weather and understanding onset o geomagnetic storms is increasing day by day as the space missions increase. It is known from the ground-based and space-borne observations that a geomagnetic storm is a temporary disturbance of earth's magnetosphere caused by a solar wind and/or solar eruptions. Geomagnetic storms are more disruptive now than in the past because of our greater dependence on technical systems that can be affected by electric currents and energetic particles high in the Earth's magnetosphere. It is known that number of phenomena occurs during the space weather events; and there are many un-solved questions like solar wind coupling with magnetosphere and ionosphere, relationship between geomagnetic storms & sub-storms etc. To evaluate contribution of various interplanetary parameters that have major role in the geomagnetic storm/geomagnetic variations, the information theory approach is used. In information theory, the measure of uncertainty or randomness of a signal can be quantified by using Shannon entropy or entropy for short. And Transfer entropy is capable of quantifying the directional flow of information between two signals. Thus the Transfer entropy is capable of distinguishing effectively driving and responding signals. In this study, we use Transfer entropy function on Solar wind parameters and ground magnetic data to derive the drivers and relations between them, and also study their contributed effect on ionospheric TEC. In this presentation, we will evaluate and present the results obtained, and discuss about the driving forces on the geomagnetic field disturbances.
Calamia, Matthew; Markon, Kristian; Denburg, Natalie L; Tranel, Daniel
2011-05-01
The Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO) test was developed to be, in Arthur Benton's words, "as pure a measure of one aspect of spatial thinking, as could be conceived" (Benton, 1994, p. 53). The JLO test has been widely used in neuropsychological practice for decades. The test has a high test-retest reliability (Franzen, 2000), as well as good neuropsychological construct validity as shown through neuroanatomical localization studies (Tranel, Vianna, Manzel, Damasio, & Grabowski, 2009). Despite its popularity and strong psychometric properties, the full-length version of the test (30 items) has been criticized as being unnecessarily long (Straus, Sherman, & Spreen, 2006). There have been many attempts at developing short forms; however, these forms have been limited in their ability to estimate scores accurately. Taking advantage of a large sample of JLO performances from 524 neurological patients with focal brain lesions, we used techniques from item response theory (IRT) to estimate each item's difficulty and power to discriminate among various levels of ability. A random item IRT model was used to estimate the influence of item stimulus properties as predictors of item difficulty. These results were used to optimize the selection of items for a shorter method of administration that maintained comparability with the full form using significantly fewer items. This effectiveness of this method was replicated in a second sample of 82 healthy elderly participants. The findings should help broaden the clinical utility of the JLO and enhance its diagnostic applications.
Gönülateş, Emre; Kortemeyer, Gerd
2017-04-01
Homework is an important component of most physics courses. One of the functions it serves is to provide meaningful formative assessment in preparation for examinations. However, correlations between homework and examination scores tend to be low, likely due to unproductive student behavior such as copying and random guessing of answers. In this study, we attempt to model these two counterproductive learner behaviors within the framework of Item Response Theory in order to provide an ability measurement that strongly correlates with examination scores. We find that introducing additional item parameters leads to worse predictions of examination grades, while introducing additional learner traits is a more promising approach.
Generalizability theory and item response theory
Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.
2012-01-01
Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a
A Multi-Step Theory Approach Toward Social Responsibility in Public Relations.
Wright, Donald K.
This article examines the role of social responsibility in American public relations, observes its influence on organized communication, and suggests ways in which the role of the public relations practitioner may contribute to the development of a better society. Interviews conducted with 22 members of the Texas Public Relations Association…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lee, J. J.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Here we provide a description of the IRT estimation method known as Normal Ogive Harmonic Analysis Robust Method (NOHARM. Although in some ways this method has been superseded by new computer programs that also adopt a specifically factor-analytic approach, its fundamental principles remain useful in certain applications, which include calculating the residual covariance matrix and rescaling the distribution of the common factor (latent trait. These principles can be applied to parameter estimates obtained by any method.
Chermahini, Soghra Akbari; Hickendorff, Marian; Hommel, Bernhard
2012-01-01
The Remote Associates Test (RAT) developed by Mednick and Mednick (1967) is known as a valid measure of creative convergent thinking. We developed a 30-item version of the RAT in Dutch with high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.85) and applied both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory (IRT) to provide measures of item…
Tzou, Jean Yuh-Jin; Kim, Eunha; Waldheim, Kim
2012-01-01
Positive Feminist Therapy (PFT) is a strength-based culturally responsive therapy model specifically designed for helping Chinese women facing marital conflicts and divorce, integrating Empowerment Feminist Therapy, systems theory, and positive psychology. To help clients become change agents, PFT uses clients' existing strengths to develop…
Gilkeson, Kristen DeRaad
2010-01-01
The renewal of IDEA (2004) produced a number of changes in the identification process for children with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLDs). The requirement that students must present a severe discrepancy between IQ and academic performance has been modified to allow for a more flexible problem-solving approach commonly labeled "Response to…
Location theory a unified approach
Nickel, Stefan
2006-01-01
Although modern location theory is now more than 90 years old, the focus of researchers in this area has been mainly problem oriented. However, a common theory, which keeps the essential characteristics of classical location models, is still missing.This monograph addresses this issue. A flexible location problem called the Ordered Median Problem (OMP) is introduced. For all three main subareas of location theory (continuous, network and discrete location) structural properties of the OMP are presented and solution approaches provided. Numerous illustrations and examples help the reader to bec
Automated Item Selection Using Item Response Theory.
Stocking, Martha L.; And Others
This paper presents a new heuristic approach to interactive test assembly that is called the successive item replacement algorithm. This approach builds on the work of W. J. van der Linden (1987) and W. J. van der Linden and E. Boekkooi-Timminga (1989) in which methods of mathematical optimization are combined with item response theory to…
Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Zaboli, Rouhollah; Ravangard, Ramin; Malmir, Isa
2017-06-01
Coordination is a major challenge in the field of health in disasters, mostly because of the complex nature of health-related activities. This was a qualitative study based on the grounded theory approach. A total of 22 experts in the field of health in disasters participated in the study. The data were collected through in-depth interviews and literature review. The collected data were then analyzed by use of MAXQDA 2010 software (VERBI Software GmbH). The lack of a strategic view in the field of health in disasters, a lack of coordination of necessities and infrastructures, insufficient enforcement, a higher priority given to an organizational approach rather than a national approach, and the field of disasters not being a priority in the health system were noted as barriers to inter-organizational coordination. The facilitators of inter-organizational coordination noted were the importance of public participation in the field of health in disasters, having a process and systematic view in the field of health in disasters, the necessity of understanding and managing resources and information in the field of health in disasters, and having a feedback and evaluation system in the health system after disasters. It is recommended that developing common beliefs and goals be given priority in making plans and policies in the field of health in disasters. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:318-325).
Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lee, Jin; Chen, Zhuo; Perry, MacKenna; Cheung, Janelle H; Wang, Mo
2017-06-01
Zohar and Luria's (2005) safety climate (SC) scale, measuring organization- and group- level SC each with 16 items, is widely used in research and practice. To improve the utility of the SC scale, we shortened the original full-length SC scales. Item response theory (IRT) analysis was conducted using a sample of 29,179 frontline workers from various industries. Based on graded response models, we shortened the original scales in two ways: (1) selecting items with above-average discriminating ability (i.e. offering more than 6.25% of the original total scale information), resulting in 8-item organization-level and 11-item group-level SC scales; and (2) selecting the most informative items that together retain at least 30% of original scale information, resulting in 4-item organization-level and 4-item group-level SC scales. All four shortened scales had acceptable reliability (≥0.89) and high correlations (≥0.95) with the original scale scores. The shortened scales will be valuable for academic research and practical survey implementation in improving occupational safety. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.
2012-01-01
This is the third of five papers detailing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. In this paper, we use item response theory to analyze students' responses to three out of the four conceptual cosmology surveys we developed. The specific item response theory model we use is…
Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Wanders, Rob B. K.; Roest, Annelieke M.; Meijer, Rob; De Jonge, Peter
Observed associations between depression following myocardial infarction (MI) and adverse cardiac outcomes could be overestimated due to patients' tendency to over report somatic depressive symptoms. This study was aimed to investigate this issue with modern psychometrics, using item response theory
Wardenaar, Klaas J; Wanders, Rob B K; Roest, Annelieke M; Meijer, Rob R; De Jonge, Peter
2015-06-01
Observed associations between depression following myocardial infarction (MI) and adverse cardiac outcomes could be overestimated due to patients' tendency to over report somatic depressive symptoms. This study was aimed to investigate this issue with modern psychometrics, using item response theory (IRT) and person-fit statistics to investigate if the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) measures depression or something else among MI-patients. An IRT-model was fit to BDI-data of 1135 MI patients. Patients' adherence to this IRT-model was investigated with person-fit statistics. Subgroups of "atypical" (low person-fit) and "prototypical" (high person-fit) responders were identified and compared in terms of item-response patterns, psychiatric diagnoses, socio-demographics and somatic factors. In the IRT model, somatic items had lower thresholds compared to depressive mood/cognition items. Empirically identified "atypical" responders (n = 113) had more depressive mood/cognitions, scored lower on somatic items and more often had a Comprehensive International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) depressive diagnosis than "prototypical" responders (n = 147). Additionally, "atypical" responders were younger and more likely to smoke. In conclusion, the BDI measures somatic symptoms in most MI patients, but measures depression in a subgroup of patients with atypical response patterns. The presented approach to account for interpersonal differences in item responding could help improve the validity of depression assessments in somatic patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Gibbons, Laura E; Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Crane, Paul K
2013-04-01
Many constructs are measured using multi-item data collection instruments. Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when construct-irrelevant covariates interfere with the relationship between construct levels and item responses. DIF assessment is an active area of research, and several techniques are available to identify and account for DIF in cross-sectional settings. Many studies include data collected from individuals over time; yet appropriate methods for identifying and accounting for items with DIF in these settings are not widely available. We present an approach to this problem and apply it to longitudinal Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) data from English speakers in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. We analyzed 3MS items for DIF with respect to sex, birth cohort and education. First, we focused on cross-sectional data from a subset of Canadian Study of Health and Aging participants who had complete data at all three data collection periods. We performed cross-sectional DIF analyses at each time point using an iterative hybrid ordinal logistic regression/item response theory (OLR/IRT) framework. We found that item-level findings differed at the three time points. We then developed and applied an approach to detecting and accounting for DIF using longitudinal data in which covariation within individuals over time is accounted for by clustering on person. We applied this approach to data for the "entire" dataset of English speaking participants including people who later dropped out or died. Accounting for longitudinal DIF modestly attenuated differences between groups defined by educational attainment. We conclude with a discussion of further directions for this line of research.
Organizational Theory and Student Cheating: Explanation, Responses, and Strategies
Gallant, Tricia Bertram; Drinan, Patrick
2006-01-01
Studies have described and analyzed the problem of student cheating as well as institutional responses to the problem. However, organizational theory has been neglected. Viewing student cheating and institutional responses through the lens of organizational theory can inform strategy and instill fresh approaches to the management of the problem.
Evaluating model assumptions in item response theory
Tijmstra, J.
2013-01-01
This dissertation deals with the evaluation of model assumptions in the context of item response theory. Item response theory, also known as modern test theory, provides a statistical framework for the measurement of psychological constructs that cannot by observed directly, such as intelligence or
Theories and theorizers: a contextual approach to theories of cognition.
Barutta, Joaquín; Cornejo, Carlos; Ibáñez, Agustín
2011-06-01
An undisputable characteristic of cognitive science is its enormous diversity of theories. Not surprisingly, these often belong to different paradigms that focus on different processes and levels of analysis. A related problem is that researchers of cognition frequently seem to ascribe to incompatible approaches to research, creating a Tower of Babel of cognitive knowledge. This text presents a pragmatic model of meta-theoretical analysis, a theory conceived of to examine other theories, which allows cognitive theories to be described, integrated and compared. After a brief introduction to meta-theoretical analysis in cognitive science, the dynamic and structural components of a theory are described. The analysis of conceptual mappings between components and explanation strategies is also described, as well as the processes of intra-theory generalization and inter-theory comparison. The various components of the meta-theoretical model are presented with examples of different cognitive theories, mainly focusing on two current approaches to research: The dynamical approach to cognition and the computer metaphor of mind. Finally, two potential counter arguments to the model are presented and discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Minezawa, Noriyuki, E-mail: minezawa@fukui.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Fukui Institute for Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8103 (Japan)
2014-10-28
Examining photochemical processes in solution requires understanding the solvent effects on the potential energy profiles near conical intersections (CIs). For that purpose, the CI point in solution is determined as the crossing between nonequilibrium free energy surfaces. In this work, the nonequilibrium free energy is described using the combined method of linear-response free energy and collinear spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory. The proposed approach reveals the solvent effects on the CI geometries of stilbene in an acetonitrile solution and those of thymine in water. Polar acetonitrile decreases the energy difference between the twisted minimum and twisted-pyramidalized CI of stilbene. For thymine in water, the hydrogen bond formation stabilizes significantly the CI puckered at the carbonyl carbon atom. The result is consistent with the recent simulation showing that the reaction path via this geometry is open in water. Therefore, the present method is a promising way of identifying the free-energy crossing points that play an essential role in photochemistry of solvated molecules.
Equilibrium theory : A salient approach
Schalk, S.
1999-01-01
Whereas the neoclassical models in General Equilibrium Theory focus on the existence of separate commodities, this thesis regards 'bundles of trade' as the unit objects of exchange. Apart from commodities and commodity bundles in the neoclassical sense, the term `bundle of trade' includes, for
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Makransky, Guido; Jensen, Lau Lilleholt; Aaby, Anders
2017-01-01
Presence is one of the most important psychological constructs for understanding human-computer interaction. However, different terminology and operationalizations of presence across fields have plagued the comparability and generalizability of results across studies. Lee's (2004) unified...... understanding of presence as a multidimensional construct made up of physical, social, and self-presence, has created a unified theory of presence; nevertheless, there are still no psychometrically valid measurement instruments based on the theory. Two studies were conducted that describe the development...... of a standardized multidimensional measure of presence (the MPS) for a VR learning context based on this theory, and its validation using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory. The results from Study 1 which included 161 medical students from Denmark indicated that the items used in the MPS measure...
Decision theory principles and approaches
Parmigiani, Giovanni
2009-01-01
Decision theory provides a formal framework for making logical choices in the face of uncertainty. Given a set of alternatives, a set of consequences, and a correspondence between those sets, decision theory offers conceptually simple procedures for choice. This book presents an overview of the fundamental concepts and outcomes of rational decision making under uncertainty, highlighting the implications for statistical practice. The authors have developed a series of self contained chapters focusing on bridging the gaps between the different fields that have contributed to rational decision making and presenting ideas in a unified framework and notation while respecting and highlighting the different and sometimes conflicting perspectives. This book: Provides a rich collection of techniques and procedures.Discusses the foundational aspects and modern day practice.Links foundations to practical applications in biostatistics, computer science, engineering and economics.Presents different perspectives and cont...
Quantum theory a mathematical approach
Bongaarts, Peter
2015-01-01
This book was inspired by the general observation that the great theories of modern physics are based on simple and transparent underlying mathematical structures – a fact not usually emphasized in standard physics textbooks – which makes it easy for mathematicians to understand their basic features. It is a textbook on quantum theory intended for advanced undergraduate or graduate students: mathematics students interested in modern physics, and physics students who are interested in the mathematical background of physics and are dissatisfied with the level of rigor in standard physics courses. More generally, it offers a valuable resource for all mathematicians interested in modern physics, and all physicists looking for a higher degree of mathematical precision with regard to the basic concepts in their field.
A philosophical approach to quantum field theory
Öttinger, Hans Christian
2017-01-01
This text presents an intuitive and robust mathematical image of fundamental particle physics based on a novel approach to quantum field theory, which is guided by four carefully motivated metaphysical postulates. In particular, the book explores a dissipative approach to quantum field theory, which is illustrated for scalar field theory and quantum electrodynamics, and proposes an attractive explanation of the Planck scale in quantum gravity. Offering a radically new perspective on this topic, the book focuses on the conceptual foundations of quantum field theory and ontological questions. It also suggests a new stochastic simulation technique in quantum field theory which is complementary to existing ones. Encouraging rigor in a field containing many mathematical subtleties and pitfalls this text is a helpful companion for students of physics and philosophers interested in quantum field theory, and it allows readers to gain an intuitive rather than a formal understanding.
Interpreting quantum theory a therapeutic approach
Friederich, S
2014-01-01
Is it possible to approach quantum theory in a 'therapeutic' vein that sees its foundational problems as arising from mistaken conceptual presuppositions? The book explores the prospects for this project and, in doing so, discusses such fascinating issues as the nature of quantum states, explanation in quantum theory, and 'quantum non-locality'.
Variational approach in transport theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Panta Pazos, R. [Nucler Engineering Department, UFRGS, Porto-Alegre (Brazil); Tullio de Vilhena, M. [Institute of Mathematics, UFRGS, Porto-Alegre (Brazil)
2004-07-01
In this work we present a variational approach to some methods to solve transport problems of neutral particles. We consider a convex domain X (for example the geometry of a slab, or a convex set in the plane, or a convex bounded set in the space) and we use discrete ordinates quadrature to get a system of differential equations derived from the neutron transport equation. The boundary conditions are vacuum for a subset of the boundary, and of specular reflection for the complementary subset of the boundary. Recently some different approximation methods have been presented to solve these transport problems. We introduce in this work the adjoint equations and the conjugate functions obtained by means of the variational approach. First we consider the general formulation, and then some numerical methods such as spherical harmonics and spectral collocation method. (authors)
Systems Theory and Systems Approach to Leadership
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr.Sc. Berim Ramosaj
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Systems theory is product of the efforts of many researchers to create an intermediate field of coexistence of all sciences. If not for anything else, because of the magnitude that the use of systemic thinking and systemic approach has taken, it has become undisputed among the theories. Systems theory not only provides a glossary of terms with which researchers from different fields can be understood, but provides a framework for the presentation and interpretation of phenomena and realities. This paper addresses a systematic approach to leadership, as an attempt to dredge leadership and systems theory literature to find the meeting point. Systems approach is not an approach to leadership in terms of a manner of leader’s work, but it’s the leader's determination to factorize in his leadership the external environment and relationships with and among elements. Leader without followers is unable to exercise his leadership and to ensure their conviction he should provide a system, a structure, a purpose, despite the alternative chaos. Systems approach clarifies the thought on the complexity and dynamism of the environment and provides a framework for building ideas. If the general system theory is the skeleton of science (Boulding: 1956, this article aims to replenish it with leadership muscles by prominent authors who have written on systems theory and leadership, as well as through original ideas. In this work analytical methods were used (by analyzing approaches individually as well as synthetic methods (by assaying individual approaches in context of entirety. The work is a critical review of literature as well as a deductive analysis mingled with models proposed by authors through inductive analysis. Meta-analysis has been used to dissect the interaction and interdependence between leadership approaches.
Theory and application of MBPT(3) gradients: The density approach
Salter, E. A.; Trucks, Gary W.; Fitzgerald, George; Bartlett, Rodney J.
1987-10-01
The density approach to analytic MBPT gradients is discussed. MBPT gradients are considered as special cases of one-electron response properties, where the evaluation of the relaxed MBPT density becomes the central focus of the theory. We develop the theory of MBPT(3) gradients under using this new approach and report a series of initial applications. Earlier developments of the MBPT(3) gradient depended upon solving for the CPHF coefficients for 3 N degrees of freedom and suffered from singularities. Here the virtual-occupied block of the CPHF equation is solved for only one degree of freedom, and the singularities are eliminated. Finally, we report the theory and application of MBPT(2) and MBPT(3) relaxed densities; as a consequence, the computation of analytic one-electron response properties at the MBPT(2) and MBPT(3) levels of theory are now possible.
Algebra and Number Theory An Integrated Approach
Dixon, Martyn; Subbotin, Igor
2011-01-01
Explore the main algebraic structures and number systems that play a central role across the field of mathematics Algebra and number theory are two powerful branches of modern mathematics at the forefront of current mathematical research, and each plays an increasingly significant role in different branches of mathematics, from geometry and topology to computing and communications. Based on the authors' extensive experience within the field, Algebra and Number Theory has an innovative approach that integrates three disciplines-linear algebra, abstract algebra, and number theory-into one compr
Randomized Item Response Theory Models
Fox, Gerardus J.A.
2005-01-01
The randomized response (RR) technique is often used to obtain answers on sensitive questions. A new method is developed to measure latent variables using the RR technique because direct questioning leads to biased results. Within the RR technique is the probability of the true response modeled by
debating toynbee's theory of challenge and response
African Journals Online (AJOL)
His interpretation incorporated the “challenge and response” theory of suc- cessive civilisations which underlay his .... A Study of History, but they clearly reflected his overarching theory of challenge and response, and that ..... me, urged to leave the sinking ship, to see the enemy's point of view, and to meet him in the gates ...
Towards a Culturally Situated Reader Response Theory
Brooks, Wanda; Browne, Susan
2012-01-01
This article describes a theory of how culture enables literary interpretations of texts. We begin with a brief overview of the reader response field. From there, we introduce the theory and provide illustrative participant data examples. These data examples illustrate the four cultural positions middle grade students in our research assumed when…
Reader-Response Theory and ELT.
Hirvela, Alan
1996-01-01
Discusses the notion of personal response, which is a method in English-language teaching that aims to elicit learner production of discourse in the target language. The article distinguishes between reader-response and personal response approaches and demonstrates how the inclusion of reader response in literature-based communicative language…
Interacting electrons theory and computational approaches
Martin, Richard M; Ceperley, David M
2016-01-01
Recent progress in the theory and computation of electronic structure is bringing an unprecedented level of capability for research. Many-body methods are becoming essential tools vital for quantitative calculations and understanding materials phenomena in physics, chemistry, materials science and other fields. This book provides a unified exposition of the most-used tools: many-body perturbation theory, dynamical mean field theory and quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Each topic is introduced with a less technical overview for a broad readership, followed by in-depth descriptions and mathematical formulation. Practical guidelines, illustrations and exercises are chosen to enable readers to appreciate the complementary approaches, their relationships, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method. This book is designed for graduate students and researchers who want to use and understand these advanced computational tools, get a broad overview, and acquire a basis for participating in new developments.
Renormalization group approach to density functional theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kemler, Sandra; Braun, Jens [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany)
2015-07-01
We study a two-point particle irreducible (2PPI) approach to many-body physics which relies on a renormalization group (RG) flow equation for the associated effective action. This approach relates to Density Functional Theory and can in principle be used to study ground-state properties of non-relativistic many-body systems from microscopic interactions, such as (heavy) nuclei. We apply our formalism to a 0+1-dimensional model, namely the quantum anharmonic oscillator and use the well-known exact solution to benchmark our approximations of the full RG flow. Moreover, we present flow equations for specific types of 1+1-dimensional field theories which allow us study the ground-state properties of self-bound systems of spinless fermions which can also be viewed as toy models of nuclei.
Information theory based approaches to cellular signaling.
Waltermann, Christian; Klipp, Edda
2011-10-01
Cells interact with their environment and they have to react adequately to internal and external changes such changes in nutrient composition, physical properties like temperature or osmolarity and other stresses. More specifically, they must be able to evaluate whether the external change is significant or just in the range of noise. Based on multiple external parameters they have to compute an optimal response. Cellular signaling pathways are considered as the major means of information perception and transmission in cells. Here, we review different attempts to quantify information processing on the level of individual cells. We refer to Shannon entropy, mutual information, and informal measures of signaling pathway cross-talk and specificity. Information theory in systems biology has been successfully applied to identification of optimal pathway structures, mutual information and entropy as system response in sensitivity analysis, and quantification of input and output information. While the study of information transmission within the framework of information theory in technical systems is an advanced field with high impact in engineering and telecommunication, its application to biological objects and processes is still restricted to specific fields such as neuroscience, structural and molecular biology. However, in systems biology dealing with a holistic understanding of biochemical systems and cellular signaling only recently a number of examples for the application of information theory have emerged. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Systems Biology of Microorganisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shifting Approaches to Planning Theory: Global North and South
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vanessa Watson
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Planning theory has shifted over time in response to changes in broader social and philosophical theory as well as changes in the material world. Postmodernism and poststructuralism dislodged modernist, rational and technical approaches to planning. Consensualist decision-making theories of the 1980s took forms of communicative and collaborative planning, drawing on Habermasian concepts of power and society. These positions, along with refinements and critiques within the field, have been hegemonic in planning theory ever since. They are, in most cases, presented at a high level of abstraction, make little reference to the political and social contexts in which they are based, and hold an unspoken assumption that they are of universal value, i.e. valid everywhere. Not only does this suggest important research methodology errors but it also renders these theories of little use in those parts of the world which are contextually very different from theory origin—in most cases, the global North. A more recent ‘southern turn’ across a range of social science disciplines, and in planning theory, suggests the possibility of a foundational shift toward theories which acknowledge their situatedness in time and place, and which recognize that extensive global difference in cities and regions renders universalized theorising and narrow conceptual models (especially in planning theory, given its relevance for practice as invalid. New southern theorising in planning is drawing on a range of ideas on societal conflict, informality, identity and ethnicity. Postcolonialism and coloniality have provided a useful frame for situating places historically and geographically in relation to the rest of the world. However, the newness of these explorations still warrants the labelling of this shift as a ‘southern theorizing project’ in planning rather than a suggestion that southern planning theory has emerged.
Nonlinear response theory in chemical kinetics.
Kryvohuz, Maksym; Mukamel, Shaul
2014-01-21
A theory of nonlinear response of chemical kinetics, in which multiple perturbations are used to probe the time evolution of nonlinear chemical systems, is developed. Expressions for nonlinear chemical response functions and susceptibilities, which can serve as multidimensional measures of the kinetic pathways and rates, are derived. A new class of multidimensional measures that combine multiple perturbations and measurements is also introduced. Nonlinear fluctuation-dissipation relations for steady-state chemical systems, which replace operations of concentration measurement and perturbations, are proposed. Several applications to the analysis of complex reaction mechanisms are provided.
Accounting for Errors in Model Analysis Theory: A Numerical Approach
Sommer, Steven R.; Lindell, Rebecca S.
2004-09-01
By studying the patterns of a group of individuals' responses to a series of multiple-choice questions, researchers can utilize Model Analysis Theory to create a probability distribution of mental models for a student population. The eigenanalysis of this distribution yields information about what mental models the students possess, as well as how consistently they utilize said mental models. Although the theory considers the probabilistic distribution to be fundamental, there exists opportunities for random errors to occur. In this paper we will discuss a numerical approach for mathematically accounting for these random errors. As an example of this methodology, analysis of data obtained from the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory will be presented. Limitations and applicability of this numerical approach will be discussed.
A statistical mechanics approach to Granovetter theory
Barra, Adriano
2010-01-01
In this paper we try to bridge breakthroughs in quantitative sociology/econometrics pioneered during the last decades by Mac Fadden, Brock-Durlauf, Granovetter and Watts-Strogats through introducing a minimal model able to reproduce essentially all the features of social behavior highlighted by these authors. Our model relies on a pairwise Hamiltonian for decision maker interactions which naturally extends the multi-populations approaches by shifting and biasing the pattern definitions of an Hopfield model of neural networks. Once introduced, the model is investigated trough graph theory (to recover Granovetter and Watts-Strogats results) and statistical mechanics (to recover Mac-Fadden and Brock-Durlauf results). Due to internal symmetries of our model, the latter is obtained as the relaxation of a proper Markov process, allowing even to study its out of equilibrium properties. The method used to solve its equilibrium is an adaptation of the Hamilton-Jacobi technique recently introduced by Guerra in the spin...
John S. Klaasen
2014-01-01
Browning’s influential use of practical reason for his fundamental practical theology is analysed. His correlation of theory and practice in his three stages of theory, practice and theory is also critiqued because his approach reduces practical theology almost to professionalism and principles for ministry. His approach could also result in an antagonistic relationship between practice and theory as practice is reduced to theory or academics. This article seeks to present a critically engage...
Effective theory approach to direct detection of dark matter
Hisano, Junji
2017-01-01
An effective field theory approach is presented for evaluation of the dark matter direct detection rate in this lecture note. This is prepared for the Les Houches Summer School Effective Field Theory in Particle Physics and Cosmology, July 2017.
Interpreting Quantum Theory : A Therapeutic Approach
Friederich, Simon
2014-01-01
Debates about the foundations of quantum theory usually circle around two main challenges: the so-called 'measurement problem' and a claimed tension between quantum theory and relativity theory that arises from the phenomena labelled 'quantum non-locality'. This work explores the possibility of a
Boolean Approach to Dichotomic Quantum Measurement Theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagata, K. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nakamura, T. [Keio University, Yokohama (Japan); Batle, J. [Universitat de les Illes Balears, Balearic Islands (Spain); Abdalla, S. [King Abdulaziz University Jeddah, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Farouk, A. [Al-Zahra College for Women, Muscat (Egypt)
2017-02-15
Recently, a new measurement theory based on truth values was proposed by Nagata and Nakamura [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 55, 3616 (2016)], that is, a theory where the results of measurements are either 0 or 1. The standard measurement theory accepts a hidden variable model for a single Pauli observable. Hence, we can introduce a classical probability space for the measurement theory in this particular case. Additionally, we discuss in the present contribution the fact that projective measurement theories (the results of which are either +1 or −1) imply the Bell, Kochen, and Specker (BKS) paradox for a single Pauli observable. To justify our assertion, we present the BKS theorem in almost all the two-dimensional states by using a projective measurement theory. As an example, we present the BKS theorem in two-dimensions with white noise. Our discussion provides new insight into the quantum measurement problem by using this measurement theory based on the truth values.
Effective field theory approaches for tensor potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jansen, Maximilian
2016-11-14
Effective field theories are a widely used tool to study physical systems at low energies. We apply them to systematically analyze two and three particles interacting via tensor potentials. Two examples are addressed: pion interactions for anti D{sup 0}D{sup *0} scattering to dynamically generate the X(3872) and dipole interactions for two and three bosons at low energies. For the former, the one-pion exchange and for the latter, the long-range dipole force induce a tensor-like structure of the potential. We apply perturbative as well as non-perturbative methods to determine low-energy observables. The X(3872) is of major interest in modern high-energy physics. Its exotic characteristics require approaches outside the range of the quark model for baryons and mesons. Effective field theories represent such methods and provide access to its peculiar nature. We interpret the X(3872) as a hadronic molecule consisting of neutral D and D{sup *} mesons. It is possible to apply an effective field theory with perturbative pions. Within this framework, we address chiral as well as finite volume extrapolations for low-energy observables, such as the binding energy and the scattering length. We show that the two-point correlation function for the D{sup *0} meson has to be resummed to cure infrared divergences. Moreover, next-to-leading order coupling constants, which were introduced by power counting arguments, appear to be essential to renormalize the scattering amplitude. The binding energy as well as the scattering length display a moderate dependence on the light quark masses. The X(3872) is most likely deeper bound for large light quark masses. In a finite volume on the other hand, the binding energy significantly increases. The dependence on the light quark masses and the volume size can be simultaneously obtained. For bosonic dipoles we apply a non-perturbative, numerical approach. We solve the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the two-dipole system and the Faddeev
Massof, Robert W
2011-02-01
Modern psychometric theory is now routinely used in clinical vision research, as well as other areas of health research, to measure latent health states on continuous interval scales from responses to self-report rating scale questionnaires. Two competing theories are commonly employed: Rasch theory and item response theory. Because the field is currently in transition from using traditional scoring algorithms based on classical test theory to using the more modern approaches, this article offers a tutorial review of Rasch theory and item response theory and of the analytical methods employed by the two theories to estimate and validate measures.
Measuring student learning with item response theory
Lee, Young-Jin; Palazzo, David J.; Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.
2008-06-01
We investigate short-term learning from hints and feedback in a Web-based physics tutoring system. Both the skill of students and the difficulty and discrimination of items were determined by applying item response theory (IRT) to the first answers of students who are working on for-credit homework items in an introductory Newtonian physics course. We show that after tutoring a shifted logistic item response function with lower discrimination fits the students’ second responses to an item previously answered incorrectly. Student skill decreased by 1.0 standard deviation when students used no tutoring between their (incorrect) first and second attempts, which we attribute to “item-wrong bias.” On average, using hints or feedback increased students’ skill by 0.8 standard deviation. A skill increase of 1.9 standard deviation was observed when hints were requested after viewing, but prior to attempting to answer, a particular item. The skill changes measured in this way will enable the use of IRT to assess students based on their second attempt in a tutoring environment.
A statistical mechanics approach to Granovetter theory
Barra, Adriano; Agliari, Elena
2012-05-01
In this paper we try to bridge breakthroughs in quantitative sociology/econometrics, pioneered during the last decades by Mac Fadden, Brock-Durlauf, Granovetter and Watts-Strogatz, by introducing a minimal model able to reproduce essentially all the features of social behavior highlighted by these authors. Our model relies on a pairwise Hamiltonian for decision-maker interactions which naturally extends the multi-populations approaches by shifting and biasing the pattern definitions of a Hopfield model of neural networks. Once introduced, the model is investigated through graph theory (to recover Granovetter and Watts-Strogatz results) and statistical mechanics (to recover Mac-Fadden and Brock-Durlauf results). Due to the internal symmetries of our model, the latter is obtained as the relaxation of a proper Markov process, allowing even to study its out-of-equilibrium properties. The method used to solve its equilibrium is an adaptation of the Hamilton-Jacobi technique recently introduced by Guerra in the spin-glass scenario and the picture obtained is the following: shifting the patterns from [-1,+1]→[0.+1] implies that the larger the amount of similarities among decision makers, the stronger their relative influence, and this is enough to explain both the different role of strong and weak ties in the social network as well as its small-world properties. As a result, imitative interaction strengths seem essentially a robust request (enough to break the gauge symmetry in the couplings), furthermore, this naturally leads to a discrete choice modelization when dealing with the external influences and to imitative behavior à la Curie-Weiss as the one introduced by Brock and Durlauf.
A Simple Approach to Complexity Theory
Sanger, Michael; Giddings, Martha M.
2012-01-01
This teaching note presents 7 basic ideas that are drawn from complexity theory. These ideas are designed to help students appreciate and work with the complex systems that they often face in practice. Although complexity theory may be presented using mathematical language not easily accessible to non-mathematicians, it also may be presented by…
Extending item response theory to online homework
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gerd Kortemeyer
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Item response theory (IRT becomes an increasingly important tool when analyzing “big data” gathered from online educational venues. However, the mechanism was originally developed in traditional exam settings, and several of its assumptions are infringed upon when deployed in the online realm. For a large-enrollment physics course for scientists and engineers, the study compares outcomes from IRT analyses of exam and homework data, and then proceeds to investigate the effects of each confounding factor introduced in the online realm. It is found that IRT yields the correct trends for learner ability and meaningful item parameters, yet overall agreement with exam data is moderate. It is also found that learner ability and item discrimination is robust over a wide range with respect to model assumptions and introduced noise. Item difficulty is also robust, but over a narrower range.
Grounded theory approach in sermon analysis of sermons on ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this article, I am going to discuss the place of grounded theory in qualitative research and the application of Charmaz's approach to it in homiletics. The process of sermon analysis in its different phases will be discussed as well as the interaction of this bottom-up theory with existing homiletic theories in relation to the ...
Variational Wigner-Kirkwood approach to relativistic mean field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Del Estal, M.; Centelles, M.; Vinas, X. [Departament d`Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)
1997-10-01
The recently developed variational Wigner-Kirkwood approach is extended to the relativistic mean field theory for finite nuclei. A numerical application to the calculation of the surface energy coefficient in semi-infinite nuclear matter is presented. The new method is contrasted with the standard density functional theory and the fully quantal approach. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Item response theory for measurement validity.
Yang, Frances M; Kao, Solon T
2014-06-01
Item response theory (IRT) is an important method of assessing the validity of measurement scales that is underutilized in the field of psychiatry. IRT describes the relationship between a latent trait (e.g., the construct that the scale proposes to assess), the properties of the items in the scale, and respondents' answers to the individual items. This paper introduces the basic premise, assumptions, and methods of IRT. To help explain these concepts we generate a hypothetical scale using three items from a modified, binary (yes/no) response version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale that was administered to 19,399 respondents. We first conducted a factor analysis to confirm the unidimensionality of the three items and then proceeded with Mplus software to construct the 2-Parameter Logic (2-PL) IRT model of the data, a method which allows for estimates of both item discrimination and item difficulty. The utility of this information both for clinical purposes and for scale construction purposes is discussed.
Experiential learning theory (ELT)-based classical guidance model to improve responsible character
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Juster Donal Sinaga; Kristina Betty Artati
2017-01-01
This research aims to: (1) determine the improvement of responsible character of students before and after experiencing character education based on classical guidance service using Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) approach; (2...
Attachment theory: Old and new approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Polovina Nada
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The article is an attempt to present holistically the key concepts of attachment theory rediscovered for its potentials. The presented concepts include: narrow definition of attachment, behavioral control system of attachment, attachment working model and patterns of attachment. The concepts are presented in the context of child attachment theory and adult attachment theory, in addition to description of the development of attachment. Concepts, as well as developmental processes are presented from the stand point of pioneers in this field (John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth as well as from the standpoint of their successors (Everett Waters and Malcolm West. Compacted ness of the theory, possibilities for operationalization of its key concepts and its application to empirical studies of complex psychological issues that have never been scientifically explored, makes it a very prospective theory in view of possible integration of existing research findings and initiating new research and new practices in psychotherapy, social work and work in schools. The goal of this integral presentation of attachment theory is to highlight its benefits and possibilities for understanding and research complex field of human's psychosocial functioning.
Estimation of a four-parameter item response theory model.
Loken, Eric; Rulison, Kelly L
2010-11-01
We explore the justification and formulation of a four-parameter item response theory model (4PM) and employ a Bayesian approach to recover successfully parameter estimates for items and respondents. For data generated using a 4PM item response model, overall fit is improved when using the 4PM rather than the 3PM or the 2PM. Furthermore, although estimated trait scores under the various models correlate almost perfectly, inferences at the high and low ends of the trait continuum are compromised, with poorer coverage of the confidence intervals when the wrong model is used. We also show in an empirical example that the 4PM can yield new insights into the properties of a widely used delinquency scale. We discuss the implications for building appropriate measurement models in education and psychology to model more accurately the underlying response process.
An activity theory approach to affordance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bærentsen, Klaus B.; Trettvik, J.
2002-01-01
the notion. Specifically we will suggest the inclusion of the ecological theory of perception in the paradigm of cultural historical psychology and activity theory developed in the former Soviet Union by most notably Lev Vygotsky, S. L. Rubinshtein, A. N. Leontjev and others. It will be suggested, that much......We present an analysis of the concept of affordance as it was originally introduced by J. J. Gibson, and elaborate on this concept, acknowledging, that the general theoretical landscape in psychology is in fundamental ways different from the situation in which Gibson found himself when he crafted...
Field theory a path integral approach
Das, Ashok
2006-01-01
This unique book describes quantum field theory completely within the context of path integrals. With its utility in a variety of fields in physics, the subject matter is primarily developed within the context of quantum mechanics before going into specialized areas.Adding new material keenly requested by readers, this second edition is an important expansion of the popular first edition. Two extra chapters cover path integral quantization of gauge theories and anomalies, and a new section extends the supersymmetry chapter, where singular potentials in supersymmetric systems are described.
Dori Barnett
2012-01-01
A grounded theory study that examined how practitioners in a county alternative and correctional education setting identify youth with emotional and behavioral difficulties for special education services provides an exemplar for a constructivist approach to grounded theory methodology. Discussion focuses on how a constructivist orientation to grounded theory methodology informed research decisions, shaped the development of the emergent grounded theory, and prompted a way of thinking about da...
Dobrushin's approach to queueing network theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. I. Karpelevich
1996-01-01
Full Text Available R.L. Dobrushin (1929-1995 made substantial contributions to Queueing Network Theory (QNT. A review of results from QNT which arose from his ideas or were connected to him in other ways is given. We also comment on various related open problems.
Anthropological Theory: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.
Kassebaum, Peter
Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module introduces the student to various theoretical perspectives, terms, and influential figures within the field of anthropology. The following historical and conceptual influences on anthropological theory are discussed: (1) the Greek…
FDI theories. A location-based approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Popovici, Oana Cristina
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Given the importance of FDI for the economic growth of both home and host countries, the aim of this paper is to assess the importance granted to location advantages during the development of FDI theory. We start with the earliest theoretical directions as regards FDI location issues and extend our study to describing less debated theories, but of a particular importance for this theme. In this way, we have the opportunity to emphasize the changes in FDI location determinants. We find that a direction of the FDI theories’ expansion is due to the incorporation of new variables on location, although the location advantages are barely mentioned in the first explanations regarding the international activity of the firms.
The basics of item response theory using R
Baker, Frank B
2017-01-01
This graduate-level textbook is a tutorial for item response theory that covers both the basics of item response theory and the use of R for preparing graphical presentation in writings about the theory. Item response theory has become one of the most powerful tools used in test construction, yet one of the barriers to learning and applying it is the considerable amount of sophisticated computational effort required to illustrate even the simplest concepts. This text provides the reader access to the basic concepts of item response theory freed of the tedious underlying calculations. It is intended for those who possess limited knowledge of educational measurement and psychometrics. Rather than presenting the full scope of item response theory, this textbook is concise and practical and presents basic concepts without becoming enmeshed in underlying mathematical and computational complexities. Clearly written text and succinct R code allow anyone familiar with statistical concepts to explore and apply item re...
Item Response Theory: Introduction and Bibliography. Research Report No. 196.
Hambleton, Ronald K.
A brief overview of item response theory is provided, and a 186-item bibliography of books and articles on the subject dating from 1953 to June 1989 is presented. The overview includes a definition of the theory, a discussion of its development and application, and comparisons with classical test theory. All publications in the bibliography were…
Comprehensive Review on Divisible Load Theory: Concepts, Strategies, and Approaches
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shamsollah Ghanbari
2014-01-01
Full Text Available There is extensive literature concerning the divisible load theory. The divisible load theory is mainly applied for scheduling in the area of distributed computing. It is based on the fact that the load can be divided into some arbitrarily independent parts, in which each part can be processed independently by a processor. This paper reviews the literature concerning the divisible load theory, while focusing on the details of the basic concepts, approaches, strategies, typologies, and open problems.
Field theory approaches to new media practices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hartley, Jannie Møller; Willig, Ida; Waltorp, Karen
2015-01-01
In this article introducing the theme of the special issue we argue that studies of new media practices might benefit from especially Pierre Bourdieu’s research on cultural production. We introduce some of the literature, which deals with the use of digital media, and which have taken steps...... on more studies within a field theory framework, as the ability of the comprehensive theoretical work and the ideas of a reflexive sociology is able to trigger the good questions, more than it claims to offer a complete and self-sufficient sociology of media and inherent here also new media....
Elementary number theory an algebraic approach
Bolker, Ethan D
2007-01-01
This text uses the concepts usually taught in the first semester of a modern abstract algebra course to illuminate classical number theory: theorems on primitive roots, quadratic Diophantine equations, and the Fermat conjecture for exponents three and four. The text contains abundant numerical examples and a particularly helpful collection of exercises, many of which are small research problems requiring substantial study or outside reading. Some problems call for new proofs for theorems already covered or for inductive explorations and proofs of theorems found in later chapters.Ethan D. Bolke
Modular headache theory: a new approach.
Young, William B
2002-03-01
Many people experience headaches that do not fulfill the International Headache Society's criteria for a specific headache disorder, yet behave biologically like that disorder. Others fulfill criteria for one headache disorder but have features of another. To explain these observations, we propose that groups of neurons, called modules, become activated to produce each symptom of a primary headache disorder, and that each module is linked to other modules that together produce an individual's headache. Headaches develop phenotypic stability through a process referred to as learned stereotypy. This theory has implications for the classification, research, and treatment of primary and secondary headache patients.
Workspace and sensorimotor theories : Complementary approaches to experience
Degenaar, J.; Keijzer, F.
A serious difficulty for theories of consciousness is to go beyond mere correlation between physical processes and experience. Currently, neural workspace and sensorimotor contingency theories are two of the most promising approaches to make any headway here. This paper explores the relation between
Application of grounded theory approach in the analysis of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study examined the application of grounded theory in analyzing integrated primary health care (IPHC) in KwaZulu-Natal province. A description of the similarities and differences between the two approaches to grounded theory research, namely the Glaserian (after Barney Glaser) and the Straussian (after Anselm ...
Evolutionary Theories in Environmental and Resource Economics: Approaches and Applications
van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Gowdy, J.M.
2000-01-01
Recent advances in evolutionary theory have important implications for environmental economics. A short overview is offered of evolutionary thinking in economics. Subsequently, major concepts and approaches in evolutionary biology and evolutionary economics are presented and compared. Attention is
Decision theory and choices a complexity approach
Kirman, Alan; Vinci, Concetto Paolo
2010-01-01
In economics agents are assumed to choose on the basis of rational calculations aimed at the maximization of their pleasure or profit. Formally, agents are said to manifest transitive and consistent preferences in attempting to maximize their utility in the presence of several constraints. They operate according to the choice imperative: given a set of alternatives, choose the best. This imperative works well in a static and simplistic framework, but it may fail or vary when 'the best' is changing continuously. This approach has been questioned by a descriptive approach that springing from the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John S. Klaasen
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Browning’s influential use of practical reason for his fundamental practical theology is analysed. His correlation of theory and practice in his three stages of theory, practice and theory is also critiqued because his approach reduces practical theology almost to professionalism and principles for ministry. His approach could also result in an antagonistic relationship between practice and theory as practice is reduced to theory or academics. This article seeks to present a critically engaged practical reasoning approach in which theory and practice have an in-ter-dependent relationship. Practical reason is an activity in which engagement happens at every stage. For this to happen, theory and practice interact as equal variables that have a bearing on each other not to reduce the one to the other, but to complement each other in a lateral hermeneutical process. This process has four stages, unlike Browning’s three-stage correlation. The stages are schematically presented as practice, theory, practice and theory.
A renewal theory approach to IBD sharing.
Carmi, Shai; Wilton, Peter R; Wakeley, John; Pe'er, Itsik
2014-11-01
A long genomic segment inherited by a pair of individuals from a single, recent common ancestor is said to be identical-by-descent (IBD). Shared IBD segments have numerous applications in genetics, from demographic inference to phasing, imputation, pedigree reconstruction, and disease mapping. Here, we provide a theoretical analysis of IBD sharing under Markovian approximations of the coalescent with recombination. We describe a general framework for the IBD process along the chromosome under the Markovian models (SMC/SMC'), as well as introduce and justify a new model, which we term the renewal approximation, under which lengths of successive segments are independent. Then, considering the infinite-chromosome limit of the IBD process, we recover previous results (for SMC) and derive new results (for SMC') for the mean number of shared segments longer than a cutoff and the fraction of the chromosome found in such segments. We then use renewal theory to derive an expression (in Laplace space) for the distribution of the number of shared segments and demonstrate implications for demographic inference. We also compute (again, in Laplace space) the distribution of the fraction of the chromosome in shared segments, from which we obtain explicit expressions for the first two moments. Finally, we generalize all results to populations with a variable effective size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Siegert State Approach to Quantum Defect Theory
Hategan, C.; Ionescu, R. A.; Wolter, H. H.
2016-01-01
The Siegert states are approached in framework of Bloch-Lane-Robson formalism for quantum collisions. The Siegert state is not described by a pole of Wigner R- matrix but rather by the equation $1- R_{nn}L_n = 0$, relating R- matrix element $R_{nn}$ to decay channel logarithmic derivative $L_n$. Extension of Siegert state equation to multichannel system results into replacement of channel R- matrix element $R_{nn}$ by its reduced counterpart ${\\cal R}_{nn}$. One proves the Siegert state is a ...
Managing corporate capabilities:theory and industry approaches.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slavin, Adam M.
2007-02-01
This study characterizes theoretical and industry approaches to organizational capabilities management and ascertains whether there is a distinct ''best practice'' in this regard. We consider both physical capabilities, such as technical disciplines and infrastructure, and non-physical capabilities such as corporate culture and organizational procedures. We examine Resource-Based Theory (RBT), which is the predominant organizational management theory focused on capabilities. RBT seeks to explain the effect of capabilities on competitiveness, and thus provide a basis for investment/divestment decisions. We then analyze industry approaches described to us in interviews with representatives from Goodyear, 3M, Intel, Ford, NASA, Lockheed Martin, and Boeing. We found diversity amongst the industry capability management approaches. Although all organizations manage capabilities and consider them to some degree in their strategies, no two approaches that we observed were identical. Furthermore, we observed that theory is not a strong driver in this regard. No organization used the term ''Resource-Based Theory'', nor did any organization mention any other guiding theory or practice from the organizational management literature when explaining their capabilities management approaches. As such, we concluded that there is no single best practice for capabilities management. Nevertheless, we believe that RBT and the diverse industry experiences described herein can provide useful insights to support development of capabilities management approaches.
Novel Approaches To Numerical Solutions Of Quantum Field Theories
Petrov, D
2005-01-01
Two new approaches to numerically solving Quantum Field Theories are presented. The Source Galerkin technique is a direct approach to determining the generating functional of a theory by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equations. The properties of the Source Galerkin technique are tested by using it to determine the phase structure of the Ultralocal &phis;4 theory. A framework for applying this approach to solving O( N) Nonlinear Sigma model is constructed. The Sinc Function approximation is a highly efficient method of numerically evaluating Feynman diagrams. In the present dissertation the Sinc Function approximation is applied to fermionic fields. The Sinc expanded versions of fermion and photon propagators are derived. The accuracy of this approximation is tested by a direct comparison of the Sinc expanded propagators with exact propagators and by performing several sample calculations of one loop QED diagrams. An analysis of computational properties of the Sinc Function approach is presented.
Investigation of a Nonparametric Procedure for Assessing Goodness-of-Fit in Item Response Theory
Wells, Craig S.; Bolt, Daniel M.
2008-01-01
Tests of model misfit are often performed to validate the use of a particular model in item response theory. Douglas and Cohen (2001) introduced a general nonparametric approach for detecting misfit under the two-parameter logistic model. However, the statistical properties of their approach, and empirical comparisons to other methods, have not…
Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory
Pieters, W.; Arnold, F.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.
2013-01-01
Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Therefore, penetration testing has thus far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management,
Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory
Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette
2013-01-01
Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including
Quantitative Penetration Testing with Item Response Theory
Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette
2014-01-01
Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including
Vortex lattice theory: A linear algebra approach
Chamoun, George C.
Vortex lattices are prevalent in a large class of physical settings that are characterized by different mathematical models. We present a coherent and generalized Hamiltonian fluid mechanics-based formulation that reduces all vortex lattices into a classic problem in linear algebra for a non-normal matrix A. Via Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), the solution lies in the null space of the matrix (i.e., we require nullity( A) > 0) as well as the distribution of its singular values. We demonstrate that this approach provides a good model for various types of vortex lattices, and makes it possible to extract a rich amount of information on them. The contributions of this thesis can be classified into four main points. The first is asymmetric equilibria. A 'Brownian ratchet' construct was used which converged to asymmetric equilibria via a random walk scheme that utilized the smallest singular value of A. Distances between configurations and equilibria were measured using the Frobenius norm ||·||F and 2-norm ||·||2, and conclusions were made on the density of equilibria within the general configuration space. The second contribution used Shannon Entropy, which we interpret as a scalar measure of the robustness, or likelihood of lattices to occur in a physical setting. Third, an analytic model was produced for vortex street patterns on the sphere by using SVD in conjunction with expressions for the center of vorticity vector and angular velocity. Equilibrium curves within the configuration space were presented as a function of the geometry, and pole vortices were shown to have a critical role in the formation and destruction of vortex streets. The fourth contribution entailed a more complete perspective of the streamline topology of vortex streets, linking the bifurcations to critical points on the equilibrium curves.
Triangulation of qualitative approaches: hermeneutical phenomenology and grounded theory.
Annells, Merilyn
2006-10-01
In this paper, suggestions are offered about the appropriate use of hermeneutic phenomenology and grounded theory in one study. As an alternative to selecting only one qualitative research approach to illuminate a topic of interest about which little is known, two qualitative approaches could be used in a study. Fear of 'method slurring' may prevent this alternative being used. Occasionally, however, credible qualitative researchers have advocated using various research approaches in one study, for example using hermeneutical phenomenology and grounded theory in triangulation. However, if pursuing this direction, several advances in thinking about using qualitative research approaches should be considered. An experience is presented of deciding to use grounded theory and hermeneutic phenomenology in one study. Cautions, practical considerations and alternative options are offered for using these approaches in one study, and the implications of some other possible ways to 'triangulate' qualitative approaches are discussed. Different research approaches can be creatively and successfully used in one study if there has been adequate consideration of vital factors that determine if there is a good 'fit' of the approaches not only with the research problem and question, but also with each other, while also maintaining the integrity of each approach.
Nursing Services Delivery Theory: an open system approach
Meyer, Raquel M; O’Brien-Pallas, Linda L
2010-01-01
meyer r.m. & o’brien-pallas l.l. (2010)Nursing services delivery theory: an open system approach. Journal of Advanced Nursing 66(12), 2828–2838. Aim This paper is a discussion of the derivation of the Nursing Services Delivery Theory from the application of open system theory to large-scale organizations. Background The underlying mechanisms by which staffing indicators influence outcomes remain under-theorized and unmeasured, resulting in a ‘black box’ that masks the nature and organization ...
Open-ended response theory with polarizable embedding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steindal, Arnfinn Hykkerud; Beerepoot, Maarten T P; Ringholm, Magnus
2016-01-01
We present the theory and implementation of an open-ended framework for electric response properties at the level of Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham density functional theory that includes effects from the molecular environment modeled by the polarizable embedding (PE) model. With this new state-of-th...
Behavioral Theory and Culture Special Issue: Authors' Response to Commentaries
Pasick, Rena J.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen
2009-01-01
This article presents the authors' response to commentaries that focus on the "Behavioral Constructs and Culture in Cancer Screening" (3Cs) study. The 3Cs study had an unremarkable beginning, with two colleagues discussing their frustration over the narrow range of behavioral theories and the limited guidance the theories offered for a study…
Two approaches to synthesis based on the domain theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup
2002-01-01
The domain theory is described in this chapter. By a strict distinction between the structural characteristics and the behavioural properties of a mechanical artefact, each domain, i.e. transformation-, organ-, and part domain, becomes a productive view for design of mechanical artefacts....... The functional reasoning within each domain and between the domains seems to be ruled by the function-means law (Hubka´s law). On the basis of the domain theory and the function-means law we present two formal approaches to the synthesis of mechanical artefacts, namely a design-process-oriented approach...
Weir, Kirsty F.; Jose, Paul E.
2008-01-01
This study compares predictions from the Hopelessness Theory of depression (Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, 1989) with the Response Styles Theory of depression (RST; Nolen-Hoeksema, 1987) with data obtained from a preadolescent sample (ages 9 to 13 years). Three hundred ten preadolescents completed self-report measures of stress, sense of control,…
Kohli, Nidhi; Koran, Jennifer; Henn, Lisa
2015-01-01
There are well-defined theoretical differences between the classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) frameworks. It is understood that in the CTT framework, person and item statistics are test- and sample-dependent. This is not the perception with IRT. For this reason, the IRT framework is considered to be theoretically superior…
Experiential learning theory (ELT)-based classical guidance model to improve responsible character
Juster Donal Sinaga; Kristina Betty Artati
2017-01-01
This research aims to: (1) determine the improvement of responsible character of students before and after experiencing character education based on classical guidance service using Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) approach; (2) determine the effectiveness of character education based on classical guidance service ELT approach. This is a quantitative study using pre-experimental One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design. The data collection used Responsible Character Questionnaire with reliability ...
Postmodern Fuzzy System Theory: A Deconstruction Approach Based on Kabbalah
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriel Burstein
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Modern general system theory proposed a holistic integrative approach based on input-state-output dynamics as opposed to the traditional reductionist detail based approach. Information complexity and uncertainty required a fuzzy system theory, based on fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic. While successful in dealing with analysis, synthesis and control of technical engineering systems, general system theory and fuzzy system theory could not fully deal with humanistic and human-like intelligent systems which combine technical engineering components with human or human-like components characterized by their cognitive, emotional/motivational and behavioral/action levels of operation. Such humanistic systems are essential in artificial intelligence, cognitive and behavioral science applications, organization management and social systems, man-machine systems or human factor systems, behavioral knowledge based economics and finance applications. We are introducing here a “postmodern fuzzy system theory” for controlled state dynamics and output fuzzy systems and fuzzy rule based systems using our earlier postmodern fuzzy set theory and a Kabbalah possible worlds model of modal logic and semantics type. In order to create a postmodern fuzzy system theory, we “deconstruct” a fuzzy system in order to incorporate in it the cognitive, emotional and behavioral actions and expressions levels characteristic for humanistic systems. Kabbalah offers a structural, fractal and hierarchic model for integrating cognition, emotions and behavior. We obtain a canonic deconstruction for a fuzzy system into its cognitive, emotional and behavioral fuzzy subsystems.
The special theory of relativity a mathematical approach
Rahaman, Farook
2014-01-01
The book expounds the major topics in the special theory of relativity. It provides a detailed examination of the mathematical foundation of the special theory of relativity, relativistic mass, relativistic mechanics and relativistic electrodynamics. As well as covariant formulation of relativistic mechanics and electrodynamics, the book discusses the relativistic effect on photons. Using a mathematical approach, the text offers graduate students a clear, concise view of the special theory of relativity. Organized into 14 chapters and two appendices, the content is presented in a logical order, and every topic has been dealt with in a simple and lucid manner. To aid understanding of the subject, the book provides numerous relevant worked examples in every chapter. The book’s mathematical approach helps students in their independent study and motivates them to research the topic further.
Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach
Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.
2011-01-01
This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…
Anti-bribery control and incentives as agency theory approaches
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabian Teichmann
2017-11-01
Full Text Available This article takes an agency theory approach towards bribery in multinational corporations. In particular, it is advocated that incentives could help to align the interests of principals and agents and reduce information asymmetries. This could help to increase anti-bribery compliance and hence support the fight against corruption in Eastern Europe.
Effective field theory approach to LHC Higgs data
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 87; Issue 3. Effective field theory approach to LHC Higgs data. ADAM FALKOWSKI. Special Issue Volume 87 Issue 3 September 2016 Article ID 39. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/087/03/0039. Keywords.
grounded theory approach in sermon analysis of sermons
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Grounded theory approach. 116 way (cf. Immink 2005:273-277; Pieterse 2001a). In the preaching event are observable linguistic and social actions that can be analysed empirically, but there is also a spiritual dimension, communication and communion with God, the Word of God as an event that touches the hearts and ...
An Expectancy Theory Motivation Approach to Peer Assessment
Friedman, Barry A.; Cox, Pamela L.; Maher, Larry E.
2008-01-01
Group projects are an important component of higher education, and the use of peer assessment of students' individual contributions to group projects has increased. The researchers employed an expectancy theory approach and an experimental design in a field setting to investigate conditions that influence students' motivation to rate their peers'…
Evaluating Action Learning: A Critical Realist Complex Network Theory Approach
Burgoyne, John G.
2010-01-01
This largely theoretical paper will argue the case for the usefulness of applying network and complex adaptive systems theory to an understanding of action learning and the challenge it is evaluating. This approach, it will be argued, is particularly helpful in the context of improving capability in dealing with wicked problems spread around…
Applications of response surface methodology approach to ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Applications of response surface methodology approach to determine the effect of temperature, time of incubation and light conditions on germination and germ tube growth of Puccinia coronata f.sp. avenae urediosopores.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeffrey S. Harrison
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Objective – This article provides a brief overview of stakeholder theory, clears up some widely held misconceptions, explains the importance of examining stakeholder theory from a variety of international perspectives and how this type of research will advance management theory, and introduces the other articles in the special issue. Design/methodology/approach – Some of the foundational ideas of stakeholder theory are discussed, leading to arguments about the importance of the theory to management research, especially in an international context. Findings – Stakeholder theory is found to be a particularly useful perspective for addressing some of the important issues in business from an international perspective. It offers an opportunity to reinterpret a variety of concepts, models and phenomena across may different disciplines. Practical implications – The concepts explored in this article may be applied in many contexts, domestically and internationally, and across business disciplines as diverse as economics, public administration, finance, philosophy, marketing, law, and management. Originality/value – Research on stakeholder theory in an international context is both lacking and sorely needed. This article and the others in this special issue aim to help fill that void.
Parametric statistical inference basic theory and modern approaches
Zacks, Shelemyahu; Tsokos, C P
1981-01-01
Parametric Statistical Inference: Basic Theory and Modern Approaches presents the developments and modern trends in statistical inference to students who do not have advanced mathematical and statistical preparation. The topics discussed in the book are basic and common to many fields of statistical inference and thus serve as a jumping board for in-depth study. The book is organized into eight chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of how the theory of statistical inference is presented in subsequent chapters. Chapter 2 briefly discusses statistical distributions and their properties. Chapt
Silva, Walter A.
1993-01-01
The presentation begins with a brief description of the motivation and approach that has been taken for this research. This will be followed by a description of the Volterra Theory of Nonlinear Systems and the CAP-TSD code which is an aeroelastic, transonic CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code. The application of the Volterra theory to a CFD model and, more specifically, to a CAP-TSD model of a rectangular wing with a NACA 0012 airfoil section will be presented.
THE CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES FROM VIGOTSKIAN SCHOOL TO SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS THEORY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maylen Villamañan Alba
2016-07-01
Full Text Available This article aims to develop a conceptual reading from the theoretical core of the cultural-historical school to the theory of social representations. The historic-cultural School, influenced by Marxism, far from implying the annulment of the subject, shows how the psychosocial content is expressed from the language-thought relationship to the categories of experience, zone of proximal development and social situation of development. For these authors, man is a social being and their personological singularities are expression of multiple gradations of the universal-contextual law. Also, the theory of social representations addresses the broad impact of a relational social context in shaping the notions of reality, and has a high impact on the social sciences. An approach from the cultural historical perspective would allow deepening and broadening the edges of the theory of social representations, which may contribute to the development of psychology. The analysis is beneficial to the areas of general and social field.
THE RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT. A JUST WAR THEORY BASED ANALYSIS
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Andreea IANCU
2014-11-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Responsibility to protect principle as the paradigm that reinforces the just war theory in the current international relations. The importance of this analysis is given by the fact that in the current change of source of international conflicts, the Responsibility to protect principle affirms the responsibility of the international community to protect all the citizens of the world. In this context we witness a translation toward a Post-Westphalian international system, which values the individual as a security referent. This article discusses the origins of the responsibility to protect principle and problematizes (discusses the legitimacy of use of violence and force in the current international system. Moreover, the paper analyzes the possible humanization of the current international relations and, simultaneously, the persistency of conflict and warfare in the international system. The conclusion of this research states that the Responsibility to protect principle revises the just war theory by centering it on the individual.
Quantum critical response: from conformal perturbation theory to holography
Lucas, Andrew; Sierens, Todd; Witczak-Krempa, William
2017-07-01
We discuss dynamical response functions near quantum critical points, allowing for both a finite temperature and detuning by a relevant operator. When the quantum critical point is described by a conformal field theory (CFT), conformal perturbation theory and the operator product expansion can be used to fix the first few leading terms at high frequencies. Knowledge of the high frequency response allows us then to derive non-perturbative sum rules. We show, via explicit computations, how holography recovers the general results of conformal field theory, and the associated sum rules, for any holographic field theory with a conformal UV completion — regardless of any possible new ordering and/or scaling physics in the IR. We numerically obtain holographic response functions at all frequencies, allowing us to probe the breakdown of the asymptotic high-frequency regime. Finally, we show that high frequency response functions in holographic Lifshitz theories are quite similar to their conformal counterparts, even though they are not strongly constrained by symmetry.
Quality of life in schizophrenia: A grounded theory approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jackson Mike
2003-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research into health related quality of life (HRQoL in schizophrenia has predominantly been conducted using lengthy interviewer administered questionnaires, many of which have not been validated for use with schizophrenic samples. The present study seeks to address the dearth of qualitative research by conducting a small-scale qualitative exploration of the impact of schizophrenia on HRQoL. Method The study was conducted using the qualitative approach of grounded theory. Six individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia participated (3 men, 3 women. Mean age of participants was 33.3 years (range 20–55, mean length of illness was 12 years (range 2–38 years and average length of interviews was 47 minutes (range 20–70. Results Ten HRQoL domains were identified as being important: (1 barriers placed on relationships; (2 reduced control of behaviours and actions; (3 loss of opportunity to fulfil occupational roles; (4 financial constraints on activities and plans; (5 subjective experience of psychotic symptoms; (6 side effects and attitudes to medication; (7 psychological responses to living with schizophrenia; (8 labelling and attitudes from others; (9 concerns for the future and (10 positive outcomes from experiences. Conclusions Domains identified by participants encompassed a wide range of factors that may be expected to contribute generally to engaging in a positive quality of life. Participants identified that it was the loss of these things as a direct consequence of having schizophrenia that influenced their HRQoL. It would appear that in the main, factors that are secondary to the experience of schizophrenia are of most importance to participants. Suggestions are also made in the discussion for future research.
Molecular Response Theory in Terms of the Uncertainty Principle.
Harde, Hermann; Grischkowsky, Daniel
2015-08-27
We investigate the time response of molecular transitions by observing the pulse reshaping of femtosecond THz-pulses propagating through polar vapors. By precisely modeling the pulse interaction with the molecular vapors, we derive detailed insight into this time response after an excitation. The measurements, which were performed by applying the powerful technique of THz time domain spectroscopy, are analyzed directly in the time domain or parallel in the frequency domain by Fourier transforming the pulses and comparing them with the molecular response theory. New analyses of the molecular response allow a generalized unification of the basic collision and line-shape theories of Lorentz, van Vleck-Weisskopf, and Debye described by molecular response theory. In addition, they show that the applied THz experimental setup allows the direct observation of the ultimate time response of molecules to an external applied electric field in the presence of molecular collisions. This response is limited by the uncertainty principle and is determined by the inverse spitting frequency between adjacent levels. At the same time, this response reflects the transition time of a rotational transition to switch from one molecular state to another or to form a coherent superposition of states oscillating with the splitting frequency. The presented investigations are also of fundamental importance for the description of the far-wing absorption of greenhouse gases like water vapor, carbon dioxide, or methane, which have a dominant influence on the radiative exchange in the far-infrared.
LEARNING THE PHONOLOGY OF A LANGUAGE: AN OPTIMALITY THEORY APPROACH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Antonio Cutillas Espinosa
2001-06-01
Full Text Available Tesar & Srnolensky's book is a valuable reference for traditional approaches to leamability within an Optimality Theory framework. It summarises the reflections of two of the 'founder members' of the discipline. However, other researchers have developed altemative algorithms based on the previous work presented in Tesar & Smolensky which, in our opinion, are more realisfic insofar as they can cope with variation and developmental instability (Boersrna & Hayes 2001. Another interesting question, which affects all computational approaches to leamability, is whether such theories are really grounded or not. Now we know that computers can actually work out the constraint ranking of a language starting frorn some (but not al] initial hierarchies, provided that they are given sufficient overt information. Does that really mean that this is the way the human mind works?. We cannot be satisfied with a simple statement of the type 'if the hurnan mind performed these operations, it would acquire a language'. The only possible answer is that further research on phonological acquisition must be carried out in order to test whether RIPICD and EDCD are indeed at work in phonological acquisition by human beings. Tesar & Srnolensky's Learnability in Opfimality Theory is possibly a must for phonologists. But insofar as the developrnent of OT seems to have wider implications to the extent of having become a revolution in linguistic theory, it is also recomended for linguists in general and specially for applied linguists with some interest in phonological acquisition.
What Information Theory Says about Bounded Rational Best Response
Wolpert, David H.
2005-01-01
Probability Collectives (PC) provides the information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to bounded rational games. Here an explicit solution to the equations giving the bounded rationality equilibrium of a game is presented. Then PC is used to investigate games in which the players use bounded rational best-response strategies. Next it is shown that in the continuum-time limit, bounded rational best response games result in a variant of the replicator dynamics of evolutionary game theory. It is then shown that for team (shared-payoff) games, this variant of replicator dynamics is identical to Newton-Raphson iterative optimization of the shared utility function.
Spinning particle approach to higher spin field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corradini, Olindo, E-mail: Olindo.Corradini@bo.infn.it [Centro de Estudios en Fisica y Matematicas Basicas y Aplicadas Universidad Autonoma de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy)
2011-04-01
We shortly review on the connection between higher-spin gauge field theories and supersymmetric spinning particle models. In such approach the higher spin equations of motion are linked to the first-class constraint algebra associated with the quantization of particle models. Here we consider a class of spinning particle models characterized by local O(N)-extended supersymmetry since these models are known to provide an alternative approach to the geometric formulation of higher spin field theory. We describe the canonical quantization of the models in curved target space and discuss the obstructions that appear in presence of an arbitrarily curved background. We then point out the special role that conformally flat spaces appear to have in such models and present a derivation of the higher-spin curvatures for maximally symmetric spaces.
Effective interactions for light nuclei: an effective (field theory) approach
Stetcu, I.; Rotureau, J.; Barrett, B.R.; van Kolck, U.
2009-01-01
One of the central open problems in nuclear physics is the construction of effective interactions suitable for many-body calculations. We discuss a recently developed approach to this problem, where one starts with an effective field theory containing only fermion fields and formulated directly in a no-core shell-model space. We present applications to light nuclei and to systems of a few atoms in a harmonic-oscillator trap. Future applications and extensions, as well as challenges, are also ...
Posterior Predictive Model Checking for Multidimensionality in Item Response Theory
Levy, Roy; Mislevy, Robert J.; Sinharay, Sandip
2009-01-01
If data exhibit multidimensionality, key conditional independence assumptions of unidimensional models do not hold. The current work pursues posterior predictive model checking, a flexible family of model-checking procedures, as a tool for criticizing models due to unaccounted for dimensions in the context of item response theory. Factors…
Validating the 28-tender joint count using item response theory
Tjin-Kam-Jet-Siemons, Liseth; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Taal, Erik; Kuper, I.H.; van Riel, Piet L.C.M.; van de Laar, Mart A F J; Glas, Cornelis A.W.
2011-01-01
Objective: To examine the construct validity of the 28-tender joint count (TJC-28) using item response theory (IRT)-based methods. Methods: A total of 457 patients with early stage rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were included. Internal construct validity of the TJC-28 was evaluated by determining whether
Reliability of Test Scores in Nonparametric Item Response Theory.
Sijtsma, Klaas; Molenaar, Ivo W.
1987-01-01
Three methods for estimating reliability are studied within the context of nonparametric item response theory. Two were proposed originally by Mokken and a third is developed in this paper. Using a Monte Carlo strategy, these three estimation methods are compared with four "classical" lower bounds to reliability. (Author/JAZ)
The Evolution of Accounting Theory in Response to Market Changes
Edwin Quinn Jr.
2014-01-01
The purpose of the study is to exam the evolution of accounting theory as a response to changes in the market. The social context of business has changed the historical context of accounting and this study will analyze the relations of to better understand why accounting standards have achieved their present state of evolution.
Large Sample Confidence Intervals for Item Response Theory Reliability Coefficients
Andersson, Björn; Xin, Tao
2018-01-01
In applications of item response theory (IRT), an estimate of the reliability of the ability estimates or sum scores is often reported. However, analytical expressions for the standard errors of the estimators of the reliability coefficients are not available in the literature and therefore the variability associated with the estimated reliability…
Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory
Thissen, David
2016-01-01
David Thissen, a professor in the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Quantitative Program at the University of North Carolina, has consulted and served on technical advisory committees for assessment programs that use item response theory (IRT) over the past couple decades. He has come to the conclusion that there are usually two purposes…
Multilevel Higher-Order Item Response Theory Models
Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung
2014-01-01
In the social sciences, latent traits often have a hierarchical structure, and data can be sampled from multiple levels. Both hierarchical latent traits and multilevel data can occur simultaneously. In this study, we developed a general class of item response theory models to accommodate both hierarchical latent traits and multilevel data. The…
Number theory an approach through history from Hammurapi to Legendre
Weil, André
2007-01-01
Number Theory or arithmetic, as some prefer to call it, is the oldest, purest, liveliest, most elementary yet sophisticated field of mathematics. It is no coincidence that the fundamental science of numbers has come to be known as the "Queen of Mathematics." Indeed some of the most complex conventions of the mathematical mind have evolved from the study of basic problems of number theory. André Weil, one of the outstanding contributors to number theory, has written an historical exposition of this subject; his study examines texts that span roughly thirty-six centuries of arithmetical work — from an Old Babylonian tablet, datable to the time of Hammurapi to Legendre’s Essai sur la Théorie des Nombres (1798). Motivated by a desire to present the substance of his field to the educated reader, Weil employs an historical approach in the analysis of problems and evolving methods of number theory and their significance within mathematics. In the course of his study Weil accompanies the reader into the worksho...
Sensory conflict in motion sickness: An observer theory approach
Oman, Charles M.
1989-01-01
Motion sickness is the general term describing a group of common nausea syndromes originally attributed to motion-induced cerebral ischemia, stimulation of abdominal organ afferent, or overstimulation of the vestibular organs of the inner ear. Sea-, car-, and airsicknesses are the most commonly experienced examples. However, the discovery of other variants such as Cinerama-, flight simulator-, spectacle-, and space sickness in which the physical motion of the head and body is normal or absent has led to a succession of sensory conflict theories which offer a more comprehensive etiologic perspective. Implicit in the conflict theory is the hypothesis that neutral and/or humoral signals originate in regions of the brain subversing spatial orientation, and that these signals somehow traverse to other centers mediating sickness symptoms. Unfortunately, the present understanding of the neurophysiological basis of motion sickness is far from complete. No sensory conflict neuron or process has yet been physiologically identified. To what extent can the existing theory be reconciled with current knowledge of the physiology and pharmacology of nausea and vomiting. The stimuli which causes sickness, synthesizes a contemporary Observer Theory view of the Sensory Conflict hypothesis are reviewed, and a revised model for the dynamic coupling between the putative conflict signals and nausea magnitude estimates is presented. The use of quantitative models for sensory conflict offers a possible new approach to improving the design of visual and motion systems for flight simulators and other virtual environment display systems.
Teachers' implicit personality theories about the gifted: an experimental approach.
Baudson, Tanja Gabriele; Preckel, Franzis
2013-03-01
The implicit theories teachers hold about the gifted influence their perception of and behavior toward highly able students, thus impacting the latter's educational opportunities. Two persistent stereotypes about the gifted can be distinguished: the harmony hypothesis (gifted students are superior in almost all domains) and the disharmony hypothesis (giftedness implies maladaptive social behavior and emotional problems). The present study investigated whether teachers' implicit personality theories about the gifted are in line with the harmony or the disharmony hypothesis. Using an experimental vignette approach, we examined 321 prospective and practicing teachers' implicit personality theories (based on the big five personality framework) about students described along three dimensions (ability level, gender, and age, resulting in 8 different vignettes), controlling for teachers' age, gender, experience with gifted students, and knowledge about giftedness. Ability level had the strongest effect on teachers' ratings (partial η² = .60). Students described as gifted were perceived as more open to new experiences, more introverted, less emotionally stable, and less agreeable (all ps < .001). No differences were found for conscientiousness. Gender and its interaction with ability level had a small effect (partial η²s = .04 and .03). Thus, teachers' implicit personality theories about the gifted were in line with the disharmony hypothesis. Possible consequences for gifted identification and education are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
First-order derivative couplings between excited states from adiabatic TDDFT response theory.
Ou, Qi; Bellchambers, Gregory D; Furche, Filipp; Subotnik, Joseph E
2015-02-14
We present a complete derivation of derivative couplings between excited states in the framework of adiabatic time-dependent density functional response theory. Explicit working equations are given and the resulting derivative couplings are compared with derivative couplings from a pseudo-wavefunction ansatz. For degenerate excited states, i.e., close to a conical intersection (CI), the two approaches are identical apart from an antisymmetric overlap term. However, if the difference between two excitation energies equals another excitation energy, the couplings from response theory exhibit an unphysical divergence. This spurious behavior is a result of the adiabatic or static kernel approximation of time-dependent density functional theory leading to an incorrect analytical structure of the quadratic response function. Numerical examples for couplings close to a CI and for well-separated electronic states are given.
Linear response theory for magnon transport in ferromagnetic insulators
Murakami, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Ryo
2012-02-01
We study transverse response of magnons in ferromagnetic insulators within linear response theory. In analogy with the corresponding theory for electrons [1], magnon transverse response is described, including the Hall effect, Nernst effect, and thermal Hall effect. As is also the case for electrons [1], the response functions for magnons consist of the Kubo-formula term, and the term corresponding to the orbital angular momentum. We can rewrite the response functions in terms of the Berry curvature in momentum space [2]. We apply this theory to the (quantum-mechanical) magnons and to the classical magnetostatic waves. For the magnetostatic waves, the eigenmodes are given by a generalized eigenvalue problem, giving rise to the special form of the Berry curvature [2]. We explain various properties of this Berry curvature for the generalized eigenvalue problem, and discuss its implications for the physical properties of magnetostatic modes. [1] L. Smrcka and P. Streda, J. Phys. C, 10, 2153 (1977); H. Oji, P. Streda, Phys. Rev. B 31, 7291 (1985); [2] R. Matsumoto and S. Murakami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 197202 (2011); Phys. Rev. B 84, 184406 (2011).
Hamiltonian truncation approach to quenches in the Ising field theory
Rakovszky, Tibor; Collura, Mario; Kormos, Márton; Takács, Gábor
2016-01-01
In contrast to lattice systems where powerful numerical techniques such as matrix product state based methods are available to study the non-equilibrium dynamics, the non-equilibrium behaviour of continuum systems is much harder to simulate. We demonstrate here that Hamiltonian truncation methods can be efficiently applied to this problem, by studying the quantum quench dynamics of the 1+1 dimensional Ising field theory using a truncated free fermionic space approach. After benchmarking the method with integrable quenches corresponding to changing the mass in a free Majorana fermion field theory, we study the effect of an integrability breaking perturbation by the longitudinal magnetic field. In both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of the model we find persistent oscillations with frequencies set by the low-lying particle excitations even for moderate size quenches. In the ferromagnetic phase these particles are the various non-perturbative confined bound states of the domain wall excitations, while...
Mapping site-based construction workers’ motivation: Expectancy theory approach
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Parviz Ghoddousi
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to apply a recently proposed model of motivation based on expectancy theory to site-based workers in the construction context and confirm the validity of this model for the construction industry. The study drew upon data from 194 site-based construction workers in Iran to test the proposed model of motivation. To this end, the structural equation modelling (SEM approach based on the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA technique was deployed. The study reveals that the proposed model of expectancy theory incorporating five indicators (i.e. intrinsic instrumentality, extrinsic instrumentality, intrinsic valence, extrinsic valence and expectancy is able to map the process of construction workers’ motivation. Nonetheless, the findings posit that intrinsic indicators could be more effective than extrinsic ones. This proffers the necessity of construction managers placing further focus on intrinsic motivators to motivate workers.
Le Poire, Beth A.; Burgoon, Judee K.
1996-01-01
States that arousal has become a central variable within much of communication research from deception to emotional communication. Describes a two-part study that explored the application of the "orienting response" to these interpersonal communication theories explaining violations of expectancies. Concludes that the orientation…
Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.
2016-01-01
The frequently neglected and often misunderstood relationship between classical test theory and item response theory is discussed for the unidimensional case with binary measures and no guessing. It is pointed out that popular item response models can be directly obtained from classical test theory-based models by accounting for the discrete…
Principles of hyperplasticity an approach to plasticity theory based on thermodynamic principles
Houlsby, Guy T
2007-01-01
A new approach to plasticity theory firmly routed in and compatible with the laws of thermodynamicsProvides a common basis for the formulation and comparison of many existing plasticity modelsIncorporates and introduction to elasticity, plasticity, thermodynamics and their interactionsShows the reader how to formulate constitutive models completely specified by two scalar potential functions from which the incremental responses of any hyperplastic model can be derived.
Dynamical response theory for driven-dissipative quantum systems
Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo
2016-03-01
We discuss dynamical response theory of driven-dissipative quantum systems described by Markovian master equations generating semigroups of maps. In this setting thermal equilibrium states are replaced by nonequilibrium steady states, and dissipative perturbations are considered in addition to the Hamiltonian ones. We derive explicit expressions for the linear dynamical response functions for generalized dephasing channels and for Davies thermalizing generators. We introduce the notion of maximal harmonic response and compute it exactly for a single-qubit channel. Finally, we analyze linear response near dynamical phase transitions in quasifree open quantum systems. It is found that the effect of the dynamical phase transition shows up in a peak at the edge of the spectrum in the imaginary part of the dynamical response function.
A signal detection-item response theory model for evaluating neuropsychological measures.
Thomas, Michael L; Brown, Gregory G; Gur, Ruben C; Moore, Tyler M; Patt, Virginie M; Risbrough, Victoria B; Baker, Dewleen G
2018-02-05
Models from signal detection theory are commonly used to score neuropsychological test data, especially tests of recognition memory. Here we show that certain item response theory models can be formulated as signal detection theory models, thus linking two complementary but distinct methodologies. We then use the approach to evaluate the validity (construct representation) of commonly used research measures, demonstrate the impact of conditional error on neuropsychological outcomes, and evaluate measurement bias. Signal detection-item response theory (SD-IRT) models were fitted to recognition memory data for words, faces, and objects. The sample consisted of U.S. Infantry Marines and Navy Corpsmen participating in the Marine Resiliency Study. Data comprised item responses to the Penn Face Memory Test (PFMT; N = 1,338), Penn Word Memory Test (PWMT; N = 1,331), and Visual Object Learning Test (VOLT; N = 1,249), and self-report of past head injury with loss of consciousness. SD-IRT models adequately fitted recognition memory item data across all modalities. Error varied systematically with ability estimates, and distributions of residuals from the regression of memory discrimination onto self-report of past head injury were positively skewed towards regions of larger measurement error. Analyses of differential item functioning revealed little evidence of systematic bias by level of education. SD-IRT models benefit from the measurement rigor of item response theory-which permits the modeling of item difficulty and examinee ability-and from signal detection theory-which provides an interpretive framework encompassing the experimentally validated constructs of memory discrimination and response bias. We used this approach to validate the construct representation of commonly used research measures and to demonstrate how nonoptimized item parameters can lead to erroneous conclusions when interpreting neuropsychological test data. Future work might include the
Chemical reaction network approaches to Biochemical Systems Theory.
Arceo, Carlene Perpetua P; Jose, Editha C; Marin-Sanguino, Alberto; Mendoza, Eduardo R
2015-11-01
This paper provides a framework to represent a Biochemical Systems Theory (BST) model (in either GMA or S-system form) as a chemical reaction network with power law kinetics. Using this representation, some basic properties and the application of recent results of Chemical Reaction Network Theory regarding steady states of such systems are shown. In particular, Injectivity Theory, including network concordance [36] and the Jacobian Determinant Criterion [43], a "Lifting Theorem" for steady states [26] and the comprehensive results of Müller and Regensburger [31] on complex balanced equilibria are discussed. A partial extension of a recent Emulation Theorem of Cardelli for mass action systems [3] is derived for a subclass of power law kinetic systems. However, it is also shown that the GMA and S-system models of human purine metabolism [10] do not display the reactant-determined kinetics assumed by Müller and Regensburger and hence only a subset of BST models can be handled with their approach. Moreover, since the reaction networks underlying many BST models are not weakly reversible, results for non-complex balanced equilibria are also needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hamiltonian truncation approach to quenches in the Ising field theory
Rakovszky, T.; Mestyán, M.; Collura, M.; Kormos, M.; Takács, G.
2016-10-01
In contrast to lattice systems where powerful numerical techniques such as matrix product state based methods are available to study the non-equilibrium dynamics, the non-equilibrium behaviour of continuum systems is much harder to simulate. We demonstrate here that Hamiltonian truncation methods can be efficiently applied to this problem, by studying the quantum quench dynamics of the 1 + 1 dimensional Ising field theory using a truncated free fermionic space approach. After benchmarking the method with integrable quenches corresponding to changing the mass in a free Majorana fermion field theory, we study the effect of an integrability breaking perturbation by the longitudinal magnetic field. In both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of the model we find persistent oscillations with frequencies set by the low-lying particle excitations not only for small, but even for moderate size quenches. In the ferromagnetic phase these particles are the various non-perturbative confined bound states of the domain wall excitations, while in the paramagnetic phase the single magnon excitation governs the dynamics, allowing us to capture the time evolution of the magnetisation using a combination of known results from perturbation theory and form factor based methods. We point out that the dominance of low lying excitations allows for the numerical or experimental determination of the mass spectra through the study of the quench dynamics.
Holistic Approach of the Evolution Theory to TNC Genesis
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Rybalko Yuliia S.
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Development of the world economy at the modern stage is characterised with formation of the global model of economic development. Economic evolution theory, from the point of view of its supporters, considers economic development as an irreversible process of growth of complexity, variability and productiveness of production by means of periodical repetition of replacement of technologies, types of products, organisations and institutes, quite surprisingly, insufficiently exhaustively reacted in its development on modern challenges in the form of globalisation and processes caused by a new type of reproduction in the post-industrial society. The article, based on main provisions of the economic evolution theory and modern empiricism, specifies general and specific characteristics of development of trans-national corporations (TNC and provides an improved justification of periodisation of the TNC evolution. The holistic approach of the economic evolution theory to periodisation of the TNC development and the author’s analysis of stages of establishment of TNC give a possibility to identify specific regularities of this development and formulate the hypothesis on probability of coincidence of stages of TNC development and stages of development of the world currency system in the context of time periods, and also to mark out the tendency of formation of corporations of a new generation – mondialised global compositely combined structures.
[Notes on childhood and theory: a Latin American approach].
Bustelo Graffigna, Eduardo
2012-12-01
This work seeks to introduce and examine different historically relevant theories and propose certain frameworks that allow for the development of a Latin American theoretical approach based in a new discourse regarding childhood and adolescence. In order to undertake the creation of this Latin American approach, understanding the category of childhood as a social and historical construction, the work draws upon the contributions of structuralism (in particular, childhood as a permanent category, its relational dimension with regards to adulthood and its historical and intercultural dimension) and Foucault and Deleuze's concept of the society of control associated with the category of domination, an essential aspect of Latin American thought. The text was presented as a speech in the V World Congress for the Rights of Children and Adolescents held in San Juan, Argentina, from October 15-19, 2012.
Multi-Robot Searching using Game-Theory Based Approach
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Yan Meng
2008-11-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a game-theory based approach in a multi–target searching using a multi-robot system in a dynamic environment. It is assumed that a rough priori probability map of the targets' distribution within the environment is given. To consider the interaction between the robots, a dynamic-programming equation is proposed to estimate the utility function for each robot. Based on this utility function, a cooperative nonzero-sum game is generated, where both pure Nash Equilibrium and mixed-strategy Equilibrium solutions are presented to achieve an optimal overall robot behaviors. A special consideration has been taken to improve the real-time performance of the game-theory based approach. Several mechanisms, such as event-driven discretization, one-step dynamic programming, and decision buffer, have been proposed to reduce the computational complexity. The main advantage of the algorithm lies in its real-time capabilities whilst being efficient and robust to dynamic environments.
Free response approach in a parametric system
Huang, Dishan; Zhang, Yueyue; Shao, Hexi
2017-07-01
In this study, a new approach to predict the free response in a parametric system is investigated. It is proposed in the special form of a trigonometric series with an exponentially decaying function of time, based on the concept of frequency splitting. By applying harmonic balance, the parametric vibration equation is transformed into an infinite set of homogeneous linear equations, from which the principal oscillation frequency can be computed, and all coefficients of harmonic components can be obtained. With initial conditions, arbitrary constants in a general solution can be determined. To analyze the computational accuracy and consistency, an approach error function is defined, which is used to assess the computational error in the proposed approach and in the standard numerical approach based on the Runge-Kutta algorithm. Furthermore, an example of a dynamic model of airplane wing flutter on a turbine engine is given to illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach. Numerical solutions show that the proposed approach exhibits high accuracy in mathematical expression, and it is valuable for theoretical research and engineering applications of parametric systems.
Collective Inclusioning: A Grounded Theory of a Bottom-Up Approach to Innovation and Leading
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Michal Lysek
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper is a grounded theory study of how leaders (e.g., entrepreneurs, managers, etc. engage people in challenging undertakings (e.g., innovation that require everyone’s commitment to such a degree that they would have to go beyond what could be reasonably expected in order to succeed. Company leaders sometimes wonder why their employees no longer show the same responsibility towards their work, and why they are more concerned with internal politics than solving customer problems. It is because company leaders no longer apply collective inclusioning to the same extent as they did in the past. Collective inclusioning can be applied in four ways by convincing, afinitizing, goal congruencing, and engaging. It can lead to fostering strong units of people for taking on challenging undertakings. Collective inclusioning is a complementing theory to other strategic management and leading theories. It offers a new perspective on how to implement a bottom-up approach to innovation.
Evaluating deceased organ donation: a programme theory approach.
Manzano, Ana; Pawson, Ray
2014-01-01
Organ donation and transplantation services represent a microcosm of modern healthcare organisations. They are complex adaptive systems. They face perpetual problems of matching supply and demand. They operate under fierce time and resource constraints. And yet they have received relatively little attention from a systems perspective. The purpose of this paper is to consider some of the fundamental issues in evaluating, improving and policy reform in such complex systems. The paper advocates an approach based on programme theory evaluation. The paper explains how the death to donation to transplantation process depends on the accumulation of series of embedded, institutional sub-processes. Evaluators need to be concerned with this whole system rather than with its discrete parts or sectors. Policy makers may expect disappointment if they seek to improve donation rates by applying nudges or administrative reforms at a single point in the implementation chain. These services represent concentrated, perfect storms of complexity and the paper offers guidance to practitioners with bio-medical backgrounds on how such services might be evaluated and improved. For the methodological audience the paper caters for the burgeoning interest in programme theory evaluation while illustrating the design phase of this research strategy.
A semiclassical approach to relativistic nuclear mean field theory
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Centelles, M.; Vinas, X.; Barranco, M. (Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)); Schuck, P. (Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, Grenoble (France))
1993-01-01
Semiclassical relativistic particle and energy densities for a set of fermions submitted to a scalar field and to the time-like component of a four-vector field are derived in the Wigner-Kirkwood and Thomas Fermi mean field theories, including gradient corrections up to order h[sup 2]. As a test of the validite of the semiclassical method, a simple case is studied. where the scalar potential and the zero component of the four-vector potential are identical and correspond to a harmonic oscillator. The semiclassical approach is then applied to the non-linear [sigma]-[omega] model and the resulting variational equations are solved for finite nuclei and semi-infinite symmetric nuclear matter. In this case Hartree solutions are available and allow for an additional test of the reliability of the h[sup 2] corrections.
Glockner-Rist, Angelika; Hoijtink, Herbert
2003-01-01
Both structural equation modeling (SEM) and item response theory (IRT) can be used for factor analysis of dichotomous item responses. In this case, the measurement models of both approaches are formally equivalent. They were refined within and across different disciplines, and make complementary contributions to central measurement problems…
THE CONTEMPORARY METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES AND THEORIES EXPLAINING INTERNATIONAL TOURISM FLOWS
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Zorina SISCAN
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Proceeding from the fact that international tourism is in permanent growth the last decades, and contributes significantly to the development of contemporary national economies, the authors of the article have focused on methodological and theoretical frame that allows deeper understanding of the touristic flows from various aspects. In doing so, the first author has launched some methodological approaches that allow deepening a perspective research on touristic flows while the second author has concentrated upon grouping and analysis of existing theories used to explain touristic flows. As an outcome, the authors recommend a blend of those approaches and theories to be used for an adequate understanding and managing the existing and perspective touristic flows.ABORDDĂRI METODOLOGICE ȘI TEORII CONTEMPORANE CARE EXPLICĂ FLUXURILE DE TURISM INTERNAȚIONALPornind de la faptul că turismul internațional manifestă permanentă creștere în ultimele decenii, precum și contribuie semnificativ la dezvoltarea economiilor naționale contemporane, autorii articolului s-au axat pe cadrul metodologic și teoretic ce ar permite conceperea aprofundată a fluxurilor de turism internațional. Primul autor a lansat unele abordări metodologice care ar contribui la aprofundarea cercetărilor de perspectivă ale fluxurilor turistice, iar cel de-al doilea autor și-a concentrat atenția asupra grupării și analizei teoriilor existente în care se explică natura fluxurilor de turism. Ca rezultat, autorii recomandă utilizarea îmbinării organice a abordărilor și teoriilor considerate pentru perceperea și gestionarea adecvată a fluxurilor de turism existente și de perspectivă.
Quantification of experienced hearing problems with item response theory.
Chenault, Michelene; Berger, Martijn; Kremer, Bernd; Anteunis, Lucien
2013-12-01
The purpose of this study was to improve the effectiveness of adult hearing screens and demonstrate that interventions assessment methods are needed that address the individual's experienced hearing. Item response theory, which provides a methodology for assessing patient-reported outcomes, is examined here to demonstrate its usefulness in hearing screens and interventions. The graded response model is applied to a scale of 11 items assessing perceived hearing functioning and 10 items assessing experienced social limitations completed by a sample of 212 persons age 55+ years. Fixed and variable slope models are compared. Discrimination and threshold parameters are estimated and information functions evaluated. Variable slope models for both scales provided the best fit. The estimated discrimination parameters for all items except for one in each scale were good if not excellent (1.5-3.4). Threshold values varied, demonstrating the complementary and supplementary value of items within a scale. The information provided by each item varies relative to trait values so that each scale of items provides information over a wider range of trait values. Item response theory methodology facilitates the comparison of items relative to their discriminative ability and information provided and thus provides a basis for the selection of items for application in a screening setting.
Field Theory in Organizational Psychology: An Analysis of Theoretical Approaches in Leadership.
Garcia, Joseph E.
This literature review examines Kurt Lewin's influence in leadership psychology. Characteristics of field theory are described in detail and utilized in analyzing leadership research, including the trait approach, leader behavior studies, contingency theory, path-goal theory, and leader decision theory. Important trends in leadership research are…
Making Sense of Grounded Theory Approach: Implications for Medial Education Research
Tavakol M; Torabi S; Zeialoo AA
2006-01-01
This article first gives a definition of grounded theory and its development and use in medicine and medical education. The fundamental differences of grounded theory with quantitative methods are discussed along a full discussion of the steps required to use a grounded theory approach. At the end the questions in the area of medical education which can best addressed with this approach are provided
An item response theory analysis of the narcissistic personality inventory.
Ackerman, Robert A; Donnellan, M Brent; Robins, Richard W
2012-01-01
This research uses item response theory methods to evaluate the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988). Analyses using the 2-parameter logistic model were conducted on the total score and the Corry, Merritt, Mrug, and Pamp (2008) and Ackerman et al. (2011) subscales for the NPI. In addition to offering precise information about the psychometric properties of the NPI item pool, these analyses generated insights that can be used to develop new measures of the personality constructs embedded within this frequently used inventory.
PENGEMBANGAN TES BERPIKIR KRITIS DENGAN PENDEKATAN ITEM RESPONSE THEORY
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Fajrianthi Fajrianthi
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan sebuah alat ukur (tes berpikir kritis yang valid dan reliabel untuk digunakan, baik dalam lingkup pendidikan maupun kerja di Indonesia. Tahapan penelitian dilakukan berdasarkan tahap pengembangan tes menurut Hambleton dan Jones (1993. Kisi-kisi dan pembuatan butir didasarkan pada konsep dalam tes Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA. Pada WGCTA, berpikir kritis terdiri dari lima dimensi yaitu Inference, Recognition Assumption, Deduction, Interpretation dan Evaluation of arguments. Uji coba tes dilakukan pada 1.453 peserta tes seleksi karyawan di Surabaya, Gresik, Tuban, Bojonegoro, Rembang. Data dikotomi dianalisis dengan menggunakan model IRT dengan dua parameter yaitu daya beda dan tingkat kesulitan butir. Analisis dilakukan dengan menggunakan program statistik Mplus versi 6.11 Sebelum melakukan analisis dengan IRT, dilakukan pengujian asumsi yaitu uji unidimensionalitas, independensi lokal dan Item Characteristic Curve (ICC. Hasil analisis terhadap 68 butir menghasilkan 15 butir dengan daya beda yang cukup baik dan tingkat kesulitan butir yang berkisar antara –4 sampai dengan 2.448. Sedikitnya jumlah butir yang berkualitas baik disebabkan oleh kelemahan dalam menentukan subject matter experts di bidang berpikir kritis dan pemilihan metode skoring. Kata kunci: Pengembangan tes, berpikir kritis, item response theory DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING TEST UTILISING ITEM RESPONSE THEORY Abstract The present study was aimed to develop a valid and reliable instrument in assesing critical thinking which can be implemented both in educational and work settings in Indonesia. Following the Hambleton and Jones’s (1993 procedures on test development, the study developed the instrument by employing the concept of critical thinking from Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA. The study included five dimensions of critical thinking as adopted from the WGCTA: Inference, Recognition
Weeland, M.M.; Nijhof, K.S.; Otten, R.; Vermaes, I.P.R.; Buitelaar, J.K.
2017-01-01
Aim: This study tests the validity of Beck’s cognitive theory and Nolen-Hoeksema's response style theory of depression in adolescents with and without MBID. Methods: The relationship between negative cognitive errors (Beck), response styles (Nolen-Hoeksema) and depressive symptoms was examined in
[Migraine and evolutionary theory: paths for a clinical approach].
Alvaro-Gonzalez, L C
2016-10-01
Migraine is a very common disorder with a raising incidence. The theory of evolution allow us to explain the emergence of the disorder, due to the advantages that the overreactivity to stimulus provided to ancestral groups of Homo sapiens, and a greater presence of the disorder in modern societies, based in the interactions with external factors. Herein we analyze these points. Design of organisms and their responses to environmental factors emerge to improve survival. Thus pain and headache can be contemplated as homeostatic and adaptative responses. Below 10% of the population has no experience with headache and the migrainous phenotype is quite frequent in secondary headaches and in syndromic forms of migraine. These features can be understood under the next undergrounds: specific neurophysiological data (lack of habituation, sensibilization and low preactivation), genetic features (polygenic disorder with the implication of many gens with a low penetrance, that interact with the environment and are shared with comorbid disorders such as depression and anxiety); and environmental interactions in modern societies (increase in the number of estrogenic cycles and particularly overexposition to stress). A feature that was an evolutionary advantage has been transformed in a highly prevalent and disabling disorder in modern societies. It is the result of the interaction with internal (estrogenic cycles) and external (stress) stimuli. As a consequence, it becomes a mismatch disorder. The effects appear in childhood through epigenetics. Therefore, therapeutic interventions would yield greater benefits if whole populations were included in educative interventions incorporating these aspects.
Silva, Walter A.
1993-01-01
A methodology for modeling nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses, for subsequent use in aeroservoelastic analysis and design, using the Volterra-Wiener theory of nonlinear systems is presented. The methodology is extended to predict nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses of arbitrary frequency. The Volterra-Wiener theory uses multidimensional convolution integrals to predict the response of nonlinear systems to arbitrary inputs. The CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code is used to generate linear and nonlinear unit impulse responses that correspond to each of the integrals for a rectangular wing with a NACA 0012 section with pitch and plunge degrees of freedom. The computed kernels then are used to predict linear and nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses via convolution and compared to responses obtained using the CAP-TSD code directly. The results indicate that the approach can be used to predict linear unsteady aerodynamic responses exactly for any input amplitude or frequency at a significant cost savings. Convolution of the nonlinear terms results in nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses that compare reasonably well with those computed using the CAP-TSD code directly but at significant computational cost savings.
Grounded Theory as an approach to studying students' uses of learning management systems
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Graham Alsop
2002-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the first phase of a qualitative study of students' use of a Learning Management System (LMS. A group of students at Kingston University with experience of two different systems were afforded the opportunity to study the relationship between the interface to an LMS and the usability of the system. A 'Grounded Theory' methodology (Glaser and Strauss, 1967 was selected to model the students' framework, as independently as possible from the views of other stakeholders in the LMS. The approach still offered the potential for generalization despite working with a small group of students. In Grounded Theory, data collection and theory-building drive each other reciprocally until a stable 'theory' is reached. In an ideal world this research would be reported at the end of the whole process but it is considered that there is more value in producing less definitive results at this stage rather than a complete theory in one year's time (Oliver, 2000. Even at this stage of the research, it is clear that the students' conception of an LMS is categorically different from that held by the other stakeholders responsible for implementing the system. Identification of these differences and integration of some findings into future developments are critical even if, in the view of the researchers, further development of the 'theory' is required. The findings from this phase validate the use of a grounded approach. They suggest that systemic issues regarding the integration of educational activities with other aspects of everyday life are fundamentally more important than issues in interface design. The students make effective use of remote access facilities but only where this offers a clear comparison with activities that already form part of studying at university. Such comparisons are pragmatic and are seldom defined in terms of 'educational' benefit.
Random Vector and Matrix Theories: A Renormalization Group Approach
Zinn-Justin, Jean
2014-09-01
Random matrices in the large N expansion and the so-called double scaling limit can be used as toy models for quantum gravity: 2D quantum gravity coupled to conformal matter. This has generated a tremendous expansion of random matrix theory, tackled with increasingly sophisticated mathematical methods and number of matrix models have been solved exactly. However, the somewhat paradoxical situation is that either models can be solved exactly or little can be said. Since the solved models display critical points and universal properties, it is tempting to use renormalization group ideas to determine universal properties, without solving models explicitly. Initiated by Br\\'ezin and Zinn-Justin, the approach has led to encouraging results, first for matrix integrals and then quantum mechanics with matrices, but has not yet become a universal tool as initially hoped. In particular, general quantum field theories with matrix fields require more detailed investigations. To better understand some of the encountered difficulties, we first apply analogous ideas to the simpler O(N) symmetric vector models, models that can be solved quite generally in the large N limit. Unlike other attempts, our method is a close extension of Br\\'ezin and Zinn-Justin. Discussing vector and matrix models with similar approximation scheme, we notice that in all cases (vector and matrix integrals, vector and matrix path integrals in the local approximation), at leading order, non-trivial fixed points satisfy the same universal algebraic equation, and this is the main result of this work. However, its precise meaning and role have still to be better understood.
Comparison of Polytomous Parametric and Nonparametric Item Response Theory Models
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Özge BIKMAZ BİLGEN
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This research aimed to identify the effects of independent variables as sample size, sample distribution, the number of items in the test, and the number of response categories of items in the test on the estimations of Graded Response Model (GRM under Parametric Item Response Theory (PIRT and by Monotone Homogeneity Model (MHM under Non-Parametric Item Response Theory (NIRT for polytomously scored items. To achieve this aim, the research was performed as a fundamental study in which 192 simulation conditions were designed by the combination of sample size, sample distribution, the number of items, and the number of categories of items. Estimates by GRM and MHM were examined under different levels of sample size (N= 100, 250, 500, 1000, sample distribution (normal, skewed, the number of items (10, 20, 40, 80, and the number of categories of items (3, 5, 7 conditions, by respectively calculating model-data fit, reliability values, standart errors of parameters. As a result of the research, it was found that since the values used to evaluate model-data fit were influenced by the increase of variable while calculating model-data fit and since they can not be interpreted alone, it is difficult to compare and generalize the results. The practical calculation of model data fit, which can be interpreted without the need for another value, in MHM provides superiority over GRM. Another research result is that the reliability values give similar results for both models. The standard errors of the MHM parameter estimates is lower than the GRM estimates under small sample and few items conditions and the standard errors of the MHM parameter estimates are close to each other in all conditions.
FROM CONTRACTUAL APPROACH OF FIRM TO THEORIES OF KNOWLEDGE
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Grigore Maria Zenovia
2009-05-01
Full Text Available The object of contractual theories is describing exchange relation between agents, considering institutional and informational restriction in which they evolve. From trials of removing insufficiency in contractual theories new representations gradually
The geometry of resonance tongues : a singularity theory approach
Broer, Hendrik; Golubitsky, Martin; Vegter, Gert
Resonance tongues and their boundaries are studied for nondegenerate and (certain) degenerate Hopf bifurcations of maps using singularity theory methods of equivariant contact equivalence and universal unfoldings. We recover the standard theory of tongues (the nondegencrate case) in a
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Jayson Seaman PhD
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Grounded theory has long been regarded as a valuable way to conduct social and educational research. However, recent constructivist and postmodern insights are challenging long-standing assumptions, most notably by suggesting that grounded theory can be flexibly integrated with existing theories. This move hinges on repositioning grounded theory from a methodology with positivist underpinnings to an approach that can be used within different theoretical frameworks. In this article the author reviews this recent transformation of grounded theory, engages in the project of repositioning it as an approach by using cultural historical activity theory as a test case, and outlines several practical methods implied by the joint use of grounded theory as an approach and activity theory as a methodology. One implication is the adoption of a dialectic, as opposed to a constructivist or objectivist, stance toward grounded theory inquiry, a stance that helps move past the problem of emergence versus forcing.
An empirical comparison of Item Response Theory and Classical Test Theory
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Špela Progar
2008-11-01
Full Text Available Based on nonlinear models between the measured latent variable and the item response, item response theory (IRT enables independent estimation of item and person parameters and local estimation of measurement error. These properties of IRT are also the main theoretical advantages of IRT over classical test theory (CTT. Empirical evidence, however, often failed to discover consistent differences between IRT and CTT parameters and between invariance measures of CTT and IRT parameter estimates. In this empirical study a real data set from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS 1995 was used to address the following questions: (1 How comparable are CTT and IRT based item and person parameters? (2 How invariant are CTT and IRT based item parameters across different participant groups? (3 How invariant are CTT and IRT based item and person parameters across different item sets? The findings indicate that the CTT and the IRT item/person parameters are very comparable, that the CTT and the IRT item parameters show similar invariance property when estimated across different groups of participants, that the IRT person parameters are more invariant across different item sets, and that the CTT item parameters are at least as much invariant in different item sets as the IRT item parameters. The results furthermore demonstrate that, with regards to the invariance property, IRT item/person parameters are in general empirically superior to CTT parameters, but only if the appropriate IRT model is used for modelling the data.
A Signal Detection Theory Approach to Evaluating Oculometer Data Quality
Latorella, Kara; Lynn, William, III; Barry, John S.; Kelly, Lon; Shih, Ming-Yun
2013-01-01
Currently, data quality is described in terms of spatial and temporal accuracy and precision [Holmqvist et al. in press]. While this approach provides precise errors in pixels, or visual angle, often experiments are more concerned with whether subjects'points of gaze can be said to be reliable with respect to experimentally-relevant areas of interest. This paper proposes a method to characterize oculometer data quality using Signal Detection Theory (SDT) [Marcum 1947]. SDT classification results in four cases: Hit (correct report of a signal), Miss (failure to report a ), False Alarm (a signal falsely reported), Correct Reject (absence of a signal correctly reported). A technique is proposed where subjects' are directed to look at points in and outside of an AOI, and the resulting Points of Gaze (POG) are classified as Hits (points known to be internal to an AOI are classified as such), Misses (AOI points are not indicated as such), False Alarms (points external to AOIs are indicated as in the AOI), or Correct Rejects (points external to the AOI are indicated as such). SDT metrics describe performance in terms of discriminability, sensitivity, and specificity. This paper presentation will provide the procedure for conducting this assessment and an example of data collected for AOIs in a simulated flightdeck environment.
Laughter as an approach to vocal evolution: The bipedal theory.
Provine, Robert R
2017-02-01
Laughter is a simple, stereotyped, innate, human play vocalization that is ideal for the study of vocal evolution. The basic approach of describing the act of laughter and when we do it has revealed a variety of phenomena of social, linguistic, and neurological significance. Findings include the acoustic structure of laughter, the minimal voluntary control of laughter, the punctuation effect (which describes the placement of laughter in conversation and indicates the dominance of speech over laughter), and the role of laughter in human matching and mating. Especially notable is the use of laughter to discover why humans can speak and other apes cannot. Quadrupeds, including our primate ancestors, have a 1:1 relation between breathing and stride because their thorax must absorb forelimb impacts during running. The direct link between breathing and locomotion limits vocalizations to short, simple utterances, such as the characteristic panting chimpanzee laugh (one sound per inward or outward breath). The evolution of bipedal locomotion freed the respiration system of its support function during running, permitting greater breath control and the selection for human-type laughter (a parsed exhalation), and subsequently the virtuosic, sustained, expiratory vocalization of speech. This is the basis of the bipedal theory of speech evolution.
Petrillo, Jennifer; Cano, Stefan J; McLeod, Lori D; Coon, Cheryl D
2015-01-01
To provide comparisons and a worked example of item- and scale-level evaluations based on three psychometric methods used in patient-reported outcome development-classical test theory (CTT), item response theory (IRT), and Rasch measurement theory (RMT)-in an analysis of the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (VFQ-25). Baseline VFQ-25 data from 240 participants with diabetic macular edema from a randomized, double-masked, multicenter clinical trial were used to evaluate the VFQ at the total score level. CTT, RMT, and IRT evaluations were conducted, and results were assessed in a head-to-head comparison. Results were similar across the three methods, with IRT and RMT providing more detailed diagnostic information on how to improve the scale. CTT led to the identification of two problematic items that threaten the validity of the overall scale score, sets of redundant items, and skewed response categories. IRT and RMT additionally identified poor fit for one item, many locally dependent items, poor targeting, and disordering of over half the response categories. Selection of a psychometric approach depends on many factors. Researchers should justify their evaluation method and consider the intended audience. If the instrument is being developed for descriptive purposes and on a restricted budget, a cursory examination of the CTT-based psychometric properties may be all that is possible. In a high-stakes situation, such as the development of a patient-reported outcome instrument for consideration in pharmaceutical labeling, however, a thorough psychometric evaluation including IRT or RMT should be considered, with final item-level decisions made on the basis of both quantitative and qualitative results. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Exploring multicollinearity using a random matrix theory approach.
Feher, Kristen; Whelan, James; Müller, Samuel
2012-01-01
Clustering of gene expression data is often done with the latent aim of dimension reduction, by finding groups of genes that have a common response to potentially unknown stimuli. However, what is poorly understood to date is the behaviour of a low dimensional signal embedded in high dimensions. This paper introduces a multicollinear model which is based on random matrix theory results, and shows potential for the characterisation of a gene cluster's correlation matrix. This model projects a one dimensional signal into many dimensions and is based on the spiked covariance model, but rather characterises the behaviour of the corresponding correlation matrix. The eigenspectrum of the correlation matrix is empirically examined by simulation, under the addition of noise to the original signal. The simulation results are then used to propose a dimension estimation procedure of clusters from data. Moreover, the simulation results warn against considering pairwise correlations in isolation, as the model provides a mechanism whereby a pair of genes with `low' correlation may simply be due to the interaction of high dimension and noise. Instead, collective information about all the variables is given by the eigenspectrum.
Sustainable theory of a logistic model - Fisher information approach.
Al-Saffar, Avan; Kim, Eun-Jin
2017-03-01
Information theory provides a useful tool to understand the evolution of complex nonlinear systems and their sustainability. In particular, Fisher information has been evoked as a useful measure of sustainability and the variability of dynamical systems including self-organising systems. By utilising Fisher information, we investigate the sustainability of the logistic model for different perturbations in the positive and/or negative feedback. Specifically, we consider different oscillatory modulations in the parameters for positive and negative feedback and investigate their effect on the evolution of the system and Probability Density Functions (PDFs). Depending on the relative time scale of the perturbation to the response time of the system (the linear growth rate), we demonstrate the maintenance of the initial condition for a long time, manifested by a broad bimodal PDF. We present the analysis of Fisher information in different cases and elucidate its implications for the sustainability of population dynamics. We also show that a purely oscillatory growth rate can lead to a finite amplitude solution while self-organisation of these systems can break down with an exponentially growing solution due to the periodic fluctuations in negative feedback. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The social reality of the imaginary audience: a grounded theory approach.
Bell, Joanna H; Bromnick, Rachel D
2003-01-01
Traditional approaches to understanding the imaginary audience are challenged in this study. Three hundred sixty-one British schoolchildren (aged 14 and 15 years) were asked to express their worries and concerns, using grounded theory methodology. Qualitative responses were collated and coded according to emerging categories, with "what other people think" identified as the central concern. In particular, the findings are used to critique Elkind's (1967) theory of adolescent egocentrism. Data presented in this study suggest that adolescents worry about what other people think because there are real personal and social consequences. Such concerns are seen as being based in social reality and are not imaginary as Elkind suggested. In conclusion, new methodologies which place young people at the center of the analysis are advocated.
Block-diagonalization of the variational nodal response matrix using the symmetry group theory
Li, Zhipeng; Wu, Hongchun; Li, Yunzhao; Cao, Liangzhi
2017-12-01
To further improve the efficiency of the Variational Nodal Method (VNM) for solving the neutron transport equation in hexagonal-z geometry, the nodal response matrix is further block-diagonalized by utilizing the symmetry group theory to decompose the surface basis functions into irreducible components. The block-diagonal property of the nodal response matrix is determined by the symmetry properties of the hexagonal node in geometry, material and basis functions, including both reflection and rotation symmetries. To fully utilize those properties, the symmetry group theory is employed to analyze the symmetry property of the nodal response matrices. It is mathematically proved that the nodal response matrix can be further block-diagonalized into 16 diagonal blocks instead of the current 4 ones by using the symmetry group theory. Numerical comparisons demonstrate that the new approach can reduce the memory storage and computing time by a factor of 2∼3 for P7 angular approximation, compared with the currently employed variables transformation algorithm.
Feteris, E.; Kloosterhuis, H.
2009-01-01
In the past thirty years legal argumentation has become an important interdisciplinary field of interest. The study of legal argumentation draws its data, assumptions and methods from disciplines such as legal theory, legal philosophy, logic, argumentation theory, rhetoric, linguistics, literary
Quantum theory from first principles an informational approach
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo
2017-01-01
Quantum theory is the soul of theoretical physics. It is not just a theory of specific physical systems, but rather a new framework with universal applicability. This book shows how we can reconstruct the theory from six information-theoretical principles, by rebuilding the quantum rules from the bottom up. Step by step, the reader will learn how to master the counterintuitive aspects of the quantum world, and how to efficiently reconstruct quantum information protocols from first principles. Using intuitive graphical notation to represent equations, and with shorter and more efficient derivations, the theory can be understood and assimilated with exceptional ease. Offering a radically new perspective on the field, the book contains an efficient course of quantum theory and quantum information for undergraduates. The book is aimed at researchers, professionals, and students in physics, computer science and philosophy, as well as the curious outsider seeking a deeper understanding of the theory.
Reflecting on the challenges of choosing and using a grounded theory approach.
Markey, Kathleen; Tilki, Mary; Taylor, Georgina
2014-11-01
To explore three different approaches to grounded theory and consider some of the possible philosophical assumptions underpinning them. Grounded theory is a comprehensive yet complex methodology that offers a procedural structure that guides the researcher. However, divergent approaches to grounded theory present dilemmas for novice researchers seeking to choose a suitable research method. This is a methodology paper. This is a reflexive paper that explores some of the challenges experienced by a PhD student when choosing and operationalising a grounded theory approach. Before embarking on a study, novice grounded theory researchers should examine their research beliefs to assist them in selecting the most suitable approach. This requires an insight into the approaches' philosophical assumptions, such as those pertaining to ontology and epistemology. Researchers need to be clear about the philosophical assumptions underpinning their studies and the effects that different approaches will have on the research results. This paper presents a personal account of the journey of a novice grounded theory researcher who chose a grounded theory approach and worked within its theoretical parameters. Novice grounded theory researchers need to understand the different philosophical assumptions that influence the various grounded theory approaches, before choosing one particular approach.
Suliman, Mohamed
2016-01-01
In this supplementary appendix we provide proofs and additional simulation results that complement the paper (constrained perturbation regularization approach for signal estimation using random matrix theory).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mr Nahadi
2011-10-01
Full Text Available This research is title “Test Development and Analysis of First Grade Senior High School Final Examination in chemistry Based on Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory”. This research is conducted to develop a standard test instrument for final examination in senior high school at first grade using analysis based on classical test theory and item response theory. The test is a multiple choice test which consists of 75 items. Each item has five options. The research method is research and development method to get a product of test items which fulfill item criterion such as validity, reliability, item discrimination, item difficulty and distracting options quality based on classical test theory and validity, reliability, item discrimination, item difficulty and pseudo-guessing based on item response theory. The three parameter item response theory model is used in this research. Research and development method is conducted until preliminary field test to 102 first grade students in senior high school. Based on the research result, the test fulfills criterion as a good instrument based on classical test theory and item response theory. The final examination test items have vary of item quality so that some of them need a revision to make them better either for the stem and the options. From the total of 75 test items, 21 test items are declined and 54 test items are accepted.
Linear response theory and optimal control for a molecular system under non-equilibrium conditions
Wang, Han; Hartmann, Carsten; Schütte, Christof
2013-12-01
In this paper, we propose a straightforward generalisation of the linear response theory on a finite time-horizon to systems in non-equilibrium that are subject to external forcing. We briefly revisit the standard linear response result for equilibrium systems, where we consider Langevin dynamics as a special case, and then give an alternative derivation using a change-of-measure argument that does not rely on any stationarity or reversibility assumption. This procedure easily enables us to calculate the second-order correction to the linear response formula (which may or may not be useful in practice). Furthermore, we outline how the novel non-equilibrium linear response formula can be used to compute optimal controls of molecular systems for cases in which one wants to steer the system to maximise a certain target expectation value. We illustrate our approach with simple numerical examples.
A semi-parametric within-subject mixture approach to the analyses of responses and response times.
Molenaar, Dylan; Bolsinova, Maria; Vermunt, Jeroen K
2017-10-17
In item response theory, modelling the item response times in addition to the item responses may improve the detection of possible between- and within-subject differences in the process that resulted in the responses. For instance, if respondents rely on rapid guessing on some items but not on all, the joint distribution of the responses and response times will be a multivariate within-subject mixture distribution. Suitable parametric methods to detect these within-subject differences have been proposed. In these approaches, a distribution needs to be assumed for the within-class response times. In this paper, it is demonstrated that these parametric within-subject approaches may produce false positives and biased parameter estimates if the assumption concerning the response time distribution is violated. A semi-parametric approach is proposed which resorts to categorized response times. This approach is shown to hardly produce false positives and parameter bias. In addition, the semi-parametric approach results in approximately the same power as the parametric approach. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Defended By Reason: Can Theory Provide Another Approach to Transformation?
2003-01-01
would, in Mitchell’s opinion , demoralize enemy populations causing a quick capitulation to the nation that had air superiority.34 The one area where...88 Julian Lider , Military Theory (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1983) 262-263. 89 Ibid., 261-262. 42 However, there is a recent...papers ensuring a unifying thread into a general theory of war for America. Julian Lider proposes that a military theory should contain the following: 1
An Activity Systems Theory Approach to Agent Technology
Zhang, Peng; Bai, Guohua
2005-01-01
In the last decade, Activity Theory has been discussed a lot in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Activity Theory was used both theoretically as an analytical method and practically as a development framework for Information Systems. Meanwhile, there is a new trench from Artificial Intelligence. Artificial Intelligence researchers find that the fruit from Activity Theory study may contribute, especially to Agent Technology, with socio-psychologic...
CURRENT APPROACHES TO PRAGMATICS. TOWARDS A NEW LINGUISTIC THEORY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liviu Mihail Marinescu
2006-05-01
Full Text Available Out of all issues in the theory of language usage, the speech act theory has probably aroused the widest interest. Psychologists have suggested that the acquirement of the concepts underlying speech acts may be a prerequisite for the acquisition of language in general, literary critics have looked to speech act theory for an illumination of textual subtleties or for an understanding of the nature of literary genres, philosophers have seen potential applications to the status of ethical statements, while linguists have seen the notions of speech act theory as variously applicable to problems in syntax, semantics, pragmatics, second language learning, and elsewhere.
Nonlinear responses of chiral fluids from kinetic theory
Hidaka, Yoshimasa; Pu, Shi; Yang, Di-Lun
2018-01-01
The second-order nonlinear responses of inviscid chiral fluids near local equilibrium are investigated by applying the chiral kinetic theory (CKT) incorporating side-jump effects. It is shown that the local equilibrium distribution function can be nontrivially introduced in a comoving frame with respect to the fluid velocity when the quantum corrections in collisions are involved. For the study of anomalous transport, contributions from both quantum corrections in anomalous hydrodynamic equations of motion and those from the CKT and Wigner functions are considered under the relaxation-time (RT) approximation, which result in anomalous charge Hall currents propagating along the cross product of the background electric field and the temperature (or chemical-potential) gradient and of the temperature and chemical-potential gradients. On the other hand, the nonlinear quantum correction on the charge density vanishes in the classical RT approximation, which in fact satisfies the matching condition given by the anomalous equation obtained from the CKT.
Cognitive versus stimulus-response theories of learning.
Holland, Peter C
2008-08-01
In his 1948 address to the Division of Theoretical-Experimental Psychology of the American Psychological Association, Kenneth W. Spence discussed six distinctions between cognitive and stimulus-response (S-R) theories of learning. In this article, I first review these six distinctions and then focus on two of them in the context of my own research. This research concerns the specification of stimulus-stimulus associations in associative learning and the characterization of the neural systems underlying those associations. In the course of describing Spence's views and my research, I hope to communicate some of the richness of Spence's S-R psychology and its currency within modern scientific analyses of behavior.
Theory of dielectric response of charged-bilayer-vesicle solutions
Lu, C.-Y. D.
1996-10-01
The dielectric response is calculated for a solution containing charged bilayer vesicles and simple electrolyte. The solution is assumed to contain a high salt concentration so that the Debye screening length is small compared to the size of the vesicles. The presence of two (electric) double layers, one on each side of the bilayer, gives low-frequency salt relaxations (kHz for 1 μm vesicles) that explain the experimentally observed α relaxations which are known to appear only for charged vesicles. The double layers also modify the high-frequency β relaxations which have been previously modeled by using the Maxwell-Wagner theory. The calculation method can be easily extended to other bilayer geometries.
Network Security Risk Assessment Based on Item Response Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fangwei Li
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Owing to the traditional risk assessment method has one-sidedness and is difficult to reflect the real network situation, a risk assessment method based on Item Response Theory (IRT is put forward in network security. First of all, the novel algorithms of calculating the threat of attack and the successful probability of attack are proposed by the combination of IRT model and Service Security Level. Secondly, the service weight of importance is calculated by the three-demarcation analytic hierarchy process. Finally, the risk situation graph of service, host and network logic layer could be generated by the improved method. The simulation results show that this method can be more comprehensive consideration of factors which are affecting network security, and a more realistic network risk situation graph in real-time will be obtained.
Data, instruments, and theory a dialectical approach to understanding science
Ackermann, Robert John
1985-01-01
Robert John Ackermann deals decisively with the problem of relativism that has plagued post-empiricist philosophy of science. Recognizing that theory and data are mediated by data domains (bordered data sets produced by scientific instruments), he argues that the use of instruments breaks the dependency of observation on theory and thus creates a reasoned basis for scientific objectivity.
The Elaboration Theory's Procedure for Designing Instruction: A Conceptual Approach.
Reigeluth, Charles M.; Darwazeh, Afnan
1982-01-01
Describes the use of elaboration theory in selecting, sequencing, synthesizing, and summarizing instructional content that is predominantly conceptual in nature. The elaboration theory is summarized and the instructional design process based upon it is outlined. Six figures, a glossary, and a 27-item reference list are included. (Author/JL)
Empowerment in School Nursing Practice: A Grounded Theory Approach
Broussard, Lisa
2007-01-01
Professional empowerment is vital to nurses' productivity and job satisfaction. A grounded theory study was conducted to describe the basic social process experienced by school nurses in relation to professional empowerment. Interviews with 10 school nurses led to the development of a situation-specific theory of school nurse empowerment,…
New Approaches and Applications for Monte Carlo Perturbation Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aufiero, Manuele; Bidaud, Adrien; Kotlyar, Dan; Leppänen, Jaakko; Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Salvatores, Massimo; Sen, Sonat; Shwageraus, Eugene; Fratoni, Massimiliano
2017-02-01
This paper presents some of the recent and new advancements in the extension of Monte Carlo Perturbation Theory methodologies and application. In particular, the discussed problems involve Brunup calculation, perturbation calculation based on continuous energy functions, and Monte Carlo Perturbation Theory in loosely coupled systems.
Geometrical approach to duality in N=1 supersymmetric theories
Brax, P; Savoy, C A; Brax, Ph
1997-01-01
We investigate the geometry of the moduli spaces of dual electric and magnetic N=1 supersymmetric field theories. Using the SU(N_c) gauge group as a guideline we show that the electric and magnetic moduli spaces coincide for a suitable choice of the Kahler potential of the magnetic theory. We analyse the Kahler structure of the dual moduli spaces.
General Systems Theory Approaches to Organizations: Some Problems in Application
Peery, Newman S., Jr.
1975-01-01
Considers the limitations of General Systems Theory (GST) as a major paradigm within administrative theory and concludes that most systems formulations overemphasize growth and show little appreciation for intraorganizational conflict, diversity of values, and political action within organizations. Suggests that these limitations are mainly due to…
A geometrical approach to two-dimensional Conformal Field Theory
Dijkgraaf, Robertus Henricus
1989-01-01
This thesis is organized in the following way. In Chapter 2 we will give a brief introduction to conformal field theory along the lines of standard quantum field theory, without any claims to originality. We introduce the important concepts of the stress-energy tensor, the Virasoro algebra, and
A novel genealogical approach to neutral biodiversity theory
Etienne, R.S.; Olff, H.
2004-01-01
Current neutral theory in community ecology views local biodiversity as a result of the interplay between speciation, extinction and immigration. Simulations and a mean-field approximation have been used to study this neutral theory. As simulations have limitations of convergence and the mean-field
A novel genealogical approach to neutral biodiversity theory
Etienne, RS; Olff, H
Current neutral theory in community ecology views local biodiversity as a result of the interplay between speciation, extinction and immigration. Simulations and a mean-field approximation have been used to study this neutral theory. As simulations have limitations of convergence and the mean-field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jesús García-de-Madariaga
2011-10-01
Full Text Available There has been a lot of discussion about corporate social responsibility (CSR during these last decades. Neoclassical authors support the idea that CSR is not compatible with the objective of profit maximization, and defenders of CSR argue that, in these times of globalization and network economies, the idea of a company managed just to meet shareholders’ interests does not support itself. However, beyond this discussion, how can CSR affect firms’ market value? If we found a positive relationship between these variables, we could conclude that the two theories are reconcilable and the objective of profit maximization, perhaps, should satisfy not only shareholders’ interests, but also stakeholders’. We review previous literature and propose a model to analyze how CSR affects firms’ market value.
Critical Theory-Based Approaches in Geography Teaching Departments in Turkey
Bilgili, Münür
2018-01-01
The aim of this study is to understand the relationships between critical theory-based approaches and its implementations in geography teaching departments in Turkey. Critical theory dates back to 1930s and has developed over time aiming to deal with institutions, culture and society through critical lens. Currently, critical theory-based research…
A Critical Comparison of Transformation and Deep Approach Theories of Learning
Howie, Peter; Bagnall, Richard
2015-01-01
This paper reports a critical comparative analysis of two popular and significant theories of adult learning: the transformation and the deep approach theories of learning. These theories are operative in different educational sectors, are significant, respectively, in each, and they may be seen as both touching on similar concerns with learning…
Experiential learning theory (ELT-based classical guidance model to improve responsible character
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juster Donal Sinaga
2017-04-01
Full Text Available This research aims to: (1 determine the improvement of responsible character of students before and after experiencing character education based on classical guidance service using Experiential Learning Theory (ELT approach; (2 determine the effectiveness of character education based on classical guidance service ELT approach. This is a quantitative study using pre-experimental One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design. The data collection used Responsible Character Questionnaire with reliability 0.788 in Alpha Cronbach. Subjects in this study were 30 students of class VII A batch 2014-2015 in Kanisius Junior High Schools, Yogyakarta. The results of the study show that: (1 there is an improvement in responsible character of students before and after experiencing seen from the score distribution in each category and from the average score; (2 based on the t-test, there is a significant improvement in the students' responsible character in the Sig. value of (2-tailed (0.001<(0.05. Therefore, the implementation of classical guidance service using ELT approach is effective in improving the students' responsible character.
Wang, Yan Mei; Li, Ting; Li, Lin
2017-07-19
The valence-arousal conflict theory assumes that both valence and arousal will trigger approaching or withdrawing tendencies. It also predicts that the speed of processing emotional stimuli will depend on whether valence and arousal trigger conflicting or congruent motivational tendencies. However, most previous studies have provided evidence of the interaction between valence and arousal only, and have not provided direct proof of the interactive links between valence, arousal and motivational tendencies. The present study provides direct evidence for the relationship between approach-withdrawal tendencies and the valence-arousal conflict. In an empirical test, participants were instructed to judge the valence of emotional words after visual-spatial cues that appeared to be either approaching or withdrawing from participants. A three-way interaction (valence, arousal, and approach-withdrawal tendency) was observed such that the response time was shorter if participants responded to a negative high-arousal stimulus after a withdrawing cue, or to a positive low-arousal stimulus after an approaching cue. These findings suggest that the approach-withdrawal tendency indeed plays a crucial role in valence-arousal conflict, and that the effect depends on the congruency of valence, arousal and tendency at an early stage of processing.
An investigation of emotional intelligence measures using item response theory.
Cho, Seonghee; Drasgow, Fritz; Cao, Mengyang
2015-12-01
This study investigated the psychometric properties of 3 frequently administered emotional intelligence (EI) scales (Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale [WLEIS], Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test [SEIT], and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire [TEIQue]), which were developed on the basis of different theoretical frameworks (i.e., ability EI and mixed EI). By conducting item response theory (IRT) analyses, the authors examined the item parameters and compared the fits of 2 response process models (i.e., dominance model and ideal point model) for these scales with data from 355 undergraduate sample recruited from the subject pool. Several important findings were obtained. First, the EI scales seem better able to differentiate individuals at low trait levels than high trait levels. Second, a dominance model showed better model fit to the self-report ability EI scale (WLEIS) and also fit better with most subfactors of the SEIT, except for the mood regulation/optimism factor. Both dominance and ideal point models fit a self-report mixed EI scale (TEIQue). Our findings suggest (a) the EI scales should be revised to include more items at moderate and higher trait levels; and (b) the nature of the EI construct should be considered during the process of scale development. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Stimulus-responsive hydrogels: Theory, modern advances, and applications
Koetting, Michael C.; Peters, Jonathan T.; Steichen, Stephanie D.; Peppas, Nicholas A.
2016-01-01
Over the past century, hydrogels have emerged as effective materials for an immense variety of applications. The unique network structure of hydrogels enables very high levels of hydrophilicity and biocompatibility, while at the same time exhibiting the soft physical properties associated with living tissue, making them ideal biomaterials. Stimulus-responsive hydrogels have been especially impactful, allowing for unprecedented levels of control over material properties in response to external cues. This enhanced control has enabled groundbreaking advances in healthcare, allowing for more effective treatment of a vast array of diseases and improved approaches for tissue engineering and wound healing. In this extensive review, we identify and discuss the multitude of response modalities that have been developed, including temperature, pH, chemical, light, electro, and shear-sensitive hydrogels. We discuss the theoretical analysis of hydrogel properties and the mechanisms used to create these responses, highlighting both the pioneering and most recent work in all of these fields. Finally, we review the many current and proposed applications of these hydrogels in medicine and industry. PMID:27134415
Stimulus-responsive hydrogels: Theory, modern advances, and applications.
Koetting, Michael C; Peters, Jonathan T; Steichen, Stephanie D; Peppas, Nicholas A
2015-07-01
Over the past century, hydrogels have emerged as effective materials for an immense variety of applications. The unique network structure of hydrogels enables very high levels of hydrophilicity and biocompatibility, while at the same time exhibiting the soft physical properties associated with living tissue, making them ideal biomaterials. Stimulus-responsive hydrogels have been especially impactful, allowing for unprecedented levels of control over material properties in response to external cues. This enhanced control has enabled groundbreaking advances in healthcare, allowing for more effective treatment of a vast array of diseases and improved approaches for tissue engineering and wound healing. In this extensive review, we identify and discuss the multitude of response modalities that have been developed, including temperature, pH, chemical, light, electro, and shear-sensitive hydrogels. We discuss the theoretical analysis of hydrogel properties and the mechanisms used to create these responses, highlighting both the pioneering and most recent work in all of these fields. Finally, we review the many current and proposed applications of these hydrogels in medicine and industry.
Modeling Routinization in Games: An Information Theory Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wallner, Simon; Pichlmair, Martin; Hecher, Michael
2015-01-01
-time, discrete-space Markov chains and information theory to measure the actual error between the dynamically trained models and the player interaction. Preliminary research supports the hypothesis that Markov chains can be effectively used to model routinization in games. A full study design is presented......Routinization is the result of practicing until an action stops being a goal-directed process. This paper formulates a definition of routinization in games based on prior research in the fields of activity theory and practice theory. Routinization is analyzed using the formal model of discrete...
Kingston, Neal; And Others
A necessary prerequisite to the operational use of item response theory (IRT) in any testing program is the investigation of the feasibility of such an approach. This report presents the results of such research for the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT). Despite the fact that GMAT data appear to violate a basic assumption of the…
Statistical approach to quantum field theory an introduction
Wipf, Andreas
2013-01-01
Over the past few decades the powerful methods of statistical physics and Euclidean quantum field theory have moved closer together, with common tools based on the use of path integrals. The interpretation of Euclidean field theories as particular systems of statistical physics has opened up new avenues for understanding strongly coupled quantum systems or quantum field theories at zero or finite temperatures. Accordingly, the first chapters of this book contain a self-contained introduction to path integrals in Euclidean quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. The resulting high-dimensional integrals can be estimated with the help of Monte Carlo simulations based on Markov processes. The most commonly used algorithms are presented in detail so as to prepare the reader for the use of high-performance computers as an “experimental” tool for this burgeoning field of theoretical physics. Several chapters are then devoted to an introduction to simple lattice field theories and a variety of spin systems w...
Approaches to a constitutional function on theory of crime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yvan Montoya Vivanco
2013-12-01
Full Text Available After presenting assumptions of neo constitutionalism impact incriminal law, this article raises the possibilities of rebuild contents of categories on crime’s theory towards fundamental principles and rights recognized (explicitly or implicitly in the Constitution.
Theory and Measurement of Producer Response under Quotas, The
Lilyan E. Fulginiti; Richard K. Perrin
1992-01-01
Tobin and Houthakker's (1950-51) work on consumer behavior under quantity rationing has been extended by many authors, especially through the use of duality theory. This paper uses duality theory to extend the work on demand theory under rationing to the case of producer behavior under quotas. These results permit estimation of otherwise unobservable market supply and demand structures. The structure of the farm economy operating under a tobacco quota system is estimated, and the theory is ut...
Toward a Theory of Strategic Communication: A Relationship Management Approach
2012-03-22
Recent Challenges and New Research,” in Public Relations Research: An International Perspective, ed. Danny Moss , Toby MacManus, and Dejan Vercic...London: International Thomson Business Press, 1997), 9. 49 Ibid. 50 Chun-Ju Flora Hung, “Toward the Theory of Relationship Management in Public...Relationship Management in Public Relations: Dimensions of an Organization-Public Relationship,” 55-65. 70 Chun-Ju Flora Hung, “Toward the Theory of
The study of the nonprofit enterprise : theories and approaches
Anheier, Helmut K.; BenNer, Anver
2014-01-01
This volume addresses the need to revisit the economic theories from the last two decades that have contributed to the development of a concentrated research agenda on nonprofit organizations. Long neglected as a topic of theorizing and empirical investigation by mainstream economics in particular, these initial theories of nonprofit organizations from the late 1970s and early 1980s continue to shape theoretical and conceptual efforts. Importantly, their influence extends beyond economics and...
A Meme-Based Approach to Oral Traditional Theory
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Michael D. C. Drout
2006-10-01
Full Text Available A meme is the simplest unit of cultural replication. This paper adapts meme theory to explain the workings of several aspects of oral traditions––traditional referentiality, anaphora, and the use of repeated metrical patterns. All three of these phenomena can be explained by operations of repetition and pattern-recognition. This paper ultimately illustrates that the development of meme theory is an important first step towards a wholly materialist cultural poetics.
Versatility of field theory motivated nuclear effective Lagrangian approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arumugam, P. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India); Sharma, B.K. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India)]. E-mail: bharat@iopb.res.in; Sahu, P.K. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India); Patra, S.K. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India); Sil, Tapas [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centelles, M. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Vinas, X. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2004-11-04
We analyze the results for infinite nuclear and neutron matter using the standard relativistic mean field model and its recent effective field theory motivated generalization. For the first time, we show quantitatively that the inclusion in the effective theory of vector meson self-interactions and scalar-vector cross-interactions explains naturally the recent experimental observations of the softness of the nuclear equation of state, without losing the advantages of the standard relativistic model for finite nuclei.
Making Sense of Grounded Theory Approach: Implications for Medial Education Research
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Mohsen Tavokol
2009-02-01
Full Text Available This article first gives a definition of grounded theory and its development and use in medicine and medical education. The fundamental differences of grounded theory with quantitative methods are discussed along a full discussion of the steps required to use a grounded theory approach. At the end the questions in the area of medical education which can best addressed with this approach are provided.
The stability concept of evolutionary game theory a dynamic approach
1992-01-01
These Notes grew from my research in evolutionary biology, specifically on the theory of evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS theory), over the past ten years. Personally, evolutionary game theory has given me the opportunity to transfer my enthusiasm for abstract mathematics to more practical pursuits. I was fortunate to have entered this field in its infancy when many biologists recognized its potential but were not prepared to grant it general acceptance. This is no longer the case. ESS theory is now a rapidly expanding (in both applied and theoretical directions) force that no evolutionary biologist can afford to ignore. Perhaps, to continue the life-cycle metaphor, ESS theory is now in its late adolescence and displays much of the optimism and exuberance of this exciting age. There are dangers in writing a text about a theory at this stage of development. A comprehensive treatment would involve too many loose ends for the reader to appreciate the central message. On the other hand, the current central m...
Tax Reform in Brazil: a Public Choice Theory approach
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Allan Silveira dos Santos
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze tax reform necessity and the barriers to the implementation of tax reform at the light of public choice theory. The research identifies the arguments that provides the explanation for the tax reform does not occur in Brazil. The question that the article searches to answer is: what are the justifications for the Brazil not have done tax reform? The literature review addresses the failures of government, public choice theory and the theory of optimal taxation. The evidence and studies show that there are reasons to think about a tax system more consistent with the Brazilian reality, indicating the existence of "government failures" that may be the probable cause of impairment of the tax reform.
An approach to children's smoking behavior using social cognitive learning theory.
Bektas, Murat; Ozturk, Candan; Armstrong, Merry
2010-01-01
This review article discusses the theoretical principles of social cognitive learning theory and children's risk-taking behavior of cigarette smoking, along with preventive initiatives. Social cognitive learning theorists examine the behavior of initiating and sustained smoking using a social systems approach. The authors discuss the reciprocal determinism aspect of the theory as applied to the importance of individual factors, and environment and behavioral interactions that influence smoking behavior. Included is the concept of vicarious capability that suggests that smoking behavior is determined in response to and interaction with feedback provided by the environment. The principle of self-regulatory capability asserts that people have control over their own behavior and thus that behavior change is possible. The principle of self-efficacy proposes that high level of self-efficacy of an individual may decrease the behavior of attempting to or continuing to smoke. Examples of initiatives to be undertaken in order to prevent smoking in accordance with social cognitive learning theory are presented at the end of each principle.
Statistical approach to quantum field theory. An introduction
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Wipf, Andreas [Jena Univ. (Germany). Theoretisch-Physikalisches Inst.
2013-02-01
Based on course-tested notes and pedagogical in style. Authored by a leading researcher in the field. Contains end-of-chapter problems and listings of short, useful computer programs. Authored by a leading researcher in the field. Contains end-of-chapter problems and listings of short, useful computer programs. Contains end-of-chapter problems and listings of short, useful computer programs. Over the past few decades the powerful methods of statistical physics and Euclidean quantum field theory have moved closer together, with common tools based on the use of path integrals. The interpretation of Euclidean field theories as particular systems of statistical physics has opened up new avenues for understanding strongly coupled quantum systems or quantum field theories at zero or finite temperatures. Accordingly, the first chapters of this book contain a self-contained introduction to path integrals in Euclidean quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. The resulting high-dimensional integrals can be estimated with the help of Monte Carlo simulations based on Markov processes. The most commonly used algorithms are presented in detail so as to prepare the reader for the use of high-performance computers as an ''experimental'' tool for this burgeoning field of theoretical physics. Several chapters are then devoted to an introduction to simple lattice field theories and a variety of spin systems with discrete and continuous spins, where the ubiquitous Ising model serves as an ideal guide for introducing the fascinating area of phase transitions. As an alternative to the lattice formulation of quantum field theories, variants of the flexible renormalization group methods are discussed in detail. Since, according to our present-day knowledge, all fundamental interactions in nature are described by gauge theories, the remaining chapters of the book deal with gauge theories without and with matter. This text is based on course-tested notes for graduate
A Game Theory Approach for Product Specialization in International Trade
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Ioana-Veronica ALEXA
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Game theory, in its most basic form, considers two players and analyses the different strategies that they can use and the effect that these strategies will have on each player. International trade allows countries to use better their resources (labor, technology or capital. Since countries have different capital or natural resources, some of them will produce a good more efficiently than others and therefore could sell it cheaper than other countries. By using game theory in international trade we could determine if the H-O-S model is correct and what would be the best specialization for each country.
Network analysis and synthesis a modern systems theory approach
Anderson, Brian D O
2006-01-01
Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this book offers a comprehensive look at linear network analysis and synthesis. It explores state-space synthesis as well as analysis, employing modern systems theory to unite the classical concepts of network theory. The authors stress passive networks but include material on active networks. They avoid topology in dealing with analysis problems and discuss computational techniques. The concepts of controllability, observability, and degree are emphasized in reviewing the state-variable description of linear systems. Explorations
Majorization theory approach to the Gaussian channel minimum entropy conjecture.
García-Patrón, Raúl; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Cerf, Nicolas J
2012-03-16
A long-standing open problem in quantum information theory is to find the classical capacity of an optical communication link, modeled as a Gaussian bosonic channel. It has been conjectured that this capacity is achieved by a random coding of coherent states using an isotropic Gaussian distribution in phase space. We show that proving a Gaussian minimum entropy conjecture for a quantum-limited amplifier is actually sufficient to confirm this capacity conjecture, and we provide a strong argument towards this proof by exploiting a connection between quantum entanglement and majorization theory.
Santos, Sérgio Ribeiro dos; Nóbrega, Maria Miriam Lima da
2004-01-01
This qualitative study aimed to understand, through nursing discourse, the relation between theory and practice in nursing and its implications for the development of information systems. Grounded theory was used as a methodological reference framework. The study population consisted of nurses who work at the clinic of a school hospital. Data analysis resulted in the main category: The search for theory-practice interaction in the nursing information system. This process was formed by the integration among categories, based on Strauss and Corbin's paradigm as a model with two phenomena: the attempt to apply the formal models in nursing practice and the perspective of the theory-practice gap in the nursing information system.
Learning in public sector organizations: A theory of action approach
Visser, M.; Togt, K. van der
2016-01-01
The importance of learning has since long been acknowledged for both business and public sector organizations. However, learning theory and research have tended to neglect the differences between these organizations, and to develop in separate and unrelated directions. To address these developments,
The Embedded Self: A Social Networks Approach to Identity Theory
Walker, Mark H.; Lynn, Freda B.
2013-01-01
Despite the fact that key sociological theories of self and identity view the self as fundamentally rooted in networks of interpersonal relationships, empirical research investigating how personal network structure influences the self is conspicuously lacking. To address this gap, we examine links between network structure and role identity…
INTEGRATIVE APPROACH ON FRAMING THEORY FROM ITS MULTIPARADIGMATIC CONDITION
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Juan Antonio Marín Albaladejo
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Framing theory has reached an increasing role in media communication research, including common principles between different research perspectives. Besides the multiple ways of understanding the concept of frame, a controversy about the types of frames exists. Despite considerable integrating research efforts (D’Angelo, 2002; De Vreese, 2005; Entman, 1993, 2004; López-Rabadán, 2010; Matthes, 2012; Reese, 2007; Scheufele, 1999, scholars have not reached yet full conceptual and methodological convergence, so that definitions, theoretical models, frames measuring mode, types of frames, processes or effects differ in each study (Scheufele, 1999. This article provides an updated review of the different paradigms that define research efforts on this theory, and mentions the advantages to invest in an integrative model or paradigmatic synthesis for future studies. Through a comprehensive review of the published literature, we propose two objectives. On the one hand, to provide a taxonomy of the types of frame to clarify differences detected among studies labeled under this theory. It also seeks to justify the need to consider Framing theory as a multiparadigmatic research program (D'Angelo, 2002 that could include all perspectives established so far.
Institutional economics and economic organisation theory: An integrated approach
Slangen, L.H.G.; Loucks, L.A.; Slangen, A.H.L.
2008-01-01
This publication presents one of the first attempts to integrate two emerging bodies of economic research: institutional economics and organizational theory. It begins within the framework of neoclassical economics, and then extends the boundaries of this framework to offer answers to questions that
Institutional economics and economic organisation theory : an integrated approach
Slangen, L.H.G.; Loucks, L.; Slangen, A.H.L.
2008-01-01
This publication presents one of the first attempts to integrate two emerging bodies of economic research: institutional economics and organizational theory. It begins within the framework of neoclassical economics, and then extends the boundaries of this framework to offer answers to questions that
Teachers' Implicit Personality Theories about the Gifted: An Experimental Approach
Baudson, Tanja Gabriele; Preckel, Franzis
2013-01-01
The implicit theories teachers hold about the gifted influence their perception of and behavior toward highly able students, thus impacting the latter's educational opportunities. Two persistent stereotypes about the gifted can be distinguished: the harmony hypothesis (gifted students are superior in almost all domains) and the disharmony…
Purchasing alignment under multiple contingencies: a configuration theory approach.
Mikalef, P.; Pateli, A.; Batenburg, R.S.; Wetering, R. van de
2015-01-01
Purpose: Strategic alignment is a theory-based state that is considered as crucial for organizations in order to realize performance gains from information technology (IT) investments and deployments. Within the domain of purchasing and supply chain management there has been a growing interest on
Fahim, Christine; O'Sullivan, Tracey L; Lane, Dan
2015-07-01
An earlier descriptive study exploring the various supports available to Canadian health and social service providers who deployed to the 2010 earthquake disaster in Haiti, indicated that when systems are compromised, professionals are at physical, emotional and mental risk during overseas deployment. While these risks are generally well-identified, there is little literature that explores the effectiveness of the supports in place to mitigate this risk. This study provides evidence to inform policy development regarding future disaster relief, and the effectiveness of supports available to responders assisting with international disaster response. This study follows Strauss and Corbin's 1990 structured approach to grounded theory to develop a framework for effective disaster support systems. N=21 interviews with Canadian health and social service providers, who deployed to Haiti in response to the 2010 earthquake, were conducted and analyzed. Resulting data were transcribed, coded and analysed for emergent themes. Three themes were identified in the data and were used to develop the evolving theory. The interview data indicate that the experiences of responders are determined based on an interaction between the individual's 'lens' or personal expectations, as well as the supports that an organization is able to provide. Therefore, organizations should consider the following factors: experience, expectations, and supports, to tailor a successful support initiative that caters to the needs of the volunteer workforce.
Schindler, Michael
2017-08-02
The classification of effects caused by mixtures of agents as synergistic, antagonistic or additive depends critically on the reference model of 'null interaction'. Two main approaches are currently in use, the Additive Dose (ADM) or concentration addition (CA) and the Multiplicative Survival (MSM) or independent action (IA) models. We compare several response surface models to a newly developed Hill response surface, obtained by solving a logistic partial differential equation (PDE). Assuming that a mixture of chemicals with individual Hill-type dose-response curves can be described by an n-dimensional logistic function, Hill's differential equation for pure agents is replaced by a PDE for mixtures whose solution provides Hill surfaces as 'null-interaction' models and relies neither on Bliss independence or Loewe additivity nor uses Chou's unified general theory. An n-dimensional logistic PDE decribing the Hill-type response of n-component mixtures is solved. Appropriate boundary conditions ensure the correct asymptotic behaviour. Mathematica 11 (Wolfram, Mathematica Version 11.0, 2016) is used for the mathematics and graphics presented in this article. The Hill response surface ansatz can be applied to mixtures of compounds with arbitrary Hill parameters. Restrictions which are required when deriving analytical expressions for response surfaces from other principles, are unnecessary. Many approaches based on Loewe additivity turn out be special cases of the Hill approach whose increased flexibility permits a better description of 'null-effect' responses. Missing sham-compliance of Bliss IA, known as Colby's model in agrochemistry, leads to incompatibility with the Hill surface ansatz. Examples of binary and ternary mixtures illustrate the differences between the approaches. For Hill-slopes close to one and doses below the half-maximum effect doses MSM (Colby, Bliss, Finney, Abbott) predicts synergistic effects where the Hill model indicates 'null
Renormalization of gauge theories in the background-field approach arXiv
Barvinsky, Andrei O.; Herrero-Valea, Mario; Sibiryakov, Sergey M.; Steinwachs, Christian F.
Using the background-field method we demonstrate the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) structure of counterterms in a broad class of gauge theories. In other words, the renormalization procedure for these gauge theories is compatible with their gauge invariance. This class encompasses Yang-Mills theories (with possibly Abelian subgroups) and relativistic gravity, including both renormalizable and non-renormalizable (effective) theories. Our results also hold for non-relativistic models such as Yang-Mills theories with anisotropic scaling or Horava gravity. They strengthen and generalize the existing results in the literature concerning the renormalization of gauge systems. We illustrate our general approach with several explicit examples.
Pivotal Response Intervention I: Overview of Approach.
Koegel, Lynn Kern; Koegel, Robert L.; Harrower, Joshua K.; Carter, Cynthia Marie
1999-01-01
This article presents an overview of several pivotal response interventions. Areas discussed include responsivity to multiple cues, motivation to initiate and respond appropriately to social and environmental stimuli, and self-regulation of behaviors. The trend to streamline intervention by targeting behaviors that have a widespread effect on…
Slob, Wout
2017-04-01
A general theory on effect size for continuous data predicts a relationship between maximum response and within-group variation of biological parameters, which is empirically confirmed by results from dose-response analyses of 27 different biological parameters. The theory shows how effect sizes observed in distinct biological parameters can be compared and provides a basis for a generic definition of small, intermediate and large effects. While the theory is useful for experimental science in general, it has specific consequences for risk assessment: it solves the current debate on the appropriate metric for the Benchmark response in continuous data. The theory shows that scaling the BMR expressed as a percent change in means to the maximum response (in the way specified) automatically takes "natural variability" into account. Thus, the theory supports the underlying rationale of the BMR 1 SD. For various reasons, it is, however, recommended to use a BMR in terms of a percent change that is scaled to maximum response and/or within group variation (averaged over studies), as a single harmonized approach.
Advances in item response theory and applications: an introduction
Hambleton, Ronald K.; van der Linden, Willem J.
1982-01-01
Test theories can be divided roughly into two categories. The first is classical test theory, which dates back to Spearman’s conception of the observed test score as a composite of true and error components, and which was introduced to psychologists at the beginning of this century. Important
Inquiring Minds, Meaningful Responses: Children's Interests, Inquiries, and Working Theories
Hedges, Helen; Cooper, Maria
2014-01-01
This project/report partnered researchers with teachers from two centres to explore and theorise understandings of children's inquiries and working theories. This project investigated the following questions: (1) What is the nature and content of infants', toddlers' and young children's inquiries and working theories in relation to their everyday…
Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): an item response theory analysis.
Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q
2014-01-01
The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores.
Nano Approaches to Modulate Host Cell Response
The Carolina Center of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence (CCNE) is an NCI-funded multidisciplinary collaboration among a range of disciplines using nano approaches for cancer disease management and treatment.
Coulomb-gas approach for boundary conformal field theory
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Kawai, Shinsuke E-mail: kawai@thphys.ox.ac.uk
2002-05-20
We present a construction of boundary states based on the Coulomb-gas formalism of Dotsenko and Fateev. It is shown that Neumann-like coherent states on the charged bosonic Fock space provide a set of boundary states with consistent modular properties. Such coherent states are characterised by the boundary charges, which are related to the number of bulk screening operators through the charge neutrality condition. We illustrate this using the Ising model as an example, and show that all of its known consistent boundary states are reproduced in our formalism. This method applies to c<1 minimal conformal theories and provides an unified computational tool for studying boundary states of such theories.
Understanding visualization: a formal approach using category theory and semiotics.
Vickers, Paul; Faith, Joe; Rossiter, Nick
2013-06-01
This paper combines the vocabulary of semiotics and category theory to provide a formal analysis of visualization. It shows how familiar processes of visualization fit the semiotic frameworks of both Saussure and Peirce, and extends these structures using the tools of category theory to provide a general framework for understanding visualization in practice, including: Relationships between systems, data collected from those systems, renderings of those data in the form of representations, the reading of those representations to create visualizations, and the use of those visualizations to create knowledge and understanding of the system under inspection. The resulting framework is validated by demonstrating how familiar information visualization concepts (such as literalness, sensitivity, redundancy, ambiguity, generalizability, and chart junk) arise naturally from it and can be defined formally and precisely. This paper generalizes previous work on the formal characterization of visualization by, inter alia, Ziemkiewicz and Kosara and allows us to formally distinguish properties of the visualization process that previous work does not.
Modeling in applied sciences a kinetic theory approach
Pulvirenti, Mario
2000-01-01
Modeling complex biological, chemical, and physical systems, in the context of spatially heterogeneous mediums, is a challenging task for scientists and engineers using traditional methods of analysis Modeling in Applied Sciences is a comprehensive survey of modeling large systems using kinetic equations, and in particular the Boltzmann equation and its generalizations An interdisciplinary group of leading authorities carefully develop the foundations of kinetic models and discuss the connections and interactions between model theories, qualitative and computational analysis and real-world applications This book provides a thoroughly accessible and lucid overview of the different aspects, models, computations, and methodology for the kinetic-theory modeling process Topics and Features * Integrated modeling perspective utilized in all chapters * Fluid dynamics of reacting gases * Self-contained introduction to kinetic models * Becker–Doring equations * Nonlinear kinetic models with chemical reactions * Kinet...
The Dalcroze Approach to Music Education: Theory and Applications
Anderson, William Todd
2012-01-01
The methods of the Dalcroze approach to music education--eurhythmics, solfege, and improvisation--have had a profound influence on modern music education. In particular, the overt training in kinesthetic abilities, and the assertion that the relationship between music and movement is an intimate one, is at the heart of Dalcroze's approach to…
Mean distribution approach to spin and gauge theories
Akerlund, Oscar
2016-01-01
We formulate self-consistency equations for the distribution of links in spin models and of plaquettes in gauge theories. This improves upon known mean-field, mean-link, and mean-plaquette approximations in such that we self-consistently determine all moments of the considered variable instead of just the first. We give examples in both Abelian and non-Abelian cases.
Investigation of Employee Security Behaviour: A Grounded Theory Approach
Connolly, Lena; Lang, Michael; Tygar, J.,
2015-01-01
Part 5: Security Management and Human Aspects of Security; International audience; At a time of rapid business globalisation, it is necessary to understand employee security behaviour within diverse cultural settings. While general deterrence theory has been extensively used in Behavioural Information Security research with the aim to explain the effect of deterrent factors on employees’ security actions, these studies provide inconsistent and even contradictory findings. Therefore, a further...
Generalised squeezing and information theory approach to quantum entanglement
Vourdas, A.
1993-01-01
It is shown that the usual one- and two-mode squeezing are based on reducible representations of the SU(1,1) group. Generalized squeezing is introduced with the use of different SU(1,1) rotations on each irreducible sector. Two-mode squeezing entangles the modes and information theory methods are used to study this entanglement. The entanglement of three modes is also studied with the use of the strong subadditivity property of the entropy.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hedegård, Erik D.; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Knecht, Stefan
2015-01-01
-MC-srDFT is designed to combine efficient treatment of complicated electronic structures with inclusion of effects from the surrounding environment. The environmental effects encompass classical electrostatic interactions as well as polarization of both the quantum region and the environment. Using response theory......, molecular properties such as excitation energies and oscillator strengths can be obtained. The PE-MC-srDFT method and the additional terms required for linear response have been implemented in a development version of Dalton. To benchmark the PE-MC-srDFT approach against the literature data, we have...... investigated the low-lying electronic excitations of acetone and uracil, both immersed in water solution. The PE-MC-srDFT results are consistent and accurate, both in terms of the calculated solvent shift and, unlike regular PE-MCSCF, also with respect to the individual absolute excitation energies...
Non-Linear Wave Loads and Ship responses by a time-domain Strip Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
1998-01-01
A non-linear time-domain strip theory for vertical wave loads and ship responses is presented. The theory is generalized from a rigorous linear time-domain strip theory representaton. The hydrodynamic memory effect due to the free surface is approximated by a higher order differential equation....... Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hyroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented by the Timoshenko beam theory. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175...
The Predicate and Theories of Linguistic Communication. A Diachronic Approach
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Lizica Mihuţ
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Theories regarding the predicate and predication are of interest not only as object of research, but also by their history. The present paper targets the latter aspect. The authors investigate the doctrines and schools that focused on the relationship between the predicate, as a grammatical category, and the notion of predication. A first significant survey of the issue appears in the Port-Royal Grammar (1600 where, among the linguistic universals postulated, the category of predicate also appears. John Locke is mentioned as opponent of the theory of linguistic universals and rationalist trends. Worth mentioning is also the work of the founders of linguistics as a science – Fr. Bopp, Rasmus Rask and Jakob Grimm –, as well as that of the so-called neogrammarians, with their immutable phonetic laws. An important section in the economy of the paper is dedicated to Ferdinand de Saussure and his Geneva school. A runner in the footsteps of de Saussure, Eugen Coşeriu’s view regarding language, norm and linguistic communication is then surveyed. The contributions of the Prague linguistic circle, of the Copenhagen school and of the French sociological school (with Antoine Meillet as main representative are also discussed. The paper concludes with the main trends in American linguistics, with emphasis on Noam Chomsky’s generative-transformational grammar and on Ch. Fillmore’s case theory.
Vogel, Severine P.; Engelhard, George, Jr.
2011-01-01
The authors describe a quantitative approach based on Rasch measurement theory for evaluating classroom assessments within the context of foreign language classes. A secondary purpose was to examine the effects of two instructional approaches to teach grammar, a guided inductive and a deductive approach, through the lens of Rasch measurement…
The Temporal Sensitivity of Enforced Accelerated Work Pace: A grounded theory building approach
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Graham John James Kenealy, BA (Hons, Ph.D. Candidate
Full Text Available This research explores how a large national UK government organisation copes with radical structural change over time and provides an insight into the temporal effects of ‘Enforced Accelerated Work Pace’ on behaviour and receptivity within an organisational context. The stages of ‘Acceptance’, ‘Reaction’ and‘Withdrawal’ capture the essence of the ‘Coping Reflex Actions relating to Enforced Accelerated Work Pace’, all sensitive to the effects of time. ‘Temporal Sensitivity’; the duration of the changes to work patterns played a large part in the behavioural responses. The underlying logic of this research is grounded theory building, a general method that works well with qualitative data collection approaches and involves inducting insights from field based, case data (Glaser, 1998. A methodology discovered and developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967, negating all others.
Application of multilevel analysis approach in management theory
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S. Morteza Ghayour
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Any phenomenon can be considered and analyzed in terms of different perspectives. In multilevel theorists view, structure or structures of the studied phenomenon are used to consider or to analyze it, completely. Level of analysis indicates the purpose of a researcher or theorist that is intended to be explained or justified, like individual, group or organizational levels and then they are generalized. Contrary to multilevel approach, the conventional approach of theorizing considers micro level or macro level. It cannot perform a simultaneous micro–macro level analysis. A multilevel approach characterized by inter-level and multilevel organizational view to organizational phenomena is an attempt to expand the boundaries of knowledge and provide a new plan. This study uses documentary studies to analyze the multi-level approach of theorizing, multilevel models and multilevel analysis.
Reading Logs: An Application of Reader-Response Theory in ELT.
Carlisle, Anthony
2000-01-01
Introduces the activity of student-written reading logs as a practical application of reader-response theory in English-as-Foreign-Language literature teaching. Because reader-response theory stresses the synthesis between reader and text, it is proposed that practical applications should be based on the interaction. (Author/VWL)
Hospers, J. Mirjam Boeschen; Smits, Niels; Smits, Cas; Stam, Mariska; Terwee, Caroline B.; Kramer, Sophia E.
2016-01-01
Purpose: We reevaluated the psychometric properties of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1995) using item response theory. Item response theory describes item functioning along an ability continuum. Method: Cross-sectional data from 2,352 adults with and without hearing…
Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT) Applications and Item Response Theory Models for Polytomous Items
Aybek, Eren Can; Demirtasli, R. Nukhet
2017-01-01
This article aims to provide a theoretical framework for computerized adaptive tests (CAT) and item response theory models for polytomous items. Besides that, it aims to introduce the simulation and live CAT software to the related researchers. Computerized adaptive test algorithm, assumptions of item response theory models, nominal response…
Training teachers to observation: an approach through multiple intelligences theory
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Nicolini, P.
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Observation is a daily practice in scholastic and educational contexts, but it needs to develop into a professional competence in order to be helpful. In fact, to design an educative and didactic plan and to provide useful tools, activities and tasks to their students, teachers and educators need to collect information about learners. For these reasons we’ll built a Web-Observation (Web-Ob application, a tool able to support good practices in observation. In particular, the Web-Ob can provide Multiple Intelligences Theory as a framework through which children’s behaviors and attitudes can be observed, assessed and evaluated.
Theory and observation of auroral substorms: A magnetohydrodynamic approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, W.W.; Xu, B.L.; Samson, J.C.; Rostoker, G. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)
1995-01-01
The authors present a theory to explain the dynamics of auroral substorms, considering the interaction of MHD waves with the coupled magnetosphere/ionosphere system. Their model considers the substorm to originate with the loss of stability of the nightside magnetosphere. This frees a large amount of energy, producing compressional waves. The propagation of these waves, and their interaction with the magnetospheric system then encompass the dynamic aspects of the substorm. They compare their model with information from a storm in Feb 1990 observed by the photometer array of CANOPUS. 39 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.
An effective field theory approach to two trapped particles
Stetcu, I.; Rotureau, J.; Barrett, B.R.; van Kolck, U.
2010-01-01
We discuss the problem of two particles interacting via short-range interactions within a harmonic-oscillator trap. The interactions are organized according to their number of derivatives and defined in truncated model spaces made from a bound-state basis. Leading-order (LO) interactions are iterated to all orders, while corrections are treated in perturbation theory. We show explicitly that next-to-LO and next-to-next-to-LO interactions improve convergence as the model space increases. In th...
Random Matrix Theory Approach to Chaotic Coherent Perfect Absorbers
Li, Huanan; Suwunnarat, Suwun; Fleischmann, Ragnar; Schanz, Holger; Kottos, Tsampikos
2017-01-01
We employ random matrix theory in order to investigate coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in lossy systems with complex internal dynamics. The loss strength γCPA and energy ECPA, for which a CPA occurs, are expressed in terms of the eigenmodes of the isolated cavity—thus carrying over the information about the chaotic nature of the target—and their coupling to a finite number of scattering channels. Our results are tested against numerical calculations using complex networks of resonators and chaotic graphs as CPA cavities.
Spectral rigidity of vehicular streams (random matrix theory approach)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krbalek, Milan [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Seba, Petr [Doppler Institute for Mathematical Physics and Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic)
2009-08-28
Using a method originally developed for the random matrix theory, we derive an approximate mathematical formula for the number variance {delta}{sub N}(L) describing the rigidity of particle ensembles with a power-law repulsion. The resulting relation is compared with the relevant statistics of the single-vehicle data measured on the Dutch freeway A9. The detected value of the inverse temperature {beta}, which can be identified as a coefficient of the mental strain of the car drivers, is then discussed in detail with the relation to the traffic density {rho} and flow J.
Incorporating Spatial Structures in Ecological Inference: An Information Theory Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosa Bernardini Papalia
2010-10-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces an Information Theory-based method for modeling economic aggregates and estimating their sub-group (sub-area decomposition when no individual or sub-group data are available. This method offers a flexible framework for modeling the underlying variation in sub-group indicators, by addressing the spatial dependency problem. A basic ecological inference problem, which allows for spatial heterogeneity and dependence, is presented with the aim of first estimating the model at the aggregate level, and then of employing the estimated coefficients to obtain the sub-group level indicators.
Applicability of cable theory to vascular conducted responses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hald, Bjørn Olav; Jensen, Lars Jørn; Sørensen, Preben Graae
2012-01-01
Conduction processes in the vasculature have traditionally been described using cable theory, i.e., locally induced signals decaying passively along the arteriolar wall. The decay is typically quantified using the steady-state length-constant, ¿, derived from cable theory. However......, the applicability of cable theory to blood vessels depends on assumptions that are not necessarily fulfilled in small arteries and arterioles. We have employed a morphologically and electrophysiologically detailed mathematical model of a rat mesenteric arteriole to investigate if the assumptions hold and whether...... ¿ adequately describes simulated conduction profiles. We find that several important cable theory assumptions are violated when applied to small blood vessels. However, the phenomenological use of a length-constant from a single exponential function is a good measure of conduction length. Hence, ¿ should...
Linear operators and linear systems an analytical approach to control theory
Partington, Jonathan R
2004-01-01
This book presents an introduction to the common ground between operator theory and linear systems theory. Suitable for students of functional analysis, this book also acts as an introduction to a mathematical approach to systems and control for graduate students in departments of applied mathematics or engineering.
Understanding Nature-Related Behaviors among Children through a Theory of Reasoned Action Approach
Gotch, Chad; Hall, Troy
2004-01-01
The Theory of Reasoned Action has proven to be a valuable tool for predicting and understanding behavior and, as such, provides a potentially important basis for environmental education program design. This study used a Theory of Reasoned Action approach to examine a unique type of behavior (nature-related activities) and a unique population…
Approaches of the percolation theory and the free energy of dislocation clusters
Ivanskoi, V. A.
2008-04-01
The feasibility of describing ordered dislocation networks in crystals in terms of approaches inherent in the percolation theory is investigated theoretically. The free energy of dislocation networks forming clusters is calculated by the methods of the percolation theory using the Ising and Potts models and the Onsager solution.
A practice-theory approach of homeowners’ energy retrofits in four European areas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bartiaux, Franise Bartiaux; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Fonseca, Paula
2014-01-01
This article examines whether and how energy retrofitting of owner-occupied dwellings can be understood within the framework of social practice theories. Practice theories help to shift the focus towards more collective approaches and practices, rather than towards individuals. In addressing this...
The TEACH Method: An Interactive Approach for Teaching the Needs-Based Theories Of Motivation
Moorer, Cleamon, Jr.
2014-01-01
This paper describes an interactive approach for explaining and teaching the Needs-Based Theories of Motivation. The acronym TEACH stands for Theory, Example, Application, Collaboration, and Having Discussion. This method can help business students to better understand and distinguish the implications of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs,…
Constrained Perturbation Regularization Approach for Signal Estimation Using Random Matrix Theory
Suliman, Mohamed; Ballal, Tarig; Kammoun, Abla; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.
2016-12-01
In this supplementary appendix we provide proofs and additional extensive simulations that complement the analysis of the main paper (constrained perturbation regularization approach for signal estimation using random matrix theory).
Minimal flavour violation an effective field theory approach
D'Ambrosio, G.; Isidori, G.; Strumia, A.
2002-01-01
We present a general analysis of extensions of the Standard Model which satisfy the criterion of Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV). We define this general framework by constructing a low-energy effective theory containing the Standard Model fields, with one or two Higgs doublets and, as the only source of SU(3)^5 flavour symmetry breaking, the background values of fields transforming under the flavour group as the ordinary Yukawa couplings. We analyse present bounds on the effective scale of dimension-six operators, which range between 1 and 10 TeV, with the most stringent constraints imposed by B -> X_s gamma. In this class of theories, it is possible to relate predictions for FCNC processes in B physics to those in K physics. We compare the sensitivity of various experimental searches in probing the hypothesis of MFV. Within the two-Higgs-doublet scenario, we develop a general procedure to obtain all tan(beta)-enhanced Higgs-mediated FCNC amplitudes, discussing in particular their impact in B -> l^+l^-, Delta...
Applications of response surface methodology approach to ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Jane
2011-08-22
Aug 22, 2011 ... Crown rust caused by Puccinia coronata f.sp. avenae is the most damaging disease on oat. This work analyzed the effects of temperature and illumination regime during different time of incubation on both spore germination and germ tube growth, using both analysis of variance (ANOVA) and response.
Li, Jingchao; Cao, Yunpeng; Ying, Yulong; Li, Shuying
2016-01-01
Bearing failure is one of the dominant causes of failure and breakdowns in rotating machinery, leading to huge economic loss. Aiming at the nonstationary and nonlinear characteristics of bearing vibration signals as well as the complexity of condition-indicating information distribution in the signals, a novel rolling element bearing fault diagnosis method based on multifractal theory and gray relation theory was proposed in the paper. Firstly, a generalized multifractal dimension algorithm was developed to extract the characteristic vectors of fault features from the bearing vibration signals, which can offer more meaningful and distinguishing information reflecting different bearing health status in comparison with conventional single fractal dimension. After feature extraction by multifractal dimensions, an adaptive gray relation algorithm was applied to implement an automated bearing fault pattern recognition. The experimental results show that the proposed method can identify various bearing fault types as well as severities effectively and accurately.
John Holland's Contributions: A Theory-Ridden Approach to Career Assistance
Gottfredson, Gary D.; Johnstun, Marissa L.
2009-01-01
Holland influenced practice and research in career development by contributing a clear theory useful in organizing information about individuals and career alternatives and for understanding individuals' entry and persistence in occupational and other environments. His theory was repeatedly revised in response to evidence. As Holland's own career…
Smith, Amanda R.
2017-01-01
In this article, the author argues that new theoretical approaches to literacy are necessary for making visible the affective, embodied, and noncognitive domains of textual meaning making that are often obscured in traditional approaches. To experiment with this argument, the author conducted two analyses on the same data set, using…
Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Meijer, R.R.
2008-01-01
The authors discuss a new method that combines the randomized response technique with item response theory. This method allows the researcher to obtain information at the individual person level without knowing the true responses. With this new method, it is possible to compare groups of individuals
New approach to microscopic theory of normal Fermi systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khodel, V.A. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii); Shaginyan, V.R. (Leningrad Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Gatchina (USSR))
1989-08-21
A new version of the normal Fermi system microscopic theory is suggested. A functional equation for the effective potential R of the quasiparticle interaction is obtained. Methods for the evaluation of R in terms of the particle interaction potential are discussed. It is shown that in the well-known local approximation, the functional equation for R is reduced to an integro-differential one. For a number of model examples for which the Monte Carlo equation of state is known, the local approximation proves to reproduce the Monte Carlo results to an accuracy of a few percent. The method developed is applied to superfluid Fermi systems. The equation for the evaluation of the gap in the single-particle excitation spectrum in terms of the interaction potential R is obtained. (orig.).
Density Functional Approach and Random Matrix Theory in Proteogenesis
Yamanaka, Masanori
2017-02-01
We study the energy-level statistics of amino acids by random matrix theory. The molecular orbital and the Kohn-Sham orbital energies are calculated using ab initio and density-functional formalisms for 20 different amino acids. To generate statistical data, we performed a multipoint calculation on 10000 molecular structures produced via a molecular dynamics simulation. For the valence orbitals, the energy-level statistics exhibit repulsion, but the universality in the random matrix cannot be determined. For the unoccupied orbitals, the energy-level statistics indicate an intermediate distribution between the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble and the semi-Poisson statistics for all 20 different amino acids. These amino acids are considered to be in a type of critical state.
Random matrix theory approach to vibrations near the jamming transition
Beltukov, Y. M.
2015-03-01
It has been shown that the dynamical matrix M describing harmonic oscillations in granular media can be represented in the form M = AA T, where the rows of the matrix A correspond to the degrees of freedom of individual granules and its columns correspond to elastic contacts between granules. Such a representation of the dynamical matrix makes it possible to estimate the density of vibrational states with the use of the random matrix theory. The found density of vibrational states is approximately constant in a wide frequency range ω- < ω < ω+, which is determined by the ratio of the number of degrees of freedom to the total number of contacts in the system, which is in good agreement with the results of the numerical experiments.
An information theory approach to the density of the earth
Graber, M. A.
1977-01-01
Information theory can develop a technique which takes experimentally determined numbers and produces a uniquely specified best density model satisfying those numbers. A model was generated using five numerical parameters: the mass of the earth, its moment of inertia, three zero-node torsional normal modes (L = 2, 8, 26). In order to determine the stability of the solution, six additional densities were generated, in each of which the period of one of the three normal modes was increased or decreased by one standard deviation. The superposition of the seven models is shown. It indicates that current knowledge of the torsional modes is sufficient to specify the density in the upper mantle but that the lower mantle and core will require smaller standard deviations before they can be accurately specified.
Instanton effects in ABJM theory from Fermi gas approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst.; Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2012-11-19
We study the instanton effects of the ABJM partition function using the Fermi gas formalism. We compute the exact values of the partition function at the Chern-Simons levels k=1, 2, 3, 4, 6 up to N=44, 20, 18, 16, 14 respectively, and extract non-perturbative corrections from these exact results. Fitting the resulting non-perturbative corrections by their expected forms from the Fermi gas, we determine unknown parameters in them. After separating the oscillating behavior of the grand potential, which originates in the periodicity of the grand partition function, and the worldsheet instanton contribution, which is computed from the topological string theory, we succeed in proposing an analytical expression for the leading D2-instanton correction. Just as the perturbative result, the instanton corrections to the partition function are expressed in terms of the Airy function.
Introduction to Mathematical Systems Theory: A Behavioral Approach
Polderman, Jan W.; Willems, J.C.
1998-01-01
This is a book about modelling, analysis, and control of linear time-invariant systems. The book uses what is called the behavioral approach towards mathematical modelling. Thus a system is viewed as a dynamical relation between manifest and latent variables. The emphasis is on dynamical systems
Control approach to Queue Theory | Omolehin | Journal of the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The rigid condition for simple queue problem is minimized by considering multiple channels through control approach. The result control problem is solved using Conventional Conjugate Gradient Method and the optimal system performance is obtained. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol.
Emerging Approaches to Counseling Intervention: Theory, Research, Practice, and Training
Murdock, Nancy L.; Duan, Changming; Nilsson, Johanna E.
2012-01-01
This article provides an overview of the major contribution that presents three emerging approaches to counseling: narrative therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, and acceptance and commitment therapy. The three theoretical systems were chosen because they are current, for the most part not addressed in the mainstream counseling psychology…
A Grounded Theory Approach to Physical Activity and Advanced Cancer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sonya S. Lowe
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Background: Physical activity has demonstrated benefits in cancer-related fatigue and physical functioning in early-stage cancer patients, however the role of physical activity at the end stage of cancer has not been established. To challenge positivist–empiricist assumptions, I am seeking to develop a new theoretical framework that is grounded in the advanced cancer patient’s experience of activity. Aim: To gain an in-depth understanding of the experience of activity and quality of life in advanced cancer patients. Objectives: (1 To explore the meaning of activity for advanced cancer patients in the context of their day-to-day life, (2 to elicit advanced cancer patients’ perceptions of activity with respect to their quality of life, and (3 to elicit advanced cancer patients’ views of barriers and facilitators to activity in the context of their day-to-day life. Study Design: A two-phase, cross-sectional, qualitative study will be conducted through the postpositivist lens of subtle realism and informed by the principles of grounded theory methods. Study Methods: Advanced cancer patients will be recruited through the outpatient department of a tertiary cancer center. For Phase one, participants will wear an activPAL™ activity monitor and fill out a daily record sheet for seven days duration. For Phase two, the activity monitor output and daily record sheets will be used as qualitative probes for face-to-face, semistructured interviews. Concurrent coding, constant comparative analysis, and theoretical sampling will continue with the aim of achieving as close as possible to theoretical saturation. Ethics and Discussion: Ethical and scientific approval will be obtained by all local institutional review boards prior to study commencement. The findings will generate new mid-level theory about the experience of activity and quality of life in advanced cancer patients and aid in the development of a new theoretical framework for designing
The concepts, approaches, and applications of responsible innovation : An introduction
Koops, Bert Jaap; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Oosterlaken, Ilse; Romijn, Henny; Swierstra, Tsjalling; van den Hoven, Jeroen
2015-01-01
‘Responsible innovation’ is an increasingly popular term, but it is by no means clear what exactly this term refers to, nor how responsible innovation can or should be approached. This chapter provides an introduction to the landscape of responsible innovation, drawing from the contributions to this
An empirical test of reference price theories using a semiparametric approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boztug, Yasemin; Hildebrandt, Lutz
In this paper we estimate and empirically test different behavioral theories of consumer reference price formation. Two major theories are proposed to model the reference price reaction: assimilation contrast theory and prospect theory. We assume that different consumer segments will use...... different reference prices. The study builds on earlier research by Kalyanaram and Little (1994); however, in contrast to their work, we use parametric and semiparametric approaches to detect the structure of the underlying data sets. The different models are tested using a program module in GAUSS...
Factors involved in nurses' responses to burnout: a grounded theory study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikravesh Mansoure
2004-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intense and long-standing problems in burn centers in Tehran have led nurses to burnout. This phenomenon has provoked serious responses and has put the nurses, patients and the organization under pressure. The challenge for managers and nurse executives is to understand the factors which would reduce or increase the nurses' responses to burnout and develop delivery systems that promote positive adaptation and facilitate quality care. This study, as a part of more extensive research, aims to explore and describe the nurses' perceptions of the factors affecting their responses to burnout. Methods Grounded theory was used as the method. Thirty- eight participants were recruited. Data were generated by unstructured interviews and 21 sessions of participant observations. Constant comparison was used for data analysis. Results Nurses' and patients' personal characteristics and social support influenced nurses' responses to burnout. Personal characteristics of the nurses and patients, especially when interacting, had a more powerful effect. They altered emotional, attitudinal, behavioral and organizational responses to burnout and determined the kind of caring behavior. Social support had a palliative effect and altered emotional responses and some aspects of attitudinal responses. Conclusions The powerful effect of positive personal characteristics and its sensitivity to long standing and intense organizational pressures suggests approaches to executing stress reduction programs and refreshing the nurses' morale by giving more importance to ethical aspects of caring. Moreover, regarding palliative effect of social support and its importance for the nurses' wellbeing, nurse executives are responsible for promoting a work environment that supports nurses and motivates them.
Weeland, Martine M; Nijhof, Karin S; Otten, R; Vermaes, Ignace P R; Buitelaar, Jan K
2017-10-01
This study tests the validity of Beck's cognitive theory and Nolen-Hoeksema's response style theory of depression in adolescents with and without MBID. The relationship between negative cognitive errors (Beck), response styles (Nolen-Hoeksema) and depressive symptoms was examined in 135 adolescents using linear regression. The cognitive error 'underestimation of the ability to cope' was more prevalent among adolescents with MBID than among adolescents with average intelligence. This was the only negative cognitive error that predicted depressive symptoms. There were no differences between groups in the prevalence of the three response styles. In line with the theory, ruminating was positively and problem-solving was negatively related to depressive symptoms. Distractive response styles were not related to depressive symptoms. The relationship between response styles, cognitive errors and depressive symptoms were similar for both groups. The main premises of both theories of depression are equally applicable to adolescents with and without MBID. The cognitive error 'Underestimation of the ability to cope' poses a specific risk factor for developing a depression for adolescents with MBID and requires special attention in treatment and prevention of depression. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS?: Despite the high prevalence of depression among adolescents with MBID, little is known about the etiology and cognitive processes that play a role in the development of depression in this group. The current paper fills this gap in research by examining the core tenets of two important theories on the etiology of depression (Beck's cognitive theory and Nolen-Hoeksema's response style theory) in a clinical sample of adolescents with and without MBID. This paper demonstrated that the theories are equally applicable to adolescents with MBID, as to adolescents with average intellectual ability. However, the cognitive bias 'underestimation of the ability to cope' was the only cognitive error
Violence Against Women in Cambodia: Towards a Culturally Responsive Theory of Change.
Eisenbruch, Maurice
2018-01-17
Almost one in four women in Cambodia is a victim of physical, emotional or sexual violence. This article brings together two seldom connected fields: Theory of Change (ToC) and cultural responsiveness in international development. It applies these approaches to a priority in global health, which is to prevent violence against women (VAW) and, drawing on my research on the epigenesis of VAW in Cambodia, develops an argument on the need for interventions to work with tradition and culture rather than only highlight it in problematic terms. The research draws on an ethnographic study carried out in Cambodia with 102 perpetrators and survivors of emotional, physical and sexual VAW and 228 key informants from the Buddhist and healing sectors. The eight 'cultural attractors' identified in the author's prior research highlight the cultural barriers to acceptance of the current Theory of Change. ToC for VAW prevention in Cambodia seems to assume that local culture promotes VAW and that men and women must be educated to eradicate the traditional gender norms. There is a need for interventions to work with tradition and culture rather than only highlight it in problematic terms. The cultural epigenesis of VAW in Cambodia is an insight which can be used to build culturally responsive interventions and strengthen the primary prevention of VAW.
Atomic theory of viscoelastic response and memory effects in metallic glasses
Cui, Bingyu; Yang, Jie; Qiao, Jichao; Jiang, Minqiang; Dai, Lanhong; Wang, Yun-Jiang; Zaccone, Alessio
2017-09-01
An atomic-scale theory of the viscoelastic response of metallic glasses is derived from first principles, using a Zwanzig-Caldeira-Leggett system-bath Hamiltonian as a starting point within the framework of nonaffine linear response to mechanical deformation. This approach provides a generalized Langevin equation (GLE) as the average equation of motion for an atom or ion in the material, from which non-Markovian nonaffine viscoelastic moduli are extracted. These can be evaluated using the vibrational density of states (DOS) as input, where the boson peak plays a prominent role in the mechanics. To compare with experimental data for binary ZrCu alloys, a numerical DOS was obtained from simulations of this system, which also take electronic degrees of freedom into account via the embedded-atom method for the interatomic potential. It is shown that the viscoelastic α -relaxation, including the α -wing asymmetry in the loss modulus, can be very well described by the theory if the memory kernel (the non-Markovian friction) in the GLE is taken to be a stretched-exponential decaying function of time. This finding directly implies strong memory effects in the atomic-scale dynamics and suggests that the α -relaxation time is related to the characteristic time scale over which atoms retain memory of their previous collision history. This memory time grows dramatically below the glass transition.
Feteris, E.
2012-01-01
This contribution provides an overview of how argumentation theorists, philosophers, legal theorists and legal philosophers approach questions about the standards for the correctness of legal argumentation. Ideas about the analysis and evaluation of legal argumentation, developed by influential
Quantum Kramers model: Corrections to the linear response theory for continuous bath spectrum.
Rips, Ilya
2017-01-01
Decay of the metastable state is analyzed within the quantum Kramers model in the weak-to-intermediate dissipation regime. The decay kinetics in this regime is determined by energy exchange between the unstable mode and the stable modes of thermal bath. In our previous paper [Phys. Rev. A 42, 4427 (1990)PLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.42.4427], Grabert's perturbative approach to well dynamics in the case of the discrete bath [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1683 (1988)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.61.1683] has been extended to account for the second order terms in the classical equations of motion (EOM) for the stable modes. Account of the secular terms reduces EOM for the stable modes to those of the forced oscillator with the time-dependent frequency (TDF oscillator). Analytic expression for the characteristic function of energy loss of the unstable mode has been derived in terms of the generating function of the transition probabilities for the quantum forced TDF oscillator. In this paper, the approach is further developed and applied to the case of the continuous frequency spectrum of the bath. The spectral density functions of the bath of stable modes are expressed in terms of the dissipative properties (the friction function) of the original bath. They simplify considerably for the one-dimensional systems, when the density of phonon states is constant. Explicit expressions for the fourth order corrections to the linear response theory result for the characteristic function of the energy loss and its cumulants are obtained for the particular case of the cubic potential with Ohmic (Markovian) dissipation. The range of validity of the perturbative approach in this case is determined (γ/ω_{b}theory result is associated with the "work function" and leads to reduction of the average energy loss and its dispersion. This reduction increases with the increasing dissipation strength (up to ∼10%) within the range of validity of the approach. We have also calculated
Researching Communication: The Interpretive Approach between Theory and Practice
Uhan, Samo
2013-01-01
A proper understanding of communication research and the way it has been carried out cannot emerge without some consideration of the theoretical backgrounds of the different methodological approaches to communication analysis. In the last few years the most important progress has been made in the field of so called reflexive methodology. According to Alvesson and Sköldberg, the syntagm reflexive methodology (2000) denotes complex relationships between the knowledge-development processes and v...
A new approach to the theory of classical hypergeometric polynomials
Marco, José Manuel; Parcet, Javier
2003-01-01
In this paper we present a unified approach to the spectral analysis of an hypergeometric type operator whose eigenfunctions include the classical orthogonal polynomials. We write the eigenfunctions of this operator by means of a new Taylor formula for operators of Askey-Wilson type. This gives rise to some expressions for the eigenfunctions, which are unknown in such a general setting. Our methods also give a general Rodrigues formula from which several well known formulas of Rodrigues type ...
Mediatization:Critical Theory Approaches to Media Effects
Hjarvard, Stig
2017-01-01
Mediatization research shares media effects studies' ambition of answering the difficult questions with regard to whether and how media matter and influence contemporary culture and society. The two approaches nevertheless differ fundamentally in that mediatization research seeks answers to these general questions by distinguishing between two concepts: mediation and mediatization. The media effects tradition generally considers the effects of the media to be a result of individuals being exp...
Fractional graph theory a rational approach to the theory of graphs
Scheinerman, Edward R
2013-01-01
A unified treatment of the most important results in the study of fractional graph concepts, this volume explores the various ways in which integer-valued concepts can be modified to derive nonintegral values. It begins with the general fractional theory of hypergraphs and presents in-depth coverage of fundamental and advanced topics. Subjects include fractional matching, fractional coloring, fractional edge coloring, fractional arboricity via matroid methods, and fractional isomorphism. The final chapter examines additional topics such as fractional domination, fractional intersection numbers
An analytic approach to sunset diagrams in chiral perturbation theory: Theory and practice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ananthanarayan, B.; Ghosh, Shayan [Indian Institute of Science, Centre for High Energy Physics, Karnataka (India); Bijnens, Johan [Lund University, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund (Sweden); Hebbar, Aditya [Indian Institute of Science, Centre for High Energy Physics, Karnataka (India); University of Delaware, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Newark, DE (United States)
2016-12-15
We demonstrate the use of several code implementations of the Mellin-Barnes method available in the public domain to derive analytic expressions for the sunset diagrams that arise in the two-loop contribution to the pion mass and decay constant in three-flavoured chiral perturbation theory. We also provide results for all possible two mass configurations of the sunset integral, and derive a new one-dimensional integral representation for the one mass sunset integral with arbitrary external momentum. Thoroughly annotated Mathematica notebooks are provided as ancillary files in the Electronic Supplementary Material to this paper, which may serve as pedagogical supplements to the methods described in this paper. (orig.)
Coalitional game theory as a promising approach to identify candidate autism genes.
Gupta, Anika; Sun, Min Woo; Paskov, Kelley Marie; Stockham, Nate Tyler; Jung, Jae-Yoon; Wall, Dennis Paul
2018-01-01
Despite mounting evidence for the strong role of genetics in the phenotypic manifestation of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), the specific genes responsible for the variable forms of ASD remain undefined. ASD may be best explained by a combinatorial genetic model with varying epistatic interactions across many small effect mutations. Coalitional or cooperative game theory is a technique that studies the combined effects of groups of players, known as coalitions, seeking to identify players who tend to improve the performance--the relationship to a specific disease phenotype--of any coalition they join. This method has been previously shown to boost biologically informative signal in gene expression data but to-date has not been applied to the search for cooperative mutations among putative ASD genes. We describe our approach to highlight genes relevant to ASD using coalitional game theory on alteration data of 1,965 fully sequenced genomes from 756 multiplex families. Alterations were encoded into binary matrices for ASD (case) and unaffected (control) samples, indicating likely gene-disrupting, inherited mutations in altered genes. To determine individual gene contributions given an ASD phenotype, a "player" metric, referred to as the Shapley value, was calculated for each gene in the case and control cohorts. Sixty seven genes were found to have significantly elevated player scores and likely represent significant contributors to the genetic coordination underlying ASD. Using network and cross-study analysis, we found that these genes are involved in biological pathways known to be affected in the autism cases and that a subset directly interact with several genes known to have strong associations to autism. These findings suggest that coalitional game theory can be applied to large-scale genomic data to identify hidden yet influential players in complex polygenic disorders such as autism.
Non-linear wave loads and ship responses by a time-domain strip theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
1998-01-01
A non-linear time-domain strip theory for vertical wave loads and ship responses is presented. The theory is generalized from a rigorous linear time-domain strip theory representation. The hydrodynamic memory effect due to the free surface is approximated by a higher order differential equation....... Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hydroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented as a Timoshenko beam. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175 Containership...
New approaches to business cycle theory in current economic science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monica DOBRESCU
2012-07-01
Full Text Available In modern economies, current research generally acknowledges that the central issues in macroeconomics are essentially the same as those identified by Keynes in the General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. One way or the other, economists are trying to address the same macroeconomic issues that they did seven decades ago: How can we account for the different growth rates and various fluctuations observed in national economies? Which are the economic policies most suitable to solve the issues of growth and cyclic behavior? Both the new classicals and the new Keynesians have made considerable progress within their research paradigms: to explain economic fluctuations, the new classicals focus on technological perturbations, the intertemporal substitution of leisure and real business cycles; on the other hand, the new Keynesians speak in terms of monopolistic competition, menu costs or efficiency wages. On the whole, the new classicals believe that the business cycle can best be understood within the market-clearing model, whereas the new keynesians believe that business fluctuations are due to certain market failures of various sorts.The present paper focuses on the main directions of research of the new classical school on the business cycle, given that the theoretical progress in this field has been significant and relevant for economic policy during the past four decades.
Analysis of gene translation using a communications theory approach.
Al Bataineh, Mohammad; Huang, Lun; Alonso, Maria; Menhart, Nick; Atkin, Guillermo E
2010-01-01
Rapid advances in both genomic data acquisition and computational technology have encouraged the development and use of advanced engineering methods in the field of bioinformatics and computational genomics. Processes in molecular biology can be modeled through the use of these methods. Such processes include identification and annotation of all the functional elements in the genome, including genes and regulatory sequences, which are a fundamental challenge in genomics and computational biology. Since regulatory elements are often short and variable, their identification and discovery using computational algorithms is difficult. However, significant advances have been made in the computational methods for modeling and detection of DNA regulatory elements. This paper proposes a novel use of techniques and principles from communications engineering, coding, and information theory for modeling, identification, and analysis of genomic regulatory elements and biological sequences. The methods proposed are not only able to identify regulatory elements (REs) at their exact locations, but can also "interestingly" distinguish coding from non-coding regions. Therefore, the proposed methods can be utilized to identify genes in the mRNA sequence.
[A Grounded Theory Approach on Nurses' Experience with Workplace Bullying].
Kang, Jiyeon; Yun, Seonyoung
2016-04-01
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the workplace bullying experience of Korean nurses. Participants were twenty current or former hospital nurses who had experienced workplace bullying. Data were collected through focus group and individual in-depth interviews from February to May, 2015. Theoretical sampling method was applied to the point of theoretical saturation. Transcribed interview contents were analyzed using Corbin and Strauss's grounded theory method. A total of 110 concepts, 48 sub-categories, and 17 categories were identified through the open coding process. As a result of axial coding based on the paradigm model, the central phenomenon of nurses' workplace bullying experience was revealed as 'teaching that has become bullying', and the core category was extracted as 'surviving in love-hate teaching' consisting of a four-step process: confronting reality, trial and error, relationship formation, and settlement. The relationship formation was considered to be the key phase to proceed to the positive settlement phase, and the participants utilized various strategies such as having an open mind, developing human relationships, understanding each other in this phase. The in-depth understanding of the workplace bullying experience has highlighted the importance of effective communication for cultivating desirable human relationships between nurses.
Labour Market Theories and Distance Education: A Response.
Rumble, Greville
1996-01-01
Responds to comments on a previous series of three articles on labor market theories and distance education. Highlights include conceptual frameworks of Fordism, neo-Fordism, and post-Fordism; industrialization and its impact on education; work and academic work; mass production; and specialist markets and small-scale distance education systems.…
Item Response Theory, Latent Classes and Rule Space.
1987-07-15
1968) and Latent Class ( Lazarsfeld p.M 5 & Henry, 1968) will be discussed with respect to the demands of modern measurement theory and their...Paper presented at the 22nd International Congress of Psychology, Leipzig. Lazarsfeld , P. F. & Henry, N. W. (1968). Latent structure analysis. Boston
Debating Toynbee's theory of challenge and response: christian ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... the West”, the eminent London historian Professor Arnold Toynbee sought to explain inter alia why western European hegemony over much of the world was widely resented. His interpretation incorporated the “challenge and response” theory of successive civilisations which underlay his multi-volume A Study of History.
STATE AND ECONOMY IN BOURGEOISIES ECONOMIC THEORIES: A CRITICAL APPROACH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Verena Hernández-Pérez
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The issue of state-economy relationship has been present throughout the history of bourgeois economic thought. In the bourgeois liberal tradition the distinction between civil society and state has been presented as total and necessary, reserving to the first one the monopoly of economic activity, based on the principle of self-regulating market. From Keynes bourgeois economists were divided into two sides, one side those who still deny the state capacity to intervene right in the economy, and the other those who recognize the need for their participation. This paper proposes a critical approach to the major bourgeois theoretical positions on the relationship state-economy.
Theory of molecular conductance using a modular approach.
Hsu, Liang-Yan; Rabitz, Herschel
2016-12-21
This study probes the correlation between the conductance of a molecular wire (the property of a whole system) and its constituent backbone units (modules). By using a tight-binding Hamiltonian combined with single-particle Green's functions, we develop an approach that enables an estimate of a conductance decay constant in terms of the Hamiltonians of molecular backbone units and the couplings between two nearest-neighbor units in the off-resonant tunneling regime. For demonstration, we examine several representative molecular systems in a framework of the Hückel model (the simplest atomistic-level model). The Hückel model can be reduced to a single-orbital-per-site formulation [A. Nitzan, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 52, 681 (2001)], and each energy level in the single-orbital-per-site picture can be expressed in an explicit form including the synergistic effect of all molecular orbitals of a molecular backbone unit. Based on the proposed approach, we show the correspondence between the complete destructive quantum interference and an infinite injection gap and derive the preconditions of the modified Simmons equation and the rule of intramolecular series circuits.
Blind Measurement Selection: A Random Matrix Theory Approach
Elkhalil, Khalil
2016-12-14
This paper considers the problem of selecting a set of $k$ measurements from $n$ available sensor observations. The selected measurements should minimize a certain error function assessing the error in estimating a certain $m$ dimensional parameter vector. The exhaustive search inspecting each of the $n\\\\choose k$ possible choices would require a very high computational complexity and as such is not practical for large $n$ and $k$. Alternative methods with low complexity have recently been investigated but their main drawbacks are that 1) they require perfect knowledge of the measurement matrix and 2) they need to be applied at the pace of change of the measurement matrix. To overcome these issues, we consider the asymptotic regime in which $k$, $n$ and $m$ grow large at the same pace. Tools from random matrix theory are then used to approximate in closed-form the most important error measures that are commonly used. The asymptotic approximations are then leveraged to select properly $k$ measurements exhibiting low values for the asymptotic error measures. Two heuristic algorithms are proposed: the first one merely consists in applying the convex optimization artifice to the asymptotic error measure. The second algorithm is a low-complexity greedy algorithm that attempts to look for a sufficiently good solution for the original minimization problem. The greedy algorithm can be applied to both the exact and the asymptotic error measures and can be thus implemented in blind and channel-aware fashions. We present two potential applications where the proposed algorithms can be used, namely antenna selection for uplink transmissions in large scale multi-user systems and sensor selection for wireless sensor networks. Numerical results are also presented and sustain the efficiency of the proposed blind methods in reaching the performances of channel-aware algorithms.
Restorative approaches to workplace bullying: educating nurses towards shared responsibility.
Hutchinson, Marie
2009-01-01
This paper summarises what is known about bullying in the nursing workplace and approaches currently employed to address the problem. Synthesising the available evidence it is identified that restorative approaches which seek to foster shared responsibility and positively influence group norms are underdeveloped. Based upon the principles of restorative justice this approach seeks to foster active responsibility for addressing bullying by building pro-social workplace relationships. Given the importance of socialisation processes in mediating and sustaining bullying among nurses, restorative approaches are proposed as a strategy that can be employed in nursing education to address bullying.
A Longitudinal Item Response Theory Model to Characterize Cognition Over Time in Elderly Subjects
Bornkamp, Björn; Krahnke, Tillmann; Mielke, Johanna; Monsch, Andreas; Quarg, Peter
2017-01-01
For drug development in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, it is important to understand which cognitive domains carry the most information on the earliest signs of cognitive decline, and which subject characteristics are associated with a faster decline. A longitudinal Item Response Theory (IRT) model was developed for the Basel Study on the Elderly, in which the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease – Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (with additions) and the California Verbal Learning Test were measured on 1,750 elderly subjects for up to 13.9 years. The model jointly captured the multifaceted nature of cognition and its longitudinal trajectory. The word list learning and delayed recall tasks carried the most information. Greater age at baseline, fewer years of education, and positive APOEɛ4 carrier status were associated with a faster cognitive decline. Longitudinal IRT modeling is a powerful approach for progressive diseases with multifaceted endpoints. PMID:28643388
Towards a Foundation of Material Approaches in Neo-institutional Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cartel, Melodie; Boxenbaum, Eva
Socio-material approaches of innovation are currently developing fast in neo-institutional theory yet they lack global coherence. As a result, their contribution to the understanding of institutional innovation is fragile. This paper develops a coherent view on socio-material approaches...... of innovation in neo-institutional theory. Drawing on a literature review, we propose that material approaches of institutional innovation focus on the design of institutions. We build on the concept of bricolage to unveil the three activities involved in the design of institutions: crafting, testing...... and evaluating. Eventually, we articulate these findings with existing insights on institutional innovation and develop a multilevel model of institutional innovation....
Nonstationary signals phase-energy approach-theory and simulations
Klein, R; Braun, S; 10.1006/mssp.2001.1398
2001-01-01
Modern time-frequency methods are intended to deal with a variety of nonstationary signals. One specific class, prevalent in the area of rotating machines, is that of harmonic signals of varying frequencies and amplitude. This paper presents a new adaptive phase-energy (APE) approach for time-frequency representation of varying harmonic signals. It is based on the concept of phase (frequency) paths and the instantaneous power spectral density (PSD). It is this path which represents the dynamic behaviour of the system generating the observed signal. The proposed method utilises dynamic filters based on an extended Nyquist theorem, enabling extraction of signal components with optimal signal-to-noise ratio. The APE detects the most energetic harmonic components (frequency paths) in the analysed signal. Tests on simulated signals show the superiority of the APE in resolution and resolving power as compared to STFT and wavelets wave- packet decomposition. The dynamic filters also enable the reconstruction of the ...
Jiang, Zhehan; Skorupski, William
2017-12-12
In many behavioral research areas, multivariate generalizability theory (mG theory) has been typically used to investigate the reliability of certain multidimensional assessments. However, traditional mG-theory estimation-namely, using frequentist approaches-has limits, leading researchers to fail to take full advantage of the information that mG theory can offer regarding the reliability of measurements. Alternatively, Bayesian methods provide more information than frequentist approaches can offer. This article presents instructional guidelines on how to implement mG-theory analyses in a Bayesian framework; in particular, BUGS code is presented to fit commonly seen designs from mG theory, including single-facet designs, two-facet crossed designs, and two-facet nested designs. In addition to concrete examples that are closely related to the selected designs and the corresponding BUGS code, a simulated dataset is provided to demonstrate the utility and advantages of the Bayesian approach. This article is intended to serve as a tutorial reference for applied researchers and methodologists conducting mG-theory studies.
Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory (extended version)
Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette
2013-01-01
Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Therefore, penetration testing has thus far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management,
Quantitative Penetration Testing with Item Response Theory (extended version)
Arnold, F.; Pieters, W.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.
2013-01-01
Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including
Kadyshevich, E. A.; Ostrovskii, V. E.
2014-04-01
Life Origination Hydrate Theory (LOH-Theory) and Mitosis and Replication Hydrate Theory (MRHTheory), both grounded on the notion of honeycomb gas-hydrate structures formation/destruction as the physicochemical phenomenon governing the DNA origination and replication, allow new approaches to the optimal nutrition and life prolongation problems.
Variational approach to gravity field theories from Newton to Einstein and beyond
Vecchiato, Alberto
2017-01-01
This book offers a detailed and stimulating account of the Lagrangian, or variational, approach to general relativity and beyond. The approach more usually adopted when describing general relativity is to introduce the required concepts of differential geometry and derive the field and geodesic equations from purely geometrical properties. Demonstration of the physical meaning then requires the weak field approximation of these equations to recover their Newtonian counterparts. The potential downside of this approach is that it tends to suit the mathematical mind and requires the physicist to study and work in a completely unfamiliar environment. In contrast, the approach to general relativity described in this book will be especially suited to physics students. After an introduction to field theories and the variational approach, individual sections focus on the variational approach in relation to special relativity, general relativity, and alternative theories of gravity. Throughout the text, solved exercis...
Industry and chain responsibilities and integrative social contract theory
Wempe, J.F.D.B. (Johan)
2010-01-01
This article shows that business ethics is not capable of explaining the responsibility of limited organized collectives such as chains, sectors and industries. The responsibility of the pharmaceutical industry to make AIDSblockers available for patients in Africa is an example of such a sector
Item response theory at subject- and group-level
Tobi, Hilde
1990-01-01
This paper reviews the literature about item response models for the subject level and aggregated level (group level). Group-level item response models (IRMs) are used in the United States in large-scale assessment programs such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the California
Frederiksen, Claus S.
2009-01-01
This paper examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind of common-sense morality? To address this issue, I conducted an empirical investigation examining the relation between moral theories and CSR policies, in companies engaged in CSR. Based ...
Rehabilitation - a new approach. Part two: the underlying theories.
Wade, Derick
2015-12-01
This editorial considers how healthcare systems should approach the problems associated with ongoing, persistent symptoms and limitations on a person's ability to undertake activities. It starts from the premise, established in the first editorial, that the current reliance on the biomedical model of health and illness is no longer 'fit for purpose', and is one major cause of current difficulties within the health service. Among other problems, it may lead to the marginalisation of rehabilitation services, especially when resources are limited. This editorial describes and then highlights the implications of the holistic, biopsychosocial model of illness. It also outlines the rehabilitation process, demonstrating its similarity to the process used by medical services, with the primary difference being the centre of attention: disease for medical service, disability for rehabilitation services. The model of rehabilitation emphasises: the importance of being patient-centred and goal-directed in rehabilitation; the need for liaison by the team and learning by the patient; and that the patient needs to be encouraged and enabled to practice wanted activities. © The Author(s) 2015.
Differentiated cell behavior: a multiscale approach using measure theory.
Colombi, Annachiara; Scianna, Marco; Tosin, Andrea
2015-11-01
This paper deals with the derivation of a collective model of cell populations out of an individual-based description of the underlying physical particle system. By looking at the spatial distribution of cells in terms of time-evolving measures, rather than at individual cell paths, we obtain an ensemble representation stemming from the phenomenological behavior of the single component cells. In particular, as a key advantage of our approach, the scale of representation of the system, i.e., microscopic/discrete vs. macroscopic/continuous, can be chosen a posteriori according only to the spatial structure given to the aforesaid measures. The paper focuses in particular on the use of different scales based on the specific functions performed by cells. A two-population hybrid system is considered, where cells with a specialized/differentiated phenotype are treated as a discrete population of point masses while unspecialized/undifferentiated cell aggregates are represented by a continuous approximation. Numerical simulations and analytical investigations emphasize the role of some biologically relevant parameters in determining the specific evolution of such a hybrid cell system.
Random Matrix Theory Approach to Indonesia Energy Portfolio Analysis
Mahardhika, Alifian; Purqon, Acep
2017-07-01
In a few years, Indonesia experienced difficulties in maintaining energy security, the problem is the decline in oil production from 1.6 million barrels per day to 861 thousand barrels per day in 2012. However, there is a difference condition in 2015 until the third week in 2016, world oil prices actually fell at the lowest price level since last 12 years. The decline in oil prices due to oversupply of oil by oil-producing countries of the world due to the instability of the world economy. Wave of layoffs in Indonesia is a response to the decline in oil prices, this led to the energy and mines portfolios Indonesia feared would not be more advantageous than the portfolio in other countries. In this research, portfolio analysis will be done on energy and mining in Indonesia by using stock price data of energy and mines in the period 26 November 2010 until April 1, 2016. It was found that the results have a wide effect of the market potential is high in the determination of the return on the portfolio energy and mines. Later, it was found that there are eight of the thirty stocks in the energy and mining portfolio of Indonesia which have a high probability of return relative to the average return of stocks in a portfolio of energy and mines.
Integrating Beck's cognitive model and the response style theory in an adolescent sample.
Winkeljohn Black, Stephanie; Pössel, Patrick
2015-01-01
Depression becomes more prevalent as individuals progress from childhood to adulthood. Thus, empirically supported and popular cognitive vulnerability theories to explain depression in adulthood have begun to be tested in younger age groups, particularly adolescence, a time of significant cognitive development. Beck's cognitive theory and the response style theory are well known, empirically supported theories of depression. The current, two-wave longitudinal study (N = 462; mean age = 16.01 years; SD = 0.69; 63.9% female) tested various proposed integrative models of Beck's cognitive theory and the response style theory, as well as the original theories themselves, to determine if and how these cognitive vulnerabilities begin to intertwine in adolescence. Of the integrative models tested-all with structural equation modeling in AMOS 21-the best-fitting integrative model was a moderation model wherein schemata influenced rumination, and rumination then influenced other cognitive variables in Beck's model. Findings revealed that this integrated model fit the data better than the response style theory and explained 1.2% more variance in depressive symptoms. Additionally, multigroup analyses comparing the fit of the best-fitting integrated model across adolescents with clinical and subclinical depressive symptoms revealed that the model was not stable between these two subsamples. However, of the hypotheses relevant to the integrative model, only 1 of the 18 associations was significantly different between the clinical and subclinical samples. Regardless, the integrated model was not superior to the more parsimonious model from Beck's cognitive theory. Implications and limitations are discussed.
Endogenous Molecular-Cellular Network Cancer Theory: A Systems Biology Approach.
Wang, Gaowei; Yuan, Ruoshi; Zhu, Xiaomei; Ao, Ping
2018-01-01
In light of ever apparent limitation of the current dominant cancer mutation theory, a quantitative hypothesis for cancer genesis and progression, endogenous molecular-cellular network hypothesis has been proposed from the systems biology perspective, now for more than 10 years. It was intended to include both the genetic and epigenetic causes to understand cancer. Its development enters the stage of meaningful interaction with experimental and clinical data and the limitation of the traditional cancer mutation theory becomes more evident. Under this endogenous network hypothesis, we established a core working network of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to the hypothesis and quantified the working network by a nonlinear dynamical system. We showed that the two stable states of the working network reproduce the main known features of normal liver and HCC at both the modular and molecular levels. Using endogenous network hypothesis and validated working network, we explored genetic mutation pattern in cancer and potential strategies to cure or relieve HCC from a totally new perspective. Patterns of genetic mutations have been traditionally analyzed by posteriori statistical association approaches in light of traditional cancer mutation theory. One may wonder the possibility of a priori determination of any mutation regularity. Here, we found that based on the endogenous network theory the features of genetic mutations in cancers may be predicted without any prior knowledge of mutation propensities. Normal hepatocyte and cancerous hepatocyte stable states, specified by distinct patterns of expressions or activities of proteins in the network, provide means to directly identify a set of most probable genetic mutations and their effects in HCC. As the key proteins and main interactions in the network are conserved through cell types in an organism, similar mutational features may also be found in other cancers. This analysis yielded straightforward and testable
Freedom and Responsibility in First Amendment Theory: Defamation Law and Media Credibility.
Hunsaker, David M.
1979-01-01
Explores the concepts of freedom and responsibility in the context of First Amendment theory through an examination of the interrelationships between defamation law, access to media, and media credibility. Calls for a reassessment of the importance of defamation law in First Amendment theory. (JMF)
Beevers, Christopher G.; Strong, David R.; Meyer, Bjorn; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Miller, Ivan R.
2007-01-01
Despite a central role for dysfunctional attitudes in cognitive theories of depression and the widespread use of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, form A (DAS-A; A. Weissman, 1979), the psychometric development of the DAS-A has been relatively limited. The authors used nonparametric item response theory methods to examine the DAS-A items and…
Mokken scale analysis : Between the Guttman scale and parametric item response theory
van Schuur, Wijbrandt H.
2003-01-01
This article introduces a model of ordinal unidimensional measurement known as Mokken scale analysis. Mokken scaling is based on principles of Item Response Theory (IRT) that originated in the Guttman scale. I compare the Mokken model with both Classical Test Theory (reliability or factor analysis)
Culturally Responsive Teaching in the Context of Mathematics: A Grounded Theory Case Study
Bonner, Emily P.; Adams, Thomasenia L.
2012-01-01
In this grounded theory case study, four interconnected, foundational cornerstones of culturally responsive mathematics teaching (CRMT), communication, knowledge, trust/relationships, and constant reflection/revision, were systematically unearthed to develop an initial working theory of CRMT that directly informs classroom practice. These…
An Almost Integration-free Approach to Ordered Response Models
van Praag, B.M.S.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.
2006-01-01
'In this paper we propose an alternative approach to the estimation of ordered response models. We show that the Probit-method may be replaced by a simple OLS-approach, called P(robit)OLS, without any loss of efficiency. This method can be generalized to the analysis of panel data. For large-scale
Applications of multi-criteria and game theory approaches manufacturing and logistics
Hennet, Jean-Claude; Tiwari, Manoj
2014-01-01
Aligning the latest practices, innovations and case studies with academic frameworks and theories, the broad area of multi-criteria and game theory applications in manufacturing and logistics is covered in comprehensive details. Part 1 presents ‘multi-criteria applications’ and includes chapters on logistics with a focus on vehicle routing problems, a multi-objective decision making approach to select the best storage policy and an exploratory study to predict the most important factors that can lead to successful mobile supply chain management adoption for manufacturing firms. Part 2 covers ‘game theory applications’ and encompasses the process of forming a coalition within a corporate network to the problem of integrating inventory and distribution optimization together with game theory to effectively manage supply networks. Providing a forum to investigate, exchange novel ideas and disseminate knowledge covering the broad area of multi-criteria and game theory applications in manufacturing and l...
How device-independent approaches change the meaning of physical theory
Grinbaum, Alexei
2017-05-01
Dirac sought an interpretation of mathematical formalism in terms of physical entities and Einstein insisted that physics should describe ;the real states of the real systems;. While Bell inequalities put into question the reality of states, modern device-independent approaches do away with the idea of entities: physical theory may contain no physical systems. Focusing on the correlations between operationally defined inputs and outputs, device-independent methods promote a view more distant from the conventional one than Einstein's 'principle theories' were from 'constructive theories'. On the examples of indefinite causal orders and almost quantum correlations, we ask a puzzling question: if physical theory is not about systems, then what is it about? Device-independent models suggest that physical theory can be 'about' languages.
Edelen, Maria Orlando; Saliba, Debra
2010-07-01
Assessing pain intensity in older adults is critical and challenging. There is debate about the most effective way to ask older adults to describe their pain severity, and clinicians vary in their preferred approaches, making comparison of pain intensity scores across settings difficult. A total of 3,676 residents from 71 community nursing homes across eight states were asked about pain presence. The 1,960 residents who reported pain within the past 5 days (53% of total, 70% female; age: M = 77.9, SD = 12.4) were included in analyses. Those who reported pain were also asked to provide a rating of pain intensity using either a verbal descriptor scale (VDS; mild, moderate, severe, and very severe and horrible), a numeric rating scale (NRS; 0 = no pain to 10 = worst pain imaginable), or both. We used item response theory (IRT) methods to identify the correspondence between the VDS and the NRS response options by estimating item parameters for these and five additional pain items. The sample reported moderate amounts of pain on average. Examination of the IRT location parameters for the pain intensity items indicated the following approximate correspondence: VDS mild approximately NRS 1-4, VDS moderate approximately NRS 5-7, VDS severe approximately NRS 8-9, and VDS very severe, horrible approximately NRS 10. This IRT calibration provides a crosswalk between the two response scales so that either can be used in practice depending on the preference of the clinician and respondent.
Niestemski, Liang R.; Chen, Man; Prevost, Robert; McRae, Michael; Cholleti, Sharath; Najarro, Gabriel; Buchman, Timothy G.; Deem, Michael W.
2013-03-01
Contrary to the traditional view of the healthy physiological state as being a single static state, variation in physiologic variables has more recently been suggested to be a key component of the healthy state. Indeed, aging and disease are characterized by a loss of such variability. We apply the conceptual framework of fluctuation-dissipation theory (FDT) to predict the response to a common clinical intervention from historical fluctuations in physiologic time series data. The non-equilibrium FDT relates the response of a system to a perturbation to natural fluctuations in the stationary state of the system. We seek to understand with the FDT a common clinical perturbation, the spontaneous breathing trial (SBT), in which mechanical ventilation is briefly suspended while the patient breathes freely for a period of time. As a stress upon the heart of the patient, the SBT can be characterized as a perturbation of heart rate dynamics. A non-equilibrium, but steady-state FDT allows us to predict the heart rate recovery after the SBT stress. We show that the responses of groups of similar patients to the spontaneous breathing trial can be predicted by this approach. This mathematical framework may serve as part of the basis for personalized critical care.
A new approach in modeling the response of RPC detectors
Benussi, L; Colafranceschi, S; Fabbri, F L; Giardoni, M; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Russo, A; Saviano, G; Buontempo, S; Cimmino, A; de Gruttola, M; Fabozzi, F; Iorio, A O M; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Baesso, P; Belli, G; Pagano, D; Ratti, S P; Vicini, A; Vitulo, P; Viviani, C; Sharma, A; Bhattacharyya, A K
2012-01-01
The response of RPC detectors is highly sensitive to environmental variables. A novel approach is presented to model the response of RPC detectors in a variety of experimental conditions. The algorithm, based on Artificial Neural Networks, has been developed and tested on the CMS RPC gas gain monitoring system during commissioning.
Cognition to Collaboration: User-Centric Approach and Information Behaviour Theories/Models
Alperen M Aydin
2016-01-01
Aim/Purpose: The objective of this paper is to review the vast literature of user-centric in-formation science and inform about the emerging themes in information behaviour science. Background: The paradigmatic shift from system-centric to user-centric approach facilitates research on the cognitive and individual information processing. Various information behaviour theories/models emerged. Methodology: Recent information behaviour theories and models are presented. Features, str...
A wave optics approach to the theory of the Michelson-Morley experiment
Smid, Thomas
2017-11-01
A consistent classical wave optics approach to the theory of the Michelson-Morley experiment shows that the original theory as applied by Michelson and Morley and others does not calculate the optical paths of the two beams correctly, primarily because of incorrectly assuming a right angle reflection in the instrument’s reference frame for the transverse beam, but also because of the incorrect assumption of aberration for the wave fronts. The theory presented in this work proves the expected variation of the phase difference when rotating the interferometer to be more than twice as large and also strongly asymmetrical around the zero line.
Applying a theory of change approach to interagency planning in child mental health.
Hernandez, Mario; Hodges, Sharon
2006-12-01
This paper describes the use of a theory of change approach to community-based cross-agency service planning for children with serious emotional disturbance and their families. Public agency planners in Contra Costa County, California used the theory of change approach to organize service planning for a population of youth who had been arrested and involved with juvenile probation. The theory of change process described in this paper links community outcomes with planned activities with the assumptions or principles that underlie the community planning efforts. When complete, a theory of change logic model can serve as a guide for implementation, ensuring that community plans for service delivery remain true to their intent. The theory of change development process includes twelve stages and is based on a step-by-step approach. Theory of change logic models establish a context for articulating a community's shared beliefs and prompt local stakeholders to establish logical connections between the population to be served, expected results, and strategies intended to achieve those results.
The Solutions of Argyris Maturation Theory by The Situational Approaches to Leadership
ÖZTÜRK, Cemal
2016-01-01
Chris Argyris criticized the points of work sharing, power and responsibility, The principle of unity of command, control area in classical management Theory. According to him, these issues are adversely affects employees, cause not to find themselves, not to improve themselves and shortly to inability to mature. In this case, deeply search of these reasons should be done to adjust this negative situation to success of administration. First of all, Chris Argyris and the Theory of Maturity/imm...
Zhang, Yachao
2014-12-01
A first-principles study of critical temperatures (Tc) of spin crossover (SCO) materials requires accurate description of the strongly correlated 3d electrons as well as much computational effort. This task is still a challenge for the widely used local density or generalized gradient approximations (LDA/GGA) and hybrid functionals. One remedy, termed density functional theory plus U (DFT+U) approach, introduces a Hubbard U term to deal with the localized electrons at marginal computational cost, while treats the delocalized electrons with LDA/GGA. Here, we employ the DFT+U approach to investigate the Tc of a pair of iron(II) SCO molecular crystals (α and β phase), where identical constituent molecules are packed in different ways. We first calculate the adiabatic high spin-low spin energy splitting ΔEHL and molecular vibrational frequencies in both spin states, then obtain the temperature dependent enthalpy and entropy changes (ΔH and ΔS), and finally extract Tc by exploiting the ΔH/T - T and ΔS - T relationships. The results are in agreement with experiment. Analysis of geometries and electronic structures shows that the local ligand field in the α phase is slightly weakened by the H-bondings involving the ligand atoms and the specific crystal packing style. We find that this effect is largely responsible for the difference in Tc of the two phases. This study shows the applicability of the DFT+U approach for predicting Tc of SCO materials, and provides a clear insight into the subtle influence of the crystal packing effects on SCO behavior.
Thomson, Oliver P; Petty, Nicola J; Moore, Ann P
2014-02-01
There is limited understanding of how osteopaths make decisions in relation to clinical practice. The aim of this research was to construct an explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of experienced osteopaths in the UK. Twelve UK registered osteopaths participated in this constructivist grounded theory qualitative study. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to select participants. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed. As the study approached theoretical sufficiency, participants were observed and video-recorded during a patient appointment, which was followed by a video-prompted interview. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyse and code data. Data analysis resulted in the construction of three qualitatively different therapeutic approaches which characterised participants and their clinical practice, termed; Treater, Communicator and Educator. Participants' therapeutic approach influenced their approach to clinical decision-making, the level of patient involvement, their interaction with patients, and therapeutic goals. Participants' overall conception of practice lay on a continuum ranging from technical rationality to professional artistry, and contributed to their therapeutic approach. A range of factors were identified which influenced participants' conception of practice. The findings indicate that there is variation in osteopaths' therapeutic approaches to practice and clinical decision-making, which are influenced by their overall conception of practice. This study provides the first explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of osteopaths. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yan, Wei
2015-01-01
We investigate the hydrodynamic theory of metals, offering systematic studies of the linear-response dynamics for an inhomogeneous electron gas. We include the quantum functional terms of the Thomas-Fermi kinetic energy, the von Weizsa¨cker kinetic energy, and the exchange-correlation Coulomb...... energies under the local density approximation. The advantages, limitations, and possible improvements of the hydrodynamic theory are transparently demonstrated. The roles of various parameters in the theory are identified. We anticipate that the hydrodynamic theory can be applied to investigate the linear...
Waller, Jo; Ostini, Remo; Marlow, Laura A V; McCaffery, Kirsten; Zimet, Gregory
2013-01-01
Public understanding of HPV is important to ensure informed participation in cervical cancer prevention programmes. While many studies have measured HPV knowledge, none has developed a validated measure for use across countries. We aimed to develop and validate such a measure. Items tapping knowledge of HPV, HPV testing and HPV vaccination were developed from previous literature and with expert consultation. The 29-item measure was administered via the internet to 2409 adults in the UK, US and Australia in 2011. Classical test theory and item response theory were used to establish the measure's psychometric properties. Total scale reliability was very good (α = 0.838), as was internal consistency for a 16-item general HPV knowledge subset (α = 0.849). Subsets of HPV testing and vaccination items showed reasonable test-retest reliability (r(test-retest) = 0.62 and 0.69) but moderate internal consistency (α = 0.52 and 0.56). Dimensionality analyses suggested that one item was not measuring the same construct as the remainder of the questionnaire. A 2-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) model was fitted to the remaining 28 scale items. A structurally coherent set of items covering a range of important HPV knowledge was developed. Responses indicated a reliable questionnaire, which allowed the fitting of an IRT model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
INJURY AND IMMUNE RESPONSE: APPLYING THE DANGER THEORY IN MOSQUITOES
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Miguel eMoreno-García
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The insect immune response can be activated by the recognition of both non-self and molecular by-products of tissue damage. Since pathogens and tissue damage usually arise at the same time during infection, the specific mechanisms of the immune response to microorganisms and to tissue damage have not been unraveled. Consequently, some aspects of damage caused by microorganisms in vector-borne arthropods have been neglected. We herein reassess the Anopheles-Plasmodium interaction, incorporating Matzinger’s danger/damage hypothesis and George Salt’s injury assumptions. The invasive forms of the parasite cross the peritrophic matrix and midgut epithelia to reach the basal lamina and differentiate into an oocyst. The sporozoites produced in the oocyst are released into the haemolymph, and from there enter the salivary gland. During parasite development, wounds to midgut tissue and the basement membrane are produced. We describe the response of the different compartments where the parasite interacts with the mosquito. In the midgut, the response includes the expression of antimicrobial peptides, production of reactive oxygen species and possible activation of midgut regenerative cells. In the basal membrane, wound repair mainly involves the production of molecules and the recruitment of haemocytes. We discuss the susceptibility to damage in tissues, and how the place and degree of damage may influence the differential response and the expression of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs. Knowledge about damage caused by parasites may lead to a deeper understanding of the relevance of tissue damage and the immune response it generates, as well as the origins and progression of infection in this insect-parasite interaction.
Metatheories and Organizational Theory: A Pragmatic Response to Metatheoretical Uncertainty
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Stratos E. Ramoglou
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Metatheoretical dilemmas about the nature of the social world often animate organizational theorists who purport to dissolve pertinent controversies along truth-laden lines of philosophical argumentation. The present paper acknowledges the inescapable uncertainty at this level of discourse to nonetheless resist taking the usual step according to which metatheoretical discourse should be abandoned as unhelpful, if not misleading, metaphysics. However, it also parts from traditional modes of metatheoretical defense to instead try to identify whether metatheoretical frameworks, beyond considerations of any possible cognitive merit in deciphering the nature of the world, may be of any use in making a desirable difference in the world. In developing a pragmatist defense of realist metatheories, we may explicitly value metatheoretical discourse from a novel standpoint and further delineate subtle conceptual relations between metatheory, theory, phenomenological acceptance, action and epistemic ethics.
On the Contributions of a Network Approach to Personality Theory and Research.
Furr, R Michael; Fleeson, William; Anderson, Michelle; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield
2012-07-01
Understanding personality structure and processes is one of the most fundamental goals in personality psychology. The network approach presented by Cramer et al. represents a useful path toward this goal, and we address two facets of their approach. First, we examine the possibility that it solves the problem of breadth, which has inhibited the integration of trait theory with social cognitive theory. Second, we evaluate the value and usability of their proposed method (qgraph), doing so by conducting idiographic analyses of the symptom structure of Borderline Personality Disorder.
Towards socio-material approaches in simulation-based education: lessons from complexity theory.
Fenwick, Tara; Dahlgren, Madeleine Abrandt
2015-04-01
Review studies of simulation-based education (SBE) consistently point out that theory-driven research is lacking. The literature to date is dominated by discourses of fidelity and authenticity - creating the 'real' - with a strong focus on the developing of clinical procedural skills. Little of this writing incorporates the theory and research proliferating in professional studies more broadly, which show how professional learning is embodied, relational and situated in social - material relations. A key concern for medical educators concerns how to better prepare students for the unpredictable and dynamic ambiguity of professional practice; this has stimulated the movement towards socio-material theories in education that address precisely this question. Among the various socio-material theories that are informing new developments in professional education, complexity theory has been of particular importance for medical educators interested in updating current practices. This paper outlines key elements of complexity theory, illustrated with examples from empirical study, to argue its particular relevance for improving SBE. Complexity theory can make visible important material dynamics, and their problematic consequences, that are not often noticed in simulated experiences in medical training. It also offers conceptual tools that can be put to practical use. This paper focuses on concepts of emergence, attunement, disturbance and experimentation. These suggest useful new approaches for designing simulated settings and scenarios, and for effective pedagogies before, during and following simulation sessions. Socio-material approaches such as complexity theory are spreading through research and practice in many aspects of professional education across disciplines. Here, we argue for the transformative potential of complexity theory in medical education using simulation as our focus. Complexity tools open questions about the socio-material contradictions inherent in
Wetzel, Eunike; Hell, Benedikt
2014-01-01
Vocational interest inventories are commonly analyzed using a unidimensional approach, that is, each subscale is analyzed separately. However, the theories on which these inventories are based often postulate specific relationships between the interest traits. This article presents a multidimensional approach to the analysis of vocational interest…
Integrating affective responses into game theory: A dual selves model
Greiff, Matthias
2015-01-01
This paper develops a method to integrate affective reponses into game theoretical models. We illustrate our method in a team production framework. The model analyzes how concave and convex status preferences for esteem solve the problem of team production under complete and incomplete information about workers’ abilities. Using a dual selves model, we model the choice of effort as a deliberative decision and the expression of esteem as an affective response. Modeling an individual’s affectiv...
Educational Syncretism: Call for a Hyper-modernist Educational Theory Through Proactionary Approach
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M. Mahmoodi-Shahrebabaki
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Presently, the modernist theory of education is losing its momentum and is superseded by the so-called omnipotent postmodernist theories, which, speciously, claim that have proffered solutions to all educational enigmas. Although the postmodernist educational theory is in its ascendancy, especially in the Western world, the tenets of postmodern educational theories, with their over-permissive and desultory blueprints, are not without obvious pitfalls. I argue that, today, with the rapid circulation of information and sweeping transformations in the nature of education-job interactions, we have passed the postmodern era and stepped into a new era called hyper-modernism. Hence, I remind the necessity of formation of syncretism in our educational theorization and I explain that it has to be built upon a proactionary approach since we are, if not within already, one verge of Hyper-modernization.
Revision of the ICIDH Severity of Disabilities Scale by data linking and item response theory
Buuren, S. van; Hopman-Rock, M.
2001-01-01
The Severity of Disabilities Scale (SDS) of the ICIDH reflects the degree to which an individual's ability to perform a certain activity is restricted. This paper describes the application of two models from item response theory (IRT), the graded response model and the partial credit model, in order
Time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the metallic response of solids
Romaniello, P; de Boeij, PL
We extend the formulation of time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the linear response properties of dielectric and semi-metallic solids [Kootstra , J. Chem. Phys. 112, 6517 (2000)] to treat metals as well. To achieve this, the Kohn-Sham response functions have to include both
Anderson, Daniel; Kahn, Joshua D.; Tindal, Gerald
2017-01-01
Unidimensionality and local independence are two common assumptions of item response theory. The former implies that all items measure a common latent trait, while the latter implies that responses are independent, conditional on respondents' location on the latent trait. Yet, few tests are truly unidimensional. Unmodeled dimensions may result in…
A Polytomous Item Response Theory Analysis of Social Physique Anxiety Scale
Fletcher, Richard B.; Crocker, Peter
2014-01-01
The present study investigated the social physique anxiety scale's factor structure and item properties using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory. An additional aim was to identify differences in response patterns between groups (gender). A large sample of high school students aged 11-15 years (N = 1,529) consisting of n =…
IRTPRO 2.1 for Windows (Item Response Theory for Patient-Reported Outcomes)
Paek, Insu; Han, Kyung T.
2013-01-01
This article reviews a new item response theory (IRT) model estimation program, IRTPRO 2.1, for Windows that is capable of unidimensional and multidimensional IRT model estimation for existing and user-specified constrained IRT models for dichotomously and polytomously scored item response data. (Contains 1 figure and 2 notes.)
Newton’s method an updated approach of Kantorovich’s theory
Ezquerro Fernández, José Antonio
2017-01-01
This book shows the importance of studying semilocal convergence in iterative methods through Newton's method and addresses the most important aspects of the Kantorovich's theory including implicated studies. Kantorovich's theory for Newton's method used techniques of functional analysis to prove the semilocal convergence of the method by means of the well-known majorant principle. To gain a deeper understanding of these techniques the authors return to the beginning and present a deep-detailed approach of Kantorovich's theory for Newton's method, where they include old results, for a historical perspective and for comparisons with new results, refine old results, and prove their most relevant results, where alternative approaches leading to new sufficient semilocal convergence criteria for Newton's method are given. The book contains many numerical examples involving nonlinear integral equations, two boundary value problems and systems of nonlinear equations related to numerous physical phenomena. The book i...
Social capital theory related to corporate social responsibility
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eva Abramuszkinová Pavlíková
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The article deals with corporate social responsibility and its relationship to strategic management dealing with acquisition, development and utilisation of essential inputs. They influence the design of processes related to the creation of products or services that satisfy customers’ needs. Authors claim that the successful securing, deployment and development of any input is of human origin or linked to human activity which means that the nature of relationships plays a crucial role. As businesses are not isolated, they operate on a global scale where the question of trust is very important. The concept of social capital stresses that trust in norms and reciprocity facilitate increased productivity in individuals, teams and organisations. Social capital promotes value-added collaboration including on-going and demonstrative transparency which can secure closer bonding among those group members. Business responsibility, CSR and Putnam’s definition of social capital is shown on real case studies as a sign of importance for credibility and effectiveness of any CSR efforts. It is evident that the good will and support garnered from CSR can be fragile and easily damaged.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ferruccio ePanzica
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In the context of focal drug-resistant epilepsies, the surgical resection of the epileptogenic zone (EZ, the cortical region responsible for the onset, early seizures organization and propagation, may be the only therapeutic option for reducing or suppressing seizures. The rather high rate of failure in epilepsy surgery of extra-temporal epilepsies highlights that the precise identification of the EZ, mandatory objective to achieve seizure freedom, is still an unsolved problem that requires more sophisticated methods of investigation.Despite the wide range of non-invasive investigations, intracranial stereo-EEG (SEEG recordings still represent, in many patients, the gold standard for the EZ identification. In this contest, the EZ localization is still based on visual analysis of SEEG, inevitably affected by the drawback of subjectivity and strongly time-consuming. Over the last years, considerable efforts have been made to develop advanced signal analysis techniques able to improve the identification of the EZ. Particular attention has been paid to those methods aimed at quantifying and characterising the interactions and causal relationships between neuronal populations, since is nowadays well assumed that epileptic phenomena are associated with abnormal changes in brain synchronisation mechanisms, and initial evidence has shown the suitability of this approach for the EZ localisation. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the different EEG signal processing methods applied to study connectivity between distinct brain cortical regions, namely in focal epilepsies. In addition, with the aim of localizing the EZ, the approach based on graph theory will be described, since the study of the topological properties of the networks has strongly improved the study of brain connectivity mechanisms.
Panzica, Ferruccio; Varotto, Giulia; Rotondi, Fabio; Spreafico, Roberto; Franceschetti, Silvana
2013-11-06
In the context of focal drug-resistant epilepsies, the surgical resection of the epileptogenic zone (EZ), the cortical region responsible for the onset, early seizures organization, and propagation, may be the only therapeutic option for reducing or suppressing seizures. The rather high rate of failure in epilepsy surgery of extra-temporal epilepsies highlights that the precise identification of the EZ, mandatory objective to achieve seizure freedom, is still an unsolved problem that requires more sophisticated methods of investigation. Despite the wide range of non-invasive investigations, intracranial stereo-EEG (SEEG) recordings still represent, in many patients, the gold standard for the EZ identification. In this contest, the EZ localization is still based on visual analysis of SEEG, inevitably affected by the drawback of subjectivity and strongly time-consuming. Over the last years, considerable efforts have been made to develop advanced signal analysis techniques able to improve the identification of the EZ. Particular attention has been paid to those methods aimed at quantifying and characterizing the interactions and causal relationships between neuronal populations, since is nowadays well assumed that epileptic phenomena are associated with abnormal changes in brain synchronization mechanisms, and initial evidence has shown the suitability of this approach for the EZ localization. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the different EEG signal processing methods applied to study connectivity between distinct brain cortical regions, namely in focal epilepsies. In addition, with the aim of localizing the EZ, the approach based on graph theory will be described, since the study of the topological properties of the networks has strongly improved the study of brain connectivity mechanisms.
A Profile Approach to Self-Determination Theory Motivations at Work
Moran, Christina M.; Diefendorff, James M.; Kim, Tae-Yeol; Liu, Zhi-Qiang
2012-01-01
Self-determination theory (SDT) posits the existence of distinct types of motivation (i.e., external, introjected, identified, integrated, and intrinsic). Research on these different types of motivation has typically adopted a variable-centered approach that seeks to understand how each motivation in isolation relates to employee outcomes. We…
Piedra, Lissette M.; Engstrom, David W.
2009-01-01
The life model offers social workers a promising framework to use in assisting immigrant families. However, the complexities of adaptation to a new country may make it difficult for social workers to operate from a purely ecological approach. The authors use segmented assimilation theory to better account for the specificities of the immigrant…
Learner-Centred Pedagogy for Swim Coaching: A Complex Learning Theory-Informed Approach
Light, Richard
2014-01-01
While constructivist theories of learning have been widely drawn on to understand and explain learning in games when using game-based approaches their use to inform pedagogy beyond games is limited. In particular, there has been little interest in applying constructivist perspectives on learning to sports in which technique is of prime importance.…
Current Cognitive Distortion Theory and Research: An Internalist Approach to Cognition
Gannon, Theresa A.
2009-01-01
This review examines contemporary cognitive distortion theory and research relating to sexual offenders. In particular, this review highlights that researchers--to date--have tended to adopt an internalist approach to sexual offenders' cognition which views offence-supportive cognitive activity as occurring solely within the mind. This review…
Science and Social Practice: Action Research and Activity Theory as Socio-Critical Approaches
Langemeyer, Ines
2011-01-01
Action research and activity theory are considered by a number of followers as socio-critical approaches, whereas others do not relate them to social-criticism and use them merely as methods to improve practice. This article searches for general insights in Kurt Lewin's and Lev S. Vygotsky's work into how one proceeds and acts critically. In their…
Sheppard, Carol A.; Prischmann, Deirdre A.
2003-01-01
Develops activities based on pedagogical research that indicate that student engagement and comprehension are enhanced by methodologies that promote active participation, critical thinking, and an interdisciplinary, contextualist approach to teach evolutionary theory to students in an upper-division, capstone course. Provides critical thinking…
Lin, Su-ching; Wu, Ming-sui
2016-01-01
This study was the first year of a two-year project which applied a program theory-driven approach to evaluating the impact of teachers' professional development interventions on students' learning by using a mix of methods, qualitative inquiry, and quasi-experimental design. The current study was to show the results of using the method of…
Wang, Carrie Lijuan; Ha, Amy S.
2013-01-01
The two-pronged purpose of this study is to examine factors determining the teaching behaviour of pre-service physical education (PE) teachers towards a constructivist approach, likewise referred to as teaching games for understanding (TGfU). Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was applied to guide the formulation of research purpose and design. Six…
Straalen, IJ.J. van
2000-01-01
During tthe 1990's the higher-order theory was developed by Frostig to enable detailed stress analyses of sandwich panel structures. To investigate the potentials of this approach experiments are performed on sandwich panels made of thin steel faces and mineral wool or polystyrene core material. A
Smith, Ryan Lee
2006-01-01
The purpose of this study was to use human capital theory to develop a policy approach towards college student migration in Illinois. A rate of return analysis revealed the social rate of return for college student migrants who return to Illinois and the private rate of return was 15.95%. It was estimated that due to college student migration in…
Xia, Saihua
2009-01-01
This paper investigates ESL learners' awareness of pragmatic skills utilizing an activity-theory driven approach to perform an inquiry task into problem-solving service call conversations (PSSCs) between native speakers (NS) and non-native speakers of English (NNSs). Eight high-intermediate ESL learners, from five different language backgrounds,…
Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Hatala, Marek; Huang, Hsiu-Mei
2010-01-01
Mobile devices could facilitate human interaction and access to knowledge resources anytime and anywhere. With respect to wide application possibilities of mobile learning, investigating learners' acceptance towards it is an essential issue. Based on activity theory approach, this research explores positive factors for the acceptance of m-learning…
Critical theory as an approach to the ethics of information security.
Stahl, Bernd Carsten; Doherty, Neil F; Shaw, Mark; Janicke, Helge
2014-09-01
Information security can be of high moral value. It can equally be used for immoral purposes and have undesirable consequences. In this paper we suggest that critical theory can facilitate a better understanding of possible ethical issues and can provide support when finding ways of addressing them. The paper argues that critical theory has intrinsic links to ethics and that it is possible to identify concepts frequently used in critical theory to pinpoint ethical concerns. Using the example of UK electronic medical records the paper demonstrates that a critical lens can highlight issues that traditional ethical theories tend to overlook. These are often linked to collective issues such as social and organisational structures, which philosophical ethics with its typical focus on the individual does not tend to emphasise. The paper suggests that this insight can help in developing ways of researching and innovating responsibly in the area of information security.
The user-oriented evaluator's role in formulating a program theory: Using a theory-driven approach
Christie, CA; Alkin, MC
2003-01-01
Program theory plays a prominent role in many evaluations, not only in theory-driven evaluations. This paper presents a case study of the process of developing and refining a program's theory within a user-oriented evaluation. In user-oriented (or utilization-focused) evaluations, primary users can play a role in defining their own program theory. This is different, however, from the typical process by which a program theory is developed when using theory-driven evaluation framework. This cas...
Enabling Automated Dynamic Demand Response: From Theory to Practice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frincu, Marc; Chelmis, Charalampos; Aman, Saima; Saeed, Rizwan; Zois, Vasileios; Prasanna, Viktor
2015-07-14
Demand response (DR) is a technique used in smart grids to shape customer load during peak hours. Automated DR offers utilities a fine grained control and a high degree of confidence in the outcome. However the impact on the customer's comfort means this technique is more suited for industrial and commercial settings than for residential homes. In this paper we propose a system for achieving automated controlled DR in a heterogeneous environment. We present some of the main issues arising in building such a system, including privacy, customer satisfiability, reliability, and fast decision turnaround, with emphasis on the solutions we proposed. Based on the lessons we learned from empirical results we describe an integrated automated system for controlled DR on the USC microgrid. Results show that while on a per building per event basis the accuracy of our prediction and customer selection techniques varies, it performs well on average when considering several events and buildings.
Covalent bonding from alchemical linear response density functional theory
Chang, K Y Samuel; Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole
2015-01-01
We assess the predictive accuracy of linear response based estimates of changes in covalent bonding due to linear alchemical interpolations among molecules. We have investigated single bonds to hydrogen, as well as single, double, and triple bonds between main-group elements, occurring in small iso-electronic molecular spaces with atomic elements drawn from rows 2-3 in the $p$-block of the periodic table. Numerical evidence suggests that first order estimates of bonding potentials can achieve chemical accuracy if the alchemical interpolation connects molecules containing late elements in the periodic table (3$^{rd}$ and 4$^{th}$ row) and identical number of atoms and molecular geometries. For these interpolations, changes in bonding potential are near-linear in the coupling parameter, resulting in accurate Hellmann-Feynman predictions. Second order estimates for such interpolations yield worse predictions. The predictions become substantially worse if initial and final molecules differ not only in composition...
Di Remigio, Roberto; Beerepoot, Maarten T P; Cornaton, Yann; Ringholm, Magnus; Steindal, Arnfinn Hykkerud; Ruud, Kenneth; Frediani, Luca
2016-12-21
The study of high-order absorption properties of molecules is a field of growing importance. Quantum-chemical studies can help design chromophores with desirable characteristics. Given that most experiments are performed in solution, it is important to devise a cost-effective strategy to include solvation effects in quantum-chemical studies of these properties. We here present an open-ended formulation of self-consistent field (SCF) response theory for a molecular solute coupled to a polarizable continuum model (PCM) description of the solvent. Our formulation relies on the open-ended, density matrix-based quasienergy formulation of SCF response theory of Thorvaldsen, et al., [J. Chem. Phys., 2008, 129, 214108] and the variational formulation of the PCM, as presented by Lipparini et al., [J. Chem. Phys., 2010, 133, 014106]. Within the PCM approach to solvation, the mutual solute-solvent polarization is represented by means of an apparent surface charge (ASC) spread over the molecular cavity defining the solute-solvent boundary. In the variational formulation, the ASC is an independent, variational degree of freedom. This allows us to formulate response theory for molecular solutes in the fixed-cavity approximation up to arbitrary order and with arbitrary perturbation operators. For electric dipole perturbations, pole and residue analyses of the response functions naturally lead to the identification of excitation energies and transition moments. We document the implementation of this approach in the Dalton program package using a recently developed open-ended response code and the PCMSolver libraries and present results for one-, two-, three-, four- and five-photon absorption processes of three small molecules in solution.
Learning the Theory in Reverse: An Epistemological Approach to Introducing Concept
Mauger, G. S.
2008-12-01
One of the great challenges in teaching at all levels is to involve and habituate students to the process of scientific thinking. To fully understand new concepts, students must understand the reasoning that led to their formulation. In this talk I discuss the use of an epistemological approach to introducing new concepts. The approach is based on the idea that both motivation to learn and comprehension are enhanced when students are introduced to the process of creating new theories. A simple example from atmospheric science might be the decrease in atmospheric pressure with height. In the present approach, a discussion is generated in which students attempt to develop a theory that explains this phenomenon. Different theories are critically evaluated until the class centers on a chosen explanation, at which point the accepted scientific explanation is presented. An essential point is that the students need not center on the correct explanation: the emphasis in this approach is the process. More complex examples, such as a discussion of how clouds form, can span multiple lectures and include a number of sub-concepts. Practical considerations are discussed regarding the design and implementation of the method for large survey courses. At its core, the above approach is simply designed to help students internalize the use of the scientific method: observe, explain, and evaluate the explanation. By involving students in this process, the subject matter becomes both accessible and engaging.
Photon control by multi-periodic binary grating waveguides: A coupled-mode theory approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adam, Jost; Lüder, Hannes; Gerken, Martina
- taneous control over multiple spectral resonance positions and relative intensities. The experimental findings were theoretically backed up by a rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) approach, yielding the leaky modes’ complex propagation constants and diffraction efficiencies. This approach, however, can...... only lead to quantitative results outside the device’s band gaps, since only radiative propagation loss is calculated.n order to provide more physical and quantitative insight to grating-induced waveguide losses, we implemented a coupled-mode theory (CMT) approach for the semi-analytical treatment...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wusheng Zhang
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Research into the effectiveness of customer complaint management has attracted researchers, yet there has been little discussion on customer complaint management in the context of systematic knowledge management approach particularly in the domain of hotel industry. This paper aims to address such gap through the application of object-oriented theory for which the notation of unified modelling language has been adopted for the representation of the concepts, objects, relationships and vocabularies in the domain. The paper used data from forty seven hotel management staff and academics in hospitalitymanagement to investigate lessons learned and best practices in customer complaint management and knowledge management. By providing insights into the potential of a knowledge management approach using object oriented theory, this study advances our understanding on how a knowledge management approach can systematically support the management of hotel customer complaints.
Developing a grounded theory approach: a comparison of Glaser and Strauss.
Heath, Helen; Cowley, Sarah
2004-02-01
Novice qualitative researchers are often unsure regarding the analysis of their data and, where grounded theory is chosen, they may be uncertain regarding the differences that now exist between the approaches of Glaser and Strauss, who together first described the method. These two approaches are compared in relation to roots and divergences, role of induction, deduction and verification, ways in which data are coded and the format of generated theory. Personal experience of developing as a ground theorist is used to illustrate some of the key differences. A conclusion is drawn that, rather than debate relative merits of the two approaches, suggests that novice researchers need to select the method that best suits their cognitive style and develop analytic skills through doing research.
The cultural lens approach to evaluating cultural validity of psychological theory.
Hardin, Erin E; Robitschek, Christine; Flores, Lisa Y; Navarro, Rachel L; Ashton, Matthew W
2014-10-01
In this article, we introduce the cultural lens approach (CLA), a novel approach to evaluating the extent to which a psychological theory applies across cultural groups. The CLA requires scholars to apply their accumulated knowledge about cultural influences and differences (e.g., independent and interdependent self-construals; Markus & Kitayama, 1991) to the ways in which theoretical propositions are interpreted and operationalized. First we highlight three limitations in existing approaches to cultural validity and the ways in which the CLA addresses these limitations. Next, we articulate the five steps involved in the CLA and apply it to three different theories from social, vocational, and positive psychology to demonstrate its broad utility. In all cases, we highlight how applying the CLA can generate multiple novel testable hypotheses to stimulate future research and to advance knowledge that is culturally sensitive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Nesman, Teresa M; Batsche, Catherine; Hernandez, Mario
2007-08-01
Latino student access to higher education has received significant national attention in recent years. This article describes a theory-based evaluation approach used with ENLACE of Hillsborough, a 5-year project funded by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation for the purpose of increasing Latino student graduation from high school and college. Theory-based evaluation guided planning, implementation as well as evaluation through the process of developing consensus on the Latino population of focus, adoption of culturally appropriate principles and values to guide the project, and identification of strategies to reach, engage, and impact outcomes for Latino students and their families. The approach included interactive development of logic models that focused the scope of interventions and guided evaluation designs for addressing three stages of the initiative. Challenges and opportunities created by the approach are discussed, as well as ways in which the initiative impacted Latino students and collaborating educational institutions.
Understanding responses to feedback: the potential and limitations of regulatory focus theory.
Watling, Christopher; Driessen, Erik; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Vanstone, Meredith; Lingard, Lorelei
2012-06-01
Regulatory focus theory posits the existence of two systems of self-regulation underlying human motivation: promotion focus, which is concerned with aspirations and accomplishments, and prevention focus, which is concerned with obligations and responsibilities. It has been proposed that regulatory focus theory may help to explain learners' variable responses to feedback, predicting that positive feedback is motivating under promotion focus, whereas negative feedback is motivating under prevention focus. We aimed to explore this link between regulatory focus theory and response to feedback using data collected in a naturalistic setting. In a constructivist grounded theory study, we interviewed 22 early-career academic doctors about experiences they perceived as influential in their learning. Although feedback emerged as important, responses to feedback were highly variable. To better understand how feedback becomes (or fails to become) influential, we used the theoretical framework of regulatory focus to re-examine all descriptions of experiences of receiving and responding to feedback. Feedback could be influential or non-influential, regardless of its sign (positive or negative). In circumstances in which the individual's regulatory focus was readily determined, such as in choosing a career (promotion) or preparing for a high-stakes examination (prevention), the apparent influence of feedback was consistent with the prediction of regulatory focus theory. However, we encountered many challenges in applying regulatory focus theory to real feedback scenarios, including the frequent presence of a mixed regulatory focus, the potential for regulatory focus to change over time, and the competing influences of other factors, such as the perceived credibility of the source or content of the feedback. Regulatory focus theory offers a useful, if limited, construct for exploring learners' responses to feedback in the clinical setting. The insights and predictions it offers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nguyen Van Han
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Discourse analysis, as Murcia and Olshtain (2000 assume, is a vast study of language in use that extends beyond sentence level, and it involves a more cognitive and social perspective on language use and communication exchanges. Holding a wide range of phenomena about language with society, culture and thought, discourse analysis contains various approaches: speech act, pragmatics, conversation analysis, variation analysis, and critical discourse analysis. Each approach works in its different domain to discourse. For one dimension, it shares the same assumptions or general problems in discourse analysis with the other approaches: for instance, the explanation on how we organize language into units beyond sentence boundaries, or how language is used to convey information about the world, ourselves and human relationships (Schiffrin 1994: viii. For other dimensions, each approach holds its distinctive characteristics contributing to the vastness of discourse analysis. This paper will mainly discuss two approaches to discourse analysis- conversation analysis and speech act theory- and will attempt to point out some similarities as well as contrasting features between the two approaches, followed by a short reflection on their strengths and weaknesses in the essence of each approach. The organizational and discourse features in the exchanges among three teachers at the College of Finance and Customs in Vietnam will be analysed in terms of conversation analysis and speech act theory.
A large deviations approach to limit theory for heavy-tailed time series
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Wintenberger, Olivier
2016-01-01
In this paper we propagate a large deviations approach for proving limit theory for (generally) multivariate time series with heavy tails. We make this notion precise by introducing regularly varying time series. We provide general large deviation results for functionals acting on a sample path...... and vanishing in some neighborhood of the origin. We study a variety of such functionals, including large deviations of random walks, their suprema, the ruin functional, and further derive weak limit theory for maxima, point processes, cluster functionals and the tail empirical process. One of the main results...
Truncated Hilbert space approach to the 2d ϕ{sup 4} theory
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Bajnok, Zoltan [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre for Physics,Konkoly Thege Miklós út 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Lajer, Marton [Roland Eötvös University,Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A, Budapest (Hungary)
2016-10-11
We apply the massive analogue of the truncated conformal space approach to study the two dimensional ϕ{sup 4} theory in finite volume. We focus on the broken phase and determine the finite size spectrum of the model numerically. We interpret the results in terms of the Bethe-Yang spectrum, from which we extract the infinite volume masses and scattering matrices for various couplings. We compare these results against semiclassical analysis and perturbation theory. We also analyze the critical point of the model and confirm that it is in the Ising universality class.
Coping responses by adults who stutter: part II. Approaching the problem and achieving agency.
Plexico, Laura; Manning, Walter H; Levitt, Heidi
2009-06-01
As with the first of two companion manuscripts, this investigation employed a grounded theory approach to identify patterns of coping responses by adults responding to the stress resulting from the threat of stuttering. The companion paper described emotion-based avoidant coping responses that were used to protect both the speaker and the listener from experiencing discomfort associated with stuttering. This paper describes two cognitive-based approach patterns that emphasize self-focused and problem-focused forms of coping. The first of the cognitive-based coping patterns involved speakers approaching stuttering with a broader perspective about themselves and the experience of stuttering, resulting in an improved self-concept and increased self-confidence. The second coping pattern involved speakers focusing on their own goals which results in increased agency and self-confidence. Participants described the development of more functional coping responses. They moved from emotion-based avoidant patterns of coping that focused on protecting the self and the listener from experiencing discomfort associated with stuttering to cognitive-based approach patterns that focused on the needs of the speaker. As the participants chose to approach rather than avoid or escape stuttering, they experienced many positive social, physical, cognitive, and affective results. The reader will be able to: (1) describe, from the perspective of a select group of adults who stutter, the themes associated with the process of coping with stuttering, (2) describe the basic rationale for the procedures associated with grounded theory methods, (3) describe the factors that influence coping choices, and (4) explain the factors that contribute the use of approach-oriented and agentic coping strategies.
New Approaches to the Study of Students' Response to Science
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krogh, Lars
2011-01-01
of science and school science. In this chapter I describe two new approaches to the study of students’ responses to school science, both pragmatic by nature, and combining perspectives from cultural research with a quantitative or a Mixed Methods methodology. The approaches have been applied to studies......’Students’ responses’ to science include their attitudes and internalization of science (e.g. valueing, identifying) as well as their choices and actions related to science. This broader conception has advantages over attitudes alone, when it comes to understanding students’ paths in and out...... of Physics in Danish upper secondary school, and though these targeted different aspects of students’ responses and applied highly different methods the results were found to complement each other. A study using the first approach related students’ attitudes towards physics to various types of Cultural...
Nelson, James
2015-01-01
This paper offers a critical reflection upon the use of a grounded theory approach within a doctoral study. As well as providing an outline of grounded theory, it begins by noting the existence of some powerful critiques of a grounded theory approach, in particular around the key concepts of ‘theory’, ‘discovery’ and ‘ground’. It is argued that, in some cases, grounded theory struggles to counter these challenges, especially in its ‘purist’ forms. However, with reference to research carried o...
Egberink, I.J.L.; Meijer, R.R.
2011-01-01
The authors investigated the psychometric properties of the subscales of the Self-Perception Profile for Children with item response theory (IRT) models using a sample of 611 children. Results from a nonparametric Mokken analysis and a parametric IRT approach for boys (n = 268) and girls (n = 343)
Brackenbury, Tim; Zickar, Michael J.; Munson, Benjamin; Storkel, Holly L.
2017-01-01
Purpose: Item response theory (IRT) is a psychometric approach to measurement that uses latent trait abilities (e.g., speech sound production skills) to model performance on individual items that vary by difficulty and discrimination. An IRT analysis was applied to preschoolers' productions of the words on the Goldman-Fristoe Test of…
Tay, L.; Huang, Q.; Vermunt, J.K.
2016-01-01
In large-scale testing, the use of multigroup approaches is limited for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) across multiple variables as DIF is examined for each variable separately. In contrast, the item response theory with covariate (IRT-C) procedure can be used to examine DIF across
Egberink, Iris J. L.; Meijer, Rob R.
2011-01-01
The authors investigated the psychometric properties of the subscales of the Self-Perception Profile for Children with item response theory (IRT) models using a sample of 611 children. Results from a nonparametric Mokken analysis and a parametric IRT approach for boys (n = 268) and girls (n = 343) were compared. The authors found that most scales…
Egberink, Iris J. L.; Meijer, Rob R.
The authors investigated the psychometric properties of the subscales of the Self-Perception Profile for Children with item response theory (IRT) models using a sample of 611 children. Results from a nonparametric Mokken analysis and a parametric IRT approach for boys (n = 268) and girls (n = 343)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tandarić Neven
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Ever since its beginnings, landscape ecology has been developing in two different directions: the bioecological and the geoecological. While the bioecological approach is focused on the relationship between organisms and their abiotic environment, the geoecological approach is based on the relationship between human society and its, primarily abiotic, environment. Therefore, the geoecological approach can be applied in planning human use of the environment in a long term sustainable manner, while the bioecological approach could represent the basis for the planning of conservational and environmental usage. The merging of these two approaches will result in a comprehensive and more holistic landscape ecology, which will thus gain the potential for coordinating interdisciplinary landscape research and a more prominent role in contributing to spatial planning. The merge will also enhance attempts to create a general theory of landscape systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antony Bryant
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Recent articles on the Grounded Theory Method (GTM have started to analyze its conceptual and philosophical foundations. In particular it has been argued that the early characterizations by GLASER and STRAUSS exhibit a scientistic and positivist orientation that is no longer tenable. In her recent contribution to the GTM literature, CHARMAZ distinguished between objectivist GTM and constructivist GTM. This drew a response from Barney GLASER in an earlier issue of FQS. What follows is a rejoinder to GLASER, offering some clarification of developments in people's understanding of this important and widely-used qualitative approach. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0301155
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maryam Sharifzadeh
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Actor network theory as a qualitative approach to study complex social factors and process of socio-technical interaction provides new concepts and ideas to understand socio-technical nature of information systems. From the actor network theory viewpoint, agricultural climate information system is a network consisting of actors, actions and information related processes (production, transformation, storage, retrieval, integration, diffusion and utilization, control and management, and system mechanisms (interfaces and networks. Analysis of such systemsembody the identification of basic components and structure of the system (nodes –thedifferent sources of information production, extension, and users, and the understanding of how successfully the system works (interaction and links – in order to promote climate knowledge content and improve system performance to reach agricultural development. The present research attempted to introduce actor network theory as research framework based on network view of agricultural climate information system.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Popov, Vladislav; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Novitsky, Andrey
2016-01-01
We elaborate on an operator approach to effective medium theory for homogenization of the periodic multilayered structures composed of nonmagnetic isotropic materials, which is based on equating the spatial evolution operators for the original structure and its effective alternative. We show...... that the zeroth-, first-, and second-order approximations of the operator effective medium theory correspond to electric dipoles, chirality, and magnetic dipoles plus electric quadrupoles, respectively. We discover that the spatially dispersive bianisotropic effective medium obtained in the second......-order approximation perfectly replaces a multilayered composite and does not suffer from the effective medium approximation breakdown that happened near the critical angle of total internal reflection found previously in the conventional effective medium theory. We establish the criterion of the validity...
2015-01-01
This modern translation of Sophus Lie's and Friedrich Engel's “Theorie der Transformationsgruppen Band I” will allow readers to discover the striking conceptual clarity and remarkably systematic organizational thought of the original German text. Volume I presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory and is mainly directed towards the generalization of ideas drawn from the study of examples. The major part of the present volume offers an extremely clear translation of the lucid original. The first four chapters provide not only a translation, but also a contemporary approach, which will help present day readers to familiarize themselves with the concepts at the heart of the subject. The editor's main objective was to encourage a renewed interest in the detailed classification of Lie algebras in dimensions 1, 2 and 3, and to offer access to Sophus Lie's monumental Galois theory of continuous transformation groups, established at the end of the 19th Century. Lie groups are widespread in mathematics, p...
Research approach for forming a new typology of spatial planning theory
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Bulajić Vladan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available What is being suggested in this paper is the research approach for the classification of theoretical contributions in the scientific domain of the spatial planning. Typology is a multidimensional classification, actually it is the framework for the understanding of the subject area, theory and practice, ideas and methodologies. The complex approach is needed to organize the complex and diverse domain of spatial planning theory, which has been shaped by different schools of thought and the influences of the related scientific disciplines. It has been suggested that the research approach becomes the bridge between two cultures, in other words it should be the synthesis of the qualitative and quantitative methods of the typology construction. With the analysis of the existing typologies, which are quantitatively derived, the chosen concepts will be improved and completed due to the computerized statistical analysis of the appropriate bibliometrical data. Moreover, the procedure in the opposite direction will be used, which also connects empiric types with their conceptual counterparts. With that approach, the main aim is to achieve the comprehensive classification scheme, which will take part of the platform for integration of the interdisciplinary approach in the spatial planning domain. That concept of the research belongs to the wider approach that has got the aim that with the scientific innovations and imaginations bring about the solving of the problems and challenges that the spatial planning faces with. The forming of the new typology is the first step in that direction.
Hsu, Yung-Fong; Doble, Christopher W
2015-02-01
The study of thresholds for discriminability has been of long-standing interest in psychophysics. While threshold theories embrace the concept of discrete-state thresholds, signal detection theory discounts such a concept. In this paper we concern ourselves with the concept of thresholds from the discrete-state modelling viewpoint. In doing so, we find it necessary to clarify some fundamental issues germane to the psychometric function (PF), which is customarily constructed using psychophysical methods with a binary-response format. We challenge this response format and argue that response confidence also plays an important role in the construction of PFs, and thus should have some impact on threshold estimation. We motivate the discussion by adopting a three-state threshold theory for response confidence proposed by Krantz (1969, Psychol. Rev., 76, 308-324), which is a modification of Luce's (1963, Psychol. Rev., 70, 61-79) low-threshold theory. In particular, we discuss the case in which the practice of averaging over order (or position) is enforced in data collection. Finally, we illustrate the fit of the Luce-Krantz model to data from a line-discrimination task with response confidence. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
[Instrument to measure adherence in hypertensive patients: contribution of Item Response Theory].
Rodrigues, Malvina Thaís Pacheco; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhaes; Vasconcelos, Alexandre Meira de; Andrade, Dalton Francisco de; Silva, Daniele Braz da; Barbetta, Pedro Alberto
2013-06-01
To analyze, by means of "Item Response Theory", an instrument to measure adherence to t treatment for hypertension. Analytical study with 406 hypertensive patients with associated complications seen in primary care in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, 2011 using "Item Response Theory". The stages were: dimensionality test, calibrating the items, processing data and creating a scale, analyzed using the gradual response model. A study of the dimensionality of the instrument was conducted by analyzing the polychoric correlation matrix and factor analysis of complete information. Multilog software was used to calibrate items and estimate the scores. Items relating to drug therapy are the most directly related to adherence while those relating to drug-free therapy need to be reworked because they have less psychometric information and low discrimination. The independence of items, the small number of levels in the scale and low explained variance in the adjustment of the models show the main weaknesses of the instrument analyzed. The "Item Response Theory" proved to be a relevant analysis technique because it evaluated respondents for adherence to treatment for hypertension, the level of difficulty of the items and their ability to discriminate between individuals with different levels of adherence, which generates a greater amount of information. The instrument analyzed is limited in measuring adherence to hypertension treatment, by analyzing the "Item Response Theory" of the item, and needs adjustment. The proper formulation of the items is important in order to accurately measure the desired latent trait.
Characteristics of highly rated leadership in nursing homes using item response theory.
Backman, Annica; Sjögren, Karin; Lindkvist, Marie; Lövheim, Hugo; Edvardsson, David
2017-12-01
To identify characteristics of highly rated leadership in nursing homes. An ageing population entails fundamental social, economic and organizational challenges for future aged care. Knowledge is limited of both specific leadership behaviours and organizational and managerial characteristics which have an impact on the leadership of contemporary nursing home care. Cross-sectional. From 290 municipalities, 60 were randomly selected and 35 agreed to participate, providing a sample of 3605 direct-care staff employed in 169 Swedish nursing homes. The staff assessed their managers' (n = 191) leadership behaviours using the Leadership Behaviour Questionnaire. Data were collected from November 2013 - September 2014, and the study was completed in November 2016. A two-parameter item response theory approach and regression analyses were used to identify specific characteristics of highly rated leadership. Five specific behaviours of highly rated nursing home leadership were identified; that the manager: experiments with new ideas; controls work closely; relies on subordinates; coaches and gives direct feedback; and handles conflicts constructively. The regression analyses revealed that managers with social work backgrounds and privately run homes were significantly associated with higher leadership ratings. This study highlights the five most important leadership behaviours that characterize those nursing home managers rated highest in terms of leadership. Managers in privately run nursing homes and managers with social work backgrounds were associated with higher leadership ratings. Further work is needed to explore these behaviours and factors predictive of higher leadership ratings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.; Bijsterveld, M.J.L. van
2001-01-01
Compared to the critical success factors approach, Translation Theory, which is based on Callon/Latour's Actor-network Theory, presents an innovative and inspiring perspective of analyzing a particular management fashion: the so-called Integrated Approach to IT Management. We argue that the
How Decision Support Systems Can Benefit from a Theory of Change Approach.
Allen, Will; Cruz, Jennyffer; Warburton, Bruce
2017-06-01
Decision support systems are now mostly computer and internet-based information systems designed to support land managers with complex decision-making. However, there is concern that many environmental and agricultural decision support systems remain underutilized and ineffective. Recent efforts to improve decision support systems use have focused on enhancing stakeholder participation in their development, but a mismatch between stakeholders' expectations and the reality of decision support systems outputs continues to limit uptake. Additional challenges remain in problem-framing and evaluation. We propose using an outcomes-based approach called theory of change in conjunction with decision support systems development to support both wider problem-framing and outcomes-based monitoring and evaluation. The theory of change helps framing by placing the decision support systems within a wider context. It highlights how decision support systems use can "contribute" to long-term outcomes, and helps align decision support systems outputs with these larger goals. We illustrate the benefits of linking decision support systems development and application with a theory of change approach using an example of pest rabbit management in Australia. We develop a theory of change that outlines the activities required to achieve the outcomes desired from an effective rabbit management program, and two decision support systems that contribute to specific aspects of decision making in this wider problem context. Using a theory of change in this way should increase acceptance of the role of decision support systems by end-users, clarify their limitations and, importantly, increase effectiveness of rabbit management. The use of a theory of change should benefit those seeking to improve decision support systems design, use and, evaluation.
How Decision Support Systems Can Benefit from a Theory of Change Approach
Allen, Will; Cruz, Jennyffer; Warburton, Bruce
2017-06-01
Decision support systems are now mostly computer and internet-based information systems designed to support land managers with complex decision-making. However, there is concern that many environmental and agricultural decision support systems remain underutilized and ineffective. Recent efforts to improve decision support systems use have focused on enhancing stakeholder participation in their development, but a mismatch between stakeholders' expectations and the reality of decision support systems outputs continues to limit uptake. Additional challenges remain in problem-framing and evaluation. We propose using an outcomes-based approach called theory of change in conjunction with decision support systems development to support both wider problem-framing and outcomes-based monitoring and evaluation. The theory of change helps framing by placing the decision support systems within a wider context. It highlights how decision support systems use can "contribute" to long-term outcomes, and helps align decision support systems outputs with these larger goals. We illustrate the benefits of linking decision support systems development and application with a theory of change approach using an example of pest rabbit management in Australia. We develop a theory of change that outlines the activities required to achieve the outcomes desired from an effective rabbit management program, and two decision support systems that contribute to specific aspects of decision making in this wider problem context. Using a theory of change in this way should increase acceptance of the role of decision support systems by end-users, clarify their limitations and, importantly, increase effectiveness of rabbit management. The use of a theory of change should benefit those seeking to improve decision support systems design, use and, evaluation.
Using Thermodynamic Degradation Approach to Quantify Human Stress Response
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Satish Boregowda
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The present study provides a thermodynamic degradation approach to model human stress response. Finger skin temperature was used as an indicator of stress response to a stressor (or stressful event followed by a recovery. The entropy change (ΔS is calculated using heat transfer (δQ from the peripheral skin and finger skin temperature (Tf. It was hypothesized that the human stress response, as evidenced by finger skin temperature change, is a quasi-static process. The entropy approach is demonstrated using data from a medical school experimental study. The finger skin temperature was measured under three conditions (relaxation, stressor task, and recovery during the physiological test profile. The entropy change (ΔS is postulated as entropy damage (ΔSD, which is a metric for measuring the aging or system degradation. The aging-ratio, Aaging-ratio, that is, the ratio of entropy change due to stressor to that of recovery, is presented for both male and female subjects. The statistical t-tests demonstrate statistical significance in human stress response to stressor and recovery states within and between male and female subjects. This novel approach could be valuable to medical researchers, particularly in the field of occupational health to evaluate human exposure to stressful environments.
Approaching threats elicit a freeze-like response in humans.
Sagliano, Laura; Cappuccio, Angela; Trojano, Luigi; Conson, Massimiliano
2014-02-21
Freezing is one of the most widely recognized defensive reactions to approaching threats in animals. Here we tested whether the same stimuli can elicit freeze-like responses in healthy humans as well. We used a modified version of the two-frame apparent motion paradigm, in which both size and location of a stimulus within a background were manipulated; by these means, participants perceived the stimuli as approaching or receding. In Experiment 1, we showed that implicitly processed approaching threats (e.g., spiders or snakes) elicited a stronger freeze-like response (operationalized as slower reaction times) with respect to receding threats; freezing was significantly related to higher levels of participants' state anxiety. In Experiment 2, approaching/threatening animals were explicitly judged as more threatening than receding ones. Finally, in two further control experiments we observed that the same manipulation of stimuli's size and location, but in absence of apparent motion, did not affect freezing (Experiment 3) or explicit threat judgements (Experiment 4). The present findings demonstrated that approaching threats are critical to elicit freezing in humans, in line with animals' behaviour. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
What Information Theory Says About Best Response and About Binding Contracts
Wolpert, David H.
2004-01-01
Product Distribution (PD) theory is the information-theoretic extension of conventional full- rationality game theory to bounded rational games. Here PD theory is used to investigate games in which the players use bounded rational best-response strategies. This investigation illuminates how to determine the optimal organization chart for a corporation, or more generally how to order the sequence of moves of the players / employees so as to optimize an overall objective function. It is then shown that in the continuum-time limit, bounded rational best response games result in a variant of the replicator dynamics of evolutionary game theory. This variant is then investigated for team games, in which the players share the same utility function, by showing that such continuum- limit bounded rational best response is identical to Newton-Raphson iterative optimization of the shared utility function. Next PD theory is used to investigate changing the coordinate system of the game, i.e., changing the mapping from the joint move of the players to the arguments in the utility functions. Such a change couples those arguments, essentially by making each players move be an offered binding contract.
Employer Branding and Corporate Social Responsibility – a postmodern approach
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Mihaela-Alexandra TUDOR-IONESCU
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In the present article we designed an exploratory analysis from a postmodern perspective on employer branding and corporate social responsibility in order to overcome the disciplinary dogmatic approach that is found in the organizational and management studies. Our approach is based on investigating theoretical background for the two concepts that have a relatively recent history and it emphasizes their role of legitimation micro-structures with an organizational -corporate nature, arguing for the thesis that they represent founding micronarratives, with different histories, but similar aims.
Costall, A P
1984-01-01
Representational theories of perception postulate an isolated and autonomous "subject" set apart from its real environment, and then go on to invoke processes of mental representation, construction, or hypothesizing to explain how perception can nevertheless take place. Although James Gibson's most conspicuous contribution has been to challenge representational theory, his ultimate concern was the cognitivism which now prevails in psychology. He was convinced that the so-called cognitive revolution merely perpetuates, and even promotes, many of psychology's oldest mistakes. This review article considers Gibson's final statement of his "ecological" alternative to cognitivism (Gibson, 1979). It is intended not as a complete account of Gibson's alternative, however, but primarily as an appreciation of his critical contribution. Gibson's sustained attempt to counter representational theory served not only to reveal the variety of arguments used in support of this theory, but also to expose the questionable metaphysical assumptions upon which they rest. In concentrating upon Gibson's criticisms of representational theory, therefore, this paper aims to emphasize the point of his alternative scheme and to explain some of the important concerns shared by Gibson's ecological approach and operant psychology.
A new approach for three-phase loads compensation based on the instantaneous reactive power theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salmeron, Patricio; Herrera, Reyes S.; Vazquez, Jesus R. [Electrical Engineering Department of the University of Huelva (Spain)
2008-04-15
The original instantaneous reactive power theory or p-q theory has been systematically used in the control of active power filters (APFs). When the APF is connected in parallel to a non-linear and unbalanced load, the p-q theory application has allowed a compensation strategy named constant power to be obtained. This means that, after the APF connection, the instantaneous power supplied by the source is constant and it has the same value as the average power consumed by the load. Nevertheless, the use of other compensation strategies is possible: unity power factor or sinusoidal and balanced supply currents, among others. This paper shows that any compensation strategy may be developed into the p-q theory frame. Besides, the paper presents a p-q theory reformulation without using mapping matrices, which makes easier the obtention of the compensation currents. Finally, an exhaustive analysis of practical cases has been carried out at simulation and experimental level through a laboratory prototype which has allowed the proposed approach to be verified. (author)
Stokes, W. Ann
2005-01-01
In this article, the author, W. Ann Stokes, responds to Estelle Jorgensen's paper contrasting four different concepts of the relationship between theory and practice, and pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of each. Each approach introduces insights that the others have missed, but is not sufficient in itself to explain all the…
2011-01-01
heterostructure lasers; in 2D they are the FINFETs and nanowires currently of considerable research interest; and in 3D they are the semiconductor quantum dots...J Comput Electron (2011) 10:65–97 DOI 10.1007/s10825-011-0356-9 Density-gradient theory: a macroscopic approach to quantum confinement and tunneling ...both quantum confinement and quantum tunneling situations are then reviewed. In doing so, particular emphasis is put on understanding the range of va
Theory and approach of information retrievals from electromagnetic scattering and remote sensing
Jin, Ya-Qiu
2006-01-01
Covers several hot topics in current research of electromagnetic scattering, and radiative transfer in complex and random media, polarimetric scattering and SAR imagery technology, data validation and information retrieval from space-borne remote sensing, computational electromagnetics, etc.Including both forward modelling and inverse problems, analytic theory and numerical approachesAn overall summary of the author's works during most recent yearsAlso presents some insight for future research topics.
Silva, R
2006-01-01
We have investigated the proof of the $H$ theorem within a manifestly covariant approach by considering the relativistic statistical theory developed in [G. Kaniadakis, Phy. Rev. E {\\bf 66}, 056125, 2002; {\\it ibid.} {\\bf 72}, 036108, 2005]. As it happens in the nonrelativistic limit, the molecular chaos hypothesis is slightly extended within the Kaniadakis formalism. It is shown that the collisional equilibrium states (null entropy source term) are described by a $\\kappa$ power law generaliz...
A grounded theory approach to the subjective understanding of urban soundscape in Sheffield
Liu, F.; Kang, J.
2016-01-01
The aim of this study is to gain a greater insight into the factors that affect individuals' preferences and understanding of urban soundscapes. Based on a grounded theory approach, with 53 participants in Sheffield, five categories have been revealed for the subjective understanding of soundscape: soundscape definition, soundscape memory, soundscape sentiment, soundscape expectation, and soundscape aesthetics. More specifically, to some extent, the value people place on sounds does not lie i...
Algebraic approach to form factors in the complex sinh-Gordon theory
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Michael Lashkevich
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We study form factors of the quantum complex sinh-Gordon theory in the algebraic approach. In the case of exponential fields the form factors can be obtained from the known form factors of the ZN-symmetric Ising model. The algebraic construction also provides an Ansatz for form factors of descendant operators. We obtain generating functions of such form factors and establish their main properties: the cluster factorization and reflection equations.
How Do the Nurses Cope with Job Stress? A Study with Grounded Theory Approach
Eslami Akbar, Rasool; Elahi, Nasrin; Mohammadi, Eesa; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud
2017-01-01
Introduction: Due to the adverse effects of job stress on health of nurses and the importance of coping process of nurses in management of job stress, the present study was carried out with the aim of exploring the experiences of the nurses in order to reveal the original coping process of the nurses in the case of encountering occupational stress. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted with grounded theory approach. Research participants were 15 clinical nurses and four directors of n...
How Do the Nurses Cope with Job Stress? A Study with Grounded Theory Approach
Rasool Eslami Akbar; Nasrin Elahi; Eesa Mohammadi; Masoud Fallahi Khoshknab
2017-01-01
Introduction: Due to the adverse effects of job stress on health of nurses and the importance of coping process of nurses in management of job stress, the present study was carried out with the aim of exploring the experiences of the nurses in order to reveal the original coping process of the nurses in the case of encountering occupational stress. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted with grounded theory approach. Research participants we...
ISO 26000 – An Integrative Approach of Corporate Social Responsibility
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Herciu Mihaela
2016-04-01
Full Text Available ISO 26000 represents a guidance on corporate social responsibility and it is, at the present time, one of the most important document on CSR in the world. Without being mandatory or regulated, ISO 26000 is focus on seven core subjects that have to be approached synergistic – governance, human right, labor, environment, business practices, consumer, and community – in order to achieve its goal. The present paper intends to present and analyze the seven core subjects of ISO 26000 from tow perspectives: by emphasizing the benefits of implementing the standard into the business strategy and by revealing the correlation between corporate social responsibility and sustainable development.
Social Responsibility: approach for the development of the Cuban company
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yusmelys Ferrales-Arias
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of this article to analyze the methodological approach theoretical foundations of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. To determine the degree of similarity of the impact of different variables on the concepts developed by the authors, agglomerative hierarchical method was used average between PSS groups through .1.19 statistical Package for statistical processing. The importance of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Cuban business environment and its link to the conceptualization of the Social Economic Model and Development Cuban Socialist analyzed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frederiksen, Claus Strue
2010-01-01
This article examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind...... of common-sense morality? In order to address this issue, I conducted an empirical investigation examining the relation between moral theories and CSR policies, in companies engaged in CSR. Based on the empirical data I collected, I start by suggesting some normative arguments used by the respondents....... Secondly, I suggest that these moral arguments implicitly rely on some specific moral principles, which I characterise. Thirdly, on the basis of these moral principles, I suggest the moral theories upon which the CSR policies are built. Previous empirical studies examining the relation between...
Multi-Sensory Cognitive Learning as Facilitated in a Multimedia Tutorial for Item Response Theory
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Chong Ho Yu
2007-08-01
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to introduce an application of multi-sensory cognitive learning theory into the development of a multimedia tutorial for Item Response Theory. The cognitive multimedia theory suggests that the visual and auditory material should be presented simultaneously to reinforce the retention of learned materials. A computer-assisted module is carefully designed based upon the preceding theory and also an experiment was conducted to examine the effect of audio types (human audio, computer audio, and no audio on learner performance measured by an objective test. It was found that while there is no significant performance gap between the human audio and the no audio group, the two groups substantively outperform the computer audio group. A plausible explanation is that un-natural audio requires additional cognitive power to process the information and thus this distraction affects the performance.
Bayesian inference in an item response theory model with a generalized student t link function
Azevedo, Caio L. N.; Migon, Helio S.
2012-10-01
In this paper we introduce a new item response theory (IRT) model with a generalized Student t-link function with unknown degrees of freedom (df), named generalized t-link (GtL) IRT model. In this model we consider only the difficulty parameter in the item response function. GtL is an alternative to the two parameter logit and probit models, since the degrees of freedom (df) play a similar role to the discrimination parameter. However, the behavior of the curves of the GtL is different from those of the two parameter models and the usual Student t link, since in GtL the curve obtained from different df's can cross the probit curves in more than one latent trait level. The GtL model has similar proprieties to the generalized linear mixed models, such as the existence of sufficient statistics and easy parameter interpretation. Also, many techniques of parameter estimation, model fit assessment and residual analysis developed for that models can be used for the GtL model. We develop fully Bayesian estimation and model fit assessment tools through a Metropolis-Hastings step within Gibbs sampling algorithm. We consider a prior sensitivity choice concerning the degrees of freedom. The simulation study indicates that the algorithm recovers all parameters properly. In addition, some Bayesian model fit assessment tools are considered. Finally, a real data set is analyzed using our approach and other usual models. The results indicate that our model fits the data better than the two parameter models.
Excitable systems with noise and delay, with applications to control: renewal theory approach.
Pototsky, Andrey; Janson, Natalia
2008-03-01
We present an approach for the analytical treatment of excitable systems with noise-induced dynamics in the presence of time delay. An excitable system is modeled as a bistable system with a time delay, while another delay enters as a control term taken after Pyragas [K. Pyragas, Phys. Lett. A 170, 421 (1992)] as a difference between the current system state and its state tau time units before. This approach combines the elements of renewal theory to estimate the essential features of the resulting stochastic process as functions of the parameters of the controlling term.
Excitable systems with noise and delay, with applications to control: Renewal theory approach
Pototsky, Andrey; Janson, Natalia
2008-03-01
We present an approach for the analytical treatment of excitable systems with noise-induced dynamics in the presence of time delay. An excitable system is modeled as a bistable system with a time delay, while another delay enters as a control term taken after Pyragas [K. Pyragas, Phys. Lett. A 170, 421 (1992)] as a difference between the current system state and its state τ time units before. This approach combines the elements of renewal theory to estimate the essential features of the resulting stochastic process as functions of the parameters of the controlling term.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Novitsky, Andrey; Galynsky, Vladimir M.; Zhukovsky, Sergei
2012-01-01
The electronic Lorentz theory is employed to explain the optical properties of planar split-ring metamaterials. Starting from the dynamics of individual free carriers, the electromagnetic response of an individual split-ring meta-atom is determined, and the effective permittivity tensor of the me......The electronic Lorentz theory is employed to explain the optical properties of planar split-ring metamaterials. Starting from the dynamics of individual free carriers, the electromagnetic response of an individual split-ring meta-atom is determined, and the effective permittivity tensor...... of the metamaterial is calculated for normal incidence of light. Whenever the split ring lacks in-plane mirror symmetry, the corresponding permittivity tensor has a crystallographic structure of an elliptically dichroic medium, and the metamaterial exhibits optical properties of planar chiral structures. Its...
Lewis, Krystina B; Stacey, Dawn; Squires, Janet E; Carroll, Sandra
2016-01-01
Patient engagement in collaboration with health professionals is essential to deliver quality health care. A shared decision-making (SDM) approach requires that patients are involved in decisions regarding their health. SDM is expanding from the patient-physician dyad to incorporate an interprofessional perspective. Conceptual models can be used to better understand theoretical underpinnings for application in clinical practice. The aim of this article was to conduct a theory analysis of conceptual models using an interprofessional approach to SDM and discuss each model's relevance to nursing practice. Walker and Avant's theory analysis approach was used. Three conceptual models were eligible. For all models, the decision-making process was considered iterative. The development process was described for 1 model. All models were logical, parsimonious, and generalizable. One was supported by empirical testing. No model described how partnerships are enacted to achieve interprofessional SDM. Also, there was limited articulation as to how nurses' roles and contributions differ from other team members. This theory analysis highlights the need for a model that explains how partnerships among interprofessional team members are enacted to better understand the operationalization of interprofessional SDM. Implications for nursing practice at all system levels are offered and supported by the 3 models.
Trenholm, Susan; Ferlie, Ewan
2013-09-01
We employ complexity theory to analyse the English National Health Service (NHS)'s organisational response to resurgent tuberculosis across London. Tennison (2002) suggests that complexity theory could fruitfully explore a healthcare system's response to this complex and emergent phenomenon: we explore this claim here. We also bring in established New Public Management principles to enhance our empirical analysis, which is based on data collected between late 2009 and mid-2011. We find that the operation of complexity theory based features, especially self-organisation, are significantly impacted by the macro context of a New Public Management-based regime which values control, measurement and risk management more than innovation, flexibility and lateral system building. We finally explore limitations and suggest perspectives for further research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Asymmetric Hubbard model within generating functional approach in dynamical mean field theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I.V.Stasyuk
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In the paper a new analytic approach to the solution of the effective single-site problem in the dynamical mean field theory is developed. The approach is based on the method of the Kadanoff-Baym generating functional in the form developed by Izyumov et al. It makes it possible to obtain a closed equation in functional derivatives for the irreducible part of the single-site particle Green's function; the solution is constructed iteratively. As an application of the proposed approach the asymmetric Hubbard model (AHM is considered. The inverse irreducible part Ξ-1σ of the single-site Green's function is constructed in the linear approximation with respect to the coherent potential Jσ. Basing on the obtained result, the Green's function of itinerant particles in the Falicov-Kimball limit of AHM is considered, and the decoupling schemes in the equations of motion approach (GH3 approximation, decoupling by Jeschke and Kotliar are analysed.
Md Desa, Zairul Nor Deana
2012-01-01
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in estimating and improving subscore reliability. In this study, the multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) and the bi-factor model were combined to estimate subscores, to obtain subscores reliability, and subscores classification. Both the compensatory and partially compensatory MIRT…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farah Qamar
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Since Socrates’ time, reasoning is considered valuable for the justification of speaker’s belief along with Thomas Aquinas’ testing of his thinking to answer his own thinking. Critical thinking has been part of discussion among the educators for its significance and application for last many decades. Many educators have conducted researches on the assessment of critical thinking within a domain or across the domain in order to test students’ critical thinking skills and its effect on their learning. Similarly, critical thinking is highly valuable for the study of literature as it explicitly asked for learners’ beliefs, perceptions, and judgments in order to remove the ambiguity of thought. Perfection of thought can be achieved with the use of critical thinking skills while training of mind needs interaction between literary text and the reader as literature has the capacity to achieve mental traits specified to critical thinking. Accordingly, this report presents a relationship between critical thinking skills and English literature study along with reader response theory techniques considering that without the use of critical thinking skills and reader response theory, study of literature is haphazard hence for the application of reader response theory, literary text is inevitable. In essence, I aim to highlight the effectiveness of critical thinking skills for the study of literature while emphasizing the significance of reader response theory which is also inevitable for the study of literature and for the use of critical thinking skills.
Dunbar, Norah E.; Abra, Gordon
2012-01-01
Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards' (2011) recent article tested dyadic power theory (DPT) by examining the use of touch as a compliance-gaining tactic in the conflicts of married couples. In this response, we raise a methodological issue about the touch behaviors examined by Smith et al. and also pose a theoretical critique that their test of DPT…
Structure and Measurement of Depression in Youths: Applying Item Response Theory to Clinical Data
Cole, David A.; Cai, Li; Martin, Nina C.; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Garber, Judy; Curry, John F.; Hyde, Janet S.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Compas, Bruce E.; Goodyer, Ian M.; Rohde, Paul; Stark, Kevin D.; Slattery, Marcia J.; Forehand, Rex
2011-01-01
Our goals in this article were to use item response theory (IRT) to assess the relation of depressive symptoms to the underlying dimension of depression and to demonstrate how IRT-based measurement strategies can yield more reliable data about depression severity than conventional symptom counts. Participants were 3,403 children and adolescents…
Tay, L.; Vermunt, J.K.; Wang, C.
2013-01-01
We evaluate the item response theory with covariates (IRT-C) procedure for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) without preknowledge of anchor items (Tay, Newman, & Vermunt, 2011). This procedure begins with a fully constrained baseline model, and candidate items are tested for uniform
Reader-Response Theory: An Analysis of a Work of Chinese Post Modern Art.
Ma, Yan
1995-01-01
Illustrates reader-response theory by discussing a piece of Chinese art, "A Book from the Sky." Examines the relationship between and among viewer, text or artwork, and artist; and attempts to determine the meanings viewers of different ages, genders, ethnicity, and professions construct in reaction to the work of art and to postmodern…
Bayesian modeling of measurement error in predictor variables using item response theory
Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.
2000-01-01
This paper focuses on handling measurement error in predictor variables using item response theory (IRT). Measurement error is of great important in assessment of theoretical constructs, such as intelligence or the school climate. Measurement error is modeled by treating the predictors as unobserved
Optimal and Most Exact Confidence Intervals for Person Parameters in Item Response Theory Models
Doebler, Anna; Doebler, Philipp; Holling, Heinz
2013-01-01
The common way to calculate confidence intervals for item response theory models is to assume that the standardized maximum likelihood estimator for the person parameter [theta] is normally distributed. However, this approximation is often inadequate for short and medium test lengths. As a result, the coverage probabilities fall below the given…
Improving measurement of injection drug risk behavior using item response theory.
Janulis, Patrick
2014-03-01
Recent research highlights the multiple steps to preparing and injecting drugs and the resultant viral threats faced by drug users. This research suggests that more sensitive measurement of injection drug HIV risk behavior is required. In addition, growing evidence suggests there are gender differences in injection risk behavior. However, the potential for differential item functioning between genders has not been explored. To explore item response theory as an improved measurement modeling technique that provides empirically justified scaling of injection risk behavior and to examine for potential gender-based differential item functioning. Data is used from three studies in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies. A two-parameter item response theory model was used to scale injection risk behavior and logistic regression was used to examine for differential item functioning. Item fit statistics suggest that item response theory can be used to scale injection risk behavior and these models can provide more sensitive estimates of risk behavior. Additionally, gender-based differential item functioning is present in the current data. Improved measurement of injection risk behavior using item response theory should be encouraged as these models provide increased congruence between construct measurement and the complexity of injection-related HIV risk. Suggestions are made to further improve injection risk behavior measurement. Furthermore, results suggest direct comparisons of composite scores between males and females may be misleading and future work should account for differential item functioning before comparing levels of injection risk behavior.
Oude Voshaar, Antonius H.; Schenk, Olga; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; Bernelot Moens, Hein J.; Boers, Maarten; van de Laar, Mart A F J
Objective: To further simplify the Simple Erosion Narrowing Score (SENS) by removing scored areas that contribute least to its measurement precision according to Item Response Theory (IRT) based analysis and to compare the measurement performance of the simplified version to the original. Methods:
Further Simplification of the Simple Erosion Narrowing Score With Item Response Theory Methodology
Oude Voshaar, Antonius H.; Schenk, Olga; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; Bernelot Moens, Hein J.; Boers, Maarten; van de Laar, Mart A F J
2016-01-01
Objective To further simplify the simple erosion narrowing score (SENS) by removing scored areas that contribute the least to its measurement precision according to analysis based on item response theory (IRT) and to compare the measurement performance of the simplified version to the original.
An Introduction to Item Response Theory and Rasch Models for Speech-Language Pathologists
Baylor, Carolyn; Hula, William; Donovan, Neila J.; Doyle, Patrick J.; Kendall, Diane; Yorkston, Kathryn
2011-01-01
Purpose: To present a primarily conceptual introduction to item response theory (IRT) and Rasch models for speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Method: This tutorial introduces SLPs to basic concepts and terminology related to IRT as well as the most common IRT models. The article then continues with an overview of how instruments are developed…
Stimulus-Response Theory of Finite Automata, Technical Report No. 133.
Suppes, Patrick
The central aim of this paper and its projected successors is to prove in detail that stimulus-response theory, or at least a mathematically precise version, can give an account of the learning of many phrase-structure grammars. Section 2 is concerned with standard notions of finite and probabilistic automata. An automaton is defined as a device…
McVee, Mary B.; Gavelek, James R.; Dunsmore, Kailonnie L.
2007-01-01
This article presents the authors' response and clarifications to the comments of Margaret E. Gredler and of Karen A. Krasny, Mark Sadoski, and Allan Paivio on their article "Schema Theory Revisited." The authors first respond to Gredler's criticism contending that they "transmogrified" Harre's (1984) "ignominiously named...Vygotsky space" in…
Elst, W. van der; Ouwehand, C.; van Rijn, P.; Lee, N.C.; van Boxtel, M. P. J.; Jolles, J.
2011-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) under an item response theory framework (the one- and two-parameter logistic models). The shortened Raven SPM was administered to N = 453 cognitively
van der Elst, W.; Ouwehand, C.; van Rijn, P.; Lee, N.C.; van Boxtel, M.P.J.; Jolles, J.
2013-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) under an item response theory framework (the one- and two-parameter logistic models). The shortened Raven SPM was administered to N = 453 cognitively
Comparison of examination grades using item response theory : a case study
Korobko, O.B.
2007-01-01
In item response theory (IRT), mathematical models are applied to analyze data from tests and questionnaires used to measure abilities, proficiency, personality traits and attitudes. This thesis is concerned with comparison of subjects, students and schools based on average examination grades using
Nieswandt, Martina; Bellomo, Katherine
2009-01-01
This qualitative study analyzed grade 12 biology students' answers to written extended-response questions that describe hypothetical scenarios of animals' evolution. We investigated whether these type of questions are suitable for students (n = 24) to express a meaningful understanding of evolutionary theory. Meaningful understanding is comprised…
A Regional and Local Item Response Theory Based Test Item Bank System.
Hathaway, Walter; And Others
This report describes the development, operation, maintenance, and future prospects of the item banks pioneered by the Portland (Oregon) School District. At the time of this report, there were 3,500 mathematics, 2,200 reading, and 2,300 language usage items calibrated under the fixed parameter model of item response theory (IRT) for Grades 3-8.…
Chao, Yu-Long
2012-01-01
Using different measures of self-reported and other-reported environmental behaviour (EB), two important theoretical models explaining EB--Hines, Hungerford and Tomera's model of responsible environmental behaviour (REB) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB)--were compared regarding the fit between model and data, predictive ability,…
Discussion of David Thissen's Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory
Wainer, Howard
2016-01-01
The usual role of a discussant is to clarify and correct the paper being discussed, but in this case, the author, Howard Wainer, generally agrees with everything David Thissen says in his essay, "Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory." This essay expands on David Thissen's statement that there are typically two principal…
Item level diagnostics and model - data fit in item response theory ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... when using BILOG-MG V3.0. Five items fitted 2-parameter models in IRTPRO. It was recommended that the use of more than one IRT software programme offers more useful information for the choice of model that fit the data. KEYWORDS: Item Level, Diagnostics, Statistics, Model - Data Fit, Item Response Theory (IRT).
Reconsidering Genre Theory in K-12 Schools: A Response to School Reforms in the United States
Gebhard, Meg; Harman, Ruth
2011-01-01
Education reforms in the United States have placed new demands on English language learners (ELLs) and their teachers in K-12 public schools. In response, many teachers, teacher educators, and literacy scholars are reexamining genre theory and genre-based pedagogy as a way of supporting the academic literacy development of the growing number of…
Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Woods, Carol M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Teachman, Bethany A.; Sawchuk, Craig N.; David, Bieke
An abbreviated Spider Phobia Questionnaire (SPQ) was developed using methods based in item response theory. Fifteen of the 31 SPQ items that demonstrated good to excellent discrimination along the spider fear continuum were retained in Study 1 that consisted of 1,555 nonclinical and clinical
Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.
2016-01-01
Protection motivation theory (PMT) explains people's adaptive behavior in response to personal threats. In this study, PMT was used to predict rhetorical dissent episodes related to 210 student reports of perceived classroom problems. In line with theoretical predictions, a moderated moderation analysis revealed that students were likely to voice…
Multiple physiological responses to multiple environmental challenges: an individual approach.
Calosi, P; Turner, L M; Hawkins, M; Bertolini, C; Nightingale, G; Truebano, M; Spicer, J I
2013-10-01
The injection of anthropogenically-produced CO2 into the atmosphere will lead to an increase in temperature and a decrease in pH at the surface of the oceans by 2100. Marine intertidal organisms possess the ability to cope in the short term with environmental fluctuations exceeding predicted values. However, how they will cope with chronic exposure to elevated temperature and pCO2 is virtually unknown. In addition, individuals from the same species/population often show remarkable levels of variation in their responses to complex climatic changes: in particular, variation in metabolic rates often is linked to differences in individuals' performances and fitness. Despite its ecological and evolutionary importance, inter-individual variation has rarely been investigated within the context of climatic changes, and most investigations have typically employed orthogonal experimental designs paired to analyses of independent samples. Although this is undoubtedly a powerful and useful approach, it may not be the most appropriate for understanding all alterations of biological functions in response to environmental changes. An individual approach arguably should be favored when trying to describe organisms' responses to climatic change. Consequently, to test which approach had the greater power to discriminate the intensity and direction of an organism's response to complex climatic changes, we investigated the extracellular osmo/iono-regulatory abilities, upper thermal tolerances (UTTs), and metabolic rates of individual adults of an intertidal amphipod, Echinogammarus marinus, exposed for 15 days to combined elevated temperature and pCO2. The individual approach led to stronger and different predictions on how ectotherms will likely respond to ongoing complex climatic change, compared with the independent approaches. Consequently, this may call into question the relevance, or even the validity, of some of the predictions made to date. Finally, we argue that treating
A study of the dimensionality and measurement precision of the SCL-90-R using item response theory.
Paap, Muirne C S; Meijer, Rob R; Van Bebber, Jan; Pedersen, Geir; Karterud, Sigmund; Hellem, Frøydis M; Haraldsen, Ira R
2011-09-01
We used item response theory (IRT) to (a) investigate the dimensionality of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) in a severely disturbed patient group, (b) improve the subscales in a meaningful way and (c) investigate the measurement precision of the improved scales. The total sample comprised 3078 patients (72% women, mean age=35±9) admitted to 14 different day hospitals participating in the Norwegian Network of Personality-focused Treatment Programmes. Mokken Scale Analysis was used to investigate the dimensionality of the SCL-90-R and improve the subscales. This analysis was theory-driven: the scales were built on two start items that reflected the content of the disorder that corresponds with the specific scale. The Graded Response Model was employed to determine measurement precision. Our theory-driven IRT approach resulted in a new seven-factor solution including 60 of the 90 items clustered in seven scales: depression, agoraphobia, physical complaints, obsessive-compulsive, hostility (unchanged), distrust and psychoticism. Most of the new scales discriminated reliably between patients with moderately low scores to moderately high scores. In conclusion, we found support for the multidimensionality of the SCL-90-R in a large sample of severely disturbed patients. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos David Navarrete
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Adherence to ingroup ideology increases after exposure to death-related stimuli, a reaction that proponents of terror management theory (TMT explain as a psychological defense against the uniquely human existential fear of death. We argue that existential concerns are not the relevant issue; rather, such concepts can be subsumed under a larger category of adaptive challenges that prime coalitional thinking. We suggest that increases in adherence to ingroup ideology in response to adaptive challenges are manifestations of normative mental representations emanating from psychological systems designed to enhance coordination and membership in social groups. In providing an alternative to TMT, we (1 explain why the theory is inconsistent with contemporary evolutionary biology, (2 demonstrate that mortality-salience does not have the unique evocative powers ascribed to it by TMT advocates, and (3 discuss our approach to coalitional psychology, a framework consistent with modern evolutionary theory and informed by a broad understanding of cultural variation, can be employed to help account for both the corpus of results in TMT research and the growing body of findings inconsistent with TMT's predictions.
Sharkness, Jessica; DeAngelo, Linda
2011-01-01
This study compares the psychometric utility of Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) for scale construction with data from higher education student surveys. Using 2008 Your First College Year (YFCY) survey data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program at the Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA, two scales…
Di Paolo, Ezequiel Alejandro; Barandiaran, Xabier E; Beaton, Michael; Buhrmann, Thomas
2014-01-01
if understanding is required for perception, how can we learn to perceive something new, something we do not yet understand? According to the sensorimotor approach, perception involves mastery of regular sensorimotor co-variations that depend on the agent and the environment, also known as the "laws" of sensorimotor contingencies (SMCs). In this sense, perception involves enacting relevant sensorimotor skills in each situation. It is important for this proposal that such skills can be learned and refined with experience and yet up to this date, the sensorimotor approach has had no explicit theory of perceptual learning. The situation is made more complex if we acknowledge the open-ended nature of human learning. In this paper we propose Piaget's theory of equilibration as a potential candidate to fulfill this role. This theory highlights the importance of intrinsic sensorimotor norms, in terms of the closure of sensorimotor schemes. It also explains how the equilibration of a sensorimotor organization faced with novelty or breakdowns proceeds by re-shaping pre-existing structures in coupling with dynamical regularities of the world. This way learning to perceive is guided by the equilibration of emerging forms of skillful coping with the world. We demonstrate the compatibility between Piaget's theory and the sensorimotor approach by providing a dynamical formalization of equilibration to give an explicit micro-genetic account of sensorimotor learning and, by extension, of how we learn to perceive. This allows us to draw important lessons in the form of general principles for open-ended sensorimotor learning, including the need for an intrinsic normative evaluation by the agent itself. We also explore implications of our micro-genetic account at the personal level.
Di Paolo, Ezequiel Alejandro; Barandiaran, Xabier E.; Beaton, Michael; Buhrmann, Thomas
2014-01-01
Learning to perceive is faced with a classical paradox: if understanding is required for perception, how can we learn to perceive something new, something we do not yet understand? According to the sensorimotor approach, perception involves mastery of regular sensorimotor co-variations that depend on the agent and the environment, also known as the “laws” of sensorimotor contingencies (SMCs). In this sense, perception involves enacting relevant sensorimotor skills in each situation. It is important for this proposal that such skills can be learned and refined with experience and yet up to this date, the sensorimotor approach has had no explicit theory of perceptual learning. The situation is made more complex if we acknowledge the open-ended nature of human learning. In this paper we propose Piaget’s theory of equilibration as a potential candidate to fulfill this role. This theory highlights the importance of intrinsic sensorimotor norms, in terms of the closure of sensorimotor schemes. It also explains how the equilibration of a sensorimotor organization faced with novelty or breakdowns proceeds by re-shaping pre-existing structures in coupling with dynamical regularities of the world. This way learning to perceive is guided by the equilibration of emerging forms of skillful coping with the world. We demonstrate the compatibility between Piaget’s theory and the sensorimotor approach by providing a dynamical formalization of equilibration to give an explicit micro-genetic account of sensorimotor learning and, by extension, of how we learn to perceive. This allows us to draw important lessons in the form of general principles for open-ended sensorimotor learning, including the need for an intrinsic normative evaluation by the agent itself. We also explore implications of our micro-genetic account at the personal level. PMID:25126065
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ezequiel Alejandro Di Paolo
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Learning to perceive faces a classical paradox: if understanding is required for perception, how can we learn to perceive something new, something we do not yet understand? According to the sensorimotor approach, perception involves mastery of regular sensorimotor co-variations that depend on the agent and the environment, also known as the ‘laws’ of sensorimotor contingencies. In this sense, perception involves enacting relevant sensorimotor skills in each situation. It is important for this proposal that such skills can be learned and refined with experience and yet up to this date, the sensorimotor approach has had no explicit theory of perceptual learning. The situation is made more complex if we acknowledge the open-ended nature of human learning. In this paper we propose Piaget’s theory of equilibration as a potential candidate to fulfill this role. This theory highlights the importance of intrinsic sensorimotor norms, in terms of the closure of sensorimotor schemes. It also explains how the equilibration of a sensorimotor organization faced with novelty or breakdowns proceeds by re-shaping pre-existing structures in coupling with dynamical regularities of the world. This way learning to perceive is guided by the equilibration of emerging forms of skillful coping with the world. We demonstrate the compatibility between Piaget’s theory and the sensorimotor approach by providing a dynamical formalization of equilibration to give an explicit micro-genetic account of sensorimotor learning and, by extension, of how we learn to perceive. This allows us to draw important lessons in the form of general principles for open-ended sensorimotor learning, including the need for an intrinsic normative evaluation by the agent itself. We also explore implications of our micro-genetic account at the personal level.
Using item response theory to measure extreme response style in marketing research
de Jong, Martijn G.; Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E.M.; Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Baumgartner, Hans
2008-01-01
Extreme response style (ERS) is an important threat to the validity of survey-based marketing research. In this article, the authors present a new item response theory–based model for measuring ERS. This model contributes to the ERS literature in two ways. First, the method improves on existing
Orbital-motion-limited theory of dust charging and plasma response
Tang, Xian-Zhu
2015-01-01
The foundational theory for dusty plasmas is the dust charging theory that provides the dust potential and charge arising from the dust interaction with a plasma. The most widely used dust charging theory for negatively charged dust particles is the so-called orbital motion limited (OML) theory, which predicts the dust potential and heat collection accurately for a variety of applications, but was previously found to be incapable of evaluating the dust charge and plasma response in any situation. Here we report a revised OML formulation that is able to predict the plasma response and hence the dust charge. Numerical solutions of the new OML model show that the widely-used Whipple approximation of dust charge-potential relationship agrees with OML theory in the limit of small dust radius compared with plasma Debye length, but incurs large (order-unity) deviation from the OML prediction when the dust size becomes comparable with or larger than plasma Debye length. This latter case is expected for the important ...
Yeager, David S; Lee, Hae Yeon; Jamieson, Jeremy P
2016-08-01
This research integrated implicit theories of personality and the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat, hypothesizing that adolescents would be more likely to conclude that they can meet the demands of an evaluative social situation when they were taught that people have the potential to change their socially relevant traits. In Study 1 (N = 60), high school students were assigned to an incremental-theory-of-personality or a control condition and then given a social-stress task. Relative to control participants, incremental-theory participants exhibited improved stress appraisals, more adaptive neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses, and better performance outcomes. In Study 2 (N = 205), we used a daily-diary intervention to test high school students' stress reactivity outside the laboratory. Threat appraisals (Days 5-9 after intervention) and neuroendocrine responses (Days 8 and 9 after intervention only) were unrelated to the intensity of daily stressors when adolescents received the incremental-theory intervention. Students who received the intervention also had better grades over freshman year than those who did not. These findings offer new avenues for improving theories of adolescent stress and coping. © The Author(s) 2016.
Petrova, N.; Zagidullin, A.; Nefedyev, Y.; Kosulin, V.; Andreev, A.
2017-11-01
Observing physical librations of celestial bodies and the Moon represents one of the astronomical methods of remotely assessing the internal structure of a celestial body without conducting expensive space experiments. The paper contains a review of recent advances in studying the Moon's structure using various methods of obtaining and applying the lunar physical librations (LPhL) data. In this article LPhL simulation methods of assessing viscoelastic and dissipative properties of the lunar body and lunar core parameters, whose existence has been recently confirmed during the seismic data reprocessing of ;Apollo; space mission, are described. Much attention is paid to physical interpretation of the free librations phenomenon and the methods for its determination. In the paper the practical application of the most accurate analytical LPhL tables (Rambaux and Williams, 2011) is discussed. The tables were built on the basis of complex analytical processing of the residual differences obtained when comparing long-term series of laser observations with the numerical ephemeris DE421. In the paper an efficiency analysis of two approaches to LPhL theory is conducted: the numerical and the analytical ones. It has been shown that in lunar investigation both approaches complement each other in various aspects: the numerical approach provides high accuracy of the theory, which is required for the proper processing of modern observations, the analytical approach allows to comprehend the essence of the phenomena in the lunar rotation, predict and interpret new effects in the observations of lunar body and lunar core parameters.
Latent Variable Modelling and Item Response Theory Analyses in Marketing Research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brzezińska Justyna
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Item Response Theory (IRT is a modern statistical method using latent variables designed to model the interaction between a subject’s ability and the item level stimuli (difficulty, guessing. Item responses are treated as the outcome (dependent variables, and the examinee’s ability and the items’ characteristics are the latent predictor (independent variables. IRT models the relationship between a respondent’s trait (ability, attitude and the pattern of item responses. Thus, the estimation of individual latent traits can differ even for two individuals with the same total scores. IRT scores can yield additional benefits and this will be discussed in detail. In this paper theory and application with R software with the use of packages designed for modelling IRT will be presented.
Theories and models supporting prevention approaches to alcohol problems among youth.
Johnson, E M; Amatetti, S; Funkhouser, J E; Johnson, S
1988-01-01
The Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration's Office for Substance Abuse Prevention (OSAP) was established to initiate programs to provide prevention and early intervention services for young people, especially high-risk youth. OSAP's starting point was the theories and models that provide the background body of knowledge. The models summarized here guide new prevention efforts and provide a framework for analyzing diverse experiences in the field. The goal has been to develop strategies based on theories and models of prevention that can reverse or prevent adolescent alcohol use. Among the psychosocial models, research in social learning theory is the theoretical basis for prevention efforts using the team approach among individuals, small groups, families, and communities. A prevention technique based on cognitive dissonance theory proposes verbal inoculations to establish or strengthen beliefs and attitudes, helping a young person to resist drinking, which may be in conflict with another, more desirable goal. In the developmental concept adolescence is a period of role confusion out of which the person's identity should emerge. Prevention efforts built on this view seek to help adolescents to form positive identities by achievement as students, athletes, and in community roles. Behavioral intention theory provides a framework for understanding the role of perceived social norms in directing behaviors. In the social development model, prevention programs should create positive peer groups and ensure that the social environment does not give mixed messages. Health behavior theory is the basis for prevention strategies directed toward a person's entire behavior instead of one aspect. The stages of the drug involvement model form the basis for prevention programs providing early intervention directed at the so-called gateway drugs.Among the communications models, the health promotion concept advocates a comprehensive approach in developing health
CEOS Theory: A Comprehensive Approach to Understanding Hard to Maintain Behaviour Change.
Borland, Ron
2017-03-01
This paper provides a brief introduction to CEOS theory, a comprehensive theory for understanding hard to maintain behaviour change. The name CEOS is an acronym for Context, Executive, and Operational Systems theory. Behaviour is theorised to be the result of the moment by moment interaction between internal needs (operational processes) in relation to environmental conditions, and for humans this is augmented by goal-directed, executive action which can transcend immediate contingencies. All behaviour is generated by operational processes. Goal-directed behaviours only triumph over contingency-generated competing behaviours when operational processes have been sufficiently activated to support them. Affective force can be generated around executive system (ES) goals from such things as memories of direct experience, vicarious experience, and emotionally charged communications mediated through stories the person generates. This paper makes some refinements and elaborations of the theory, particularly around the role of feelings, and of the importance of stories and scripts for facilitating executive action. It also sketches out how it reconceptualises a range of issues relevant to behaviour change. CEOS provides a framework for understanding the limitations of both informational and environmental approaches to behaviour change, the need for self-regulatory strategies and for taking into account more basic aspects of human functioning. © 2016 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association of Applied Psychology.
Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Bellugi, Ursula
2015-11-01
Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic disorder that is saliently characterized by a unique social phenotype, most notably associated with a dramatically increased affinity and approachability toward unfamiliar people. Despite a recent proliferation of studies into the social profile of WS, the underpinnings of the pro-social predisposition are poorly understood. To this end, the present study was aimed at elucidating approach behavior of individuals with WS contrasted with typical development (TD) by employing a multidimensional design combining measures of autonomic arousal, social functioning, and two levels of approach evaluations. Given previous evidence suggesting that approach behaviors of individuals with WS are driven by a desire for social closeness, approachability tendencies were probed across two levels of social interaction: talking versus befriending. The main results indicated that while overall level of approachability did not differ between groups, an important qualitative between-group difference emerged across the two social interaction contexts: whereas individuals with WS demonstrated a similar willingness to approach strangers across both experimental conditions, TD individuals were significantly more willing to talk to than to befriend strangers. In WS, high approachability to positive faces across both social interaction levels was further associated with more normal social functioning. A novel finding linked autonomic responses with willingness to befriend negative faces in the WS group: elevated autonomic responsivity was associated with increased affiliation to negative face stimuli, which may represent an autonomic correlate of approach behavior in WS. Implications for underlying organization of the social brain are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wen, Xueda; Matsuura, Shunji; Ryu, Shinsei
Topological entanglement entropy of (2+1) dimensional Chern-Simons gauge theories on a general manifold is usually calculated with Witten's method of surgeries and replica trick, in which the spacetime manifold under consideration is very complicated. In this work, we develop an edge theory approach, which greatly simplifies the calculation of topological entanglement entropy of a Chern-Simons theory. Our approach applies to a general manifold with arbitrary genus. The effect of braiding and fusion of Wilson lines can be straightforwardly calculated within our framework. In addition, our method can be generalized to the study of other entanglement measures such as mutual information and entanglement negativity of a topological quantum field theory on a general manifold.
Dowling, N Maritza; Bolt, Daniel M; Deng, Sien; Li, Chenxi
2016-05-26
Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures play a key role in the advancement of patient-centered care research. The accuracy of inferences, relevance of predictions, and the true nature of the associations made with PRO data depend on the validity of these measures. Errors inherent to self-report measures can seriously bias the estimation of constructs assessed by the scale. A well-documented disadvantage of self-report measures is their sensitivity to response style (RS) effects such as the respondent's tendency to select the extremes of a rating scale. Although the biasing effect of extreme responding on constructs measured by self-reported tools has been widely acknowledged and studied across disciplines, little attention has been given to the development and systematic application of methodologies to assess and control for this effect in PRO measures. We review the methodological approaches that have been proposed to study extreme RS effects (ERS). We applied a multidimensional item response theory model to simultaneously estimate and correct for the impact of ERS on trait estimation in a PRO instrument. Model estimates were used to study the biasing effects of ERS on sum scores for individuals with the same amount of the targeted trait but different levels of ERS. We evaluated the effect of joint estimation of multiple scales and ERS on trait estimates and demonstrated the biasing effects of ERS on these trait estimates when used as explanatory variables. A four-dimensional model accounting for ERS bias provided a better fit to the response data. Increasing levels of ERS showed bias in total scores as a function of trait estimates. The effect of ERS was greater when the pattern of extreme responding was the same across multiple scales modeled jointly. The estimated item category intercepts provided evidence of content independent category selection. Uncorrected trait estimates used as explanatory variables in prediction models showed downward bias. A
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Huashan Liu
2011-09-01
Full Text Available To deal with the problem of the output feedback tracking (OFT control with bounded torque inputs of robot manipulators, we propose a generalized fuzzy saturated OFT controller based on singular perturbation theory. First, considering the fact that the output toque of joint actuators is limited, a general expression for a class of saturation functions is given to be applied in the control law. Second, to carry out the whole closed-loop control with only position measurements, linear and nonlinear filters are optionally involved to generate a pseudo signal to surrogate the actual velocity tracking error. As a third contribution, a fuzzy regulator is added to obtain a self-tuning performance in tackling the disturbances. Moreover, an explicit but strict stability proof of the system based on the stability theory of singularly perturbed systems is presented. Finally, numerical simulations on several sample controllers are implemented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Designing “Theory of Machines and Mechanisms” course on Project Based Learning approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shinde, Vikas
2013-01-01
Theory of Machines and Mechanisms course is one of the essential courses of Mechanical Engineering undergraduate curriculum practiced at Indian Institute. Previously, this course was taught by traditional instruction based pedagogy. In order to achieve profession specific skills demanded by the i......Theory of Machines and Mechanisms course is one of the essential courses of Mechanical Engineering undergraduate curriculum practiced at Indian Institute. Previously, this course was taught by traditional instruction based pedagogy. In order to achieve profession specific skills demanded...... by the industry and the learning outcomes specified by the National Board of Accreditation (NBA), India; this course is restructured on Project Based Learning approach. A mini project is designed to suit course objectives. An objective of this paper is to discuss the rationale of this course design...
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Huashan Liu
2011-09-01
Full Text Available To deal with the problem of the output feedback tracking (OFT control with bounded torque inputs of robot manipulators, we propose a generalized fuzzy saturated OFT controller based on singular perturbation theory. First, considering the fact that the output toque of joint actuators is limited, a general expression for a class of saturation functions is given to be applied in the control law. Second, to carry out the whole closed‐loop control with only position measurements, linear and nonlinear filters are optionally involved to generate a pseudo signal to surrogate the actual velocity tracking error. As a third contribution, a fuzzy regulator is added to obtain a self‐tuning performance in tackling the disturbances. Moreover, an explicit but strict stability proof of the system based on the stability theory of singularly perturbed systems is presented. Finally, numerical simulations on several sample controllers are implemented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Bound-state field-theory approach to proton-structure effects in muonic hydrogen
Mohr, Peter J.; Griffith, J.; Sapirstein, J.
2013-05-01
A bound-state field-theory approach to muonic hydrogen is set up using a variant of the Furry representation in which the lowest-order Hamiltonian describes a muon in the presence of a point Coulomb field, but the origin of the binding field is taken to be three charged quarks in the proton, which are modeled as Dirac particles that move freely within a spherical well. Bound-state field-theory techniques are used to evaluate one- and two-photon effects. Particular attention is paid to two-photon-exchange diagrams, which include the effect of proton polarizability. In addition, the modification of the electromagnetic self energy of the proton by the electric field of the muon is examined. Finally, the model is used to carry out a calculation of the static electric polarizability of the proton.
Schapira, Marilyn M; Walker, Cindy M; Cappaert, Kevin J; Ganschow, Pamela S; Fletcher, Kathlyn E; McGinley, Emily L; Del Pozo, Sam; Schauer, Carrie; Tarima, Sergey; Jacobs, Elizabeth A
2012-01-01
Health numeracy can be defined as the ability to understand and apply information conveyed with numbers, tables and graphs, probabilities, and statistics to effectively communicate with health care providers, take care of one's health, and participate in medical decisions. To develop the Numeracy Understanding in Medicine Instrument (NUMi) using item response theory scaling methods. A 20-item test was formed drawing from an item bank of numeracy questions. Items were calibrated using responses from 1000 participants and a 2-parameter item response theory model. Construct validity was assessed by comparing scores on the NUMi to established measures of print and numeric health literacy, mathematic achievement, and cognitive aptitude. Community and clinical populations in the Milwaukee and Chicago metropolitan areas. Twenty-nine percent of the 1000 respondents were Hispanic, 24% were non-Hispanic white, and 42% were non-Hispanic black. Forty-one percent had no more than a high school education. The mean score on the NUMi was 13.2 (s = 4.6) with a Cronbach α of 0.86. Difficulty and discrimination item response theory parameters of the 20 items ranged from -1.70 to 1.45 and 0.39 to 1.98, respectively. Performance on the NUMi was strongly correlated with the Wide Range Achievement Test-Arithmetic (0.73, P measure of the health numeracy construct.
Factors Associated With Presenteeism and Psychological Distress Using a Theory-Driven Approach.
Coutu, Marie-France; Corbière, Marc; Durand, Marie-José; Nastasia, Iuliana; Labrecque, Marie-Elise; Berbiche, Djamal; Albert, Valérie
2015-06-01
To test a model of presenteeism on the basis of established and emerging theories separated into organizational and individual factors that could be mediated by psychological distress. This was a Web survey of 2371 employees (response rate of 48%) of a provincial government agency. We assessed theories with validated measures for organizational and individual factors. Psychological distress was negatively associated to presenteeism, when controlling for sex, short-term work absence in the last year, and social desirability. Both individual and organizational factors were related to psychological distress. The most important factors included the presence of stress events in the preceding 6 months, extrinsic efforts (interruptions, work requirements), self-esteem as a worker, and internal amotivation. By identifying modifiable factors, our results suggest that the implementation of a work organization structure that promotes stimulation and accomplishment would reduce psychological distress and further presenteeism.
Item response theory analysis applied to the Spanish version of the Personal Outcomes Scale.
Guàrdia-Olmos, J; Carbó-Carreté, M; Peró-Cebollero, M; Giné, C
2017-11-01
The study of measurements of quality of life (QoL) is one of the great challenges of modern psychology and psychometric approaches. This issue has greater importance when examining QoL in populations that were historically treated on the basis of their deficiency, and recently, the focus has shifted to what each person values and desires in their life, as in cases of people with intellectual disability (ID). Many studies of QoL scales applied in this area have attempted to improve the validity and reliability of their components by incorporating various sources of information to achieve consistency in the data obtained. The adaptation of the Personal Outcomes Scale (POS) in Spanish has shown excellent psychometric attributes, and its administration has three sources of information: self-assessment, practitioner and family. The study of possible congruence or incongruence of observed distributions of each item between sources is therefore essential to ensure a correct interpretation of the measure. The aim of this paper was to analyse the observed distribution of items and dimensions from the three Spanish POS information sources cited earlier, using the item response theory. We studied a sample of 529 people with ID and their respective practitioners and family member, and in each case, we analysed items and factors using Samejima's model of polytomic ordinal scales. The results indicated an important number of items with differential effects regarding sources, and in some cases, they indicated significant differences in the distribution of items, factors and sources of information. As a result of this analysis, we must affirm that the administration of the POS, considering three sources of information, was adequate overall, but a correct interpretation of the results requires that it obtain much more information to consider, as well as some specific items in specific dimensions. The overall ratings, if these comments are considered, could result in bias. © 2017
Scale development with small samples: a new application of longitudinal item response theory.
Houts, Carrie R; Morlock, Robert; Blum, Steven I; Edwards, Michael C; Wirth, R J
2018-02-08
Measurement development in hard-to-reach populations can pose methodological challenges. Item response theory (IRT) is a useful statistical tool, but often requires large samples. We describe the use of longitudinal IRT models as a pragmatic approach to instrument development when large samples are not feasible. The statistical foundations and practical benefits of longitudinal IRT models are briefly described. Results from a simulation study are reported to demonstrate the model's ability to recover the generating measurement structure and parameters using a range of sample sizes, number of items, and number of time points. An example using early-phase clinical trial data in a rare condition demonstrates these methods in practice. Simulation study results demonstrate that the longitudinal IRT model's ability to recover the generating parameters rests largely on the interaction between sample size and the number of time points. Overall, the model performs well even in small samples provided a sufficient number of time points are available. The clinical trial data example demonstrates that by using conditional, longitudinal IRT models researchers can obtain stable estimates of psychometric characteristics from samples typically considered too small for rigorous psychometric modeling. Capitalizing on repeated measurements, it is possible to estimate psychometric characteristics for an assessment even when sample size is small. This allows researchers to optimize study designs and have increased confidence in subsequent comparisons using scores obtained from such models. While there are limitations and caveats to consider when using these models, longitudinal IRT modeling may be especially beneficial when developing measures for rare conditions and diseases in difficult-to-reach populations.
The Rorschach texture response: a construct validation study using attachment theory.
Cassella, Michael J; Viglione, Donald J
2009-11-01
Using attachment theory, in this research, we explored the construct validity of the Rorschach (Exner, 1974) Texture (T) response as a measure of interpersonal closeness and contact. A total of 40 men and 39 women completed the Rorschach and 2 attachment inventories. Their romantic partners also completed an informant version of the attachment measures. Attachment styles were measured by factor scores involving both self-report and partner report. Results indicate that attachment theory, as a broad conceptual framework, is associated with T. Specifically, T = 1 is most closely associated with a secure attachment style, T > 1 with aspects of the preoccupied style, and T = 0 with aspects of the avoidant style and an absence of secure attachment. Needs for closeness and contact associated with T can be couched within an adult attachment theory, but in this study, we did not test for problematic aspects of insecure attachment. Gender is a complicating factor and deserves more study.
Nonlinear response theory for Markov processes. II. Fifth-order response functions
Diezemann, Gregor
2017-08-01
The nonlinear response of stochastic models obeying a master equation is calculated up to fifth order in the external field, thus extending the third-order results obtained earlier [G. Diezemann, Phys. Rev. E 85, 051502 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.051502]. For sinusoidal fields the 5 ω component of the susceptibility is computed for the model of dipole reorientations in an asymmetric double well potential and for a trap model with a Gaussian density of states. For most realizations of the models a hump is found in the higher-order susceptibilities. In particular, for the asymmetric double well potential model there are two characteristic temperature regimes showing the occurrence of such a hump as compared to a single characteristic regime in the case of the third-order response. In the case of the trap model the results strongly depend on the variable coupled to the field. As for the third-order response, the low-frequency limit of the susceptibility plays a crucial role with respect to the occurrence of a hump. The findings are discussed in light of recent experimental results obtained for supercooled liquids. The differences found for the third-order and the fifth-order response indicate that nonlinear response functions might serve as a powerful tool to discriminate among the large number of existing models for glassy relaxation.
Information fusion-based approach for studying influence on Twitter using belief theory.
Azaza, Lobna; Kirgizov, Sergey; Savonnet, Marinette; Leclercq, Éric; Gastineau, Nicolas; Faiz, Rim
2016-01-01
Influence in Twitter has become recently a hot research topic, since this micro-blogging service is widely used to share and disseminate information. Some users are more able than others to influence and persuade peers. Thus, studying most influential users leads to reach a large-scale information diffusion area, something very useful in marketing or political campaigns. In this study, we propose a new approach for multi-level influence assessment on multi-relational networks, such as Twitter . We define a social graph to model the relationships between users as a multiplex graph where users are represented by nodes, and links model the different relations between them (e.g., retweets , mentions , and replies ). We explore how relations between nodes in this graph could reveal about the influence degree and propose a generic computational model to assess influence degree of a certain node. This is based on the conjunctive combination rule from the belief functions theory to combine different types of relations. We experiment the proposed method on a large amount of data gathered from Twitter during the European Elections 2014 and deduce top influential candidates. The results show that our model is flexible enough to to consider multiple interactions combination according to social scientists needs or requirements and that the numerical results of the belief theory are accurate. We also evaluate the approach over the CLEF RepLab 2014 data set and show that our approach leads to quite interesting results.
Daniels, Lia M.; Poth, Cheryl A.
2017-01-01
The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationships between pre-service teachers' conceptions of assessment and their intended approaches to classroom instruction and assessment. We operationalised approaches to instruction and assessment according to Achievement Goal Theory, postulating that pre-service teachers approach instruction and…
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Omoregie Charles Osifo
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The complex nature of trust and its evolving relative concepts require a more idealistic and simpler review. Ethical leadership is related to trust, honesty, transparency, compassion, empathy, results-orientedness, and many other behavioral attributes. Ethical leadership and good leadership are the same, because they represent practicing what one preaches or showing a way to the accomplishment of set goals. The outcomes and findings of many research papers on trust and ethical leadership report positive correlations between ethical leadership and trust. Improving trust from different rational standpoints requires moving and looking beyond the popular theoretical framework through which most results are derived in order to create a new thinking perspective. Social learning theory strongly emphasizes modelling while the new historical learning approach, proposed by the author, is defined as an approach that creates unique historical awareness among individuals, groups, institutions, societies, and nations to use previous experience(s or occurrence(s as a guide in developing positive opinion(s and framework(s in order to tackle the problems and issues of today and tomorrow. Social learning theory is seen as limited from the perspectives of balancing the equation between leadership and trust, the non-compatibility of the values of different generations at work, and other approaches and methods that support the historical approach. This paper is argumentative, adopts a writer´s perspective, and employs a logical analysis of the literature. The main contention is that a historical learning approach can inform an independent-learning to improve trust and its relatives (e.g. motivation and performance, because independent learning can positively shape the value of integrity, which is an integral part of ethical leadership. Historical learning can positively shape leadership in every perspective, because good leadership can develop based on history and
From miasmas to germs: a historical approach to theories of infectious disease transmission.
Karamanou, Marianna; Panayiotakopoulos, George; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Kousoulis, Antonis A; Androutsos, George
2012-03-01
From miasma to germ theory we trace the evolution of conceptions in infectious disease transmission. Starting from the unproved theories of contagiousness we move on to miasma theory, contagion theory and spontaneous generation theory up to the revolutionary germ theory of disease transmission.
Design Flow of English Learning System Based on Item Response Theory
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Yuemei Liu
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The popularity of computer technology in English teaching has led to the establishment of many English learning platforms, but the enhancement of students’ English proficiency is limited due to the lack of relevance, self-adaptive test questions and analytical ability. The project management theory is introduced into English learning, which can provide students with teaching content and test questions that are more suitable for their own actual situation through a more intelligent, personalized way. At the same time, the static and dynamic database model based on students’ own learning behavior is constructed to facilitate storage of students’ learning record. Combined with the advantages of hierarchical selection, SH method and improved polynomial model, this paper puts forward a new type of item section model. This paper introduces the basic theory and related technology, and then makes an in-depth study on the demand analysis of English learning system. Finally, this paper realizes the design of English learning system based on item response theory and validates the good effect of English item selection from the perspective of application. The system provides teachers and students with convenient learning strategies, item selection strategies, test strategies and academic performance strategies. The introduction of item response theory enables the system to become truly student-centered and provides a more comprehensive and self-adaptive learning model, which is of great significance for improving the learning efficiency of English learning and the learning efficiency of college students in China.
The Theory of Money and Financial Institutions: A Summary of a Game Theoretic Approach
Martin Shubik
2006-01-01
A game theoretic approach to the theory of money and financial institution is given utilizing both the strategic and coalitional forms for describing the economy. The economy is first modeled as a strategic market game, then the strategic form is used to calculate several cooperative forms that differ from each other in their utilization of money and credit and their treatment of threats. It is shown that there are natural upper and lower bounds to the monetary needs of an economy, but even i...
Scalable numerical approach for the steady-state ab initio laser theory
Esterhazy, S.; Liu, D.; Liertzer, M.; Cerjan, A.; Ge, L.; Makris, K. G.; Stone, A. D.; Melenk, J. M.; Johnson, S. G.; Rotter, S.
2014-08-01
We present an efficient and flexible method for solving the non-linear lasing equations of the steady-state ab initio laser theory. Our strategy is to solve the underlying system of partial differential equations directly, without the need of setting up a parametrized basis of constant flux states. We validate this approach in one-dimensional as well as in cylindrical systems, and demonstrate its scalability to full-vector three-dimensional calculations in photonic-crystal slabs. Our method paves the way for efficient and accurate simulations of microlasers which were previously inaccessible.
Worldline approach to quantum field theories on flat manifolds with boundaries
Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Corradini, Olindo; Pisani, Pablo A. G.
2006-01-01
We study a worldline approach to quantum field theories on flat manifolds with boundaries. We consider the concrete case of a scalar field propagating on R_+ x R^{D-1} which leads us to study the associated heat kernel through a one dimensional (worldline) path integral. To calculate the latter we map it onto an auxiliary path integral on the full R^D using an image charge. The main technical difficulty lies in the fact that a smooth potential on R_+ x R^{D-1} extends to a potential which gen...
BOOK REVIEW E-LEARNING SYSTEMS, ENVIRONMENTS AND APPROACHES Theory and Implementation
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Recep ONDER
2016-10-01
Full Text Available E-learning systems have been attainable for years with their different options and flexibilities. These systems provide opportunities like flexible structures with respect to time and space, personalization of learning and sharing of adaptable learning experience. With these features, e-learning systems gain places in the education environments. In this context, we reviewed the book “E-Learning Systems, Environments and Approaches: Theory and Implementation” edited by Pedro Isaías, J. Michael Spector, Dirk Ifenthaler and Demetrios G. Sampson (2015 which included theoretical knowledge on the e-learning technologies and contributed to the literature with experimental implementation examples in the education environments.
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Hakan ASLAN
2008-03-01
Full Text Available The safe movement of hazardous materials is receiving increased attention due to growing environmental awareness of the potential health affects of a release causing incident. A novel approach developed in this paper through a game theory interpretation provides a risk-averse solution to the hazardous materials transportation problem. The dispatcher minimizes the expected maximum disutility subject to worst possible set of link failure probabilities, assuming that one link in the network fails. The expected cost at the Nash equilibrium is a useful measure to evaluate the routing strategies for the safe movement of hazardous materials.
A Dynamic Density Functional Theory Approach to Diffusion in White Dwarfs and Neutron Star Envelopes
Diaw, A.; Murillo, M. S.
2016-09-01
We develop a multicomponent hydrodynamic model based on moments of the Born-Bogolyubov-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy equations for physical conditions relevant to astrophysical plasmas. These equations incorporate strong correlations through a density functional theory closure, while transport enters through a relaxation approximation. This approach enables the introduction of Coulomb coupling correction terms into the standard Burgers equations. The diffusive currents for these strongly coupled plasmas is self-consistently derived. The settling of impurities and its impact on cooling can be greatly affected by strong Coulomb coupling, which we show can be quantified using the direct correlation function.
A reversal theory analysis of psychological responses during sports injury rehabilitation.
Thatcher, Joanne; Kerr, John; Amies, Kristy; Day, Melissa
2007-11-01
Few studies have examined psychological and emotional processes in injury rehabilitation from a longitudinal, theoretically framed perspective. This study explored the applicability of Reversal Theory to examine these processes. University of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK. Three severely injured athletes; two were female (karate and judo) and one was male (hockey), aged 20 to 28. Fortnightly interviews after participant's initial consultation with a sports therapist, until complete physical rehabilitation. Supported the use of Reversal Theory in this context (eg, as a means of understanding the origins of athletes' emotional responses to injury and changes in these responses throughout rehabilitation). Suggestions for future research are made (eg, examining the consequences of emotional and metamotivational states for athlete behavior and recovery outcomes during rehabilitation).
Realizing an Optimization Approach Inspired from Piaget’s Theory on Cognitive Development
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Utku Kose
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to introduce an artificial intelligence based optimization approach, which is inspired from Piaget’s theory on cognitive development. The approach has been designed according to essential processes that an individual may experience while learning something new or improving his / her knowledge. These processes are associated with the Piaget’s ideas on an individual’s cognitive development. The approach expressed in this paper is a simple algorithm employing swarm intelligence oriented tasks in order to overcome single-objective optimization problems. For evaluating effectiveness of this early version of the algorithm, test operations have been done via some benchmark functions. The obtained results show that the approach / algorithm can be an alternative to the literature in terms of single-objective optimization.The authors have suggested the name: Cognitive Development Optimization Algorithm (CoDOA for the related intelligent optimization approach.
HIV/AIDS knowledge among men who have sex with men: applying the item response theory
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Raquel Regina de Freitas Magalhães Gomes
2014-04-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge among men who have sex with men in Brazil using the latent trait model estimated by Item Response Theory. METHODS Multicenter, cross-sectional study, carried out in ten Brazilian cities between 2008 and 2009. Adult men who have sex with men were recruited (n = 3,746 through Respondent Driven Sampling. HIV/AIDS knowledge was ascertained through ten statements by face-to-face interview and latent scores were obtained through two-parameter logistic modeling (difficulty and discrimination using Item Response Theory. Differential item functioning was used to examine each item characteristic curve by age and schooling. RESULTS Overall, the HIV/AIDS knowledge scores using Item Response Theory did not exceed 6.0 (scale 0-10, with mean and median values of 5.0 (SD = 0.9 and 5.3, respectively, with 40.7% of the sample with knowledge levels below the average. Some beliefs still exist in this population regarding the transmission of the virus by insect bites, by using public restrooms, and by sharing utensils during meals. With regard to the difficulty and discrimination parameters, eight items were located below the mean of the scale and were considered very easy, and four items presented very low discrimination parameter (< 0.34. The absence of difficult items contributed to the inaccuracy of the measurement of knowledge among those with median level and above. CONCLUSIONS Item Response Theory analysis, which focuses on the individual properties of each item, allows measures to be obtained that do not vary or depend on the questionnaire, which provides better ascertainment and accuracy of knowledge scores. Valid and reliable scales are essential for monitoring HIV/AIDS knowledge among the men who have sex with men population over time and in different geographic regions, and this psychometric model brings this advantage.
Head, Katharine J; Noar, Seth M
2014-01-01
This paper explores the question: what are barriers to health behaviour theory development and modification, and what potential solutions can be proposed? Using the reasoned action approach (RAA) as a case study, four areas of theory development were examined: (1) the theoretical domain of a theory; (2) tension between generalisability and utility, (3) criteria for adding/removing variables in a theory, and (4) organisational tracking of theoretical developments and formal changes to theory. Based on a discussion of these four issues, recommendations for theory development are presented, including: (1) the theoretical domain for theories such as RAA should be clarified; (2) when there is tension between generalisability and utility, utility should be given preference given the applied nature of the health behaviour field; (3) variables should be formally removed/amended/added to a theory based on their performance across multiple studies and (4) organisations and researchers with a stake in particular health areas may be best suited for tracking the literature on behaviour-specific theories and making refinements to theory, based on a consensus approach. Overall, enhancing research in this area can provide important insights for more accurately understanding health behaviours and thus producing work that leads to more effective health behaviour change interventions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pal, Ranjan [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chelmis, Charalampos [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Aman, Saima [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Frincu, Marc [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
2015-07-15
The advent of smart meters and advanced communication infrastructures catalyzes numerous smart grid applications such as dynamic demand response, and paves the way to solve challenging research problems in sustainable energy consumption. The space of solution possibilities are restricted primarily by the huge amount of generated data requiring considerable computational resources and efficient algorithms. To overcome this Big Data challenge, data clustering techniques have been proposed. Current approaches however do not scale in the face of the “increasing dimensionality” problem where a cluster point is represented by the entire customer consumption time series. To overcome this aspect we first rethink the way cluster points are created and designed, and then design an efficient online clustering technique for demand response (DR) in order to analyze high volume, high dimensional energy consumption time series data at scale, and on the fly. Our online algorithm is randomized in nature, and provides optimal performance guarantees in a computationally efficient manner. Unlike prior work we (i) study the consumption properties of the whole population simultaneously rather than developing individual models for each customer separately, claiming it to be a ‘killer’ approach that breaks the “curse of dimensionality” in online time series clustering, and (ii) provide tight performance guarantees in theory to validate our approach. Our insights are driven by the field of sociology, where collective behavior often emerges as the result of individual patterns and lifestyles.
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Lena Wimmer
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The present paper reports a pilot study which tested cognitive effects of mindfulness practice in a theory-driven approach. Thirty-four fifth graders received either a mindfulness training which was based on the mindfulness-based stress reduction approach (experimental group, a concentration training (active control group or no treatment (passive control group. Based on the operational definition of mindfulness by Bishop et al. (2004, effects on sustained attention, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition and data-driven as opposed to schema-based information processing were predicted. These abilities were assessed in a pre-post design by means of a vigilance test, a reversible figures test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a Stroop test, a visual search task, and a recognition task of prototypical faces. Results suggest that the mindfulness training specifically improved cognitive inhibition and data-driven information processing.
Coalition of distributed generation units to virtual power players - a game theory approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago M; Santos, Gabriel
2015-01-01
and the existence of new management players such as several types of aggregators. This paper proposes a methodology to facilitate the coalition between distributed generation units originating Virtual Power Players (VPP) considering a game theory approach. The proposed approach consists in the analysis......Smart Grids (SGs) have emerged as the new paradigm for power system operation and management, being designed to include large amounts of distributed energy resources. This new paradigm requires new Energy Resource Management (ERM) methodologies considering different operation strategies...... of the classifications that were attributed by each VPP to the distributed generation units, as well as in the analysis of the previous established contracts by each player. The proposed classification model is based in fourteen parameters including technical, economical and behavioural ones. Depending of the VPP...
Mukamel, Shaul
2003-08-01
Computing response functions by following the time evolution of superoperators in Liouville space (whose vectors are ordinary Hilbert space operators) offers an attractive alternative to the diagrammatic perturbative expansion of many-body equilibrium and nonequilibrium Green's functions. The bookkeeping of time ordering is naturally maintained in real (physical) time, allowing the formulation of Wick's theorem for superoperators, giving a factorization of higher order response functions in terms of two fundamental Green's functions. Backward propagations and analytic continuations using artificial times (Keldysh loops and Matsubara contours) are avoided. A generating functional for nonlinear response functions unifies quantum field theory and the classical mode coupling formalism of nonlinear hydrodynamics and may be used for semiclassical expansions. Classical response functions are obtained without the explicit computation of stability matrices.