WorldWideScience

Sample records for response shaves energy

  1. Smart households: Dispatch strategies and economic analysis of distributed energy storage for residential peak shaving

    Zheng, Menglian; Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cost-effectiveness of building-based storage for peak shaving has hitherto not been well understood. • Several existing storage technologies are shown to provide cost-effective peak shaving. • Setting grid demand targets rather than hard demand limits improves economics. • Accounting for seasonal demand variations in storage dispatch strategy improves economics further. • Total-energy-throughput approach is used to determine storage lifetimes. - Abstract: Meeting time-varying peak demand poses a key challenge to the U.S. electricity system. Building-based electricity storage – to enable demand response (DR) without curtailing actual appliance usage – offers potential benefits of lower electricity production cost, higher grid reliability, and more flexibility to integrate renewables. DR tariffs are currently available in the U.S. but building-based storage is still underutilized due to insufficiently understood cost-effectiveness and dispatch strategies. Whether DR schemes can yield a profit for building operators (i.e., reduction in electricity bill that exceeds levelized storage cost) and which particular storage technology yields the highest profit is yet to be answered. This study aims to evaluate the economics of providing peak shaving DR under a realistic tariff (Con Edison, New York), using a range of storage technologies (conventional and advanced batteries, flywheel, magnetic storage, pumped hydro, compressed air, and capacitors). An agent-based stochastic model is used to randomly generate appliance-level demand profiles for an average U.S. household. We first introduce a levelized storage cost model which is based on a total-energy-throughput lifetime. We then develop a storage dispatch strategy which optimizes the storage capacity and the demand limit on the grid. We find that (i) several storage technologies provide profitable DR; (ii) annual profit from such DR can range from 1% to 39% of the household’s non-DR electricity

  2. Break-Even Points of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Peak Shaving Applications

    Claudia Rahmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, several investigations have been carried out in the field of optimal sizing of energy storage systems (ESSs at both the transmission and distribution levels. Nevertheless, most of these works make important assumptions about key factors affecting ESS profitability such as efficiency and life cycles and especially about the specific costs of the ESS, without considering the uncertainty involved. In this context, this work aims to answer the question: what should be the costs of different ESS technologies in order to make a profit when considering peak shaving applications? The paper presents a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the interaction between the profitability of an ESS project and some key parameters influencing the project performance. The proposed approach determines the break-even points for different ESSs considering a wide range of life cycles, efficiencies, energy prices, and power prices. To do this, an optimization algorithm for the sizing of ESSs is proposed from a distribution company perspective. From the results, it is possible to conclude that, depending on the values of round trip efficiency, life cycles, and power price, there are four battery energy storage systems (BESS technologies that are already profitable when only peak shaving applications are considered: lead acid, NaS, ZnBr, and vanadium redox.

  3. Opportunities for peak shaving the energy demand of ship-to-shore quay cranes at container terminals

    H. Geerlings; Robert Heij; dr. J.H.R. van Duin

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of both a qualitative and a quantitative study on the possibilities for peak shaving the energy demand of ship-to-shore (STS) cranes at container terminals. The objective is to present an energy consumption model that visualizes the energy demand of STS cranes and to

  4. Opportunities for peak shaving the energy demand of ship-to-shore quay cranes at container terminals

    Geerlings, Harry; van Duin, Ron

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of both a qualitative and a quantitative study on
    the possibilities for peak shaving the energy demand of ship-to-shore (STS) cranes at container terminals. The objective is to present an energy consumption model that visualizes the energy demand of STS cranes and

  5. Peak Shaving Considering Streamflow Uncertainties | Iwuagwu ...

    The main thrust of this paper is peak shaving with a Stochastic hydro model. In peak sharing, the amount of hydro energy scheduled may be a minimum but it serves to replace less efficient thermal units. The sample system is die Kainji hydro plant and the thermal units of the National Electric Power Authority. The random ...

  6. RECYCLING OF FERROUS METAL SHAVINGS

    S. L. Rovin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most advanced and universal way of chips recycling of ferrous metals is the technology of direct chips remelting in rotational tilting furnaces (RBF directly at the enterprises-sources of waste generation. However common practice of iron and steel chips recycling is based on its briquetting and subsequent remelting in traditional furnaces.For cost reduction when chip briquetting and organization of hot briquetting sections in places of its formation highly efficient equipment – rotational dryer and RBF is proposed. The possibility and effectiveness of developed furnaces for lowand high-temperature chip heating in briquetting lines is proved. Thermal efficiency of such furnaces when dispersed materials heating is much higher than drum or feed-through furnaces. Hot briquetting of shavings reduces the pressing force, which reduces the specific energy consumption. The use of rotary kilns can reduce technological operations and equipment of production sites for the manufacture of briquettes

  7. Practical load management - Peak shaving using photovoltaics

    Berger, W.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at how photovoltaic (PV) power generation can be used in a practical way to meet peak demands for electricity. Advice is provided on how photovoltaics can provide peak load 'shaving' through the correlation between its production and the peak loads encountered during the day. The situation regarding feed-in tariffs in Italy is discussed, as are further examples of installations in Germany and Austria. Further, an initiative of the American Southern California Edison utility is discussed which foresees the installation of large PV plant on the roofs of commercial premises to provide local generation of peak energy and thus relieve demands on their power transportation network.

  8. Peak-load shaving in smart homes via online scheduling

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Kheir, J.; Guchuan Zhu

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of load-shaving in Smart Homes in view of improving energy efficiency in Smart Grids. An architecture of home power management systems, allowing the separation of domestic power load control from grid dynamics, is introduced. In this framework, the operation...

  9. Pain recurrence after shaving of rectovaginal endometriosis

    Heide, Mathias Gottschalck; Forman, Axel

    Background: Surgical treatment of rectovaginal endometriosis varies from shaving of the nodule off the rectal wall without perforation, over discoid excision to routine rectal resection. Of these methods, shaving involves the lowest rate of serious complications but leaves endometriosis tissue...... on the bowel with risk of recurrence. This could motivate a change into more radical surgery. In the present study we therefore assessed recurrence of pain after shaving of rectovaginal endometriosis performed 2001-2009. Methods: Retrospective follow-up study. Questionnaires were sent to 212 women of whom 174...... OCs and gestagen IUD showed a trend towards a protective effect against menstrual pain (p=0.06). There was found no significant association between recurrence of pain and anterior rectal wall involvement. Conclusion: Shaving of rectovaginal endometriosis shows a high risk of postoperative pain...

  10. Dechlorination of Hexachloroethane in Water Using Iron Shavings and Amended Iron Shavings: Kinetics and Pathways

    D. L. Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to previous studies which employed zero-valent iron powder, this paper investigated reductive dechlorination of hexachloroethane (HCA using iron shavings and bimetallic iron shavings modified with Cu, Ag, or Pd. Results clearly show that iron shavings offer superior reductive dechlorination of HCA. In addition, surface-normalized pseudo first-order dechlorination rates of 0.0073 L·m−2·h−1, 0.0136 L·m−2·h−1, 0.0189 L·m−2·h−1, and 0.0084 L·m−2·h−1 were observed in the presence of iron shavings (Fe0 and the bimetallic iron shavings Cu/Fe, Ag/Fe, and Pd/Fe, respectively. Bimetallic iron shavings consisting of Cu/Fe and Ag/Fe could greatly enhance the reductive reaction rate; Pd/Fe was used to achieve complete dechlorination of HCA within 5 hours. The additives of Ag and Pd shifted product distributions, and the reductive dechlorination of HCA occurred via β reductive elimination and sequential hydrogenolysis in the presence of all iron shavings. This study consequently designed a reaction pathway diagram which reflected the reaction pathway and most prevalent dechlorination products. Iron shavings are a common byproduct of mechanical processing plants. While the purity of such Fe metals may be low, these shavings are readily available at low costs and could potentially be used in engineering applications such as contamination control technologies.

  11. [Arsenical keratosis treated by dermatome shaving].

    Kjerkegaard, Ulrik Knap; Heje, Jens Martin; Vestergaard, Christian; Stausbøl-Grøn, Birgitte; Stolle, Lars Bjørn

    2014-05-05

    Cutaneous malignancy in association with arsenic exposure is a rare but well-documented phenomenon. Signs of chronic arsenic exposure are very rare in Denmark today. However, arsenic was used in the medical treatment of psoriasis vulgaris up till the 1980's and several patients suffer from this arsenic treatment today. This case report shows that arsenical keratosis can be treated by dermatome shaving, a superficial destructive therapy.

  12. Briquetting of titanium shavings with using of short electrical pulses

    Abramova, K.B.; Samujlov, S.D.; Filin, Yu.A.

    1998-01-01

    It is proposed and tested a new technology of briquetting of metallic shavings. The technology includes pressing of shavings with comparatively low pressure and processing it by means of short pulse of high density electrical current. Strength of the briquette arrears as a result of the sport electric welding of the contacts between the shaving particles. The technology permits: to produce firm briquettes from the shavings or other scrap of any metal or alloy, for example from titanium; to produce briquettes practically of any porosity; to decrease the compression and abandon heating almost for high-strength alloy in comparison with existing methods [ru

  13. Dysplastic naevi: to shave, or not to shave? A retrospective study of the use of the shave biopsy technique in the initial management of dysplastic naevi.

    Armour, Katherine; Mann, Stephen; Lee, Stephen

    2005-05-01

    The management of dysplastic naevi is a controversial subject. This study sought to assess the usefulness of the shave biopsy technique in the initial management of dysplastic naevi, and to demonstrate the advantages over the punch biopsy technique. We report a retrospective observational study of histopathology specimens examined in one histopathology practice over a 14-month period. Patients who had a clinical diagnosis of 'dysplastic naevus', which had initially been biopsied using either a shave or punch biopsy, and then followed up with a full-thickness elliptical excision, were included in the study. Histopathological concordance between the shave and punch biopsy specimens and their respective follow-up elliptical excisions was compared. We found that 21 of 22 (95.5%) shave biopsies were concordant with their respective excision specimens, and that 29 of 41 (70.7%) punch biopsies were concordant with their respective elliptical excision specimens. Of the shave biopsy specimens reviewed, 66% showed that the dysplastic naevi were completely excised with the initial biopsy, compared with 21.2% of the punch biopsy specimens. These findings confirm that shave biopsies provide accurate diagnostic information in the assessment of dysplastic naevi. Shave biopsies enable the entire lesion to be submitted for histopathological assessment, improving the chances of an accurate diagnosis.

  14. Energy crisis: policy response

    Nemetz, P N [ed.

    1981-01-01

    Resource-management techniques must be applied to assess the risks, benefits, priorities, and potentials of the different energy options as prospective slowdowns in the flow of crude oil threaten recurring energy crises. The 23 contributors to this book use various managerial approaches in the formulation of energy policies. There is little agreement among the remedies put forth as to which policies will best achieve a balanced energy system. While some experts argue that Canadian energy policy should emphasize intensive development of coal, others claim that it ought to strive for greater reliance on electricity, and still others contend that the transition to soft energy paths is a preferable policy approach. The essays offer a broad range of policy responses, examining not only technical and economic possibilities, but political and institutional alternatives as well. 147 references, 18 figures, 30 tables.

  15. Anthrax in Vintage Animal-hair Shaving Brushes

    2017-08-08

    Dr. Kate Hendricks, a CDC anthrax expert, discusses anthrax in vintage shaving brushes.  Created: 8/8/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2017.

  16. Anthrax Cases Associated with Animal-Hair Shaving Brushes.

    Szablewski, Christine M; Hendricks, Kate; Bower, William A; Shadomy, Sean V; Hupert, Nathaniel

    2017-05-01

    During the First World War, anthrax cases in the United States and England increased greatly and seemed to be associated with use of new shaving brushes. Further investigation revealed that the source material and origin of shaving brushes had changed during the war. Cheap brushes of imported horsehair were being made to look like the preferred badger-hair brushes. Unfortunately, some of these brushes were not effectively disinfected and brought with them a nasty stowaway: Bacillus anthracis. A review of outbreak summaries, surveillance data, and case reports indicated that these cases originated from the use of ineffectively disinfected animal-hair shaving brushes. This historical information is relevant to current public health practice because renewed interest in vintage and animal-hair shaving brushes has been seen in popular culture. This information should help healthcare providers and public health officials answer questions on this topic.

  17. Energy-responsive timekeeping

    An essential component of energy homeostasis lies in an organism's ability to coordinate daily patterns in activity, feeding, energy utilization and energy storage across the daily 24-h cycle. Most tissues of the body contain the molecular clock machinery required for circadian oscillation and rhythmic gene expression.

  18. Robust peak-shaving for a neighborhood with electric vehicles

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Hurink, Johann L.

    2016-01-01

    Demand Side Management (DSM) is a popular approach for grid-aware peak-shaving. The most commonly used DSM methods either have no look ahead feature and risk deploying flexibility too early, or they plan ahead using predictions, which are in general not very reliable. To counter this, a DSM approach

  19. Badger hair in shaving brushes comes from protected Eurasian badgers

    Domingo-Roura, X.; Marmi, J.; Ferrando, A.; López-Giráldez, F.; Macdonald, D.W.; Jansman, H.A.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) is included in Appendix III of the Bern Convention and protected by national laws in many European countries. Badger hair is used to manufacture luxury shaving brushes, although it is frequently argued that the hog badger (Arctonyx collaris), which in Europe is an

  20. Daur ulang limbah shaving industri penyamakan kulit untuk kertas seni

    Sri Sutyasmi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A research has been done on recycling of shavings waste for art paper. The aim of this research was to utilize shaving waste from tanning industry for making art paper in order not to pollute the environment, and to add raw materials to the manufacture of art paper. In this study the majority of shaving waste was used as a motif (20% and partly made ​of pulp (10% together with paper waste (newspaper. As the materials starch and resin adhesive (fox used was (1% that served as an adhesive. Dyes were used to the beauty of the appearance of art paper. There were two stages of the paper making, first made ​from waste paper pulp added with the waste shaving, then printing given motives shaving motive of waste too. Part of the sheet of paper were pressed (about half, and the other parts were not pressed. They were then tested on gramatur art paper, tear index, tensile index, and the fracture index. The test results showed that pressed art paper had -3 a tear index, tensile index and the fracture index (3.85; 0.59; 8.4 x 10 , and the impressed was -3 (3.57; 0.52; 6.9 x 10 respectively the art paper that used fox adhesive on the pressed (15,545; -1 -1 0,76; 3528 x 10 , and on impressed (16,366; 0,80; 3549 x 10 . The overall appearance of art paper results could still compete with the art of paper are the market.

  1. Shave-off depth profiling: Depth profiling with an absolute depth scale

    Nojima, M.; Maekawa, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Tomiyasu, B.; Sakamoto, T.; Owari, M.; Nihei, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Shave-off depth profiling provides profiling with an absolute depth scale. This method uses a focused ion beam (FIB) micro-machining process to provide the depth profile. We show that the shave-off depth profile of a particle reflected the spherical shape of the sample and signal intensities had no relationship to the depth. Through the introduction of FIB micro-sampling, the shave-off depth profiling of a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) tip was carried out. The shave-off profile agreed with a blue print from the manufacturing process. Finally, shave-off depth profiling is discussed with respect to resolutions and future directions

  2. Socially responsible energy futures

    Starr, C.

    1979-01-01

    After examining briefly the usual positions of nuclear critics and nuclear proponents, Dr. Starr says that the proponents (of whom he is one) have a broader case for nuclear power not thus far effectively advanced - a case based chiefly on a visible concern with social values and the future welfare of humanity. Such a broader case for nuclear power has always existed - a case based on motivations that initially spurred development of this energy resource over the past several decades, but one that has tended to be neglected in the public debate. A concern to avoid worldwide catastrophe is central to this broader case for nuclear power. The threat is perceived as resulting directly from the pending unavailability of petroleum and natural gas at a reasonable cost. This unavailability could lead to global tensions and political instabilities, economic crises, and, ultimately, to military conflicts based on need to obtain and control liquid-fuel resources. It is felt that past history and current events substantiate the threat inherent in the international struggle for raw materials. The broader - and more compelling - case for nuclear power lies in its potential for removing a major threat to the peace, stability, and welfare of the world that is inherent in the growing scarcity of petroleum and natural gas resources and in the limited geographical availability of coal. The catastrophe that could be avoided is at least as threatening as the one projected by those who oppose the use of nuclear power, and, Dr. Starr argues, more realistic in its potential for world-shattering impacts

  3. Demand response in energy markets

    Skytte, K.; Birk Mortensen, J.

    2004-11-01

    Improving the ability of energy demand to respond to wholesale prices during critical periods of the spot market can reduce the total costs of reliably meeting demand, and the level and volatility of the prices. This fact has lead to a growing interest in the short-run demand response. There has especially been a growing interest in the electricity market where peak-load periods with high spot prices and occasional local blackouts have recently been seen. Market concentration at the supply side can result in even higher peak-load prices. Demand response by shifting demand from peak to base-load periods can counteract the market power in the peak-load. However, demand response has so far been modest since the current short-term price elasticity seems to be small. This is also the case for related markets, for example, green certificates where the demand is determined as a percentage of the power demand, or for heat and natural gas markets. This raises a number of interesting research issues: 1) Demand response in different energy markets, 2) Estimation of price elasticity and flexibility, 3) Stimulation of demand response, 4) Regulation, policy and modelling aspects, 5) Demand response and market power at the supply side, 6) Energy security of supply, 7) Demand response in forward, spot, ancillary service, balance and capacity markets, 8) Demand response in deviated markets, e.g., emission, futures, and green certificate markets, 9) Value of increased demand response, 10) Flexible households. (BA)

  4. Flue gas recovery system for natural gas combined heat and power plant with distributed peak-shaving heat pumps

    Zhao, Xiling; Fu, Lin; Wang, Xiaoyin; Sun, Tao; Wang, Jingyi; Zhang, Shigang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A flue gas recovery system with distributed peak-shaving heat pumps is proposed. • The system can improve network transmission and distribution capacity. • The system is advantageous in energy saving, emission reduction and economic benefits. - Abstract: District heating systems use distributed heat pump peak-shaving technology to adjust heat in secondary networks of substations. This technology simultaneously adjusts the heat of the secondary network and reduces the return-water temperature of the primary network by using the heat pump principle. When optimized, low temperature return-water is able to recycle more waste heat, thereby further improving the heating efficiency of the system. This paper introduces a flue gas recovery system for a natural gas combined heat and power plant with distributed peak-shaving heat pumps. A pilot system comprising a set of two 9F gas-steam combined cycle-back pressure heating units was used to analyse the system configuration and key parameters. The proposed system improved the network transmission and distribution capacity, increased heating capacity, and reduced heating energy consumption without compromising heating safety issues. As such, the proposed system is advantageous in terms of energy saving, emission reduction, and economic benefits.

  5. Pemanfaatan kembali krom limbah shaving untuk penyamakan kulit

    Sri Sutyasmi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the extent of chrome in shaving waste that can be recovered and reused for tanning the leather and to reduce environmental pollution. Three kg of chrome shaving waste was hydrolyzed with NaOH by variation of 1, 2 and 3 % respectively in 10 liters of water, at temperature of 100oC for 1 hour. The results solution was then filtered to separate the chrome from the collagen protein . The filtered solids chrome was recovery by concentrated using sulfuric acid. The resulting chrome has Cr2O3 about 11 g/kg of chromium with utiluzation of 2 % NaOH. The recovered chrome was used for tanning goat skin with variation of 0, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 100% respectively from total chrome used for tanning leather. Test result showed that the variation of 60 % met the standard of SNI 0253-2009: Upper leather footwear-goat. The use of recovered chrome reduce environmental pollution.

  6. Chromatographic characterization of products isolated from chrome shavings

    Edivaldo E Garcia

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Gel permeation chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were employed for separation and chemical characterization of products isolated from chrome shavings. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the products isolated were peptides of higher molecular weight. Peptides of lower molecular weight and free aminoacids were the main products using sulfuric acid in chrome shavings solubilization. Glycine (17% , glutamic acid (10.6% , alanine (9.2% , and arginine (8.2% were the principal amino acids found. Phenylalanine(1.8% was the main aromatic amino acid , while tryptophane was completely absent.A cromatografia de permeação em gel e a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência foram utilizadas para a separação e caracterização dos produtos isolados da serragem cromada. Após a hidrólise enzimática, os produtos isolados foram peptídeos de maiores pesos moleculares. Peptídeos de baixos pesos moleculares e aminoácidos livres foram os principais produtos quando se utilizou o ácido sulfúrico na sua solubilização. Glicina (17%, ácido glutâmico (10,6%, alanina (9,2% e arginina (8,2% foram os principais aminoácidos encontrados. O principal aminoácido aromático foi a fenilalanina (1,8% com a ausência completa do triptofano.

  7. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  8. Society response to nuclear energy

    Santamaria, N. C.

    2007-01-01

    Energy demand in the world is growing increasingly, among other factors due to economic development. Every way of producing electricity has got their own drawbacks and has implicit environmental impact. Among all the energy sources, nuclear energy is the most polemic because of the way it is presented by the mass media. This aspect provokes controversy to occidental societies which reject this kind of energy with arguments normally based on a wrong and insufficient knowledge of the matter. The antinuclear discourse, promoted late in the seventies, has gone deeply into the collective social unconscious and has undermined public acceptance of nuclear energy due to the fact, deeply exploited by antinuclear groups, of linking nuclear energy with the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In this sense, it is important to mention that in Japan there was a profound resentment and opposition to nuclear energy, because the memory of the nuclear bombings was permanently alive. However when the Japanese government told its people that this energy was necessary to boost their industrial development, Japanese citizens in an unprecedented attitude of patriotism overcame their most antagonist feelings, in order to contribute to the industrial development of their country. The result was that most of them voted in favour. Presently Japan gets 30% of its energy by means of 56 nuclear power plants and 1 more is under construction. Antinuclear groups took as their best emblem the accident of Chernobyl to justify their opposition to the nuclear power plants. The manipulation of this accident has been one of the most shameful in the nuclear history. It is widely known among the experts that the reactor used in Chernobyl was a type of military plutonium converter with a positive temperature reactivity coefficient, which made very dangerous its functioning. Any nuclear regulatory commission in democratic and responsible countries would have never authorized the use of this reactor

  9. Minimization of Impact from Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment to the Electric Grid Using a Dynamically Controlled Battery Bank for Peak Load Shaving

    Castello, Charles C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This research presents a comparison of two control systems for peak load shaving using local solar power generation (i.e., photovoltaic array) and local energy storage (i.e., battery bank). The purpose is to minimize load demand of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) on the electric grid. A static and dynamic control system is compared to decrease demand from EVSE. Static control of the battery bank is based on charging and discharging to the electric grid at fixed times. Dynamic control, with 15-minute resolution, forecasts EVSE load based on data analysis of collected data. In the proposed dynamic control system, the sigmoid function is used to shave peak loads while limiting scenarios that can quickly drain the battery bank. These control systems are applied to Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) solar-assisted electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. This installation is composed of three independently grid-tied sub-systems: (1) 25 EVSE; (2) 47 kW photovoltaic (PV) array; and (3) 60 kWh battery bank. The dynamic control system achieved the greatest peak load shaving, up to 34% on a cloudy day and 38% on a sunny day. The static control system was not ideal; peak load shaving was 14.6% on a cloudy day and 12.7% on a sunny day. Simulations based on ORNL data shows solar-assisted EV charging stations combined with the proposed dynamic battery control system can negate up to 89% of EVSE load demand on sunny days.

  10. Municipal energy managers; Responsables energie municipaux

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    On 1 and 2 July, municipal energy managers from all over Europe met in Stuttgart, Germany. On these two days, more the 150 participants form 22 countries listened to presentations, took part in excursions to cutting-edge energy conservation projects in Stuttgart and, above all, participated in a broad array of workshops presented by experts firmly grounded in local practice. 27 experts drawn from 11 European countries showcased their projects and imparted their experience. The event has been accompanied by an exhibition of companies and service providers offering energy-conservation products and planning services. The first workshop dealt with energy management in Europe and examples from different active municipalities; the second one with energy management in Germany and best practice in the leading cities; the third one with non-municipal and European projects. (A.L.B.)

  11. 1.5 GeV/c multiturn shaving extraction and its transport line for the Brookhaven AGS

    Weng, W.T.; Blumberg, L.N.; Gill, E.; Soukas, A.; Witkover, R.L.; Egleman, E.; LoSecco, J.; Sulak, L.

    1979-01-01

    A system for fast shaving extraction at 1.5 GeV/c is implemented to extract the circulating beam in five turns. A numerical simulation is first carried out to determine the emittance and the rf structure of the extracted beam. This is followed by several machine study sessions which establish the optimal extraction configuration, confirm the emittance, and modify the transport line for low energy beam. Finally, a one-week run for the Neutrino Oscillation experiment demonstrates that the system is very stable and capable of delivering 7.5 x 10 12 p/sec with 70% extraction efficiency and 95% transport efficiency

  12. Optimal Technology Investment and Operation in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings with Demand Response

    Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Hirohisa, Aki; Lai, Judy

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has launched the Zero-Net-Energy (ZNE) Commercial Building Initiative (CBI) in order to develop commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge energy-efficient technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. We examine how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cost- or carbon-minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various technologies, such as photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and passive/demand-response technologies. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has a multi-criteria objective function: the minimization of a weighted average of the building's annual energy costs and carbon/CO2 emissions. The MILP's constraints ensure energy balance and capacity limits. In addition, constraining the building's energy consumed to equal its energy exports enables us to explore how energy sales and demand-response measures may enable compliance with the CBI. Using a nursing home in northern California and New York with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find that a ZNE building requires ample PV capacity installed to ensure electricity sales during the day. This is complemented by investment in energy-efficient combined heat and power equipment, while occasional demand response shaves energy consumption. A large amount of storage is also adopted, which may be impractical. Nevertheless, it shows the nature of the solutions and costs necessary to achieve ZNE. For comparison, we analyze a nursing home facility in New York to examine the effects of a flatter tariff structure and different load profiles. It has trouble reaching ZNE status and its load reductions as well as efficiency measures need to be more effective than those in the CA case

  13. A comparison of sawdust and wood shavings as litter materials for ...

    -Amponsem, A Osei-Somuah. Abstract. The suitability of sawdust as litter material for broilers was assessed by comparing broiler performance on it with performance on wood shavings in a 49-day trial. Criteria for assessment included body ...

  14. Speciation of Chromium in Bottom Ash Obtained by the Incineration of the Leather Waste Shavings

    k. louhab; H. Assas

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of bottom ash morphology and chromium metals behavior during incineration of a leather waste shavings at different incineration temperature have been studied. The Cr, Ca, Mg, Cl rates in bottom ashes, flay ashes and emitted gases in different incineration temperature of the tannery wastes are also determined. The morphology of the bottom ashes obtained by incineration at different temperature from the leather waste shavings was examined by MEB. The result sho...

  15. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  16. Adsorption of leather dyes on activated carbon from leather shaving wastes: kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics studies.

    Manera, Christian; Tonello, Andrezza Piroli; Perondi, Daniele; Godinho, Marcelo

    2018-03-23

    In this work, the adsorption of Acid Black 210 (AB210) and Acid Red 357 (AR357) onto activated carbon prepared from leather shaving wastes (ACLW) was investigated. The activated carbon presented a surface area of 800.4 m²/g with an average pore size of 1.27 nm. The kinetic study showed that the adsorption of both dyes followed the Elovich kinetic model while the AB210 and AR357 isotherm data were well described by the Langmuir and BET models, respectively. Furthermore, the Boyd plot revealed that the adsorption of the leather dyes on activated carbon was mainly governed by film diffusion. The pH had a strong influence on the adsorption, and the higher amounts of dye adsorbed were obtained at pH 2. The obtained activated carbon exhibited a high monolayer adsorption capacity of 573.9 and 204.4 mg/g for AB210 and AR357, respectively. Its high capacity is mainly attributed to its basicity (0.17 mmol/g) and high surface area. Desorption efficiency of the spent activated carbon was found to be 54.3% and 43.0% for AB210 and AR357, respectively. The spontaneity of the process was demonstrated by the negative values of the Gibbs free energy change.

  17. Introduction of dermatome shaving as first line treatment of chronic tattoo reactions.

    Sepehri, Mitra; Jørgensen, Bo; Serup, Jørgen

    2015-10-01

    Chronic tattoo reactions requiring treatment have increased. Laser removal is not ideal for removal of allergic reactions. Surgical removal of culprit pigment situated in the outer dermis by dermatome shaving is rational and need to be revisited. Fifty four tattoos with chronic reactions in 50 patients were treated with dermatome shaving. Tattoos with red/red nuances dominated the material. In total, 52 operations were performed in infiltration and 2 in general anaesthesia. Shaving was performed to the level in the dermis free of tattoo pigment as assessed visually by the surgeon. Operative complications were few. Healing occurred over weeks as normal for this procedure. On a rating scale from 0 to 4, 4 as most severe, the patient's severity rating of symptoms in their tattoo declined from 3.2 pre-operatively to 1.0, 0.8 and 0.7 after 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. Burden of operation was rated low. Patient satisfaction was high. Dermatome shaving is efficient and with few complications, and is proposed as first line treatment of chronic tattoo reactions. Shaving of such reactions apparently has been neglected during enthusiastic introduction of laser approaches, which in the treatment of allergic tattoo reactions may be relatively contra indicated and of special risk.

  18. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    Ma, Ookie; Cheung, Kerry; Olsen, Daniel J.; Matson, Nance; Sohn, Michael D.; Rose, Cody M.; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Goli, Sasank; Kiliccote, Sila; Cappers, Peter; MacDonald, Jason; Denholm, Paul; Hummon, Marissa; Jorgenson, Jennie; Palchak, David; Starke, Michael; Alkadi, Nasr; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen; Hernandez, Jaci; Kirby, Brendan; O' Malley, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Demand response and energy storage resources present potentially important sources of bulk power system services that can aid in integrating variable renewable generation. While renewable integration studies have evaluated many of the challenges associated with deploying large amounts of variable wind and solar generation technologies, integration analyses have not yet fully incorporated demand response and energy storage resources. This report represents an initial effort in analyzing the potential integration value of demand response and energy storage, focusing on the western United States. It evaluates two major aspects of increased deployment of demand response and energy storage: (1) Their operational value in providing bulk power system services and (2) Market and regulatory issues, including potential barriers to deployment.

  19. Introduction of dermatome shaving as first line treatment of chronic tattoo reactions

    Sepehri, Mitra; Jørgensen, Bo; Serup, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic tattoo reactions requiring treatment have increased. Laser removal is not ideal for removal of allergic reactions. Surgical removal of culprit pigment situated in the outer dermis by dermatome shaving is rational and need to be revisited. MATERIALS/METHODS: Fifty four...... tattoos with chronic reactions in 50 patients were treated with dermatome shaving. Tattoos with red/red nuances dominated the material. In total, 52 operations were performed in infiltration and 2 in general anaesthesia. Shaving was performed to the level in the dermis free of tattoo pigment as assessed...... visually by the surgeon. RESULTS: Operative complications were few. Healing occurred over weeks as normal for this procedure. On a rating scale from 0 to 4, 4 as most severe, the patient's severity rating of symptoms in their tattoo declined from 3.2 pre-operatively to 1.0, 0.8 and 0.7 after 3, 6 and 12...

  20. Neutron energy response measurement of scintillation detectors

    Yang Hongqiong; Peng Taiping; Yang Jianlun; Tang Zhengyuan; Yang Gaozhao; Li Linbo; Hu Mengchun; Wang Zhentong; Zhang Jianhua; Li Zhongbao; Wang Lizong

    2004-01-01

    Neutron sensitivities of detectors composed of plastic scintillator ST401, ST1422, ST1423 and phyotomultiplier tube in primary energy range of fission neutron are calibrated by direct current. The energy response curve of the detectors is obtained in this experiment. The experimental result has been compared with the theoretical calculation and they are in agreement within measuring uncertainty. (authors)

  1. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and energy industry

    Landhaeusser, Werner; Hildebrandt, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    What means Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the energy industry? A rising energy demand with limited natural resources pose utilities, industry and consumers with new challenges. This book follows an interdisciplinary approach and for the first time brings together debates and findings from industry, science, politics, culture and media. Because the energy transition can only succeed if it is comprehensible for the individual and fragmented perspectives and interests are merged. [de

  2. Inducement and responsibility in the energy turnaround

    Loewer, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The book includes several contributions concerning the Bonn discussion on energy legislation (volume 7): inducement and responsibility -in terms of constitutional law; between Europe and re-regulation - what is the regulation framework? Continuity requirement as legislative action directive; the future of the nuclear fuel tax after the nuclear phaseout - problems of the constitutional finance and the European tax legislation, strategy and energy markets; regulatory challenges in the realization of the energy turnaround policy.

  3. An Auto Tuning Substation Peak Shaving Controller for Congestion Management Using Flexible Demand

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Marinelli, Mattia

    2013-01-01

    A closed loop substation peak shaving/congestion management controller for radial distribution networks is presented. The controller it uses an individual control signal in order to shift the consumption of a population of demand side resources, DSRs. The controller auto tunes its parameters on...

  4. Battery Peak Power Shaving Strategy to Prolong Battery Life for Electric Buses

    Pham, T.H.; Rosea, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a battery peak power shaving strategy for battery electric buses. The developed strategy restricts the battery charge/discharge power when the propulsion power demand is high to avoid high deterioration of the battery capacity during operation. Without reducing the propulsion

  5. Dorsal shaving affects concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolites in lactating golden hamsters

    Ohrnberger, Sarah A.; Brinkmann, Katharina; Palme, Rupert; Valencak, Teresa G.

    2018-02-01

    Breeding of golden hamsters is classically performed at thermal conditions ranging from 20 to 24 °C. However, growing evidence suggests that lactating females suffer from heat stress. We hypothesised that shaving females dorsally to maximise heat dissipation may reduce stress during reproduction. We thus compared faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) from shaved golden hamster mothers with those from unshaved controls. We observed significantly lower FCM levels in the shaved mothers ( F 1,22 = 8.69, p = 0.0075) pointing to lower stress due to ameliorated heat dissipation over the body surface. In addition, we observed 0.4 °C lower mean subcutaneous body temperatures in the shaved females, although this effect did not reach significance ( F 1,22 = 1.86, p = 0.18). Our results suggest that golden hamsters having body masses being more than four times that of laboratory mice provide a very interesting model to study aspects of lactation and heat production at the same time.

  6. Nuclear energy and the responsibilities of the Atomic Energy Board

    De Villiers, J.W.L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses nuclear energy and the responsibilities of the previous Atomic Energy Board, (now the Atomic Energy Corporation) of South Africa in this respect. The paper starts by giving a brief introduction to the Atomic Energy Board, its organization and its functions. Research is undertaken in various fields such as the exploitation of nuclear fuels, radiobiology, radioisotopes, etc. Certain activities of the Board was also more directly related to Koeberg. The paper covers four of these areas, namely the early studies of the feasibility of introducing nuclear power in South Africa; the services involving the Board's special expertise in certain areas which Escom makes use of; the regulatory function and the preparation for handling and disposal of radioactive waste

  7. Responsible energy planning and environmental stewardship

    Harrison, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses the idea that operating in the best interests of the environment is also in the best interests of shareholders. Topics discussed include utility environmental policy, cost-effective recycling of materials, environmental impact of new power sources, and energy efficiency. The author states that being environmentally responsible goes beyond good business, it is the right thing to do

  8. The social responsibility of nuclear energy

    Mizuo, Junichi

    2008-01-01

    Interest in the concept of Social Responsibility (SR) has increased recently. Continuing advances in the pace of innovative science and information technology development, growing competition in the world's markets, economic globalization and harsh criticism from communities have all drawn attention to the behavior of different organizations. As a way of drawing global attention to the fulfillment of SR, the goal of coexistence assumes an increasingly significant role from the standpoint of sustainable development of organizations and society. This implies that SR involves two responsibilities: the primary responsibility being an obligation to society, and the secondary responsibility being a positive contribution to society. Seen from the same perspective, Nuclear Energy (NE) is expected to make a positive contribution to the advancement of society and to encourage a safety culture that prevents serious accidents while also encouraging the sound development of organizations and society. ('Society' includes the environment and the economy, with the same sense as a 'triple bottom line'.) Considering the Social Responsibility of Nuclear Energy (NSR) from these points-of-view, NE should coexist with multiple stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between NE and society, to define a framework for problem-solving, and finally to suggest changes in NSR as a whole. (author)

  9. Responsibility for atomic energy damages and indemnification

    Pelzer, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, the overall regulations on civil responsibility for the damages by nuclear fission or the effect of radiation of radioactive materials were established for the first time in the law concerning peaceful use and protection from danger of atomic energy (hereafter referred to as Atomgesetz) in 1959. Responsibility without error was adopted by German legislators. The liability of the owners of atomic energy facilities (Article 25) was distinguished from that of the possessors of radioactive materials (Article 26) under the law. Facility responsibility (Anlagenhaftung) was limited to 500 million German marks at the maximum. Facility owners had the obligation to offer monetary security of 80 million German marks at the maximum by insurances, etc. When disasters exceeded the amount, the owners were exempted by the state up to the maximum 500 million German marks. The Federal Republic adopted the Paris Agreement in 1975 by a law, and the domestic adjustment of Atomgesetz to the European treaty on atomic energy responsibility was made through the third revision of the Gesetz. According to Article 25-1 of Atomgesetz, the regulations of Paris Agreement are first applied to the owners of atomic energy facilities (operators), and as supplement, Articles 25 to 40 of Atomgesetz are applied. The maximum liability amount is 1,000 million German marks. The demand right of indemnification expires in 3 years after demanders find or are bound to find damages and offenders, and terminates in 30 years regardless of whether the former finds the latter or not. Brussels nuclear ship agreement is applied to nuclear ship owners in Germany (Article 25a, Atomgesetz). (Okada, K.)

  10. Separation of motor oils, oily wastes and hydrocarbons from contaminated water by sorption on chrome shavings.

    Gammoun, A; Tahiri, S; Albizane, A; Azzi, M; Moros, J; Garrigues, S; de la Guardia, M

    2007-06-25

    In this paper, the ability of chrome shavings to remove motor oils, oily wastes and hydrocarbons from water has been studied. To determine amount of hydrocarbons sorbed on tanned wastes, a FT-NIR methodology was used and a multivariate calibration based on partial least squares (PLS) was employed for data treatment. The light density, porous tanned waste granules float on the surface of water and remove hydrocarbons and oil films. Wastes fibers from tannery industry have high sorption capacity. These tanned solid wastes are capable of absorbing many times their weight in oil or hydrocarbons (6.5-7.6g of oil and 6.3g of hydrocarbons per gram of chrome shavings). The removal efficiency of the pollutants from water is complete. The sorption of pollutants is a quasi-instantaneous process.

  11. Antioxidant Capacities of Fractions of Bamboo Shaving Extract and Their Antioxidant Components.

    Gong, Jinyan; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Gongnian; Chen, Feng; Lee, Bolim; Ge, Qing; You, Yuru; Liu, Shiwang; Zhang, Ying

    2016-07-30

    This research was conducted for evaluation of antioxidant activities of four fractions from bamboo shavings extract (BSE) and their antioxidant components. The antioxidant capacities of BSE and four fractions on ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays exhibited the following descending order: DF > n-butanol fraction (BF) > BSE ≈ ethyl acetate fraction (AF) > water fraction (WF). Among the identified phenolic compounds, caffeic acid exhibited the highest antioxidant capacities on DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays. An extremely significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities with the contents of total flavonoids, total phenolic acids, or total phenolics was observed in this study. The result indicated that the bamboo shaving extract and its solvent fractions could act as natural antioxidants in light of their potent antioxidant activities.

  12. Flow split, pressure drop, and mixing experiments in a 61-pin shaved-wire blanket assembly

    Wang, S.F.; Rohsenow, W.M.; Todreas, N.E.

    1981-10-01

    The experimental results of a series of hydraulic tests on a shaved-wire 61-pin blanket assembly are presented and compared to previously published MIT results for full-wire tests. The reduction of the wall subchannel flow area by incorporating the shaved-wire reduced the flow in edge and corner subchannels by 4.5 to 16.5% and 1.5%, respectively. The swirl velocity in the wall subchannels was reduced by 50%. The bundle average friction factor, the turbulent subchannel friction factors, and the mixing parameter and laminar/transition friction factors in the interior subchannels remained unchanged. However, the laminar/transition friction factors in the edge subchannels were significantly increased. These effects generally cannot be predicted by the current flow split, friction factor, and mixing parameter correlations

  13. Postoperative Verlaufskontrollen beim Ulcus cruris nach Shave-Operation und Hauttransplantation

    Pantelaki, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    \\(\\bf Hintergrund:\\) Die Arbeit hat das Ziel die Shave-Operation mit Meshgraft-Deckung hinsichtlich der Einheilungsrate und der Schmerzreduktion zu untersuchen. \\(\\bf Methoden:\\) 56 Patienten mit einem Ulcus cruris unterzogen sich dem genannten Eingriff. Vor und 6 Monate nach der Operation wurden die Ulkusgröße, die bakterielle Besiedlung und die Schmerzintensität analysiert. \\(\\bf Ergebnis:\\) Bei 42,86% der Patienten konnte eine Abheilung erreicht werden, wobei die Ergebnisse hoch sign...

  14. Storage coordination and peak-shaving operation in urban areas with high renewable penetration

    Voulis, N.; Warnier, Martijn; Brazier, F.M.

    2017-01-01

    As renewable power generation gains importance, balancing of power demand and supply becomes more and more challenging. This paper addresses this challenge by exploring the potential of individually-owned storage units in decentralised power systems with a high share of renewables. The focus is on the influence of coordination and peak-shaving operation of these individual units in realistic urban areas. Currently extensive amount of research exits on specific applications related to storage ...

  15. Cow comfort in tie-stalls: increased depth of shavings or straw bedding increases lying time.

    Tucker, C B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Beauchemin, K A

    2009-06-01

    Over half of US dairy operations use tie-stalls, but these farming systems have received relatively little research attention in terms of stall design and management. The current study tested the effects of the amount of 2 bedding materials, straw and shavings, on dairy cattle lying behavior. The effects of 4 levels of shavings, 3, 9, 15, and 24 kg/stall (experiment 1, n = 12), and high and low levels of straw in 2 separate experiments: 1, 3, 5, and 7 kg/stall (experiment 2, n = 12) and 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 kg/stall (experiment 3, n = 12) were assessed. Treatments were compared using a crossover design with lactating cows housed in tie-stalls fitted with mattresses. Treatments were applied for 1 wk. Total lying time, number of lying bouts, and the length of each lying bout was recorded with data loggers. In experiment 1, cows spent 3 min more lying down for each additional kilogram of shavings (11.0, 11.7, 11.6, and 12.1 +/- 0.24 h/d for 3, 9, 15, and 24 kg/stall shavings, respectively). In experiment 2, cows increased lying time by 12 min for every additional kilogram of straw (11.2, 12.0, 11.8, and 12.4 +/- 0.24 h/d for 1, 3, 5, and 7 kg/stall of straw, respectively). There were no differences in lying behavior among the lower levels of straw tested in experiment 3 (11.7 +/- 0.32 h/d). These results indicated that additional bedding above a scant amount improves cow comfort, as measured by lying time, likely because a well-bedded surface is more compressible.

  16. Scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 laser, and perfluoropropane (C 3 F 8 for retinal detachment

    Vivek Chaturvedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To review the characteristics and outcomes of patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% C3F8 gas for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. Materials and Methods : A retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients who underwent primary repair of RRD by PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% perfluoropropane (C 3 F 8 was conducted. Patients with less than 3 months follow-up, previous retinal surgery, and higher than grade B proliferative vitreoretinopathy were excluded. Results : Ninety-one eyes were included in the study. The mean age was 60.1 years. The mean follow-up was 13.7 months. The macula was detached in 63% (58/91 of the eyes. The reattachment rate after one surgical procedure was 95% (86/91 while overall reattachment rate was 100%. There was no statistically significant difference between reattachment rates of superior, nasal/temporal, or inferior RRDs. The mean final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 20/40. Of all the patients, 66% of patients with macula-off RRDs had a final BCVA of 20/40 or better. Conclusions: PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% C 3 F 8 leads to successful anatomical reattachment with visual improvement in patients with primary RRD.

  17. Measuring Motivation for Appetitive Behaviour: Food-Restricted Broiler Breeder Chickens Cross a Water Barrier to Forage in an Area of Wood Shavings without Food

    Dixon, Laura M.; Brocklehurst, Sarah; Sandilands, Vicky; Bateson, Melissa; Tolkamp, Bert J.; D'Eath, Rick B.

    2014-01-01

    Broiler breeders (parents of meat chickens) are selected for fast growth and become obese if fed ad libitum. To avoid this and maintain good health and reproductive ability, they are feed restricted to about 1/3 of what they would eat ad libitum. As a result, they experience chronic hunger and exhibit abnormal behaviour patterns that may indicate stress and frustration. One approach to measuring hunger is to observe how much birds will work, such as pecking a key, for access to more or different types of food. However, the sight, smell, and feedback from consumption of the feed reward changes the context and may artificially raise feeding motivation. To avoid this, we tested broiler breeders in an apparatus in which they could work for access to a wooden platform covered in wood shavings by crossing a water runway which increased in length and depth in 8 successive tests. In the wood shavings area, they could perform exploratory and foraging behaviour (the appetitive phase of feeding) but were never rewarded with feed. Sixty birds were divided into three feed quantity treatments: commercial restriction (R), and twice (2R) or three times (3R) this amount. Overall, birds fed R worked harder to reach the wood shavings area (reached it in a larger number of tests) than 2R and 3R birds (P2R>3R). This indicates that restricted-fed birds were hungry and willing to work for the opportunity to forage even though food was never provided, suggesting that their motivation to perform the appetitive component of feeding behaviour (foraging/food searching) was sufficient to sustain their response. Thus food restriction in broiler breeders is a welfare concern. However these methods could be used to test alternative feeding regimes to attempt to find ways of alleviating hunger while still maintaining healthy growth and reproduction in these birds. PMID:25068283

  18. International energy workshop: overview of poll responses

    Manne, A.S.; Schrattenholzer, L.; Minkoff, T.F.

    1987-01-01

    The International Energy Workshop is an informally organized group. Its general aim is to compare the most up-to-date long-term energy projections available throughout the world, and to obtain a better understanding of the reasons for their differences. The current edition of the IEW poll supersedes all previous ones, and contains only those poll responses bearing publication dates of 1984-1986. Altogether, this edition of the poll contains 192 individual responses received from 71 participating organizations. The poll covers the period 1980-2010. Appendix I contains frequency distributions for each of the eight standard IEW regions: (1) USSR and Eastern Europe, (2) China, (3) Centrally Planned Economies, Subtotal, (4) OECD, (5) OPEC, (6) Non-OPEC Developing Countries, (7) Market Economies, Subtotal, and (8) World, Total. In addition, frequency distributions are provided for four individual countries/regions: Canada, Japan, OECD Europe, and USA. Poll items 3-16 refer to individual fuel types: oil, gas, coal, hydroelectric, nuclear, solar and other renewables. To ensure international comparability, these are expressed in terms of commercial primary energy consumption, production and net trade (exports minus imports). (Author)

  19. Beta and low energy photon response

    Cummings, F.M.; Yoder, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    This study quantifies the observed dosimeter response for a variety of beta and photon energies. The reportable skin dose is also included in the discussion. Presently, the reportable skin dose is determined by adding the nonpenetrating and penetrating dose components together. The scheme presently used to estimate the nonpenetrating dose component for personnel at Hanford utilizes the difference in light outputs of a TLD-700 chip filtered only by the security credential (total of 88 mg/cm 2 ) and a TLD-700 chip filtered by a 0.064 cm thick aluminum filter as well as the credential. The study indicates that a maximum chip response occurs in the range of photon energies between 30 keV and 40 keV and results in an overestimation of the calculated nonpenetrating dose by a factor of approximately 2. The reportable skin dose is overestimated by a factor of approximately 2.5 following adding the nonpenetrating and penetrating dose components. The effect of removing the security credential is slight and tends to increase the steepness of slope in the photon response curve

  20. A review on management of chrome-tanned leather shavings: a holistic paradigm to combat the environmental issues.

    Pati, Anupama; Chaudhary, Rubina; Subramani, Saravanabhavan

    2014-10-01

    Raw hide/skins come to the tanners as a by-product of meat industry which is converted into value-added leather as product for fashion market. Leather manufacturing is a chemical process of natural biological matrix. It employs a huge quantity of water and inorganic and organic chemicals for processing and thereby discharges solid and liquid wastes into the environment. One of the potential solid wastes generated from leather industry is chrome-tanned leather shavings (CTLSs), and its disposal is increasingly becoming a huge challenge on disposal to tanners due to presence of heavy metal chromium. Hence, finding a sustainable solution to the CTLS disposal problem is a prime challenge for global tanners and researchers. This paper aims to the deeper review of various disposal methods on CTLS such as protein, chromium, and energy recovery processes and its utilization methodologies. Sustainable technologies have been developed to overcome CTLS solid wastes emanating from leather processing operations. Further, this review paper brings a broader classification of developed methodologies for treatment of CTLSs.

  1. Chrome-tanned leather shavings as a filler of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    Przepiórkowska, A; Chrońska, K; Zaborski, M

    2007-03-06

    The noxious wastes from the tanning industry such as chrome-tanned leather shavings were used as the only filler of rubber mixes containing carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (XNBR) or butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), and a dispersing agent Limanol PEV (Schill & Seilacher). The best form addition of leather powder to the rubber mixes is mixed the waste protein with zinc oxide. The leather powder added to the rubber mixes improves the mechanical properties: tensile strength (T(s)), elongation at break (epsilon(b)) and increase the cross-linking density of carboxylated XNBR and NBR rubber mixes. Satisfactory results of these studies are presented in this work.

  2. Peculiarities of the Assembling Structure of the Novel "Shaved Man" by A. Marienhof

    Ekaterina Yu. Belash

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the characteristics of various embodiments of assembling techniques in the context of the narrative structure of the novel by A. Marienhof «The shaved man». The writer’s prose is distinguished by the non-linearity of the composition and the fragmentation of the text. Great influence on the work of the author made the art of cinema that was actively developed in the early XX century. The novel «The shaved man» is a kind of game, and a continuous experiment with various techniques of installation proposed by S. Eisenstein, L. Kuleshov, Pudovkin, etc. Within this text it is enumerated not only the main assembling methods, but also revealed the specifics of their influence on the formation of various meanings. Thanks to the assembling of heterogeneous and diverse objects Marienhof managed to portray in detail both the fate of the characters and the history of the turning epoch the early XX century as a whole.

  3. Research on Double Price Regulations and Peak Shaving Reserve Mechanism in Coal-Electricity Supply Chain

    Hongjun Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The game models were used to study the mechanism of coal-electricity price conflict under conditions of double price regulations of coal and electricity. Based on this, the peak shaving reserve mechanism was designed to probe into the countermeasures against the coal-electricity price conflicts. The study revealed that in the boom seasons of coal demand, the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply thermal coal and the electricity enterprises to order thermal coal are reduced under conditions of double price regulations. However, under the circumstances of coal price marketization, in the boom seasons of coal demand the thermal coal price may go up obviously, the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply thermal coal are increased, and meanwhile the initiatives of the power enterprises to order thermal coal are decreased dramatically. The transportation capacity constraint of coal supply leads to the evident decrease of the initiatives of coal enterprises for the thermal coal supply. The mechanism of peak shaving reserve of thermal coal may not only reduce the price of coal market but also increase the enthusiasm of the power enterprises to order more thermal coal and the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply more thermal coal.

  4. Preparation of high exhaust chrome from leather shavings and hydrocarbons with its application in leather processing for green tanning technology

    Nawaz, H.R.; Solangi, B.A.; Nadeem, U.; Zehra, B.

    2010-01-01

    The use of chrome in tanning has made the remarkable advances to achieve the best quality and quantity of leather. But the chrome tanning process is associated with the generation of heavy metal containing solid wastes and toxic effluents. To solve the environmental issues we emphasized on the development of high exhaust chrome complex from chrome containing leather wastes that could minimize the toxic effluents up to negligible limit. Therefore in the synthetic process of chrome tanning material, the chrome shavings and the hydrocarbons have been utilized as a reductant as well as the potential masking intermediates. These chrome tanning materials have been prepared using leather shavings alone in product A, partial replacement of shavings by hydrocarbons for product B and then replacement of hydrocarbons by molasses for product C. The materials have been employed for the tanning of goat skins parallel to the commercial basic chromium sulfate (BCS). (author)

  5. Method of osmotic energy harvesting using responsive compounds and molecules

    Hu, Xiao; Cai, Yufeng; Lai, Zhiping; Zhong, Yujiang

    2017-01-01

    The present invention discloses and claims a more efficient and economical method and system for osmotic energy production and capture using responsive compounds and molecules. The present invention is an energy harvest system enabled by stimuli

  6. Improved accuracy of cell surface shaving proteomics in Staphylococcus aureus using a false-positive control

    Solis, Nestor; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Cordwell, Stuart J

    2010-01-01

    Proteolytic treatment of intact bacterial cells is an ideal means for identifying surface-exposed peptide epitopes and has potential for the discovery of novel vaccine targets. Cell stability during such treatment, however, may become compromised and result in the release of intracellular proteins...... that complicate the final analysis. Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen, causing community and hospital-acquired infections, and is a serious healthcare concern due to the increasing prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistances amongst clinical isolates. We employed a cell surface "shaving" technique...... to trypsin and three identified in the control. The use of a subtracted false-positive strategy improved enrichment of surface-exposed peptides in the trypsin data set to approximately 80% (124/155 peptides). Predominant surface proteins were those associated with methicillin resistance-surface protein SACOL...

  7. Cavity Shaving plus Lumpectomy versus Lumpectomy Alone for Patients with Breast Cancer Undergoing Breast-Conserving Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Ke Wang

    Full Text Available The margin status is a well-established prognostic predictor for patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery (BCS. Recent data suggested that cavity shaving in addition to lumpectomy might be a promising approach for improving the clinical outcomes. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety between cavity shaving plus lumpectomy and lumpectomy alone with a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases for studies comparing cavity shaving with lumpectomy before June 10, 2016. Both comparative studies and self-control studies were included. A random-effects model was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for positive margin rate, reoperation rate, recurrence rate, and weighted mean difference (WMD for excised tissue volume. Twenty-six studies were included in the meta-analysis. The cavity shaving group had a significantly lower positive margin rate than the BCS-alone group (16.4% vs. 31.9%; OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.32-0.53, P < 0.05. Cavity shaving was associated with a significantly decreased rate of reoperation (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.30-0.59, P < 0.05. The overall locoregional rate was low for cavity shaving and BCS-alone (3% vs. 4%. Cavity shaving had no significant effect on the risk of locoregional recurrence (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.32-2.35; P = 0.78. The excised tissue volume did not differ substantially between cavity shaving and BCS alone (WMD = -23.88, 95% CI -55.20 to 7.44, P = 0.14. For patients undergoing BCS, additional cavity shaving was an effective method to decrease the positive margin rate and avoid reoperation. The addition of cavity shaving did not appear to have excessive excised tissue volume compared with partial mastectomy alone.

  8. Minimal Subdermal Shaving by Means of Sclerotherapy Using Absolute Ethanol: A New Method for the Treatment of Axillary Osmidrosis

    Hyung­Sup Shim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Axillary osmidrosis is characterized by unpleasant odors originating from the axillary apocrine glands, resulting in psychosocial stress. The main treatment modality is apocrine gland removal. Until now, of the various surgical techniques have sometimes caused serious complications. We describe herein the favorable outcomes of a new method for ablating apocrine glands by minimal subdermal shaving using sclerotherapy with absolute ethanol.Methods A total of 12 patients underwent the procedure. The severity of osmidrosis was evaluated before surgery. Conventional subdermal shaving was performed on one side (control group and ablation by means of minimal subdermal shaving and absolute ethanol on the other side (study group. Postoperative outcomes were compared between the study and control groups.Results The length of time to removal of the drain was 1 day shorter in the study group than in the control group. There were no serious complications, such as hematoma or seroma, in either group, but flap margin necrosis and flap desquamation occurred in the control group, and were successfully managed with conservative treatment. Six months after surgery, we and our patients were satisfied with the outcomes.Conclusions Sclerotherapy using absolute ethanol combined with minimal subdermal shaving may be useful for the treatment of axillary osmidrosis. It can reduce the incidence of seroma and hematoma and allow the skin flap to adhere to its recipient site. It can degrade and ablate the remaining apocrine glands and eliminate causative organisms. Furthermore, since this technique is relatively simple, it takes less time than the conventional method.

  9. Is dermatome shaving a potential treatment for actinic keratosis in organ transplant recipients? A cross-sectional study

    Kjerkegaard, Ulrik Knap; Bischoff-Mikkelsen, Morten; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2014-01-01

    skin lesions were lower in the donor area compared to both of the control areas (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test, p = 0.024, respectively, p = 0.019). Conclusions Dermatome shaving reduced the occurrence of keratotic skin lesions in OTRs and might prevent the development of field cancerization...

  10. Random Shift and XOR of Unequal-sized Packets (RaSOR) to Shave off Transmission Overhead

    Taghouti, Maroua; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank Hanns Paul

    2017-01-01

    We propose the design of a novel coding scheme of unequal-sized packets. Unlike the conventional wisdom that consists of brute-force zero-padding in Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC), we exploit this heterogeneity to shave off this trailing overhead and transmit considerably less coded packets....

  11. Home Energy Displays. Consumer Adoption and Response

    LaMarche, Janelle [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Cheney, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Akers, C. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Roth, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Sachs, O. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. The team hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, Fraunhofer conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. In light of these challenges, the team is pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  12. Modelling household responses to energy efficiency interventions ...

    2010-11-01

    Nov 1, 2010 ... to interventions aimed at reducing energy consumption (specifically the use of .... 4 A system dynamics model of electricity consumption ...... to base comparisons on overly detailed quantitative predictions of behaviour.

  13. Home Energy Displays: Consumer Adoption and Response

    LaMarche, J.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.; Sachs, O.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. We hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, we conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. First, after extensive outreach campaigns to apartment complexes with 760 units, only 8% of building's tenants elected to receive a free HED in their homes as part of the field study. Second, the HED used, a leading market model, had a spectrum of problems, including gateway miscommunications, failure to post to a data-hosting third party, and display malfunctions. In light of these challenges, we are pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  14. Automated Demand Response for Energy Sustainability

    2015-05-01

    technology), particularly when coupled with an installation’s microgrid control systems, could provide much needed stabilization. By causing load to...include advanced energy control systems that provide load reduction services to non-critical loads. The microgrid system will use these controls to...signals from the grid operator. Thus, the technology creates a dual- use model for advanced microgrid controls . 14 2.0 TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION This

  15. Determination for energy response and directionality of neutron survey meters

    Chen Changmao; Liu Jinhua; Xie Jianlun; Su Jingling

    1992-01-01

    The energy response and directionality of neutron survey meter type MK7 and 2202D are determined. The reactor thermal column beam, reactor filtered beams (6 eV, 24.4 keV and 144 keV), 226 Ra-Be, 241 Am-Be, 252 Cf and its moderated sources are used for the measurement. The results shows: the survey meters are influenced obviously by the direction; the response of middle-energy region is large, the energy response of 2202D is better than MK7

  16. An efficient energy response model for liquid scintillator detectors

    Lebanowski, Logan; Wan, Linyan; Ji, Xiangpan; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shaomin

    2018-05-01

    Liquid scintillator detectors are playing an increasingly important role in low-energy neutrino experiments. In this article, we describe a generic energy response model of liquid scintillator detectors that provides energy estimations of sub-percent accuracy. This model fits a minimal set of physically-motivated parameters that capture the essential characteristics of scintillator response and that can naturally account for changes in scintillator over time, helping to avoid associated biases or systematic uncertainties. The model employs a one-step calculation and look-up tables, yielding an immediate estimation of energy and an efficient framework for quantifying systematic uncertainties and correlations.

  17. Embedded generation for industrial demand response in renewable energy markets

    Leanez, Frank J.; Drayton, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty in the electrical energy market is expected to increase with growth in the percentage of generation using renewable resources. Demand response can play a key role in giving stability to system operation. This paper discusses the embedded generation for industrial demand response in renewable energy markets. The methodology of the demand response is explained. It consists of long-term optimization and stochastic optimization. Wind energy, among all the renewable resources, is becoming increasingly popular. Volatility in the wind energy sector is high and this is explained using examples. Uncertainty in the wind market is shown using stochastic optimization. Alternative techniques for generation of wind energy were seen to be needed. Embedded generation techniques include co-generation (CHP) and pump storage among others. These techniques are analyzed and the results are presented. From these results, it is seen that investment in renewables is immediately required and that innovative generation technologies are also required over the long-term.

  18. High energy gamma ray response of liquid scintillator

    Shigyo, N.; Ishibashi, K.; Matsufuji, N.; Nakamoto, T.; Numajiri, M.

    1994-01-01

    We made the experiment on the spallation reaction. NE213 organic liquid scintillators were used for measuring neutrons and γ rays. To produce the γ ray emission cross section, we used the response functions by EGS4 code. The response functions look like uniform above γ ray energies of 60 MeV. The experimental data of the γ ray emission cross section are different from the data of High Energy Transport Code. (author)

  19. Calculated energy response of lithium fluoride finger-tip dosimeters

    Johns, T.F.

    1965-07-01

    Calculations have been made of the energy response of the lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters being used at A.E.E. Winfrith for the measurement of radiation doses to the finger-tips of people handling radio-active materials. It is shown that the energy response is likely to be materially affected if the sachet in which the powder is held contains elements with atomic numbers much higher than 9 (e.g. if the sachet is made from polyvinyl chloride). (author)

  20. Response by the energy industry to the Kyoto agreement

    Lynch, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto agreement has called for an appropriate response by the energy industry to the perceived problem of global warming. However, while governments are justify in researching low-probability energy technologies to solve uncertain problems, the private sector has non such luxury. The experience of oil crises in the '70s should be a good lesson [it

  1. Outpatient-based scalp surgery without shaving and allowing use of shampoo.

    Hwang, Sun-Chul; Kim, Soon-Kwon; Park, Kwan-Woong; Im, Soo-Bin; Shin, Won-Han; Kim, Bum-Tae

    2012-02-01

    To assess the authors' experience of wound management following scalp mass surgery after introducing a policy of leaving hair unshaved and allowing patients to use shampoo. The authors retrospectively reviewed 93 patients who underwent outpatient-based excision of a scalp or skull mass. Surgical complications, mass depth, and maximal mass size were analyzed. All of the surgeries were performed without shaving around the lesion; the hair was simply parted along the proposed incision, and the parting was maintained using adhesive plasters. Routine antiseptic scalp preparations, skin closure with staples after mass excision, and topical ointment on the day following surgery were used, and use of shampoo was allowed. The staples were removed on postoperative days 7-10. The masses were located in the skin (23 cases), subcutaneously (64 cases), and subgaleally (6 cases). All patients except one had satisfactory wound healing. No infections occurred. Leaving hair unshaved and allowing patients to use shampoo can be applied in wound management after scalp mass surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [An historical, sociocultural view and in the fiction literature of Bacillus anthracis cases by shaving brushes].

    Vázquez-Espinosa, E; Laganà, C; Vazquez, F

    2018-06-01

    In the period from 1915 to 1924 anthrax outbreaks were described by Bacillus anthracis due to the contamination of razor brushes that reached Europe and the United States from areas such as Japan, China or Russia. The brushes were made with badger hair, and then, to reduce the cost with horse hair and other animals. World War I supoosed that the traffics of these brushes, that passed through Europe, changed and the processes of sterilization of the same were deficient giving rise to these outbreaks, that in a percentage of 20% produced the death of the users. The impact of the fashion of wearing a beard, the presence of these cases in the press, in the society of that period, and literature are studied through the work of Agatha Christie who wrote, in 1936, the Hercules Poirot´s novel Cards on the table, and where she describes the murder of one of the characters with the shaving brush contaminated with Bacillus anthracis spores. ©The Author 2018. Published by Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

  3. Minimal Subdermal Shaving by Means of Sclerotherapy Using Absolute Ethanol: A New Method for the Treatment of Axillary Osmidrosis

    Hyung-Sup Shim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAxillary osmidrosis is characterized by unpleasant odors originating from the axillary apocrine glands, resulting in psychosocial stress. The main treatment modality is apocrine gland removal. Until now, of the various surgical techniques have sometimes caused serious complications. We describe herein the favorable outcomes of a new method for ablating apocrine glands by minimal subdermal shaving using sclerotherapy with absolute ethanol.MethodsA total of 12 patients underwent the procedure. The severity of osmidrosis was evaluated before surgery. Conventional subdermal shaving was performed on one side (control group and ablation by means of minimal subdermal shaving and absolute ethanol on the other side (study group. Postoperative outcomes were compared between the study and control groups.ResultsThe length of time to removal of the drain was 1 day shorter in the study group than in the control group. There were no serious complications, such as hematoma or seroma, in either group, but flap margin necrosis and flap desquamation occurred in the control group, and were successfully managed with conservative treatment. Six months after surgery, we and our patients were satisfied with the outcomes.ConclusionsSclerotherapy using absolute ethanol combined with minimal subdermal shaving may be useful for the treatment of axillary osmidrosis. It can reduce the incidence of seroma and hematoma and allow the skin flap to adhere to its recipient site. It can degrade and ablate the remaining apocrine glands and eliminate causative organisms. Furthermore, since this technique is relatively simple, it takes less time than the conventional method.

  4. Future needs for dry or peak shaved dry/wet cooling and significance to nuclear power plants. Final report

    Clukey, H.V.; McNelly, M.J.; Mitchell, R.C.

    1976-02-01

    U.S. requirements for uncommitted nuclear installations in water scarce areas that might require dry cooling tower systems are minimal through the year 2000 (6 to 23 GWe). In these areas it appears that peak-shaved dry/wet cooling systems are more attractive than all-dry tower cooling unless water costs were to approach the high level of several cents per gallon. The differential cooling system evaluated cost of peak-shaved dry/wet cooling systems above wet towers is typically $20 to $30/kWe for steam turbines; whereas, dry towers can represent an incremental burden of as much as $80/kWe. Gas turbine (Brayton Cycle) systems show similar benefits from an evaporative heat sink to those for steam turbine cycles--lower cooling system evaluated costs for peak-shaved dry/wet cooling systems than for conventional wet towers. These cooling system cost differentials do not reflect total costs for Brayton Cycle gas turbine plants. Together these added costs and uncertainties may substantially exceed the dollar incentives available for development of the Brayton Cycle for power generation needs for water deficient sites

  5. Evaluation of the Effects of Nationwide Conservation Voltage Reduction on Peak-Load Shaving Using SOMAS Data

    Soon-Ryul Nam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new method to evaluate the effects of nationwide conservation voltage reduction (CVR on peak-load shaving, using substation operating results management system (SOMAS data. Its evaluation is based on a national CVR factor, which is defined as the weighted average of CVR factors associated with all transformer banks and weighting coefficients are determined by the reconstructed loads corresponding to each transformer bank. To make use of the data resulting from nationwide CVR without installing additional measuring devices, we adopt a linearized static-load model with a linearizing parameter. SOMAS data are used to evaluate the effects of nationwide CVR on peak-load shaving in the Korean power system. Evaluation results show that the national CVR factor of the Korean power system has small values in the summer season and large values in the winter season. This means that the effect of nationwide CVR on peak-load shaving in the Korean power system presents stronger benefits during winter months.

  6. Demand Response Resource Quantification with Detailed Building Energy Models

    Hale, Elaine; Horsey, Henry; Merket, Noel; Stoll, Brady; Nag, Ambarish

    2017-04-03

    Demand response is a broad suite of technologies that enables changes in electrical load operations in support of power system reliability and efficiency. Although demand response is not a new concept, there is new appetite for comprehensively evaluating its technical potential in the context of renewable energy integration. The complexity of demand response makes this task difficult -- we present new methods for capturing the heterogeneity of potential responses from buildings, their time-varying nature, and metrics such as thermal comfort that help quantify likely acceptability of specific demand response actions. Computed with an automated software framework, the methods are scalable.

  7. Photon and neutron energy response of Thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters

    Thilagam, L.; Priya, M.R.; Mohapatra, D.K.

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are carried out to investigate the relative thermoluminesence (TL) response of the most commonly used TLD materials to a wide range of photon energy. The effect of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) on TL response of CaSO 4 :Dy is also studied. Additionally, the neutron response of LiF:Mg,Ti TL materials with different concentrations of 6 Li is estimated in terms of the number of 6 Li(n, t) 4 He capture reactions for a wider neutron energy

  8. Gamma-ray relative energy response of Ce: YAG crystal

    Zhang Jianhua; Zhang Chuanfei; Hu Mengchun; Peng Taiping; Wang Zhentong; Tang Dengpan; Zhao Guangjun

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray relative energy response of Ce: YAG crystal, which is important for pulsed γ-ray measurement, was studied in this work.The Ce: YAG crystal, which was developed at Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was aligned point by point with γ-rays scattered from an industrial 60 Co line source. The γ-ray relative energy response was calculated using the mass attenuation coefficient. The results show that the numerical calculation method of γ-ray relative energy response is reliable, and the experimental method with multi-energy point γ-ray by Compton scattering is also feasible, that can be used for checking up correctness of the numerical calculation results. (authors)

  9. Sharing our energies. Corporate social responsibility report 2005

    2006-05-01

    Total is a multinational energy company, the fourth largest publicly-traded integrated oil and gas company in the world. Total worldwide operations are conducted through three business segments: Upstream includes oil and gas Exploration and Production, Gas and Power and other energy sources. Downstream covers Trading and Shipping,Refining and the Marketing of TOTAL and Elf brand petroleum products, automotive and other fuels, and specialties such as LPG, aviation fuel and lubricants, through both the retail network and other outlets worldwide. Chemicals comprises various activities including Base chemicals (Petrochemicals and Fertilizers) and Specialties for industry and the consumer market. This corporate social responsibility report presents the Group activity for the year 2005 in the following domains: the business principles, the environment safety and health, the social responsibility and the local development, the future of energy (fossil fuels, renewable energies and towards energy vectors). (A.L.B.)

  10. Areva 2009 responsible growth report: more energy, less CO2

    2009-01-01

    This document is the 2009 annual responsible growth report of AREVA which presents itself as having consolidated its leadership position in its original business of nuclear power while expanding considerably in renewable energies (wind, solar, bio-energies and hydrogen/storage) to become a leading provider of solutions for carbon-free power generation. The main chapters of the report are: the group and its strategy, Areva's nuclear power solutions (is nuclear a sustainable energy source?, supply, technological excellence, safety, recycling and waste, acceptability, non-proliferation), Areva's renewable energy solutions (how much of the energy mix should be renewable?, rising demand, competitiveness and efficiency, responsible development), Areva's human resources (gender balance, health and safety, diversity and opportunity, hiring and training). Data and balanced scorecard for sustainable development are also given

  11. Stochastic optimization of energy hub operation with consideration of thermal energy market and demand response

    Vahid-Pakdel, M.J.; Nojavan, Sayyad; Mohammadi-ivatloo, B.; Zare, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Studying heating market impact on energy hub operation considering price uncertainty. • Investigating impact of implementation of heat demand response on hub operation. • Presenting stochastic method to consider wind generation and prices uncertainties. - Abstract: Multi carrier energy systems or energy hubs has provided more flexibility for energy management systems. On the other hand, due to mutual impact of different energy carriers in energy hubs, energy management studies become more challengeable. The initial patterns of energy demands from grids point of view can be modified by optimal scheduling of energy hubs. In this work, optimal operation of multi carrier energy system has been studied in the presence of wind farm, electrical and thermal storage systems, electrical and thermal demand response programs, electricity market and thermal energy market. Stochastic programming is implemented for modeling the system uncertainties such as demands, market prices and wind speed. It is shown that adding new source of heat energy for providing demand of consumers with market mechanism changes the optimal operation point of multi carrier energy system. Presented mixed integer linear formulation for the problem has been solved by executing CPLEX solver of GAMS optimization software. Simulation results shows that hub’s operation cost reduces up to 4.8% by enabling the option of using thermal energy market for meeting heat demand.

  12. Appetite and Energy Intake Responses to Acute Energy Deficits in Females versus Males

    ALAJMI, NAWAL; DEIGHTON, KEVIN; KING, JAMES A.; REISCHAK-OLIVEIRA, ALVARO; WASSE, LUCY K.; JONES, JENNY; BATTERHAM, RACHEL L.; STENSEL, DAVID J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To explore whether compensatory responses to acute energy deficits induced by exercise or diet differ by sex. Methods In experiment one, 12 healthy women completed three 9-h trials (control, exercise-induced (Ex-Def) and food restriction–induced energy deficit (Food-Def)) with identical energy deficits being imposed in the Ex-Def (90-min run, ∼70% of V˙O2max) and Food-Def trials. In experiment two, 10 men and 10 women completed two 7-h trials (control and exercise). Sixty minutes of running (∼70% of V˙O2max) was performed at the beginning of the exercise trial. The participants rested throughout the remainder of the exercise trial and during the control trial. Appetite ratings, plasma concentrations of gut hormones, and ad libitum energy intake were assessed during main trials. Results In experiment one, an energy deficit of approximately 3500 kJ induced via food restriction increased appetite and food intake. These changes corresponded with heightened concentrations of plasma acylated ghrelin and lower peptide YY3–36. None of these compensatory responses were apparent when an equivalent energy deficit was induced by exercise. In experiment two, appetite ratings and plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations were lower in exercise than in control, but energy intake did not differ between trials. The appetite, acylated ghrelin, and energy intake response to exercise did not differ between men and women. Conclusions Women exhibit compensatory appetite, gut hormone, and food intake responses to acute energy restriction but not in response to an acute bout of exercise. Additionally, men and women seem to exhibit similar acylated ghrelin and PYY3–36 responses to exercise-induced energy deficits. These findings advance understanding regarding the interaction between exercise and energy homeostasis in women. PMID:26465216

  13. Evaluation of energy response of neutron rem monitor applied to high-energy accelerator facilities

    Nakane, Yoshihiro; Harada, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    A neutron rem monitor was newly developed for applying to the high-intensity proton accelerator facility (J-PARC) that is under construction as a joint project between the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. To measure the dose rate accurately for wide energy range of neutrons from thermal to high-energy region, the neutron rem monitor was fabricated by adding a lead breeder layer to a conventional neutron rem monitor. The energy response of the monitor was evaluated by using neutron transport calculations for the energy range from thermal to 150 MeV. For verifying the results, the response was measured at neutron fields for the energy range from thermal to 65 MeV. The comparisons between the energy response and dose conversion coefficients show that the newly developed neutron rem monitor has a good performance in energy response up to 150 MeV, suggesting that the present study offered prospects of a practical fabrication of the rem monitor applicable to the high intensity proton accelerator facility. (author)

  14. Energy response study of modified CR-39 neutron personnel dosimeter

    Sathian, Deepa; Bakshi, A.K.; Datta, D.; Nair, Sreejith S.; Sathian, V.; Mishra, Jitendra; Sen, Meghnath

    2018-01-01

    Personnel neutron dosimetry is an integral part of radiation protection. No single dosimeter provides the satisfactory energy response, sensitivity, angular dependence characteristics and accuracy necessary to meet the requirement of an ideal personnel neutron dosimeter. The response of a personnel neutron dosimeter is critically dependent upon the energy distribution of the neutron field. CR-39 personnel neutron dosimeters were typically calibrated in the standard neutron field of 252 Cf and 241 Am-Be in our laboratory, although actual neutron fields may vary from the calibration neutron spectrum. Recently the badge cassette of the personnel neutron dosimeter was changed due to frequent damage of the PVC badge used earlier. This paper discusses energy response of CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector loaded in this modified badge cassette as per latest ISO recommendation

  15. Method of osmotic energy harvesting using responsive compounds and molecules

    Hu, Xiao

    2017-07-27

    The present invention discloses and claims a more efficient and economical method and system for osmotic energy production and capture using responsive compounds and molecules. The present invention is an energy harvest system enabled by stimuli responsive draw solutions that are competent in terms of energy production, geographic location flexibility, and the affordable, efficient and economical production and delivery of osmotic power. Specifically, the present invention is a novel osmotic power system that uses stimuli responsive draw solutions, economically feasible larger permeable membranes, and low grade heat sources to deliver osmotic power more efficiently and economically with less negative environmental impact, greater power output, and located in more geographically diverse areas of the world than previously thought possible for supporting such a power source.

  16. Nuclear response functions at large energy and momentum transfer

    Bertozzi, W.; Moniz, E.J.; Lourie, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Quasifree nucleon processes are expected to dominate the nuclear electromagnetic response function for large energy and momentum transfers, i.e., for energy transfers large compared with nuclear single particle energies and momentum transfers large compared with typical nuclear momenta. Despite the evident success of the quasifree picture in providing the basic frame work for discussing and understanding the large energy, large momentum nuclear response, the limits of this picture have also become quite clear. In this article a selected set of inclusive and coincidence data are presented in order to define the limits of the quasifree picture more quantitatively. Specific dynamical mechanisms thought to be important in going beyond the quasifree picture are discussed as well. 75 refs, 37 figs

  17. Energy response of neutron area monitor with silicon semiconductor detector

    Kitaguchi, Hiroshi; Izumi, Sigeru; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kaihara, Akihisa; Nakamura, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype neutron area monitor with a silicon semiconductor detector has been developed which has the energy response of 1 cm dose equivalent recommended by the ICRP-26. Boron and proton radiators are coated on the surface of the silicon semiconductor detector. The detector is set at the center of a cylindrical polyethylene moderator. This moderator is covered by a porous cadmium board which serves as the thermal neutron absorber. Neutrons are detected as α-particles generated by the nuclear reaction 10 B(n,α) 7 Li and as recoil protons generated by the interaction of fast neutrons with hydrogen. The neutron energy response of the monitor was measured using thermal neutrons and monoenergetic fast neutrons generated by an accelerator. The response was consistent with the 1 cm dose equivalent response required for the monitor within ±34% in the range of 0.025 - 15 Mev. (author)

  18. Battery energy storage system

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  19. Consumer Response to Product-Integrated Energy Feedback: Behavior, Goal Level Shifts and Energy Conservation

    McCalley, L.T.; de Vries, Pieter Walter; Midden, Cees J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Results of recent experiments suggest that interactive control panels of individual appliances can be used to stimulate energy saving behavior by offering the means for consumers to set a goal and receive immediate energy use feedback. The underlying source of the behavioral response, however,

  20. Consumer response to product-integrated energy feedback : behavior, goal level shifts, and energy conservation

    McCalley, L.T.; Vries, de P.W.; Midden, C.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Results of recent experiments suggest that interactive control panels of individual appliances can be used to stimulate energy saving behavior by offering the means for consumers to set a goal and receive immediate energy use feedback. The underlying source of the behavioral response, however,

  1. Energy response and compensation filters for pips detector

    Wang Lin; Ye Zhiyao; Dong Binjiang

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the analysis of energy response and the choice of proper compensation filters for PIPS detector. With PRESTA-CG program, filters conformed to the national standard of PRC were picked out by calculation. Then the chosen filters were tested through experiments. Good agreement was obtained between measured results and calculated values by Monte Carlo method. (authors)

  2. Estimation of demand response to energy price signals in energy consumption behaviour in Beijing, China

    He, Y.X.; Liu, Y.Y.; Xia, T.; Zhou, B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Demand response to energy price signals in energy consumption in Beijing is studied. • The electricity price is of great importance to Beijing’s energy market stability. • Industrial sectors have a large electricity self-elasticity and cross-elasticity. • When consuming electricity, customers pay more attention to natural gas price. • Analysis of demand response to energy price can provide guidance to energy policies. - Abstract: The energy price system in Beijing has not fully exploited customers’ price elasticity, and has a negative impact on achieving the goals of energy saving. This paper analyses the response behaviours of different customers to typical energy prices. As for electricity self-elasticity, the range of the primary, secondary, tertiary industry and residents are −0.026 to −0.033, −0.045 to −0.059, −0.035 to −0.047 and −0.024 to −0.032, respectively. As regards self-elasticity on coal, the range of the primary, secondary, tertiary industry and residents are −0.030 to −0.037, −0.066 to −0.093, −0.055 to −0.072 and −0.034 to −0.051, respectively. The self-elasticities on oil and natural gas are very weak. As for cross-elasticity, when consuming electricity and oil, customers mainly focus on the prices of natural gas, which are 0.185 and 0.112. When consuming coal and natural gas, customers are concerned about the electricity prices, and their cross-elasticities are 0.03 and 0.36, respectively. The estimation of demand response to energy price signals in energy consumption behaviours can provide a decision support for formulating rational energy price policies

  3. Energy dependent response of plastic scintillation detectors to photon radiation of low to medium energy.

    Ebenau, Melanie; Radeck, Désirée; Bambynek, Markus; Sommer, Holger; Flühs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard; Eichmann, Marion

    2016-08-01

    Plastic scintillation detectors are promising candidates for the dosimetry of low- to medium-energy photons but quantitative knowledge of their energy response is a prerequisite for their correct use. The purpose of this study was to characterize the energy dependent response of small scintillation detectors (active volume <1 mm(3)) made from the commonly used plastic scintillator BC400. Different detectors made from BC400 were calibrated at a number of radiation qualities ranging from 10 to 280 kV and at a (60)Co beam. All calibrations were performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the National Metrology Institute of Germany. The energy response in terms of air kerma, dose to water, and dose to the scintillator was determined. Conversion factors from air kerma to dose to water and to dose to the scintillator were derived from Monte Carlo simulations. In order to quantitatively describe the energy dependence, a semiempirical model known as unimolecular quenching or Birks' formula was fitted to the data and from this the response to secondary electrons generated within the scintillator material BC400 was derived. The detector energy response in terms of air kerma differs for different scintillator sizes and different detector casings. It is therefore necessary to take attenuation within the scintillator and in the casing into account when deriving the response in terms of dose to water from a calibration in terms of air kerma. The measured energy response in terms of dose to water for BC400 cannot be reproduced by the ratio of mean mass energy-absorption coefficients for polyvinyl toluene to water but shows evidence of quenching. The quenching parameter kB in Birks' formula was determined to be kB = (12.3 ± 0.9) mg MeV(-1) cm(-2). The energy response was quantified relative to the response to (60)Co which is the common radiation quality for the calibration of therapy dosemeters. The observed energy dependence could be well explained with the

  4. Energy dependent response of plastic scintillation detectors to photon radiation of low to medium energy

    Ebenau, Melanie, E-mail: melanie.ebenau@tu-dortmunde.de; Sommer, Holger; Spaan, Bernhard; Eichmann, Marion [Fakultät Physik, Technische Universität Dortmund, Otto-Hahn Str. 4a, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Radeck, Désirée; Bambynek, Markus [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Flühs, Dirk [Universitätsklinikum Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, 45147 Essen (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Plastic scintillation detectors are promising candidates for the dosimetry of low- to medium-energy photons but quantitative knowledge of their energy response is a prerequisite for their correct use. The purpose of this study was to characterize the energy dependent response of small scintillation detectors (active volume <1 mm{sup 3}) made from the commonly used plastic scintillator BC400. Methods: Different detectors made from BC400 were calibrated at a number of radiation qualities ranging from 10 to 280 kV and at a {sup 60}Co beam. All calibrations were performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the National Metrology Institute of Germany. The energy response in terms of air kerma, dose to water, and dose to the scintillator was determined. Conversion factors from air kerma to dose to water and to dose to the scintillator were derived from Monte Carlo simulations. In order to quantitatively describe the energy dependence, a semiempirical model known as unimolecular quenching or Birks’ formula was fitted to the data and from this the response to secondary electrons generated within the scintillator material BC400 was derived. Results: The detector energy response in terms of air kerma differs for different scintillator sizes and different detector casings. It is therefore necessary to take attenuation within the scintillator and in the casing into account when deriving the response in terms of dose to water from a calibration in terms of air kerma. The measured energy response in terms of dose to water for BC400 cannot be reproduced by the ratio of mean mass energy-absorption coefficients for polyvinyl toluene to water but shows evidence of quenching. The quenching parameter kB in Birks’ formula was determined to be kB = (12.3 ± 0.9) mg MeV{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. Conclusions: The energy response was quantified relative to the response to {sup 60}Co which is the common radiation quality for the calibration of therapy dosemeters. The

  5. The responsibility of industrialized nations in the energy problem

    Mandel, H.

    1979-01-01

    In view of the fact that some 15% of the world's population today claim some 50% of the world primary energy consumption, while 52% of the world population must be satisfied with 13% of the primary energy consumption, and in view also of an increase in world population of, at present, approx. 2% per annum, the question arises how to meet the increasing energy demand in the world without incurring international crises and grave economic setbacks. This attempt to find a problem solution is made in the light of the studies of the Conservation Commission of the World Energy Conference. The late author of this contribution, Professor Heinrich Mandel, who was an energy expert of international renown, always tried to examine the energy problem from a global point of view. In his last survey paper on the subject he once more dealt with the narrow margin available in the sector of energy policy and with the great responsibility of the industrialized nations towards the developing countries. (orig.) [de

  6. Photon energy response of an aluminum oxide TLD environmental dosimeter

    Olsher, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Because of aluminum oxide's significant advantage in sensitivity (about a factor of 30) over LiF, minimal fading characteristics and ease of processing, aluminum oxide thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDS) are being phased in at Los alamos for environmental monitoring of photon radiation. The new environmental dosimeter design consists of a polyethylene holder, about 0. 5 cm thick, loaded with a stack of four aluminum oxide TLD chips, each 1 mm thick and 5 mm in diameter. As part of the initial evaluation of the new design, the photon energy response of the dosimeter was calculated over the range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. Specific goals of the analysis included the determination of individual chip response in the stack, assessment of the response variation due to TLD material (i.e., LiF versus A1 2 O 3 ), and the effect of copper filtration in flattening the response

  7. The energy response of CaF2:Dy

    Ben-Shachar, B.; German, U.; Weiser, G.

    1982-11-01

    The energy response of CaF 2 :Dy was measured for 40-1250 keV photons and a very strong dependence was found below 200 keV. In order to fit the crystal to the requirements of the American Standards for Environmental Dosimetry, a number of filters which improve the energy dependence, were checked. It was found that the best filter is one which is made of 3 layers: tantalum, lead and aluminium, 0.018, 0.014 and 0.26 cm thick, respectively. (Author)

  8. Energy balance and transient responses in wave driven plasmas

    Rax, J.M.

    1987-06-01

    In a current-drive experiment with a RF power source, a certain amount of power is absorbed by resonant electrons. From the electrons, energy can flow through four channels: it can be converted into magnetic work when the electron interacts with an electric field, or it can be converted into heat when the electron collides the thermal plasma. In addition, there exists also the conversion of the low frequency RF energy into high frequency non thermal free-free or cyclotron radiation. Efficiencies of these conversions are considered together with the turn-on times of the associated responses

  9. Optimizing renewable energy, demand response and energy storage to replace conventional fuels in Ontario, Canada

    Richardson, David B.; Harvey, L.D. Danny

    2015-01-01

    Electricity systems with high penetrations of renewable energy require a mix of resources to balance supply with demand, and to maintain safe levels of system reliability. A load balancing methodology is developed to determine the optimal lowest-cost mix of renewable energy resources, demand response, and energy storage to replace conventional fuels in the Province of Ontario, Canada. Three successive cumulative scenarios are considered: the displacement of fossil fuel generation, the planned retirement of an existing nuclear reactor, and the electrification of the passenger vehicle fleet. The results show that each of these scenarios is achievable with energy generation costs that are not out of line with current and projected electricity generation costs. These transitions, especially that which proposes the electrification of the vehicle fleet, require significant investment in new generation, with installed capacities much higher than that of the current system. Transitions to mainly renewable energy systems require changes in our conceptualization of, and approach to, energy system planning. - Highlights: • Model three scenarios to replace conventional fuels with renewables, storage and DR (demand response). • Determine optimal low-cost mix of resources for each scenario. • Scenarios require much higher installed capacities than current system. • Energy transitions require changes in approach to energy system planning.

  10. Full-Thickness Excision versus Shaving by Laparoscopy for Intestinal Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis: Rationale and Potential Treatment Options

    Antonio Simone Laganà

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial mucosa (glands and stroma abnormally implanted in locations other than the uterine cavity. Deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE is considered the most aggressive presentation of the disease, penetrating more than 5 mm in affected tissues, and it is reported in approximately 20% of all women with endometriosis. DIE can cause a complete distortion of the pelvic anatomy and it mainly involves uterosacral ligaments, bladder, rectovaginal septum, rectum, and rectosigmoid colon. This review describes the state of the art in laparoscopic approach for DIE with a special interest in intestinal involvement, according to recent literature findings. Our attention has been focused particularly on full-thickness excision versus shaving technique in deep endometriosis intestinal involvement. Particularly, the aim of this paper is clarifying from the clinical and methodological points of view the best surgical treatment of deep intestinal endometriosis, since there is no standard of care in the literature and in different surgical settings. Indeed, this review tries to suggest when it is advisable to manage the full-thickness excision or the shaving technique, also analyzing perioperative management, main complications, and surgical outcomes.

  11. Studies on the determination of mercury in human beard shavings by neutron-activation and γ-ray analysis

    Pritchard, J.G.; Saied, S.O.

    1986-01-01

    The determination of mercury by instrumental neutron-activation analysis has been studied with particular emphasis on hair as the matrix. The well known analytical standards orchard leaves and Bowen's kale have been compared and the value 0.164 +-0.013 p.p.m. found for the level of mercury in Bowen's kale. Hence, the likely accuracy is +- 8% when matrices similar to Bowen's kale are analysed for mercury by the method described. All factors affecting the precision are discussed. Powdered hair and the standards were shown to be easily homogenisable; however, beard shavings were found to be generally inhomogeneous with respect to mercury distribution, especially when the mercury content was much in excess of ca. 2 p.p.m. owing to exposure of subjects to mercury in the professional working environment. The beard shavings of non-occupationally exposed human beings contained 0.1 to 1.5 p.p.m. of mercury. Difficulties with the establishment of a mercury mass standard for use with the method are discussed. (author)

  12. Nuclear Energy Response in the EMF27 Study

    Kim, Son H.; Wada, Kenichi; Kurosawa, Atsushi; Roberts, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear energy response for mitigating global climate change across eighteen participating models of the EMF27 study is investigated. Diverse perspectives on the future role of nuclear power in the global energy system are evident in the broad range of nuclear power contributions from participating models of the study. In the Baseline scenario without climate policy, nuclear electricity generation and shares span 0 - 66 EJ/ year and 0 - 25% in 2100 for all models, with a median nuclear electricity generation of 39 EJ/year (1,389 GWe at 90% capacity factor) and median share of 9%. The role of nuclear energy increased under the climate policy scenarios. The median of nuclear energy use across all models doubled in the 450 ppm CO2e scenario with a nuclear electricity generation of 67 EJ/year (2,352 GWe at 90% capacity factor) and share of 17% in 2100. The broad range of nuclear electricity generation (11 - 214 EJ/year) and shares (2 - 38%) in 2100 of the 450 ppm CO2e scenario reflect differences in the technology choice behavior, technology assumptions and competitiveness of low carbon technologies. Greater clarification of nuclear fuel cycle issues and risk factors associated with nuclear energy use are necessary for understanding the nuclear deployment constraints imposed in models and for improving the assessment of the nuclear energy potential in addressing climate change

  13. Response of finishing broiler chickens fed three energy/protein ...

    A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the response of finishing broiler chicken to diets containing three metabolizable energy (ME)/crude protein (CP) combinations ( 3203.76 ME vs 19.90 %CP, 2884.15 ME vs 18.10%CP and 2566.42 ME vs 18.10 %CP) at fixed ME:CP ratio of 160:1. A total of 126 four weeks ...

  14. Propensity to obesity impacts the neuronal response to energy imbalance

    Marc-Andre eCornier

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms responsible for the propensity to gain weight or remain normal weight are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to study the neuronal response to visual food cues during short-term energy imbalance in healthy adults recruited as obesity-resistant (OR or obesity-prone (OP based on self-identification, BMI, and personal/family weight history. 25 OR and 28 OP subjects were studied in underfed (UF and overfed (OF as compared to eucaloric (EU conditions in a randomized crossover design. Each study phase included a 3 day run-in diet, 1 day of controlled feeding (basal energy needs for EU, 40% above/below basal energy needs for OF/UF, and a test day. On the test day fMRI was performed in the acute fed stated (30 minutes after a test meal while subjects viewed images of foods of high hedonic value and neutral non-food objects. Measures of appetite and hormones were also performed before and every 30 minutes after the test meal. UF was associated with significantly increased activation of insula, somatosensory cortex, inferior and medial prefrontal cortex, parahippocampus, precuneus, cingulate and visual cortex in OR. However, UF had no impact in OP. As a result, UF was associated with significantly greater activation, specifically in the insula, inferior prefrontal cortex, and somatosensory cortex in OR as compared to OP. While OF was overall associated with reduced activation of inferior visual cortex, no group interaction was observed with OF. In summary, these findings suggest that individuals resistant to weight gain and obesity are more sensitive to short-term energy imbalance, particularly with UF, than those prone to weight gain. The inability to sense or adapt to changes in energy balance may represent an important mechanism contributing to excess energy intake and risk for obesity.

  15. Propensity to obesity impacts the neuronal response to energy imbalance.

    Cornier, Marc-Andre; McFadden, Kristina L; Thomas, Elizabeth A; Bechtell, Jamie L; Bessesen, Daniel H; Tregellas, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the propensity to gain weight or remain normal weight are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to study the neuronal response to visual food cues during short-term energy imbalance in healthy adults recruited as obesity-resistant (OR) or obesity-prone (OP) based on self-identification, body mass index, and personal/family weight history. Twenty-five OR and 28 OP subjects were studied in underfed (UF) and overfed (OF) as compared to eucaloric (EU) conditions in a randomized crossover design. Each study phase included a 3-day run-in diet, 1 day of controlled feeding (basal energy needs for EU, 40% above/below basal energy needs for OF/UF), and a test day. On the test day, fMRI was performed in the acute fed stated (30 min after a test meal) while subjects viewed images of foods of high hedonic value and neutral non-food objects. Measures of appetite and hormones were also performed before and every 30 min after the test meal. UF was associated with significantly increased activation of insula, somatosensory cortex, inferior and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), parahippocampus, precuneus, cingulate, and visual cortex in OR. However, UF had no impact in OP. As a result, UF was associated with significantly greater activation, specifically in the insula, inferior PFC, and somatosensory cortex in OR as compared to OP. While OF was overall associated with reduced activation of inferior visual cortex, no group interaction was observed with OF. In summary, these findings suggest that individuals resistant to weight gain and obesity are more sensitive to short-term energy imbalance, particularly with UF, than those prone to weight gain. The inability to sense or adapt to changes in energy balance may represent an important mechanism contributing to excess energy intake and risk for obesity.

  16. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dudley, Junqiao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Martin, Phil [Enernoc, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  17. Cardiovascular responses to energy drinks in a healthy population: The C-energy study.

    Kozik, Teri M; Shah, Sachin; Bhattacharyya, Mouchumi; Franklin, Teresa T; Connolly, Therese Farrell; Chien, Walter; Charos, George S; Pelter, Michele M

    2016-07-01

    Energy drink consumption has increased significantly over the past decade and is associated with greater than 20,000 emergency department visits per year. Most often these visits are due to cardiovascular complaints ranging from palpitations to cardiac arrest. To determine if energy drinks alter; blood pressure, electrolytes, activated bleeding time (ACT), and/or cardiac responses measured with a 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) Holter. Continuous ECG data was collected for five hours (30 minutes baseline and 4 hours post consumption [PC]). Subjects consumed 32 ounces of energy drink within one hour and data (vital signs and blood samples) was collected throughout the study period. Paired students t-test and a corresponding non-parametric test (Wilcoxon signed rank) were used for analysis of the data. Fourteen healthy young subjects were recruited (mean age 28.6 years). Systolic blood pressure (baseline=132, ±7.83; PC=151, ±11.21; P=.001); QTc interval (baseline=423, ±22.74; PC=503, ±24.56; P500 milliseconds PC. Other T-wave changes were noted in 9/14 (64.3%) subjects PC. Energy drinks increased systolic blood pressure, altered electrolytes, and resulted in repolarization abnormalities. These physiological responses can lead to arrhythmias and other abnormal cardiac responses highlighting the importance that emergency room personnel assess for energy drink consumption and potential toxicity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Accounting for asymmetric price responses and underlying energy demand trends in OECD industrial energy demand

    Adeyemi, Olutomi I.; Hunt, Lester C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the way technical progress and improvements in energy efficiency are captured when modelling OECD industrial energy demand. The industrial sectors of the developed world involve a number of different practices and processes utilising a range of different technologies. Consequently, given the derived demand nature of energy, it is vital when modelling industrial energy demand that the impact of technical progress is appropriately captured. However, the energy economics literature does not give a clear guide on how this can be achieved; one strand suggests that technical progress is ‘endogenous’ via asymmetric price responses whereas another strand suggests that it is ‘exogenous’. More recently, it has been suggested that potentially there is a role for both ‘endogenous’ technical progress and ‘exogenous’ technical progress and consequently the general model should be specified accordingly. This paper therefore attempts to model OECD industrial energy demand using annual time series data over the period 1962–2010 for 15 OECD countries. Using the Structural Time Series Model framework, the general specifications allow for both asymmetric price responses (for technical progress to impact endogenously) and an underlying energy demand trend (for technical progress and other factors to impact exogenously, but in a non-linear way). The results show that almost all of the preferred models for OECD industrial energy demand incorporate both a stochastic underlying energy demand trend and asymmetric price responses. This gives estimated long-run income elasticities in the range of 0.34 to 0.96; estimated long-run price-maximum elasticities in the range of − 0.06 to − 1.22; estimated long-run price-recovery elasticities in the range of 0.00 to − 0.27; and estimated long-run price-cut elasticities in the range of 0.00 to − 0.18. Furthermore, the analysis suggests that when modelling industrial energy demand there is a place for

  19. 2009 winter meeting: opening address - responsibility for Germany's energy supply

    Hohlefelder, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Responsibility for energy supply concerns all stakeholders - politics, suppliers, and consumers - and requires unbiased analysis, realistic planning, and courageous commitment. We are facing enormous challenges: The financial crisis has arrived in the real economy and caused a deep recession. It is also against this background and that of energy prices rising again on a medium term, especially those of oil and natural gas, that the role of nuclear power in keeping prices down is indispensable. This makes life extension of German nuclear power plants an adjunct of a sustainable economic program, all the more so as it will not cost the taxpayer one cent. Climate protection - the operation of nuclear power plants in Germany annually saves emissions of approximately 150 million tons of CO 2 - and security of supply also work in favor of continued operation of these plants. The important subject of final storage of radioactive waste needs to be pursued consistently. The Konrad mine marks a first step, but results must now be achieved also for high-level waste, for instance, by further exploration of the Gorleben salt dome. An Apollo Program for Energy is also required in designing the future energy mix. This program would include, for instance, research and development of technologies with higher efficiency, new ways to store electricity, technologies of CO 2 separation and sequestration, and further development of renewable energies as well as fusion technology and advanced generation-IV reactors. Internationally, nuclear power is experiencing another upswing. With the exception of Germany, all other G8 countries, for instance, consider the use of nuclear power an absolutely meaningful enrichment of the energy mix. Definitive plans and applications for construction of new plants, respectively, in countries such as France, the United Kingdom, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland, and the United States of America underline the importance attached to nuclear power. (orig.)

  20. Social response to nuclear power and alternative energy systems

    Savellano, R.A.; Bulaon, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Phase I of this study analyzed attitudes and beliefs of respondents drawn from Metro Manila. The second phase utilized a sample drawn from residents near a geothermal power plant site in the Southern Philippines. Four dimensions of beliefs (psychological environmental risks, technological benefits/development, economic benefits/implications, and socio-political/implications/benefit) were identified through factor analysis of beliefs items on nuclear energy and refined empirically to determine perceptions of respondents about all other energy systems. Identification of the relationship between dimensions provided insight into the shared perceptions about each energy system held by the various groups of respondents. The overall attitude of the respondents towards energy systems (nuclear, solar, hydro, geothermal and oil) was determined using three attitude measures: the Fishbein model, Osgood's semantic differential technique, and direct response to unfavorability/favorability scale. The belief dimensions were correlated with the attitude measures to determine the degree of contribution to attitude. A comparative analysis was made to different attitudes and beliefs held by the PRO and CON nuclear groups and by the subsamples: university students, science teachers and barangay leaders of Metro Manila sample. Attitudes and beliefs relating to the demographic variables were also examined for the two samples. (author)

  1. Hierarchical Energy Management of Microgrids including Storage and Demand Response

    Songli Fan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage (BES and demand response (DR are considered to be promising technologies to cope with the uncertainty of renewable energy sources (RES and the load in the microgrid (MG. Considering the distinct prediction accuracies of the RES and load at different timescales, it is essential to incorporate the multi-timescale characteristics of BES and DR in MG energy management. Under this background, a hierarchical energy management framework is put forward for an MG including multi-timescale BES and DR to optimize operation with the uncertainty of RES as well as load. This framework comprises three stages of scheduling: day-ahead scheduling (DAS, hour-ahead scheduling (HAS, and real-time scheduling (RTS. In DAS, a scenario-based stochastic optimization model is established to minimize the expected operating cost of MG, while ensuring its safe operation. The HAS is utilized to bridge DAS and RTS. In RTS, a control strategy is proposed to eliminate the imbalanced power owing to the fluctuations of RES and load. Then, a decomposition-based algorithm is adopted to settle the models in DAS and HAS. Simulation results on a seven-bus MG validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  2. International responsibility of using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes

    Ouenat, N.

    2008-01-01

    Although the stability of the idea of international responsibility in public international law, the international jurisprudence has not settled on a definition. The concept of international responsibility is no longer limited to the legal effects or consequences under international law to violate its provisions. The states recognized that the customary principles governing the international responsibility in public international law does not take into account the specificities of nuclear dangers, this sought to conclude a number of international conventions include a special system of nuclear liability not based on the wrongful act, but on the principle of keeping things, and it requires the existence of an international regime for nuclear liability in order to establish measures and procedures to achieve the implementation of the provisions for compensation unhindered by national legal systems. There is no doubt that the use of nuclear energy in time of peace falls within the scope of internationally prohibited acts. Atomic activities undertaken by the State within its borders for peaceful purposes are considered legitimate activities as long as they have taken necessary measures to avoid damage to neighboring countries. States has tended to conclude international agreements under which disputes that may result from the use of nuclear energy can be solved. The existing international legal framework on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage consists of three major interrelated agreements: Paris Convention on civil liability in the field of nuclear energy, Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for civil damages and the Brussels Convention on Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Materials.

  3. Web-based energy information systems for energy management and demand response in commercial buildings

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Herter, Karen

    2003-04-18

    Energy Information Systems (EIS) for buildings are becoming widespread in the U.S., with more companies offering EIS products every year. As a result, customers are often overwhelmed by the quickly expanding portfolio of EIS feature and application options, which have not been clearly identified for consumers. The object of this report is to provide a technical overview of currently available EIS products. In particular, this report focuses on web-based EIS products for large commercial buildings, which allow data access and control capabilities over the Internet. EIS products combine software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to collect, analyze and display building information to aid commercial building energy managers, facility managers, financial managers and electric utilities in reducing energy use and costs in buildings. Data types commonly processed by EIS include energy consumption data; building characteristics; building system data, such as heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting data; weather data; energy price signals; and energy demand-response event information. This project involved an extensive review of research and trade literature to understand the motivation for EIS technology development. This study also gathered information on currently commercialized EIS. This review is not an exhaustive analysis of all EIS products; rather, it is a technical framework and review of current products on the market. This report summarizes key features available in today's EIS, along with a categorization framework to understand the relationship between EIS, Energy Management and Control Systems (EMCSs), and similar technologies. Four EIS types are described: Basic Energy Information Systems (Basic-EIS); Demand Response Systems (DRS); Enterprise Energy Management (EEM); and Web-based Energy Management and Control Systems (Web-EMCS). Within the context of these four categories, the following characteristics of EIS

  4. Patch test results with patients' own perfumes, deodorants and shaving lotions: results of the IVDK 1998-2002.

    Uter, W; Geier, J; Schnuch, A; Frosch, P J

    2007-03-01

    Assessment of the value of patch testing patients' own perfumes, eau de toilette, deodorants and shaving lotions with regard to diagnosing contact allergy to fragrances, and an analysis of the spectrum of concurrent patch test reactions to single fragrance allergens. Data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK; http://www.ivdk.org) regarding patch test results with above products brought in by the patient, considered as possible cause of contact dermatitis, were retrospectively analysed. Between 1998 and 2002, 1468 patients were patch tested with 2557 single products (deodorants, n = 1094; eau de toilette, n = 598; perfume, n = 530; and pre- or after-shave, n = 325; remainder not classifiable), mostly 'as is'. Positive reactions were observed in 129 patients (to 191 products). In 58 of these patients, no further patch test reactions to the fragrance mix (FM-I), Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru) or 4-(4-hydroxy-4-methyl-pentyl)-3-cyclohexencarboxaldehyde (e.g. Lyral(R)) were found. A strong association between contact sensitivity to the above commercial allergens and positive reactions to products was observed. Some single compounds such as ylang-ylang oil, propolis and especially oak moss absolute are important allergens in the 'perfume-positive' subgroup, but less in a subgroup positive to own deodorants. Patch testing this scope of products, brought in by the patient, can be regarded as a simple, safe and effective method to diagnose clinically relevant contact sensitization - the more so, as the composition of such products is ever-changing, and the sensitivity of established 'screening allergens' is thus insufficient.

  5. Thermally responsive polymer electrolytes for inherently safe electrochemical energy storage

    Kelly, Jesse C.

    Electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs), supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries have emerged as premier candidates to meet the rising demands in energy storage; however, such systems are limited by thermal hazards, thermal runaway, fires and explosions, all of which become increasingly more dangerous in large-format devices. To prevent such scenarios, thermally-responsive polymer electrolytes (RPEs) that alter properties in electrochemical energy storage devices were designed and tested. These RPEs will be used to limit or halt device operation when temperatures increase beyond a predetermined threshold, therefore limiting further heating. The development of these responsive systems will offer an inherent safety mechanism in electrochemical energy storage devices, while preserving the performance, lifetimes, and versatility that large-format systems require. Initial work focused on the development of a model system that demonstrated the concept of RPEs in an electrochemical device. Aqueous electrolyte solutions of polymers exhibiting properties that change in response to temperature were developed for applications in EDLCs and supercapacitors. These "smart materials" provide a means to control electrochemical systems where polymer phase separation at high temperatures affects electrolyte properties and inhibits device performance. Aqueous RPEs were synthesized using N-isopropylacrylamide, which governs the thermal properties, and fractions of acrylic acid or vinyl sulfonic acids, which provide ions to the solution. The molecular properties of these aqueous RPEs, specifically the ionic composition, were shown to influence the temperature-dependent electrolyte properties and the extent to which these electrolytes control the energy storage characteristics of a supercapacitor device. Materials with high ionic content provided the highest room temperature conductivity and electrochemical activity; however, RPEs with low ionic content provided the highest "on

  6. Response function measurement of plastic scintillator for high energy neutrons

    Sanami, Toshiya; Ban, Syuichi; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Takada, Masashi

    2003-01-01

    The response function and detection efficiency of 2''φ x 2''L plastic (PilotU) and NE213 liquid (2''NE213) scintillators, which were used for the measurement of secondary neutrons from high energy electron induced reactions, were measured at Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). High energy neutrons were produced via 400 MeV/n C beam bombardment on a thick graphite target. The detectors were placed at 15 deg with respect to C beam axis, 5 m away from the target. As standard, a 5''φ x 5''L NE213 liquid scintillator (5''NE213) was also placed at same position. Neutron energy was determined by the time-of-flight method with the beam pickup scintillator in front of the target. In front of the detectors, veto scintillators were placed to remove charged particle events. All detector signals were corrected with list mode event by event. We deduce neutron spectrum for each detectors. The efficiency curves for pilotU and 2''NE213 were determined on the bases of 5 N E213 neutron spectrum and its efficiency calculated by CECIL code. (author)

  7. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  8. Response of shallow geothermal energy pile from laboratory model tests

    Marto, A.; Amaludin, A.

    2015-09-01

    In shallow geothermal energy pile systems, the thermal loads from the pile, transferred and stored in the soil will cause thermally induced settlement. This factor must be considered in the geotechnical design process to avoid unexpected hazards. Series of laboratory model tests were carried out to study the behaviour of energy piles installed in kaolin soil, subjected to thermal loads and a combination of axial and thermal loads (henceforth known as thermo-axial loads). Six tests which included two thermal load tests (35°C and 40°C) and four thermo-axial load tests (100 N and 200 N, combined with 35°C and 40°C thermal loads) were conducted. To simulate the behaviour of geothermal energy piles during its operation, the thermo-axial tests were carried out by applying an axial load to the model pile head, and a subsequent application of thermal load. The model soil was compacted at 90% maximum dry density and had an undrained shear strength of 37 kPa, thus classified as having a firm soil consistency. The behaviour of model pile, having the ultimate load capacity of 460 N, was monitored using a linear variable displacement transducer, load cell and wire thermocouple, to measure the pile head settlement, applied axial load and model pile temperature. The acquired data from this study was used to define the thermo-axial response characteristics of the energy pile model. In this study, the limiting settlement was defined as 10% of the model pile diameter. For thermal load tests, higher thermal loads induced higher values of thermal settlement. At 40°C thermal load an irreversible settlement was observed after the heating and cooling cycle was applied to the model pile. Meanwhile, the pile response to thermo-axial loads were attributed to soil consistency and the magnitude of both the axial and thermal loads applied to the pile. The higher the thermoaxial loads, the higher the settlements occurred. A slight hazard on the model pile was detected, since the settlement

  9. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and energy industry; Cororate Social Responsibility (CSR) und Energiewirtschaft

    Landhaeusser, Werner (ed.) [Mader GmbH und Co. KG, Leinfelden-Echterdingen (Germany); Hildebrandt, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    What means Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the energy industry? A rising energy demand with limited natural resources pose utilities, industry and consumers with new challenges. This book follows an interdisciplinary approach and for the first time brings together debates and findings from industry, science, politics, culture and media. Because the energy transition can only succeed if it is comprehensible for the individual and fragmented perspectives and interests are merged. [German] Was bedeutet CSR in der Energiewirtschaft? Ein steigender Energiebedarf bei begrenzten natuerlichen Ressourcen stellt Energieversorger, Industrie und Verbraucher vor immer neue Herausforderungen. Dieses Buch folgt einem interdisziplinaeren Ansatz und fuehrt erstmals Debatten und Erkenntnisse aus Wirtschaft, Wissenschaft, Politik, Kultur und Medien zusammen. Denn die Energiewende kann nur gelingen, wenn sie fuer den Einzelnen fassbar wird und fragmentierte Sichtweisen und Interessenlagen zusammengefuehrt werden.

  10. Climate-smart technologies. Integrating renewable energy and energy efficiency in mitigation and adaptation responses

    Leal Filho, Walter; Mannke, Franziska; Schulte, Veronika [Hamburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany). Faculty of Life Sciences; Mohee, Romeela; Surroop, Dinesh (eds.) [Mauritius Univ., Reduit (Mauritius). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.

    2013-11-01

    Explores the links between climate change and technologies. Relates to the links between renewable energy and climate change. Documents and promotes a collection of experiences from island nations. Has a strong international focus and value to developing countries. The book addresses the perceived need for a publication with looks at both, climate smart technologies and the integration of renewable energy and energy efficiency in mitigation and adaptation responses. Based on a set of papers submitted as part of the fifth on-line climate conference (CLIMATE 2012) and a major conference on renewable energy on island States held in Mauritius in 2012, the book provides a wealth of information on climate change strategies and the role of smart technologies. The book has been produced in the context of the project ''Small Developing Island Renewable Energy Knowledge and Technology Transfer Network'' (DIREKT), funded by the ACP Science and Technology Programme, an EU programme for cooperation between the European Union and the ACP region.

  11. Electromagnetic response in kinetic energy driven cuprate superconductors: Linear response approach

    Krzyzosiak, Mateusz; Huang, Zheyu; Feng, Shiping; Gonczarek, Ryszard

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the kinetic energy driven superconductivity, the electromagnetic response in cuprate superconductors is studied in the linear response approach. The kernel of the response function is evaluated and employed to calculate the local magnetic field profile, the magnetic field penetration depth, and the superfluid density, based on the specular reflection model for a purely transverse vector potential. It is shown that the low temperature magnetic field profile follows an exponential decay at the surface, while the magnetic field penetration depth depends linearly on temperature, except for the strong deviation from the linear characteristics at extremely low temperatures. The superfluid density is found to decrease linearly with decreasing doping concentration in the underdoped regime. The problem of gauge invariance is addressed and an approximation for the dressed current vertex, which does not violate local charge conservation is proposed and discussed.

  12. Milton Hydro's Energy Drill Program : demand response based on behavioural responses to price signals

    Thorne, D.; Heeney, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Energy Drill Program is a demand response tool and economic instrument based on a fire drill protocol. The aim of the program is to reduce peak demand and emissions and improve system reliability and price volatility. This presentation provided details of an Energy Drill pilot program, conducted in Milton, Ontario. Customized approaches were used in the buildings partaking in the drill, which included the Milton Hydro Headquarters, the Robert Baldwin Public School, and a leisure centre. Building assessments inventoried building systems and equipment usage patterns. Pilot monitoring and evaluation was conducted through the use of checklists completed by marshals and building coordinators. Energy use data was tracked by Milton Hydro, and report cards were sent after each drill. A short-term drop in demand was observed in all the buildings, as well as overall reductions in peak period demand. Energy consumption data for all the buildings were provided. Results of the pilot program suggested that rotating the drills among participating buildings may prove to be a more effective strategy for the program to adopt in future. A greater emphasis on energy efficiency was also recommended. It was concluded that the eventual roll-out strategy should carefully consider the number and types of buildings involved in the program; internal commitment to the program; available resources; and timing for implementation. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Talisman Energy Inc : corporate social responsibility report 2001 : Sudan operations

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Talisman Energy Inc. is a large independent Canadian oil and gas producer with operations worldwide, including operations in Sudan, Malaysia, Trinidad and Colombia. This report includes a discussion on seismic exploration in the Acevedo block in Colombia, but most of the report focuses on operations in Sudan because that is the primary concern of many stakeholders, particularly the impact of the long-running civil war in that country and the way in which oil revenues will be used. The report describes Talisman Energy's compliance with the International Code of Ethics for Canadian Business which Talisman adopted in December 1999. The report evaluates Talisman's progress towards achieving objectives in the areas of human rights, community participation, employee rights, ethical business conduct, health, safety and the environment. Talisman will continue to advocate peace and the fair distribution of oil revenues. It was noted that the funding provided by the Sudan oil project consortium Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC) for community development was increased for 2002. Talisman and GNPOC funding helps in community development initiatives such as the provision of water wells, health clinics and schools in Sudan. PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) was asked by Talisman to gather comments on the company's operations in Sudan from a range of stakeholder groups. This report presents audit statements by PwC regarding Talisman's social responsibility. The report also included an independent opinion regarding the challenge of facing ethical dilemmas in business. tabs., figs.

  14. LKB1 promotes metabolic flexibility in response to energy stress.

    Parker, Seth J; Svensson, Robert U; Divakaruni, Ajit S; Lefebvre, Austin E; Murphy, Anne N; Shaw, Reuben J; Metallo, Christian M

    2017-09-01

    The Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1) tumor suppressor acts as a metabolic energy sensor to regulate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and is commonly mutated in various cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tumor cells deficient in LKB1 may be uniquely sensitized to metabolic stresses, which may offer a therapeutic window in oncology. To address this question we have explored how functional LKB1 impacts the metabolism of NSCLC cells using 13 C metabolic flux analysis. Isogenic NSCLC cells expressing functional LKB1 exhibited higher flux through oxidative mitochondrial pathways compared to those deficient in LKB1. Re-expression of LKB1 also increased the capacity of cells to oxidize major mitochondrial substrates, including pyruvate, fatty acids, and glutamine. Furthermore, LKB1 expression promoted an adaptive response to energy stress induced by anchorage-independent growth. Finally, this diminished adaptability sensitized LKB1-deficient cells to combinatorial inhibition of mitochondrial complex I and glutaminase. Together, our data implicate LKB1 as a major regulator of adaptive metabolic reprogramming and suggest synergistic pharmacological strategies for mitigating LKB1-deficient NSCLC tumor growth. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Responsibilities and capabilities of a nuclear energy programme implementing organization

    2009-01-01

    An appropriate infrastructure is essential for the efficient, safe, reliable and peaceful use of nuclear power. The IAEA was encouraged by its Member States to provide assistance to those considering the introduction of nuclear power. These countries face the challenge of building a national nuclear infrastructure to support a first nuclear power plant. The IAEA is responding to their needs through increased technical assistance, missions and workshops, and with new and updated technical publications in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power, an IAEA Nuclear Energy Series publication (NG-G-3.1), provides detailed guidance on a holistic approach to national nuclear infrastructure development, over three phases. Nineteen issues are identified in this guide, ranging from development of a government's national position on nuclear power to planning for procurement related to the first NPP. An important element of the holistic approach is an entity that can help prepare the decision makers in a country to make a knowledgeable commitment to nuclear power, and then to coordinate infrastructure development efforts among various implementing organizations so that they arrive at the point of readiness to issue a bid tender at the same time. In the Milestones guide, this entity is called a nuclear energy programme implementing organization (NEPIO). As a growing number of Member States started to consider the nuclear power option, they asked for guidance from the IAEA on how to launch a nuclear power programme. In particular, Member States requested additional information on how to establish a NEPIO, especially in the earliest phases of a programme. This report has been prepared to provide information on the responsibilities and capabilities of a NEPIO, as well as to give an indication on how it relates to other key national organizations in the implementation of a nuclear power programme, such as the owner

  16. Market response to the public display of energy performance rating at property sales

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Hansen, Anders Rhiger; Kragh, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based on a nat......Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based...... on a national energy performance certificate (EPC) might receive similar response. However, in Denmark no response to the energy performance rating was observed for 15 years. This was a surprise considering that Denmark was the first country to implement an A to G rating of the energy performance of buildings...

  17. The Integration of Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, DemandResponse and Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities for Evaluatorsand Planners

    Vine, Edward

    2007-05-29

    This paper explores the feasibility of integrating energyefficiency program evaluation with the emerging need for the evaluationof programs from different "energy cultures" (demand response, renewableenergy, and climate change). The paper reviews key features andinformation needs of the energy cultures and critically reviews theopportunities and challenges associated with integrating these withenergy efficiency program evaluation. There is a need to integrate thedifferent policy arenas where energy efficiency, demand response, andclimate change programs are developed, and there are positive signs thatthis integration is starting to occur.

  18. Storage Operation for Peak Shaving of Distributed PV and Wind Generation

    Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2013-01-01

    The integration of fluctuating power generation based on renewable energy systems (RES-E) in distribution grids require grid reinforcement resulting from high feed-in peaks. Introducing storage assets can decrease these peaks. For this, storage technologies need to be chosen and dimensioned

  19. Numerical modeling of Thermal Response Tests in Energy Piles

    Franco, A.; Toledo, M.; Moffat, R.; Herrera, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, thermal response tests (TRT) are used as the main tools for the evaluation of low enthalpy geothermal systems such as heat exchangers. The results of TRT are used for estimating thermal conductivity and thermal resistance values of those systems. We present results of synthetic TRT simulations that model the behavior observed in an experimental energy pile system, which was installed at the new building of the Faculty of Engineering of Universidad de Chile. Moreover, we also present a parametric study to identify the most influent parameters in the performance of this type of tests. The modeling was developed using the finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics, which allows the incorporation of flow and heat transport processes. The modeled system consists on a concrete pile with 1 m diameter and 28 m deep, which contains a 28 mm diameter PEX pipe arranged in a closed circuit. Three configurations were analyzed: a U pipe, a triple U and a helicoid shape implemented at the experimental site. All simulations were run considering transient response in a three-dimensional domain. The simulation results provided the temperature distribution on the pile for a set of different geometry and physical properties of the materials. These results were compared with analytical solutions which are commonly used to interpret TRT data. This analysis demonstrated that there are several parameters that affect the system response in a synthetic TRT. For example, the diameter of the simulated pile affects the estimated effective thermal conductivity of the system. Moreover, the simulation results show that the estimated thermal conductivity for a 1 m diameter pile did not stabilize even after 100 hours since the beginning of the test, when it reached a value 30% below value used to set up the material properties in the simulation. Furthermore, we observed different behaviors depending on the thermal properties of concrete and soil. According to the simulations, the thermal

  20. Demand response evaluation and forecasting — Methods and results from the EcoGrid EU experiment

    Larsen, Emil Mahler; Pinson, Pierre; Leimgruber, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Understanding electricity consumers participating in new demand response schemes is important for investment decisions and the design and operation of electricity markets. Important metrics include peak response, time to peak response, energy delivered, ramping, and how the response changes...... with respect to external conditions. Such characteristics dictate the services DR is capable of offering, like primary frequency reserves, peak load shaving, and system balancing. In this paper, we develop methods to characterise price-responsive demand from the EcoGrid EU demonstration in a way that was bid...... into a real-time market. EcoGrid EU is a smart grid experiment with 1900 residential customers who are equipped with smart meters and automated devices reacting to five-minute electricity pricing. Customers are grouped and analysed according to the manufacturer that controlled devices. A number of advanced...

  1. Occupancy-based demand response and thermal comfort optimization in microgrids with renewable energy sources and energy storage

    Korkas, C; Baldi, S.; Michailidis, I; Kosmatopoulos, EB

    2016-01-01

    Integration of renewable energy sources in microgrids can be achieved via demand response programs, which change the electric usage in response to changes in the availability and price of electricity over time. This paper presents a novel control algorithm for joint demand response management and

  2. Thermal behaviour of chrome shavings and of sludges recovered after digestion of tanned solid wastes with calcium hydroxide

    Tahiri, S.; Albizane, A.; Messaoudi, A.; Azzi, M.; Bennazha, J.; Younssi, S. Alami; Bouhria, M.

    2007-01-01

    The thermal behaviour of chrome shavings and of sludges recovered after digestion of tanned wastes with Ca(OH) 2 was studied. Ashes obtained after incineration of wastes at various temperatures were analysed by X-ray diffraction and EDX method. The main crystallized phases present in the ash obtained at 600 deg. C are Cr 2 O 3 and NaCl. The diffractograms revealed an increase in the intensities of the chromium oxide peaks and a very notable decrease of the amount of sodium chloride at 1100 deg. C. EDX analysis revealed a total disappearance of the chlorine peak at this temperature. Scanning electron micrographs show that the waste lost its fibrous aspect when the temperature increases. Formation of aggregates was noted after 550 deg. C. Combustion of organic matters and decarbonation phenomenon are the main stages observed on GTA and DTA curves of sludges. These phenomena are, respectively, exothermic and endothermic. The diffractogram of sludges recorded at 550 deg. C, in the presence of a constant oxygen surplus, revealed the presence of CaCrO 4 and CaCO 3

  3. Women with shaved heads: western Buddhist nuns and Haredi Jewish wives: polysemy, universalism and misinterpretations of hair symbolism in pluralistic societies

    Mira Niculescu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on female hair, or rather the absence of hair: it compares the symbols attached to shaved heads for Western Buddhist nuns and for Jewish married women from various Haredi or ‘ultra-orthodox’ groups, and the (mainly negative representations of these in the external, secular society.The comparison is based on fieldwork research undertaken by the author. When interviewing Western nuns of Jewish origin, it appeared that their shaved heads had been very difficult to cope with for their families, to whom it was a reminder of the Holocaust. The same body treatment can thus represent, on one side, bliss (for the Buddhist nun for whom it is a symbol of libertation and spiritual engagement, and on the other side, horror (for her family and sometimes, out of a Buddhist context, society. Also, the same body treatment can be used to express celibacy for the Buddhist nun, or marriage for the Haredi, or ultra-orthodox woman. Therefore the meaning of head shaving seems to be fluctuating and contextual: it can mean either­ religious commitment, or punishment, or disease.

  4. 75 FR 54063 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets; Technical Conference

    2010-09-03

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 35 [Docket No. RM10-17-000] Demand Response... for determining when to compensate demand response providers and the allocation of costs associated with demand response. DATES: The technical conference will be held at the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  5. A filter technique for optimising the photon energy response of a silicon pin diode dosemeter

    Olsher, R.H.; Eisen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Unless they are energy compensated, silicon PIN diodes used in electronic pocket dosemeters, have significant over-response below 200 keV. Siemens is using three diodes in parallel with individual filters to produce excellent energy and angular response. An algorithm based on the photon spectrum of a single diode could be used to flatten the energy response. The commercial practice is to use a single diode with a simple filter to flatten the energy response, despite the mediocre low energy photon. The filter technique with an opening has been used for energy compensating GM detectors and proportional counters and a new variation of it has been investigated which compensates the energy response of a silicon PIN diode and maintains an extended low energy response. It uses a composite filter of two or more materials with several openings whose individual area is in the range of 15% to 25% of the diode's active area. One opening is centred over the diode's active area and others are located at the periphery of the active area to preserve a good polar response to ±45 o . Monte Carlo radiation transport methods were used to simulate the coupled electron-photon transport through a Hamamatsu S2506-01 diode and to determine the energy response of the diode for a variety of filters. In current mode, the resultant dosemeter energy response relative to air dose was within -15% and +30% for 0 o incidence over the energy range from 15 keV to 1 MeV. In pulse mode, the resultant dosemeter energy response was within -25% and +50% for 0 o incidence over the energy range from 30 keV to 10 MeV. For ±45 o incidence, the energy response was within -25% and +40% from 40 keV to 10 MeV. Theoretical viability of the filter technique has been shown in this work (Author)

  6. How brain response and eating habits modulate food energy estimation.

    Mengotti, P; Aiello, M; Terenzi, D; Miniussi, C; Rumiati, R I

    2018-05-01

    The estimates we do of the energy content of different foods tend to be inaccurate, depending on several factors. The elements influencing such evaluation are related to the differences in the portion size of the foods shown, their energy density (kcal/g), but also to individual differences of the estimators, such as their body-mass index (BMI) or eating habits. Within this context the contribution of brain regions involved in food-related decisions to the energy estimation process is still poorly understood. Here, normal-weight and overweight/obese women with restrained or non-restrained eating habits, received anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (AtDCS) to modulate the activity of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) while they performed a food energy estimation task. Participants were asked to judge the energy content of food images, unaware that all foods, for the quantity presented, shared the same energy content. Results showed that food energy density was a reliable predictor of their energy content estimates, suggesting that participants relied on their knowledge about the food energy density as a proxy for estimating food energy content. The neuromodulation of the dlPFC interacted with individual differences in restrained eating, increasing the precision of the energy content estimates in participants with higher scores in the restrained eating scale. Our study highlights the importance of eating habits, such as restrained eating, in modulating the activity of the left dlPFC during food appraisal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. What intelligence should the consumer energy management infrastructure have?

    Nanninga, Gerard J.

    2007-01-01

    Consumer related energy issues, as energy awareness, peak shaving, delivery back to the gridand code red situations: how do we translate this to the 'ordinary user' environment? Networked control technology, smart meters, gateways and user interfaces needed to enable household-appliances to behave

  8. A Dual-Stimuli-Responsive Sodium-Bromine Battery with Ultrahigh Energy Density.

    Wang, Faxing; Yang, Hongliu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Panpan; Wang, Gang; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Feng, Xinliang

    2018-06-01

    Stimuli-responsive energy storage devices have emerged for the fast-growing popularity of intelligent electronics. However, all previously reported stimuli-responsive energy storage devices have rather low energy densities (energy density, electrochromic effect, and fast thermal response is demonstrated. Remarkably, the fabricated Na//Br 2 battery exhibits a large operating voltage of 3.3 V and an energy density up to 760 Wh kg -1 , which outperforms those for the state-of-the-art stimuli-responsive electrochemical energy storage devices. This work offers a promising approach for designing multi-stimuli-responsive and high-energy rechargeable batteries without sacrificing the electrochemical performance. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Design of demand side response model in energy internet demonstration park

    Zhang, Q.; Liu, D. N.

    2017-08-01

    The implementation of demand side response can bring a lot of benefits to the power system, users and society, but there are still many problems in the actual operation. Firstly, this paper analyses the current situation and problems of demand side response. On this basis, this paper analyses the advantages of implementing demand side response in the energy Internet demonstration park. Finally, the paper designs three kinds of feasible demand side response modes in the energy Internet demonstration park.

  10. Growth and yield of tomato cultivated on composted duck excreta enriched wood shavings and source-separated municipal solid waste

    Vincent Zoes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of growth substrates, made with duck excreta enriched wood shaving compost (DMC and the organic fraction of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW compost, on the growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv. Campbell 1327. Substrate A consisted of 3:2 (W/W proportion of DMC and MSW composts. Substrates B and C were the same as A but contained 15% (W/W ratio of brick dust and shredded plastic, respectively. Three control substrates consisted of the commercially available peat-based substrate (Pr, an in-house sphagnum peat-based substrate (Gs, and black earth mixed with sandy loam soil (BE/S in a 1:4 (W/W ratio. Substrates (A, B, C and controls received nitrogen (N, phosphate (P and potassium (K at equivalent rates of 780 mg/pot, 625 mg/pot, and 625 mg/pot, respectively, or were used without mineral fertilizers. Compared to the controls (Pr, Gs and BE/S, tomato plants grown on A, B, and C produced a greater total number and dry mass of fruits, with no significant differences between them. On average, total plant dry-matter biomass in substrate A, B, and C was 19% lower than that produced on Pr, but 28% greater than biomass obtained for plant grown, on Gs and BE/S. Plant height, stem diameter and chlorophyll concentrations indicate that substrates A, B, and C were particularly suitable for plant growth. Although the presence of excess N in composted substrates favoured vegetative rather than reproductive growth, the continuous supply of nutrients throughout the growing cycle, as well as the high water retention capacity that resulted in a reduced watering by 50%, suggest that substrates A, B, and C were suitable growing mixes, offering environmental and agronomic advantages.

  11. Time for a revolution: smart energy and microgrid use in disaster response.

    Callaway, David Wayne; Noste, Erin; McCahill, Peter Woods; Rossman, A J; Lempereur, Dominique; Kaney, Kathleen; Swanson, Doug

    2014-06-01

    Modern health care and disaster response are inextricably linked to high volume, reliable, quality power. Disasters place major strain on energy infrastructure in affected communities. Advances in renewable energy and microgrid technology offer the potential to improve mobile disaster medical response capabilities. However, very little is known about the energy requirements of and alternative power sources in disaster response. A gap analysis of the energy components of modern disaster response reveals multiple deficiencies. The MED-1 Green Project has been executed as a multiphase project designed to identify energy utilization inefficiencies, decrease demands on diesel generators, and employ modern energy management strategies to expand operational independence. This approach, in turn, allows for longer deployments in potentially more austere environments and minimizes the unit's environmental footprint. The ultimate goal is to serve as a proof of concept for other mobile medical units to create strategies for energy independence.

  12. Energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: The consistency of European CHP, renewables and energy efficiency policies

    Grohnheit, P.E.

    1999-09-01

    This report is Volume 14 of individual reports of the Shared Analysis Project prepared for the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy. The three major objectives of the project were: to design a common framework of energy analysis that aimed to involve all Member States and the experts of industrial research groups (the shared approach to energy analysis); To analyse generic EU-wide issues important for energy policy and for future energy demand and production, putting particular emphasis on world energy market trends, strategic energy policy responses to the Kyoto process, and evaluation of response strategies to increasing energy import dependence and to climate change activities; to carry out quantitative analyses of energy trends and scenarios as an input for discussion. The present volume considers three main issues concerning energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: the penetration of CHP and renewables according to official objectives, focusing on infrastructure and institutions rather than technology; the consistency of promotion of CHP, renewables and energy savings at the same time; consumers' choices and priorities in a liberalised market. The volume describes examples of policies in several Member States for these technologies with emphasis on CHP for both large-scale and small-scale district heating systems. The penetration of CHP technologies is analysed quantitatively using a traditional optimisation model approach for stylised regions with heat markets suitable for CHP and facing a competitive European market for electricity. The Joint Final Report of the project, titled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy' is published as a Special Issue of Energy in Europe, December 1999. All reports are available on the Internet, www.shared-analysis.fhg.de/ The project started in January 1998, involving about 100 months of scientific labour. The project consortium consisted of nine member institutes co-ordinated by

  13. Energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: The consistency of European CHP, renewables and energy efficiency policies

    Grohnheit, P.E.

    1999-09-01

    This report is Volume 14 of individual reports of the Shared Analysis Project prepared for the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy. The three major objectives of the project were: to design a common framework of energy analysis that aimed to involve all Member States and the experts of industrial research groups (the shared approach to energy analysis); To analyse generic EU-wide issues important for energy policy and for future energy demand and production, putting particular emphasis on world energy market trends, strategic energy policy responses to the Kyoto process, and evaluation of response strategies to increasing energy import dependence and to climate change activities; to carry out quantitative analyses of energy trends and scenarios as an input for discussion. The present volume considers three main issues concerning energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: the penetration of CHP and renewables according to official objectives, focusing on infrastructure and institutions rather than technology; the consistency of promotion of CHP, renewables and energy savings at the same time; consumers' choices and priorities in a liberalised market. The volume describes examples of policies in several Member States for these technologies with emphasis on CHP for both large-scale and small-scale district heating systems. The penetration of CHP technologies is analysed quantitatively using a traditional optimisation model approach for stylised regions with heat markets suitable for CHP and facing a competitive European market for electricity. The Joint Final Report of the project, titled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy' is published as a Special Issue of Energy in Europe, December 1999. All reports are available on the Internet, www.shared-analysis.fhg.de/ The project started in January 1998, involving about 100 months of scientific labour. The project consortium consisted of nine member institutes co-ordinated by the Fraunhofer

  14. Evaluation of energy responses for neutron dose-equivalent meters made in Japan

    Saegusa, J.; Yoshizawa, M.; Tanimura, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Yamano, T.; Nakaoka, H.

    2004-01-01

    Energy responses of three types of Japanese neutron dose-equivalent (DE) meters were evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations and measurements. The energy responses were evaluated for thermal neutrons, monoenergetic neutrons with energies up to 15.2 MeV, and also for neutrons from such radionuclide sources as 252 Cf and 241 Am-Be. The calculated results were corroborated with the measured ones. The angular dependence of the response and the DE response were also evaluated. As a result, reliable energy responses were obtained by careful simulations of the proportional counter, moderator and absorber of the DE meters. Furthermore, the relationship between pressure of counting gas and response of the DE meter was discussed. By using the obtained responses, relations between predicted readings of the DE meters and true DE values were studied for various workplace spectra

  15. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Urbanization - Energy Sources

    Introduction to changes in basal energy sources with urbanization, overview of terrestrial leaf litter dynamics in urban streams, overview of how urbanization can affect primary production, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon quantity and quality.

  16. 10. Symposium energy and environment - responsibility for the future

    2003-01-01

    The symposium discussed important aspects relating to the subject of energy and environment. The detailed and well-funded lectures and statements were received with great interest by the 120 attendants. The discussion focused on problems of power generation and consumption, increased shares of renewable energy sources, ethical and theological questions. The symposium received funds from Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt and was well accepted by the press [de

  17. The challenges of energy - response to Moody-Stuart

    John Houghton

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Sir Mark has lucidly addressed the growing demand for accessible energy throughout the world, the need for basic provision of energy to one third of the world's population and the conflicts that arise between the ways in which energy is supplised and used and the constraints of sustainability. It is, of course, the innovation, creativity and activity of industry that will provide solutions to the problems we face. It is therefore appropriate and helpful to hear form one of the leaders of the energy industry. The vision he presents i one of a vibrant, innovation, market-driven industry operating within a regulatory framework that gives the maximum flexibility for creative solutions. The greatest challenges faced by the world energy sector are concerned with environmental sustainability. Because the emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide spread rapidly around the globe, sustainability has to be considered on a global basis and global solutions are rquired. International agreements concerning action, for instance the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC, need to be based on sound science and on four widely accepted principles, namely the Precautionary Principle, the Polluter Pays Principles and the Principles of Sustainable Development and Equity. The challenge to the FCCC is to devise mechanisms and arragements that will bring about substantial reductions in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and that also satisfy there principles. A recent Energy Review from the Policy Innovation Unit of the UK Government's Cabinet Office has considered in detail how a sustainable energy strategy can be developed. Finally, reasons are given for optimism that, given the necessary commitment by the world community, a sustainable energy strategy for the world can be developed and realised during the 21st century.

  18. Energy response of silicon surface barrier detector in view of charge collection process

    Kanno, Ikuo; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Inbe, Takashi; Kanazawa, Satoshi; Kimura, Itsuro

    1994-01-01

    In this report, the recombination effect is estimated. We take the recombination effect as the combined effect of the timing response and the energy response. With the establishment of the estimation method of the recombination effect, the consistency between the energy measurements and timing measurements will be judged. (J.P.N.)

  19. Sharing our energies. Corporate social responsibility report 2005; Notre energie en partage. Rapport societal et environnemental 2005

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    Total is a multinational energy company, the fourth largest publicly-traded integrated oil and gas company in the world. Total worldwide operations are conducted through three business segments: Upstream includes oil and gas Exploration and Production, Gas and Power and other energy sources. Downstream covers Trading and Shipping,Refining and the Marketing of TOTAL and Elf brand petroleum products, automotive and other fuels, and specialties such as LPG, aviation fuel and lubricants, through both the retail network and other outlets worldwide. Chemicals comprises various activities including Base chemicals (Petrochemicals and Fertilizers) and Specialties for industry and the consumer market. This corporate social responsibility report presents the Group activity for the year 2005 in the following domains: the business principles, the environment safety and health, the social responsibility and the local development, the future of energy (fossil fuels, renewable energies and towards energy vectors). (A.L.B.)

  20. MONTE CARLO CALCULATION OF THE ENERGY RESPONSE OF THE NARF HURST-TYPE FAST- NEUTRON DOSIMETER

    De Vries, T. W.

    1963-06-15

    The response function for the fast-neutron dosimeter was calculated by the Monte Carlo technique (Code K-52) and compared with a calculation based on the Bragg-Gray principle. The energy deposition spectra so obtained show that the response spectra become softer with increased incident neutron energy ahove 3 Mev. The K-52 calculated total res nu onse is more nearly constant with energy than the BraggGray response. The former increases 70 percent from 1 Mev to 14 Mev while the latter increases 135 percent over this energy range. (auth)

  1. Sharing our energies. Corporate social responsibility report 2002

    2003-05-01

    This document assesses the results of the group Total initiatives in the domain of the corporate social responsibility, for the year 2002. It presents the society policy and actions concerning: the ethics as a foundation of broader corporate, the environment stewardship and the safety enhancement, the equity and diversity of the labor relations and human resources, the broader responsibility to society and communities, the financial performance and a group portrait. (A.L.B.)

  2. Corporate social responsibility report 2003. Sharing our energies

    2004-05-01

    This document assesses the results of the group Total initiatives in the domain of the corporate social responsibility, for the year 2003. It presents the society policy and actions concerning: the ethics as a foundation of broader corporate, the environment stewardship and the safety enhancement, the equity and diversity of the labor relations and human resources, the broader responsibility to society and communities, the financial performance and a group portrait. (A.L.B.)

  3. Our responsibility with regard to the energy problems

    1988-01-01

    The working groups of the Students' Mission in Germany (SMD) intend among others to initiate and to foster among the students and their Christian associations interest in and discussions on current topics of the society, based on the scientific and the Christian approach. So the information brochure in hand presents subject-related information together with and discussed with a view to Christian duty, to fulfil the task given to man by the Creator, namely to understand the earth and nature as companions. The contributions are written by three natural scientists and a theologian, the subjects include: The ecologic crisis - a substantial challenge to our idea of life and our way of life; belief in the word of God and technical and scientific knowledge; energy scenario for the Federal Republic of Germany; about energy conservation; ecologic aspects of the energy problem; economic aspects illustrated by the example of the district heat supply. (HSCH) [de

  4. The technique of obtaining single-energy γ-rays in calibrating energy response of detector

    Li Rurong; Peng Taiping; Hu Mengchun; Li Zhongbao

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the principle of transforming γ-rays from 60 Co into a series of single-energy γ-rays and stresses the technique of shielding radiation-interfere and reducing energy-dispersion. The Single-energy γ-rays of any energy in the range of 0.36-1.02 MeV may be obtained by means of this technique. (authors)

  5. China's energy security, the Malacca dilemma and responses

    Zhang Zhongxiang

    2011-01-01

    China's rapid economic growth has led to a huge increase in oil imports. This has raised great concern regarding its energy security because China depends on a single chokepoint, the Strait of Malacca, with nearly three-quarters of its oil imports flowing through the Strait. Given its strategic importance to China and China's little sway on the waterway, this viewpoint focuses mainly on China's concerns about and efforts at both demand and supply sides towards energy security, in particular regarding the Malacca dilemma, and puts potential Arctic oil and gas into that context.

  6. How to Shave

    ... Contact Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ... strictly prohibited without prior written permission. AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ...

  7. Handling wood shavings

    1974-09-18

    Details of bulk handling equipment suitable for collection and compressing wood waste from commercial joinery works are discussed. The Redler Bin Discharger ensures free flow of chips from storage silo discharge prior to compression into briquettes for use as fuel or processing into chipboard.

  8. Is Gravitational Aberration Responsible for the Origin of Dark Energy?

    Křížek, M.; Brandts, J.; Somer, L.; Del Valle, C.A.; Longoria, D.F.

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the 20th century, it was discovered that the expansion of the Universe is speeding up. This acceleration is attributed to dark energy, which seems to be distributed uniformly almost everywhere and thus essentially influences the Hubble parameter H = H(t) characterizing this expansion.

  9. Enzymatic shaving of the tegument surface of live schistosomes for proteomic analysis: a rational approach to select vaccine candidates.

    William Castro-Borges

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The membrane-associated and membrane-spanning constituents of the Schistosoma mansoni tegument surface, the parasite's principal interface with the host bloodstream, have recently been characterized using proteomic techniques. Biotinylation of live worms using membrane-impermeant probes revealed that only a small subset of the proteins was accessible to the reagents. Their position within the multilayered architecture of the surface has not been ascertained.An enzymatic shaving approach on live worms has now been used to release the most accessible components, for analysis by MS/MS. Treatment with trypsin, or phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PiPLC, only minimally impaired membrane integrity. PiPLC-enriched proteins were distinguished from those released in parasite vomitus or by handling damage, using isobaric tagging. Trypsin released five membrane proteins, Sm200, Sm25 and three annexins, plus host CD44 and the complement factors C3 and C4. Nutrient transporters and ion channels were absent from the trypsin fraction, suggesting a deeper location in the surface complex; surprisingly, two BAR-domain containing proteins were released. Seven parasite and two host proteins were enriched by PiPLC treatment, the vaccine candidate Sm29 being the most prominent along with two orthologues of human CD59, potentially inhibitors of complement fixation. The enzymes carbonic anhydrase and APD-ribosyl cyclase were also enriched, plus Sm200 and alkaline phosphatase. Host GPI-anchored proteins CD48 and CD90, suggest 'surface painting' during worm peregrination in the portal system.Our findings suggest that the membranocalyx secreted over the tegument surface is not the inert barrier previously proposed, some tegument proteins being externally accessible to enzymes and thus potentially located within it. Furthermore, the detection of C3 and C4 indicates that the complement cascade is initiated, while two CD59 orthologues suggest a potential

  10. Market response to the public display of energy performance rating at property sales

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Hansen, Anders Rhiger; Kragh, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based on a national energy performance certificate (EPC) might receive similar response. However, in Denmark no response to the energy performance rating was observed for 15 years. This was a surprise considering that Denmark was the first country to implement an A to G rating of the energy performance of buildings. A statistical examination of data on property sales prices and energy performance ratings was carried out. All relevant property transaction data from 2007 till 2012 were examined and they showed that energy performance ratings had an impact on property sales prices. However, before June 2010, the impact was modest, whereas after June 2010 the impact of energy performance ratings on property sales prices increased significantly as a result of an EU requirement to display the energy performance rating in connection with property sales. On this background, it was concluded that a public display of the energy performance rating is fundamental for market response. - Highlights: •Energy performance ratings of buildings have an impact on property sales prices. •A statistical examination shows that since 2010 sales prices reflect energy performance. •Mandatory display of the rating prescribed by EU Directive was decisive. •The positive market response will be an incentive for energy upgrading of the property.

  11. The Effects of Land Configuration and Wood-Shavings Mulch on the Properties of a Sandy Loam Soil in Northeast Nigeria. 2. Changes in Physical Properties

    Chiroma, AM.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mulching and ridge tillage are proven technologies for improving soil productivity in semi-arid regions. Yet data quantifying the combined influences of these practices are limited. Our objectives were to determine the changes in selected physical properties of a sandy loam after 4-years of annual tillage and wood-shavings mulching. The tillage and wood-shavings treatments consisted of: Flat bed (FB, Open ridge (OR, Tiedridge (TR, FBM, ORM and TRM were same as FB, OR and TR, respectively except that wood-shavings at a rate of 10 t/ha were surface applied ≈ 2 weeks after sowing each year to serve as both a mulch and an organic amendment. At the end of the trial in 2002, bulk density, penetration resistance, total porosity and soil water content from each of 0-0.075, 0.075-0.15 and 0.15-0.30 m depths were determined. Composite samples from the surface (0.075 and 0.075-0.15 m layers from 3 replicates of each treatment were also collected for the determination of wet aggregate stability and from 0-0.15 m and 0.15-0.30 m layers for determination of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat. After 4 years of annual tillage and addition of woodshavings, soil bulk density and penetration resistance were consistently lower and total porosity higher in the FBM, ORM and TRM treatments than in the FB, OR and TR treatments. Penetration resistance in all treatments was strongly related to soil water content. A 'hoe pan' was established below 0.15 m depth beneath the furrows of the ridged treatments. This could be attributed to human traffic during field operations and ponding of water, which occurred in the furrows following heavy rains. Wet aggregate stability estimated as the proportion of aggregates of size > 0.25 mm (macro-aggregates in the 0-0.15 m layer were significantly (P< 0.05 higher under FBM, ORM and TRM than under FB, OR or TR treatments. Ksat was not influenced by either tillage or wood-shavings treatments but were higher for the mulched plots

  12. Total Corporate social responsibility report 2004. Sharing our energy

    2005-05-01

    This document presents the social and environmental activities of the group Total for the year 2004. It provides information on the ethical aspects of the governance, the industrial security, the environmental policy, the public health and the occupational safety, the social liability and the economical and social impact of the group activities in the local development, the contribution to the climatic change fight and the development of other energy sources. (A.L.B.)

  13. Energy: the states' response in 1978

    Mackey, Earl S.

    1978-01-01

    A compilation of all state legislative energy enactments for legislature, in 1978 is presented. It provides source material to legislators and their staff. Each bill is separated into one or more of the 37 major subject categories. Broad categories cover public utilities; tax exemption; tax application; franchise protection; conservation; resource development; solar easements; mineral extraction regulation; management; emergency powers; anti-trust; anit-environment; and miscellaneous legislation.

  14. Energy systems and climate change: Approaches to formulating responses

    Wilson, Deborah.

    1993-04-01

    A method is presented for computing the direct and indirect radiative forcings of emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane and comparing them in terms of their carbon-equivalent radiative forcing potential as a common unit. Examples illustrate application of the method in comparisons of the carbon-equivalent emissions from coal-, oil- and natural gas-based electricity and combined heat and power production assuming near-, medium- and long-term perspectives. The second article provides a systematic approach to calculating the net cost of avoiding greenhouse-gas emissions by adopting individual supply- and demand-side fuel switching and energy efficiency measures instead of proceeding down business as usual energy paths. Individual measures are grouped and ranked to form scenario packages for total and average costs of avoided carbon equivalent emissions. Examples are presented for Sweden, the United States and the state of Karnataka, India. A key finding is that there appears to exist significant emission avoiding potential that can be exploited at a net economic benefit to society. This potential is insufficient, however, to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases. The suggestion that changes can be made to energy systems leading to significant levels of avoided carbon dioxide emissions at little or no cost to society has been refuted by economic theoreticians, whose writings warn that policies aimed at avoiding greenhouse gas emissions will incur exorbitant costs. A case study of the potential to use ethanol produced from sugar cane as a transportation fuel in Thailand is used to illustrate an integrated approach to evaluating components of alternative energy systems

  15. Biomass cogeneration: industry response for energy security and environmental consideration

    Bacareza-Pacudan, L.; Lacrosse, L.; Pennington, M.; Dale Gonzales, A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass occurs in abundance in the highly agricultural-based countries of South-East Asia. If these are processed in the wood and agro-processing industries, large volumes of residues are generated. The residue are potential sources of energy which the industries can tap through the use of cogeneration systems, in order to meet their own thermal and electrical requirements. This will reduce the industry's dependence on power from the grid and thus increase their own self-sufficiency in terms of energy. Biomass cogeneration brings the environmental, as well as economic benefits to the industries. It makes use of clean and energy-efficient technologies and utilises biomass as fuels which cause less environment al pollution and the greenhouse effect, as against the use of fossil fuels. A particular mill that embarks on biomass cogeneration is also able to realise, among others, income from the export of excess electricity to the grid. Biomass residue if not used for other purposes have negative values as they need to be disposed of. They can, however, be profit-generating as well. (Author)

  16. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Rockoff, Alexandra; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-05-11

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities for industrial refrigerated warehouses in California. The report describes refrigerated warehouses characteristics, energy use and demand, and control systems. It also discusses energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities and provides analysis results from three demand response studies. In addition, several energy efficiency, load management, and demand response case studies are provided for refrigerated warehouses. This study shows that refrigerated warehouses can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for open automated demand response (OpenADR) at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to OpenADR due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  17. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Aki, Hirohisa; Lai, Judy

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has launched the commercial building initiative (CBI) in pursuit of its research goal of achieving zero-net-energy commercial buildings (ZNEB), i.e. ones that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge, energy-efficiency technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. This paper examines how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cost- or CO2-minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various technologies: photovoltaic modules (PV) and other on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and passive/demand-response technologies. A mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has a multi-criteria objective function is used. The objective is minimization of a weighted average of the building's annual energy costs and CO2 emissions. The MILP's constraints ensure energy balance and capacity limits. In addition, constraining the building's energy consumed to equal its energy exports enables us to explore how energy sales and demand-response measures may enable compliance with the ZNEB objective. Using a commercial test site in northernCalifornia with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find that a ZNEB requires ample PV capacity installed to ensure electricity sales during the day. This is complemented by investment in energy-efficient combined heat and power (CHP) equipment, while occasional demand response shaves energy consumption. A large amount of storage is also adopted, which may be impractical. Nevertheless, it shows the nature of the solutions and costs necessary to achieve a ZNEB. Additionally, the ZNEB approach does not necessary lead to zero-carbon (ZC) buildings as is frequently argued. We also show a multi-objective frontier for the CA example, whichallows us to estimate the needed technologies

  18. Empirically Determined Response Matrices for On-Line Orbit and Energy Correction at Jefferson Lab

    Leigh Harwood; Alicia Hofler; Michele Joyce; Valeri Lebedev; David Bryan

    2001-01-01

    Jefferson Lab uses feedback loops (less than 1 hertz update rate) to correct drifts in CEBAF's electron beam orbit and energy. Previous incarnations of these loops used response matrices that were computed by a numerical model of the machine. Jefferson Lab is transitioning this feedback system to use empirically determined response matrices whereby the software introduces small orbit or energy deviations using the loop's actuators and measures the system response with the loop's sensors. This method is in routine use for orbit correction. This paper will describe the orbit correction system and future plans to extend this method to energy correction

  19. Essays on Industry Response to Energy and Environmental Policy

    Sweeney, Richard Leonard

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between firm incentives and energy and environmental policy outcomes. Chapters 1 and 2 study the impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the United States oil refining industry. This legislation imposed extensive restrictions on refined petroleum product markets, requiring select end users to purchase new cleaner versions of gasoline and diesel. In Chapter 2, I estimate the static impact of this intervention on refining costs, product prices and consumer welfare. Isolating these effects is complicated by several challenges likely to appear in other regulatory settings, including overlap between regulated and non-regulated markets and deviations from perfect competition. Using a rich database of refinery operations, I estimate a structural model that incorporates each of these dimensions, and then use this cost structure to simulate policy counterfactuals. I find that the policies increased gasoline production costs by 7 cents per gallon and diesel costs by 3 cents per gallon on average, although these costs varied considerably across refineries. As a result of these restrictions, consumers in regulated markets experienced welfare losses on the order of 3.7 billion per year, but this welfare loss was partially offset by gains of 1.5 billion dollars per year among consumers in markets not subject to regulation. The results highlight the importance of accounting for imperfect competition and market spillovers when assessing the cost of environmental regulation. Chapter 2 estimates the sunk costs incurred by United States oil refineries as a result of the low sulfur diesel program. The complex, regionally integrated nature of the industry poses many challenges for estimating these costs. I overcome them by placing the decision to invest in sulfur removal technology within the framework of a two period model and estimate the model using moment inequalities. I find that the regulation induced between 2

  20. International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards: Challenge and response

    Spector, Leonard S.

    2017-11-01

    This article provides a critical review of the nuclear accounting and inspection system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), known as "IAEA safeguards." The article focuses on the multiple challenges the Agency confronts in verifying that all nuclear activities in the countries under its safeguards system are being pursued for exclusively peaceful purposes. The principal challenges noted are those posed by: undeclared facilities, the development of enrichment and reprocessing capabilities, illicit procurement activities, denial of inspector access, difficulties in verifying absence of weaponization activities, and difficulties in establishing that all nuclear-relevant activities in a state are peaceful. The article is in the form of annotated PowerPoint briefing slides.

  1. Dynamic Response of Inextensible Beams by Improved Energy Balance Method

    Sfahani, M. G.; Barari, Amin; Omidvar, M.

    2011-01-01

    An improved He's energy balance method (EBM) for solving non-linear oscillatory differential equation using a new trial function is presented. The problem considered represents the governing equations of the non-linear, large-amplitude free vibrations of a slender cantilever beam...... with a rotationally flexible root and carrying a lumped mass at an intermediate position along its span. Based on the simple EBM, the variational integral of the non-linear conservative system is established, and the Fourier series expansion is employed to address the governing algebraic equations. An alternate...

  2. Nuclear energy: The need for responsible global management

    Hill, C.; Mechelynck, A.

    1999-01-01

    The problems posed by nuclear power generation have been discussed in earlier Pugwash meetings and, more recently, participants in at least one working group (Hiroshima, 1995) have urged that the issue should be taken up again in a specially convened workshop. Subsequently, at Lahti in 1996, Working Group 6 (Global action on the energy/climate interaction) asked the present authors to follow up this recommendation. The present paper reports on the modest progress that has been made in this direction. It is intended to form the basis for discussion, in Lillehammer Working Group 6, on whether further Pugwash action should be taken and, if so, how?

  3. Materializing a responsive interior: designing minimum energy structures

    Mossé, Aurélie; Kofod, Guggi; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a series of design-led experiments investigating future possibilities for architectural materialization relying on minimum energy structures as an example of adaptive structure. The structures have been made as laminates of elastic membrane under high tension with flexible...... (Lendlein, Kelch 2002) or light (van Oosten, Bastiaansen et al. 2009). All in all, this approach could form a whole new design paradigm, in which efficient 2D-manufacturing can lead to highly flexible, low weight and adaptable 3D-structures. This is illustrated by the design and manufacture of electro...

  4. Co-evolutionary organisational response development model (CORD): a case study of an Australian energy company climate change responses

    Mishra, Kirti

    2016-01-01

    The thesis reports an investigation of the effects of the complex, evolving relationships between organisations and their environments. This examination is a case study of the responses of an Australian energy company to effects of climate change, and aims to enhance understanding of how organisational responses to climate change develop and evolve over time.    The impact of climate change on the contemporary organisational environment has multiple aspects – natural, ec...

  5. Geothermal Program Review XI: proceedings. Geothermal Energy - The Environmental Responsible Energy Technology for the Nineties

    1993-10-01

    These proceedings contain papers pertaining to current research and development of geothermal energy in the USA. The seven sections of the document are: Overview, The Geysers, Exploration and Reservoir Characterization, Drilling, Energy Conversion, Advanced Systems, and Potpourri. The Overview presents current DOE energy policy and industry perspectives. Reservoir studies, injection, and seismic monitoring are reported for the geysers geothermal field. Aspects of geology, geochemistry and models of geothermal exploration are described. The Drilling section contains information on lost circulation, memory logging tools, and slim-hole drilling. Topics considered in energy conversion are efforts at NREL, condensation on turbines and geothermal materials. Advanced Systems include hot dry rock studies and Fenton Hill flow testing. The Potpourri section concludes the proceedings with reports on low-temperature resources, market analysis, brines, waste treatment biotechnology, and Bonneville Power Administration activities. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Smart Demand Response Based on Smart Homes

    Jingang Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart homes (SHs are crucial parts for demand response management (DRM of smart grid (SG. The aim of SHs based demand response (DR is to provide a flexible two-way energy feedback whilst (or shortly after the consumption occurs. It can potentially persuade end-users to achieve energy saving and cooperate with the electricity producer or supplier to maintain balance between the electricity supply and demand through the method of peak shaving and valley filling. However, existing solutions are challenged by the lack of consideration between the wide application of fiber power cable to the home (FPCTTH and related users’ behaviors. Based on the new network infrastructure, the design and development of smart DR systems based on SHs are related with not only functionalities as security, convenience, and comfort, but also energy savings. A new multirouting protocol based on Kruskal’s algorithm is designed for the reliability and safety of the SHs distribution network. The benefits of FPCTTH-based SHs are summarized at the end of the paper.

  7. Energy management in microgrid based on the multi objective stochastic programming incorporating portable renewable energy resource as demand response option

    Tabar, Vahid Sohrabi; Jirdehi, Mehdi Ahmadi; Hemmati, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy resources are often known as cost-effective and lucrative resources and have been widely developed due to environmental-economic issues. Renewable energy utilization even in small scale (e.g., microgrid networks) has attracted significant attention. Energy management in microgrid can be carried out based on the generating side management or demand side management. In this paper, portable renewable energy resource are modeled and included in microgrid energy management as a demand response option. Utilizing such resources could supply the load when microgrid cannot serve the demand. This paper addresses energy management and scheduling in microgrid including thermal and electrical loads, renewable energy sources (solar and wind), CHP, conventional energy sources (boiler and micro turbine), energy storage systems (thermal and electrical ones), and portable renewable energy resource (PRER). Operational cost of microgrid and air pollution are considered as objective functions. Uncertainties related to the parameters are incorporated to make a stochastic programming. The proposed problem is expressed as a constrained, multi-objective, linear, and mixed-integer programing. Augmented Epsilon-constraint method is used to solve the problem. Final results and calculations are achieved using GAMS24.1.3/CPLEX12.5.1. Simulation results demonstrate the viability and effectiveness of the proposed method in microgrid energy management. - Highlights: • Introducing portable renewable energy resource (PRER) and considering effect of them. • Considering reserve margin and sensitivity analysis for validate robustness. • Multi objective and stochastic management with considering various loads and sources. • Using augmented Epsilon-constraint method to solve multi objective program. • Highly decreasing total cost and pollution with PRER in stochastic state.

  8. Research of corporate social responsibility in an energy efficient technologies development section

    Lyashenko O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considered the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR and its components. The Jevons paradox is examined, the mechanism of rebound effect on the example of energy efficient technologies is analyzed.

  9. Regional Energy Demand Responses To Climate Change. Methodology And Application To The Commonwealth Of Massachusetts

    Amato, A.D.; Ruth, M.; Kirshen, P.; Horwitz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Climate is a major determinant of energy demand. Changes in climate may alter energy demand as well as energy demand patterns. This study investigates the implications of climate change for energy demand under the hypothesis that impacts are scale dependent due to region-specific climatic variables, infrastructure, socioeconomic, and energy use profiles. In this analysis we explore regional energy demand responses to climate change by assessing temperature-sensitive energy demand in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The study employs a two-step estimation and modeling procedure. The first step evaluates the historic temperature sensitivity of residential and commercial demand for electricity and heating fuels, using a degree-day methodology. We find that when controlling for socioeconomic factors, degree-day variables have significant explanatory power in describing historic changes in residential and commercial energy demands. In the second step, we assess potential future energy demand responses to scenarios of climate change. Model results are based on alternative climate scenarios that were specifically derived for the region on the basis of local climatological data, coupled with regional information from available global climate models. We find notable changes with respect to overall energy consumption by, and energy mix of the residential and commercial sectors in the region. On the basis of our findings, we identify several methodological issues relevant to the development of climate change impact assessments of energy demand

  10. Regional Energy Demand Responses To Climate Change. Methodology And Application To The Commonwealth Of Massachusetts

    Amato, A.D.; Ruth, M. [Environmental Policy Program, School of Public Policy, University of Maryland, 3139 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD (United States); Kirshen, P. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University, Anderson Hall, Medford, MA (United States); Horwitz, J. [Climatological Database Consultant, Binary Systems Software, Newton, MA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Climate is a major determinant of energy demand. Changes in climate may alter energy demand as well as energy demand patterns. This study investigates the implications of climate change for energy demand under the hypothesis that impacts are scale dependent due to region-specific climatic variables, infrastructure, socioeconomic, and energy use profiles. In this analysis we explore regional energy demand responses to climate change by assessing temperature-sensitive energy demand in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The study employs a two-step estimation and modeling procedure. The first step evaluates the historic temperature sensitivity of residential and commercial demand for electricity and heating fuels, using a degree-day methodology. We find that when controlling for socioeconomic factors, degree-day variables have significant explanatory power in describing historic changes in residential and commercial energy demands. In the second step, we assess potential future energy demand responses to scenarios of climate change. Model results are based on alternative climate scenarios that were specifically derived for the region on the basis of local climatological data, coupled with regional information from available global climate models. We find notable changes with respect to overall energy consumption by, and energy mix of the residential and commercial sectors in the region. On the basis of our findings, we identify several methodological issues relevant to the development of climate change impact assessments of energy demand.

  11. Novel High-Activity Organic Piezoelectric Materials - From Single-Molecule Response to Energy Harvesting Films

    2015-08-24

    for micro- and nano-electronic energy generation and conversion for self-powered sensors , haptic displays, and responsive shape-changing materials...conversion for self-powered sensors , haptic displays, and responsive shape-changing materials. With this project, we have established that dramatic...flexible devices and applications from touch sensors to medical implants have not been matched with solutions for energy storage, conversion and generation

  12. Stochastic–multiobjective market equilibrium analysis of a demand response program in energy market under uncertainty

    Hu, Ming-Che; Lu, Su-Ying; Chen, Yen-Haw

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analyze the impact of a demand response program under uncertainty. • Stochastic Nash–Cournot competition model is formulated. • Case study of the Taiwanese electric power market is conducted. • Demand response decreases power price, generation, and emissions. • Demand uncertainty increases energy price and supply risk in the results. - Abstract: In the electricity market, demand response programs are designed to shift peak demand and enhance system reliability. A demand response program can reduce peak energy demand, power transmission congestion, or high energy-price conditions by changing consumption patterns. The purpose of this research is to analyze the impact of a demand response program in the energy market, under demand uncertainty. A stochastic–multiobjective Nash–Cournot competition model is formulated to simulate demand response in an uncertain energy market. Then, Karush–Kuhn–Tucker optimality conditions and a linear complementarity problem are derived for the stochastic Nash–Cournot model. Accordingly, the linear complementarity problem is solved and its stochastic market equilibrium solution is determined by using a general algebraic modeling system. Additionally, the case of the Taiwanese electric power market is taken up here, and the results show that a demand response program is capable of reducing peak energy consumption, energy price, and carbon dioxide emissions. The results show that demand response program decreases electricity price by 2–10%, total electricity generation by 0.5–2%, and carbon dioxide emissions by 0.5–2.5% in the Taiwanese power market. In the simulation, demand uncertainty leads to an 2–7% increase in energy price and supply risk in the market. Additionally, tradeoffs between cost and carbon dioxide emissions are presented.

  13. Energy Optimization and Management of Demand Response Interactions in a Smart Campus

    Antimo Barbato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed framework enables innovative power management in smart campuses, integrating local renewable energy sources, battery banks and controllable loads and supporting Demand Response interactions with the electricity grid operators. The paper describes each system component: the Energy Management System responsible for power usage scheduling, the telecommunication infrastructure in charge of data exchanging and the integrated data repository devoted to information storage. We also discuss the relevant use cases and validate the framework in a few deployed demonstrators.

  14. A Novel Demand Response Method for Smart Microgrids Related to the Uncertainties of Renewable Energy Resources and Energy Price

    R. Roofegari Nejad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents novel methods for Demand Response (DR programs by considering welfare state of consumers, to deal with the operational uncertainties, such as wind energy and energy price, within the framework of a smart microgrid. In this regard, total loads of microgrid are classified into two groups and each one is represented by a typical load. First group is energy storage capability represents by heater loads and second is curtailment capability loads represents by lighting loads. Next by the proposed DR methods, consumed energy of the all loads is coupled to the wind energy rate and energy price. Finally these methods are applied in the operation of a smart microgrid, consists of dispatchable supplier (microturbine, nondispatchable supplier (wind turbine, energy storage system and loads with the capability of energy exchanging with upstream distribution network. In order to consider uncertainties, Monte Carlo simulation method is used, which various scenarios are generated and applied in the operation of microgrid. In the end, the simulation results on a typical microgrid show that implementing proposed DR methods contributes to increasing total operational profit of smart microgrid and also decreasing the risk of low profit too.

  15. Optimization of the energy response of radiographic films by Monte Carlo method

    Moslehi, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Shariati Square, Arak 38156 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamidi, S., E-mail: s-hamidi@araku.ac.i [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Shariati Square, Arak 38156 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raisali, G. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gheshlaghi, F. [Film Badge Dosimetry Laboratory, National Radiation Protection Department, Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    In the present work a simple model for calculation of the energy response of radiographic films was introduced. According to the model the energy response of a radiographic film is directly proportional to the optical density on the film and thus to the number of developed grains in the emulsion. The model was simulated by Monte Carlo method using MCNP code and the relative energy response of Kodak type 2 film under a few filters of A.E.R.E./R.P.S. film badge was calculated. The simulated responses were in agreement with the experimental data in the region of 30 keV-1.5 MeV. In the next stage a multi-element filter was simulated to optimize the energy response in the above energies. The energy response varied by 25% between 40 keV and 1.5 MeV. So the dose received by the film is equivalent to the desired true dose and there would be no need to the correction factors.

  16. Optimization of the energy response of radiographic films by Monte Carlo method

    Moslehi, A.; Hamidi, S.; Raisali, G.; Gheshlaghi, F.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work a simple model for calculation of the energy response of radiographic films was introduced. According to the model the energy response of a radiographic film is directly proportional to the optical density on the film and thus to the number of developed grains in the emulsion. The model was simulated by Monte Carlo method using MCNP code and the relative energy response of Kodak type 2 film under a few filters of A.E.R.E./R.P.S. film badge was calculated. The simulated responses were in agreement with the experimental data in the region of 30 keV-1.5 MeV. In the next stage a multi-element filter was simulated to optimize the energy response in the above energies. The energy response varied by 25% between 40 keV and 1.5 MeV. So the dose received by the film is equivalent to the desired true dose and there would be no need to the correction factors.

  17. Electrical Grid Stability Enhancement using Smart Home Frequency-response Grid -Friendly Appliance System

    Muawiya A. Kaigama

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Load shedding is a powerful scheme used for corrective and preventive measures; corrective to restore system’s stability and preventive to avoid catastrophic failure. However, the affected end users are deprived of power supply absolutely with no choice. This paper presents the design, development, feasibility and merits of Frequency-response Grid -Friendly Appliance System (FRGFAS in a smart home. FRGFAS is a decentralized Adaptive Load Shaving(ALS device that supports grid’s system stability by sensing grid’s frequency deterioration level and turns ON/OFF loads accordingly. The FRGFAS permits end users to carry out load shaving at their scale of preference in smart homes via flexible demand responses and automates outdoor lighting to optimum operational hours. FRGFAS obviate load shedding by shaving loads whenever the system is in distress and reset loads supply to the normal state when it stabilizes, this Consequently increases the end user comfort zone and averts a blackout.

  18. Leptin responsiveness to energy restriction: genetic variation in the leptin receptor gene

    Mars, M.; Rossum, van C.T.M.; Graaf, de C.; Hoebee, B.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Serum leptin concentrations are an important afferent signal in energy balance homeostasis. It has been speculated that the leptin responsiveness to energy restriction is affected by the functionality of the leptin receptor. The purpose of this analysis was to explore the effect of polymorphisms in

  19. Evaluation of the Neutron Detector Response for Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum by Monte Carlo Transport Simulation

    Pazianotto, Mauricio T.; Carlson, Brett V.; Federico, Claudio A.; Gonzalez, Odair L.

    2011-01-01

    Neutrons generated by the interaction of cosmic rays with the atmosphere make an important contribution to the dose accumulated in electronic circuits and aircraft crew members at flight altitude. High-energy neutrons are produced in spallation reactions and intranuclear cascade processes by primary cosmic-ray particle interactions with atoms in the atmosphere. These neutrons can produce secondary neutrons and also undergo a moderation process due to atmosphere interactions, resulting in a wider energy spectrum, ranging from thermal energies (0.025 eV) to energies of several hundreds of MeV. The Long-Counter (LC) detector is a widely used neutron detector designed to measure the directional flux of neutrons with about constant response over a wide energy range (thermal to 20 MeV). ). Its calibration process and the determination of its energy response for the wide-energy of cosmic ray induced neutron spectrum is a very difficult process due to the lack of installations with these capabilities. The goal of this study is to assess the behavior of the response of a Long Counter using the Monte Carlo (MC) computational code MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended). The dependence of the Long Counter response on the angle of incidence, as well as on the neutron energy, will be carefully investigated, compared with the experimental data previously obtained with 241 Am-Be and 252 Cf neutron sources and extended to the neutron spectrum produced by cosmic rays. (Author)

  20. The Relationship Between Oil and Gas Industry Investment in Alternative Energy and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Konyushikhin, Maxim

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration forecasted energy consumption in the United States to increase approximately 19% between 2006 and 2030, or about 0.7% annually. The research problem addressed in this study was that the oil and gas industry's interest in alternative energy is contrary to its current business objectives and profit goals. The purpose of the quantitative study was to explore the relationship between oil and gas industry investments in alternative energy and corporate social responsibilities. Research questions addressed the relationship between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility, the role of oil and gas companies in alternative energy investment, and why these companies chose to invest in alternative energy sources. Systems theory was the conceptual framework, and data were collected from a sample of 25 companies drawn from the 28,000 companies in the oil and gas industry from 2004 to 2009. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were used to answer the research questions and test hypotheses using corporate financial data and company profiles related to alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility in terms of oil and gas industry financial support of programs that serve the greater social good. Results indicated significant relationships between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility. With an increasing global population with energy requirements in excess of what is available using traditional means, the industry should increase investment in alternative sources. The research results may promote positive social change by increasing public awareness regarding the degree to which oil and gas companies invest in developing alternative energy sources, which might, in turn, inspire public pressure on companies in the oil and gas industry to pursue use of alternative energy.

  1. Energy Compensation in Response to Aerobic Exercise Training in Overweight Adults.

    Flack, Kyle D; Ufholz, Kelsey Elise; Johnson, LuAnn K; Fitzgerald, John S; Roemmich, James N

    2018-06-13

    Weight loss from exercise is often less than expected. Putative compensatory mechanisms may limit exercise-induced reductions in body fat and might be proportional to exercise energy expenditure. To determine compensation (difference between accumulated exercise energy expenditure and changes in body tissue energy stores) and compensatory responses to 1500 or 3000 kcal/week of exercise energy expenditure. Overweight to obese (n=36) sedentary men and women were randomized to groups expending 300 or 600 kcal/exercise session, 5 days/week, for 12 weeks. 14 participants in the 300 kcal group and 15 in the 600 kcal group completed the study. The primary outcome was energy compensation assessed through changes in body tissue energy stores. Secondary outcomes were putative compensatory responses of resting metabolic rate (RMR), food reinforcement, dietary intake, and serum acylated ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). All measures were determined pre- and post-training. The 3000 kcal/week group decreased (<0.01) percentage and kg body fat while the 1500 kcal/week group did not. The 1500 and 3000 kcal/week groups compensated 943 (-164 to 2050) and 1007 (32 to 1982) kcal/week (mean, 95% CI, P>0.93), or 62.9% and 33.6% of exercise energy expenditure, respectively. RMR and energy intake did not change. Food reinforcement and GLP-1 decreased (P<0.02), while acylated ghrelin increased (P<0.02). Compensation is not proportional to exercise energy expenditure. Similar energy compensation occurred in response to1500 kcal/week and 3000 kcal/week of exercise energy expenditure. Exercise energy expenditure of 3000 kcal/week is great enough to exceed compensatory responses and reduce fat mass.

  2. Power Scheduling Method for Demand Response based on Home Energy Management System using Stochastic Process

    Moreno, Pablo; García, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The increase in energy consumption, especially in residential consumers, means that the electrical system should grow at pair, in infrastructure and installed capacity, the energy prices vary to meet these needs, so this paper uses the methodology of demand response using stochastic methods such as Markov, to optimize energy consumption of residential users. It is necessary to involve customers in the electrical system because in this way it can be verified the actual amount of electric charg...

  3. Inducement and responsibility in the energy turnaround; Veranlassung und Verantwortung bei der Energiewende

    Loewer, Wolfgang (ed.)

    2013-07-01

    The book includes several contributions concerning the Bonn discussion on energy legislation (volume 7): inducement and responsibility -in terms of constitutional law; between Europe and re-regulation - what is the regulation framework? Continuity requirement as legislative action directive; the future of the nuclear fuel tax after the nuclear phaseout - problems of the constitutional finance and the European tax legislation, strategy and energy markets; regulatory challenges in the realization of the energy turnaround policy.

  4. Immediate Dose-Response Effect of High-Energy Versus Low-Energy Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Cutaneous Microcirculation.

    Kraemer, Robert; Sorg, Heiko; Forstmeier, Vinzent; Knobloch, Karsten; Liodaki, Eirini; Stang, Felix Hagen; Mailaender, Peter; Kisch, Tobias

    2016-12-01

    Elucidation of the precise mechanisms and therapeutic options of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is only at the beginning. Although immediate real-time effects of ESWT on cutaneous hemodynamics have recently been described, the dose response to different ESWT energies in cutaneous microcirculation has never been examined. Thirty-nine Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups that received either focused high-energy shock waves (group A: total of 1000 impulses, 10 J) to the lower leg of the hind limb, focused low-energy shock waves (group B: total of 300 impulses, 1 J) or placebo shock wave treatment (group C: 0 impulses, 0 J) using a multimodality shock wave delivery system (Duolith SD-1 T-Top, Storz Medical, Tägerwilen, Switzerland). Immediate microcirculatory effects were assessed with the O2C (oxygen to see) system (LEA Medizintechnik, Giessen, Germany) before and for 20 min after application of ESWT. Cutaneous tissue oxygen saturation increased significantly higher after high-energy ESWT than after low-energy and placebo ESWT (A: 29.4% vs. B: 17.3% vs. C: 3.3%; p = 0.003). Capillary blood velocity was significantly higher after high-energy ESWT and lower after low-energy ESWT versus placebo ESWT (group A: 17.8% vs. group B: -22.1% vs. group C: -5.0%, p = 0.045). Post-capillary venous filling pressure was significantly enhanced in the high-energy ESWT group in contrast to the low-energy ESWT and placebo groups (group A: 25% vs. group B: 2% vs. group C: -4%, p = 0.001). Both high-energy and low-energy ESWT affect cutaneous hemodynamics in a standard rat model. High-energy ESWT significantly increases parameters of cutaneous microcirculation immediately after application, resulting in higher tissue oxygen saturation, venous filling pressure and blood velocity, which suggests higher tissue perfusion with enhanced oxygen saturation, in contrast to low-energy as well as placebo ESWT. Low-energy ESWT also increased tissue oxygen

  5. Effects of dissolved carbon dioxide on energy metabolism and stress responses in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    Santos, G.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Capelle, J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated carbon dioxide concentrations reduce feed intake and growth in several fish species and induce stress responses. In this study, the effects of moderately elevated CO2 levels on performance, energy partitioning, swimming activity and stress response in European seabass were assessed.

  6. A Novel Energy Saving Algorithm with Frame Response Delay Constraint in IEEE 802.16e

    Nga, Dinh Thi Thuy; Kim, Mingon; Kang, Minho

    Sleep-mode operation of a Mobile Subscriber Station (MSS) in IEEE 802.16e effectively saves energy consumption; however, it induces frame response delay. In this letter, we propose an algorithm to quickly find the optimal value of the final sleep interval in sleep-mode in order to minimize energy consumption with respect to a given frame response delay constraint. The validations of our proposed algorithm through analytical results and simulation results suggest that our algorithm provide a potential guidance to energy saving.

  7. Energy response of graphite-mixed magnesium borate TLDs to low energy x-rays

    Pelliccioni, M.; Prokic, M.; Esposito, A.

    1991-01-01

    Graphite-mixed sintered magnesium borate TL dosemeters are attractive for beta/gamma dosimetry because they combine a low energy dependence to beta-rays with near tissue or air equivalence to photon irradiations and a high sensitivity. In this paper results from the experimental measurements...

  8. Modeling silicon diode energy response factors for use in therapeutic photon beams.

    Eklund, Karin; Ahnesjö, Anders

    2009-10-21

    Silicon diodes have good spatial resolution, which makes them advantageous over ionization chambers for dosimetry in fields with high dose gradients. However, silicon diodes overrespond to low-energy photons, that are more abundant in scatter which increase with large fields and larger depths. We present a cavity-theory-based model for a general response function for silicon detectors at arbitrary positions within photon fields. The model uses photon and electron spectra calculated from fluence pencil kernels. The incident photons are treated according to their energy through a bipartition of the primary beam photon spectrum into low- and high-energy components. Primary electrons from the high-energy component are treated according to Spencer-Attix cavity theory. Low-energy primary photons together with all scattered photons are treated according to large cavity theory supplemented with an energy-dependent factor K(E) to compensate for energy variations in the electron equilibrium. The depth variation of the response for an unshielded silicon detector has been calculated for 5 x 5 cm(2), 10 x 10 cm(2) and 20 x 20 cm(2) fields in 6 and 15 MV beams and compared with measurements showing that our model calculates response factors with deviations less than 0.6%. An alternative method is also proposed, where we show that one can use a correlation with the scatter factor to determine the detector response of silicon diodes with an error of less than 3% in 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams.

  9. Monte carlo study of MOSFET packaging, optimised for improved energy response: single MOSFET filtration.

    Othman, M A R; Cutajar, D L; Hardcastle, N; Guatelli, S; Rosenfeld, A B

    2010-09-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of the energy response of a conventionally packaged single metal-oxide field effect transistors (MOSFET) detector were performed with the goal of improving MOSFET energy dependence for personal accident or military dosimetry. The MOSFET detector packaging was optimised. Two different 'drop-in' design packages for a single MOSFET detector were modelled and optimised using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit. Absorbed photon dose simulations of the MOSFET dosemeter placed in free-air response, corresponding to the absorbed doses at depths of 0.07 mm (D(w)(0.07)) and 10 mm (D(w)(10)) in a water equivalent phantom of size 30 x 30 x 30 cm(3) for photon energies of 0.015-2 MeV were performed. Energy dependence was reduced to within + or - 60 % for photon energies 0.06-2 MeV for both D(w)(0.07) and D(w)(10). Variations in the response for photon energies of 15-60 keV were 200 and 330 % for D(w)(0.07) and D(w)(10), respectively. The obtained energy dependence was reduced compared with that for conventionally packaged MOSFET detectors, which usually exhibit a 500-700 % over-response when used in free-air geometry.

  10. Modeling silicon diode energy response factors for use in therapeutic photon beams

    Eklund, Karin; Ahnesjoe, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Silicon diodes have good spatial resolution, which makes them advantageous over ionization chambers for dosimetry in fields with high dose gradients. However, silicon diodes overrespond to low-energy photons, that are more abundant in scatter which increase with large fields and larger depths. We present a cavity-theory-based model for a general response function for silicon detectors at arbitrary positions within photon fields. The model uses photon and electron spectra calculated from fluence pencil kernels. The incident photons are treated according to their energy through a bipartition of the primary beam photon spectrum into low- and high-energy components. Primary electrons from the high-energy component are treated according to Spencer-Attix cavity theory. Low-energy primary photons together with all scattered photons are treated according to large cavity theory supplemented with an energy-dependent factor K(E) to compensate for energy variations in the electron equilibrium. The depth variation of the response for an unshielded silicon detector has been calculated for 5 x 5 cm 2 , 10 x 10 cm 2 and 20 x 20 cm 2 fields in 6 and 15 MV beams and compared with measurements showing that our model calculates response factors with deviations less than 0.6%. An alternative method is also proposed, where we show that one can use a correlation with the scatter factor to determine the detector response of silicon diodes with an error of less than 3% in 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams.

  11. Blockchain Based Decentralized Management of Demand Response Programs in Smart Energy Grids

    Pop, Claudia; Cioara, Tudor; Antal, Marcel; Anghel, Ionut; Salomie, Ioan; Bertoncini, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of decentralized blockchain mechanisms for delivering transparent, secure, reliable, and timely energy flexibility, under the form of adaptation of energy demand profiles of Distributed Energy Prosumers, to all the stakeholders involved in the flexibility markets (Distribution System Operators primarily, retailers, aggregators, etc.). In our approach, a blockchain based distributed ledger stores in a tamper proof manner the energy prosumption information collected from Internet of Things smart metering devices, while self-enforcing smart contracts programmatically define the expected energy flexibility at the level of each prosumer, the associated rewards or penalties, and the rules for balancing the energy demand with the energy production at grid level. Consensus based validation will be used for demand response programs validation and to activate the appropriate financial settlement for the flexibility providers. The approach was validated using a prototype implemented in an Ethereum platform using energy consumption and production traces of several buildings from literature data sets. The results show that our blockchain based distributed demand side management can be used for matching energy demand and production at smart grid level, the demand response signal being followed with high accuracy, while the amount of energy flexibility needed for convergence is reduced. PMID:29315250

  12. Bay of Fundy tidal energy : a response to the strategic environmental assessment

    2008-06-01

    Tidal in-stream energy conversion is an emerging technology to harness sea power. These energy conversion devices are similar to underwater windmills. The government of Nova Scotia is interested in understanding the potential effects of these devices on the Bay of Fundy. As a result, it commissioned a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) that was completed in the spring of 2008. This document presented a response to the SEA. It discussed Nova Scotia's specific approach to tidal energy as well as the province's broader approach to marine renewable energy in the Bay of Fundy, with specific responses to each recommendation in the SEA. The energy context was presented, with particular reference to energy strategy; emissions; legal requirements; production costs; and carbon costs. The report also discussed tidal lagoon technology as well as a demonstration facility called the Fundy Tidal Energy Centre. The objectives of the SEA were also described and recommendations were presented. Recommendations were grouped under several key themes such as sustainability principles; allowing the demonstration of tidal in-stream energy conversion (TISEC) technologies; marine renewable energy legislation; research program; Mi'kmaq ecological knowledge study; provincial standard for ecological data; Bay of Fundy socioeconomic background study; marine renewable energy demonstration program; siting demonstration projects; and environmental assessment of the demonstration facility. figs

  13. Blockchain Based Decentralized Management of Demand Response Programs in Smart Energy Grids.

    Pop, Claudia; Cioara, Tudor; Antal, Marcel; Anghel, Ionut; Salomie, Ioan; Bertoncini, Massimo

    2018-01-09

    In this paper, we investigate the use of decentralized blockchain mechanisms for delivering transparent, secure, reliable, and timely energy flexibility, under the form of adaptation of energy demand profiles of Distributed Energy Prosumers, to all the stakeholders involved in the flexibility markets (Distribution System Operators primarily, retailers, aggregators, etc.). In our approach, a blockchain based distributed ledger stores in a tamper proof manner the energy prosumption information collected from Internet of Things smart metering devices, while self-enforcing smart contracts programmatically define the expected energy flexibility at the level of each prosumer, the associated rewards or penalties, and the rules for balancing the energy demand with the energy production at grid level. Consensus based validation will be used for demand response programs validation and to activate the appropriate financial settlement for the flexibility providers. The approach was validated using a prototype implemented in an Ethereum platform using energy consumption and production traces of several buildings from literature data sets. The results show that our blockchain based distributed demand side management can be used for matching energy demand and production at smart grid level, the demand response signal being followed with high accuracy, while the amount of energy flexibility needed for convergence is reduced.

  14. Blockchain Based Decentralized Management of Demand Response Programs in Smart Energy Grids

    Claudia Pop

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the use of decentralized blockchain mechanisms for delivering transparent, secure, reliable, and timely energy flexibility, under the form of adaptation of energy demand profiles of Distributed Energy Prosumers, to all the stakeholders involved in the flexibility markets (Distribution System Operators primarily, retailers, aggregators, etc.. In our approach, a blockchain based distributed ledger stores in a tamper proof manner the energy prosumption information collected from Internet of Things smart metering devices, while self-enforcing smart contracts programmatically define the expected energy flexibility at the level of each prosumer, the associated rewards or penalties, and the rules for balancing the energy demand with the energy production at grid level. Consensus based validation will be used for demand response programs validation and to activate the appropriate financial settlement for the flexibility providers. The approach was validated using a prototype implemented in an Ethereum platform using energy consumption and production traces of several buildings from literature data sets. The results show that our blockchain based distributed demand side management can be used for matching energy demand and production at smart grid level, the demand response signal being followed with high accuracy, while the amount of energy flexibility needed for convergence is reduced.

  15. Demand response concepts in the German industry; Konzepte zur Lastreaktion in der deutschen Industrie

    Roon, Serafin von; Gobmaier, Thomas [Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft (FfE) e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the German industry the concept of load management for peak shaving is well established. Pooling these reserve power enables reliable power supply at short notice. In the U.S. this business concept - called Demand Response - is already quite successful. The article summarizes findings on the status quo and the technical and economic potential of implementing Demand Response in the German industry. (orig.)

  16. Photon energy dependence and angular response of glass display used in mobile phones for accident dosimetry

    Discher, Michael; Greiter, Matthias; Woda, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that glass displays extracted from mobile phones are suitable as emergency dosimeters in case of an accidental radiation overexposure using the thermoluminescence (TL) method. So far these studies have focused only on recovering the absorbed dose to the material. However, dose in air or dose to the victim carrying the device might be significantly different. Therefore the aim of this work was to investigate photon energy dependence and angular response of glass display used in modern mobile phones. An over-response of about a factor of five is observed for low photon energies compared to the response to Cs-137 (662 keV) which is in reasonable agreement with calculated values mass energy-absorption coefficients of glass and air. Little variation in the energy dependence can be seen for glass displays coming from three different mobile phone models. The angular response for display glass is flat with regard to air kerma within the incident angle of ±60°, independent of the irradiation setup used (with a water phantom or with air kerma reference conditions). For incident angles of 90° the shielding effect of the mobile phones becomes important. With the dosimetric characterization of the photon energy and angular dependencies the absorbed dose in a glass display can be transferred to a reference air kerma dose and provides a useful option for retrospective accident dosimetry. - Highlights: • Determination of the photon energy dependence and angular response for display glass used as an accident dosimeter. • Over-response of about a factor of five for low photon energies. • Flat angular response within incident angles between ±60°

  17. Experimental research of plastic scintillation detector loaded 6Li neutron energy response

    Wang Lizong; Zhang Chuanfei; Peng Taiping; Guo Cun; Yang Hongqiong; Zhang Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    A new plastic scintillator, plastic scintillator loaded 6 Li, is brought forward and developed in this paper in order to increase low energy neutron sensitivity. Neutron sensitivity of several plastic scintillation detectors loaded 6 Li new developed in neutron energy range 0.2 MeV-5.0 MeV are calibrated by direct current at serial accelerator. Energy response curves of the detectors are obtained in this experiment. It is shown that this new plastic scintillation detector can increase low energy neutron sensitivity in experimental results. (authors)

  18. An approach to an analysis of the energy response of LiF-TLD to high energy electrons

    Shiragai, A.

    1977-01-01

    Responses of LiF-TLD to high energy electrons relative to 60 Co γ-rays were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The Burlin et al. theory (Burlin, T.E., Snelling, R.J., and Owen, B., 1969, in Proc.2nd Symp. on Microdosimetry, Stresa, Italy; Brussels: Commission of European Communities; p.455), its modified version by Almond and McCray (Almond, P.R., and McCray, K., 1970, Phys.Med.Biol., vol.15, 335 and 746) and the Holt et al. semi-empirical theory (Holt, J.G., Edelstein, G.R., and Clark, T.E., 1975, Phys.Med.Biol., vol.20, 559) were examined in comparison with each experiment. An approximate approach to theoretical analysis of energy response of LiF-TLD was attempted and compared with some experimental results. (author)

  19. Modelling socio-environmental sensitivities: how public responses to low carbon energy technologies could shape the UK energy system.

    Moran Jay, Brighid; Howard, David; Hughes, Nick; Whitaker, Jeanette; Anandarajah, Gabrial

    2014-01-01

    Low carbon energy technologies are not deployed in a social vacuum; there are a variety of complex ways in which people understand and engage with these technologies and the changing energy system overall. However, the role of the public's socio-environmental sensitivities to low carbon energy technologies and their responses to energy deployments does not receive much serious attention in planning decarbonisation pathways to 2050. Resistance to certain resources and technologies based on particular socio-environmental sensitivities would alter the portfolio of options available which could shape how the energy system achieves decarbonisation (the decarbonisation pathway) as well as affecting the cost and achievability of decarbonisation. Thus, this paper presents a series of three modelled scenarios which illustrate the way that a variety of socio-environmental sensitivities could impact the development of the energy system and the decarbonisation pathway. The scenarios represent risk aversion (DREAD) which avoids deployment of potentially unsafe large-scale technology, local protectionism (NIMBY) that constrains systems to their existing spatial footprint, and environmental awareness (ECO) where protection of natural resources is paramount. Very different solutions for all three sets of constraints are identified; some seem slightly implausible (DREAD) and all show increased cost (especially in ECO).

  20. Modelling Socio-Environmental Sensitivities: How Public Responses to Low Carbon Energy Technologies Could Shape the UK Energy System

    Brighid Moran Jay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low carbon energy technologies are not deployed in a social vacuum; there are a variety of complex ways in which people understand and engage with these technologies and the changing energy system overall. However, the role of the public’s socio-environmental sensitivities to low carbon energy technologies and their responses to energy deployments does not receive much serious attention in planning decarbonisation pathways to 2050. Resistance to certain resources and technologies based on particular socio-environmental sensitivities would alter the portfolio of options available which could shape how the energy system achieves decarbonisation (the decarbonisation pathway as well as affecting the cost and achievability of decarbonisation. Thus, this paper presents a series of three modelled scenarios which illustrate the way that a variety of socio-environmental sensitivities could impact the development of the energy system and the decarbonisation pathway. The scenarios represent risk aversion (DREAD which avoids deployment of potentially unsafe large-scale technology, local protectionism (NIMBY that constrains systems to their existing spatial footprint, and environmental awareness (ECO where protection of natural resources is paramount. Very different solutions for all three sets of constraints are identified; some seem slightly implausible (DREAD and all show increased cost (especially in ECO.

  1. Aggregate industrial energy consumer response to wholesale prices in the restructured Texas electricity market

    Zarnikau, Jay; Hallett, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The aggregate response of consumers to wholesale price signals is very limited in the restructured Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) market. An overall average own-price elasticity of demand of - 0.000008 for industrial energy consumers served at transmission voltage is estimated using a Symmetric Generalized McFadden cost function model. To date, ERCOT has sought to promote demand response to price signals without reliance on 'stand alone' demand response programs, but with a market structure that is designed to facilitate economic demand response. This very limited responsiveness to wholesale price signals may prove problematic in light of policy decisions to pursue an 'energy only' resource adequacy mechanism for ERCOT. (author)

  2. Impact of insufficient energy content in the design time history on the structure response

    Ma, D.C.; Gvildys, J.; Chang, Y.W.; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    In the design of nuclear power plants, it is often desirable to use the time history method in the soil-structure interaction analysis to determine the plant floor response to seismic loads. Because many design criteria are specified in terms of design response spectra, the artificial time history needs to be generated under the requirement that the response spectra of the artificial history should envelop the given design response spectra. However, recent studies indicate that the artificial time history used in the plant design may have insufficient energy in the frequency range of interest, even though the response spectra of the design time history closely envelop the design response spectra. This paper presents an investigation of the effects of the insufficient energy content in the design time history on the response of the soil-structure system. Numerical studies were carried out. Both the real earthquake records and the artificial time histories were used as the input motions in a simple lumped-mass soil-structure interaction model. The results obtained from this study provide a better understanding of the effects of the insufficient energy content in the design time history on the structural response

  3. Investigation of JI and DI CMOS FXR response at different spectral energies

    Honnold, V.R.; Goldberg, M.; Schreiner, W.A.; Witteles, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The transient response of both junction isolated (JI) and dielectrically isolated (DI) CMOS circuits has been investigated in three FXR environments of differing energy spectrums. The offset recovery times have been measured and analyzed for both structures. It is shown that while the DI circuit (HD4007) did not exhibit a four layer type latchup action, its transient response persisted for a time longer than is expected for this type of device. A possible mechanism for this observed response is developed and discussed. JI circuits (CD4007) exposed under the same conditions exhibited four layer device action and one sample at low spectral energies latched-up. The conditions for the latchup to occur including the four layer device paths are discussed. Finally, the dependence of the x-ray transient response on the spectral energy is considered. For the lower energy FXR source, latchup was observed in a CD4007 sample. This latchup was not observed at more than double the dose rate when a high energy FXR was used. This result is attributed to dose enhancement, and a device enhancement factor may also be involved. The dose enhancement factor is estimated from the work of Long, and points up the importance of accounting for the spectral energy content in simulating a given nuclear threat spectrum

  4. Low energy response calibration of the BATSE large area detectors onboard the Compton Observatory

    Laird, C.E. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Eastern Kentucky University, Moore 351, 521 Lancaster Avenue, Richmond, KY 40475-3124 (United States)]. E-mail: Chris.Laird@eku.edu; Harmon, B.A. [XD12 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Wilson, Colleen A. [XD12 NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Hunter, David [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Eastern Kentucky University, Moore 351, 521 Lancaster Avenue, Richmond, KY 40475-3124 (United States); Isaacs, Jason [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Eastern Kentucky University, Moore 351, 521 Lancaster Avenue, Richmond, KY 40475-3124 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The low-energy attenuation of the covering material of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) large area detectors (LADs) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory as well as the small-angle response of the LADs have been studied. These effects are shown to be more significant than previously assumed. The LAD entrance window included layers of an aluminum-epoxy composite (hexel) that acted as a collimator for the lowest energy photons entering the detector just above threshold (20-50 keV). Simplifying assumptions made concerning the entrance window materials and the angular response at incident angles near normal to the detector face in the original BATSE response matrix formalism had little effect on {gamma}-ray burst measurements; however, these assumptions created serious errors in measured fluxes of galactic sources, whose emission is strongest near the LAD energy threshold. Careful measurements of the angular and low-energy dependence of the attenuation due to the hexel plates only partially improved the response. A systematic study of Crab Nebula spectra showed the need for additional corrections: an angular-dependent correction for all detectors and an angular-independent correction for each detector. These corrections have been applied as part of an overall energy and angular-dependent correction to the BATSE response matrices.

  5. Integration of Methodologies for the Evaluation of Offer Curves in Energy and Capacity Markets through Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    Antonio Gabaldón

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of improving the efficiency, and integration, of renewable sources by 2030–2050 are complex in practice and should be linked to an increase of demand-side flexibility. The main challenges to achieving this flexibility are the lack of incentives and an adequate framework. For instance, customers’ revenue is usually low, the volatility of prices is high and there is not any practical feedback to customers from smart meters. The possibility of increasing customer revenue could reduce the uncertainty with respect to economic concerns, improving investments in efficiency, enabling technology and thus, engaging more customers in these policies. This objective could be achieved by the participation of customers in several markets. Moreover, Demand Response and Energy Efficiency can share ICT technologies but this participation needs to perform an aggregation of demand. The idea of this paper is to present some methodologies for facilitating the definition and evaluation of energy versus cost curves; and subsequently to estimate potential revenues due to Demand Response. This can be accomplished by models that estimate: demand and energy aggregation; economic opportunities and benefits; impacts on customer convenience; customer feedback and price analysis. By doing so, we would have comprehensive information that can help customers and aggregators to define energy packages and their monetary value with the objective of fostering their market participation.

  6. Energy-environment policy goals and instruments and electricity demand response. A framework for the analysis

    Rio, Pablo del; Hernandez, F.

    2004-01-01

    The environment and energy realms have traditionally been two major focus of attention of EU and Member State (MS) policy. This attention has intensified in recent years as a response to, both, internal and external events and strategies (i.e., the Kyoto Protocol). In this context, the EU and its MS have set ambitious goals in the environmental and energy contexts and are already implementing packages of policies and measures. Both policies interact. Although there might be conflicts between both, there are also mutually reinforcing effects with significant policy implications. Actually, as stated in the Amsterdam Treaty, environmental protection is one of the major goals of energy policy (together with 'security of supply' and 'competitive energy systems'). On the other hand, the energy sector is instrumental in the success of environmental policy. In this context, a wide array of measures are currently being implemented in the EU and its MS which have a more or less direct impact on the electricity market. Particularly, Demand Side Management (DSM) activities, promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) and measures aimed at the mitigation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions are arguably three major instruments which have the potential to contribute to energy and environmental goals. The effectiveness and impact of there measures depends to a large extent on the demand response in the electricity market. Some of there measures affect the electricity demand curve, while others do not have a direct impact on the demand curve but affect the quantity of electricity demand by displacing the electricity supply curve. In turn, the effectiveness of energy and environmental policies may be different when electricity demand response varies (i.e., different elasticity demand). This paper entails an initial effort to provide a theoretical framework for the analysis of the interactions between electricity demand response and the above mentioned energy

  7. Frequency response function of motors for switching noise energy with a new experimental approach

    Kim, Hyunsu; Yoon, Jong-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Switching energy in electrical vehicles can create serious noise from the motors. However, the characteristics of switching noise in vehicle motors are not clear due to the complexity of measuring them. This study proposes a new experimental method to investigate the switching noise energy of a vehicle motor based on frequency response functions. A function generator-amplifier system is used to gen- erate the switching energy instead of the complex battery-inverter system that has previously been used to examine the noise energy characteristics. Even though newly adapted experimental method is simple, the switching noise energy was explicitly investigated under various input signals. Thus, this simple new method can be used to investigate the dynamic characteristics of noise energy in a vehicle motor

  8. Frequency response function of motors for switching noise energy with a new experimental approach

    Kim, Hyunsu [Ensemble Center for Automotive Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jong-Yun [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Switching energy in electrical vehicles can create serious noise from the motors. However, the characteristics of switching noise in vehicle motors are not clear due to the complexity of measuring them. This study proposes a new experimental method to investigate the switching noise energy of a vehicle motor based on frequency response functions. A function generator-amplifier system is used to gen- erate the switching energy instead of the complex battery-inverter system that has previously been used to examine the noise energy characteristics. Even though newly adapted experimental method is simple, the switching noise energy was explicitly investigated under various input signals. Thus, this simple new method can be used to investigate the dynamic characteristics of noise energy in a vehicle motor.

  9. A 222 energy bins response matrix for a {sup 6}Lil scintillator Bss system

    Lacerda, M. A. S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Laboratorio de Calibracao de Dosimetros, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Mendez V, R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Laboratorio de Patrones Neutronicos, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lorente F, A.; Ibanez F, S.; Gallego D, E., E-mail: masl@cdtn.br [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    A new response matrix was calculated for a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (Bss) with a {sup 6}Lil(Eu) scintillator. We utilized the Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport code MCNPX, version 2.7.0, with Endf/B-VII.0 nuclear data library to calculate the responses for 6 spheres and the bare detector, for energies varying from 9.441 E(-10) MeV to 105.9 MeV, with 20 equal-log(E)-width bins per energy decade, totalizing 222 energy groups. A Bss, like the modeled in this work, was utilized to measure the neutron spectrum generated by the {sup 241}AmBe source of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid. From the count rates obtained with this Bss system we unfolded neutron spectrum utilizing the BUNKIUT code for 31 energy bins (UTA-4 response matrix) and the MAXED code with the new calculated response functions. We compared spectra obtained with these Bss system / unfold codes with that obtained from measurements performed with a Bss system constituted of 12 spheres with a spherical {sup 3}He Sp-9 counter (Centronic Ltd., UK) and MAXED code with the system-specific response functions (Bss-CIEMAT). A relatively good agreement was observed between our response matrix and that calculated by other authors. In general, we observed an improvement in the agreement as the energy increases. However, higher discrepancies were observed for energies close to 1-E(-8) MeV and, mainly, for energies above 20 MeV. These discrepancies were mainly attributed to the differences in cross-section libraries employed. The ambient dose equivalent (H (10)) calculated with the {sup 6}Lil-MAXED showed a good agreement with values measured with the neutron area monitor Bert hold Lb 6411 and within 12% the value obtained with another Bss system (Bss-CIEMAT). The response matrix calculated in this work can be utilized together with the MAXED code to generate neutron spectra with a good energy resolution up to 20 MeV. Some additional tests are being done to validate this response matrix and improve the

  10. A 222 energy bins response matrix for a "6Lil scintillator Bss system

    Lacerda, M. A. S.; Vega C, H. R.; Mendez V, R.; Lorente F, A.; Ibanez F, S.; Gallego D, E.

    2016-10-01

    A new response matrix was calculated for a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (Bss) with a "6Lil(Eu) scintillator. We utilized the Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport code MCNPX, version 2.7.0, with Endf/B-VII.0 nuclear data library to calculate the responses for 6 spheres and the bare detector, for energies varying from 9.441 E(-10) MeV to 105.9 MeV, with 20 equal-log(E)-width bins per energy decade, totalizing 222 energy groups. A Bss, like the modeled in this work, was utilized to measure the neutron spectrum generated by the "2"4"1AmBe source of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid. From the count rates obtained with this Bss system we unfolded neutron spectrum utilizing the BUNKIUT code for 31 energy bins (UTA-4 response matrix) and the MAXED code with the new calculated response functions. We compared spectra obtained with these Bss system / unfold codes with that obtained from measurements performed with a Bss system constituted of 12 spheres with a spherical "3He Sp-9 counter (Centronic Ltd., UK) and MAXED code with the system-specific response functions (Bss-CIEMAT). A relatively good agreement was observed between our response matrix and that calculated by other authors. In general, we observed an improvement in the agreement as the energy increases. However, higher discrepancies were observed for energies close to 1-E(-8) MeV and, mainly, for energies above 20 MeV. These discrepancies were mainly attributed to the differences in cross-section libraries employed. The ambient dose equivalent (H (10)) calculated with the "6Lil-MAXED showed a good agreement with values measured with the neutron area monitor Bert hold Lb 6411 and within 12% the value obtained with another Bss system (Bss-CIEMAT). The response matrix calculated in this work can be utilized together with the MAXED code to generate neutron spectra with a good energy resolution up to 20 MeV. Some additional tests are being done to validate this response matrix and improve the results for energies

  11. Application of cavity theories to high-energy response of LiF dosimeters

    Ogunleye, O.T.; Fregene, A.O.

    1981-01-01

    The relative energy response of 0.4- and 1.16-mm thick LiF TLD-100 showed decreases of 5 and 9%, respectively, for 22-MV x rays and 6-, 9-, 12-, 15-, and 18-MeV electron energies when compared to responses for 60 Co γ rays in polystyrene and water media. The theories of Burlin, Burlin et al., Almond and McCray, and Holt et al. do not agree with these findings. Reasonable agreement is obtained with the Fregene expression and with Almond and McCray and Holt et al. only when the photon energy response at 60 Co is calculated from the Fregene expression. The hitherto conflicting results are resolved where sufficient experimental and theoretical details are given in light of the present findings

  12. Demand-side management and demand response in the Ontario energy sectors

    2004-01-01

    A directive from the former Minister of Energy was received by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), directing the Board to consult with stakeholders on options for the delivery of demand-side management (DSM) and demand response (DR) activities within the electricity sector, including the role of local distribution companies in such activities. The implementation costs were to be balanced with the benefits to both consumers and the entire system. The scope of the review was expanded by the Board to include the role of gas distribution companies in DSM. A consultation process was implemented and stakeholders were invited to participate. A series of recommendations was made, including: (1) a hybrid framework utilizing market-based and public-policy approaches should deliver DSM and DR activities in Ontario's energy markets, (2) DSM and DR activities should come under the responsibility of a central agency, (3) DSM and DR activities should be coordinated through cooperation between the Ministry of Energy, the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO) and the Ontario Energy Board, (4) regulatory mechanisms to induce gas distributors, electricity transmitters and electricity distributors to reduce distribution system losses should be put in place, (5) all electricity consumers should fund electricity DSM and some retail DR initiatives through a transparent, non-bypassable consumption charge, and (6) the Board should design, develop and deliver information to consumers regarding energy conservation, energy efficiency, load management, and cleaner sources of energy. refs., 4 figs

  13. Comparison of Demand Response Performance with an EnergyPlus Model in a Low Energy Campus Building

    Dudley, Junqiao Han; Black, Doug; Apte, Mike; Piette, Mary Ann; Berkeley, Pam

    2010-05-14

    We have studied a low energy building on a campus of the University of California. It has efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, consisting of a dual-fan/dual-duct variable air volume (VAV) system. As a major building on the campus, it was included in two demand response (DR) events in the summers of 2008 and 2009. With chilled water supplied by thermal energy storage in the central plant, cooling fans played a critical role during DR events. In this paper, an EnergyPlus model of the building was developed and calibrated. We compared both whole-building and HVAC fan energy consumption with model predictions to understand why demand savings in 2009 were much lower than in 2008. We also used model simulations of the study building to assess pre-cooling, a strategy that has been shown to improve demand saving and thermal comfort in many types of building. This study indicates a properly calibrated EnergyPlus model can reasonably predict demand savings from DR events and can be useful for designing or optimizing DR strategies.

  14. An Optimal and Distributed Demand Response Strategy for Energy Internet Management

    Qian Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new model of demand response management for a future smart grid that consists of smart microgrids. The microgrids have energy storage units, responsive loads, controllable distributed generation units, and renewable energy resources. They can buy energy from the utility company when the power generation in themselves cannot satisfy the load demand, and sell extra power generation to the utility company. The goal is to optimize the operation schedule of microgrids to minimize the microgrids’ payments and the utility company’s operation cost. A parallel distributed optimization algorithm based on games theory is developed to solve the optimization problem, in which microgrids only need to send their aggregated purchasing/selling energy to the utility company, thus avoid infringing its privacy. Microgrids can update their operation schedule simultaneously. A case study is implemented, and the simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient.

  15. Research on influence of energy spectrum response of ICT detector arrays

    Zhou Rifeng; Gao Fuqiang; Zhang Ping

    2008-01-01

    The energy spectrum response is important characteristic for X-ray ICT detector. But there exist many difficulties to measure these parameters by experiments. The energy spectrum response of CdWO 4 detector was simulated by using the EGSnrc code. Meanwhile the effect of detection efficiency was analyzed by the distribution of accelerator bremsstrahlung spectra and the X-ray spectrum hardening, and some theoretic parameters were offered for the consistent and no-linearity correction of detector arrays. It was applied to ICT image correction, and a satisfying result was obtained. (authors)

  16. Development of integrated-type dosimeter responsive to high energy neutrons (2)

    Sawamura, Teruko; Murai, Ikuo; Abe, Masashi; Uoyama, Kazuya; Das, Mala [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tuda, Shuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The response of superheated drop detectors or bubble detectors (BDs) was measured for quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams in the 40-75 MeV range. The experiments were performed at the AVF cyclotron facility, TAKASAKI Ion Accelerator for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The measured dose sensitivities showed to be lowered to about a half the nominal sensitivity. A lead-breeder introduced to extend response to the high energy region were investigated and compared with Monte Carlo calculations by MCNPX code. (author)

  17. A systematic characterization of the low-energy photon response of plastic scintillation detectors

    Boivin, Jonathan; Beddar, Sam; Bonde, Chris; Schmidt, Daniel; Culberson, Wesley; Guillemette, Maxime; Beaulieu, Luc

    2016-08-01

    To characterize the low energy behavior of scintillating materials used in plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs), 3 PSDs were developed using polystyrene-based scintillating materials emitting in different wavelengths. These detectors were exposed to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)-matched low-energy beams ranging from 20 kVp to 250 kVp, and to 137Cs and 60Co beams. The dose in polystyrene was compared to the dose in air measured by NIST-calibrated ionization chambers at the same location. Analysis of every beam quality spectrum was used to extract the beam parameters and the effective mass energy-absorption coefficient. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed to calculate the energy absorbed in the scintillators’ volume. The scintillators’ expected response was then compared to the experimental measurements and an energy-dependent correction factor was identified to account for low-energy quenching in the scintillators. The empirical Birks model was then compared to these values to verify its validity for low-energy electrons. The clear optical fiber response was below 0.2% of the scintillator’s light for x-ray beams, indicating that a negligible amount of fluorescence contamination was produced. However, for higher-energy beams (137Cs and 60Co), the scintillators’ response was corrected for the Cerenkov stem effect. The scintillators’ response increased by a factor of approximately 4 from a 20 kVp to a 60Co beam. The decrease in sensitivity from ionization quenching reached a local minimum of about 11%+/- 1% between 40 keV and 60 keV x-ray beam mean energy, but dropped by 20% for very low-energy (13 keV) beams. The Birks model may be used to fit the experimental data, but it must take into account the energy dependence of the kB quenching parameter. A detailed comprehension of intrinsic scintillator response is essential for proper calibration of PSD dosimeters for radiology.

  18. Demand-Side Flexibility for Energy Transitions: Ensuring the Competitive Development of Demand Response Options

    Nursimulu, Anjali; Florin, Marie-Valentine; Vuille, François

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the current debates about demand response development, focusing primarily on Europe, with some comparisons to the United States. ‘Demand response’ includes strategies that involve end-use customers adapting or altering their electricity demand in response to grid conditions or market prices. It is viewed as a multi-purpose power-system resource that enhances the energy system’s capacity to cope with increasing demand, rising costs of conventional transmissi...

  19. Photovoltaic systems coupled with batteries that are optimally sized for household self-consumption : Assessment of peak shaving potential

    Schram, Wouter L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/180644092; Lampropoulos, Ioannis|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411295187; van Sark, Wilfried G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526

    2018-01-01

    As the share of renewable energy sources in the energy mix is increasing, new challenges arise regarding the grid integration. This research focuses on a solution for one of these challenges, namely the employment of batteries to address the mismatch in electrical power between electricity supply

  20. Impact of insufficient energy content in the design time history on the structure response

    Ma, D.C.; Gvildys, J.; Chang, Y.W.; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    In the design of nuclear power plants, it is often desirable to use the time history method in the soil-structure interaction analysis to determine the plant floor response to seismic loads. Because many design criteria are specified in terms of design response spectra, the artificial time history needs to be generated under the requirement that the response spectra of the artificial history should envelop the given design response spectra. However, recent studies indicate that the artificial time history used in the plant design may have insufficient energy in the frequency range of interest, even though the response spectra of the design time history closely envelop the design response spectra. Therefore, the proposed changes in the NRC Standard Review Plan requires that when a single time history is used in the seismic design, it must satisfy requirements for both response spectra enveloping and matching a power spectra density (PSD) function in the frequency range of interest. The use of multiple artificial time histories (at least five time histories) in the plant design is also suggested in the new Standard Review Plan. This paper presents an investigation of the effects of the insufficient energy content in the design time history on the response of the soil-structure system. Numerical studies were carried out. Both the real earthquake records and the artificial time histories were used as the input motions in a simple lumped-mass soil-structure interaction model. The results obtained from this study provide a better understanding of the effects of the insufficient energy content in the design time history on the structural response. 5 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  1. Energy Saving in Greenhouse Horticulture as a response to changing societal demands

    Verstegen, J.A.A.M.; Westerman, A.D.; Bremmer, J.; Ravensbergen, P.

    2004-01-01

    In response to societal demands, the Dutch government implemented policy measures to reduce the use of fossil energy in greenhouse horticulture. A survey study was conducted to analyse behavioural aspects of horticultural growers to see 1) if they know about the policy measures and know what they

  2. Energy absorption and failure response of silk/epoxy composite square tubes: Experimental

    Oshkovr, Simin Ataollahi; Taher, Siavash Talebi; A. Eshkoor, Rahim

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on natural silk/epoxy composite square tubes energy absorption and failure response. The tested specimens were featured by a material combination of different lengths and same numbers of natural silk/epoxy composite layers in form of reinforced woven fabric in thermosetting epoxy...

  3. Guidelines for communicating about the risks of nuclear energy effectively, responsibly, and ethically

    Covello, V.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses guidelines for communicating information about the risks of nuclear energy effectively, responsibility, and ethically. It consists of four parts: guidelines for communicating risk information; guidelines for presenting and explaining risk-related numbers and statistics; guidelines for presenting and explaining risk comparisons; and problems frequently encountered in communicating risk information

  4. Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Senden, J.M.G.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Blaak, E.E.; van Baak, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects. Kempen KP, Saris WH, Senden JM, Menheere PP, Blaak EE, van Baak MA. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. This study was intended to investigate the

  5. Sizing of an Energy Storage System for Grid Inertial Response and Primary Frequency Reserve

    Knap, Vaclav; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Stroe, Daniel Loan

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale integration of renewable energy sources in power system leads to the replacement of conventional power plants (CPPs) and consequently challenges in power system reliability and security are introduced. This study is focused on improving the grid frequency response after a contingency ...

  6. 76 FR 16657 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    2011-03-24

    ... 13, 2010 Comments at 11; Viridity June 18, 2010 Comments at 5. [Demand response] is in all essential...; Potomac Economics; PG&E; Ohio Commission; Robert L. Borlick; Roy Shanker; and RRI Energy. \\58\\ See... at 6; PSEG at 5; and Potomac Economics at 6-8. \\60\\ Attachment to Answer of EPSA, Providing...

  7. Leptin responsiveness to energy restriction: genetic variation in the leptin receptor gene.

    Mars, Monica; van Rossum, Caroline T M; de Graaf, Cees; Hoebee, Barbara; De Groot, Lisette C P G M; Kok, Frans J

    2004-03-01

    Serum leptin concentrations are an important afferent signal in energy balance homeostasis. It has been speculated that the leptin responsiveness to energy restriction is affected by the functionality of the leptin receptor. The purpose of this analysis was to explore the effect of polymorphisms in the LEPR gene on the acute decline in leptin after 4 days of 65% energy restriction. Leptin concentrations of the study group (n = 44; all men) declined by 2.3 +/- 1.5 micro g/L [-39.4% (95% confidence interval: -43.6 to -34.9)]. Leptin responses did not statistically differ between noncarriers and carriers of three mutant variants of the polymorphisms: Lys109/Lys109 (-41.4%) vs. Arg109/+ (-37.0%) (p = 0.33); Gln223/Gln223 (-41.5%) vs. Arg223/+ (-37.8%) (p = 0.40); Lys656/Lys656 (-39.5%) vs. Asn656/+ (-39.3%) (p = 0.96). No effect of the assessed polymorphisms in the LEPR gene on the acute decline in leptin after energy restriction was observed. Power calculations are provided for future studies on the leptin responsiveness to energy restriction.

  8. Proactive Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Financial Performance: Evidence from Chinese Energy Enterprises

    Ying Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concerns about environmental issues and the advancement of China’s “going global” strategy, a new issue-proactive corporate social responsibility has emerged. Proactive corporate environmental responsibility refers to business actions that go beyond regulatory requirements for supporting sustainable environmental development. This study examines the role of proactive corporate environmental responsibility on corporate financial performance in the Chinese energy industry by the multi-variables regression analysis of panel data. Using data of 264 firm-year observations from 2009–2014 in the energy industry, the results showed that Proactive corporate environmental responsibility has a positive effect on corporate financial performance passing the endogeneity test. The results also demonstrate that private ownership has stronger promotion on the relationship between proactive corporate environmental responsibility and corporate financial performance. This study helps to increase the body of knowledge about proactive corporate environmental responsibility of the emerging economy, provides insights into the corporate environmental responsibility practice, and government environmental regulation and policy.

  9. Climate-responsive design : A framework for an energy concept design-decision support tool for architects using principles of climate-responsive design

    Looman, R.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    In climate-responsive design the building becomes an intermediary in its own energy housekeeping, forming a link between the harvest of climate resources and low-energy provision of comfort. Essential here is the employment of climate-responsive building elements; structural and architectural

  10. Response of TLD-100 LiF dosimeters for X-rays of low energies

    Bonzi, E. V.; Mainardi, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    In diverse practical applications as the existent in radiological clinics, industrial facilities and research laboratories, the solid state dosimeters are used for the measure of the different types of ionizing radiations. At the present time dosimeters are manufactured with different types of materials that present thermoluminescent properties, to the effects of determining the absorbed radiation dose. Under these conditions, the radiation dose is determined integrated in all the range of energies of the beam of X-rays, since it assumes that the response of these dosimeters is lineal with the energy of the photons or radiant particles. Because interest exists in advancing in the development of a determination method in the way of the X-rays spectrum emitted by a tube of those used in diagnostic or therapy, we have measured the response of TLD-100 LiF dosimeters for low energies, minor at 60 keV, for a several group of these dosimeters. (Author)

  11. DOSIMETRIC response of a REM-500 in low energy neutron fields typical of nuclear power plants.

    Aslam; Matysiak, W; Atanackovic, J; Waker, A J

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates the response of a REM-500 to assess neutron quality factor and dose equivalent in low energy neutron fields, which are commonly encountered in the workplace environment of nuclear power stations. The McMaster University 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator facility was used to measure the response of the instrument in monoenergetic neutron fields in the energy range 51 to 727 keV by bombarding a thin LiF target with 1.93-2.50 MeV protons. The energy distribution of the neutron fields produced in the facility was measured by a (3)He filled gas ionization chamber. The MCA mode of the REM-500 instrument was used to collect lineal energy distributions at varying neutron energies and to calculate the frequency and dose-mean lineal energies. The effective quality factor, Q-, was also calculated using the values of Q(y)listed in the REM-500 operation manual and compared with those of ICRP 60. The authors observed a continuously increasing trend in y - F, y-D, and Q-with an increase in neutron energy. It is interesting to note that standard tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) filled with tissue equivalent(TE) gas give rise to a similar trend for these microdosimetric quantities of interest in the same energy range; however, the averages calculated in this study are larger by about 15%compared to a TEPC filled with propane-based TE gas probably because of the larger stopping power of protons in propane compared to TE gas. These somewhat larger event sizes did not result in any significant increase in the Q-compared to those obtained from a TEPC filled with TE gas and were found to be in good agreement with other measurements reported earlier at corresponding neutron energies. The instrument quality factor response, R(Q), defined as the ratio of measured quality factor to the calculated quality factor in an ICRU tissue sphere,was found to vary with neutron energy. The instrument response,R(Q), was ~0.6 at 727 keV, which deteriorates further to

  12. Energy regulation in China: Objective selection, potential assessment and responsibility sharing by partial frontier analysis

    Xia, X.H.; Chen, Y.B.; Li, J.S.; Tasawar, H.; Alsaedi, A.; Chen, G.Q.

    2014-01-01

    To cope with the excessive growth of energy consumption, the Chinese government has been trying to strengthen the energy regulation system by introducing new initiatives that aim at controlling the total amount of energy consumption. A partial frontier analysis is performed in this paper to make a comparative assessment of the combinations of possible energy conservation objectives, new constraints and regulation strategies. According to the characteristics of the coordination of existing regulation structure and the optimality of regulation strategy, four scenarios are constructed and regional responsibilities are reasonably divided by fully considering the production technology in the economy. The relative importance of output objectives and the total amount controlling is compared and the impacts on the regional economy caused by the changes of regulation strategy are also evaluated for updating regulation policy. - Highlights: • New initiatives to control the total amount of energy consumption are evaluated. • Twenty-four regulation strategies and four scenarios are designed and compared. • Crucial regions for each sector and regional potential are identified. • The national goals of energy abatement are decomposed into regional responsibilities. • The changes of regulation strategy are evaluated for updating regulation policy

  13. Grid-tied photovoltaic and battery storage systems with Malaysian electricity tariff:A review on maximum demand shaving

    Subramani, Gopinath; Ramachandaramurthy, Vigna K.; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Under the current energy sector framework of electricity tariff in Malaysia, commercial and industrial customers are required to pay the maximum demand (MD) charge apart from the net consumption charges every month. The maximum demand charge will contribute up to 20% of the electricity bill, and will hence result in commercial and industrial customers focussing on alternative energy supply to minimize the billing cost. This paper aims to review the technical assessment methods of a grid-conne...

  14. Examining demand response, renewable energy and efficiencies to meet growing electricity needs

    Elliot, N.; Eldridge, M.; Shipley, A.M.; Laitner, J.S.; Nadel, S.; Silverstein, A.; Hedman, B.; Sloan, M.

    2007-01-01

    While Texas has already taken steps to improve its renewable energy portfolio (RPS), and its energy efficiency improvement program (EEIP), the level of savings that utilities can achieve through the EEIP can be greatly increased. This report estimated the size of energy efficiency and renewable energy resources in Texas, and suggested a range of policy options that might be adopted to further extend EEIP. Current forecasts suggest that peak demand in Texas will increase by 2.3 per cent annually from 2007-2012, a level of growth which is threatening the state's ability to maintain grid reliability at reasonable cost. Almost 70 per cent of installed generating capacity is fuelled by natural gas in Texas. Recent polling has suggested that over 70 per cent of Texans are willing support increased spending on energy efficiency. Demand response measures that may be implemented in the state include incentive-based programs that pay users to reduce their electricity consumption during specific times and pricing programs, where customers are given a price signal and are expected to moderate their electricity usage. By 2023, the widespread availability of time-varying retail electric rates and complementary communications and control methods will permanently change the nature of electricity demand in the state. At present, the integrated utilities in Texas offer a variety of direct load control and time-of-use, curtailable, and interruptible rates. However, with the advent of retail competition now available as a result of the structural unbundling of investor-owned utilities, there is less demand response available in Texas. It was concluded that energy efficiency, demand response, and renewable energy resources can meet the increasing demand for electricity in Texas over the next 15 years. 4 figs

  15. Second life battery energy storage system for residential demand response service

    Saez-de-Ibarra, Andoni; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Koch-Ciobotaru, Cosmin

    2015-01-01

    vehicles, during their main first life application, for providing residential demand response service. The paper considers the decayed characteristics of these batteries and optimizes the rating of such a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) for maximizing the economic benefits of the user......The integration of renewable energies and the usage of battery energy storage systems (BESS) into the residential buildings opens the possibility for minimizing the electricity bill for the end-user. This paper proposes the use of batteries that have already been aged while powering electric......'s energy consumption during a period of one year. Furthermore, simulations were performed considering real data of PV generation, consumption, prices taken from the Spanish market and costs of battery and photovoltaic systems....

  16. Energy shift estimation of demand response activation on domestic refrigerators – A field test study

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Gudmand-Høyer, Kristian; Marinelli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the amount of energy that can be shifted during demand response (DR) activation on domestic refrigerator. Though there are many methods for DR activation like load reduction, load shifting and onsite generation, the method under study is load shifting....... Electric heating and cooling equipment like refrigerators, water heaters and space heaters and coolers are preferred for such DR activation because of their energy storing capacity. Accurate estimation of available regulating power and energy shift is important to understand the value of DR activation...... at any time. In this paper a novel method to estimate the available energy shift from domestic refrigerators with only two measurements, namely fridge cool chamber temperature and compressor power consumption is proposed, discussed and evaluated....

  17. Responses in live weight change to net energy intake in dairy cows

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Bertilsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to estimate the effect of increased energy intake on daily live weight changes during the first 100 days of lactation of primiparous and multiparous cows. A data set with 78 observations (treatment means) was compiled from 6 production trials from Denmark, Norway...... or multiparous. Feed ration energy values were recalculated by use of NorFor to obtain consistent energy expression in all trials as opposed to the varying feed evaluation systems used in original analysis of trials. Regression analysis with linear and quadratic effects were performed on live weight...... change were made by linear mixed effects model with trial as random factor. For both primiparous and multiparous cows there was an increasing curvilinear response at a decreasing rate to increased net energy intake and the daily live weight change at day 30 was negative and at day 90 it was positive...

  18. Response of appetite and potential appetite regulators following intake of high energy nutritional supplements.

    Fatima, Sadia; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Wright, Charlotte; Tsiountsioura, Melina; Arvanitidou, Eirini-Iro; Malkova, Dalia

    2015-12-01

    The net clinical benefit of high-energy nutritional supplements (HENSDs) consumption is lower than expected. To investigate the extent to which consumption of oral HENSD in the fasted state reduces energy intake in slim females during consecutive breakfast and lunch, and whether this relates to changes in appetite and metabolic appetite regulators. Twenty three females of 24.4 ± 2.8 years with BMI of 18.2 ± 0.8 kg/m(2) consumed HENSD (2.5 MJ) or PLACEBO (0.4 MJ) in fasted state in a single blind randomized cross-over study. Appetite and metabolic rate measurements and blood collection were conducted prior to and during 240 min after the intake of the supplements. Energy intake was recorded during ad libitum buffet breakfast and lunch served 60 min and 240 min post supplementation respectively. Energy intake during breakfast was significantly (P appetite measures were not significantly different between HENSD and PLACEBO trials. Correlations for the within participant relations between the responses of plasma hormones and appetite scores were significant (P < 0.05) for PYY and insulin but not CCK. The energy expended above resting metabolic rate was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the HENDS trial but relative increase in energy expenditure was not significantly different between the two trials. Oral high-energy nutritional supplements have a partial and relatively short lived suppressive action on energy intake and can be expected to increase net energy intake by approximately half the energy value of the supplement consumed. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Design of capacity incentive and energy compensation for demand response programs

    Liu, Zhoubin; Cui, Wenqi; Shen, Ran; Hu, Yishuang; Wu, Hui; Ye, Chengjin

    2018-02-01

    Variability and Uncertainties caused by renewable energy sources have called for large amount of balancing services. Demand side resources (DSRs) can be a good alternative of traditional generating units to provide balancing service. In the areas where the electricity market has not been fully established, e.g., China, DSRs can help balance the power system with incentive-based demand response programs. However, there is a lack of information about the interruption cost of consumers in these areas, making it hard to determine the rational amount of capacity incentive and energy compensation for the participants of demand response programs. This paper proposes an algorithm to calculate the amount of capacity incentive and energy compensation for demand response programs when there lacks the information about interruption cost. Available statistical information of interruption cost in referenced areas is selected as the referenced data. Interruption cost of the targeted area is converted from the referenced area by product per electricity consumption. On this basis, capacity incentive and energy compensation are obtained to minimize the payment to consumers. Moreover, the loss of consumers is guaranteed to be covered by the revenue they earned from load serving entities.

  20. Energy Response and Longitudinal Shower Profiles Measured in CMS HCAL and Comparison With Geant4

    Baiatian, G; Emeliantchik, Igor; Massolov, V; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Stefanovich, R; Damgov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Vankov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Bencze, Gyorgy; Laszlo, Andras; Pal, Andras; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zálán, Peter; Fenyvesi, Andras; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Jas Bir; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Katta, S; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Sudhakar, Katta; Verma, Piyush; Hashemi, Majid; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Paktinat, S; Golutvin, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kosarev, Ivan; Ladygin, Vladimir; Mescheryakov, G; Moissenz, P; Petrosian, A; Sergeyev, S; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Gershtein, Yuri; Ilyina, N; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kisselevich, I; Kolossov, V; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Ulyanov, A; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Demianov, A; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Teplov, V; Vardanyan, Irina; Yershov, A; Abramov, Victor; Goncharov, Petr; Kalinin, Alexey; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Kryshkin, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Pikalov, Vladimir; Ryazanov, Anton; Talov, Vladimir; Turchanovich, L; Volkov, Alexey; Camporesi, Tiziano; De Visser, Theo; Vlassov, E; Aydin, Sezgin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Koylu, S; Kurt, Pelin; Onengüt, G; Ozkurt, Halil; Polatoz, A; Sogut, Kenan; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Esendemir, Akif; Gamsizkan, Halil; Güler, M; Ozkan, Cigdem; Sekmen, Sezen; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, Ramazan; Yazgan, Efe; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Dindar, Kamile; Gülmez, Erhan; Isiksal, Engin; Kaya, Mithat; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Senchishin, V; Hauptman, John M; Abdullin, Salavat; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Freeman, Jim; Green, Dan; Los, Serguei; O'Dell, Vivian; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Suzuki, Ichiro; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Arcidy, M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Machado, Emanuel; Rohlf, James; Varela, F; Wu, Shouxiang; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Grassi, Tullio; Jarvis, Chad; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunori, Shuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Skuja, Andris; Podrasky, V; Sanzeni, Christopher; Winn, Dave; Akgun, Ugur; Ayan, S; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Schmidt, Ianos; Akchurin, Nural; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Gumus, Kazim; Kim, Heejong; Spezziga, Mario; Thomas, Ray; Baarmand, Marc M; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Kramer, Laird; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Cushman, Priscilla; Ma, Yousi; Sherwood, Brian; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Karmgard, Daniel John; Ruchti, Randy; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Tully, Christopher; Bodek, Arie; De Barbaro, Pawel; Budd, Howard; Chung, Yeon Sei; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Barnes, Virgil E; Laasanen, Alvin T

    2007-01-01

    The response of the CMS combined electromagnetic and hadron calorimeter to beams of pions with momenta in the range 5-300 GeV/c has been measured in the H2 test beam at CERN. The raw response with the electromagnetic compartment calibrated to electrons and the hadron compartment calibrated to 300 GeV pions may be represented by sigma = (1.2) sqrt{E} oplus (0.095) E. The fraction of energy visible in the calorimeter ranges from 0.72 at 5 GeV to 0.95 at 300 GeV, indicating a substantial nonlinearity. The intrinsic electron to hadron ratios are fit as a function of energy and found to be in the range 1.3-2.7 for the electromagnetic compartment and 1.4-1.8 for the hadronic compartment. The fits are used to correct the non-linearity of the e pi response to 5% over the entire measured range resulting in a substantially improved resolution at low energy. Longitudinal shower profile have been measured in detail and compared to Geant4 models, LHEP-3.7 and QGSP-2.8. At energies below 30 GeV, the data, LHEP and QGSP are...

  1. Understanding energy consumption behaviors in order to adapt demand response measures

    Vassileva, Iana; Wallin, Fredrik; Dahlquist, Erik [Malardalen University (Sweden)], email: iana.vassileva@mdh.se, email: fredrik.wallin@mdh.se, email: erik.dahlquist@mdh.se

    2011-07-01

    When new price strategies and other demand-response measures are being established, it is important that amounts of electricity consumed and the potential for consumer participation be given serious consideration. It is important to encourage consumers to use less electricity if sustainable use of energy is to be achieved. Demand-response is a key component of the smart grids concept. So it is vital to get a comprehensive understanding of how different processes and factors influence the end use of energy. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of questionnaire responses from 2000 households in Vaxjo, Sweden. It sheds new light on the energy consumption behaviors of Swedish householders. Since 2008 Vaxjo householder customers have been able to check their own daily electricity consumption and get advice and tips, via a website provided by the local energy company, on how to lower the use of electricity. At the present time, of those responding to the questionnaire, this website is visited more frequently by people who live in houses than in apartments.

  2. Changes in energy content of Podisus maculiventris (Say (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae in response to different diets

    Seyed Mohammad Ahsaei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nymphal instars and adults of the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris, preferably feed on lepidopteran and colopteran larvae. Different prey diets can change fitness including energy reservoirs of the predator. In the present study, effects of different artificial and natural diets as well as starvation was studied on energy contents of the third and fourth nymphal instars of P. maculiventris. Total available energy calculated as the sum of the energy contents of lipids, carbohydrates, glycogen, and proteins did not significantly differ in the third and fourth nymphal instars fed on natural and artificial diets. Among the energy reservoirs, only total lipid storage of the starved nymphal instars was significantly different from that in the bugs fed on the natural diet. In conclusion, total energy reserves cannot be changed in response to artificial diet. A better understanding of the impact of artificial diets on the energy reserves of natural enemies can be considered as a biomarker for more appropriate mass rearing approaches of natural enemies.

  3. Energy response of detectors to alpha/beta particles and compatibility of the equivalent factors

    Lin Bingxing; Li Guangxian; Lin Lixiong

    2011-01-01

    By measuring detect efficiency and equivalent factors of alpha/beta radiation with different energies on three types of detectors, this paper compares compatibility of their equivalent factors and discusses applicability of detectors to measuring total alpha/beta radiation. The result shows the relationship between efficiency of alpha/beta radiation and their energies on 3 types of detectors, such as scintillation and proportional and semiconductor counters, are overall identical. Alpha count efficiency display exponential relation with alpha-particle energy. While beta count efficiency display logarithm relation with beta-particle energy, but the curves appears deflection at low energy. Comparison test of energy response also shows that alpha and beta equivalent factors of scintillation and proportional counters have a good compatibility, and alpha equivalent factors of the semiconductor counters are in good agreement with those of the above two types of counters, but beta equivalent factors have obvious difference, or equivalent factors of low energy beta-particle are lower than those of other detectors. So, the semiconductor counter can not be used for measuring total radioactivity or for the measurements for the purpose of food safety. (authors)

  4. Characterization of energy response for photon-counting detectors using x-ray fluorescence

    Ding, Huanjun; Cho, Hyo-Min; Molloi, Sabee; Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of characterizing a Si strip photon-counting detector using x-ray fluorescence. Methods: X-ray fluorescence was generated by using a pencil beam from a tungsten anode x-ray tube with 2 mm Al filtration. Spectra were acquired at 90° from the primary beam direction with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector based on an edge illuminated Si strip detector. The distances from the source to target and the target to detector were approximately 19 and 11 cm, respectively. Four different materials, containing silver (Ag), iodine (I), barium (Ba), and gadolinium (Gd), were placed in small plastic containers with a diameter of approximately 0.7 cm for x-ray fluorescence measurements. Linear regression analysis was performed to derive the gain and offset values for the correlation between the measured fluorescence peak center and the known fluorescence energies. The energy resolutions and charge-sharing fractions were also obtained from analytical fittings of the recorded fluorescence spectra. An analytical model, which employed four parameters that can be determined from the fluorescence calibration, was used to estimate the detector response function. Results: Strong fluorescence signals of all four target materials were recorded with the investigated geometry for the Si strip detector. The average gain and offset of all pixels for detector energy calibration were determined to be 6.95 mV/keV and −66.33 mV, respectively. The detector’s energy resolution remained at approximately 2.7 keV for low energies, and increased slightly at 45 keV. The average charge-sharing fraction was estimated to be 36% within the investigated energy range of 20–45 keV. The simulated detector output based on the proposed response function agreed well with the experimental measurement. Conclusions: The performance of a spectral imaging system using energy-resolved photon-counting detectors is very dependent on the energy calibration of the

  5. Appetite and gut peptide responses to exercise and calorie restriction. The effect of modest energy deficits.

    Deighton, Kevin; Batterham, Rachel L; Stensel, David J

    2014-10-01

    Weight loss is the result of a sustained negative energy balance, which is typically achieved by decreasing food intake and/or increasing physical activity. Current evidence suggests that acute energy deficits of ~4820 kJ elicit contrasting homeostatic responses when induced by exercise and food restriction but the response to government-recommended energy deficits is unknown. Twelve healthy men (mean(SD): age 24(5) years, body mass index 23.8(2.7) kg⋅m(-2), maximum oxygen uptake 55.4(9.1) mL⋅kg(-1)⋅min(-1)) completed three 8 h trials (control (Con), exercise-induced energy deficit (Ex-Def) and food restriction (Food-Def)) separated by 1 week. Thirty minutes of cycling at 64.5(3.2)% of maximum oxygen uptake was performed in Ex-Def from 0 to 0.5 h, which induced an energy deficit of 1469(256) kJ. An equivalent energy deficit was induced in Food-Def (1478(275) kJ) by reducing the energy content of standardised test meals at 1 h and 4 h. Appetite ratings, acylated ghrelin and peptide YY3-36 concentrations were measured throughout each trial. An ad libitum meal was provided at 7 h. Appetite was higher in Food-Def than Ex-Def from 4 to 8 h (P = 0.033) and tended to be higher across the entire 8 h trial (P = 0.059). However, energy intake at the ad libitum meal did not differ between trials (P = 0.634; Con 4376 (1634); Food-Def 4481 (1846); Ex-Def 4217 (1850) kJ). Acylated ghrelin was not related to changes in appetite but plasma PYY3-36 concentrations were higher in Ex-Def than Food-Def (P < 0.05) and negatively correlated with changes in appetite across the entire 8 h trial (P = 0.037). An energy deficit of ~1475 kJ stimulated compensatory increases in appetite when induced via calorie restriction but not when achieved by an acute bout of exercise. Appetite responses were associated with changes in plasma PYY3-36 but not acylated ghrelin concentrations and did not influence subsequent energy intake. Copyright

  6. Development of a Rapidly Deployed Department of Energy Emergency Response Element

    Riland, C.A.; Hopkins, R.C.; Tighe, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to maintain a viable, timely, and fully documented response option capable of supporting the responsible Lead Federal Agency in the event of a radiological emergency impacting any state or US territory (e.g., CONUS). In addition, the DOE maintains a response option to support radiological emergencies outside the continental US (OCONUS). While the OCUNUS mission is not governed by the FREP, this response is operationally similar to that assigned to the DOE by the FREP. The DOE is prepared to alert, activate, and deploy radiological response teams to augment the Radiological Assistance Program and/or local responders. The Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (RMAC) is a phased response that integrates with the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) in CONUS environments and represents a stand-alone DOE response for OCONUS environments. The FRMAC/RMAC Phase I was formally ''stood up'' as an operational element in April 1999. The FRMAC/RMAC Phase II proposed ''stand-up'' date is midyear 2000

  7. The response of film badge dosemeters to high energy photon radiation

    Playle, T.S.

    1988-12-01

    The sites of the earlier magnox reactor power stations at Berkeley and Bradwell in the United Kingdom are subject to 6 MeV photon radiation from the coolant gas. Since 1966 the Central Electricity Generating Board has included in its film badge personal dosimetry procedures an algorithm for applying a correction for over-response to high energy photon radiation. The correction is based on laboratory irradiations using a source of pure 6 MeV photon radiation. Recently, the opportunity arose to evaluate the response of the film badges at locations around the Berkeley reactors where spectrum-dependent dose equivalent rates had been measured. This report compares the response of the film badge in these characterised radiation environments with the response measured in the calibration laboratory. It is concluded that in the location where measurements were made, the high energy enhancement of measured dose was obscured by the effects of low energy scattered radiation, and it is considered that this will be the case for all practical situations on the power station site. There is therefore no advantage in using the 6 MeV correction factors for routine film badge dosimetry in these locations. (author)

  8. Regulation of longevity by FGF21: Interaction between energy metabolism and stress responses.

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu

    2017-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone-like member of FGF family which controls metabolic multiorgan crosstalk enhancing energy expenditure through glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, FGF21 acts as a stress hormone induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress and dysfunctions of mitochondria and autophagy in several tissues. FGF21 also controls stress responses and metabolism by modulating the functions of somatotropic axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) pathway. FGF21 is a potent longevity factor coordinating interactions between energy metabolism and stress responses. Recent studies have revealed that FGF21 treatment can alleviate many age-related metabolic disorders, e.g. atherosclerosis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some cardiovascular diseases. In addition, transgenic mice overexpressing FGF21 have an extended lifespan. However, chronic metabolic and stress-related disorders involving inflammatory responses can provoke FGF21 resistance and thus disturb healthy aging process. First, we will describe the role of FGF21 in interorgan energy metabolism and explain how its functions as a stress hormone can improve healthspan. Next, we will examine both the induction of FGF21 expression via the integrated stress response and the molecular mechanism through which FGF21 enhances healthy aging. Finally, we postulate that FGF21 resistance, similarly to insulin resistance, jeopardizes human healthspan and accelerates the aging process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Demand Response Technology Readiness Levels for Energy Management in Blocks of Buildings

    Tracey Crosbie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels deliver most of the flexibility in contemporary electricity systems. The pressing need to reduce CO2 emissions requires new methods to provide this flexibility. Demand response (DR offers consumers a significant role in the delivery of flexibility by reducing or shifting their electricity usage during periods of stress or constraint. Blocks of buildings offer more flexibility in the timing and use of energy than single buildings, however, and a lack of relevant scalable ICT tools hampers DR in blocks of buildings. To ameliorate this problem, a current innovation project called “Demand Response in Blocks of Buildings” (DR-BoB: www.dr-bob.eu has integrated existing technologies into a scalable cloud-based solution for DR in blocks of buildings. The degree to which the DR-BoB energy management solution can increase the ability of any given site to participate in DR is dependent upon its current energy systems, i.e., the energy metering, the telemetry and control technologies in building management systems, and the existence/capacity of local power generation and storage plants. To encourage the owners and managers of blocks of buildings to participate in DR, a method of assessing and validating the technological readiness to participate in DR energy management solutions at any given site is required. This paper describes the DR-BoB energy management solution and outlines what we have called the demand response technology readiness levels (DRTRLs for the implementation of such a solution in blocks of buildings.

  10. Energy utilisation of broiler chickens in response to guanidinoacetic acid supplementation in diets with various energy contents.

    Ale Saheb Fosoul, Sayed Sadra; Azarfar, Arash; Gheisari, Abbasali; Khosravinia, Heshmatollah

    2018-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on productive performance, intestinal morphometric features, blood parameters and energy utilisation in broiler chickens. A total of 390 male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to six dietary treatments based on a factorial arrangement (2×3) across 1-15 and 15-35-d periods. Experimental treatments consisted of two basal diets with standard (STD; starter: 12·56 MJ/kg and grower: 12·97 MJ/kg) and reduction (LME; starter: 11·93 MJ/kg and grower: 12·33 MJ/kg) of apparent metabolisable energy (AME) requirement of broiler chickens each supplemented with 0, 0·6 and 1·2 g/kg GAA. Supplemental 1·2 g/kg GAA decreased the negative effects of feed energy reduction on weight gain across starter, growing and the entire production phases (PEnergy retention as fat and total energy retention were increased when birds received LME diets supplemented with 1·2 g/kg GAA (Penergy for production (NEp) and total heat production increased in birds fed LME diets containing 1·2 g/kg GAA (P<0·05). A significant correlation was observed between dietary NEp and weight gain of broilers (r 0·493; P=0·0055), whereas this relationship was not seen with AME. Jejunal villus height and crypt depth were lower in birds fed LME diets (P<0·05). Serum concentration of creatinine increased in broilers fed LME diets either supplemented with 1·2 g/kg GAA or without GAA supplementation (P<0·05). Supplemental GAA improved performance of chickens fed LME diet possibly through enhanced dietary NEp. The NEp could be preferred over the AME to assess response of broiler chickens to dietary GAA supplementation.

  11. United States Department of Energy radiological emergency response programme - a national capability

    Gordon-Hagerty, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    In order to respond to a radiological emergency, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) maintains seven emergency response assets and capabilities in support of a radiological emergency of any proportion within the continental United States and abroad. The seven emergency response assets and capabilities include: Accident Response Group; Aerial Measuring Systems; Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability; Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center; Nuclear Emergency Search Team; Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site; and Radiological Assistance Program. Presently, USDOE maintains the most comprehensive national radiological emergency response assets in the United States, capable of dealing with any type of emergency involving nuclear materials. In all, the Department's assets are available to support any type of accident/incident involving radioactive materials in coordination with other United States Federal agencies, as well as state and local governments, as required. (author)

  12. Electric dipole response of {sup 208}Pb and constraints on the symmetry energy

    Tamii, A. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki 567-0047 (Japan)

    2014-05-02

    The electric dipole (E1) response of {sup 208}Pb has been precisely determined by measuring polarized proton inelastic scattering at very forward angles including zero degrees. The electric dipole polarizability, that is defined as the inverse energy-weighted sum rule of the E1 reduced transition strength, has been extracted as α{sub D} = 20.1 ±0.6 fm{sup 3}. A constraint band has been extracted in the plane of the symmetry energy (J) and its slope parameter (L) at the saturation density.

  13. Nuclear vorticity and the low-energy nuclear response. Towards the neutron drip line

    Papakonstantinou, P.; Athens Univ.; Wambach, J.; Ponomarev, V.Y.; Mavrommatis, E.

    2004-01-01

    The transition density and current provide valuable insight into the nature of nuclear vibrations. Nuclear vorticity is a quantity related to the transverse transition current. In this work, we study the evolution of the strength distribution, related to density fluctuations, and the vorticity strength distribution, as the neutron drip line is approached. Our results on the isoscalar, natural-parity multipole response of Ni isotopes, obtained by using a self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock+continuum RPA model, indicate that, close to the drip line, the low-energy response is dominated by L > 1 vortical transitions. (orig.)

  14. Distributed generation and demand response dispatch for a virtual power player energy and reserve provision

    Faria, Pedro; Soares, Tiago; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes in the operation and planning of power systems have been motivated by the introduction of Distributed Generation (DG) and Demand Response (DR) in the competitive electricity markets’ environment, with deep concerns at the efficiency level. In this context, grid operators, market...... proposes a methodology which considers the joint dispatch of demand response and distributed generation in the context of a distribution network operated by a virtual power player. The resources’ participation can be performed in both energy and reserve contexts. This methodology contemplates...

  15. The value of energy storage in South Korea’s electricity market: A Hotelling approach

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia; Kleit, Andrew; Cho, Joohyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate lifetime economic potential for energy arbitrage in South Korea. • We simulate lifetime energy flows and profits for small price-taking NaS and Li-ion batteries. • We devise optimal battery operating strategy using Hotelling’s depletion rule. • Cumulative profits depend on intraday price differences and social discount rate. • At current electricity prices, neither battery generates enough arbitrage revenue to offset capital costs. - Abstract: In this study we evaluate the economic potential for energy arbitrage by simulating operation and resulting profits of a small price-taking storage device in South Korea’s electricity market. As demand for electricity continues to grow, maintaining a balanced power system at all times has become more challenging in Korea and other developed nations. Along with demand response programs and increased renewable energy utilization, energy storage devices may provide a viable way to contribute to diurnal peak demand shaving. In some parts of the U.S. storage arbitrage has proven to be profitable. Treating a battery’s ability to charge and discharge as a scarce resource, we apply the Hotelling (1931) rule to determine a strategy for maximizing the value of the battery. Results show that present market conditions in South Korea do not provide sufficient economic incentives for energy arbitrage using sodium–sulfur (NaS) or lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, with the capital cost of the storage devices exceeding potential revenues

  16. Developing Demand-Response Based Solutions for Hawaii’s 100% Renewable Energy Target

    Kansal, Rachit

    2017-01-01

    The State of Hawaii has set a target to achieve a 100% Renewables by 2045. Due to the State’s high electricity prices and dependence on imported oil, renewables are seen as an environmental and economic solution to the problem. While the state has seen substantial renewables growth in the last few years, a truly transformative system is needed to push for a fully renewable future. This system would be likely to include Demand Response (DR) capability, Distributed Energy Reso...

  17. First wall response to energy disposition in conceptual laser fusion reactors

    Hovingh, J.

    1976-02-01

    Discussed are energy depositions in the first wall of various proposed laser-fusion reactors and the effect of pulse time on the stress and temperature in the first wall. Simple models can be used to estimate the temperature and stress rise from x-rays and neutrons. More complex analysis is needed to estimate the response of the first wall to reflected laser light and the pellet debris

  18. Supplier strategies and responses to institutional drivers for an emerging energy technology

    Strachan, N.; Dowlatabadi, H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of suppliers of a new energy technology, when the market for that technology continues to be in a state of flux, and is characterised by continued regulatory and institutional developments. This paper first summarises the institutional drivers resulting in the widely divergent diffusion of distributed generation (DG) based on natural gas engines in the Netherlands and the UK. Then, supplier responses to this institutionally driven market are discussed. Under regulatory support, supply firms were able to implement innovative operational and ownership arrangements, hugely growing the market while positioning themselves for new R and D and market developments. Under regulatory restrictions, supply firms fought to survive, with resultant implications for the reputation and longer term prospects for this new energy technology. The paper concludes by discussing how continuing institutional instability can limit the supplier strategies based on spillovers from successful regulatory experiments, Thus, the establishment of a viable energy supply industry is delayed under continuing regulatory uncertainty. (author)

  19. Angular response characterization of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., personnel dosimeter

    Ahmed, A.B.; McMahan, K.L.; Colwell, D.S.

    1993-08-01

    An evaluation of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., personnel dosimeter to radiation incident from non-perpendicular angles was carried out to meet the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) requirements. Dosimeters were exposed to six different radiation sources. For each source, dosimeters were rotated about their horizontal and vertical axes at seven different angles each. Raw readings were processed through the dose calculation algorithm used for routine personnel dosimetry to determine dose equivalent values. Dose equivalent responses relative to zero degree incident angle were found to be within ± 20% for M150, K-59 and 137 Cs photons when the incident angle was 60 degree or less. For low-energy photon irradiations (M30 and K-16), responses for angles other than perpendicular incidence are generally unpredictable. Reasons include: (1) failure of dose calculation algorithm to identify the radiation field correctly due to unusual element ratios; and (2) at extreme angles (± 85 degree), the dosimeter design (in relation to the irradiation geometry) becomes the limiting factor in producing reproducible results. Response to 204 Tl beta particles decreases rapidly with increasing angle of incidence

  20. High Resolution Modeling of the Thermospheric Response to Energy Inputs During the RENU-2 Rocket Flight

    Walterscheid, R. L.; Brinkman, D. G.; Clemmons, J. H.; Hecht, J. H.; Lessard, M.; Fritz, B.; Hysell, D. L.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Moen, J.; Oksavik, K.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth's magnetospheric cusp provides direct access of energetic particles to the thermosphere. These particles produce ionization and kinetic (particle) heating of the atmosphere. The increased ionization coupled with enhanced electric fields in the cusp produces increased Joule heating and ion drag forcing. These energy inputs cause large wind and temperature changes in the cusp region. The Rocket Experiment for Neutral Upwelling -2 (RENU-2) launched from Andoya, Norway at 0745UT on 13 December 2015 into the ionosphere-thermosphere beneath the magnetic cusp. It made measurements of the energy inputs (e.g., precipitating particles, electric fields) and the thermospheric response to these energy inputs (e.g., neutral density and temperature, neutral winds). Complementary ground based measurements were made. In this study, we use a high resolution two-dimensional time-dependent non hydrostatic nonlinear dynamical model driven by rocket and ground based measurements of the energy inputs to simulate the thermospheric response during the RENU-2 flight. Model simulations will be compared to the corresponding measurements of the thermosphere to see what they reveal about thermospheric structure and the nature of magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling in the cusp. Acknowledgements: This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grants: NNX16AH46G and NNX13AJ93G. This research was also supported by The Aerospace Corporation's Technical Investment program

  1. Scintillation Response of CaF2 to H and He over a Continuous Energy Range

    Zhang, Yanwen; Xiang, Xia; Weber, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent demands for new radiation detector materials with improved γ-ray detection performance at room temperature have prompted research efforts on both accelerated material discovery and efficient techniques that can be used to identify material properties relevant to detector performance. New material discovery has been limited due to the difficulties of large crystal growth to completely absorb γ-energies; whereas high-quality thin films or small crystals of candidate materials can be readily produced by various modern growth techniques. In this work, an ion-scintillator technique is demonstrated that can be applied to study scintillation properties of thin films and small crystals. The scintillation response of a benchmark scintillator, europium-doped calcium fluoride (CaF2:Eu), to energetic proton and helium ions is studied using the ion-scintillator approach based on a time of flight (TOF) telescope. Excellent energy resolution and fast response of the TOF telescope allow quantitative measurement of light yield, nonlinearity and energy resolution over an energy range from a few tens to a few thousands of keV

  2. Monte carlo calculation of energy-dependent response of high-sensitive neutron monitor, HISENS

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Ebisawa, Tohru; Kobayashi, Keiji; Koide, Hiroaki; Seo, Takeshi; Kawano, Shinji

    1988-01-01

    A highly sensitive neutron monitor system, HISENS, has been developed to measure leakage neutrons from nuclear facilities. The counter system of HISENS contains a detector bank which consists of ten cylindrical proportional counters filled with 10 atm 3 He gas and a paraffin moderator mounted in an aluminum case. The size of the detector bank is 56 cm high, 66 cm wide and 10 cm thick. It is revealed by a calibration experiment using an 241 Am-Be neutron source that the sensitivity of HISENS is about 2000 times as large as that of a typical commercial rem-counter. Since HISENS is designed to have a high sensitivity in a wide range of neutron energy, the shape of its energy dependent response curve cannot be matched to that of the dose equivalent conversion factor. To estimate dose equivalent values from neutron counts by HISENS, it is necessary to know the energy and angular characteristics of both HISENS and the neutron field. The area of one side of the detector bank is 3700 cm 2 and the detection efficiency in the constant region of the response curve is about 30 %. Thus, the sensitivity of HISENS for this energy range is 740 cps/(n/cm 2 /sec). This value indicates the extremely high sensitivity of HISENS as compared with exsisting highly sensitive neutron monitors. (Nogami, K.)

  3. Market integration of responsive customers : application to energy and balancing markets

    Alvarez, C.; Valencia, I.; Alcazar, M. [Univ. Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain). Inst. of Energy Engineering; Gabaldon, A.; Escriva, G. [Univ. Politecnica de Cartagena, Cartagena (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Demand response management methods are now being adopted by many deregulated electric utilities. This article presented details of a method designed to create offers and bids for large electricity customers. The method was developed to analyze daily and monthly energy consumption rates and participation in energy and ancillary service markets in Spain. A simulation was used to analyze day-ahead, inter-daily, and balancing scenarios. Peak demand in winter and summer months was characterized. Energy consumption was analyzed for different demand packages related to air conditioning, outdoor lighting, indoor lighting, and other domestic loads. Prices for each package were calculated in order to assess demand reduction capabilities. Differences between real consumption levels and energy prices bought at real-time prices were compared. An overview of Spanish electricity market structures was provided. Results of the study showed that electricity customers may benefit from participating in demand response programs. It was concluded that lower prices obtained during periods of low electricity production outweighed the higher costs of peak electricity periods. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  4. Market integration of responsive customers : application to energy and balancing markets

    Alvarez, C.; Valencia, I.; Alcazar, M.; Gabaldon, A.; Escriva, G.

    2009-01-01

    Demand response management methods are now being adopted by many deregulated electric utilities. This article presented details of a method designed to create offers and bids for large electricity customers. The method was developed to analyze daily and monthly energy consumption rates and participation in energy and ancillary service markets in Spain. A simulation was used to analyze day-ahead, inter-daily, and balancing scenarios. Peak demand in winter and summer months was characterized. Energy consumption was analyzed for different demand packages related to air conditioning, outdoor lighting, indoor lighting, and other domestic loads. Prices for each package were calculated in order to assess demand reduction capabilities. Differences between real consumption levels and energy prices bought at real-time prices were compared. An overview of Spanish electricity market structures was provided. Results of the study showed that electricity customers may benefit from participating in demand response programs. It was concluded that lower prices obtained during periods of low electricity production outweighed the higher costs of peak electricity periods. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs

  5. Energy crop (Sida hermaphrodita) fertilization using digestate under marginal soil conditions: A dose-response experiment

    Nabel, Moritz; Bueno Piaz Barbosa, Daniela; Horsch, David; Jablonowski, Nicolai David

    2014-05-01

    The global demand for energy security and the mitigation of climate change are the main drivers pushing energy-plant production in Germany. However, the cultivation of these plants can cause land use conflicts since agricultural soil is mostly used for plant production. A sustainable alternative to the conventional cultivation of food-based energy-crops is the cultivation of special adopted energy-plants on marginal lands. To further increase the sustainability of energy-plant cultivation systems the dependency on synthetic fertilizers needs to be reduced via closed nutrient loops. In the presented study the energy-plant Sida hermaphrodita (Malvaceae) will be used to evaluate the potential to grow this high potential energy-crop on a marginal sandy soil in combination with fertilization via digestate from biogas production. With this dose-response experiment we will further identify an optimum dose, which will be compared to equivalent doses of NPK-fertilizer. Further, lethal doses and deficiency doses will be observed. Two weeks old Sida seedlings were transplanted to 1L pots and fertilized with six doses of digestate (equivalent to a field application of 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160t/ha) and three equivalent doses of NPK-fertilizer. Control plants were left untreated. Sida plants will grow for 45 days under greenhouse conditions. We hypothesize that the nutrient status of the marginal soil can be increased and maintained by defined digestate applications, compared to control plants suffering of nutrient deficiency due to the low nutrient status in the marginal substrate. The dose of 40t/ha is expected to give a maximum biomass yield without causing toxicity symptoms. Results shall be used as basis for further experiments on the field scale in a field trial that was set up to investigate sustainable production systems for energy crop production under marginal soil conditions.

  6. Consumer responses towards home energy financial incentives: A survey-based study

    Zhao Tingting; Bell, Lindsey; Horner, Mark W.; Sulik, John; Zhang Jinfeng

    2012-01-01

    Residential energy-efficient and renewable energy (EERE) products play an important role in energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction. Various financial incentive programs have been developed to promote the adoption of these products. However, their effectiveness in attracting consumers is not very well understood. In this study, we investigated impacts of financial incentives on homeowner's decision making towards six EERE products. Two forms of incentives, tax credits and interest-free loans, were examined through a household mailing survey in Florida, the United States. Results showed that, although half of the respondents were interested in EERE products, the high investment cost was a major concern that hindered their purchase activities. Homeowners were attracted to financial incentives and valued tax credits much higher than interest-free loans. The current federal home energy tax credit levels were found to attract only 2–12 percent of homeowners to buy EERE products. The willingness of participation was especially low for the costly products (such as solar panels). The participation rate was also very low for lower income (i.e., annual household income below $50,000) families living in older residences. This study contributes to the understanding of economic and social aspects of consumer decision making on energy efficiency and alternative energy. - Highlights: ► We investigated consumer responses to energy efficiency incentives. ► These included tax credits and interest-free loans for six types of energy products. ► We found that tax credits are more effective than interest-free loans. ► The current tax credit rates are insufficient for expensive products (e.g., solar panels). ► A higher amount of incentives is required for the lower-income (<$50 K/yr) households.

  7. The nuclear spin response to intermediate energy protons and deuterons at low momentum transfer

    Baker, F.T.; Djalali, C.; Glashausser, C.; Lenske, H.; Love, W.G.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Wambach, J.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of polarization transfer in the inelastic scattering of intermediate energy protons and deuterons have yielded a wealth of data on the spin response of nuclei. This work complements the well-known studies of Gamow-Teller strength in charge-exchange reactions. The emphasis here is on a consistent determination of the S=1, T=0 response, practical only with deuterons, and on the proper separation of S=0 and S=1 strength in proton spectra for appropriate comparison with sum rules. We concentrate on two nuclei, 40 Ca and 12 C, at momentum transfers below about 1 fm -1 and on excitations up to about 50 MeV. The continuum second random phase approximation provides the primary theoretical tool for calculating and interpreting the response in terms of properties of the nucleon-nucleon force inside the nuclear medium. The reaction mechanism is described by the DWIA, applied here to continuum proton scattering almost as rigorously as it is usually applied to low energy excitations. A new DWIA formalism for the description of spin observables in deuteron scattering is used. Comparison of the proton and deuteron data with each other and with RPA/DWIA calculations yields interesting insights into the current state of understanding of collectivity and the nuclear spin response. (orig.)

  8. Energy response of an imaging plate exposed to standard beta sources

    Gonzalez, A.L.; Li, H.; Mitch, M.; Tolk, N.; Duggan, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    Imaging plates (IPs) are a reusable media, which when exposed to ionizing radiation, store a latent image that can be read out with a red laser as photostimulated luminescence (PSL). They are widely used as a substitute for X-ray films for diagnostic studies. In diagnostic radiology this technology is known as computed radiography. In this work, the energy response of a commercial IP to beta-particle reference radiation fields used for calibrations at the National Institute of Standards and Technology was investigated. The absorbed dose in the active storage phosphor layer was calculated following the scaling procedure for depth dose for high Z materials with reference to water. It was found that the beta particles from Pm-147 and Kr-85 gave 68% and 24% higher PSL responses than that induced by Sr-90, respectively, which was caused by the different PSL detection efficiencies. In addition, normalized response curves of the IPs as a function of depth in polystyrene were measured and compared with the data measured using extrapolation chamber techniques. The difference between both sets of data resulted from the continuous energy change as the beta particle travels across the material, which leads to a different PSL response

  9. The response of Kodak EDR2 film in high-energy electron beams.

    Gerbi, Bruce J; Dimitroyannis, Dimitri A

    2003-10-01

    Kodak XV2 film has been a key dosimeter in radiation therapy for many years. The advantages of the recently introduced Kodak EDR2 film for photon beam dosimetry have been the focus of several IMRT verification dosimetry publications. However, no description of this film's response to electron beams exists in the literature. We initiated a study to characterize the response and utility of this film for electron beam dosimetry. We exposed a series of EDR2 films to 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV electrons in addition to 6 and 18 MV x rays to develop standard characteristic curves. The linac was first calibrated to ensure that the delivered dose was known accurately. All irradiations were done at dmax in polystyrene for both photons and electrons, all films were from the same batch, and were developed at the same time. We also exposed the EDR2 films in a solid water phantom to produce central axis depth dose curves. These data were compared against percent depth dose curves measured in a water phantom using an IC-10 ion chamber, Kodak XV2 film, and a PTW electron diode. The response of this film was the same for both 6 and 18 MV x rays, but showed an apparent energy-dependent enhancement for electron beams. The response of the film also increased with increasing electron energy. This caused the percent depth dose curves using film to be shifted toward the surface compared to the ion chamber data.

  10. Energy and angular responses of the criticality accident detector using a plastic scintillator

    Tsujimura, Norio; Yoshida, Tadayoshi

    2006-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, operates a spent fuel reprocessing plant and MOX (Plutonium-Uranium Mixed Oxide) fuel fabrication plants. Criticality accident detectors have been installed in these facilities. The detector, the Toshiba RD120, is composed of a plastic scintillator coupled to a photomultiplier tube, and an operational amplifier. The alarm triggering point is set to 1.0-3.6 mGy·h -1 in photon dose rate to detect the minimum accident of concern. However, a plastic scintillator is principally sensitive not only to primary photons but also to neutrons by secondary photons and heavy charged particles produced in the detector itself. The authors calculated energy and angular responses of the RD120 criticality accident detector to photons and neutrons using Monte Carlo computer codes. The response to primary photons was evaluated with the MCNP-4B and EGS4 calculations, and photon and X-ray irradiation experiments. The response to neutrons that produce secondary photons and heavy charged particles from neutron interactions was computed using the MCNP-4B and SCINFUL, respectively. As a result, reliable response functions were obtained. These results will be a great help in reassessing the coverage area and in determining the appropriate triggering dose rate level in criticality accidents. (author)

  11. Study of Thermally Responsive Ionic Liquids for Novel Water Desalination and Energy Conversion Applications

    Zhong, Yujiang

    2018-04-01

    The rapidly expanding of the global population in the 21st-century forces people facing two serious problems: water scarcity and energy shortage. Enormous continuous studies focus on providing enough fresh water and energy in a sustainable way. This thesis aims at exploring novel membrane processes based on thermally responsive ionic liquids with the upper critical solution temperature (UCST ILs) for water desalination and energy conversion from low-grade heat energy to electricity. A UCST IL protonated betaine bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Hbet][Tf2N]) was first experimentally studied as a novel draw solute in a thermal forward osmosis (FO). A 3.2 M [Hbet][Tf2N] solution can be obtained via spontaneous phase separation from an IL and water mixture at room temperature. By heating and maintaining the temperature above 56°C, this solution can draw water from high-salinity solution up to 3.0 M, 5 times salty as the sea water. The IL draw solution can be easily regenerated by phase separation. Conducting the FO process at higher temperatures can also increase the water flux. According to the different choices of the freshwater polishing step, the electric energy consumption in this novel process was estimated as 26.3% to 64.2% of conventional one-step sea water reverse osmosis. Two UCST ILs with better performance, [Hbet][Tf2N] and choline bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Choline][Tf2N]), were selected as the agents in a novel closed-loop thermally responsive IL osmotic heat engine (TRIL-OHE) to convert low-grade thermal energy to electricity. The specific energies of the [Hbet][Tf2N] system and the [Choline][Tf2N] system are 2500 kJ/t and 3700 kJ/t, which are 2.7 and 4.0 times of the seawater and river water system, respectively. The maximum power density measured from a commercial FO membrane is 1.5 W/m2 for the [Hbet][Tf2N] system and 2.3 W/m2 for the [Choline][Tf2N] system, leaving a big room to improve if highly permeable membranes are used. Another

  12. The Importance of Heating System Transient Response in Domestic Energy Labelling

    George Bennett

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available European National Calculation Methods (NCM, such as the UK Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP, are used to make standardised and simplified assessments of building energy performance. These NCMs contain simplifications to aid ease of use and comparability of resulting Energy Performance Certificates (EPC. By comparing SAP with a modern, dynamic modelling system, this study quantifies internal temperatures and thereby heating energy consumption. Results show that for the considered test house SAP results correspond closely to a dynamic model using an idealistic heating system, with perfect control and instant responsiveness. However, the introduction of a dynamic, physically realistic gas fired boiler and water based heating system to the model results in a consistent increase in internal temperature (0.5 °C and energy demand (by ca. 1000 kWh/a. Variation of further parameters within the dynamic model, controls and heat source size, are presented and compared to SAP results and assumptions. The inclusion of more realistic dynamics in building energy modelling for NCMs may provide a better basis for effective decision making with respect to a wide range of heating systems.

  13. Response of corn markets to climate volatility under alternative energy futures.

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Hertel, Thomas W; Scherer, Martin; Verma, Monika

    2012-07-01

    Recent price spikes(1,2) have raised concern that climate change could increase food insecurity by reducing grain yields in the coming decades(3,4). However, commodity price volatility is also influenced by other factors(5,6), which may either exacerbate or buffer the effects of climate change. Here we show that US corn price volatility exhibits higher sensitivity to near-term climate change than to energy policy influences or agriculture-energy market integration, and that the presence of a biofuels mandate enhances the sensitivity to climate change by more than 50%. The climate change impact is driven primarily by intensification of severe hot conditions in the primary corn-growing region of the US, which causes US corn price volatility to increase sharply in response to global warming projected over the next three decades. Closer integration of agriculture and energy markets moderates the effects of climate change, unless the biofuels mandate becomes binding, in which case corn price volatility is instead exacerbated. However, in spite of the substantial impact on US corn price volatility, we find relatively small impact on food prices. Our findings highlight the critical importance of interactions between energy policies, energy-agriculture linkages, and climate change.

  14. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program.

  15. Dielectric response, functionality and energy storage in epoxy nanocomposites: Barium titanate vs exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets

    Patsidis, A.C.; Kalaitzidou, K.; Psarras, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    Barium titanate/epoxy and exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets/epoxy nanocomposites were prepared and studied varying the filler content. Morphological characteristics were examined via scanning electron microscopy, while structural changes occurring in barium titanate as a function of temperature were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy was employed for determining the dielectric response of the prepared systems. Based on the conducted analysis it was found that three relaxation processes are present in the spectra of the examined materials. From the slower to the faster one, these are interfacial polarization, glass to rubber transition of the polymer matrix, and rearrangement of polar side groups of the polymer chain. Systems' functionality and energy storing efficiency were assessed in terms of dielectric reinforcing function. Finally, the energy density of all systems was evaluated. Composite systems with embedded graphite nanoplatelets exhibit higher energy storing efficiency, while thermally induced structural changes in ferroelectric particles provide functional behavior to barium titanate composites. -- Graphical abstract: Systems' functionality, electrical relaxations and energy storing efficiency were assessed in terms of dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and dielectric reinforcing function (G). Further, the energy density (U) of all systems was evaluated. Composite systems with embedded graphite nanoplatelets exhibit higher energy storing efficiency, while thermally induced structural changes in ferroelectric particles provide functional behavior to barium titanate composites. Highlights: ► Relaxation phenomena were found to be present in all studied systems. ► Two processes emanate from the polymer matrix (α-mode and β-mode). ► Systems' electrical heterogeneity gives rise to interfacial polarization. ► BaTiO 3 /epoxy composites exhibit functional behavior due to structural changes. ► x

  16. ABNT NBR ISO 26000 priorities to integrate the social responsibilities in peaceful use of nuclear energy

    Biazini Filho, Francisco L.; Sordi, Gian-Maria, E-mail: gian@atomo.com.br, E-mail: Francisco.biazini@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to indicate the priorities in the themes and issues to integrate the social responsibilities (SR) in of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The ABNT NBR ISO 26000 - Guidance on Social Responsibility{sub (1)}. Social responsibility should be an integral part of core organizational strategy, with assigned responsibilities and accountability at all appropriate levels of the organization. It should be reflected in decision making and considered in implementing activities. The process suggested is: 1 - determining relevance; 2 - determining significance and 3 - establishing priorities for addressing issues. The relevancies of each issue are established for us, in this paper, from the activities of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. For each relevant issue the priority are established and are: Core subject : The environment 6.5: Issue 1 : Prevention of pollution 6.5.3: Offers guidances to recognized authority sources on how to measure, assess, prevent or control the most common forms of pollution, including emissions to air, discharge waters, toxic products, waste management, biological agents, odors, visual pollution, among others. Core subject : The environment 6.5: Issue 2 : Sustainable resource use 6.5.4: Presents a series of actions aimed at the more smart use of resources, including energy efficiency, conservation, access and use of water, and extracting the most efficiency in the use of materials, renewable or not, reusing or recycling these resources whenever possible. Core subject : Community involvement and development 6.8: Issue 6 : Health 6.8.8: The organization must appreciate to eliminate the negative impacts of their activities on people's health, contributing as possible pair increase access to medicines and sanitation, as well as raise awareness about the disease as much as healthy lifestyles. In the next jobs we should consider the following to determine whether an action to address these 3 issues. (author)

  17. ABNT NBR ISO 26000 priorities to integrate the social responsibilities in peaceful use of nuclear energy

    Biazini Filho, Francisco L.; Sordi, Gian-Maria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to indicate the priorities in the themes and issues to integrate the social responsibilities (SR) in of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The ABNT NBR ISO 26000 - Guidance on Social Responsibility (1) . Social responsibility should be an integral part of core organizational strategy, with assigned responsibilities and accountability at all appropriate levels of the organization. It should be reflected in decision making and considered in implementing activities. The process suggested is: 1 - determining relevance; 2 - determining significance and 3 - establishing priorities for addressing issues. The relevancies of each issue are established for us, in this paper, from the activities of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. For each relevant issue the priority are established and are: Core subject : The environment 6.5: Issue 1 : Prevention of pollution 6.5.3: Offers guidances to recognized authority sources on how to measure, assess, prevent or control the most common forms of pollution, including emissions to air, discharge waters, toxic products, waste management, biological agents, odors, visual pollution, among others. Core subject : The environment 6.5: Issue 2 : Sustainable resource use 6.5.4: Presents a series of actions aimed at the more smart use of resources, including energy efficiency, conservation, access and use of water, and extracting the most efficiency in the use of materials, renewable or not, reusing or recycling these resources whenever possible. Core subject : Community involvement and development 6.8: Issue 6 : Health 6.8.8: The organization must appreciate to eliminate the negative impacts of their activities on people's health, contributing as possible pair increase access to medicines and sanitation, as well as raise awareness about the disease as much as healthy lifestyles. In the next jobs we should consider the following to determine whether an action to address these 3 issues. (author)

  18. A Two-Step Hybrid Approach for Modeling the Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters

    Claudio Maruccio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective hybrid computational framework is described here in order to assess the nonlinear dynamic response of piezoelectric energy harvesting devices. The proposed strategy basically consists of two steps. First, fully coupled multiphysics finite element (FE analyses are performed to evaluate the nonlinear static response of the device. An enhanced reduced-order model is then derived, where the global dynamic response is formulated in the state-space using lumped coefficients enriched with the information derived from the FE simulations. The electromechanical response of piezoelectric beams under forced vibrations is studied by means of the proposed approach, which is also validated by comparing numerical predictions with some experimental results. Such numerical and experimental investigations have been carried out with the main aim of studying the influence of material and geometrical parameters on the global nonlinear response. The advantage of the presented approach is that the overall computational and experimental efforts are significantly reduced while preserving a satisfactory accuracy in the assessment of the global behavior.

  19. Affine-response model of molecular solvation of ions: Accurate predictions of asymmetric charging free energies.

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P; Jungwirth, Pavel; Makowski, Lee

    2012-09-28

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to drive asymmetric solvent response to a solute charge: a static potential contribution similar to the liquid-vapor potential, and a steric contribution associated with a water molecule's structure and charge distribution. In this work, we use free-energy perturbation molecular-dynamics calculations in explicit water to show that these mechanisms act in complementary regimes; the large static potential (∼44 kJ/mol/e) dominates asymmetric response for deeply buried charges, and the steric contribution dominates for charges near the solute-solvent interface. Therefore, both mechanisms must be included in order to fully account for asymmetric solvation in general. Our calculations suggest that the steric contribution leads to a remarkable deviation from the popular "linear response" model in which the reaction potential changes linearly as a function of charge. In fact, the potential varies in a piecewise-linear fashion, i.e., with different proportionality constants depending on the sign of the charge. This discrepancy is significant even when the charge is completely buried, and holds for solutes larger than single atoms. Together, these mechanisms suggest that implicit-solvent models can be improved using a combination of affine response (an offset due to the static potential) and piecewise-linear response (due to the steric contribution).

  20. Molecular markers predicting radiotherapy response: Report and recommendations from an International Atomic Energy Agency technical meeting

    West, Catharine M.L.; McKay, Michael J.; Hoelscher, Tobias; Baumann, Michael; Stratford, Ian J.; Bristow, Robert G.; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Imai, Takashi; Zingde, Surekha M.; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Bourhis, Jean; Begg, Adrian C.; Haustermans, Karin; Bentzen, Soren M.; Hendry, Jolyon H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: There is increasing interest in radiogenomics and the characterization of molecular profiles that predict normal tissue and tumor radioresponse. A meeting in Amsterdam was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency to discuss this topic on an international basis. Methods and Materials: This report is not completely exhaustive, but highlights some of the ongoing studies and new initiatives being carried out worldwide in the banking of tumor and normal tissue samples underpinning the development of molecular marker profiles for predicting patient response to radiotherapy. It is generally considered that these profiles will more accurately define individual or group radiosensitivities compared with the nondefinitive findings from the previous era of cellular-based techniques. However, so far there are only a few robust reports of molecular markers predicting normal tissue or tumor response. Results: Many centers in different countries have initiated tissue and tumor banks to store samples from clinical trials for future molecular profiling analysis, to identify profiles that predict for radiotherapy response. The European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology GENEtic pathways for the Prediction of the effects of Irradiation (GENEPI) project, to store, document, and analyze sample characteristics vs. response, is the most comprehensive in this regard. Conclusions: The next 5-10 years are likely to see the results of these and other correlative studies, and promising associations of profiles with response should be validated in larger definitive trials

  1. White Noise Responsiveness of an AlN Piezoelectric MEMS Cantilever Vibration Energy Harvester

    Jia, Y; Seshia, A A

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the design, analysis and experimental characterisation of a piezoelectric MEMS cantilever vibration energy harvester, the enhancement of its power output by adding various values of end mass, as well as assessing the responsiveness towards white noise. Devices are fabricated using a 0.5 μm AlN on 10 μm doped Si process. Cantilevers with 5 mm length and 2 mm width were tested at either unloaded condition (MC0: f n 577 Hz) or subjected to estimated end masses of 2 mg (MC2: f n 129 Hz) and 5 mg (MC5: f n 80 Hz). While MC0 was able to tolerate a higher drive acceleration prior to saturation (7 g with 0.7 μW), MC5 exhibited higher peak power attainable at a lower input vibration (2.56 μW at 3 ms −2 ). MC5 was also subjected to band-limited (10 Hz to 2 kHz) white noise vibration, where the power response was only a fraction of its resonant counterpart for the same input: peak instantaneous power >1 μW was only attainable beyond 2 g of white noise, whereas single frequency resonant response only required 2.5 ms −2 . Both the first resonant response and the band-limited white noise response were also compared to a numerical model, showing close agreements

  2. Automated Demand Response Approaches to Household Energy Management in a Smart Grid Environment

    Adika, Christopher Otieno

    The advancement of renewable energy technologies and the deregulation of the electricity market have seen the emergence of Demand response (DR) programs. Demand response is a cost-effective load management strategy which enables the electricity suppliers to maintain the integrity of the power grid during high peak periods, when the customers' electrical load is high. DR programs are designed to influence electricity users to alter their normal consumption patterns by offering them financial incentives. A well designed incentive-based DR scheme that offer competitive electricity pricing structure can result in numerous benefits to all the players in the electricity market. Lower power consumption during peak periods will significantly enhance the robustness of constrained networks by reducing the level of power of generation and transmission infrastructure needed to provide electric service. Therefore, this will ease the pressure of building new power networks as we avoiding costly energy procurements thereby translating into huge financial savings for the power suppliers. Peak load reduction will also reduce the inconveniences suffered by end users as a result of brownouts or blackouts. Demand response will also drastically lower the price peaks associated with wholesale markets. This will in turn reduce the electricity costs and risks for all the players in the energy market. Additionally, DR is environmentally friendly since it enhances the flexibility of the power grid through accommodation of renewable energy resources. Despite its many benefits, DR has not been embraced by most electricity networks. This can be attributed to the fact that the existing programs do not provide enough incentives to the end users and, therefore, most electricity users are not willing to participate in them. To overcome these challenges, most utilities are coming up with innovative strategies that will be more attractive to their customers. Thus, this dissertation presents various

  3. Applications of pulsed energy sources and hydrodynamic response to materials science

    Perry, F.; Nelson, W.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamic response of materials to pulsed, relativistic electron beams was studied for materials science applications over two decades ago. Presently, intense light ion beams are being explored for materials science applications. These include the Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST) of materials for producing stronger and more corrosion-resistant materials and the evaporative deposition of polycrystalline thin films. Laser sources are also being extensively utilized as pulsed energy sources in medical science and in clinical applications. In particular, laser-tissue interactions are being investigated for laser angioplasty and surgery as well as cancer therapy. The understanding of the energy deposition and hydrodynamic response of a wide range of materials is essential to the success of these applications. In order to address these materials science applications, the authors are utilizing and developing high quality, energy deposition-hydrodynamic code techniques which can aid in the design and interpretation of experiments. Consequently, the authors strongly encourage the development of 3-dimensional, species-selective diagnostic techniques, e.g. Resonant Holographic Interferometry Spectroscopy (RHIS), to be used in analyzing the ablation plume in the thin film deposition experiments. In this presentation they show the results and discuss the limitations of calculations for these materials applications. They also discuss the status of the RHIS diagnostic

  4. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the California Cement Industry

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2010-12-22

    This study examines the characteristics of cement plants and their ability to shed or shift load to participate in demand response (DR). Relevant factors investigated include the various equipment and processes used to make cement, the operational limitations cement plants are subject to, and the quantities and sources of energy used in the cement-making process. Opportunities for energy efficiency improvements are also reviewed. The results suggest that cement plants are good candidates for DR participation. The cement industry consumes over 400 trillion Btu of energy annually in the United States, and consumes over 150 MW of electricity in California alone. The chemical reactions required to make cement occur only in the cement kiln, and intermediate products are routinely stored between processing stages without negative effects. Cement plants also operate continuously for months at a time between shutdowns, allowing flexibility in operational scheduling. In addition, several examples of cement plants altering their electricity consumption based on utility incentives are discussed. Further study is needed to determine the practical potential for automated demand response (Auto-DR) and to investigate the magnitude and shape of achievable sheds and shifts.

  5. Calibration and energy response of the Bitt RM10/RS02 gamma radiation detectors

    Dijk, E. van; Aalbers, A.H.L.

    1990-03-01

    A radiation monitoring network with automatic warning capabilities (LMR) has been established in the Netherlands. For the detection of gamma radiation exposure-rate-meters manufactured by Bitt Technologies are used. These meters consist of a proportional counter tube (type RS 02) and a read-out unit (type RM 10E). The photon energy response of 6 counter tubes was tested at the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection. The measurements were performed with heavy filtered X-rays in the range of 50-250 keV (ISO narrow spectrum series) and with gamma ray beams from cesium-137 (662 keV) and cobalt-60 (1,25 MeV). To determine the energy response, the detector reading was referred to air kerma by means of a transfer ionization chamber. This transfer chamber was directly calibrated against the standard for X-rays. By applying these measurement procedures of a set of calibration factors (N k ) as a function of photon energy was determined. These calibration factors, expressed as the ratio air kerma to reading were converted to ambient dose equivalent calibration factors using appropriate conversion factors taken from Grosswend et al., 1988. From the measurement data an average ambient dose equivalent calibration factor of 10.8 mSv.roentgen -1 was calculated. (author). 5 refs.; 6 figs.; 5 tabs

  6. Sleep fragmentation alters brain energy metabolism without modifying hippocampal electrophysiological response to novelty exposure.

    Baud, Maxime O; Parafita, Julia; Nguyen, Audrey; Magistretti, Pierre J; Petit, Jean-Marie

    2016-10-01

    Sleep is viewed as a fundamental restorative function of the brain, but its specific role in neural energy budget remains poorly understood. Sleep deprivation dampens brain energy metabolism and impairs cognitive functions. Intriguingly, sleep fragmentation, despite normal total sleep duration, has a similar cognitive impact, and in this paper we ask the question of whether it may also impair brain energy metabolism. To this end, we used a recently developed mouse model of 2 weeks of sleep fragmentation and measured 2-deoxy-glucose uptake and glycogen, glucose and lactate concentration in different brain regions. In order to homogenize mice behaviour during metabolic measurements, we exposed them to a novel environment for 1 h. Using an intra-hippocampal electrode, we first showed that hippocampal electroencephalograph (EEG) response to exploration was unaltered by 1 or 14 days of sleep fragmentation. However, after 14 days, sleep fragmented mice exhibited a lower uptake of 2-deoxy-glucose in cortex and hippocampus and lower cortical lactate levels than control mice. Our results suggest that long-term sleep fragmentation impaired brain metabolism to a similar extent as total sleep deprivation without affecting the neuronal responsiveness of hippocampus to a novel environment. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Sleep fragmentation alters brain energy metabolism without modifying hippocampal electrophysiological response to novelty exposure

    Baud, Maxime O.

    2016-05-03

    © 2016 European Sleep Research Society. Sleep is viewed as a fundamental restorative function of the brain, but its specific role in neural energy budget remains poorly understood. Sleep deprivation dampens brain energy metabolism and impairs cognitive functions. Intriguingly, sleep fragmentation, despite normal total sleep duration, has a similar cognitive impact, and in this paper we ask the question of whether it may also impair brain energy metabolism. To this end, we used a recently developed mouse model of 2 weeks of sleep fragmentation and measured 2-deoxy-glucose uptake and glycogen, glucose and lactate concentration in different brain regions. In order to homogenize mice behaviour during metabolic measurements, we exposed them to a novel environment for 1 h. Using an intra-hippocampal electrode, we first showed that hippocampal electroencephalograph (EEG) response to exploration was unaltered by 1 or 14 days of sleep fragmentation. However, after 14 days, sleep fragmented mice exhibited a lower uptake of 2-deoxy-glucose in cortex and hippocampus and lower cortical lactate levels than control mice. Our results suggest that long-term sleep fragmentation impaired brain metabolism to a similar extent as total sleep deprivation without affecting the neuronal responsiveness of hippocampus to a novel environment.

  8. Thoughts on why in CESM a more poleward TOA energy imbalance favors more ocean-centric energy transport and weaker ITCZ shift responses

    Yu, S.; Pritchard, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The role of different location of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) solar forcing to the annual-mean, zonal-mean ITCZ location is examined in a dynamic ocean coupled Community Earth System Model. We observe a damped ITCZ shift response that is now a familiar response of coupled GCMs, but a new finding is that the damping efficiency is increases monotonically as the latitudinal location of forcing is moved poleward. More Poleward forcing cases exhibit weaker shifts of the annual-mean ITCZ position consistent with a more ocean-centric cross-equatorial energy partitioning response to the forcing, which is in turn linked to changes in ocean circulation, not thermodynamic structure. The ocean's dynamic response is partly due to Ekman-driven shallow overturning circulation responses, as expected from a recent theory, but also contains a significant Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) component--which is in some sense surprising given that it is activated even in near-tropical forcing experiments. Further analysis of the interhemispheric energy budget reveals the surface heating feedback response provides a useful framework for interpreting the cross-equatorial energy transport partitioning between atmosphere and ocean. Overall, the results of this study may help explain the mixed results of the degree of ITCZ shift response to interhemispheric asymmetric forcing documented in coupled GCMs in recent years. Furthermore, the sensitive AMOC response motivates expanding current coupled theoretical frameworks on meridional energy transport partitioning to include effects beyond Ekman transport.

  9. Investigation of the energy transport mechanism in the TCA tokamak by studying the plasma dynamical response

    Dudok de Wit, Th.; Duval, B.P.; Joye, B.; Lister, J.B.; Moret, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The energy transport mechanisms that govern the electron temperature behaviour of a tokamak remain very badly understood and up to now no proper model has been proposed that can explain experimental observations such as profile consistency or the influence of the density profile. One approach to this problem, extensively used on TCA, is to study the dynamical response of the plasma due to externally imposed modifications of parameters which have an influence on the plasma energy content. The temporal evolution of the electron temperature will closely depend on the type and the characteristics of the implied mechanisms. Thus a detailed measurement of the dynamical response would reveal experimentally the dominant properties that would have to be taken into account in the elaboration of a model of the transport processes. Most of the results presented here were obtained by analysing the electron temperature response inferred from soft X-ray emissivity during modification of the plasma density due to either gas puffing, laser impurity ablation or alfven wave heating on TCA (a = 0.18 m, R = 0.61 m, B Φ = 1.52 T). 4 refs., 3 figs

  10. Use of borated polyethylene to improve low energy response of a prompt gamma based neutron dosimeter

    Priyada, P.; Ashwini, U.; Sarkar, P.K., E-mail: pradip.sarkar@manipal.edu

    2016-05-21

    The feasibility of using a combined sample of borated polyethylene and normal polyethylene to estimate neutron ambient dose equivalent from measured prompt gamma emissions is investigated theoretically to demonstrate improvements in low energy neutron dose response compared to only polyethylene. Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out using the FLUKA code to calculate the response of boron, hydrogen and carbon prompt gamma emissions to mono energetic neutrons. The weighted least square method is employed to arrive at the best linear combination of these responses that approximates the ICRP fluence to dose conversion coefficients well in the energy range of 10{sup −8} MeV to 14 MeV. The configuration of the combined system is optimized through FLUKA simulations. The proposed method is validated theoretically with five different workplace neutron spectra with satisfactory outcome. - Highlights: • An improved method is proposed for estimating H⁎(10) using prompt gamma emissions. • A combination of BHDPE and HDPE cylinders is used as a sample. • Linear combination of prompt gamma intensities approximates ICRP-DCC closely. • Feasibility of the method was tested theoretically using workplace neutron spectra.

  11. Relative response of the alanine dosimeter to medium energy x-rays.

    Anton, M; Büermann, L

    2015-08-07

    The response of the alanine dosimeter to kilovoltage x-rays with respect to the dose to water was measured, relative to the response to Co-60 radiation.Two series of x-ray qualities were investigated, one ranging from 30 kV to 100 kV tube voltage (TW series), the other one ranging from 70 kV to 280 kV (TH series). Due to the use of the water calorimeter as a primary standard, the uncertainty of the delivered dose is significantly lower than for other published data. The alanine response was measured as described in a previous publication (Anton et al 2013 Phys. Med. Biol. 58 3259-82). The uncertainty component due to the alanine measurement and analysis is ⩽0.4%, the major part of the combined uncertainty of the relative response originates from the uncertainty of the delivered dose. The relative uncertainties of the relative response vary from ⩽2% for the TW series to ⩽1.1% for the TH series.Different from the behaviour of the alanine dosimeter for megavoltage x-rays or electrons, the relative response drops significantly from unity for Co-60 radiation to less than 64% for the TW quality with a tube voltage of 30 kV. In order to reproduce this behaviour through Monte Carlo simulations, not only the ratio of the absorbed dose to alanine to the absorbed dose to water has to be known, but also the intrinsic efficiency, i.e. the dependence of the number of free radicals generated per unit of absorbed dose on the photon energy. This quantity is not yet accessible for the TW series.For a possible use of the alanine dosimeter for kilovoltage x-rays, for example in electronic brachytherapy, users should rely on the measured data for the relative response which have become available with this publication.

  12. Fasting leptin and appetite responses induced by a 4-day 65%-energy-restricted diet.

    Mars, M; de Graaf, C; de Groot, C P G M; van Rossum, C T M; Kok, F J

    2006-01-01

    Animal studies show that the leptin decline after acute severe caloric restriction is a peripheral signal to increase food intake. However, most human studies have failed to observe such a relationship. We studied the acute effects of severe caloric restriction on the association between serum leptin concentrations and subjective appetite. A total of 44 healthy adult men (aged: 43 +/- 5 years; BMI: 27.3 +/- 3.2 kg/m(2)). Fasting serum leptin concentrations and self-perceived appetite levels were measured during a 4-day diet containing 36% of the estimated energy requirements. Appetite levels were assessed with a 10-point Likert scale, reflecting hunger, fullness, desire to eat, prospective consumption and total appetite. After the 4-day energy deficit, fasting leptin concentrations decreased by 39.4% (95% CI: -43.6; -34.9%). This decline was associated with an increase in fasting hunger (r = -0.42; P < 0.01), desire to eat (r = -0.39; P < 0.05) and total appetite (r = -0.38; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the association between fasting leptin concentrations and fasting appetite levels became stronger during the energy restriction period (for total appetite: day 0 r = -0.15, P = 0.32; day 2 r = -0.31, P =< 0.05; day 4 r = -0.41, P < 0.01). The acute proportional reduction in fasting leptin after 4-day energy restriction is associated with an increase in self-perceived appetite. Additionally, the inverse association between proportional fasting leptin concentrations and self-perceived appetite response becomes stronger as energy restriction is prolonged. These findings suggest that leptin has an instrumental role in restoring energy balance in humans through the expression of appetite.

  13. Call for information on coastal energy facility siting: an analysis of responses

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Call for Information issued by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection in December 1975 consisted of an eight page questionnaire which was sent to industries, government agencies, and private organizations. Its objective was to seek the help of these groups in plans for the siting of energy facilities in the coastal zone. Potential development of oil and gas from the Baltimore Canyon region adjacent to New Jersey has made planning for energy facilities a priority issue both at the state and federal level. The Call for Information invited government and the energy industry to submit (a) suggested criteria for locating energy and energy-related facilities within the New Jersey coastal zone, (b) analyses by governmental and private agencies or groups of the need to locate energy facilities in specific sites within New Jersey's coastal zone, or in generalized portions thereof, and (c) identification of the land-use parameters, appropriate to the various types of facilities which may be proposed, now or later, for coastal siting. The findings obtained from the draft call and the final call issued seven months later are presented. The results of the industries' responses show that the electric and gas utilities gave some useful information while this was true of only a few of the oil companies. The reluctance to give informatign was perhaps aggravated by lack of clear state and federal policies. The appendices illustrate specific information on manpower, cost and facility requirements to develop oil refineries, establish a gas processing plant as well as information from the US Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency. There is also a listing of the companies that bid in the August 1976 lease sale indicating which bids were accepted, a map of the offshore tracts, and a list of which companies responded to the Call for Information

  14. Single hadron response measurement and calorimeter jet energy scale uncertainty with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jürgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2013-03-02

    The uncertainty on the calorimeter energy response to jets of particles is derived for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). First, the calorimeter response to single isolated charged hadrons is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo simulation using proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 GeV and 7 TeV collected during 2009 and 2010. Then, using the decay of K_s and Lambda particles, the calorimeter response to specific types of particles (positively and negatively charged pions, protons, and anti-protons) is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo predictions. Finally, the jet energy scale uncertainty is determined by propagating the response uncertainty for single charged and neutral particles to jets. The response uncertainty is 2-5% for central isolated hadrons and 1-3% for the final calorimeter jet energy scale.

  15. The unstudied barriers to widespread renewable energy deployment: Fossil fuel price responses

    Foster, Edward; Contestabile, Marcello; Blazquez, Jorge; Manzano, Baltasar; Workman, Mark; Shah, Nilay

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy policy focuses on supporting the deployment of renewable power generators so as to reduce their costs through scale economies and technological learning. It is expected that, once cost parity with fossil fuel generation is achieved, a transition towards renewable power should continue without the need for further renewable energy subsidies. However, this reasoning implicitly assumes that the cost of fossil fuel power generation does not respond to the large scale penetration of renewable power. In this paper we build a standard economic framework to test the validity of this assumption, particularly in the case of coal and gas fired power generation. We find that it is likely that the cost of fossil fuel power generation will respond to the large scale penetration of renewables, thus making the renewable energy transition slower or more costly than anticipated. More analysis is needed in order to be able to quantify this effect, the occurrence of which should be considered in the renewable energy discourse. - Highlights: • Renewables are increasingly competing with fossil fuel power generation. • This may have various effects on the fossil fuel generation value chain. • One such possible effect is a response of fossil fuel prices to renewables deployment. • We have tested this hypothesis using a supply-demand analytical framework. • We found that the effect is likely to occur and should be further investigated.

  16. ENERGY RESPONSE OF FLUORESCENT NUCLEAR TRACK DETECTORS OF VARIOUS COLORATIONS TO MONOENERGETIC NEUTRONS.

    Fomenko, V; Moreno, B; Million, M; Harrison, J; Akselrod, M

    2017-10-25

    The neutron-energy dependence of the track-counting sensitivity of fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) at two ranges of Mg doping, resulting in different crystal colorations, was investigated. The performance of FNTDs was studied with the following converters: Li-glass for thermal to intermediate-energy neutrons, polyethylene for fast neutrons, and polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon™) for photon- and radon-background subtraction. The irradiations with monoenergetic neutrons were performed at the National Physics Laboratory (NPL), UK. The energy range was varied from 144 keV to 16.5 MeV in the personal dose equivalent range from 1 to 3 mSv. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to model the response of FNTDs to monoenergetic neutrons. A good agreement with the experimental data was observed suggesting the development of a basic model for future MC studies. Further work will focus on increasing FNTD sensitivity to low-energy neutrons and developing a faster imaging technique for scanning larger areas to improve counting statistics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. High-pT Jet Energy Scale Uncertainty from single hadron response with the ATLAS detector

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00534683; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The jet energy scale (JES) uncertainty is estimated using different methods at different p$_\\text{T}$ ranges. In-situ techniques exploiting the p$_\\text{T}$ balance between a jet and a reference object (e.g. Z or gamma) are used at lower p$_\\text{T}$, but at very high p$_\\text{T}$ (> 2.5 TeV) there is not enough statistics for such in-situ techniques. A low JES uncertainty at high-p$_\\text{T}$ is important in several searches for new phenomena, e.g. the dijet resonance and angular searches. In the highest p$_\\text{T}$ range, the JES uncertainty is estimated using the calorimeter response to single hadrons. In this method, jets are treated as a superposition of energy depositions of single particles. An uncertainty is applied to each energy deposition belonging to the particles within the jet, and propagated to the final jet energy scale. This poster presents the JES uncertainty found with this method at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV and its developments.

  18. Nuclear energy policy in the United States 1990–2010: A federal or state responsibility?

    Heffron, Raphael J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines from a policy perspective nuclear energy policy in the United States (US) from 1990 to 2010 and questions whether it is or has become a Federal or State responsibility. The present study, as befits policy research, engages with many disciplines (for example, in particular, law and politics) and hence the contributions move beyond that of nuclear energy policy literature and in particular to that on nuclear new build and other assessments of large infrastructure projects. Several examples at the Federal level are identified that demonstrate that the nuclear industry has evolved to a stage where it requires a focus on the power of actions at a more localised (state) level in order to re-ignite the industry. The research concludes that there remains a misunderstanding of the issue of project management for complex construction projects, and it is highly arguable whether many of its issues have been resolved. Further, the research asserts that the economics of nuclear energy are not the most influential reason for no nuclear new build in the US. -- Highlights: •Examines the US nuclear energy sector, 1990–2010. •Nuclear industry has evolved to a stage where an individual state is the key driver. •Misunderstanding of the project management and public administration. •Potential of the power of more localised (state) actions to re-ignite the industry

  19. Demand-side management and demand response in the Ontario energy sectors

    2003-01-01

    In June 2003, the Ontario Energy Board was asked by the Minister of Energy to identify and review options for the delivery of demand-side management (DSM) and demand response (DR) activities within the electricity sector, by consulting with stakeholders. The role of local distribution company (distributor) in such activities was also to be determined. The objective was to balance implementation costs with the benefits to consumers and the entire system. The preliminary research and ideas were presented in this discussion paper. Definitions of both DSM and DR were provided, followed by an overview of economic theory and competitive markets. The framework for discussion was presented, along with a list of issues and other considerations. A spectrum of potential approaches to a DSM and DR framework was included and jurisdictional examples provided. A brief overview of the concept of load aggregation was presented and the next steps for consultations were outlined. 30 refs., 7 tabs

  20. Temperature-Responsive Luminescent Solar Concentrators: Tuning Energy Transfer in a Liquid Crystalline Matrix.

    Sol, Jeroen A H P; Dehm, Volker; Hecht, Reinhard; Würthner, Frank; Schenning, Albertus P H J; Debije, Michael G

    2018-01-22

    Temperature-responsive luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) have been fabricated in which the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a donor-acceptor pair in a liquid crystalline solvent can be tuned. At room temperatures, the perylene bisimide (PBI) acceptor is aggregated and FRET is inactive; while after heating to a temperature above the isotropic phase of the liquid crystal solvent, the acceptor PBI completely dissolves and FRET is activated. This unusual temperature control over FRET was used to design a color-tunable LSC. The device has been shown to be highly stable towards consecutive heating and cooling cycles, making it an appealing device for harvesting otherwise unused solar energy. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  1. Sizing Hydrogen Energy Storage in Consideration of Demand Response in Highly Renewable Generation Power Systems

    Mubbashir Ali

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available From an environment perspective, the increased penetration of wind and solar generation in power systems is remarkable. However, as the intermittent renewable generation briskly grows, electrical grids are experiencing significant discrepancies between supply and demand as a result of limited system flexibility. This paper investigates the optimal sizing and control of the hydrogen energy storage system for increased utilization of renewable generation. Using a Finnish case study, a mathematical model is presented to investigate the optimal storage capacity in a renewable power system. In addition, the impact of demand response for domestic storage space heating in terms of the optimal sizing of energy storage is discussed. Finally, sensitivity analyses are conducted to observe the impact of a small share of controllable baseload production as well as the oversizing of renewable generation in terms of required hydrogen storage size.

  2. Distribution strategy of energy supply chain based on corporate social responsibility

    Song, Qiaona

    2018-02-01

    From corporate social responsibilities influence on the consumer`s preferences, applying the basic Idea of game theory, the study on tactics of profit distribution of the one-period game between manufacturer and vendor in energy supply chain,then the repetitive game results of the two partners are discussed. The results show that alliance pricing is the unique nash equilibrium of the one-period game between manufacturer and vendor,and the expect profit of both manufacturer and vendor will increase after cooperation in the range of agreed value of the profit distribution factor. It`s optimal for manufacturer and vendor to insist on alliance pricing for their long-term benefits in energy supply chain.

  3. Electron response of some low-Z scintillators in wide energy range

    Swiderski, L; Marcinkowski, R; Moszynski, M; Czarnacki, W; Szawlowski, M; Szczesniak, T; Pausch, G; Plettner, C; Roemer, K

    2012-01-01

    Light yield nonproportionality and the intrinsic resolution of some low atomic number scintillators were studied by means of the Wide Angle Compton Coincidence (WACC) technique. The plastic and liquid scintillator response to Compton electrons was measured in the energy range of 10 keV up to 4 MeV, whereas a CaF 2 :Eu sample was scanned from 3 keV up to 1 MeV. The nonproportionality of the CaF 2 :Eu light yield has characteristics typical for inorganic scintillators of the multivalent halides group, whereas tested organic scintillators show steeply increasing nonproportionality without saturation point. This is in contrast to the behavior of all known inorganic scintillators having their nonproportionality curves at saturation above energies between tens and several hundred keV.

  4. Electron response of some low-Z scintillators in wide energy range

    Swiderski, L.; Marcinkowski, R.; Moszynski, M.; Czarnacki, W.; Szawlowski, M.; Szczesniak, T.; Pausch, G.; Plettner, C.; Roemer, K.

    2012-06-01

    Light yield nonproportionality and the intrinsic resolution of some low atomic number scintillators were studied by means of the Wide Angle Compton Coincidence (WACC) technique. The plastic and liquid scintillator response to Compton electrons was measured in the energy range of 10 keV up to 4 MeV, whereas a CaF2:Eu sample was scanned from 3 keV up to 1 MeV. The nonproportionality of the CaF2:Eu light yield has characteristics typical for inorganic scintillators of the multivalent halides group, whereas tested organic scintillators show steeply increasing nonproportionality without saturation point. This is in contrast to the behavior of all known inorganic scintillators having their nonproportionality curves at saturation above energies between tens and several hundred keV.

  5. What would getting over with nuclear energy mean. Getting in on responsibility

    Haerle, W.

    1986-01-01

    In the current situation where the controversial debate in public about the further use or even enhancement of use of nuclear energy is carried on with ever growing vehemence and arguments lost in the flood of less transparent motivations, clear and down-to-earth information and sensible, convincing argumentation is badly needed. In his book the Professor of Systematic Theology at Marburg University tries to elaborate sensible answers to the puzzling questions, and to indicate ways and means of using one's own discernment. The problems involved are discussed under the following headings: Christian faith and political responsibility - Pros and cons of establishing the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Wackersdorf - Nuclear power seen from the point of view of economy and ecology - Nuclear power after Chernobyl - Energy policy concepts and their validation - The nuclear controversy as a challenge to political culture - The church and political culture. A documentation is given in an annex. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Chiral separation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) enantiomers using batch chromatography with peak shaving recycling and its effects on oxidative stress status in rat liver.

    Lourenço, Tiago C; Bósio, Graziela C; Cassiano, Neila M; Cass, Quezia B; Moreau, Regina L M

    2013-01-25

    This work reports the multimiligram separation of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) enantiomers using batch chromatography with peak shaving recycling. The effect of both enantiomers compared to the racemic mixture was examined on the oxidative stress status of rat liver. The enantiomeric purification was performed using a based cyclodextrin chiral selector and methanol:ammonium acetate buffer (pH 6.0, 100mM) (30:70, v/v) as mobile phase. The average mass rate obtained was 40.0mg/day, providing 45.0mg of the (R)-(-)-MDMA (e.r. 99.0%) and 75.0mg (e.r. 96.0%) of (S)-(+)-MDMA. Racemic MDMA and both enantiomers were administered per orally to Wistar rats and oxidative stress status parameters, as liver total glutathione levels and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in liver were evaluated. There was a significant decrease in hepatic glutathione content in the racemic MDMA and the (R)-(-)-MDMA-treated rats when compared to the control and to (S)-(+)-MDMA. These results demonstrate that the R-enantiomer is the enantiomer that contributes to the depletion of hepatic glutathione induced by the racemic mixture. The high reactivity of the R-enantiomer of MDMA in the liver can also be observed in animals treated with (R)-(-)-MDMA. The production of malondialdehyde (MDA) by (R)-(-)-MDMA was significantly higher when compared to the other treated groups and control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nanotube liquid crystal elastomers: photomechanical response and flexible energy conversion of layered polymer composites

    Fan, Xiaoming; King, Benjamin C; Loomis, James; Panchapakesan, Balaji; Campo, Eva M; Hegseth, John; Cohn, Robert W; Terentjev, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Elastomeric composites based on nanotube liquid crystals (LCs) that preserve the internal orientation of nanotubes could lead to anisotropic physical properties and flexible energy conversion. Using a simple vacuum filtration technique of fabricating nanotube LC films and utilizing a transfer process to poly (dimethyl) siloxane wherein the LC arrangement is preserved, here we demonstrate unique and reversible photomechanical response of this layered composite to excitation by near infra-red (NIR) light at ultra-low nanotube mass fractions. On excitation by NIR photons, with application of small or large pre-strains, significant expansion or contraction of the sample occurs, respectively, that is continuously reversible and three orders of magnitude larger than in pristine polymer. Schlieren textures were noted in these LC composites confirming long range macroscopic nematic order of nanotubes within the composites. Order parameters of LC films ranged from S optical  = 0.51–0.58 from dichroic measurements. Film concentrations, elastic modulus and photomechanical stress were all seen to be related to the nematic order parameter. For the same nanotube concentration, the photomechanical stress was almost three times larger for the self-assembled LC nanotube actuator compared to actuator based on randomly oriented carbon nanotubes. Investigation into the kinetics of photomechanical actuation showed variation in stretching exponent β with pre-strains, concentration and orientation of nanotubes. Maximum photomechanical stress of ∼0.5 MPa W −1 and energy conversion of ∼0.0045% was achieved for these layered composites. The combination of properties, namely, optical anisotropy, reversible mechanical response to NIR excitation and flexible energy conversion all in one system accompanied with low cost makes nanotube LC elastomers important for soft photochromic actuation, energy conversion and photo-origami applications. (paper)

  8. Improved break-in-slope analysis of the plasma energy response in tokamaks

    Lerche, E A; Eester, D van

    2008-01-01

    The break-in-slope method is a simple-although powerful-data analysis technique that is commonly used to determine the power absorption profiles of the plasma species during auxiliary heating experiments in tokamaks. It is based on the study of the energy response of the particles to sudden changes in the external power applied to the plasma. Even though some experimental conditions are favorable for the straightforward application of the break-in-slope analysis in its most simple form (linear fit of the experimental temperature signals), most situations require the retention of additional terms in the linearized energy conservation equation for a successful use of this technique. In this paper, important corrections necessary to extend the applicability of the traditional break-in-slope technique will be presented: (i) the numerical determination of the break-in-slope instants in the plasma energy response allowing the study of indirect (collisional) heating scenarios; (ii) the inclusion of the density variations due to the external power step based on fast density measurements; (iii) the exponential representation of the plasma energy evolution after the power break, describing the saturation of the experimental signals in slow modulation or single power step experiments; (iv) a first assessment of the influence of the change in the radiated power on the break-in-slope results. As will be shown, these corrections are particularly important in low absorption scenarios and in single power step studies, where the change in the external power cannot be considered 'non-perturbative' and the standard break-in-slope analysis usually leads to integrated power levels well below the actual power injected into the plasma

  9. Reliability constrained decision model for energy service provider incorporating demand response programs

    Mahboubi-Moghaddam, Esmaeil; Nayeripour, Majid; Aghaei, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The operation of Energy Service Providers (ESPs) in electricity markets is modeled. • Demand response as the cost-effective solution is used for energy service provider. • The market price uncertainty is modeled using the robust optimization technique. • The reliability of the distribution network is embedded into the framework. • The simulation results demonstrate the benefits of robust framework for ESPs. - Abstract: Demand response (DR) programs are becoming a critical concept for the efficiency of current electric power industries. Therefore, its various capabilities and barriers have to be investigated. In this paper, an effective decision model is presented for the strategic behavior of energy service providers (ESPs) to demonstrate how to participate in the day-ahead electricity market and how to allocate demand in the smart distribution network. Since market price affects DR and vice versa, a new two-step sequential framework is proposed, in which unit commitment problem (UC) is solved to forecast the expected locational marginal prices (LMPs), and successively DR program is applied to optimize the total cost of providing energy for the distribution network customers. This total cost includes the cost of purchased power from the market and distributed generation (DG) units, incentive cost paid to the customers, and compensation cost of power interruptions. To obtain compensation cost, the reliability evaluation of the distribution network is embedded into the framework using some innovative constraints. Furthermore, to consider the unexpected behaviors of the other market participants, the LMP prices are modeled as the uncertainty parameters using the robust optimization technique, which is more practical compared to the conventional stochastic approach. The simulation results demonstrate the significant benefits of the presented framework for the strategic performance of ESPs.

  10. Calibration of BAS-TR image plate response to high energy (3-300 MeV) carbon ions

    Doria, D.; Kar, S.; Ahmed, H.; Alejo, A.; Fernandez, J.; Cerchez, M.; Gray, R. J.; Hanton, F.; MacLellan, D. A.; McKenna, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Neely, D.; Romagnani, L.; Ruiz, J. A.; Sarri, G.; Scullion, C.; Streeter, M.; Swantusch, M.; Willi, O.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the calibration of Fuji BAS-TR image plate (IP) response to high energy carbon ions of different charge states by employing an intense laser-driven ion source, which allowed access to carbon energies up to 270 MeV. The calibration method consists of employing a Thomson parabola spectrometer to separate and spectrally resolve different ion species, and a slotted CR-39 solid state detector overlayed onto an image plate for an absolute calibration of the IP signal. An empirical response function was obtained which can be reasonably extrapolated to higher ion energies. The experimental data also show that the IP response is independent of ion charge states.

  11. A method for reducing energy dependence of thermoluminescence dosimeter response by means of filters

    Bapat, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    This work describes the application of the method of partial surface shielding for reducing the energy dependence of the X-ray and γ-ray response of a dosimeter containing a CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent phosphor mixed with KCl. in pellet form. Results are given of approximate computation of filter combinations that accomplish this aim, and of experimental verifications. Incorporation of the described filter combination makes it possible to use this relatively sensitive dosimeter for environmental radiation monitoring. A similar approach could be applied to any type of dosimeter in the form of a thin pellet or wafer. (author)

  12. Why energy from waste incineration is an essential component of environmentally responsible waste management

    Porteous, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the key factors involved in adopting energy from waste incineration (EfWI) as part of a waste management strategy. Incineration means all forms of controlled direct combustion of waste. 'Emerging' technologies, such as gasification, are, in the author's view, 5 to 10 years from proven commercial application. The strict combustion regimen employed and the emissions therefrom are detailed. It is shown that EfWI merits consideration as an integral part of an environmentally responsible and sustainable waste management strategy, where suitable quantities of waste are available

  13. Measurement of detector neutron energy response using time-of-flight techniques

    Janee, H.S.

    1973-09-01

    The feasibility of using time-of-flight techniques at the EG and G/AEC linear accelerator for measuring the neutron response of relatively sensitive detectors over the energy range 0.5 to 14 MeV has been demonstrated. The measurement technique is described in detail as are the results of neutron spectrum measurements from beryllium and uranium photoneutron targets. The sensitivity of a fluor photomultiplier LASL detector with a 2- by 1-inch NE-111 scintillator was determined with the two targets, and agreement in the region of overlap was very good. (U.S.)

  14. Grid Inertial Response with Lithium-ion Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Knap, Vaclav; Sinha, Rakesh; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2014-01-01

    of this paper is to evaluate the technical viability of utilizing energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries for providing inertial response in grids with high penetration levels of wind power. In order to perform this evaluation, the 12-bus system grid model was used; the inertia of the grid...... was varied by decreasing the number of conventional power plants in the studied grid model while in the same time increasing the load and the wind power penetration levels. Moreover, in order to perform a realistic investigation, a dynamic model of the Lithium-ion battery was considered and parameterized...

  15. Contrasting response of European forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves

    Teuling, A.J.; Seneviratne, S.I.; Stöckli, R.

    2010-01-01

    on the exchange of water and energy and the interaction of this exchange with the soil water balance during heatwaves is largely unknown. Here we analyse observations from an extensive network of flux towers in Europe that reveal a difference between the temporal responses of forest and grassland ecosystems...... and induces a critical shift in the regional climate system that leads to increased heating. We propose that this mechanism may explain the extreme temperatures in August 2003. We conclude that the conservative water use of forest contributes to increased temperatures in the short term, but mitigates...

  16. Government response to the consultation on proposals relating to the decommissioning of offshore energy installations

    NONE

    2007-11-09

    This document presents the UK government's response to consultation concerning decommissioning offshore oil and gas installations and pipelines and offshore renewable energy installations and associated power lines. The key issues discussed cover provision of funds for decommissioning, safeguarding the funds in event of insolvency, and widening the categories of people on whom decommissioning obligations can be placed in addition to earlier issue of notices and provision of decommissioning security, and extending the power of the Secretary of State to require information.

  17. Experimental study of the response of radiochromic films to proton radiation of low energy

    Mercado-Uribe, H.; Gamboa-deBuen, I.; Buenfil, A.E.; Avila, O.; Brandan, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the response of radiochromic films (MD-55 and HD-810) exposed to protons of 0.6 MeV. Each film is bombarded with a proton beam in an angular geometry, in such a way that the absorbed dose is related to angle. Depending on the energy and the angular fluence, the irradiated volume is total or partial. We compare the dose of these irradiated films with fully irradiated films exposed to γ radiation from a 60 Co calibrated source.

  18. Review of Real-time Electricity Markets for Integrating Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The high penetration of both Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and Demand Response (DR) in modern power systems requires a sequence of advanced strategies and technologies for maintaining system reliability and flexibility. Real-time electricity markets (RTM) are the nondiscriminatory transaction...... platforms for providing necessary balancing services, where the market clearing (nodal or zonal prices depending on markets) is very close to real time operations of power systems. One of the primary functions of RTMs in modern power systems is establishing an efficient and effective mechanism for small DER...... and DR to participate in balancing market transactions, while handling their meteorological or intermittent characteristics, facilitating asset utilization, and stimulating their active responses. Consequently, RTMs are dedicated to maintaining the flexibility and reliability of power systems. This paper...

  19. Calculation of Multisphere Neutron Spectrometer Response Functions in Energy Range up to 20 MeV

    Martinkovic, J

    2005-01-01

    Multisphere neutron spectrometer is a basic instrument of neutron measurements in the scattered radiation field at charged-particles accelerators for radiation protection and dosimetry purposes. The precise calculation of the spectrometer response functions is a necessary condition of the propriety of neutron spectra unfolding. The results of the response functions calculation for the JINR spectrometer with LiI(Eu) detector (a set of 6 homogeneous and 1 heterogeneous moderators, "bare" detector within cadmium cover and without it) at two geometries of the spectrometer irradiation - in uniform monodirectional and uniform isotropic neutron fields - are given. The calculation was carried out by the code MCNP in the neutron energy range 10$^{-8}$-20 MeV.

  20. Engineering Inertial and Primary-Frequency Response for Distributed Energy Resources: Preprint

    Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhao, Changhong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guggilam, Swaroop [University of Minnesota; Dhople, Sairaj V [University of Minnesota; Chen, Yu C [University of British Columbia; Zhao, Changhong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-19

    We propose a framework to engineer synthetic-inertia and droop-control parameters for distributed energy resources (DERs) so that the system frequency in a network composed of DERs and synchronous generators conforms to prescribed transient and steady-state performance specifications. Our approach is grounded in a second-order lumped-parameter model that captures the dynamics of synchronous generators and frequency-responsive DERs endowed with inertial and droop control. A key feature of this reduced-order model is that its parameters can be related to those of the originating higher-order dynamical model. This allows one to systematically design the DER inertial and droop-control coefficients leveraging classical frequency-domain response characteristics of second-order systems. Time-domain simulations validate the accuracy of the model-reduction method and demonstrate how DER controllers can be designed to meet steady-state-regulation and transient-performance specifications.

  1. SirT1 regulates energy metabolism and response to caloric restriction in mice.

    Gino Boily

    Full Text Available The yeast sir2 gene and its orthologues in Drosophila and C. elegans have well-established roles in lifespan determination and response to caloric restriction. We have studied mice carrying two null alleles for SirT1, the mammalian orthologue of sir2, and found that these animals inefficiently utilize ingested food. These mice are hypermetabolic, contain inefficient liver mitochondria, and have elevated rates of lipid oxidation. When challenged with a 40% reduction in caloric intake, normal mice maintained their metabolic rate and increased their physical activity while the metabolic rate of SirT1-null mice dropped and their activity did not increase. Moreover, CR did not extend lifespan of SirT1-null mice. Thus, SirT1 is an important regulator of energy metabolism and, like its orthologues from simpler eukaryotes, the SirT1 protein appears to be required for a normal response to caloric restriction.

  2. How technological potentials are undermined by economic and behavioural responses. The treatment effect of endogenous energy efficiency measures

    Meier, Helena; Tode, Christian; Koeln Univ.

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide spend increasing amounts of money on policy schemes to reduce energy consumption and related carbon emissions. We investigate the actual treatment effect of energy efficiency measures and therein compare actual demand responses to technological potentials. Based on a demand system analysis of household data and by approximating unobserved energy awareness, we find economic and behavioural responses that counteract expected savings from energy efficiency. Results show strong rebound and even back ring effects but also suggest heterogeneity of the effectiveness driven by behavioural concepts, such as sunk cost fallacy or habit formation. Understanding these can contribute to target-oriented policy designs and increased effectiveness and efficiency of policies.

  3. How technological potentials are undermined by economic and behavioural responses. The treatment effect of endogenous energy efficiency measures

    Meier, Helena; Tode, Christian [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2015-06-15

    Governments worldwide spend increasing amounts of money on policy schemes to reduce energy consumption and related carbon emissions. We investigate the actual treatment effect of energy efficiency measures and therein compare actual demand responses to technological potentials. Based on a demand system analysis of household data and by approximating unobserved energy awareness, we find economic and behavioural responses that counteract expected savings from energy efficiency. Results show strong rebound and even back ring effects but also suggest heterogeneity of the effectiveness driven by behavioural concepts, such as sunk cost fallacy or habit formation. Understanding these can contribute to target-oriented policy designs and increased effectiveness and efficiency of policies.

  4. Systematic errors in the readings of track etch neutron dosemeters caused by the energy dependence of response

    Tanner, R.J.; Thomas, D.J.; Bartlett, D.T.; Horwood, N.

    1999-01-01

    A study has been performed to assess the extent to which variations in the energy dependence of response of neutron personal dosemeters can cause systematic errors in readings obtained in workplace fields. This involved a detailed determination of the response functions of personal dosemeters used in the UK. These response functions were folded with workplace spectra to ascertain the under- or over-response in workplace fields

  5. Systematic errors in the readings of track etch neutron dosemeters caused by the energy dependence of response

    Tanner, R J; Bartlett, D T; Horwood, N

    1999-01-01

    A study has been performed to assess the extent to which variations in the energy dependence of response of neutron personal dosemeters can cause systematic errors in readings obtained in workplace fields. This involved a detailed determination of the response functions of personal dosemeters used in the UK. These response functions were folded with workplace spectra to ascertain the under- or over-response in workplace fields.

  6. Gonadal transcriptome alterations in response to dietary energy intake: sensing the reproductive environment.

    Bronwen Martin

    Full Text Available Reproductive capacity and nutritional input are tightly linked and animals' specific responses to alterations in their physical environment and food availability are crucial to ensuring sustainability of that species. We have assessed how alterations in dietary energy intake (both reductions and excess, as well as in food availability, via intermittent fasting (IF, affect the gonadal transcriptome of both male and female rats. Starting at four months of age, male and female rats were subjected to a 20% or 40% caloric restriction (CR dietary regime, every other day feeding (IF or a high fat-high glucose (HFG diet for six months. The transcriptional activity of the gonadal response to these variations in dietary energy intake was assessed at the individual gene level as well as at the parametric functional level. At the individual gene level, the females showed a higher degree of coherency in gonadal gene alterations to CR than the males. The gonadal transcriptional and hormonal response to IF was also significantly different between the male and female rats. The number of genes significantly regulated by IF in male animals was almost 5 times greater than in the females. These IF males also showed the highest testosterone to estrogen ratio in their plasma. Our data show that at the level of gonadal gene responses, the male rats on the IF regime adapt to their environment in a manner that is expected to increase the probability of eventual fertilization of females that the males predict are likely to be sub-fertile due to their perception of a food deficient environment.

  7. Energetic stress: The reciprocal relationship between energy availability and the stress response.

    Harrell, C S; Gillespie, C F; Neigh, G N

    2016-11-01

    The worldwide epidemic of metabolic syndromes and the recognized burden of mental health disorders have driven increased research into the relationship between the two. A maladaptive stress response is implicated in both mental health disorders and metabolic disorders, implicating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as a key mediator of this relationship. This review explores how an altered energetic state, such as hyper- or hypoglycemia, as may be manifested in obesity or diabetes, affects the stress response and the HPA axis in particular. We propose that changes in energetic state or energetic demands can result in "energetic stress" that can, if prolonged, lead to a dysfunctional stress response. In this review, we summarize the role of the hypothalamus in modulating energy homeostasis and then briefly discuss the relationship between metabolism and stress-induced activation of the HPA axis. Next, we examine seven mechanisms whereby energetic stress interacts with neuroendocrine stress response systems, including by glucocorticoid signaling both within and beyond the HPA axis; by nutrient-induced changes in glucocorticoid signaling; by impacting the sympathetic nervous system; through changes in other neuroendocrine factors; by inducing inflammatory changes; and by altering the gut-brain axis. Recognizing these effects of energetic stress can drive novel therapies and prevention strategies for mental health disorders, including dietary intervention, probiotics, and even fecal transplant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of the Most Likely Extreme Response Method for Wave Energy Converters: Preprint

    Quon, Eliot; Platt, Andrew; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Lawson, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Extreme loads are often a key cost driver for wave energy converters (WECs). As an alternative to exhaustive Monte Carlo or long-term simulations, the most likely extreme response (MLER) method allows mid- and high-fidelity simulations to be used more efficiently in evaluating WEC response to events at the edges of the design envelope, and is therefore applicable to system design analysis. The study discussed in this paper applies the MLER method to investigate the maximum heave, pitch, and surge force of a point absorber WEC. Most likely extreme waves were obtained from a set of wave statistics data based on spectral analysis and the response amplitude operators (RAOs) of the floating body; the RAOs were computed from a simple radiation-and-diffraction-theory-based numerical model. A weakly nonlinear numerical method and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method were then applied to compute the short-term response to the MLER wave. Effects of nonlinear wave and floating body interaction on the WEC under the anticipated 100-year waves were examined by comparing the results from the linearly superimposed RAOs, the weakly nonlinear model, and CFD simulations. Overall, the MLER method was successfully applied. In particular, when coupled to a high-fidelity CFD analysis, the nonlinear fluid dynamics can be readily captured.

  9. Affine-response model of molecular solvation of ions: Accurate predictions of asymmetric charging free energies

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Jungwirth, Pavel; Makowski, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to drive asymmetric solvent response to a solute charge: a static potential contribution similar to the liquid-vapor potential, and a steric contribution associated with a water molecule's structure and charge distribution. In this work, we use free-energy perturbation molecular-dynamics calculations in explicit water to show that these mechanisms act in complementary regimes; the large static potential (∼44 kJ/mol/e) dominates asymmetric response for deeply buried charges, and the steric contribution dominates for charges near the solute-solvent interface. Therefore, both mechanisms must be included in order to fully account for asymmetric solvation in general. Our calculations suggest that the steric contribution leads to a remarkable deviation from the popular “linear response” model in which the reaction potential changes linearly as a function of charge. In fact, the potential varies in a piecewise-linear fashion, i.e., with different proportionality constants depending on the sign of the charge. This discrepancy is significant even when the charge is completely buried, and holds for solutes larger than single atoms. Together, these mechanisms suggest that implicit-solvent models can be improved using a combination of affine response (an offset due to the static potential) and piecewise-linear response (due to the steric contribution). PMID:23020318

  10. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  11. For a responsible energetic future. Energy: let us rejoice, France is waking up. Fifteen tales on energy transition

    Gay, Michel

    2014-01-01

    In a first article, the author discusses the possible content of a law on energy transition which is supposed to be voted by the Parliament during the autumn 2014, and which will probably decide the shutting down of some French nuclear plants. The author outlines the social, economical and energy-related consequences of such a policy. In a second article he rejoices over the publication of two reports (one on the Energy Climate Package by the Cour des Comptes, and one by the General Commissioner for Strategy and Prospective) which consider that the objectives of development of renewable energies (notably wind and photovoltaic) are too ambitious and even unrealistic, and outline the bad management of investments and the inefficiency of action by the ADEME and the Ministry of Ecology. In the third article he denounces fifteen 'tales' about the German energy model, the uselessness of seven German nuclear plants which have been stopped, the low cost of energy transition, the environmental benefit of renewable energies, the high potential of energy savings, the new electricity storage means, the electric car as a new mean of storage of electric current, the sun which does not send any bill, wind energy (when a wind farm is said to be able to supply energy to so many thousands households), geothermal energy production, technological leap, the benefit of decentralization, the miracle of job creation by renewable energies, the ecologic electricity, nuclear wastes we do not know what to do with

  12. Characterizing the spatio-temporal and energy-dependent response of riometer absorption to particle precipitation

    Kellerman, Adam; Makarevich, Roman; Spanswick, Emma; Donovan, Eric; Shprits, Yuri

    2016-07-01

    Energetic electrons in the 10's of keV range precipitate to the upper D- and lower E-region ionosphere, and are responsible for enhanced ionization. The same particles are important in the inner magnetosphere, as they provide a source of energy for waves, and thus relate to relativistic electron enhancements in Earth's radiation belts.In situ observations of plasma populations and waves are usually limited to a single point, which complicates temporal and spatial analysis. Also, the lifespan of satellite missions is often limited to several years which does not allow one to infer long-term climatology of particle precipitation, important for affecting ionospheric conditions at high latitudes. Multi-point remote sensing of the ionospheric plasma conditions can provide a global view of both ionospheric and magnetospheric conditions, and the coupling between magnetospheric and ionospheric phenomena can be examined on time-scales that allow comprehensive statistical analysis. In this study we utilize multi-point riometer measurements in conjunction with in situ satellite data, and physics-based modeling to investigate the spatio-temporal and energy-dependent response of riometer absorption. Quantifying this relationship may be a key to future advancements in our understanding of the complex D-region ionosphere, and may lead to enhanced specification of auroral precipitation both during individual events and over climatological time-scales.

  13. Pathogens Inactivated by Low-Energy-Electron Irradiation Maintain Antigenic Properties and Induce Protective Immune Responses

    Fertey, Jasmin; Bayer, Lea; Grunwald, Thomas; Pohl, Alexandra; Beckmann, Jana; Gotzmann, Gaby; Casado, Javier Portillo; Schönfelder, Jessy; Rögner, Frank-Holm; Wetzel, Christiane; Thoma, Martin; Bailer, Susanne M.; Hiller, Ekkehard; Rupp, Steffen; Ulbert, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Inactivated vaccines are commonly produced by incubating pathogens with chemicals such as formaldehyde or β-propiolactone. This is a time-consuming process, the inactivation efficiency displays high variability and extensive downstream procedures are often required. Moreover, application of chemicals alters the antigenic components of the viruses or bacteria, resulting in reduced antibody specificity and therefore stimulation of a less effective immune response. An alternative method for inactivation of pathogens is ionizing radiation. It acts very fast and predominantly damages nucleic acids, conserving most of the antigenic structures. However, currently used irradiation technologies (mostly gamma-rays and high energy electrons) require large and complex shielding constructions to protect the environment from radioactivity or X-rays generated during the process. This excludes them from direct integration into biological production facilities. Here, low-energy electron irradiation (LEEI) is presented as an alternative inactivation method for pathogens in liquid solutions. LEEI can be used in normal laboratories, including good manufacturing practice (GMP)- or high biosafety level (BSL)-environments, as only minor shielding is necessary. We show that LEEI efficiently inactivates different viruses (influenza A (H3N8), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1)) and bacteria (Escherichia coli) and maintains their antigenicity. Moreover, LEEI-inactivated influenza A viruses elicit protective immune responses in animals, as analyzed by virus neutralization assays and viral load determination upon challenge. These results have implications for novel ways of developing and manufacturing inactivated vaccines with improved efficacy. PMID:27886076

  14. Multiscale energy reallocation during low-frequency steady-state brain response.

    Wang, Yifeng; Chen, Wang; Ye, Liangkai; Biswal, Bharat B; Yang, Xuezhi; Zou, Qijun; Yang, Pu; Yang, Qi; Wang, Xinqi; Cui, Qian; Duan, Xujun; Liao, Wei; Chen, Huafu

    2018-05-01

    Traditional task-evoked brain activations are based on detection and estimation of signal change from the mean signal. By contrast, the low-frequency steady-state brain response (lfSSBR) reflects frequency-tagging activity at the fundamental frequency of the task presentation and its harmonics. Compared to the activity at these resonant frequencies, brain responses at nonresonant frequencies are largely unknown. Additionally, because the lfSSBR is defined by power change, we hypothesize using Parseval's theorem that the power change reflects brain signal variability rather than the change of mean signal. Using a face recognition task, we observed power increase at the fundamental frequency (0.05 Hz) and two harmonics (0.1 and 0.15 Hz) and power decrease within the infra-slow frequency band ( .955) of their spatial distribution and brain-behavior relationship at all frequency bands. Additionally, the reallocation of finite energy was observed across various brain regions and frequency bands, forming a particular spatiotemporal pattern. Overall, results from this study strongly suggest that frequency-specific power and variability may measure the same underlying brain activity and that these results may shed light on different mechanisms between lfSSBR and brain activation, and spatiotemporal characteristics of energy reallocation induced by cognitive tasks. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Distributed generation, storage, demand response and energy efficiency as alternatives to grid capacity enhancement

    Poudineh, Rahmatallah; Jamasb, Tooraj

    2014-01-01

    The need for investment in capital intensive electricity networks is on the rise in many countries. A major advantage of distributed resources is their potential for deferring investments in distribution network capacity. However, utilizing the full benefits of these resources requires addressing several technical, economic and regulatory challenges. A significant barrier pertains to the lack of an efficient market mechanism that enables this concept and also is consistent with business model of distribution companies under an unbundled power sector paradigm. This paper proposes a market-oriented approach termed as “contract for deferral scheme” (CDS). The scheme outlines how an economically efficient portfolio of distributed generation, storage, demand response and energy efficiency can be integrated as network resources to reduce the need for grid capacity and defer demand driven network investments. - Highlights: • The paper explores a practical framework for smart electricity distribution grids. • The aim is to defer large capital investments in the network by utilizing and incentivising distributed generation, demand response, energy efficiency and storage as network resources. • The paper discusses a possible new market model that enables integration of distributed resources as alternative to grid capacity enhancement

  16. Optimized Sizing, Selection, and Economic Analysis of Battery Energy Storage for Grid-Connected Wind-PV Hybrid System

    Fathima, Hina; Palanisamy, K.

    2015-01-01

    Energy storages are emerging as a predominant sector for renewable energy applications. This paper focuses on a feasibility study to integrate battery energy storage with a hybrid wind-solar grid-connected power system to effectively dispatch wind power by incorporating peak shaving and ramp rate limiting. The sizing methodology is optimized using bat optimization algorithm to minimize the cost of investment and losses incurred by the system in form of load shedding and wind curtailment. The ...

  17. Response surface methodology to simplify calculation of wood energy potency from tropical short rotation coppice species

    Haqiqi, M. T.; Yuliansyah; Suwinarti, W.; Amirta, R.

    2018-04-01

    Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) system is an option to provide renewable and sustainable feedstock in generating electricity for rural area. Here in this study, we focussed on application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to simplify calculation protocols to point out wood chip production and energy potency from some tropical SRC species identified as Bauhinia purpurea, Bridelia tomentosa, Calliandra calothyrsus, Fagraea racemosa, Gliricidia sepium, Melastoma malabathricum, Piper aduncum, Vernonia amygdalina, Vernonia arborea and Vitex pinnata. The result showed that the highest calorific value was obtained from V. pinnata wood (19.97 MJ kg-1) due to its high lignin content (29.84 %, w/w). Our findings also indicated that the use of RSM for estimating energy-electricity of SRC wood had significant term regarding to the quadratic model (R2 = 0.953), whereas the solid-chip ratio prediction was accurate (R2 = 1.000). In the near future, the simple formula will be promising to calculate energy production easily from woody biomass, especially from SRC species.

  18. Study on the energy response to neutrons for a new scintillating-fiber-array neutron detector

    Zhang Qi; Wang Qun; Xie Zhong Shen

    2003-01-01

    The energy response of a new scintillating-fiber-array neutron detector to neutrons in the energy range 0.01 MeV<=E sub n<=14 MeV was modeled by combining a simplified Monte Carlo model and the MCNP 4b code. In order to test the model and get the absolute sensitivity of the detector to neutrons, one experiment was carried out for 2.5 and 14 MeV neutrons from T(p,n) sup 3 He and T(d,n) sup 4 He reactions at the Neutron Generator Laboratory at the Institute of Modern Physics, the Chinese Academy of Science. The absolute neutron fluence was obtained with a relative standard uncertainty 4.5% or 2.0% by monitoring the associated protons or sup 4 He particles, respectively. Another experiment was carried out for 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 MeV neutrons from T(p,n) sup 3 He reaction, and for 3.28, 3.50, 4.83, 5.74 MeV neutrons from D(d,n) sup 3 He reaction on the Model 5SDH-2 accelerator at China Institute of Atomic Energy. The absolute neutron fluence was obtained with a relative standard uncertainty 5.0% by usin...

  19. How private car purchasing trends offset efficiency gains and the successful energy policy response

    O Gallachoir, Brian P.; Howley, Martin; Cunningham, Stephen; Bazilian, Morgan

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, energy-related CO 2 emissions from transport energy in Ireland were 168% above 1990 levels. Private cars were responsible for approx 45% of transport energy demand in 2006 (excluding fuel tourism). The average annual growth of new cars between 1990 and 2006 was 5.2%. This paper focuses on these new cars entering the private car fleet, in particular the purchasing trend towards larger size cars. This has considerably offset the improvements in the technical efficiency of individual car models. The analysis was carried out on the detailed data of each individual new vehicle entering the fleet in 2000-2006. The average CO 2 emissions per kilometre for new petrol cars entering the Irish fleet grew from 166 to 168 g CO 2 /km from 2000 to 2005 and reduced to 164 in 2006. For diesel cars the average reduced from 166 in 2000 to 161 in 2006. The paper also discusses how a recent change in vehicle registration taxation and annual motor tax had a significant impact purchasing trends by supporting lower emission vehicles. Cars with emissions up to 155 g CO 2 /km represented 41% of new private cars sold in Ireland in 2007 compared with 84% during the period July-November 2008.

  20. Uncertainties in modeling and scaling in the prediction of fuel stored energy and thermal response

    Wulff, W.

    1987-01-01

    The steady-state temperature distribution and the stored energy in nuclear fuel elements are computed by analytical methods and used to rank, in the order of importance, the effects on stored energy from statistical uncertainties in modeling parameters, in boundary and in operating conditions. An integral technique is used to calculate the transient fuel temperature and to estimate the uncertainties in predicting the fuel thermal response and the peak clad temperature during a large-break loss of coolant accident. The uncertainty analysis presented here is an important part of evaluating the applicability, the uncertainties and the scaling capabilities of computer codes for nuclear reactor safety analyses. The methods employed in this analysis merit general attention because of their simplicity. It is shown that the blowdown peak is dominated by fuel stored energy alone or, equivalently, by linear heating rate. Gap conductance, peaking factors and fuel thermal conductivity are the three most important fuel modeling parameters affecting peak clad temperature uncertainty. 26 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Energy expenditure and physiological responses during walking on a treadmill and moving on the Torqway vehicle.

    Maciejczyk, Marcin; Wiecek, Magdalena; Szymura, Jadwiga; Szygula, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    One of the new products which can be used to increase physical activity and energy expenditure is the Torqway vehicle, powered by the upper limbs. The aim of this study was to (1) assess the usefulness and repeatability of the Torqway vehicle for physical exercise, (2) compare energy expenditure and physiological responses during walking on a treadmill and during physical effort while moving on the Torqway at a constant speed. The participants (11 men, aged 20.2 ± 1.3) performed the incremental test and submaximal exercises (walking on the treadmill and moving on the Torqway vehicle at the same speed). Energy expenditure during the exercise on the Torqway was significantly higher (p = 0.001) than during the walking performed at the same speed. The intensity of the exercise performed on the Torqway expressed as %VO2max and %HRmax was significantly ( p walking (respectively: 35.0 ± 6.0 vs. 29.4 ± 7.4 %VO2max and 65.1 ± 7.3 vs. 47.2 ± 7.4 %HRmax). Exercise on the Torqway vehicle allows for the intensification of the exercise at a low movement speed, comparable to walking. Moving on the Torqway vehicle could be an effective alternative activity for physical fitness and exercise rehabilitation programs.

  2. Response of Inorganic Scintillators to Neutrons of 3 and 15 MeV Energy

    Lucchini, M; Pizzichemi, M; Chipaux, R; Jacquot, F; Mazue, H; Wolff, H; Lecoq, P; Auffray, E

    2014-01-01

    In the perspective of the development of future high energy physics experiments, homogeneous calorimeters based on inorganic scintillators can be considered for the detection of hadrons (e.g., calorimeter based on dual-readout technique). Although of high importance in the high energy physics framework as well as for homeland security applications, the response of these inorganic scintillators to neutrons has been only scarcely investigated. This paper presents results obtained using five common scintillating crystals (of size around 2x2x2 cm 3), namely lead tungstate (PbWO4), bismuth germanate (BGO), cerium fluoride (CeF3), Ce-doped lutetium-yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO:Ce) and lutetium aluminum garnet (LuAG:Ce) in a pulsed flux of almost mono-energetic (similar to 3 MeV and similar to 15 MeV) neutrons provided by the Van de Graff accelerator SAMES of CEA Valduc. Energy spectra have been recorded, calibrated and compared with Geant4 simulations computed with different physics models. The neutron detection eff...

  3. Demand response power system optimization in presence of renewable energy sources

    Dumbrava Virgil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper optimizes the price-based demand response of a large customer in a power system with stochastic production and classical fuel-supplied power plants. The implemented method of optimization, under uncertainty, is helpful to model both the utility functions for the consumers and their technical limitations. The consumers exposed to price-based demand can reduce their cost for electricity procurement by modifying their behavior, possibly shifting their consumption during the day to periods with low electricity prices. The demand is considered elastic to electricity price if the consumer is willing and capable to buy various amounts of energy at different price levels, the demand function being represented as purchasing bidding blocks. The demand response is seen also by the scientific literature as a possible source of the needed flexibility of modern power systems, while the flexibility of conventional generation technologies is restricted by technical constraints, such as ramp rates. This paper shows how wind power generation affects short term operation of the electricity system. Fluctuations in the amount of wind power fed into the grid require, without storage capacities, compensating changes in the output of flexible generators or in the consumers’ behavior. In the presented case study, we show the minimization of the overall costs in presence of stochastic wind power production. For highlighting the variability degree of production from renewable sources, four scenarios of production were formulated, with different probabilities of occurrence. The contribution brought by the paper is represented by the optimization model for demand-response of a large customer in a power system with fossil fueled generators and intermittent renewable energy sources. The consumer can reduce the power system costs by modifying his demand. The demand function is represented as purchasing bidding blocks for the possible price forecasted realizations

  4. Relaxation response induces temporal transcriptome changes in energy metabolism, insulin secretion and inflammatory pathways.

    Manoj K Bhasin

    Full Text Available The relaxation response (RR is the counterpart of the stress response. Millennia-old practices evoking the RR include meditation, yoga and repetitive prayer. Although RR elicitation is an effective therapeutic intervention that counteracts the adverse clinical effects of stress in disorders including hypertension, anxiety, insomnia and aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms that explain these clinical benefits remain undetermined. To assess rapid time-dependent (temporal genomic changes during one session of RR practice among healthy practitioners with years of RR practice and also in novices before and after 8 weeks of RR training, we measured the transcriptome in peripheral blood prior to, immediately after, and 15 minutes after listening to an RR-eliciting or a health education CD. Both short-term and long-term practitioners evoked significant temporal gene expression changes with greater significance in the latter as compared to novices. RR practice enhanced expression of genes associated with energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, insulin secretion and telomere maintenance, and reduced expression of genes linked to inflammatory response and stress-related pathways. Interactive network analyses of RR-affected pathways identified mitochondrial ATP synthase and insulin (INS as top upregulated critical molecules (focus hubs and NF-κB pathway genes as top downregulated focus hubs. Our results for the first time indicate that RR elicitation, particularly after long-term practice, may evoke its downstream health benefits by improving mitochondrial energy production and utilization and thus promoting mitochondrial resiliency through upregulation of ATPase and insulin function. Mitochondrial resiliency might also be promoted by RR-induced downregulation of NF-κB-associated upstream and downstream targets that mitigates stress.

  5. Hybrid LSA-ANN Based Home Energy Management Scheduling Controller for Residential Demand Response Strategy

    Maytham S. Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR program can shift peak time load to off-peak time, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions and allowing energy conservation. In this study, the home energy management scheduling controller of the residential DR strategy is proposed using the hybrid lightning search algorithm (LSA-based artificial neural network (ANN to predict the optimal ON/OFF status for home appliances. Consequently, the scheduled operation of several appliances is improved in terms of cost savings. In the proposed approach, a set of the most common residential appliances are modeled, and their activation is controlled by the hybrid LSA-ANN based home energy management scheduling controller. Four appliances, namely, air conditioner, water heater, refrigerator, and washing machine (WM, are developed by Matlab/Simulink according to customer preferences and priority of appliances. The ANN controller has to be tuned properly using suitable learning rate value and number of nodes in the hidden layers to schedule the appliances optimally. Given that finding proper ANN tuning parameters is difficult, the LSA optimization is hybridized with ANN to improve the ANN performances by selecting the optimum values of neurons in each hidden layer and learning rate. Therefore, the ON/OFF estimation accuracy by ANN can be improved. Results of the hybrid LSA-ANN are compared with those of hybrid particle swarm optimization (PSO based ANN to validate the developed algorithm. Results show that the hybrid LSA-ANN outperforms the hybrid PSO based ANN. The proposed scheduling algorithm can significantly reduce the peak-hour energy consumption during the DR event by up to 9.7138% considering four appliances per 7-h period.

  6. Assessing the benefits of residential demand response in a real time distribution energy market

    Siano, Pierluigi; Sarno, Debora

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new probabilistic methodology, integrating DR in a distribution energy market is proposed. • The method can alleviate distribution network congestions. • This method based on D-LMPs allows cost savings for end-user customers. • Innovative thermal and shiftable loads Real Time control algorithms are also presented. - Abstract: In the field of electricity distribution networks and with the advent of smart grids and microgrids, the use of Distribution Locational Marginal Price (D-LMPs) in a Real Time (RT) distribution market managed by a Distribution System Operator (DSO) is discussed in presence of empowered residential end-users that are able to bid for energy by a demand aggregator while following Demand Response (DR) initiatives. Each customer is provided by a transactive controller, which reads the locational market signals and answers with a bid taking into account the user preferences about some appliances involved in DR activities and controlled by smart plugs-in. In particular, Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) appliances and shiftable loads are controlled so that their consumption profile can be modified according to the price of energy. In order to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of energy and cost saving, an innovative probabilistic methodology for evaluating the impact of residential DR choices considering uncertainties related to load demand, user preferences, environmental conditions, house thermal behavior and wholesale market trends has been proposed. The uncertainties related to the stochastic variations of the variables involved are modeled by using the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method. The combination of MCS and RT distribution market simulation based on D-LMPs are used to assess the operation and impact of the DR method over one month. Simulations results on an 84-buses distribution network confirmed that the proposed method allows saving costs for residential end-users and making

  7. Joint Planning Of Energy Storage and Transmission Considering Wind-Storage Combined System and Demand Side Response

    Huang, Y.; Liu, B. Z.; Wang, K. Y.; Ai, X.

    2017-12-01

    In response to the new requirements of the operation mode of wind-storage combined system and demand side response for transmission network planning, this paper presents a joint planning of energy storage and transmission considering wind-storage combined system and demand side response. Firstly, the charge-discharge strategy of energy storage system equipped at the outlet of wind farm and demand side response strategy are analysed to achieve the best comprehensive benefits through the coordination of the two. Secondly, in the general transmission network planning model with wind power, both energy storage cost and demand side response cost are added to the objective function. Not only energy storage operation constraints and but also demand side response constraints are introduced into the constraint condition. Based on the classical formulation of TEP, a new formulation is developed considering the simultaneous addition of the charge-discharge strategy of energy storage system equipped at the outlet of the wind farm and demand side response strategy, which belongs to a typical mixed integer linear programming model that can be solved by mature optimization software. The case study based on the Garver-6 bus system shows that the validity of the proposed model is verified by comparison with general transmission network planning model. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the joint planning model can gain more economic benefits through setting up different cases.

  8. Energy

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  9. Personalized Energy Reduction Cyber-Physical System (PERCS): A gamified end-user platform for energy efficiency and demand response.

    Sintov, Nicole; Orosz, Michael; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the Personalized Energy Reduction Cyber-physical System (PERCS) is to create new possibilities for improving building operating efficiency, enhancing grid reliability, avoiding costly power interruptions, and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. PERCS proposes to achieve these outcomes by engaging building occupants as partners in a user-centered smart service platform. Using a non-intrusive load monitoring approach, PERCS uses a single sensing point in each home to capture smart electric meter data in real time. The household energy signal is disaggregated into individual load signatures of common appliances (e.g., air conditioners), yielding near real-time appliance-level energy information. Users interact with PERCS via a mobile phone platform that provides household- and appliance-level energy feedback, tailored recommendations, and a competitive game tied to energy use and behavioral changes. PERCS challenges traditional energy management approaches by directly engaging occupant as key elements in a technological system.

  10. Energy accommodation... tomorrow which responsibility for the local authorities?; Energie habitat... demain quelles responsabilite pour les collectivite locales?

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document summarizes the 2 days of meetings and debates of these 2. national sittings on energy and accommodation. The colloquium was organized around 4 working groups: 1 - energy, accommodation and territories (the new rules of the urban game, fluxes and stocks, the end of the 'city in the country' myth, the energy-accommodation marriage of convenience), Dunkerque and the sustainable development; 2 - the technological dimension (buildings size, equipments, appliances, comfort, health); 3 - the social dimension (housing rights, heating rights, energy choices); 4 - the economical dimension (energy and environment, who will profit from the market deregulation?). The document comprises also a summary of the opening talks and plenary sessions (challenges, risks and margins of maneuver, municipal actions for a durable energy policy). (J.S.)

  11. Energy, enterprises and transports: how conciliate competitiveness and responsibility; Energie, entreprises et transports: comment concilier competitivite et responsabilite?

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    The meeting on the enterprises and transports competitiveness in a context of energy conservation, organized in Nice the 15 april 2003, took place three topics: are the competitiveness of enterprises and the energy consumptions mastership reconcilable? What are the solutions to answer the market demands with a decrease of the energy consumption? Concerning the goods transport, must we leave the road transport? The whole texts of the round tables and the open and exit allocution are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  12. Energy

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  13. EFFECT OF ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND TRAINING STATUS ON LEPTIN RESPONSE TO SUB-MAXIMAL CYCLING

    Anissa Bouassida

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the leptin response and related hormones during and after two sub-maximal exercise protocols in trained and untrained subjects. During this study, plasma concentrations of leptin [Lep], insulin [I], cortisol [C], growth hormone [GH], glucose [G] and lactate [La] were measured. 7 elite volleyball trained players (TR and 7 untrained (UTR subjects (percent body fat: 13.2 ± 1.8 versus 15.7 ± 1.0, p < 0.01, respectively were examined after short and prolonged sub-maximal cycling exercise protocols (SP and PP. Venous blood samples were collected before each protocol, during, at the end, and after 2 and 24 h of recovery. SP and PP energy expenditures ranged from 470 ± 60 to 740 ± 90 kcal for TR and from 450 ± 60 to 710 ± 90 kcal for UTR, respectively. [Lep] was related to body fat percentage and body fat mass in TR (r = 0. 84, p < 0.05 and r = 0.93, p < 0.01 and in UTR (r = 0.89, p < 0.01 and r = 0.92, p < 0. 01, respectively. [Lep] did not change significantly during both protocols for both groups but was lower (p < 0.05 in all sampling in TR when compared to UTR. Plasma [I] decreased (p < 0.01 and [GH] increased (p < 0.01 significantly during both SP and PP and these hormones remained lower (I: p < 0.01 and higher (GH: p < 0.01 than pre-exercise levels after a 2-h recovery period, returning to base-line at 24-h recovery. Plasma [La] increased (p < 0.01 during both protocols for TR and UTR. There was no significant change in [C] and [G] during and after both protocols for all subjects. It is concluded that 1 leptin is not sensitive to acute short or prolonged sub-maximal exercises (with energy expenditure under 800 kcal in volleyball/ anaerobically trained athletes as in untrained subjects, 2 volleyball athletes showed significantly lower resting and exercise leptin response with respect to untrained subjects and 3 it appears that in these anaerobically trained athletes leptin response to exercise is more sensitive to the level of

  14. Changes in energy metabolism in response to 48 h of overfeeding and fasting in Caucasians and Pima Indians

    Weyer, C; Vozarova, B; Ravussin, E

    2001-01-01

    Differences in the metabolic response to overfeeding and starvation may confer susceptibility or resistance to obesity in humans. To further examine this hypothesis, we assessed the changes in 24 h energy metabolism in response to short-term overfeeding and fasting in Caucasians (C) and Pima...... Indians (I), a population with a very high propensity for obesity....

  15. Single hadron response measurement and calorimeter jet energy scale uncertainty with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    Aad, G.; et al., [Unknown; Bentvelsen, S.; Berglund, E.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bos, K.; Boterenbrood, H.; Colijn, A.P.; de Jong, P.; de Nooij, L.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Doxiadis, A.D.; Ferrari, P.; Garitaonandia, H.; Geerts, D.A.A.; Gosselink, M.; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N.P.; Igonkina, O.; Kayl, M.S.; Klous, S.; Kluit, P.; Koffeman, E.; Lee, H.; Lenz, T.; Linde, F.; Luijckx, G.; Massaro, G.; Mechnich, J.; Mussche, I.; Ottersbach, J.P.; Reichold, A.; Rijpstra, M.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Snuverink, J.; Ta, D.; Tsiakiris, M.; Turlay, E.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vreeswijk, M.

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty on the calorimeter energy response to jets of particles is derived for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). First, the calorimeter response to single isolated charged hadrons is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo simulation using proton-proton collisions at

  16. PEAK SHAVING CONSIDERING STREAMFLOW UNCERTAINTIES

    user

    The random nature of the system load is re-organized by using a Markov load model. The results include a ... has received a considerable attention among optimisation problems. ... the dynamic programming theory used in this work is given ...

  17. Operational design and pressure response of large-scale compressed air energy storage in porous formations

    Wang, Bo; Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    With the rapid growth of energy production from intermittent renewable sources like wind and solar power plants, large-scale energy storage options are required to compensate for fluctuating power generation on different time scales. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous formations is seen as a promising option for balancing short-term diurnal fluctuations. CAES is a power-to-power energy storage, which converts electricity to mechanical energy, i.e. highly pressurized air, and stores it in the subsurface. This study aims at designing the storage setup and quantifying the pressure response of a large-scale CAES operation in a porous sandstone formation, thus assessing the feasibility of this storage option. For this, numerical modelling of a synthetic site and a synthetic operational cycle is applied. A hypothetic CAES scenario using a typical anticline structure in northern Germany was investigated. The top of the storage formation is at 700 m depth and the thickness is 20 m. The porosity and permeability were assumed to have a homogenous distribution with a value of 0.35 and 500 mD, respectively. According to the specifications of the Huntorf CAES power plant, a gas turbine producing 321 MW power with a minimum inlet pressure of 43 bars at an air mass flowrate of 417 kg/s was assumed. Pressure loss in the gas wells was accounted for using an analytical solution, which defines a minimum bottom hole pressure of 47 bars. Two daily extraction cycles of 6 hours each were set to the early morning and the late afternoon in order to bypass the massive solar energy production around noon. A two-year initial filling of the reservoir with air and ten years of daily cyclic operation were numerically simulated using the Eclipse E300 reservoir simulator. The simulation results show that using 12 wells the storage formation with a permeability of 500 mD can support the required 6-hour continuous power output of 321MW, which corresponds an energy output of 3852 MWh per

  18. Using smart meter data to estimate demand response potential, with application to solar energy integration

    Dyson, Mark E.H.; Borgeson, Samuel D.; Tabone, Michaelangelo D.; Callaway, Duncan S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for estimating the demand response potential of residential air conditioning (A/C), using hourly electricity consumption data (“smart meter” data) from 30,000 customer accounts in Northern California. We apply linear regression and unsupervised classification methods to hourly, whole-home consumption and outdoor air temperature data to determine the hours, if any, that each home's A/C is active, and the temperature dependence of consumption when it is active. When results from our sample are scaled up to the total population, we find a maximum of 270–360 MW (95% c.i.) of demand response potential over a 1-h duration with a 4 °F setpoint change, and up to 3.2–3.8 GW of short-term curtailment potential. The estimated resource correlates well with the evening decline of solar production on hot, summer afternoons, suggesting that demand response could potentially act as reserves for the grid during these periods in the near future with expected higher adoption rates of solar energy. Additionally, the top 5% of homes in the sample represent 40% of the total MW-hours of DR resource, suggesting that policies and programs to take advantage of this resource should target these high users to maximize cost-effectiveness. - Highlights: • We use hourly electricity use data to estimate residential demand response (DR) potential. • The residential cooling DR resource is large and well-matched to solar variability. • Customer heterogeneity is large; programs should target high potential customers

  19. Energy Flexometer : an effective implementation of internet of things for market-based demand response in an energy management system

    Babar, M.S.; Grela, J.; Ozadowicz, A.; Nguyen, P.H.; Hanzelka, Z.; Kamphuis, I.G.

    2017-01-01

    Market-based control mechanism (MCM) needs the IoT environment to fully explore flexibility potential from the end-users to offer to involved actors of the smart energy system. On the other hand, many IoT based energy management systems are already available to a market. This paper presents an

  20. Emergency planning and response: An independent safety assessment of Department of Energy nuclear reactor facilities

    Knuth, D.; Boyd, R.

    1981-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has formed a Nuclear Facilities Personnel Qualification and Training (NFPQT) Committee to assess the implications of the recommendations contained in the President's Commission Report on the Three Mile Island (TMI) Accident (the Kemeny Commission report) that are applicable to DOE's nuclear reactor operations. Thirteen DOE nuclear reactors have been reviewed. The assessments of the 13 facilities are based on information provided by the individual operator organizations and/or cognizant DOE Field Offices. Additional clarifying information was supplied in some, but not all, instances. This report indicates how these 13 reactor facilities measure up in light of the Kemeny and other TMI-related studies and recommendations, particularly those that have resulted in upgraded Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements in the area of emergency planning and response

  1. TL response of LiF: Mg, Cu, P dosemeters in function of the photon energy

    Gonzalez, P.R.; Azorin, J.; Furetta, C.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the obtained results of studying the response of dosemeters of LiF: Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe, developed in the ININ, commercial dosemeters GR200A (LiF: Mg, Cu, P) of chinese manufacture and TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti) US are presented, when irradiating them with X rays 16, 24, 34.5, 42, 100 and 145 keV of effective energy, with gamma rays of 662 keV ( 137 Cs) and 1252 keV ( 60 Co). The results are presented in function of the sensitivity that the dosemeters showed normalized to gamma radiation of 60 Co. It was appreciated that the dosemeters more equivalent to the tissue, they were those of LiF: Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe, while the less equivalent ones were the TLD-100. (Author)

  2. Extrapolation of extreme response for different mooring line systems of floating wave energy converters

    Ambühl, Simon; Sterndorff, Martin; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Mooring systems for floating wave energy converters (WECs) are a major cost driver. Failure of mooring systems often occurs due to extreme loads. This paper introduces an extrapolation method for extreme response which accounts for the control system of a WEC that controls the loads onto...... measurements from lab-scaled WEPTOS WEC are taken. Different catenary anchor leg mooring (CALM) systems as well as single anchor legmooring (SALM)mooring systemsare implemented for a dynamic simulation with different number of mooring lines. Extreme tension loads with a return period of 50 years are assessed...... for the hawser as well as at the different mooring lines. Furthermore, the extreme load impact given failure of one mooring line is assessed and compared with extreme loads given no system failure....

  3. Morphological plasticity in the tropical sponge Anthosigmella varians: responses to predators and wave energy.

    Hill, Malcolm S; Hill, April L

    2002-02-01

    The goal of the research presented here was to examine phenotypic plasticity exhibited by three morphotypes of the common Caribbean sponge Anthosigmella varians (Duchassaing & Michelotti). We were interested in examining the biotic (and, to a lesser extent, abiotic) factors responsible for branch production in this species. We also tested the hypothesis that the skeleton may serve an antipredator function in this sponge, focusing on vertebrate fish predators (i.e., angelfish) in this work. In transplant and caging experiments, unprotected forma varians replicates were immediately consumed by angelfish, while caged replicates persisted on the reef for several months. These findings support the hypothesis that predators (and not wave energy) restrict forma varians to lagoonal habitats. Branch production was not observed in A. varians forma incrustans when sponges were protected from predators or placed in predator-free, low-wave-energy environments. It is not clear from our work whether forma incrustans is capable of producing branches (i.e., whether branch production is a plastic trait in this morph). Additional field experiments demonstrated that A. varians forma varians increased spicule concentrations, compared to uninjured sponges, in response to artificial predation events, and A. varians forma rigida reduced spicule concentrations, compared to uncaged controls, when protected from predators. These findings indicate that spicule concentration is a plastic morphological trait that can be induced by damage, and that A. varians may be able to reduce spicule concentrations when environmental conditions change (e.g., in the absence of predators). The potential significance of inducible defenses and structural anti-predator defenses in sponges is discussed in relation to recent work on sponge chemical defenses.

  4. Highly trabeculated structure of the human endocardium underlies asymmetrical response to low-energy monophasic shocks

    Connolly, Adam; Robson, Matthew D.; Schneider, Jürgen; Burton, Rebecca; Plank, Gernot; Bishop, Martin J.

    2017-09-01

    Novel low-energy defibrillation therapies are thought to be driven by virtual-electrodes (VEs), due to the interaction of applied monophasic electric shocks with fine-scale anatomical structures within the heart. Significant inter-species differences in the cardiac (micro)-anatomy exist, however, particularly with respect to the degree of endocardial trabeculations, which may underlie important differences in response to low-energy defibrillation protocols. Understanding the interaction of monophasic electric fields with the specific human micro-anatomy is therefore imperative in facilitating the translation and optimisation of these promising experimental therapies to the clinic. In this study, we sought to investigate how electric fields from implanted devices interact with the highly trabeculated human endocardial surface to better understand shock success in order to help optimise future clinical protocols. A bi-ventricular human computational model was constructed from high resolution (350 μm) ex-vivo MR data, including anatomically accurate endocardial structures. Monophasic shocks were applied between a basal right ventricular catheter and an exterior ground. Shocks of varying strengths were applied with both anodal [positive right ventricle (RV) electrode] and cathodal (negative RV electrode) polarities at different states of tissue refractoriness and during induced arrhythmias. Anodal shocks induced isolated positive VEs at the distal side of "detached" trabeculations, which rapidly spread into hyperpolarised tissue on the surrounding endocardial surfaces following the shock. Anodal shocks thus depolarised more tissue 10 ms after the shock than cathodal shocks where the propagation of activation from VEs induced on the proximal side of "detached" trabeculations was prevented due to refractory endocardium. Anodal shocks increased arrhythmia complexity more than cathodal shocks during failed anti-arrhythmia shocks. In conclusion, multiple detached

  5. Design and Implementation of Demand Response Information Interactive Service Platform Based on “Internet Plus” Smart Energy

    Cui, Gaoying; Fan, Jie; Qin, Yuchen; Wang, Dong; Chen, Guangyan

    2017-05-01

    In order to promote the effective use of demand response load side resources, promote the interaction between supply and demand, enhance the level of customer service and achieve the overall utilization of energy, this paper briefly explain the background significance of design demand response information platform and current situation of domestic and foreign development; Analyse the new demand of electricity demand response combined with the application of Internet and big data technology; Design demand response information platform architecture, construct demand responsive system, analyse process of demand response strategy formulate and intelligent execution implement; study application which combined with the big data, Internet and demand response technology; Finally, from information interaction architecture, control architecture and function design perspective design implementation of demand response information platform, illustrate the feasibility of the proposed platform design scheme implemented in a certain extent.

  6. Energy input and response from prompt and early optical afterglow emission in gamma-ray bursts.

    Vestrand, W T; Wren, J A; Wozniak, P R; Aptekar, R; Golentskii, S; Pal'shin, V; Sakamoto, T; White, R R; Evans, S; Casperson, D; Fenimore, E

    2006-07-13

    The taxonomy of optical emission detected during the critical first few minutes after the onset of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) defines two broad classes: prompt optical emission correlated with prompt gamma-ray emission, and early optical afterglow emission uncorrelated with the gamma-ray emission. The standard theoretical interpretation attributes prompt emission to internal shocks in the ultra-relativistic outflow generated by the internal engine; early afterglow emission is attributed to shocks generated by interaction with the surrounding medium. Here we report on observations of a bright GRB that, for the first time, clearly show the temporal relationship and relative strength of the two optical components. The observations indicate that early afterglow emission can be understood as reverberation of the energy input measured by prompt emission. Measurements of the early afterglow reverberations therefore probe the structure of the environment around the burst, whereas the subsequent response to late-time impulsive energy releases reveals how earlier flaring episodes have altered the jet and environment parameters. Many GRBs are generated by the death of massive stars that were born and died before the Universe was ten per cent of its current age, so GRB afterglow reverberations provide clues about the environments around some of the first stars.

  7. Response of radiochromic dye films to low energy heavy charged particles

    Buenfil, A E; Gamboa-Debuen, I; Aviles, P; Avila, O; Olvera, C; Robledo, R; Rodriguez-Ponce, M; Mercado-Uribe, H; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M; Brandan, M E

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the possible use of radiochromic dye films (RCF) as heavy charged particle dosemeters. We present the results of irradiating two commercial RCF (GafChromic HD-810 and MD-55-1) with 1.5, 2.9 and 4.4 MeV protons, 1.4, 2.8, 4.7, 5.9, 6.8 MeV sup 4 He ions and 8.5 and 12.4 MeV sup 1 sup 2 C ions, at proton doses from about 1 Gy up to 3 kGy, helium ions doses from 3 Gy to 5 kGy and carbon ion doses from 30 Gy to 20 kGy. The films were scanned and digitized using commercial equipment. For a given particle, the response per unit dose at different energies indicates an energy dependence of the sensitivity, which is discussed. Comparison was made for the use of a standard spectrophotometer to obtain optical density readings versus a white light scanner.

  8. Optical Response of Metakaolin after Ultraviolet and High Energy Electron Exposure

    B. T. Cesul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metakaolin, which is part of a class of inorganic polymers called geopolymers, is being tested currently for its use as a lightweight mirror material in spacecraft applications. Metakaolin, as with most geopolymers, has the advantages of low initial coefficient of thermal expansion, easy preparation at room temperature and pressure, and high specific strength. Even though metakaolin has been known as a structural material for millennia, it has not been properly vetted for use as a material in spacecraft applications, especially with respect to exposure to its environments. This research highlights one particular aspect of response to the space environment; that is, how do the optical properties of metakaolin change after subjugation to bombardment by ultraviolet and high energy electron radiation? These two radiation sources are common in low earth orbit and a primary cause of degradation of organic polymers in space. Photospectroscopic analysis showed that ultraviolet in combination with high energy electrons causes changes in the metakaolin which need to be accounted for due to their potential impacts on the thermal management of a spacecraft and during application in composite mirror structures.

  9. A stochastic security approach to energy and spinning reserve scheduling considering demand response program

    Partovi, Farzad; Nikzad, Mehdi; Mozafari, Babak; Ranjbar, Ali Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a new algorithm for allocating energy and determining the optimum amount of network active power reserve capacity and the share of generating units and demand side contribution in providing reserve capacity requirements for day-ahead market is presented. In the proposed method, the optimum amount of reserve requirement is determined based on network security set by operator. In this regard, Expected Load Not Supplied (ELNS) is used to evaluate system security in each hour. The proposed method has been implemented over the IEEE 24-bus test system and the results are compared with a deterministic security approach, which considers certain and fixed amount of reserve capacity in each hour. This comparison is done from economic and technical points of view. The promising results show the effectiveness of the proposed model which is formulated as mixed integer linear programming (MILP) and solved by GAMS software. -- Highlights: → Determination of optimal spinning reserve capacity requirement in order to satisfy desired security level set by system operator based on stochastic approach. → Scheduling energy and spinning reserve markets simultaneously. → Comparing the stochastic approach with deterministic approach to determine the advantages and disadvantages of each. → Examine the effect of demand response participation in reserve market to provide spinning reserve.

  10. Plasma response to electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    An electron energy filter (EEF) is embedded in the Large Volume Plasma Device plasma for carrying out studies on excitation of plasma turbulence by a gradient in electron temperature (ETG) described in the paper of Mattoo et al. [S. K. Mattoo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255007 (2012)]. In this paper, we report results on the response of the plasma to the EEF. It is shown that inhomogeneity in the magnetic field of the EEF switches on several physical phenomena resulting in plasma regions with different characteristics, including a plasma region free from energetic electrons, suitable for the study of ETG turbulence. Specifically, we report that localized structures of plasma density, potential, electron temperature, and plasma turbulence are excited in the EEF plasma. It is shown that structures of electron temperature and potential are created due to energy dependence of the electron transport in the filter region. On the other hand, although structure of plasma density has origin in the particle transport but two distinct steps of the density structure emerge from dominance of collisionality in the source-EEF region and of the Bohm diffusion in the EEF-target region. It is argued and experimental evidence is provided for existence of drift like flute Rayleigh-Taylor in the EEF plasma

  11. Comparison of energy expenditure and heart rate responses between three commercial group fitness classes.

    Wickham, James B; Mullen, Nicholas J; Whyte, Douglas G; Cannon, Jack

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the energy expenditure and heart rate responses between three commercial group fitness classes (group resistance exercise [PUMP]; indoor stationary cycling [RIDE]; and step aerobics [STEP]). One-Way Repeated Measures incorporating a Latin Square Design for class randomisation. Ten participants (5 males and 5 females) completed each group fitness class in random order with energy expenditure and heart rate determined using an Actiheart monitor. STEP and RIDE produced significantly (pheart rates (HR avg ) (85.8±5.1% and 86.4±4.3% of HR max , respectively) compared to PUMP (73.7±7% of HR max ). HR peak was also significantly (pexpenditure (TEE), both absolute and relative, were significantly (pexpenditure was highly comparable between RIDE and STEP, which suggests these group fitness classes are more effective for developing cardiovascular fitness and assisting with weight management compared with group resistance exercise classes when performed on a regular basis. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interactions between negative energy balance, metabolic diseases, uterine health and immune response in transition dairy cows.

    Esposito, Giulia; Irons, Pete C; Webb, Edward C; Chapwanya, Aspinas

    2014-01-30

    The biological cycles of milk production and reproduction determine dairying profitability thus making management decisions dynamic and time-dependent. Diseases also negatively impact on net earnings of a dairy enterprise. Transition cows in particular face the challenge of negative energy balance (NEB) and/or disproportional energy metabolism (fatty liver, ketosis, subacute, acute ruminal acidosis); disturbed mineral utilization (milk fever, sub-clinical hypocalcemia); and perturbed immune function (retained placenta, metritis, mastitis). Consequently NEB and reduced dry matter intake are aggravated. The combined effects of all these challenges are reduced fertility and milk production resulting in diminishing profits. Risk factors such as NEB, inflammation and impairment of the immune response are highly cause-and-effect related. Thus, managing cows during the transition period should be geared toward reducing NEB or feeding specially formulated diets to improve immunity. Given that all cows experience a reduced feed intake and body condition, infection and inflammation of the uterus after calving, there is a need for further research on the immunology of transition dairy cows. Integrative approaches at the molecular, cellular and animal level may unravel the complex interactions between disturbed metabolism and immune function that predispose cows to periparturient diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Individual Variation in Hunger, Energy Intake, and Ghrelin Responses to Acute Exercise.

    King, James A; Deighton, Kevin; Broom, David R; Wasse, Lucy K; Douglas, Jessica A; Burns, Stephen F; Cordery, Philip A; Petherick, Emily S; Batterham, Rachel L; Goltz, Fernanda R; Thackray, Alice E; Yates, Thomas; Stensel, David J

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize the immediate and extended effect of acute exercise on hunger, energy intake, and circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations using a large data set of homogenous experimental trials and to describe the variation in responses between individuals. Data from 17 of our group's experimental crossover trials were aggregated yielding a total sample of 192 young, healthy males. In these studies, single bouts of moderate to high-intensity aerobic exercise (69% ± 5% V˙O2 peak; mean ± SD) were completed with detailed participant assessments occurring during and for several hours postexercise. Mean hunger ratings were determined during (n = 178) and after (n = 118) exercise from visual analog scales completed at 30-min intervals, whereas ad libitum energy intake was measured within the first hour after exercise (n = 60) and at multiple meals (n = 128) during the remainder of trials. Venous concentrations of acylated ghrelin were determined at strategic time points during (n = 118) and after (n = 89) exercise. At group level, exercise transiently suppressed hunger (P hunger and circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations with notable diversity between individuals. Care must be taken to distinguish true interindividual variation from random differences within normal limits.

  14. Protein-energy malnutrition alters thermoregulatory homeostasis and the response to brain ischemia.

    Smith, Shari E; Prosser-Loose, Erin J; Colbourne, Frederick; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2011-02-01

    Co-existing protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), characterized by deficits in both protein and energy status, impairs functional outcome following global ischemia and has been associated with increased reactive gliosis. Since temperature is a key determinant of brain damage following an ischemic insult, the objective was to investigate whether alterations in post-ischemic temperature regulation contribute to PEM-induced reactive gliosis following ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (190-280 g) were assigned to either control diet (18% protein) or PEM induced by feeding a low protein diet (2% protein) for 7 days prior to either global ischemia or sham surgery. There was a rapid disruption in thermoregulatory function in rats fed the low protein diet as assessed by continuous recording of core temperature with bio-electrical sensor transmitters. Both daily temperature fluctuation and mean temperature increased within the first 24 hours, and these remained significantly elevated throughout the 7 day pre-ischemic period (p protein diet rapidly impairs the ability to maintain thermoregulatory homeostasis, and the resultant PEM also diminishes the ability to thermoregulate in response to a challenge. Since temperature regulation is a key determinant of brain injury following ischemia, these findings suggest that the pathophysiology of brain injury could be altered in stroke victims with coexisting PEM.

  15. Investigating the response of Micromegas detector to low-energy neutrons using Monte Carlo simulation

    Khezripour, S.; Negarestani, A.; Rezaie, M. R.

    2017-08-01

    Micromegas detector has recently been used for high-energy neutron (HEN) detection, but the aim of this research is to investigate the response of the Micromegas detector to low-energy neutron (LEN). For this purpose, a Micromegas detector (with air, P10, BF3, 3He and Ar/BF3 mixture) was optimized for the detection of 60 keV neutrons using the MCNP (Monte Carlo N Particle) code. The simulation results show that the optimum thickness of the cathode is 1 mm and the optimum of microgrid location is 100 μm above the anode. The output current of this detector for Ar (3%) + BF3 (97%) mixture is greater than the other ones. This mixture is considered as the appropriate gas for the Micromegas neutron detector providing the output current for 60 keV neutrons at the level of 97.8 nA per neutron. Consecuently, this detector can be introduced as LEN detector.

  16. Retinal response of Macaca mulatta to picosecond laser pulses of varying energy and spot size.

    Roach, William P; Cain, Clarence P; Narayan, Drew G; Noojin, Gary D; Boppart, Stephen A; Birngruber, Reginald; Fujimoto, James G; Toth, Cynthia A

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the laser beam at the retina (spot size) and the extent of retinal injury from single ultrashort laser pulses. From previous studies it is believed that the retinal effect of single 3-ps laser pulses should vary in extent and location, depending on the occurrence of laser-induced breakdown (LIB) at the site of laser delivery. Single 3-ps pulses of 580-nm laser energy are delivered over a range of spot sizes to the retina of Macaca mulatta. The retinal response is captured sequentially with optical coherence tomography (OCT). The in vivo OCT images and the extent of pathology on final microscopic sections of the laser site are compared. With delivery of a laser pulse with peak irradiance greater than that required for LIB, OCT and light micrographs demonstrate inner retinal injury with many intraretinal and/or vitreous hemorrhages. In contrast, broad outer retinal injury with minimal to no choriocapillaris effect is seen after delivery of laser pulses to a larger retinal area (60 to 300 microm diam) when peak irradiance is less than that required for LIB. The broader lesions extend into the inner retina when higher energy delivery produces intraretinal injury. Microscopic examination of stained fixed tissues provide better resolution of retinal morphology than OCT. OCT provides less resolution but could be guided over an in vivo, visible retinal lesion for repeated sampling over time during the evolution of the lesion formation. For 3-ps visible wavelength laser pulses, varying the spot size and laser energy directly affects the extent of retinal injury. This again is believed to be partly due to the onset of LIB, as seen in previous studies. Spot-size dependence should be considered when comparing studies of retinal effects or when pursuing a specific retinal effect from ultrashort laser pulses. Copyright 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  17. Impact Analysis of Demand Response Intensity and Energy Storage Size on Operation of Networked Microgrids

    Akhtar Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Integration of demand response (DR programs and battery energy storage system (BESS in microgrids are beneficial for both microgrid owners and consumers. The intensity of DR programs and BESS size can alter the operation of microgrids. Meanwhile, the optimal size for BESS units is linked with the uncertainties associated with renewable energy sources and load variations. Similarly, the participation of enrolled customers in DR programs is also uncertain and, among various other factors, uncertainty in market prices is a major cause. Therefore, in this paper, the impact of DR program intensity and BESS size on the operation of networked microgrids is analyzed while considering the prevailing uncertainties. The uncertainties associated with forecast load values, output of renewable generators, and market price are realized via the robust optimization method. Robust optimization has the capability to provide immunity against the worst-case scenario, provided the uncertainties lie within the specified bounds. The worst-case scenario of the prevailing uncertainties is considered for evaluating the feasibility of the proposed method. The two representative categories of DR programs, i.e., price-based and incentive-based DR programs are considered. The impact of change in DR intensity and BESS size on operation cost of the microgrid network, external power trading, internal power transfer, load profile of the network, and state-of-charge (SOC of battery energy storage system (BESS units is analyzed. Simulation results are analyzed to determine the integration of favorable DR program and/or BESS units for different microgrid networks with diverse objectives.

  18. Developing Intelligent System Dynamic Management Instruments on Water-Food-Energy Nexus in Response to Urbanization

    Tsai, W. P.; Chang, F. J.; Lur, H. S.; Fan, C. H.; Hu, M. C.; Huang, T. L.

    2016-12-01

    Water, food and energy are the most essential natural resources needed to sustain life. Water-Food-Energy Nexus (WFE Nexus) has nowadays caught global attention upon natural resources scarcity and their interdependency. In the past decades, Taiwan's integrative development has undergone drastic changes due to population growth, urbanization and excessive utilization of natural resources. The research intends to carry out interdisciplinary studies on WFE Nexus based on data collection and analysis as well as technology innovation, with a mission to develop a comprehensive solution to configure the synergistic utilization of WFE resources in an equal and secure manner for building intelligent dynamic green cities. This study aims to establish the WFE Nexus through interdisciplinary research. This study will probe the appropriate and secure resources distribution and coopetition relationship by applying and developing techniques of artificial intelligence, system dynamics, life cycle assessment, and synergy management under data mining, system analysis and scenario analysis. The issues of synergy effects, economic benefits and sustainable social development will be evaluated as well. First, we will apply the system dynamics to identify the interdependency indicators of WFE Nexus in response to urbanization and build the dynamic relationship among food production, irrigation water resource and energy consumption. Then, we conduct comparative studies of WFE Nexus between the urbanization and the un-urbanization area (basin) to provide a referential guide for optimal resource-policy nexus management. We expect to the proposed solutions can help achieve the main goals of the research, which is the promotion of human well-being and moving toward sustainable green economy and prosperous society.

  19. Energy metabolism and metabolomics response of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to sulfide toxicity.

    Li, Tongyu; Li, Erchao; Suo, Yantong; Xu, Zhixin; Jia, Yongyi; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao; Gu, Zhimin

    2017-02-01

    The toxicity and poisoning mechanisms of sulfide were studied in Litopenaeus vannamei from the perspective of energy metabolism and metabolomics. The lethal concentrations of sulfide in L. vannamei (LC50) at 24h, 48h, 72h, and 96h were determined. Sulfide at a concentration of 0, 1/10 (425.5μg/L), and 1/5 (851μg/L) of the LC 50 at 96h was used to test the metabolic responses of L. vannamei for 21days. The chronic exposure of shrimp to a higher sulfide concentration of 851μg/L decreased shrimp survival but did not affect weight gain or the hepatopancreas index. The glycogen content in the hepatopancreas and muscle and the activity of hepatopancreas cytochrome C oxidase of the shrimp exposed to all sulfide concentrations were significantly lower, and the serum glucose and lactic acid levels and lactic acid dehydrogenase activity were significantly lower than those in the control. Metabolomics assays showed that shrimp exposed to sulfide had lower amounts of serum pyruvic acid, succinic acid, glycine, alanine, and proline in the 425.5μg/L group and phosphate, succinic acid, beta-alanine, serine, and l-histidine in the 851μg/L group than in the control. Chronic sulfide exposure could disturb protein synthesis in shrimp but enhance gluconeogenesis and substrate absorption for ATP synthesis and tricarboxylic acid cycles to provide extra energy to cope with sulfide stress. Chronic sulfide exposure could adversely affect the health status of L. vannamei, as indicated by the high amounts of serum n-ethylmaleamic acid, pyroglutamic acid, aspartic acid and phenylalanine relative to the control. This study indicates that chronic exposure of shrimp to sulfide can decrease health and lower survival through functional changes in gluconeogenesis, protein synthesis and energy metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy Structures as Determinants of Response to Climate Change. Case Studies of Brazil, China, India and Mexico

    Estrada, Javier; Bergesen, Helge Ole [eds.

    1997-12-31

    This report analyses whether a `low carbon emissions` alternative exists for the expansion and modernization of the energy sector in less developed countries (LDCs). The authors are convinced that energy development and hence carbon emissions in LDCs will be strongly driven by the energy structures and policies that are already in place. Options for future carbon emissions must be assessed based on analyses of the underlying pattern of economic and political interests that shape the energy sector that produces the emissions. The countries studied account for more than 1/3 of the total emissions outside OECD. In all these countries the energy sector was organized decades ago to promote industrialization and welfare with little environmental concern. The energy utilities are under financed for their tasks, having excessive personnel, cumbersome administration and budgets in deficit. Increased supply capacity has been given priority over energy efficiency and the projected increase of CO{sub 2} emission is enormous. Strong urbanization has caused major health problems. Vehicle transportation and power generation are major sources of air pollution. Most countries with emerging economies have comprehensive environmental rules for the energy sector, but standards seldom go beyond well-established practices. The development of regulations that promote a sustainable energy industry must take place in stages. First, raise the efficiency standard of the traditional energy industries and make new owners of energy companies take environmental responsibility. Then revise the regulatory framework to promote the development of sustainable energy at the municipal level. 81 refs., 15 figs., 63 tabs.

  1. Energy Structures as Determinants of Response to Climate Change. Case Studies of Brazil, China, India and Mexico

    Estrada, Javier; Bergesen, Helge Ole [eds.

    1998-12-31

    This report analyses whether a `low carbon emissions` alternative exists for the expansion and modernization of the energy sector in less developed countries (LDCs). The authors are convinced that energy development and hence carbon emissions in LDCs will be strongly driven by the energy structures and policies that are already in place. Options for future carbon emissions must be assessed based on analyses of the underlying pattern of economic and political interests that shape the energy sector that produces the emissions. The countries studied account for more than 1/3 of the total emissions outside OECD. In all these countries the energy sector was organized decades ago to promote industrialization and welfare with little environmental concern. The energy utilities are under financed for their tasks, having excessive personnel, cumbersome administration and budgets in deficit. Increased supply capacity has been given priority over energy efficiency and the projected increase of CO{sub 2} emission is enormous. Strong urbanization has caused major health problems. Vehicle transportation and power generation are major sources of air pollution. Most countries with emerging economies have comprehensive environmental rules for the energy sector, but standards seldom go beyond well-established practices. The development of regulations that promote a sustainable energy industry must take place in stages. First, raise the efficiency standard of the traditional energy industries and make new owners of energy companies take environmental responsibility. Then revise the regulatory framework to promote the development of sustainable energy at the municipal level. 81 refs., 15 figs., 63 tabs.

  2. Protein energy malnutrition alters mucosal IgA responses and reduces mucosal vaccine efficacy in mice.

    Rho, Semi; Kim, Heejoo; Shim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Seung Young; Kim, Min Jung; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jang, Myoung Ho; Han, Byung Woo; Song, Man Ki; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Kim, Jae-Ouk

    2017-10-01

    Oral vaccine responsiveness is often lower in children from less developed countries. Childhood malnutrition may be associated with poor immune response to oral vaccines. The present study was designed to investigate whether protein energy malnutrition (PEM) impairs B cell immunity and ultimately reduces oral vaccine efficacy in a mouse model. Purified isocaloric diets containing low protein (1/10 the protein of the control diet) were used to determine the effect of PEM. PEM increased both nonspecific total IgA and oral antigen-specific IgA in serum without alteration of gut permeability. However, PEM decreased oral antigen-specific IgA in feces, which is consistent with decreased expression of polymeric Immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) in the small intestine. Of note, polymeric IgA was predominant in serum under PEM. In addition, PEM altered B cell development status in the bone marrow and increased the frequency of IgA-secreting B cells, as well as IgA secretion by long-lived plasma cells in the small intestinal lamina propria. Moreover, PEM reduced the protective efficacy of the mucosally administered cholera vaccine and recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine in a mouse model. Our results suggest that PEM can impair mucosal immunity where IgA plays an important role in host protection and may partly explain the reduced efficacy of oral vaccines in malnourished subjects. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Department of Energy ALARA implementation guide. Response to the Health Physics Society

    Connelly, J.M. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In the August 1993 Health Physics Society (HPS) newsletter, the HPS Scientific and Public Issues Committee published a Position Statement entitled {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.{close_quotes}. In this article, this HPS committee made the statement that they were deeply concerned by the trend for agencies to incorporate the ALARA concept as a regulatory requirements, without providing specific guidance as to what it means and how to implement it consistently. The HPS position paper was in response to the DOE notice on proposed rulemaking for Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 834, {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment{close_quotes} (10 CFR 834). In the notice of proposed rulemaking for 10 CFR 834, the Department of Energy (DOE) defined ALARA as follows: {open_quotes}As used in this part, ALARA is not a dose limit, but rather a process which has the objective of attaining doses as far below the applicable limit of this part as is reasonably achievable{close_quotes} (10 CFR 834.2, p. 16283 of the Federal Register). The HPS position paper continues, {open_quotes}The section goes on to elaborate on what is meant by a process without providing sufficient guidance to assure uniform applicability of the process.{close_quotes}. Although this concern is directed towards the ALARA process as it relates to the environment, the Office of Health, which is responsible for occupational workers, shares the same definition for ALARA.

  4. Audit Report "Department of Energy Efforts to Manage Information Technology Resources in an Energy-Efficient and Environmentally Responsible Manner"

    None

    2009-05-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 emphasizes energy efficiency and conservation as critical to the Nation's economic vitality; its goal of reducing dependence on foreign energy sources; and, related efforts to improve the environment. The Act highlights the significant use of various forms of energy in the Federal sector and promotes efforts to improve the energy efficiency of Federal operations. One specific area of interest is the increasing demand for Federal sector computing resources and the corresponding increase in energy use, with both cost and environmental implications. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reported that, without aggressive conservation measures, data center energy consumption alone is expected to double over the next five years. In our report on Management of the Department's Data Centers at Contractor Sites (DOE/IG-0803, October 2008) we concluded that the Department of Energy had not always improved the efficiency of its contractor data centers even when such modifications were possible and practical. Despite its recognized energy conservation leadership role, the Department had not always taken advantage of opportunities to reduce energy consumption associated with its information technology resources. Nor, had it ensured that resources were managed in a way that minimized impact on the environment. In particular: (1) The seven Federal and contractor sites included in our review had not fully reduced energy consumption through implementation of power management settings on their desktop and laptop computers; and, as a consequence, spent $1.6 million more on energy costs than necessary in Fiscal Year 2008; (2) None of the sites reviewed had taken advantage of opportunities to reduce energy consumption, enhance cyber security, and reduce costs available through the use of techniques, such as 'thin-client computing' in their unclassified environments; and, (3) Sites had not always taken the

  5. Preparation of the FXG gel dosemeter and studying its response for low and medium energy X-rays

    Bero, M.; Kharita, M. H.

    2008-02-01

    Gel dosimetry method was found to be capable of addressing complicated issues related to dose measurements particularly in modern sophisticated radiotherapy applications. Ferrous-sulphate Xylenol-orange and Gelatin (FXG) radiochromic gel dosemeter is one of the systems used for such applications. Some chemical dosemeters show different response for low and medium energies X-rays in comparison with high energy-photons. The energy and dose rate dependence of the FXG dose response was examined. In addition to the detector response other important dosimetric properties of the system were investigated for different X-ray beam qualities with tube voltages in the range 100 - 300 kv. An orthovoltage X-ray therapy unit was used to irradiate standard sized samples of FXG from different batches for radiation doses in the range 0 - 8 Gy. This work includes in the first stage the preparation of the radiochromic gel dosemeter (FXG) as well as its calibration in gamma radiation field. Furthermore, the stability and reproducibility of measurements were tested. The obtained results were found to be suitable as a basis to carry on the next stage of this study. The second phase was centred about the delivery of radiation doses from X-ray source that has increasing energy and evaluating the gel material properties as a dosemeter in this case, with concentration on finding the changes of the gel material response with the changes in the applied X-ray energy. Therefore establishing the response radiation energy dependence and comparing the measurement results with other results taken from other known dosimetry system such as ion chambers. Experiments shows that the FXG gel detector has a dynamic rage suitable for the dose delivered in radiotherapy treatment; its response as a function of the dose rate is also stable in the range of radiation energies applied.(Author)

  6. Energy

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Day-ahead stochastic economic dispatch of wind integrated power system considering demand response of residential hybrid energy system

    Jiang, Yibo; Xu, Jian; Sun, Yuanzhang; Wei, Congying; Wang, Jing; Ke, Deping; Li, Xiong; Yang, Jun; Peng, Xiaotao; Tang, Bowen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving the utilization of wind power by the demand response of residential hybrid energy system. • An optimal scheduling of home energy management system integrating micro-CHP. • The scattered response capability of consumers is aggregated by demand bidding curve. • A stochastic day-ahead economic dispatch model considering demand response and wind power. - Abstract: As the installed capacity of wind power is growing, the stochastic variability of wind power leads to the mismatch of demand and generated power. Employing the regulating capability of demand to improve the utilization of wind power has become a new research direction. Meanwhile, the micro combined heat and power (micro-CHP) allows residential consumers to choose whether generating electricity by themselves or purchasing from the utility company, which forms a residential hybrid energy system. However, the impact of the demand response with hybrid energy system contained micro-CHP on the large-scale wind power utilization has not been analyzed quantitatively. This paper proposes an operation optimization model of the residential hybrid energy system based on price response, integrating micro-CHP and smart appliances intelligently. Moreover, a novel load aggregation method is adopted to centralize scattered response capability of residential load. At the power grid level, a day-ahead stochastic economic dispatch model considering demand response and wind power is constructed. Furthermore, simulation is conducted respectively on the modified 6-bus system and IEEE 118-bus system. The results show that with the method proposed, the wind power curtailment of the system decreases by 78% in 6-bus system. In the meantime, the energy costs of residential consumers and the operating costs of the power system reduced by 10.7% and 11.7% in 118-bus system, respectively.

  8. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for diurnal load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks are being developed. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is also being developed by LASL. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch and 1-to-2-s slow tokamak energy transfer systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of an SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given for a 1-GWh reference design load-leveling unit, for a 30-MJ coil proposed stabilization unit, and for tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are also presented. The common technology base for the systems is discussed

  9. Energy

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  10. No-reference stereoscopic image quality measurement based on generalized local ternary patterns of binocular energy response

    Zhou, Wujie; Yu, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual no-reference (NR) quality measurement of stereoscopic images has become a challenging issue in three-dimensional (3D) imaging fields. In this article, we propose an efficient binocular quality-aware features extraction scheme, namely generalized local ternary patterns (GLTP) of binocular energy response, for general-purpose NR stereoscopic image quality measurement (SIQM). More specifically, we first construct the binocular energy response of a distorted stereoscopic image with different stimuli of amplitude and phase shifts. Then, the binocular quality-aware features are generated from the GLTP of the binocular energy response. Finally, these features are mapped to the subjective quality score of the distorted stereoscopic image by using support vector regression. Experiments on two publicly available 3D databases confirm the effectiveness of the proposed metric compared with the state-of-the-art full reference and NR metrics. (paper)

  11. Foraging plasticity of breeding Northern Rockhopper Penguins, Eudyptes moseleyi, in response to changing energy requirements

    Booth, Jenny Marie

    2018-04-02

    During the breeding season, seabirds must balance the changing demands of self- and off-spring provisioning with the constraints imposed by central-place foraging. Recently, it was shown that Northern Rockhopper Penguins at Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic Ocean switch diet from lower to higher trophic level prey throughout their breeding cycle. Here, we investigated if this switch is reflected in their foraging behaviour, using time-depth recorders to study the diving behaviour of 27 guard and 10 crèche birds during the breeding season 2010 at Tristan da Cunha and obtaining complementary stomach contents of 20 birds. While no significant effects of breeding stage were detected on any foraging trip or dive parameters, stage/prey had a significant effect on feeding dive parameters, with dive duration, bottom time, and maximum depth explaining the majority of the dissimilarity amongst categories. We verified the previously shown dietary shift from zooplankton and cephalopods during the guard stage to a higher-energy fish-based diet during the crèche stage, which was reflected in a change in dive behaviour from shorter, shallower to longer, deeper dives. This prey switching behaviour may reflect preferential selection to account for the increased physiological needs of chicks or simply mirror changes in local prey abundance. Nonetheless, we show that Northern Rockhopper Penguins demonstrate behavioural plasticity as a response to their changing energy requirements, which is a critical trait when living in a spatio-temporally heterogeneous environment. This ability is likely to be particularly important under extrinsic constraints such as long-term environmental change.

  12. Energy Generation from Horse Husbandry Residues by Anaerobic Digestion, Combustion, and an Integrated Approach

    Meike Nitsche

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Horse-related activities often occur close to urban areas, where acreage for horse manure disposal is scarce, and subsequently alternative recovery options are necessary. Anaerobic digestion, direct combustion, and the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass (IFBB process are potential techniques focusing on energy provision. In this study, samples of horse faeces were analysed for chemical composition as pure feedstock and in mixture with straw or wood shavings, as well as for energy yield by biogas production or from combustion of solid fuel. It was observed that chemical properties of faeces, in a mixture with wood shavings, were promising for direct combustion, but achieved low methane yields. The methane yield of pure faeces and the straw mixture was 222.33 ± 13.60 and 233.01 ± 31.32 lN·kg-1 volatile solids (VSadded, respectively. The IFBB process divided the biomass into a press cake with reduced mineral concentration and a press fluid. Methane yields of press fluids were low (108.2 lN·kg-1 VSadded, on average. The chemical composition of the press cake allowed for combustion and led to a higher gross energy potential than anaerobic digestion (two-fold higher for pure manure and the mixture with straw, and five-fold higher for the mixture with shavings. Consequently, the gross energy potential of IFBB is higher compared to anaerobic digestion, however it should be noted that local conditions might favour the implementation of anaerobic digestion.

  13. Energy distribution extraction of negative charges responsible for positive bias temperature instability

    Ren Shang-Qing; Yang Hong; Wang Wen-Wu; Tang Bo; Tang Zhao-Yun; Wang Xiao-Lei; Xu Hao; Luo Wei-Chun; Zhao Chao; Yan Jiang; Chen Da-Peng; Ye Tian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    A new method is proposed to extract the energy distribution of negative charges, which results from electron trapping by traps in the gate stack of nMOSFET during positive bias temperature instability (PBTI) stress based on the recovery measurement. In our case, the extracted energy distribution of negative charges shows an obvious dependence on energy, and the energy level of the largest energy density of negative charges is 0.01 eV above the conduction band of silicon. The charge energy distribution below that energy level shows strong dependence on the stress voltage. (paper)

  14. Energy expenditure and affect responses to different types of active video game and exercise.

    Monedero, Javier; Murphy, Enda E; O'Gorman, Donal J

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare entertainment-themed active video game (AVG) and fitness-themed AVG play with traditional exercise to examine the interaction between physiological and psychological responses. Participants (N = 23) were randomly assigned to 30-min of (i) self-selected intensity exercise (SS-EX), (ii) moderate intensity exercise (MOD-EX), (iii) entertainment-themed video game (ET-VG) and (iv) fitness-themed video game (FT-VG). Physiological and psychological outcomes were recorded before, during and after each trial. All trials met the ACSM criteria for moderate or vigorous physical activity. The [Formula: see text] (68.3±13.9%) and rate of energy expenditure (10.3±3.1kcal/min) was significantly higher in the SS-EX trial with lowest values reported for ET-VG (p<0.05). No differences were found in % heart rate reserve between SS-EX and FT-VG (66.9±12.5% and 67.1±6% respectively). The AVG's were significantly more enjoyable than the exercise trials (p<0.05) and the ET-VG resulted in the highest core flow and psychological well-being (p<0.05). AVG's can elicit physiological responses that meet recommended exercise intensities but are more enjoyable than conventional exercise in young inactive adults. While further work is required, this study highlights the importance of examining the interaction between physiological outcomes and psychological states to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time.

  15. Energy expenditure and affect responses to different types of active video game and exercise.

    Javier Monedero

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare entertainment-themed active video game (AVG and fitness-themed AVG play with traditional exercise to examine the interaction between physiological and psychological responses.Participants (N = 23 were randomly assigned to 30-min of (i self-selected intensity exercise (SS-EX, (ii moderate intensity exercise (MOD-EX, (iii entertainment-themed video game (ET-VG and (iv fitness-themed video game (FT-VG. Physiological and psychological outcomes were recorded before, during and after each trial.All trials met the ACSM criteria for moderate or vigorous physical activity. The [Formula: see text] (68.3±13.9% and rate of energy expenditure (10.3±3.1kcal/min was significantly higher in the SS-EX trial with lowest values reported for ET-VG (p<0.05. No differences were found in % heart rate reserve between SS-EX and FT-VG (66.9±12.5% and 67.1±6% respectively. The AVG's were significantly more enjoyable than the exercise trials (p<0.05 and the ET-VG resulted in the highest core flow and psychological well-being (p<0.05.AVG's can elicit physiological responses that meet recommended exercise intensities but are more enjoyable than conventional exercise in young inactive adults. While further work is required, this study highlights the importance of examining the interaction between physiological outcomes and psychological states to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time.

  16. The central role of energy in Soddy's holistic and critical approach to nuclear science, economics, and social responsibility

    Trenn, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The following aspects of Soddy's life and work are discussed: early work with Rutherford leading to the conviction that atoms contained an immense store of energy; his belief that this energy could be released and controlled for the benefit of mankind; his growing concern with the fundamental problems of social economics and the social responsibility of scientists; and his interest in economics and monetary reform. (U.K.)

  17. Chiral magnetic currents with QGP medium response in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC energies

    She, Duan; Feng, Sheng-Qin; Zhong, Yang; Yin, Zhong-Bao

    2018-03-01

    We calculate the electromagnetic current with a more realistic approach in the RHIC and LHC energy regions in the article. We take the partons formation time as the initial time of the magnetic field response of QGP medium. The maximum electromagnetic current and the time-integrated current are two important characteristics of the chiral magnetic effect (CME), which can characterize the intensity and duration of fluctuations of CME. We consider the finite frequency response of CME to a time-varying magnetic field, find a significant impact from QGP medium feedback, and estimate the generated electromagnetic current as a function of time, beam energy and impact parameter.

  18. Understanding the response of commercial and institutional organizations to the California energy crisis. A report to the California Energy Commission - Sylvia Bender, Project Manager

    Lutzenhiser, Loren; Janda, Kathryn; Kunkle, Rick; Payne, Christopher

    2002-07-24

    Beginning in the summer of 2000, California experienced serious energy supply problems, sharp increases in wholesale (and retail) electricity and natural gas prices, and isolated blackouts. In response to the rapidly worsening electricity situation in California in late 2000, the state set, as an initial goal, the reduction of the state's peak demand for the summer of 2001 by 5,000 megawatts. To meet this goal, the governor and legislature took a variety of steps to enhance supply, encourage rapid voluntary reductions in demand, and provide incentives for actions that would result in load reductions. Three bills-Assembly Bill 970, Senate Bill X1 5 and Assembly Bill X1 29-allocated roughly $950 million for consumption and demand reduction programs. The governor also enacted a variety of additional measures, including the ''Flex Your Power'' (media awareness and direct business involvement) campaign, requirements for retail sector outdoor lighting reductions, and toughening of energy efficiency building codes. There were, in fact, significant reductions in electricity demand in California during the summer of 2001 and the large number of expected supply disruptions was avoided. To understand the nature of these demand reductions and the motivations for consumer response, Washington State University (WSU) undertook a study for the California Energy Commission (CEC) focusing on conservation behavior in the residential, commercial, and agricultural sectors. The research presented in this report represents an exploration of the response of commercial and institutional organizations to the California energy situation and the unique set of influences that existed during this time. These influences included informational messages and media attention, program interventions, price changes, and external triggering events (e.g., blackouts). To better understand the effects of these influences on organizational response to the energy situation, we

  19. The importance of domestic mining, with particular regard to the expectations on a German and European energy policy. - Responsibility in energy policy - can we do without coal and nuclear power?

    Wolfram, E.; Gerstein, L.

    1989-01-01

    The booklet contains two lectures on fundamental issues of the German energy policy. While the first contribution deals with the economic and energy-political significance of domestic coal, the second one looks for a formula of consent for a responsible energy policy supported in common, which is orientated along feasible and necessary aspects and along the responsibility for the future. (HSCH) [de

  20. Converting hazardous organics into clean energy using a solar responsive dual photoelectrode photocatalytic fuel cell.

    Li, Jianyong; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Quanpeng; Bai, Jing; Zhou, Baoxue

    2013-11-15

    Direct discharging great quantities of organics into water-body not only causes serious environmental pollution but also wastes energy sources. In this paper, a solar responsive dual photoelectrode photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC(2)) based on TiO2/Ti photoanode and Cu2O/Cu photocathode was designed for hazardous organics treatment with simultaneous electricity generation. Under solar irradiation, the interior bias voltage produced for the Fermi level difference between photoelectrodes drives photoelectrons of TiO2/Ti photoanode to combine with photoholes of Cu2O/Cu photocathode through external circuit thus generating electricity. In the meantime, organics are decomposed by photoholes remained at TiO2/Ti photoanode. By using various hazardous organics including azo dyes as model pollutants, the PFC showed high converting performance of organics into electricity. For example, in 0.05 M phenol solution, a short-circuit current density 0.23 mA cm(-2), open-circuit voltage 0.49 V, maximum power output 0.3610(-4)W cm(-2) was achieved. On the other hand, removal rate of chroma reached 67%, 87% and 63% in 8h for methyl orange, methylene blue, Congo red, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Model of yield response of corn to plant population and absorption of solar energy.

    Allen R Overman

    Full Text Available Biomass yield of agronomic crops is influenced by a number of factors, including crop species, soil type, applied nutrients, water availability, and plant population. This article is focused on dependence of biomass yield (Mg ha(-1 and g plant(-1 on plant population (plants m(-2. Analysis includes data from the literature for three independent studies with the warm-season annual corn (Zea mays L. grown in the United States. Data are analyzed with a simple exponential mathematical model which contains two parameters, viz. Y(m (Mg ha(-1 for maximum yield at high plant population and c (m(2 plant(-1 for the population response coefficient. This analysis leads to a new parameter called characteristic plant population, x(c = 1/c (plants m(-2. The model is shown to describe the data rather well for the three field studies. In one study measurements were made of solar radiation at different positions in the plant canopy. The coefficient of absorption of solar energy was assumed to be the same as c and provided a physical basis for the exponential model. The three studies showed no definitive peak in yield with plant population, but generally exhibited asymptotic approach to maximum yield with increased plant population. Values of x(c were very similar for the three field studies with the same crop species.

  2. Uncertainties propagation and global sensitivity analysis of the frequency response function of piezoelectric energy harvesters

    Ruiz, Rafael O.; Meruane, Viviana

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this work is to describe a framework to propagate uncertainties in piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs). These uncertainties are related to the incomplete knowledge of the model parameters. The framework presented could be employed to conduct prior robust stochastic predictions. The prior analysis assumes a known probability density function for the uncertain variables and propagates the uncertainties to the output voltage. The framework is particularized to evaluate the behavior of the frequency response functions (FRFs) in PEHs, while its implementation is illustrated by the use of different unimorph and bimorph PEHs subjected to different scenarios: free of uncertainties, common uncertainties, and uncertainties as a product of imperfect clamping. The common variability associated with the PEH parameters are tabulated and reported. A global sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the Sobol indices. Results indicate that the elastic modulus, density, and thickness of the piezoelectric layer are the most relevant parameters of the output variability. The importance of including the model parameter uncertainties in the estimation of the FRFs is revealed. In this sense, the present framework constitutes a powerful tool in the robust design and prediction of PEH performance.

  3. The response of the Beijing carbon emissions allowance price (BJC) to macroeconomic and energy price indices

    Zeng, Shihong; Nan, Xin; Liu, Chao; Chen, Jiuying

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, China opened pilot carbon emission trading markets in seven provinces, where carbon emission allowances have now been traded for more than two years. In this paper, we employ a structural VAR model and the price of the Beijing carbon emission allowance to study the dynamic relationships among the price of the carbon emission allowance, economic development and the price of energy. This paper's data cover the period from April 2, 2014 to November 6, 2015. This paper provides information that will be helpful to both investors and governmental policy makers. The results show that (1) an increase of one standard deviation in the coal price leads to an initial increase of approximately 0.1% in the Beijing carbon price. After 2 days, there is a decrease of less than 0.1%, and the price gradually increases by approximately 0.1% after 30 days; (2) the price of the Beijing carbon emission allowance is mainly affected by its own historical price; (3) the Beijing carbon emission allowance price, crude oil price, natural gas price and economic development have positive – albeit non-significant – correlations. - Highlights: • This paper examines the response of the Beijing carbon emission allowance price. • A rise in coal prices will have different effects in different lag stages. • There are positive correlations between the BJC and economic development.

  4. A programmatic response to the Secretary of Energy's review of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    Benson, A.B.

    1994-01-01

    On January 19, 1993, in response to a question during her confirmation hearing, Secretary of Energy Hazel R. O'Leary stated that she believed that a comprehensive review of nuclear waste disposal programs and policies was needed. Her preferred approach to such a review would be to engage in a consensus-seeking effort in which all involved parties would be brought to the table to deal with contentious issues. This paper describes both the process and the separate elements of the review of the civilian radioactive waste management program conducted in 1993 and 1994 by Secretary O'Leary. The paper will trace the review beginning with the Secretary's statement at her confirmation hearing, through her interim guidance redirecting certain aspects of the program. It describes some initiatives and changes that are already underway as a result of this review. Throughout the year, stakeholders expressed their concerns, opinions, and recommendations regarding the program. These communications reflected the diversity of perspective that has become a hallmark of the radioactive waste program

  5. Ab-initio study of the dielectric response of high-permittivity perovskites for energy storage

    Do-Amaral-De-Andrade-Sophia, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Many of materials based on transition metals have a wide range of applications, such as the storage of energy, due to their peculiar properties (high-dielectric constants, ferro-electricity,...). The knowledge of their bulk properties is essential in designing targeted devices with high performance. For instance, ABO 3 perovskites are peculiarly interesting for their atomic structural flexibility, allowing high number of atoms substitution and giving them specific chemical and electrical properties compared to the pure compounds. In this context, first principles calculations can be useful to understand the structural and electronic properties of these materials. The pressure-induced giant dielectric anomaly of ABO 3 perovskites has been investigated at the ab initio level. Its mechanism has been analyzed in terms of thermodynamic phase stability, structural and phonon contributions and Born effective charges. It is shown that the IR-active soft phonon is responsible for the anomaly. This mode always involves a displacement and a deformation of the oxygen octahedra, while the roles of A and B ions vary among the materials and between high- and low-pressure phase transitions. A sharp increase in the phonon amplitude near the phase transition gives rise to the dielectric anomaly. The use of hybrid functionals is required for agreement with experimental data. The calculations show that the dielectric anomaly in the pressure-induced phase transitions of these perovskites is a property of the bulk material. (author)

  6. Response report from US Department of Energy Hearings on proposed salt site nominations

    1983-11-01

    As required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (US Congress, 1983, Pub. L. 97-425, Section 112(b) (2)), the US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a series of nine formal public hearings during April and May 1983, in Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, and Utah and in the state capitals of Mississippi, Texas, and Utah. The hearings were held in local communities in the vicinity of sites identified as potentially suitable for further study in the program to select a site for the nation's first repository for high-level nuclear waste. The public hearings for potential sites in salt focused on the proposed nomination of the Vacherie salt dome site in Louisiana; the Richton and Cypress Creek salt dome sites in Mississippi; the Deaf Smith County and Swisher County bedded salt sites in Texas; and the Davis and Lavender Canyon bedded salt sites in Utah. The oral and written comments made during the course of the nine formal public hearings were analyzed, paraphrased into almost 1100 comments, and grouped into 62 issues or subjects within the following nine major topical areas: National Waste Terminal Storage Program Planning Process, Consultation and Cooperation, Engineering/Repository Design, Geology, Hydrology, Transportation, Public Health and Safety, Environmental Quality, and Socioeconomics. This document provides general responses to each of the 62 major issues raised during the hearings. 137 references, 7 figures, 12 tables

  7. Monitoring and modeling shoreline response due to shoreface nourishment on a high-energy coast

    Barnard, P. L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    Shoreface nourishment can be an efficient technique to feed sediment into the littoral zone without the order of magnitude cost increase incurred by directly nourishing the beach. An erosion hot spot at Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California, USA, threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location, a new beneficial reuse plan was implemented in May 2005 for the sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. From 2005 to 2007, approximately 230,000 m of sand was placed annually at depths between 9 and 14 m, in a location where strong tidal currents and open-ocean waves could potentially feed sediment onto the section of beach experiencing critical erosion. The evolution of the disposal mound and adjacent beach were monitored with 12 multibeam bathymetric surveys, and over 40 high-resolution beach topographic surveys. In addition, sediment transport processes were investigated using sediment grab samples, acoustic Doppler profilers, and two separate models: a cross-shore profile model (UNIBEST-TC) and a coastal area model (Delft3D). The results of the monitoring and modeling demonstrate that the disposal mound may be effective in dissipating wave energy striking this vulnerable stretch of coast with negligible shadowing effects, but a positive shoreline response can only be achieved by placing the sediment in water depths less than 5 m. 

  8. Response report from US Department of Energy hearings on proposed salt site nominations

    1983-11-01

    As required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (US Congress, 1983, Pub. L. 97-425, Section 112(b)(2)), the US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a series of nine formal public hearings during April and May 1983, in Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, and Utah and in the state capitals of Mississippi, Texas, and Utah. The hearings were held in local communities in the vicinity of sites identified as potentially suitable for further study in the program to select a site for the nation's first repository for high-level nuclear waste. The public hearings for potential sites in salt focused on the proposed nomination of the Vacherie salt dome site in Louisiana; the Richton and Cypress Creek salt dome sites in Mississippi; the Deaf Smith County and Swisher County bedded salt sites in Texas; and the Davis and Lavender Canyon bedded salt sites in Utah. The oral and written comments made during the course of the nine formal public hearings were analyzed, paraphrased into almost 1100 comments, and grouped into 62 issues or subjects within the following nine major topical areas: National Waste Terminal Storage program Planning Process, Consultation and Cooperation, Engineering/Repository Design, Geology, Hydrology, Transportation, Public Health and Safety, Environmental Quality, and Socioeconomics. This document provides general responses to each of the 62 major issues raised during the hearings

  9. Evaluation of turbine systems for compressed air energy storage plants. Final report for FY 1976

    Kartsounes, G.T.

    1976-10-01

    Compressed air energy storage plants for electric utility peak-shaving applications comprise four subsystems: a turbine system, compressor system, an underground air storage reservoir, and a motor/generator. Proposed plant designs use turbines that are derived from available gas and steam turbines with proven reliability. The study examines proposed turbine systems and presents an evaluation of possible systems that may reduce capital cost and/or improve performance. Six new turbine systems are identified for further economic evaluation.

  10. Global calculation of PWR reactor core using the two group energy solution by the response matrix method

    Conti, C.F.S.; Watson, F.V.

    1991-01-01

    A computational code to solve a two energy group neutron diffusion problem has been developed base d on the Response Matrix Method. That method solves the global problem of PWR core, without using the cross sections homogenization process, thus it is equivalent to a pontwise core calculation. The present version of the code calculates the response matrices by the first order perturbative method and considers developments on arbitrary order Fourier series for the boundary fluxes and interior fluxes. (author)

  11. Response analysis and energy transmissibility of a vibration isolation system with real-power nonlinearities under a NMPPF controller

    Huang, Dongmei; Xu, Wei; Shi, Lingling

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The nonlinear modified positive position feedback (NMPPF) scheme and the real-power form of restoring and damping forces are combined to improve the response performance of a vibration isolation system. • The primary resonance, dynamical stability and energy transmissibility of the real-power vibration isolation system are studied. • The sensitivity of the controller parameters on the responses has been analyzed. • In order to suppress the amplitude peak, the feedback parameters have been determined by the frequency response. • The energy transmissibility is investigated. - Abstract: In this paper, the nonlinear modified positive position feedback (NMPPF) scheme and the real-power form of restoring and damping forces are combined to improve the response performance of a vibration isolation system. Based on the method of multiple scales, the frequency response, the stability and the energy transmissibility of the real-power vibration isolation system are studied. It is found that the controlled isolation system exhibits a softening behavior for sub-linear restoring force, while it exhibits the two peak response characteristic rather than a hardening behavior for over-linear restoring force. Further, the sensitivity of the feedback parameters on the responses is discussed. The results, compared to the conventional PPF and IRC methods, show that the proposed method is significantly more effective in controlling the steady-state response, and slightly advantageous for the steady-state dynamics control. The effectiveness of this method is also verified by time domain analysis. Then, the suitable feedback and controller parameters are derived by simulation results in which the amplitude peak is suppressed and the resonance stability is maintained. Finally, the energy transmissibility of the vibration isolation system is investigated. The results show that the feedback gain can reduce the whole transmissibility level and greatly suppress vibration

  12. Renewable generation and demand response integration in micro-grids. Development of a new energy management and control system

    Alvarez-Bel, C.; Escriva-Escriva, G.; Alcazar-Ortega, M. [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this research resides in the development of an energy management and control system to control a micro-grid based on the use of renewable generation and demand resources to introduce the application of demand response concepts to the management of micro-grids in order to effectively integrate the demand side as an operation resource for the grid and improve energy efficiency of the elements. As an additional result, the evaluation of reductions in the total amount of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere due to the improvement of the energy efficiency of the system is assessed.

  13. Determination of the light response of BC-404 plastic scintillator for protons and deuterons with energies between 1 and 11 MeV

    Saraf, S.K.; Brient, C.E.; Egun, P.M.; Grimes, S.M.; Mishra, V.; Pedroni, R.S.

    1988-05-10

    The response of BC-404 plastic scintillator is measured up to 11 MeV for protons and up to 8 MeV for deuterons using a time-of-flight spectrometer. It is shown that the response is nonlinear in this energy range and can be described very well using a four-term polynomial in energy. Earlier response curves which were extrapolated from high energy data and from interpolation of low energy data at widely separated energies are nearly linear in the low energy region. A comparison has been made between our new measured data and the existing curves.

  14. Total Corporate social responsibility report 2004. Sharing our energy; TOTAL rapport societal and environnemental 2004. Notre energie en partage

    NONE

    2005-05-15

    This document presents the social and environmental activities of the group Total for the year 2004. It provides information on the ethical aspects of the governance, the industrial security, the environmental policy, the public health and the occupational safety, the social liability and the economical and social impact of the group activities in the local development, the contribution to the climatic change fight and the development of other energy sources. (A.L.B.)

  15. Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI) for photovoltaic solar systems in regions of moderate insolation: A comprehensive response

    Raugei, Marco; Sgouridis, Sgouris; Murphy, David; Fthenakis, Vasilis; Frischknecht, Rolf; Breyer, Christian; Bardi, Ugo; Barnhart, Charles; Buckley, Alastair; Carbajales-Dale, Michael; Csala, Denes; Wild-Scholten, Mariska de; Heath, Garvin; Jæger-Waldau, Arnulf; Jones, Christopher; Keller, Arthur; Leccisi, Enrica; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2017-01-01

    A recent paper by asserts that the ERoEI (also referred to as EROI) of photovoltaic (PV) systems is so low that they actually act as net energy sinks, rather than delivering energy to society. Such claim, if accurate, would call into question many energy investment decisions. In the same paper, a comparison is also drawn between PV and nuclear electricity. We have carefully analysed this paper, and found methodological inconsistencies and calculation errors that, in combination, render its conclusions not scientifically sound. Ferroni and Hopkirk adopt ‘extended’ boundaries for their analysis of PV without acknowledging that such choice of boundaries makes their results incompatible with those for all other technologies that have been analysed using more conventional boundaries, including nuclear energy with which the authors engage in multiple inconsistent comparisons. In addition, they use out-dated information, make invalid assumptions on PV specifications and other key parameters, and conduct calculation errors, including double counting. We herein provide revised EROI calculations for PV electricity in Switzerland, adopting both conventional and ‘extended’ system boundaries, to contrast with their results, which points to an order-of-magnitude underestimate of the EROI of PV in Switzerland by Ferroni and Hopkirk. - Highlights: • A recent paper by Ferroni and Hopkirk estimated an EROI=0.8 for PV in Switzerland. • We identify several critical methodological and calculation flaws in that paper. • We discuss such flaws in detail and rebut Ferroni and Hopkirk's conclusions. • We provide revised EROI calculations with both conventional and extended boundaries.

  16. Energy

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  17. Energy dependence of the air kerma response of a liquid ionization chamber at photon energies between 8 keV and 1250 keV

    Hilgers, G.; Bahar-Gogani, J.; Wickman, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In its recent reports on cardiovascular brachytherapy the DGMP recommends the source strength of brachytherapy sources being characterized in terms of absorbed dose to water at a distance of 2 mm from the central axis of the source. As a consequence, the response of a detector suitable for characterizing such sources with respect to absorbed dose to water should depend only to a small extent on radiation energy. Additionally, the detection volume of the detector has to be sufficiently small for the necessary spatial resolution to be obtained. The liquid ionization chamber as described in seems to be a promising means for this type of measurements. The two components of the ionization liquid (TMS and isooctane) can be mixed in a ratio which ensures that the mass-energy absorption coefficient of the resulting mixture deviates from that of water by less than ±15 % down to photon energies of 10 keV. Due to the high density of the ionization medium, the spacing between the two electrodes of the ionization chamber can be made as small as a few tenths of a millimeter and still the resulting ionization current is sufficiently large. The ionization chamber used in the present investigation is a plane parallel chamber 5 mm in diameter and of 0.3 mm electrode spacing. The ionization medium is a mixture of 40 % TMS and 60 % isooctane. The irradiations were carried out with the ISO wide spectra series with tube voltages between 10 kV and 300 kV and with 137 Cs and 60 Co γ-radiation. As a first step, the response of the liquid ionization chamber was investigated with respect to air kerma instead of absorbed dose to water. Although the mass-energy absorption coefficient of the liquid deviates from that of air by less than ±10 % over the photon energy range, the measured chamber response varies by a factor of about 3.5. Monte Carlo calculations carried out with EGSnrc show a variation of the chamber response smaller than ±20 %. Measurements of the ion yield of the

  18. Shaping sustainable energy technologies and use - a system, policy or market responsibility?

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2002-01-01

    The article present the problem of delegating energy technology innovation to new market condition after liberalisation.......The article present the problem of delegating energy technology innovation to new market condition after liberalisation....

  19. Hydraulic Response of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon in Nissum Bredning

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    This report deals with the hydraulic performance of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning prototype.......This report deals with the hydraulic performance of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning prototype....

  20. Study of Thermally Responsive Ionic Liquids for Novel Water Desalination and Energy Conversion Applications

    Zhong, Yujiang

    2018-01-01

    The rapidly expanding of the global population in the 21st-century forces people facing two serious problems: water scarcity and energy shortage. Enormous continuous studies focus on providing enough fresh water and energy in a sustainable way

  1. Sleep fragmentation alters brain energy metabolism without modifying hippocampal electrophysiological response to novelty exposure

    Baud, Maxime O.; Parafita, Julia; Nguyen, Audrey; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Petit, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 European Sleep Research Society. Sleep is viewed as a fundamental restorative function of the brain, but its specific role in neural energy budget remains poorly understood. Sleep deprivation dampens brain energy metabolism and impairs

  2. Understanding the response of commercial and institutional organizations to the California energy crisis. A report to the California Energy Commission - Sylvia Bender, Project Manager

    Lutzenhiser, Loren; Janda, Kathryn; Kunkle, Rick; Payne, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Beginning in the summer of 2000, California experienced serious energy supply problems, sharp increases in wholesale (and retail) electricity and natural gas prices, and isolated blackouts. In response to the rapidly worsening electricity situation in California in late 2000, the state set, as an initial goal, the reduction of the state's peak demand for the summer of 2001 by 5,000 megawatts. To meet this goal, the governor and legislature took a variety of steps to enhance supply, enco...

  3. Faster Time Response by the Use of Wire Electrodes in Capacitive Salinity Gradient Energy Systems

    Burheim, O.S.; Liu, F.; Sales, B.B.; Schaetzle, O.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2012-01-01

    Capacitive energy extraction based on Donnan potential (CDP) and capacitive energy extraction based on double layer expansion (CDLE) are novel electroctrochemical processes to convert the potential free energy of mixing sea and river water into electric work. This is done by the use of

  4. The In Vitro Response of Tissue Stem Cells to Irradiation With Different Linear Energy Transfers

    Nagle, Peter W.; Hosper, Nynke A. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Ploeg, Emily M. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Goethem, Marc-Jan van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); KVI-Center for Advanced Radiation Research, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, Sytze [KVI-Center for Advanced Radiation Research, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Chiu, Roland K. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P., E-mail: r.p.coppes@umcg.nl [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: A reduction in the dose, irradiated volume, and sensitivity of, in particular, normal tissue stem cells is needed to advance radiation therapy. This could be obtained with the use of particles for radiation therapy. However, the radiation response of normal tissue stem cells is still an enigma. Therefore, in the present study, we developed a model to investigate the in vitro response of stem cells to particle irradiation. Methods and Materials: We used the immortalized human salivary gland (HSG) cell line resembling salivary gland (SG) cells to translate the radiation response in 2-dimensional (2D) to 3-dimensional (3D) conditions. This response was subsequently translated to the response of SG stem cells (SGSCs). Dispersed single cells were irradiated with photons or carbon ions at different linear energy transfers (LETs; 48.76 ± 2.16, 149.9 ± 10.8, and 189 ± 15 keV/μm). Subsequently, 2D or 3D clonogenicity was determined by counting the colonies or secondary stem cell-derived spheres in Matrigel. γH2AX immunostaining was used to assess DNA double strand break repair. Results: The 2D response of HSG cells showed a similar increase in dose response to increasing higher LET irradiation as other cell lines. The 3D response of HSG cells to increasing LET irradiation was reduced compared with the 2D response. Finally, the response of mouse SGSCs to photons was similar to the 3D response of HSG cells. The response to higher LET irradiation was reduced in the stem cells. Conclusions: Mouse SGSC radiosensitivity seems reduced at higher LET radiation compared with transformed HSG cells. The developed model to assess the radiation response of SGSCs offers novel possibilities to study the radiation response of normal tissue in vitro.

  5. The In Vitro Response of Tissue Stem Cells to Irradiation With Different Linear Energy Transfers

    Nagle, Peter W.; Hosper, Nynke A.; Ploeg, Emily M.; Goethem, Marc-Jan van; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Chiu, Roland K.; Coppes, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A reduction in the dose, irradiated volume, and sensitivity of, in particular, normal tissue stem cells is needed to advance radiation therapy. This could be obtained with the use of particles for radiation therapy. However, the radiation response of normal tissue stem cells is still an enigma. Therefore, in the present study, we developed a model to investigate the in vitro response of stem cells to particle irradiation. Methods and Materials: We used the immortalized human salivary gland (HSG) cell line resembling salivary gland (SG) cells to translate the radiation response in 2-dimensional (2D) to 3-dimensional (3D) conditions. This response was subsequently translated to the response of SG stem cells (SGSCs). Dispersed single cells were irradiated with photons or carbon ions at different linear energy transfers (LETs; 48.76 ± 2.16, 149.9 ± 10.8, and 189 ± 15 keV/μm). Subsequently, 2D or 3D clonogenicity was determined by counting the colonies or secondary stem cell-derived spheres in Matrigel. γH2AX immunostaining was used to assess DNA double strand break repair. Results: The 2D response of HSG cells showed a similar increase in dose response to increasing higher LET irradiation as other cell lines. The 3D response of HSG cells to increasing LET irradiation was reduced compared with the 2D response. Finally, the response of mouse SGSCs to photons was similar to the 3D response of HSG cells. The response to higher LET irradiation was reduced in the stem cells. Conclusions: Mouse SGSC radiosensitivity seems reduced at higher LET radiation compared with transformed HSG cells. The developed model to assess the radiation response of SGSCs offers novel possibilities to study the radiation response of normal tissue in vitro.

  6. Leptin and insulin responses to a four-day energy-deficient diet in men with different weight history

    Mars, M.; de Graaf, C; Rossum, C.T.M; de Groot, C.P.G.M.; Seidell, J C; Kok, F. J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the leptin responses to a 4-day energy-restricted diet in men with different weight history; high retrospective weight gain was expected to be associated with a small decline in leptin. DESIGN: Changes in fasting leptin and insulin were measured during a 4-day controlled

  7. A stochastic self-scheduling program for compressed air energy storage (CAES) of renewable energy sources (RESs) based on a demand response mechanism

    Ghalelou, Afshin Najafi; Fakhri, Alireza Pashaei; Nojavan, Sayyad; Majidi, Majid; Hatami, Hojat

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal stochastic energy management of renewable energy sources (RESs) is proposed. • The compressed air energy storage (CAES) besides RESs is used in the presence of DRP. • Determination charge and discharge of CAES in order to reduce the expected operation cost. • Moreover, demand response program (DRP) is proposed to minimize the operation cost. • The uncertainty modeling of input data are considered in the proposed stochastic framework. - Abstract: In this paper, a stochastic self-scheduling of renewable energy sources (RESs) considering compressed air energy storage (CAES) in the presence of a demand response program (DRP) is proposed. RESs include wind turbine (WT) and photovoltaic (PV) system. Other energy sources are thermal units and CAES. The time-of-use (TOU) rate of DRP is considered in this paper. This DRP shifts the percentage of load from the expensive period to the cheap one in order to flatten the load curve and minimize the operation cost, consequently. The proposed objective function includes minimizing the operation costs of thermal unit and CAES, considering technical and physical constraints. The proposed model is formulated as mixed integer linear programming (MILP) and it is been solved using General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization package. Furthermore, CAES and DRP are incorporated in the stochastic self-scheduling problem by a decision maker to reduce the expected operation cost. Meanwhile, the uncertainty models of market price, load, wind speed, temperature and irradiance are considered in the formulation. Finally, to assess the effects of DRP and CAES on self-scheduling problem, four case studies are utilized, and significant results were obtained, which indicate the validity of the proposed stochastic program.

  8. Stochastic energy balancing in substation energy management

    Hassan Shirzeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current research, a smart grid is considered as a network of distributed interacting nodes represented by renewable energy sources, storage and loads. The source nodes become active or inactive in a stochastic manner due to the intermittent nature of natural resources such as wind and solar irradiance. Prediction and stochastic modelling of electrical energy flow is a critical task in such a network in order to achieve load levelling and/or peak shaving in order to minimise the fluctuation between off-peak and peak energy demand. An effective approach is proposed to model and administer the behaviour of source nodes in this grid through a scheduling strategy control algorithm using the historical data collected from the system. The stochastic model predicts future power consumption/injection to determine the power required for storage components. The stochastic models developed based on the Box-Jenkins method predict the most efficient state of the electrical energy flow between a distribution network and nodes and minimises the peak demand and off-peak consumption of acquiring electrical energy from the main grid. The performance of the models is validated against the autoregressive moving average (ARIMA and the Markov chain models used in previous work. The results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms both the ARIMA and the Markov chain model in terms of forecast accuracy. Results are presented, the strengths and limitations of the approach are discussed, and possible future work is described.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Homebuyer Response to New Zero-Energy Homes: Preprint

    Farhar, B. C.; Coburn, T. C.; Murphy, M.

    2004-07-01

    In 2004, mail questionnaires were sent to 271 homebuyers in a highly energy-efficient community and 98 homebuyers living in an adjacent conventional community. People surveyed had to have lived in their homes for at least 6 months. The questionnaires addressed perceptions and preferences relative to the new home purchases, and the role, if any, that energy efficiency and solar features might have played in these purchases. Also investigated was the willingness to pay for energy features; preferences on whether energy features should be standard or optional; preferences on energy policies; perceived problems; aesthetics; homebuyer satisfaction and the reasons for it; environmentalism; and experience with the utility company.

  10. A Novel Technique to Enhance Demand Responsiveness

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new pricing approach is proposed to increase demand responsiveness. The proposed approach considers two well-known demand side management techniques, namely peak shaving and valley filling. This is done by incentivising consumers by magnifying price difference between peak and off......-peak hours. The usefulness of the suggested method is then investigated by its combination with an electric vehicle optimal scheduling methodology which captures both economic valuation and grid technical constraints. This case is chosen in this study to address network congestion issues, namely under...

  11. Avaliação de materiais alternativos em substituição à maravalha como cama de aviário Alternative material to replace wood shavings as broiler litter

    Valdir Silveira de Avila

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de testar materiais alternativos para cama de aviário na criação de frangos de corte, foram alojados seis lotes consecutivos, cada um contendo 5.600 aves, apenas fêmeas, distribuídas em 35 boxes. Os tratamentos consistiram de sete tipos de material para cama (maravalha; casca de arroz; sabugo de milho triturado; capim-cameron picado; palhada de soja picada; resto da cultura do milho picado; e serragem, cada um com cinco repetições. Avaliaram-se nas aves o peso corporal médio e o consumo médio de ração e, nas camas, os teores de N, Ca, P e pH. Observaram-se ainda a presença de salmonela, a contagem de oocistos de eimeria na cama e o escore de lesões no intestino das aves ao abate. A utilização dos materiais alternativos avaliados como cama de aviário, por seis lotes consecutivos, como alternativas à maravalha não prejudicou o desempenho de frangos de corte. Esses materiais, após o descarte, por apresentarem valor em minerais superior ao da maravalha, podem ser utilizados na adubação de culturas.Aiming to evaluate alternative materials to be used as broiler litter reutilization, six consecutive lots of 5,600 female broilers were allocated to 35 pens. The treatments consisted of seven types of litter materials: wood shavings, rice husk, ground corncob, chopped camerongrass, chopped soybean straw, chopped corn stalk and sawdust, each one with five replications. In the birds, it was evaluated the average body weight, feed consumption and in the litter, it was evaluated the contents of N, Ca, P and pH. The presence of salmoella, the eimeria oocists counting in the litter, and the gut birds lesions score at slaughter were also observed. The use of alternative materials evaluated as litter, per six concecutive lots, as a alternative for wood shavings did no prejudice the performance of broilers. These materials, by presenting mineral values higher than wood shavings, after discarding, could be used as culture

  12. Energy

    1975-10-01

    On the occasion of the World Environment Day the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment held a conference on growth problems in energy consumption. The themes which were treated were energy conservation, hydroelectric power, the role of nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, fossil fuel resources, ecological limits, pollution and international aspects. Nuclear energy forms the main theme of one lecture and an aspect of several others. (JIW)

  13. Energy

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  14. Converting hazardous organics into clean energy using a solar responsive dual photoelectrode photocatalytic fuel cell

    Li, Jianyong; Li, Jinhua, E-mail: lijinhua@sjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Quanpeng; Bai, Jing; Zhou, Baoxue

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • A dual photoelcetrode PFC for converting hazardous organics into electricity. • The PFC possesses high cell performance operating in various model compounds. • Parameters were studied for optimization of the PFC performance. • Significant removal rate of chroma was observed in azo dyes solutions. -- Abstract: Direct discharging great quantities of organics into water-body not only causes serious environmental pollution but also wastes energy sources. In this paper, a solar responsive dual photoelectrode photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC{sup 2}) based on TiO{sub 2}/Ti photoanode and Cu{sub 2}O/Cu photocathode was designed for hazardous organics treatment with simultaneous electricity generation. Under solar irradiation, the interior bias voltage produced for the Fermi level difference between photoelectrodes drives photoelectrons of TiO{sub 2}/Ti photoanode to combine with photoholes of Cu{sub 2}O/Cu photocathode through external circuit thus generating electricity. In the meantime, organics are decomposed by photoholes remained at TiO{sub 2}/Ti photoanode. By using various hazardous organics including azo dyes as model pollutants, the PFC showed high converting performance of organics into electricity. For example, in 0.05 M phenol solution, a short-circuit current density 0.23 mA cm{sup −2}, open-circuit voltage 0.49 V, maximum power output 0.36 10{sup −4} W cm{sup −2} was achieved. On the other hand, removal rate of chroma reached 67%, 87% and 63% in 8 h for methyl orange, methylene blue, Congo red, respectively.

  15. Overdose Problem Associated with Treatment Planning Software for High Energy Photons in Response of Panama's Accident

    Attalla, E.M.; Lotayef, M.M.; Khalil, E.M.; El-Hosiny, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify dose distribution errors by comparing actual dose measurements with the calculated values done by the software. To evaluate the outcome of radiation overexposure related to Panama's accident and in response to ensure that the treatment planning systems (T.P.S.) are being operated in accordance with the appropriate quality assurance programme, we studied the central axis and pripheral depth dose data using complex field shaped with blocks to quantify dose distribution errors. Material and Methods: Multi data T.P.S. software versions 2.35 and 2.40 and Helax T.P.S. software version 5.1 B were assesed. The calculated data of the software treatment planning systems were verified by comparing these data with the actual dose measurements for open and blocked high energy photon fields (Co-60, 6MV and 18MV photons). Results: Close calculated and measured results were obtained for the 2-D (Multi data) and 3-D treatment planning (TMS Helax). These results were correct within 1 to 2% for open fields and 0.5 to 2.5% for peripheral blocked fields. Discrepancies between calculated and measured data ranged between 13. to 36% along the central axis of complex blocked fields when normalisation point was selected at the Dmax, when the normalisation point was selected near or under the blocks, the variation between the calculated and the measured data was up to 500% difference. Conclusions: The present results emphasize the importance of the proper selection of the normalization point in the radiation field, as this facilitates detection of aberrant dose distribution (over exposure or under exposure)

  16. Overdose problem associated with treatment planning software for high energy photons in response of Panama's accident.

    Attalla, Ehab M; Lotayef, Mohamed M; Khalil, Ehab M; El-Hosiny, Hesham A; Nazmy, Mohamed S

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify dose distribution errors by comparing actual dose measurements with the calculated values done by the software. To evaluate the outcome of radiation overexposure related to Panama's accident and in response to ensure that the treatment planning systems (T.P.S.) are being operated in accordance with the appropriate quality assurance programme, we studied the central axis and pripheral depth dose data using complex field shaped with blocks to quantify dose distribution errors. Multidata T.P.S. software versions 2.35 and 2.40 and Helax T.P.S. software version 5.1 B were assesed. The calculated data of the software treatment planning systems were verified by comparing these data with the actual dose measurements for open and blocked high energy photon fields (Co-60, 6MV & 18MV photons). Close calculated and measured results were obtained for the 2-D (Multidata) and 3-D treatment planning (TMS Helax). These results were correct within 1 to 2% for open fields and 0.5 to 2.5% for peripheral blocked fields. Discrepancies between calculated and measured data ranged between 13. to 36% along the central axis of complex blocked fields when normalisation point was selected at the Dmax, when the normalisation point was selected near or under the blocks, the variation between the calculated and the measured data was up to 500% difference. The present results emphasize the importance of the proper selection of the normalization point in the radiation field, as this facilitates detection of aberrant dose distribution (over exposure or under exposure).

  17. Dual-energy CT in assessing therapeutic response to radiofrequency ablation of renal cell carcinomas

    Park, Sung Yoon; Kim, Chan Kyo, E-mail: chankyokim@skku.edu; Park, Byung Kwan

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To investigate the utility of dual-energy (DE) CT using virtual noncontrast (VNC) and iodine overlay (IO) images to assess therapeutic response to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). Materials and methods: In this institutional review board-approved study (with waiver of informed consent), 47 patients with RCCs that underwent DECT after RFA were enrolled in this study. DECT protocols included true noncontrast (TNC), linearly blended DE corticomedullary and late nephrographic phase imaging. Two types of VNC and IO images were derived from corticomedullary and late nephrographic phases, respectively. To predict local tumor progression at RFA site, linearly blended and IO images were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of renal cortex-to-RFA zones were calculated. The overall imaging quality of VNC images was compared with TNC images. Results: The IO images from corticomedullary and late nephrographic phases showed excellent diagnostic performance (each sensitivity 100% and each specificity 91.5%) for predicting local tumor progression. The degree of enhancement of local tumor progression was not significantly different between linearly blended and IO images (P > 0.05). The mean CT numbers were not significantly different between TNC and VNC images (P > 0.05). In renal cortex-to-RFA site, CNR between linearly blended and IO images was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The VNC imaging quality from the two phases was given a good rating. Conclusion: VNC and IO images from DECT may allow acceptable diagnostic performance with less radiation exposure as a follow-up imaging tool after RFA for RCC, compared to the linearly blended CT images.

  18. Dual-energy CT in assessing therapeutic response to radiofrequency ablation of renal cell carcinomas

    Park, Sung Yoon; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Byung Kwan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the utility of dual-energy (DE) CT using virtual noncontrast (VNC) and iodine overlay (IO) images to assess therapeutic response to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). Materials and methods: In this institutional review board-approved study (with waiver of informed consent), 47 patients with RCCs that underwent DECT after RFA were enrolled in this study. DECT protocols included true noncontrast (TNC), linearly blended DE corticomedullary and late nephrographic phase imaging. Two types of VNC and IO images were derived from corticomedullary and late nephrographic phases, respectively. To predict local tumor progression at RFA site, linearly blended and IO images were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of renal cortex-to-RFA zones were calculated. The overall imaging quality of VNC images was compared with TNC images. Results: The IO images from corticomedullary and late nephrographic phases showed excellent diagnostic performance (each sensitivity 100% and each specificity 91.5%) for predicting local tumor progression. The degree of enhancement of local tumor progression was not significantly different between linearly blended and IO images (P > 0.05). The mean CT numbers were not significantly different between TNC and VNC images (P > 0.05). In renal cortex-to-RFA site, CNR between linearly blended and IO images was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The VNC imaging quality from the two phases was given a good rating. Conclusion: VNC and IO images from DECT may allow acceptable diagnostic performance with less radiation exposure as a follow-up imaging tool after RFA for RCC, compared to the linearly blended CT images

  19. Dual-energy CT in assessing therapeutic response to radiofrequency ablation of renal cell carcinomas.

    Park, Sung Yoon; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Byung Kwan

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the utility of dual-energy (DE) CT using virtual noncontrast (VNC) and iodine overlay (IO) images to assess therapeutic response to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). In this institutional review board-approved study (with waiver of informed consent), 47 patients with RCCs that underwent DECT after RFA were enrolled in this study. DECT protocols included true noncontrast (TNC), linearly blended DE corticomedullary and late nephrographic phase imaging. Two types of VNC and IO images were derived from corticomedullary and late nephrographic phases, respectively. To predict local tumor progression at RFA site, linearly blended and IO images were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of renal cortex-to-RFA zones were calculated. The overall imaging quality of VNC images was compared with TNC images. The IO images from corticomedullary and late nephrographic phases showed excellent diagnostic performance (each sensitivity 100% and each specificity 91.5%) for predicting local tumor progression. The degree of enhancement of local tumor progression was not significantly different between linearly blended and IO images (P>0.05). The mean CT numbers were not significantly different between TNC and VNC images (P>0.05). In renal cortex-to-RFA site, CNR between linearly blended and IO images was not significantly different (P>0.05). The VNC imaging quality from the two phases was given a good rating. VNC and IO images from DECT may allow acceptable diagnostic performance with less radiation exposure as a follow-up imaging tool after RFA for RCC, compared to the linearly blended CT images. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Response of CR-39 SSNTD to high energy neutrons using zirconium convertors - a Monte Carlo and experimental study

    Pal, Rupali; Sapra, B.K.; Bakshi, A.K.; Datta, D.; Biju, K.; Suryanarayana, S.V.; Nayak, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Neutron dosimetry in ion accelerators is a challenging field as the neutron spectrum varies from thermal, to fast and high-energy neutrons usually extending beyond 20 MeV. Solid-state Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) have been increasingly used in numerous fields related to nuclear physics. Extensive work has also been carried out on determining the response characteristics of such detectors as nuclear spectrometers. In nuclear reaction studies, identification of reaction products according to their type and energy is frequently required. For normally incident particles, energy-dispersive track-diameter methods have become useful scientific tools using CR-39 SSNTD. CR-39 along with 1 mm polyethylene convertor can cover a neutron energy range from 100 keV to 10 MeV. The neutron interacts with the hydrogen in CR-39 producing recoil protons from elastic collisions. This detectable neutron energy range can be increased by modification in the radiator/convertor used along with CR-39. CR39 detectors placed in conjunction with judiciously chosen thicknesses of a polyethylene radiator and a lead absorber (or degrader) are used to increase energy range upto 19 MeV. A portable neutron counter has been proposed for high-energy neutron measurement with 1 cm thick Zirconium (Zr) as the converter outside a spherical HDPE shell of 7 inch diameter. Zr metal has been found to show (n,2n) cross section for energies above 10 MeV starting from 0.01 barns for 8 MeV upto 1 barns for 22 MeV. Above these energies, the experimental data is scarce. In this paper, Zr was used in conjunction with CR-39 which showed an enhancement of track density on the CR-39. This paper demonstrates the enhancement of neutron response using Zr on CR-39 with both theoretical and experimental studies

  1. Energies

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  2. Flattening the Energy Response of a Scintillator Based Gamma Dose Rate Meter Coupled to SiPM

    Knafo, Y.; Manor, A.; Ginzburg, D.; Ellenbogen, M.; Osovizky, A.; Wengrowicz, U.; Ghelman, M.; Seif, R.; Mazor, T.; Kadmon, Y.; Cohen, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Among the newest emerging technologies that are used in the design of personal gamma radiation detection instruments, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) light sensor is playing an important role. This type of photo sensor is characterized by low power consumption, small dimensions and high gain. These special characteristics present applicable alternatives for the replacement of traditional gamma sensors based on scintillator coupled to Photomultiplier tubes (PMT) or on Geiger-Muller(G.M.) sensors. For health physics applications, flat energy response is required for a wide range of radio-nuclides emitting gamma rays of different energies. Scintillation based radiation instrumentation provides count rate and amplitude of the measured pulses. These pulses can be split in different bins corresponding to the energy of the measured isotopes and their intensity. The count rate and the energy of the measured events are related to the dose rate. The conversion algorithm applys a different calibration factor for each energy bin in order to provide an accurate dose rate response for a wide range of gamma energies. This work describes the utilization of an innovative approach for dose rate conversion by using the abilities of newest 32-bit microcontroller based ARM core architecture

  3. Decisions on Energy Demand Response Option Contracts in Smart Grids Based on Activity-Based Costing and Stochastic Programming

    Alfred J. Hildreth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart grids enable a two-way energy demand response capability through which a utility company offers its industrial customers various call options for energy load curtailment. If a customer has the capability to accurately determine whether to accept an offer or not, then in the case of accepting an offer, the customer can earn both an option premium to participate, and a strike price for load curtailments if requested. However, today most manufacturing companies lack the capability to make the correct contract decisions for given offers. This paper proposes a novel decision model based on activity-based costing (ABC and stochastic programming, developed to accurately evaluate the impact of load curtailments and determine as to whether or not to accept an energy load curtailment offer. The proposed model specifically targets state-transition flexible and Quality-of-Service (QoS flexible energy use activities to reduce the peak energy demand rate. An illustrative example with the proposed decision model under a call-option based energy demand response scenario is presented. As shown from the example results, the proposed decision model can be used with emerging smart grid opportunities to provide a competitive advantage to the manufacturing industry.

  4. Optical and energy dependent response of the alanine gel solution produced at IPEN to clinical photons and electrons beams

    Silva, Cleber F.

    2011-01-01

    The DL-Alanine (C 3 H 7 NO 2 ) is an amino acid tissue equivalent traditionally used as standard dosimetric material in EPR dosimetry. Recently, it has been studied to be applied in gel dosimetry, considering that the addition of Alanine in the Fricke gel solution improves the production of ferric ions radiation induced. The spectrophotometric evaluation technique can be used comparing the two spectrum wavelengths bands: 457 nm band that corresponds to ferrous ions and 588 nm band that corresponds to ferric ions concentration to evaluate the dosimetric properties of this material. The performance of the Alanine gel solution developed at IPEN has been firstly studied using the spectrophotometric technique aiming to apply this material to 3D clinical doses evaluations using MRI technique. In this work, the optical and the energy dependent response of this solution submitted to clinical photons and electrons beams were studied. Different batches of gel solutions were prepared and maintained at low temperature during 12 h to solidification. Before irradiation, the samples were maintained during 1 h at room temperature. The photons and electrons irradiations were carried out using a Varian 2100C Medical Linear Accelerator of the Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital das Clinicas of the University of Sao Paulo with absorbed doses between 1 and 40 Gy; radiation field of 10 x 10 cm 2 ; photon energies of 6 MeV and 15 MeV; and electron with energies between 6 and 15 MeV. The obtained results indicate that signal response dependence for clinical photons and electrons beams, to the same doses, for Alanine gel dosimeter is better than 3.6 % (1σ), and the energy dependence response, to the same doses, is better 3% (1σ) for both beams. These results indicate that the same calibration factor can be used and the optical response is energy independent in the studied dose range and clinical photons and electrons beams energies. (author)

  5. Analysis of the response dependence of Ebt3 radiochromic film with energy, dose rate, wavelength, scanning mode and humidity

    Leon M, E. Y.; Camacho L, M. A.; Herrera G, J. A.; Garcia G, O. A.; Villarreal B, J. E.

    2016-10-01

    With the development of new modalities in radiotherapy treatments, the use of radiochromic films has increased considerably. Because the characteristics that presented, they are suitable for quality control and dose measurement. In this work and analysis of the dependence of the response of Ebt3 radiochromic films with energy, dose rate, wavelength, scan mode and humidity, for a dose range of 0-70 Gy is presented. According to the results, the response of Ebt3 radiochromic films has low dependence on energy, dose rate, scan mode and humidity. However, the sensitivity of the response Ebt3 radiochromic films has a high dependence on the wavelength of the optical system used for reading. (Author)

  6. A cost-efficient and reliable energy management of a micro-grid using intelligent demand-response program

    Safamehr, Hossein; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Providing a cost-efficient and reliable energy is one of the main issues in human societies of the 21st century. In response to this demand, new features of micro grid technology have provided huge potentials, specifically by the capability of having an interactive coordination between energy suppliers and consumers. Accordingly, this paper offers an improved model for achieving an optimal Demand Response programing. To solve the proposed multi-objective optimization problem, Artificial Bee Colony algorithm and quasi-static technique are utilized. The considered objectives in this paper are minimizing the overall cost of energy consumption and also improving the technical parameters of micro grid over a time horizon. This optimization is subject to several constraints such as satisfying the energy balance and the operating constraints of each energy supply sources. Manageable load or load as source is another enabling feature existing in smart energy networks, which is considered in this paper and its effect on cost reduction and reliability improvement is studied. Trying to examine the performance of the proposed Demand Response Programing in real conditions, the uncertainties are also analyzed by stochastic methods. The results show significant improvements which are obtained by applying just intelligent programming and management. - Highlights: • This paper presents a cost-efficient and reliable energy management of a micro-grid. • New models of battery and manageable loads are formulated. • Artificial Bee Colony algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem. • Quasi-static technique is used to simplify the solving procedure. • The uncertainties are also analyzed by stochastic methods.

  7. Social responses to wind energy development in Ontario: The influence of health risk perceptions and associated concerns

    Songsore, Emmanuel; Buzzelli, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study documents and analyzes the role of health risk perceptions and other associated concerns of wind energy development (henceforth WED) in Ontario. Drawing on the risk society framework, we conduct a longitudinal media content analysis to document and analyze perceptions of and responses to WED over a nine year period. Attention is paid to temporal variations in responses relative to Ontario's Green Energy Act (2009) (henceforth GEA); legislation aimed at the rapid expansion of renewable energy. The study reveals that the most radical forms of resistance to WED on health grounds are driven by perceived injustices in the treatment of potential at-risk citizens and citizens with health concerns. The GEA is fuelling these perceptions of injustices in subtle and nuanced ways, particularly by acting as a major confounder to health risk concerns. Contrary to several existing studies, we problematize the use of financial incentives to foster the development of wind energy. We also provide policy recommendations which include the need for increased public engagement in the WED process, the importance of using third party health and environmental assessments to inform developments as well as the need for post-development strategies to address ongoing community concerns. - Highlights: • We analyze health risk perception-based responses to wind energy development. • Health risks concerns are a major driver of public resistance to wind energy. • Perceptions of injustices strongly fuel resistance to wind energy on health grounds. • Acceptance of turbines does not imply successful coexistence with turbines. • Using financial benefits to promote social acceptance could be problematic

  8. Experimental verificatio of load resistance switching for global stabilization of high-energy response of a nonlinear wideband electromagnetic vibration energy harvester

    Sato, T; Masuda, A; Sanada, T

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental verification of a self-excitation control of a resonance- type vibration energy harvester with a Duffing-type nonlinearity which is designed to perform effectively in a wide frequency range. For the conventional linear vibration energy harvester, the performance of the power generation at the resonance frequency and the bandwidth of the resonance peak are trade-off. The resonance frequency band can be expanded by introducing a Duffing-type nonlinear oscillator in order to enable the harvester to generate larger electric power in a wider frequency range. However, since such nonlinear oscillator can have multiple stable steady-state solutions in the resonance band, it is difficult for the nonlinear harvester to maintain the high performance of the power generation constantly. The principle of self-excitation and entrainment has been utilized to provide the global stability to the highest-energy solution by destabilizing other unexpected lower-energy solutions by introducing a switching circuit of the load resistance between positive and the negative values depending on the response amplitude of the oscillator. It has been experimentally validated that this control law imparts the self-excitation capability to the oscillator to show an entrainment into the highest-energy solution. (paper)

  9. NECAP 4.1: NASA's Energy Cost Analysis Program thermal response factor routine

    Weise, M. R.

    1982-08-01

    A thermal response factor is described and calculation sequences and flowcharts for RESFAC2 are provided. RESFAC is used by NASA's (NECAP) to calculate hourly heat transfer coefficients (thermal response factors) for each unique delayed surface. NECAP uses these response factors to compute each spaces' hourly heat gain/loss.

  10. Stochastic energy procurement of large electricity consumer considering photovoltaic, wind-turbine, micro-turbines, energy storage system in the presence of demand response program

    Nojavan, Sayyad; Aalami, Habib allah

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic energy procurement cost function in presence of DRP is proposed. • The load, price and output power of PV and wind uncertainties are modeled. • Four case studies are used to assess the effects of ESS and DRP on SEPP. • Case 4 is considered the effects of ESS and DRP simultaneously. • The expected energy procurement cost of case 4 is lower than cases 1, 2 and 3. - Abstract: This paper proposes a stochastic energy procurement problem (SEPP) for large electricity consumer (LEC) with multiple energy procurement sources (EPSs) considering the effects of demand response program (DRP) and energy storage system (ESS). The EPSs contain power market (PM), bilateral contracts (BCs), micro-turbines (MTs), and renewable energy sources (RESs). Moreover, the RESs include photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind-turbines (WT). The ESS and DRP are incorporated in the SEPP by the LEC’s decision-maker to reduce the expected energy procurement cost (EEPC). Meanwhile, the uncertainty models of market price, load and RES output power are considered in the SEPP formulation. The error of forecasting of market price, load, temperature and radiation of PV systems are modeled using the normal distribution for generating the related scenarios. Also, the weibull distribution is used to generate variable wind speed scenarios for WT output power uncertainty modeling. Furthermore, the fast forward selection based on Kantorovich distance approach is used for the scenarios reduction. Finally, the influences of ESS and DRP on EEPC are investigated, and four case studies are used to illustrate the capability of the proposed SEPP. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed stochastic program

  11. Advice and recommendations to the US Department of Energy in response to the charge letter of September 20, 1996

    1996-11-01

    In Jan. 1996, the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC) provided recommendations to DOE on how to restructure the fusion program in light of compressional guidance and budget realities. DOE endorsed these recommendations and prepared a strategic plan. The FEAC report concluded that the goals of the restructured program could most effectively be accomplished at a funding level of $275 million per year, including Federal government management costs. DOE requested that Congress appropriate $255.6 million in FY97 for the fusion energy sciences program exclusive of Federal government management costs (about $8 million). On Sept. 11, 1996, the Energy and Water Development Conference Committee settled on a FY97 appropriation for the fusion energy sciences program of $232.5 million. This report contains the response to the charge letter, on how the program described in the strategic plan could be changed to make it consistent with the $232.5 million appropriation

  12. Real-time pricing strategy of micro-grid energy centre considering price-based demand response

    Xu, Zhiheng; Zhang, Yongjun; Wang, Gan

    2017-07-01

    With the development of energy conversion technology such as power to gas (P2G), fuel cell and so on, the coupling between energy sources becomes more and more closely. Centralized dispatch among electricity, natural gas and heat will become a trend. With the goal of maximizing the system revenue, this paper establishes the model of micro-grid energy centre based on energy hub. According to the proposed model, the real-time pricing strategy taking into account price-based demand response of load is developed. And the influence of real-time pricing strategy on the peak load shifting is discussed. In addition, the impact of wind power predicted inaccuracy on real-time pricing strategy is analysed.

  13. Complete Electric Dipole Response in 120Sn and 208Pb and Implications for Neutron Skin and Symmetry Energy

    von Neumann-Cosel Peter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polarized proton scattering at energies of a few 100 MeV and extreme forward angles including 0° has been established as a new tool to extract the complete E1 response in nuclei up to excitation energies of about 20 MeV. A case study of 208Pb demonstrates excellent agreement with other electromagnetic probes. From the information on the B(E1 strength one can derive the electric dipole dipole polarizability, which is strongly correlated to the neutron skin and to parameters of the symmetry energy. Recently, we have extracted the polarizability of 120Sn with a comparable precision. The combination of both results further constrains the symmetry energy parameters and presents a challenge for mean-field models, since the relativistic and many Skyrme parameterizations cannot reproduce both experimental results simultaneously.

  14. EPA Participates in Energy Roundtable with States, Tribes, Businesses and Environmental Groups to Enhance Coordination and Promote Responsible Domestic Production of Oil and Gas Resources

    EPA News Release: EPA Participates in Energy Roundtable with States, Tribes, Businesses and Environmental Groups to Enhance Coordination and Promote Responsible Domestic Production of Oil and Gas Resources

  15. Active and reactive power support of MV distribution systems using battery energy storage

    Wang, Jiawei; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; You, Shi

    2017-01-01

    shaving and voltage support service from the perspective of Distribution System Operators (DSOs). An active power support algorithm is implemented and the effects of various load profiles as well as different Photovoltaic (PV) penetration scenarios on the operation of BESS and the optimal BESS converter......Adoption of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) for provision of grid services is increasing. This paper investigates the applications of BESS for the grid upgrade deferral and voltage support of Medium Voltage (MV) distribution systems. A BESS is modelled in Matlab/Simulink to perform peak load...... size for peak load shaving are investigated. The BESS annual lifetime degradation is also estimated using a rainflow counting algorithm. A reactive power support algorithm embedded with Q-U droop control is proposed in order to reduce the voltage drop in a part of 10 kV distribution network of Nordhavn...

  16. Climate-responsive design: A framework for an energy concept design-decision support tool for architects using principles of climate-responsive design

    Remco Looman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In climate-responsive design the building becomes an intermediary in its own energy housekeeping, forming a link between the harvest of climate resources and low energy provision of comfort. Essential here is the employment of climate-responsive building elements, defined as structural and architectural elements in which the energy infrastructure is far-reaching integrated. This thesis presents the results of research conducted on what knowledge is needed in the early stages of the design process and how to transfer and transform that knowledge to the field of the architect in order for them to successfully implement the principles of climate-responsive design. The derived content, form and functional requirements provide the framework for a design decision support tool. These requirements were incorporated into a concept tool that has been presented to architects in the field, in order to gain their feedback. Climate-responsive design makes the complex task of designing even more complex. Architects are helped when sufficient information on the basics of climate-responsive design and its implications are provided as informative support during decision making in the early design stages of analysis and energy concept development. This informative support on climate-responsive design should address to different design styles in order to be useful to any type of architects. What is defined as comfortable has far-reaching implications for the way buildings are designed and how they operate. This in turn gives an indication of the energy used for maintaining a comfortable indoor environment. Comfort is not a strict situation, but subjective. Diversity is appreciated and comfort is improved when users have the ability to exert influence on their environment. Historically, the provision of comfort has led to the adoption of mechanical climate control systems that operate in many cases indifferent from the building space and mass and its environment

  17. Free Energy Contribution Analysis Using Response Kernel Approximation: Insights into the Acylation Reaction of a Beta-Lactamase.

    Asada, Toshio; Ando, Kanta; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta; Koseki, Shiro

    2016-09-08

    A widely applicable free energy contribution analysis (FECA) method based on the quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approximation using response kernel approaches has been proposed to investigate the influences of environmental residues and/or atoms in the QM region on the free energy profile. This method can evaluate atomic contributions to the free energy along the reaction path including polarization effects on the QM region within a dramatically reduced computational time. The rate-limiting step in the deactivation of the β-lactam antibiotic cefalotin (CLS) by β-lactamase was studied using this method. The experimentally observed activation barrier was successfully reproduced by free energy perturbation calculations along the optimized reaction path that involved activation by the carboxylate moiety in CLS. It was found that the free energy profile in the QM region was slightly higher than the isolated energy and that two residues, Lys67 and Lys315, as well as water molecules deeply influenced the QM atoms associated with the bond alternation reaction in the acyl-enzyme intermediate. These facts suggested that the surrounding residues are favorable for the reactant complex and prevent the intermediate from being too stabilized to proceed to the following deacylation reaction. We have demonstrated that the free energy contribution analysis should be a useful method to investigate enzyme catalysis and to facilitate intelligent molecular design.

  18. Environmental influences on and responses to changing patterns in energy supply. [12 refs

    Martinez, J D

    1976-12-01

    The benefits of modern technology can readily be identified with energy availability. A clear correlation has been established between per-capita energy consumption and the GNP for various nations. The United States is an outstanding example of a nation that has benefited from vast energy reserves. The nation is now challenged, however, by dwindling reserves and the need to develop new sources consistent with the preservation of environmental quality. The development of new, virtually inexhaustible and environmentally acceptable sources cannot be expected for several decades. Meanwhile, we will have to depend on coal, nuclear energy, and/or rigorous conservation measures. The net effect of environmental considerations has been to delay and perhaps ultimately eliminate the nuclear energy option as a national energy alternative. This forces a more positive move toward coal as the next major source of electrical power. Our coal resources are large, but the use and production of coal is also a threat to the environment. Thus, we seem to be moving from one major accessible source to another due to environmental concern only to face the probability that the alternative is also environmentally unacceptable. Controversies revolving about energy choices must be resolved by an analysis of the relative benefits and impacts of these two sources and others. The pattern of changing energy sources is not new. We have moved from wood to coal to oil and gas in the past and must learn to adapt in the future. Rational decisions must be made relative to the utilization of intermediate energy sources pending development of promising future approaches. A collapse of current levels of energy supply could threaten our technological society and the means to develop a new energy base.

  19. Negative rebound and disinvestment effects in response to an improvement in energy efficiency in the UK economy

    Turner, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) framework to investigate the conditions under which rebound effects may occur in response to increases in energy efficiency in the UK national economy. Previous work for the UK has suggested that rebound effects will occur even where key elasticities of substitution in production are set close to zero. The research reported in this paper involves carrying out a systematic sensitivity analysis, where relative price sensitivity is gradually introduced into the system, focusing specifically on elasticities of substitution in production and trade parameters, in order to determine conditions under which rebound effects become a likely outcome. The main result is that, while there is positive pressure for rebound effects even where (direct and indirect) demands for energy are very price inelastic, this may be partially or wholly offset by negative income, competitiveness and disinvestment effects, which also occur in response to falling energy prices. The occurrence of disinvestment effects is of particular interest. These occur where falling energy prices reduce profitability in domestic energy supply sectors, leading to a contraction in capital stock in these sectors, which may in turn lead to rebound effects that are smaller in the long run than in the short run, a result that runs contrary to the predictions of previous theoretical work in this area.

  20. Negative rebound and disinvestment effects in response to an improvement in energy efficiency in the UK economy

    Turner, Karen [Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, Sir William Duncan Building, 130 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0GE (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    This paper uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) framework to investigate the conditions under which rebound effects may occur in response to increases in energy efficiency in the UK national economy. Previous work for the UK has suggested that rebound effects will occur even where key elasticities of substitution in production are set close to zero. The research reported in this paper involves carrying out a systematic sensitivity analysis, where relative price sensitivity is gradually introduced into the system, focusing specifically on elasticities of substitution in production and trade parameters, in order to determine conditions under which rebound effects become a likely outcome. The main result is that, while there is positive pressure for rebound effects even where (direct and indirect) demands for energy are very price inelastic, this may be partially or wholly offset by negative income, competitiveness and disinvestment effects, which also occur in response to falling energy prices. The occurrence of disinvestment effects is of particular interest. These occur where falling energy prices reduce profitability in domestic energy supply sectors, leading to a contraction in capital stock in these sectors, which may in turn lead to rebound effects that are smaller in the long run than in the short run, a result that runs contrary to the predictions of previous theoretical work in this area. (author)

  1. Affective stress responses during leisure time: Validity evaluation of a modified version of the Stress-Energy Questionnaire.

    Hadžibajramović, Emina; Ahlborg, Gunnar; Håkansson, Carita; Lundgren-Nilsson, Åsa; Grimby-Ekman, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Psychosocial stress at work is one of the most important factors behind increasing sick-leave rates. In addition to work stressors, it is important to account for non-work-related stressors when assessing stress responses. In this study, a modified version of the Stress-Energy Questionnaire (SEQ), the SEQ during leisure time (SEQ-LT) was introduced for assessing the affective stress response during leisure time. The aim of this study was to investigate the internal construct validity of the SEQ-LT. A second aim was to define the cut-off points for the scales, which could indicate high and low levels of leisure-time stress and energy, respectively. Internal construct validity of the SEQ-LT was evaluated using a Rasch analysis. We examined the unidimensionality and other psychometric properties of the scale by the fit to the Rasch model. A criterion-based approach was used for classification into high and low stress/energy levels. The psychometric properties of the stress and energy scales of the SEQ-LT were satisfactory, having accommodated for local dependency. The cut-off point for low stress was proposed to be in the interval between 2.45 and 3.02 on the Rasch metric score; while for high stress, it was between 3.65 and 3.90. The suggested cut-off points for the low and high energy levels were values between 1.73-1.97 and 2.66-3.08, respectively. The stress and energy scale of the SEQ-LT satisfied the measurement criteria defined by the Rasch analysis and it provided a useful tool for non-work-related assessment of stress responses. We provide guidelines on how to interpret the scale values. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. Spatial heterogeneity in response of male greater sage-grouse lek attendance to energy development.

    Andrew J Gregory

    Full Text Available Landscape modification due to rapidly expanding energy development, in particular oil and gas, in the westernUSA, have prompted concerns over how such developments may impact wildlife. One species of conservation concern across much of the Intermountain West is the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercusurophasianus. Sage-grouse have been petitioned for listing under provisions of the Endangered Species Act 7 times and the state of Wyoming alone represents 64% of the extant sage-grouse population in the eastern portion of their range. Consequently, the relationship between sage-grouse populations and oil and gas development in Wyoming is an important component to managing the long-term viability of this species. We used 814 leks from the Wyoming Game and Fish Department's lek survey database and well pad data from the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission to evaluate changes in sage-grouse lek counts as a function of oil and gas development since 1991.From 1991-2011 we found that oil and gas well-pad density increased 3.6-fold across the state and was associated with a 24% decline in the number of male sage-grouse. Using a spatial and temporally structured analysis via Geographically Weighted Regression, we found a 1-to-4 year time lag between development density and lek decline. Sage-grouse also responded to development densities at multiple spatial neighborhoods surrounding leks, including broad scales of 10 km. However, sage-grouse lek counts do not always decline as a result of oil and gas development. We found similar development densities resulting in different sage-grouse lek count responses, suggesting that development density alone is insufficient to predict the impacts that oil and gas development have on sage-grouse. Finally, our analysis suggests a maximum development density of 1 well-pad within 2 km of leks to avoid measurable impacts within 1 year, and <6 well-pads within 10 km of leks to avoid delayed impacts.

  3. Response of TAPS to monochromatic photons with energies between 45 and 790 MeV

    Gabler, A.R. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Doering, W. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Fuchs, M. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Krusche, B. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Metag, V. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Novotny, R. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Roebig-Landau, M. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Stroeher, H. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Tries, V. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Molenaar, C. (Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Groningen (Netherlands)); Loehner, H. (Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Groningen (Netherlands)); Van Pol, J.H

    1994-07-15

    The Two Arm Photon Spectrometer TAPS - comprising 384 plastic-BaF[sub 2] scintillator telescopes - was tested with monochromatic photons in the energy range between 45 and 790 MeV. The energy resolution for a collimated photon beam hitting the central detector module was determined to [sigma]/E=0.59%xE[sup -1/2][sub [gamma

  4. Innovation in the European energy sector and regulatory responses to it : Guest editorial note

    Hoppe, T.; Butenko, Anna; Heldeweg, Michiel

    2018-01-01

    The European energy sector is an important economic sector that is also traditionally highly regulated. With the increasing tempo in which innovations in technology and markets occur, catalysed inter alia by the energy transition and accompanied by new formats of innovation (disruptive and

  5. Innovation in the European energy sector and regulatory responses to it : Guest editorial note

    Hoppe, Thomas; Butenko, Anna; Heldeweg, Michiel

    2018-01-01

    The European energy sector is an important economic sector that is also traditionally highly regulated. With the increasing tempo in which innovations in technology and markets occur, catalysed inter alia by the energy transition and accompanied by new formats of innovation (disruptive and

  6. Mammary gene expression profiles during an intramammary challenge reveal potential mechanisms linking negative energy balance with impaired immune response

    Moyes, Kasey; Drackley, J K; Morin, D E

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to compare mammary tissue gene expression profiles during a Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) mastitis challenge between lactating cows subjected to dietary-induced negative energy balance (NEB; n = 5) and cows fed ad libitum to maintain positive energy balance (PEB; n = 5...... 0.05), with 86 DEG up-regulated and 201 DEG down-regulated. Canonical pathways most affected by NEB were IL-8 Signaling (10 genes), Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling (13), and NRF2-mediated Oxidative Stress Response (10). Among genes differentially expressed by NEB, Cell Growth and Proliferation (48...

  7. Performance of Geant4 in simulating semiconductor particle detector response in the energy range below 1 MeV

    Soti, G.; Wauters, F.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Finlay, P.; Kraev, I. S.; Knecht, A.; Porobić, T.; Zákoucký, D.; Severijns, N.

    2013-11-01

    Geant4 simulations play a crucial role in the analysis and interpretation of experiments providing low energy precision tests of the Standard Model. This paper focuses on the accuracy of the description of the electron processes in the energy range between 100 and 1000 keV. The effect of the different simulation parameters and multiple scattering models on the backscattering coefficients is investigated. Simulations of the response of HPGe and passivated implanted planar Si detectors to β particles are compared to experimental results. An overall good agreement is found between Geant4 simulations and experimental data.

  8. A response matrix method for slab-geometry discrete ordinates adjoint calculations in energy-dependent source-detector problems

    Mansur, Ralph S.; Moura, Carlos A., E-mail: ralph@ime.uerj.br, E-mail: demoura@ime.uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica; Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Modelagem Computacional

    2017-07-01

    Presented here is an application of the Response Matrix (RM) method for adjoint discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) problems in slab geometry applied to energy-dependent source-detector problems. The adjoint RM method is free from spatial truncation errors, as it generates numerical results for the adjoint angular fluxes in multilayer slabs that agree with the numerical values obtained from the analytical solution of the energy multigroup adjoint SN equations. Numerical results are given for two typical source-detector problems to illustrate the accuracy and the efficiency of the offered RM computer code. (author)

  9. Final report on the development of a 250-kW modular, factory-assembled battery energy storage system

    Porter, D. [Omnion Power Engineering Corp., East Troy, WI (United States); Nerbun, W. [AC Battery Corp., East Troy, WI (United States); Corey, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1998-08-01

    A power management energy storage system was developed for stationary applications such as peak shaving, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve. Project activities included design, manufacture, factory testing, and field installation. The major features that characterize the development are the modularity of the production, its transportability, the power conversion method that aggregates power on the AC side of the converter, and the use of commonly employed technology for system components. 21 figs.

  10. Fusion Energy Advisory Committee: Advice and recommendations to the Department of Energy in partial response to the Charge Letter of September 24, 1991: Part D

    1992-06-01

    This document is a compilation of the written records that relate to the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee's deliberations with regard to the Letter of Charge received from the Director of Energy Research, dated September 24, 1991. During its fourth meeting, held in May 1992, FEAC provided a detailed response to that part of the charge that requested review of the potential effectiveness, and hence the advisability, of implementing a more diverse US fusion program. In particular, it responded to the paragraph: ''By May 1992, 1 would like to have your recommendations on a US concept improvement program, including relative priorities and taking into account ongoing and planned work abroad.'' In order to respond to this charge in a timely manner, FEAC established a working group, designated ''Panel number-sign 3'', which reviewed the US and international fusion programs in detail and prepared background material, included in this report as Appendix 1, to help FEAC in its deliberations

  11. Effects of consumption of sucromalt, a slowly digestible carbohydrate, on mental and physical energy questionnaire responses.

    Dammann, Kristen W; Bell, Margie; Kanter, Mitch; Berger, Alvin

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate whether consumption of the low-glycemic index (GI) carbohydrate sucromalt improves healthy adults' perceptions of mental and physical energy and fatigue compared to dextrose (glucose), a high GI control. In this double-blind, randomized, cross-over study, subjects (n = 44 healthy adults) consumed a standardized dinner, and following an overnight fast, ingested 75 g of either sucromalt or glucose in solution at 7:30 AM the next day. Subjects completed validated questionnaires that assessed mental and physical energy, and fatigue, hunger, and sleepiness at baseline and hourly until 12:30 PM for a total of five post-consumption time points. Within-subject differences adjusted for baseline for individual questions and composite scores (Mental Energy State, Mental Fatigue State, Physical Energy State, and Physical Fatigue State) were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. Mental Energy State, Physical Energy State, and Physical Fatigue State results favored sucromalt compared to glucose, with significant differences emerging particularly after 4-5 hours (P Mental Fatigue State was also observed with sucromalt compared to glucose (P mental and physical energy and rise in mental and physical fatigue that can occur 4-5 hours after ingestion of a high GI beverage. Trials examining effects of sucromalt on cognitive and physical performance are of future interest.

  12. Fusion Energy Advisory Committee: Advice and recommendations to the US Department of Energy in response to the charge letter of September 1, 1992

    1993-04-01

    This document is a compilation of the written records that relate to the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee's deliberations with regard to the Letter of Charge received from the Director of Energy Research, dated September 1, 1992. During its sixth meeting, held in March 1993, FEAC provided a detailed