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Sample records for response patterns suggest

  1. Discrete response patterns in the upper range of hypnotic suggestibility: A latent profile analysis.

    Terhune, Devin Blair

    2015-05-01

    High hypnotic suggestibility is a heterogeneous condition and there is accumulating evidence that highly suggestible individuals may be comprised of discrete subtypes with dissimilar cognitive and phenomenological profiles. This study applied latent profile analysis to response patterns on a diverse battery of difficult hypnotic suggestions in a sample of individuals in the upper range of hypnotic suggestibility. Comparisons among models indicated that a four-class model was optimal. One class was comprised of very highly suggestible (virtuoso) participants, two classes included highly suggestible participants who were alternately more responsive to inhibitory cognitive suggestions or posthypnotic amnesia suggestions, and the fourth class consisted primarily of medium suggestible participants. These results indicate that there are discrete response profiles in high hypnotic suggestibility. They further provide a number of insights regarding the optimization of hypnotic suggestibility measurement and have implications for the instrumental use of hypnosis for the modeling of different psychological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Contrasting Patterns of Coral Bleaching Susceptibility in 2010 Suggest an Adaptive Response to Thermal Stress

    Guest, James R.; Baird, Andrew H.; Maynard, Jeffrey A.; Muttaqin, Efin; Edwards, Alasdair J.; Campbell, Stuart J.; Yewdall, Katie; Affendi, Yang Amri; Chou, Loke Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Coral bleaching events vary in severity, however, to date, the hierarchy of susceptibility to bleaching among coral taxa has been consistent over a broad geographic range and among bleaching episodes. Here we examine the extent of spatial and temporal variation in thermal tolerance among scleractinian coral taxa and between locations during the 2010 thermally induced, large-scale bleaching event in South East Asia. Methodology/Principal Findings Surveys to estimate the bleaching and mortality indices of coral genera were carried out at three locations with contrasting thermal and bleaching histories. Despite the magnitude of thermal stress being similar among locations in 2010, there was a remarkable contrast in the patterns of bleaching susceptibility. Comparisons of bleaching susceptibility within coral taxa and among locations revealed no significant differences between locations with similar thermal histories, but significant differences between locations with contrasting thermal histories (Friedman = 34.97; pSingapore, where only 5% and 12% of colonies died. Conclusions/Significance The pattern of susceptibility among coral genera documented here is unprecedented. A parsimonious explanation for these results is that coral populations that bleached during the last major warming event in 1998 have adapted and/or acclimatised to thermal stress. These data also lend support to the hypothesis that corals in regions subject to more variable temperature regimes are more resistant to thermal stress than those in less variable environments. PMID:22428027

  3. Contrasting patterns of coral bleaching susceptibility in 2010 suggest an adaptive response to thermal stress.

    Guest, James R; Baird, Andrew H; Maynard, Jeffrey A; Muttaqin, Efin; Edwards, Alasdair J; Campbell, Stuart J; Yewdall, Katie; Affendi, Yang Amri; Chou, Loke Ming

    2012-01-01

    Coral bleaching events vary in severity, however, to date, the hierarchy of susceptibility to bleaching among coral taxa has been consistent over a broad geographic range and among bleaching episodes. Here we examine the extent of spatial and temporal variation in thermal tolerance among scleractinian coral taxa and between locations during the 2010 thermally induced, large-scale bleaching event in South East Asia. Surveys to estimate the bleaching and mortality indices of coral genera were carried out at three locations with contrasting thermal and bleaching histories. Despite the magnitude of thermal stress being similar among locations in 2010, there was a remarkable contrast in the patterns of bleaching susceptibility. Comparisons of bleaching susceptibility within coral taxa and among locations revealed no significant differences between locations with similar thermal histories, but significant differences between locations with contrasting thermal histories (Friedman = 34.97; pBleaching was much less severe at locations that bleached during 1998, that had greater historical temperature variability and lower rates of warming. Remarkably, Acropora and Pocillopora, taxa that are typically highly susceptible, although among the most susceptible in Pulau Weh (Sumatra, Indonesia) where respectively, 94% and 87% of colonies died, were among the least susceptible in Singapore, where only 5% and 12% of colonies died. The pattern of susceptibility among coral genera documented here is unprecedented. A parsimonious explanation for these results is that coral populations that bleached during the last major warming event in 1998 have adapted and/or acclimatised to thermal stress. These data also lend support to the hypothesis that corals in regions subject to more variable temperature regimes are more resistant to thermal stress than those in less variable environments.

  4. Expression Patterns and Identified Protein-Protein Interactions Suggest That Cassava CBL-CIPK Signal Networks Function in Responses to Abiotic Stresses.

    Mo, Chunyan; Wan, Shumin; Xia, Youquan; Ren, Ning; Zhou, Yang; Jiang, Xingyu

    2018-01-01

    Cassava is an energy crop that is tolerant of multiple abiotic stresses. It has been reported that the interaction between Calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein and CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) is implicated in plant development and responses to various stresses. However, little is known about their functions in cassava. Herein, 8 CBL ( MeCBL ) and 26 CIPK ( MeCIPK ) genes were isolated from cassava by genome searching and cloning of cDNA sequences of Arabidopsis CBL s and CIPK s. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the expression levels of MeCBL and MeCIPK genes were different in different tissues throughout the life cycle. The expression patterns of 7 CBL and 26 CIPK genes in response to NaCl, PEG, heat and cold stresses were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and it was found that the expression of each was induced by multiple stimuli. Furthermore, we found that many pairs of CBLs and CIPKs could interact with each other via investigating the interactions between 8 CBL and 25 CIPK proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system. Yeast cells co-transformed with cassava MeCIPK24, MeCBL10 , and Na + /H + antiporter MeSOS1 genes exhibited higher salt tolerance compared to those with one or two genes. These results suggest that the cassava CBL-CIPK signal network might play key roles in response to abiotic stresses.

  5. Expression Patterns and Identified Protein-Protein Interactions Suggest That Cassava CBL-CIPK Signal Networks Function in Responses to Abiotic Stresses

    Chunyan Mo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is an energy crop that is tolerant of multiple abiotic stresses. It has been reported that the interaction between Calcineurin B-like (CBL protein and CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK is implicated in plant development and responses to various stresses. However, little is known about their functions in cassava. Herein, 8 CBL (MeCBL and 26 CIPK (MeCIPK genes were isolated from cassava by genome searching and cloning of cDNA sequences of Arabidopsis CBLs and CIPKs. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of MeCBL and MeCIPK genes were different in different tissues throughout the life cycle. The expression patterns of 7 CBL and 26 CIPK genes in response to NaCl, PEG, heat and cold stresses were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, and it was found that the expression of each was induced by multiple stimuli. Furthermore, we found that many pairs of CBLs and CIPKs could interact with each other via investigating the interactions between 8 CBL and 25 CIPK proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system. Yeast cells co-transformed with cassava MeCIPK24, MeCBL10, and Na+/H+ antiporter MeSOS1 genes exhibited higher salt tolerance compared to those with one or two genes. These results suggest that the cassava CBL-CIPK signal network might play key roles in response to abiotic stresses.

  6. Responding to hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions: performance standards, imaginative suggestibility, and response expectancies.

    Meyer, Eric C; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the relative impact of hypnotic inductions and several other variables on hypnotic and nonhypnotic responsiveness to imaginative suggestions. The authors examined how imaginative suggestibility, response expectancies, motivation to respond to suggestions, and hypnotist-induced performance standards affected participants' responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions and their suggestion-related experiences. Suggestions were administered to 5 groups of participants using a test-retest design: (a) stringent performance standards; (b) lenient performance standards; (c) hypnosis test-retest; (d) no-hypnosis test-retest; and (e) no-hypnosis/hypnosis control. The authors found no support for the influence of a hypnotic induction or performance standards on responding to suggestions but found considerable support for the role of imaginative suggestibility and response expectancies in predicting responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions.

  7. Organization patterns responsibilities

    Beuerle, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    To guarantee safety and safe operation of a nuclear power station the technical facilities must be supplemented by suitable administrative measures. Thus, the organization pattern of the nuclear power station or of the nuclear power station undertaking will also exert a corresponding influence. (orig./TK) [de

  8. Infants' brain responses to speech suggest analysis by synthesis.

    Kuhl, Patricia K; Ramírez, Rey R; Bosseler, Alexis; Lin, Jo-Fu Lotus; Imada, Toshiaki

    2014-08-05

    Historic theories of speech perception (Motor Theory and Analysis by Synthesis) invoked listeners' knowledge of speech production to explain speech perception. Neuroimaging data show that adult listeners activate motor brain areas during speech perception. In two experiments using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we investigated motor brain activation, as well as auditory brain activation, during discrimination of native and nonnative syllables in infants at two ages that straddle the developmental transition from language-universal to language-specific speech perception. Adults are also tested in Exp. 1. MEG data revealed that 7-mo-old infants activate auditory (superior temporal) as well as motor brain areas (Broca's area, cerebellum) in response to speech, and equivalently for native and nonnative syllables. However, in 11- and 12-mo-old infants, native speech activates auditory brain areas to a greater degree than nonnative, whereas nonnative speech activates motor brain areas to a greater degree than native speech. This double dissociation in 11- to 12-mo-old infants matches the pattern of results obtained in adult listeners. Our infant data are consistent with Analysis by Synthesis: auditory analysis of speech is coupled with synthesis of the motor plans necessary to produce the speech signal. The findings have implications for: (i) perception-action theories of speech perception, (ii) the impact of "motherese" on early language learning, and (iii) the "social-gating" hypothesis and humans' development of social understanding.

  9. Ancestral patterning of tergite formation in a centipede suggests derived mode of trunk segmentation in trilobites.

    Javier Ortega-Hernández

    derived morphogenetic patterning mechanism responsible for the reiterated occurrence of different types of trunk dorsoventral segmental mismatch in several phylogenetically distant, extinct and extant, arthropod groups.

  10. Echinococcus cysticus of the liver - sonographic pattern suggestive of solid tumor

    Grosser, G.; Hauenstein, K.H.; Henke, W.

    1985-01-01

    In a patient with Hodgkin's disease, an intrahepatic echodense mass was diagnosed incidentally by ultrasonography. The sonographic pattern suggested a solid tumor. Despite negative or borderline serology, computed tomography establised the diagnosis of echinococcus cysticus by documentation of one ''daughter'' cyst; this diagnosis was confirmed by surgery. The criteria of echinococcus cysticus in modern imaging methods like sonography and computed tomography are summarized and the diagnostic value of various procedures including diagnostic procedure in seronegative cases are discussed. (orig.) [de

  11. Prospective Molecular Profiling of Melanoma Metastases Suggests Classifiers of Immune Responsiveness

    Wang, Ena; Miller, Lance D.; Ohnmacht, Galen A.; Mocellin, Simone; Perez-Diez, Ainhoa; Petersen, David; Zhao, Yingdong; Simon, Richard; Powell, John I.; Asaki, Esther; Alexander, H. Richard; Duray, Paul H.; Herlyn, Meenhard; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Liu, Edison T.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Marincola, Francesco M.

    2008-01-01

    We amplified RNAs from 63 fine needle aspiration (FNA) samples from 37 s.c. melanoma metastases from 25 patients undergoing immunotherapy for hybridization to a 6108-gene human cDNA chip. By prospectively following the history of the lesions, we could correlate transcript patterns with clinical outcome. Cluster analysis revealed a tight relationship among autologous synchronously sampled tumors compared with unrelated lesions (average Pearson's r = 0.83 and 0.7, respectively, P < 0.0003). As reported previously, two subgroups of metastatic melanoma lesions were identified that, however, had no predictive correlation with clinical outcome. Ranking of gene expression data from pretreatment samples identified ∼30 genes predictive of clinical response (P < 0.001). Analysis of their annotations denoted that approximately half of them were related to T-cell regulation, suggesting that immune responsiveness might be predetermined by a tumor microenvironment conducive to immune recognition. PMID:12097256

  12. Echinococcus cysticus of the liver - sonographic pattern suggestive of solid tumor

    Grosser, G.; Hauenstein, K.H.; Henke, W.

    1985-09-01

    In a patient with Hodgkin's disease, an intrahepatic echodense mass was diagnosed incidentally by ultrasonography. The sonographic pattern suggested a solid tumor. Despite negative or borderline serology, computed tomography establised the diagnosis of echinococcus cysticus by documentation of one ''daughter'' cyst; this diagnosis was confirmed by surgery. The criteria of echinococcus cysticus in modern imaging methods like sonography and computed tomography are summarized and the diagnostic value of various procedures including diagnostic procedure in seronegative cases are discussed.

  13. Patterns of evolution of MHC class II genes of crows (Corvus suggest trans-species polymorphism

    John A. Eimes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A distinguishing characteristic of genes that code for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC is that alleles often share more similarity between, rather than within species. There are two likely mechanisms that can explain this pattern: convergent evolution and trans-species polymorphism (TSP, in which ancient allelic lineages are maintained by balancing selection and retained by descendant species. Distinguishing between these two mechanisms has major implications in how we view adaptation of immune genes. In this study we analyzed exon 2 of the MHC class IIB in three passerine bird species in the genus Corvus: jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos japonensis American crows (C. brachyrhynchos and carrion crows (C. corone orientalis. Carrion crows and American crows are recently diverged, but allopatric, sister species, whereas carrion crows and jungle crows are more distantly related but sympatric species, and possibly share pathogens linked to MHC IIB polymorphisms. These patterns of evolutionary divergence and current geographic ranges enabled us to test for trans-species polymorphism and convergent evolution of the MHC IIB in crows. Phylogenetic reconstructions of MHC IIB sequences revealed several well supported interspecific clusters containing all three species, and there was no biased clustering of variants among the sympatric carrion crows and jungle crows. The topologies of phylogenetic trees constructed from putatively selected sites were remarkably different than those constructed from putatively neutral sites. In addition, trees constructed using non-synonymous substitutions from a continuous fragment of exon 2 had more, and generally more inclusive, supported interspecific MHC IIB variant clusters than those constructed from the same fragment using synonymous substitutions. These phylogenetic patterns suggest that recombination, especially gene conversion, has partially erased the signal of allelic ancestry in these species. While

  14. Validity of a Test of Children's Suggestibility for Predicting Responses to Two Interview Situations Differing in Their Degree of Suggestiveness.

    Finnila, Katarina; Mahlberg, Nina; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Niemi, Pekka

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relative contributions of internal and external sources of variation in children's suggestibility in interrogative situations. Found that internal sources of individual differences in suggestibility measured on a suggestibility test did influence children's answers during an interview, but that external sources or interview styles had…

  15. Selective insectivory at Toro-Semliki, Uganda: comparative analyses suggest no 'savanna' chimpanzee pattern.

    Webster, Timothy H; McGrew, William C; Marchant, Linda F; Payne, Charlotte L R; Hunt, Kevin D

    2014-06-01

    Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) insectivory across Africa is ubiquitous. Insects provide a significant nutritional payoff and may be important for chimpanzees in dry, open habitats with narrow diets. We tested this hypothesis at Semliki, Uganda, a long-term dry study site. We evaluated prospects for insectivory by measuring insect abundance along de novo transects and trails, monitoring social insect colonies, and surveying available raw materials for elementary technology. We determined the frequency and nature of insectivory through behavioral observation and fecal analysis. We then compared our results with those from 15 other long-term chimpanzee study sites using a cluster analysis. We found that Semliki chimpanzees are one of the most insectivorous populations studied to date in terms of frequency of consumption, but they are very selective in their insectivory, regularly consuming only weaver ants (Oecophylla longinoda) and honey and bees from hives of Apis mellifera. This selectivity obtains despite having a full range of typical prey species available in harvestable quantities. We suggest that Semliki chimpanzees may face ecological time constraints and therefore bias their predation toward prey taxa that can be quickly consumed. Geographical proximity correlated with the results of the cluster analysis, while rainfall, a relatively gross measure of environment, did not. Because broad taxonomic groups of insects were used in analyses, prey availability was unlikely to have a strong effect on this pattern. Instead, we suggest that transmission of cultural knowledge may play a role in determining chimpanzee prey selection across Africa. Further study is needed to test these hypotheses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genomic Features That Predict Allelic Imbalance in Humans Suggest Patterns of Constraint on Gene Expression Variation

    Fédrigo, Olivier; Haygood, Ralph; Mukherjee, Sayan; Wray, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Variation in gene expression is an important contributor to phenotypic diversity within and between species. Although this variation often has a genetic component, identification of the genetic variants driving this relationship remains challenging. In particular, measurements of gene expression usually do not reveal whether the genetic basis for any observed variation lies in cis or in trans to the gene, a distinction that has direct relevance to the physical location of the underlying genetic variant, and which may also impact its evolutionary trajectory. Allelic imbalance measurements identify cis-acting genetic effects by assaying the relative contribution of the two alleles of a cis-regulatory region to gene expression within individuals. Identification of patterns that predict commonly imbalanced genes could therefore serve as a useful tool and also shed light on the evolution of cis-regulatory variation itself. Here, we show that sequence motifs, polymorphism levels, and divergence levels around a gene can be used to predict commonly imbalanced genes in a human data set. Reduction of this feature set to four factors revealed that only one factor significantly differentiated between commonly imbalanced and nonimbalanced genes. We demonstrate that these results are consistent between the original data set and a second published data set in humans obtained using different technical and statistical methods. Finally, we show that variation in the single allelic imbalance-associated factor is partially explained by the density of genes in the region of a target gene (allelic imbalance is less probable for genes in gene-dense regions), and, to a lesser extent, the evenness of expression of the gene across tissues and the magnitude of negative selection on putative regulatory regions of the gene. These results suggest that the genomic distribution of functional cis-regulatory variants in the human genome is nonrandom, perhaps due to local differences in evolutionary

  17. Response expectancies, treatment credibility, and hypnotic suggestibility: mediator and moderator effects in hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral pain interventions.

    Milling, Leonard S; Shores, Jessica S; Coursen, Elizabeth L; Menario, Deanna J; Farris, Catherine D

    2007-04-01

    Several studies have shown that response expectancies are an important mechanism of popular psychological interventions for pain. However, there has been no research on whether response expectancies and treatment credibility independently mediate hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral pain interventions and whether the pattern of mediation is affected by experience with the interventions. Also, past research has indicated that hypnotic pain interventions may be moderated by hypnotic suggestibility. However, these studies have typically failed to measure the full range of suggestibility and have assessed pain reduction and suggestibility in the same experimental context, possibly inflating the association between these variables. To clarify the mediator role of response expectancies and treatment credibility, and the moderator role of hypnotic suggestibility in the hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral reduction of pain. Approximately 300 participants were assessed for suggestibility. Then, as part of an apparently unrelated experiment, 124 of these individuals received analogue cognitive-behavioral, hypnotic, or placebo control pain interventions. Response expectancies and credibility independently mediated treatment. The extent of mediation increased as participants gained more experience with the interventions. Suggestibility moderated treatment and was associated with relief only from the hypnotic intervention. Response expectancies and treatment credibility are unique mechanisms of hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral pain interventions. Hypnotic suggestibility predicts relief from hypnotic pain interventions and this association is not simply an artifact of measuring suggestibility and pain reduction in the same experimental context. The relationship between suggestibility and hypnotic pain reduction appears to be linear in nature.

  18. Spatial patterns of goose grubbing suggest elevated grubbing in dry habitats linked to early snowmelt

    Åshild Ø. Pedersen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The western Palaearctic tundra is a breeding habitat for large populations of European geese. After their arrival in spring, pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus forage extensively on below-ground plant parts, using a feeding technique called grubbing that has substantial impact on the tundra vegetation. Previous studies have shown a high frequency of grubbing in lowland fen vegetation. In the present study, we examined the occurrence of grubbing in other habitat types on Spitsbergen, in the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. Goose grubbing was surveyed along 19 altitudinal transects, going from the valley bottom to altitudes dominated by scree. Grubbing was more frequent in the wet habitat type at low altitudes compared to the drier habitat type at higher altitudes. For the dry habitat type, a higher frequency of grubbing was found in study plots with a south-east facing exposure where snowmelt is expected to be early. This suggests that pink-footed geese primarily use dry vegetation types for grubbing when they are snow-free in early spring and the availability of snow-free patches of the preferred wet vegetation types in the lowlands is limited. Dry vegetation types have poorer recovery rates from disturbance than wet ones. Sites with early snowmelt and dry vegetation types may therefore be at greater risk of long-term habitat degradation. We conclude that the high growth rate of the Svalbard-breeding pink-footed goose population suggests that increasing impacts of grubbing can be expected and argue that a responsible monitoring of the effects on the tundra ecosystem is crucial.

  19. Comparing bee species responses to chemical mixtures: Common response patterns?

    Alex Robinson

    Full Text Available Pollinators in agricultural landscapes can be exposed to mixtures of pesticides and environmental pollutants. Existing mixture toxicity modelling approaches, such as the models of concentration addition and independent action and the mechanistic DEBtox framework have been previously shown as valuable tools for understanding and ultimately predicting joint toxicity. Here we apply these mixture models to investigate the potential to interpret the effects of semi-chronic binary mixture exposure for three bee species: Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis within potentiation and mixture toxicity experiments. In the potentiation studies, the effect of the insecticide dimethoate with added propiconazole fungicide and neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin with added tau-fluvalinate pyrethroid acaricide showed no difference in toxicity compared to the single chemical alone. Clothianidin toxicity showed a small scale, but temporally conserved increase in exposure conducted in the presence of propiconazole, particularly for B. terrestris and O. bicornis, the latter showing a near three-fold increase in clothianidin toxicity in the presence of propiconazole. In the mixture toxicity studies, the dominant response patterns were of additivity, however, binary mixtures of clothianidin and dimethoate in A. mellifera, B. terrestris and male O. bicornis there was evidence of a predominant antagonistic interaction. Given the ubiquitous nature of exposures to multiple chemicals, there is an urgent need to consider mixture effects in pollinator risk assessments. Our analyses suggest that current models, particularly those that utilise time-series data, such as DEBtox, can be used to identify additivity as the dominant response pattern and also those examples of interactions, even when small-scale, that may need to be taken into account during risk assessment.

  20. Regular Topographic Patterning of Karst Depressions Suggests Landscape Self-Organization

    Quintero, C.; Cohen, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Thousands of wetland depressions that are commonly host to cypress domes dot the sub-tropical limestone landscape of South Florida. The origin of these depression features has been the topic of debate. Here we build upon the work of previous surveyors of this landscape to analyze the morphology and spatial distribution of depressions on the Big Cypress landscape. We took advantage of the emergence and availability of high resolution Light Direction and Ranging (LiDAR) technology and ArcMap GIS software to analyze the structure and regularity of landscape features with methods unavailable to past surveyors. Six 2.25 km2 LiDAR plots within the preserve were selected for remote analysis and one depression feature within each plot was selected for more intensive sediment and water depth surveying. Depression features on the Big Cypress landscape were found to show strong evidence of regular spatial patterning. Periodicity, a feature of regularly patterned landscapes, is apparent in both Variograms and Radial Spectrum Analyses. Size class distributions of the identified features indicate constrained feature sizes while Average Nearest Neighbor analyses support the inference of dispersed features with non-random spacing. The presence of regular patterning on this landscape strongly implies biotic reinforcement of spatial structure by way of the scale dependent feedback. In characterizing the structure of this wetland landscape we add to the growing body of work dedicated to documenting how water, life and geology may interact to shape the natural landscapes we see today.

  1. Responses to Deficiencies and Suggestions, AIHA Site Assessment July 12-14, 2016

    Bennett, Jack T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Harding, Ruth N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-11

    These are the responses to the deficiencies and suggestions found during the American Industrial Hygiene Association external site assessment carried out July 12-14, 2016 in the Analytical Services and Instrumentation Division Analytical Laboratory.

  2. Not all group hypnotic suggestibility scales are created equal: individual differences in behavioral and subjective responses.

    Barnes, Sean M; Lynn, Steven Jay; Pekala, Ronald J

    2009-03-01

    To examine the influence of hypnotic suggestibility testing as a source of individual differences in hypnotic responsiveness, we compared behavioral and subjective responses on three scales of hypnotic suggestibility: The Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS: A; Shor, R. E., Orne, E. C. (1962). Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. Berlin: Consulting Psychologists Press); the Carleton University Responsiveness to Suggestion Scale (CURSS; Spanos, N. P., Radtke, H. L., Hodgins, D. C., Stam, H. J., Bertrand, L. D. (1983b). The Carleton University Responsiveness to Suggestion Scale: Normative data and psychometric properties. Psychological Reports, 53, 523-535); and the Group Scale of Hypnotic Ability (GSHA; Hawkins, R., Wenzel, L. (1999). The Group Scale of Hypnotic Ability and response booklet. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 27, 20-31). Behavioral and subjective responses to the CURSS were significantly different than those on the HGSHS: A and GSHA. More participants were classified as "low suggestible" on the CURSS and they reported subjective experiences more similar to everyday mentation. Attitudes and expectancies of participants who received the GSHA were less predictive of responding, but rates of responding and subjective experiences were similar on the GSHA and the HGSHS: A. Discussion focuses on implications for the use of group hypnotic suggestibility scales.

  3. Mediation and Moderation of Psychological Pain Treatments: Response Expectancies and Hypnotic Suggestibility

    Milling, Leonard S.; Reardon, John M.; Carosella, Gina M.

    2006-01-01

    The mediator role of response expectancies and the moderator role of hypnotic suggestibility were evaluated in the analogue treatment of pain. Approximately 1,000 participants were assessed for hypnotic suggestibility. Later, as part of a seemingly unrelated experiment, 188 of these individuals were randomly assigned to distraction,…

  4. Genome-wide Ancestry Patterns in Rapanui Suggest Pre-European Admixture with Native Americans

    Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Rasmussen, Simon; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rapa Nui (Easter Island), located in the easternmost corner of the Polynesian Triangle, is one of the most isolated locations on the planet inhabited by humans. Archaeological and genetic evidence suggests that the island was first colonized by Polynesians around AD 1200, during...

  5. Effect of survey mode on response patterns

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    .7%). Marital status, ethnic background and highest completed education were associated with non-response in both modes. Furthermore, sex and age were associated with non-response in the self-administered mode. No significant mode effects were observed for indicators related to use of health services......BACKGROUND: While face-to-face interviews are considered the gold standard of survey modes, self-administered questionnaires are often preferred for cost and convenience. This article examines response patterns in two general population health surveys carried out by face-to-face interview and self......-administered questionnaire, respectively. METHOD: Data derives from a health interview survey in the Region of Southern Denmark (face-to-face interview) and The Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2010 (self-administered questionnaire). Identical questions were used in both surveys. Data on all individuals were obtained from...

  6. Malagasy bats shelter a considerable genetic diversity of pathogenic Leptospira suggesting notable host-specificity patterns.

    Gomard, Yann; Dietrich, Muriel; Wieseke, Nicolas; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Lagadec, Erwan; Goodman, Steven M; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira are the causative agents of leptospirosis, a disease of global concern with major impact in tropical regions. Despite the importance of this zoonosis for human health, the evolutionary and ecological drivers shaping bacterial communities in host reservoirs remain poorly investigated. Here, we describe Leptospira communities hosted by Malagasy bats, composed of mostly endemic species, in order to characterize host-pathogen associations and investigate their evolutionary histories. We screened 947 individual bats (representing 31 species, 18 genera and seven families) for Leptospira infection and subsequently genotyped positive samples using three different bacterial loci. Molecular identification showed that these Leptospira are notably diverse and include several distinct lineages mostly belonging to Leptospira borgpetersenii and L. kirschneri. The exploration of the most probable host-pathogen evolutionary scenarios suggests that bacterial genetic diversity results from a combination of events related to the ecology and the evolutionary history of their hosts. Importantly, based on the data set presented herein, the notable host-specificity we have uncovered, together with a lack of geographical structuration of bacterial genetic diversity, indicates that the Leptospira community at a given site depends on the co-occurring bat species assemblage. The implications of such tight host-specificity on the epidemiology of leptospirosis are discussed. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Suggestibility as a predictor of response to antidepressants: A preliminary prospective trial.

    Nitzan, Uri; Chalamish, Yossi; Krieger, Israel; Erez, Hany Burstein; Braw, Yoram; Lichtenberg, Pesach

    2015-10-01

    The growing awareness that so many do not respond adequately to antidepressant (AD) pharmacotherapy has sparked research seeking to characterize those who do. While the pharmacological mechanisms of AD treatment have been extensively evaluated, much remains unknown about the placebo component of the response to medication. This study examined the association between suggestibility levels and response to ADs amongst depressed patients. Twenty unipolar depression outpatients, recruited before starting AD monotherapy, received clear, standardized instructions that the therapeutic effects of AD, though not side effects, would require 2-4 weeks. At baseline (T1), 1 week (T2), and 1 month (T3), participants were evaluated for depressive symptoms, using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17 items (HAM-D); for anxiety by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A); for side effects by the Antidepressant Side Effect Checklist (ASEC); and for suggestibility, using the Multidimensional Iowa Suggestibility Scale (MISS). High levels of baseline suggestibility were associated with less improvement in depression level and more side-effects during the first week. In accordance with our hypothesis the more suggestible patients improved more between T2 and T3. No significant correlations were found between baseline suggestibility levels and change in anxiety. Small sample size and a self-report questionnaire assessing suggestibility were limitations. This study offers a potentially new and clinically useful approach to understanding and predicting who will respond to AD treatment. Suggestibility seems to play a role, presumably by shaping expectation, in response to AD treatment. We hope that this avenue will be further explored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Institutional and programmatic suggestions for satisfying public policy responsibilities in a retail competitive electric industry

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of retail competition in the US electric power industry places at risk various environmental and social programmes such as demand side management, low income programmes and renewable energy. This paper presents institutional and programmatic suggestions for satisfying these kinds of public policy responsibilities in a disintegrated industry. Suggestions include customer owned electricity franchises, electricity facility siting marketplaces, electric industry foresight councils, model systems programmes, integrated social services programmes, collaborative electric service programmes, ISO standards and portfolio standards. These recommendations would be funded by a national transmission charge, a state level distribution charge and franchise level sales taxes, to be paid by transmission organizations, distribution organizations and electricity consumers, respectively. (author)

  9. EXAMINATION OF THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL RESPONSE SYSTEM IN KOREA AND SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENTS RELATING TO TRANSPORT

    Sei-Chang OH, Ph.D.

    2004-01-01

    This research focuses on the examination of current emergency medical response system related to the transport of emergency vehicles and suggests some transport-related ideas to improve the system in Korea. The study aimed to investigate the present emergency medical response system and identify problems, questionnaire survey and literature review were carried. The ideas include the improvement of emergency information flow and the development of preferential treatment methods for emergency vehicles. To improve the emergency information flow, this research studied the bridge between emergency medical information center and traffic information center and proposed the efficient utilization of traffic information for the better treatment of an emergency. When it comes to the movement of emergency vehicles, various preferential treatment methods were suggested.

  10. Patterns of Response After Preoperative Treatment in Gastric Cancer

    Diaz-Gonzalez, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Javier; Hernandez-Lizoain, Jose L.; Ciervide, Raquel; Gaztanaga, Miren; San Miguel, Inigo; Arbea, Leire; Aristu, J. Javier; Chopitea, Ana; Martinez-Regueira, Fernando; Valenti, Victor; Garcia-Foncillas, Jesus; Martinez-Monge, Rafael; Sola, Jesus J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the rate of pathologic response in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer treated with preoperative chemotherapy with and without chemoradiation at our institution. Methods and Materials: From 2000 to 2007 patients were retrospectively identified who received preoperative treatment for gastric cancer (cT3-4/ N+) with induction chemotherapy (Ch) or with Ch followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (45 Gy in 5 weeks) (ChRT). Surgery was planned 4-6 weeks after the completion of neoadjuvant treatment. Pathologic assessment was used to investigate the patterns of pathologic response after neoadjuvant treatment. Results: Sixty-one patients were analyzed. Of 61 patients, 58 (95%) underwent surgery. The R0 resection rate was 87%. Pathologic complete response was achieved in 12% of the patients. A major pathologic response (<10% of residual tumor) was observed in 53% of patients, and T downstaging was observed in 75%. Median follow-up was 38.7 months. Median disease-free survival (DFS) was 36.5 months. The only patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factor associated with pathologic response was the use of preoperative ChRT. Patients achieving major pathologic response had a 3-year actuarial DFS rate of 63%. Conclusions: The patterns of pathologic response after preoperative ChRT suggest encouraging intervals of DFS. Such a strategy may be of interest to be explored in gastric cancer.

  11. A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus.

    Sayoko Ueda

    Full Text Available As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear, B-type (only the eye position is clear, and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear. A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.

  12. Response of human corneal fibroblasts on silk film surface patterns.

    Gil, Eun Seok; Park, Sang-Hyug; Marchant, Jeff; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Kaplan, David L

    2010-06-11

    Transparent, biodegradable, mechanically robust, and surface-patterned silk films were evaluated for the effect of surface morphology on human corneal fibroblast (hCF) cell proliferation, orientation, and ECM deposition and alignment. A series of dimensionally different surface groove patterns were prepared from optically graded glass substrates followed by casting poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) replica molds. The features on the patterned silk films showed an array of asymmetric triangles and displayed 37-342 nm depths and 445-3 582 nm widths. hCF DNA content on all patterned films were not significantly different from that on flat silk films after 4 d in culture. However, the depth and width of the grooves influenced cell alignment, while the depth differences affected cell orientation; overall, deeper and narrower grooves induced more hCF orientation. Over 14 d in culture, cell layers and actin filament organization demonstrated that confluent hCFs and their cytoskeletal filaments were oriented along the direction of the silk film patterned groove axis. Collagen type V and proteoglycans (decorin and biglycan), important markers of corneal stromal tissue, were highly expressed with alignment. Understanding corneal stromal fibroblast responses to surface features on a protein-based biomaterial applicable in vivo for corneal repair potential suggests options to improve corneal tissue mimics. Further, the approaches provide fundamental biomaterial designs useful for bioengineering oriented tissue layers, an endemic feature in most biological tissue structures that lead to critical tissue functions.

  13. Tissue accumulation of microplastics in mice and biomarker responses suggest widespread health risks of exposure

    Deng, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yan; Lemos, Bernardo; Ren, Hongqiang

    2017-04-01

    Microplastics (MPs) are a significant environmental health issue and increasingly greater source of concern. MPs have been detected in oceans, rivers, sediments, sewages, soil and even table salts. MPs exposure on marine organisms and humans has been documented, but information about the toxicity of MPs in mammal is limited. Here we used fluorescent and pristine polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) particles with two diameters (5 μm and 20 μm) to investigate the tissue distribution, accumulation, and tissue-specific health risk of MPs in mice. Results indicated that MPs accumulated in liver, kidney and gut, with a tissue-accumulation kinetics and distribution pattern that was strongly depended on the MPs particle size. In addition, analyses of multiple biochemical biomarkers and metabolomic profiles suggested that MPs exposure induced disturbance of energy and lipid metabolism as well as oxidative stress. Interestingly, blood biomarkers of neurotoxicity were also altered. Our results uncovered the distribution and accumulation of MPs across mice tissues and revealed significant alteration in several biomarkers that indicate potential toxicity from MPs exposure. Collectively, our data provided new evidence for the adverse consequences of MPs.

  14. Experience from implementing international standards in national emergency response planning national adjustments and suggestions for improvements

    Naadland Holo, E.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A process has been going on for some time in Norway to establish a harmonized background for emergency response planning for any kind of nuclear or radiological accident. The national emergency preparedness organisation with the crisis committee for nuclear accident, consisting of representatives from civil defence, defence, police-, health-, and food control authorities, has the authority to implement countermeasures to protect health, environment and national interests in case of an accident or in case of nuclear terrorism. However, in an early phase, the response plans need to be fully harmonized to ensure that every operational level knows their responsibility and the responsibilities of others. Our intention is to implement the IAEA standard 'preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency'. We believe this will simplify national and international communication and also simplify the crisis management if an accident occurs. In revising the national plans, and also the planning basis at regional and local level, as well as the planning basis for response to accidents at national nuclear facilities and in connection with arrival of nuclear submarines in Norwegian harbours, we have seen the need to make national adjustments to the international standards. In addition to the standard, there exist several other processes and routines for reporting different kinds of incidents. We have seen a need to coordinate this internally at the competent authority to simplify the routines. This paper will focus on the challenges we have met, our national solutions and some suggestions for simplification. National adjustments to the international standard. - Firstly, the threat categorization needs to be adjusted. First of all, we do not have nuclear power plants in Norway. In the aftermath of 11 September 2001 we also have focused more an the potential for nuclear terrorism. Nuclear terrorism is unlikely but puts up some new requirements in the

  15. Republic of Georgia estimates for prevalence of drug use: Randomized response techniques suggest under-estimation.

    Kirtadze, Irma; Otiashvili, David; Tabatadze, Mzia; Vardanashvili, Irina; Sturua, Lela; Zabransky, Tomas; Anthony, James C

    2018-06-01

    Validity of responses in surveys is an important research concern, especially in emerging market economies where surveys in the general population are a novelty, and the level of social control is traditionally higher. The Randomized Response Technique (RRT) can be used as a check on response validity when the study aim is to estimate population prevalence of drug experiences and other socially sensitive and/or illegal behaviors. To apply RRT and to study potential under-reporting of drug use in a nation-scale, population-based general population survey of alcohol and other drug use. For this first-ever household survey on addictive substances for the Country of Georgia, we used the multi-stage probability sampling of 18-to-64-year-old household residents of 111 urban and 49 rural areas. During the interviewer-administered assessments, RRT involved pairing of sensitive and non-sensitive questions about drug experiences. Based upon the standard household self-report survey estimate, an estimated 17.3% [95% confidence interval, CI: 15.5%, 19.1%] of Georgian household residents have tried cannabis. The corresponding RRT estimate was 29.9% [95% CI: 24.9%, 34.9%]. The RRT estimates for other drugs such as heroin also were larger than the standard self-report estimates. We remain unsure about what is the "true" value for prevalence of using illegal psychotropic drugs in the Republic of Georgia study population. Our RRT results suggest that standard non-RRT approaches might produce 'under-estimates' or at best, highly conservative, lower-end estimates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change

    Maguire, Kaitlin C.; Shinneman, Douglas; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2018-01-01

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  17. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change.

    Maguire, Kaitlin C; Shinneman, Douglas J; Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D

    2018-03-14

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  18. Hemoparasites in a wild primate: Infection patterns suggest interaction of Plasmodium and Babesia in a lemur species

    Andrea Springer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemoparasites can cause serious morbidity in humans and animals and often involve wildlife reservoirs. Understanding patterns of hemoparasite infections in natural populations can therefore inform about emerging disease risks, especially in the light of climate change and human disruption of natural ecosystems. We investigated the effects of host age, sex, host group size and season on infection patterns of Plasmodium sp., Babesia sp. and filarial nematodes in a population of wild Malagasy primates, Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi, as well as the effects of these infections on hematological variables. We tested 45 blood samples from 36 individuals and identified two species of Plasmodium, one species of Babesia and two species of filarial nematodes. Plasmodium spp. and Babesia sp. infections showed opposite patterns of age-dependency, with babesiosis being prevalent among young animals, while older animals were infected with Plasmodium sp. In addition, Babesia sp. infection was a statistically significant negative predictor of Plasmodium sp. infection. These results suggest that Plasmodium and Babesia parasites may interact within the host, either through cross-immunity or via resource competition, so that Plasmodium infections can only establish after babesiosis has resolved. We found no effects of host sex, host group size and season on hemoparasite infections. Infections showed high prevalences and did not influence hematological variables. This preliminary evidence supports the impression that the hosts and parasites considered in this study appear to be well-adapted to each other, resulting in persistent infections with low pathogenic and probably low zoonotic potential. Our results illustrate the crucial role of biodiversity in host-parasite relationships, specifically how within-host pathogen diversity may regulate the abundance of parasites.

  19. AFLP genome scans suggest divergent selection on colour patterning in allopatric colour morphs of a cichlid fish.

    Mattersdorfer, Karin; Koblmüller, Stephan; Sefc, Kristina M

    2012-07-01

    Genome scan-based tests for selection are directly applicable to natural populations to study the genetic and evolutionary mechanisms behind phenotypic differentiation. We conducted AFLP genome scans in three distinct geographic colour morphs of the cichlid fish Tropheus moorii to assess whether the extant, allopatric colour pattern differentiation can be explained by drift and to identify markers mapping to genomic regions possibly involved in colour patterning. The tested morphs occupy adjacent shore sections in southern Lake Tanganyika and are separated from each other by major habitat barriers. The genome scans revealed significant genetic structure between morphs, but a very low proportion of loci fixed for alternative AFLP alleles in different morphs. This high level of polymorphism within morphs suggested that colour pattern differentiation did not result exclusively from neutral processes. Outlier detection methods identified six loci with excess differentiation in the comparison between a bluish and a yellow-blotch morph and five different outlier loci in comparisons of each of these morphs with a red morph. As population expansions and the genetic structure of Tropheus make the outlier approach prone to false-positive signals of selection, we examined the correlation between outlier locus alleles and colour phenotypes in a genetic and phenotypic cline between two morphs. Distributions of allele frequencies at one outlier locus were indeed consistent with linkage to a colour locus. Despite the challenges posed by population structure and demography, our results encourage the cautious application of genome scans to studies of divergent selection in subdivided and recently expanded populations. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Hemoparasites in a wild primate: Infection patterns suggest interaction of Plasmodium and Babesia in a lemur species.

    Springer, Andrea; Fichtel, Claudia; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H; Kappeler, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    Hemoparasites can cause serious morbidity in humans and animals and often involve wildlife reservoirs. Understanding patterns of hemoparasite infections in natural populations can therefore inform about emerging disease risks, especially in the light of climate change and human disruption of natural ecosystems. We investigated the effects of host age, sex, host group size and season on infection patterns of Plasmodium sp., Babesia sp. and filarial nematodes in a population of wild Malagasy primates, Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi), as well as the effects of these infections on hematological variables. We tested 45 blood samples from 36 individuals and identified two species of Plasmodium, one species of Babesia and two species of filarial nematodes. Plasmodium spp. and Babesia sp. infections showed opposite patterns of age-dependency, with babesiosis being prevalent among young animals, while older animals were infected with Plasmodium sp. In addition, Babesia sp. infection was a statistically significant negative predictor of Plasmodium sp. infection. These results suggest that Plasmodium and Babesia parasites may interact within the host, either through cross-immunity or via resource competition, so that Plasmodium infections can only establish after babesiosis has resolved. We found no effects of host sex, host group size and season on hemoparasite infections. Infections showed high prevalences and did not influence hematological variables. This preliminary evidence supports the impression that the hosts and parasites considered in this study appear to be well-adapted to each other, resulting in persistent infections with low pathogenic and probably low zoonotic potential. Our results illustrate the crucial role of biodiversity in host-parasite relationships, specifically how within-host pathogen diversity may regulate the abundance of parasites.

  1. Hemoparasites in a wild primate: Infection patterns suggest interaction of Plasmodium and Babesia in a lemur species☆

    Springer, Andrea; Fichtel, Claudia; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Kappeler, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Hemoparasites can cause serious morbidity in humans and animals and often involve wildlife reservoirs. Understanding patterns of hemoparasite infections in natural populations can therefore inform about emerging disease risks, especially in the light of climate change and human disruption of natural ecosystems. We investigated the effects of host age, sex, host group size and season on infection patterns of Plasmodium sp., Babesia sp. and filarial nematodes in a population of wild Malagasy primates, Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi), as well as the effects of these infections on hematological variables. We tested 45 blood samples from 36 individuals and identified two species of Plasmodium, one species of Babesia and two species of filarial nematodes. Plasmodium spp. and Babesia sp. infections showed opposite patterns of age-dependency, with babesiosis being prevalent among young animals, while older animals were infected with Plasmodium sp. In addition, Babesia sp. infection was a statistically significant negative predictor of Plasmodium sp. infection. These results suggest that Plasmodium and Babesia parasites may interact within the host, either through cross-immunity or via resource competition, so that Plasmodium infections can only establish after babesiosis has resolved. We found no effects of host sex, host group size and season on hemoparasite infections. Infections showed high prevalences and did not influence hematological variables. This preliminary evidence supports the impression that the hosts and parasites considered in this study appear to be well-adapted to each other, resulting in persistent infections with low pathogenic and probably low zoonotic potential. Our results illustrate the crucial role of biodiversity in host-parasite relationships, specifically how within-host pathogen diversity may regulate the abundance of parasites. PMID:26767166

  2. Nuclear distributions of NUP62 and NUP214 suggest architectural diversity and spatial patterning among nuclear pore complexes.

    Yayoi Kinoshita

    Full Text Available The shape of nuclei in many adherent cultured cells approximates an oblate ellipsoid, with contralateral flattened surfaces facing the culture plate or the medium. Observations of cultured cell nuclei from orthogonal perspectives revealed that nucleoporin p62 (NUP62 and nucleoporin 214 (NUP214 are differentially distributed between nuclear pore complexes on the flattened surfaces and peripheral rim of the nucleus. High resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED immunofluorescence microscopy resolved individual NPCs, and suggested both heterogeneity and microheterogeneity in NUP62 and NUP214 immunolabeling among in NPC populations. Similar to nuclear domains and interphase chromosome territories, architectural diversity and spatial patterning of NPCs may be an intrinsic property of the nucleus that is linked to the functions and organization of underlying chromatin.

  3. Meta-analysis of breast cancer microarray studies in conjunction with conserved cis-elements suggest patterns for coordinate regulation

    Lundberg Cathryn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression measurements from breast cancer (BrCa tumors are established clinical predictive tools to identify tumor subtypes, identify patients showing poor/good prognosis, and identify patients likely to have disease recurrence. However, diverse breast cancer datasets in conjunction with diagnostic clinical arrays show little overlap in the sets of genes identified. One approach to identify a set of consistently dysregulated candidate genes in these tumors is to employ meta-analysis of multiple independent microarray datasets. This allows one to compare expression data from a diverse collection of breast tumor array datasets generated on either cDNA or oligonucleotide arrays. Results We gathered expression data from 9 published microarray studies examining estrogen receptor positive (ER+ and estrogen receptor negative (ER- BrCa tumor cases from the Oncomine database. We performed a meta-analysis and identified genes that were universally up or down regulated with respect to ER+ versus ER- tumor status. We surveyed both the proximal promoter and 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR of our top-ranking genes in each expression group to test whether common sequence elements may contribute to the observed expression patterns. Utilizing a combination of known transcription factor binding sites (TFBS, evolutionarily conserved mammalian promoter and 3'UTR motifs, and microRNA (miRNA seed sequences, we identified numerous motifs that were disproportionately represented between the two gene classes suggesting a common regulatory network for the observed gene expression patterns. Conclusion Some of the genes we identified distinguish key transcripts previously seen in array studies, while others are newly defined. Many of the genes identified as overexpressed in ER- tumors were previously identified as expression markers for neoplastic transformation in multiple human cancers. Moreover, our motif analysis identified a collection of

  4. Patterns of bacteria-host associations suggest different ecological strategies between two reef building cold-water coral species

    Meistertzheim, Anne.-Leila; Lartaud, Franck; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Kalenitchenko, Dimitri; Bessalam, Manon; Le Bris, Nadine; Galand, Pierre E.

    2016-08-01

    Cold-water corals (CWC) are main ecosystem engineers of the deep sea, and their reefs constitute hot-spots of biodiversity. However, their ecology remains poorly understood, particularly, the nature of the holobiont formed by corals with their associated bacterial communities. Here, we analyzed Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa samples, collected from one location in a Mediterranean canyon in two different seasons (autumn and spring), in order to test for species specificity and temporal stability of the host-bacteria associations. The 16S rRNA sequencing revealed host-specific patterns of bacterial communities associated with L. pertusa and M. oculata, both in terms of community composition and diversity. All analyzed M. oculata polyps exhibited temporally and spatially similar bacterial communities dominated by haplotypes homologous to the known cnidarians-associated genus Endozoicomonas. In contrast, the bacterial communities associated with L. pertusa varied among polyps from the same colony, as well as among distinct colonies and between seasons. While the resilient consortium formed by M. oculata and its bacterial community fit the definition of holobiont, the versatility of the L. pertusa microbiome suggests that this association is more influenced by the environmental conditions or nutritional status. Our results thus highlight distinct host/microbes association strategies for these two closely related Scleractinians sharing the same habitat, suggesting distinct sensitivity to environmental change.

  5. Soil erosion dynamics response to landscape pattern

    Ouyang, W.; Skidmore, A.K.; Hao, F.; Wang, T.

    2010-01-01

    Simulating soil erosion variation with a temporal land use database reveals long-term fluctuations in landscape patterns, as well as priority needs for soil erosion conservation. The application of a multi-year land use database in support of a Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) led to an accurate

  6. Recombination pattern reanalysis of some HIV-1 circulating recombination forms suggest the necessity and difficulty of revision.

    Lei Jia

    Full Text Available Recombination is one of the major mechanisms underlying the generation of HIV-1 variability. Currently 61 circulating recombinant forms of HIV-1 have been identified. With the development of recombination detection techniques and accumulation of HIV-1 reference stains, more accurate mosaic structures of circulating recombinant forms (CRFs, like CRF04 and CRF06, have undergone repeated analysis and upgrades. Such revisions may also be necessary for other CRFs. Unlike previous studies, whose results are based primarily on a single recombination detection program, the current study was based on multiple recombination analysis, which may have produced more impartial results.Representative references of 3 categories of intersubtype recombinants were selected, including BC recombinants (CRF07 and CRF08, BG recombinants (CRF23 and CRF24, and BF recombinants (CRF38 and CRF44. They were reanalyzed in detail using both the jumping profile hidden Markov model and RDP3.The results indicate that revisions and upgrades are very necessary and the entire re-analysis suggested 2 types of revision: (i length of inserted fragments; and (ii number of inserted fragments. The reanalysis also indicated that determination of small regions of about 200 bases or fewer should be performed with more caution.Results indicated that the involvement of multiple recombination detection programs is very necessary. Additionally, results suggested two major challenges, one involving the difficulty of accurately determining the locations of breakpoints and the second involving identification of small regions of about 200 bases or fewer with greater caution. Both indicate the complexity of HIV-1 recombination. The resolution would depend critically on development of a recombination analysis algorithm, accumulation of HIV-1 stains, and a higher sequencing quality. With the changes in recombination pattern, phylogenetic relationships of some CRFs may also change. All these results may

  7. Levels and patterns of nucleotide variation in domestication QTL regions on rice chromosome 3 suggest lineage-specific selection.

    Xianfa Xie

    Full Text Available Oryza sativa or Asian cultivated rice is one of the major cereal grass species domesticated for human food use during the Neolithic. Domestication of this species from the wild grass Oryza rufipogon was accompanied by changes in several traits, including seed shattering, percent seed set, tillering, grain weight, and flowering time. Quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping has identified three genomic regions in chromosome 3 that appear to be associated with these traits. We would like to study whether these regions show signatures of selection and whether the same genetic basis underlies the domestication of different rice varieties. Fragments of 88 genes spanning these three genomic regions were sequenced from multiple accessions of two major varietal groups in O. sativa--indica and tropical japonica--as well as the ancestral wild rice species O. rufipogon. In tropical japonica, the levels of nucleotide variation in these three QTL regions are significantly lower compared to genome-wide levels, and coalescent simulations based on a complex demographic model of rice domestication indicate that these patterns are consistent with selection. In contrast, there is no significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in the homologous regions in indica rice. These results suggest that there are differences in the genetic and selective basis for domestication between these two Asian rice varietal groups.

  8. Children's Brain Responses to Optic Flow Vary by Pattern Type and Motion Speed.

    Rick O Gilmore

    Full Text Available Structured patterns of global visual motion called optic flow provide crucial information about an observer's speed and direction of self-motion and about the geometry of the environment. Brain and behavioral responses to optic flow undergo considerable postnatal maturation, but relatively little brain imaging evidence describes the time course of development in motion processing systems in early to middle childhood, a time when psychophysical data suggest that there are changes in sensitivity. To fill this gap, electroencephalographic (EEG responses were recorded in 4- to 8-year-old children who viewed three time-varying optic flow patterns (translation, rotation, and radial expansion/contraction at three different speeds (2, 4, and 8 deg/s. Modulations of global motion coherence evoked coherent EEG responses at the first harmonic that differed by flow pattern and responses at the third harmonic and dot update rate that varied by speed. Pattern-related responses clustered over right lateral channels while speed-related responses clustered over midline channels. Both children and adults show widespread responses to modulations of motion coherence at the second harmonic that are not selective for pattern or speed. The results suggest that the developing brain segregates the processing of optic flow pattern from speed and that an adult-like pattern of neural responses to optic flow has begun to emerge by early to middle childhood.

  9. Pilot test of a novel food response and attention training treatment for obesity: Brain imaging data suggest actions shape valuation

    Stice, E.; Yokum, S.; Veling, H.P.; Kemps, E.; Lawrence, N.S.

    2017-01-01

    Elevated brain reward and attention region response, and weaker inhibitory region response to high-calorie food images have been found to predict future weight gain. These findings suggest that an intervention that reduces reward and attention region response and increases inhibitory control region

  10. Surface pH changes suggest a role for H+/OH- channels in salinity response of Chara australis.

    Absolonova, Marketa; Beilby, Mary J; Sommer, Aniela; Hoepflinger, Marion C; Foissner, Ilse

    2018-05-01

    To understand salt stress, the full impact of salinity on plant cell physiology has to be resolved. Electrical measurements suggest that salinity inhibits the proton pump and opens putative H + /OH - channels all over the cell surface of salt sensitive Chara australis (Beilby and Al Khazaaly 2009; Al Khazaaly and Beilby 2012). The channels open transiently at first, causing a characteristic noise in membrane potential difference (PD), and after longer exposure remain open with a typical current-voltage (I/V) profile, both abolished by the addition of 1 mM ZnCl 2 , the main known blocker of animal H + channels. The cells were imaged with confocal microscopy, using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) coupled to dextran 70 to illuminate the pH changes outside the cell wall in artificial fresh water (AFW) and in saline medium. In the early saline exposure, we observed alkaline patches (bright fluorescent spots) appearing transiently in random spatial distribution. After longer exposure, some of the spots became fixed in space. Saline also abolished or diminished the pH banding pattern observed in the untreated control cells. ZnCl 2 suppressed the alkaline spot formation in saline and the pH banding pattern in AFW. The osmotic component of the saline stress did not produce transient bright spots or affect banding. The displacement of H + from the cell wall charges, the H + /OH - channel conductance/density, and self-organization are discussed. No homologies to animal H + channels were found. Salinity activation of the H + /OH - channels might contribute to saline response in roots of land plants and leaves of aquatic angiosperms.

  11. Science's disparate responsibilities: Patterns across European countries.

    Mejlgaard, Niels

    2018-04-01

    It is a distinctive feature of European science policy that science is expected to meet economic and broader societal objectives simultaneously. Science should be governed democratically and take significant responsibilities towards the economy, the political system and civil society, but the coherency of these multiple claims is underexplored. Using metrics that emerge from both quantitative and qualitative studies, we examine the interrelatedness of different responsibilities at the level of countries. A total of 33 European Union member states and associated countries are included in the analysis. We find no trade-off between economic and broader societal contributions. Europe is, however, characterised by major divisions in terms of the location of science in society. There is a significant East-West divide, and Europe appears to be far from accomplishing an integrated European Research Area.

  12. Exploring networks of activism on corporate social responsibility: Suggestions for a research agenda

    de Bakker, F.G.A.

    2012-01-01

    One increasingly important development for which firms need to find innovative solutions is the growing attention to corporate social responsibility (CSR). The shaping of CSR can be seen as a process in which firms and a variety of other actors are involved. This paper highlights the role of

  13. Effects of feed forms on growth pattern, behavioural responses and ...

    Effects of feed forms on growth pattern, behavioural responses and feacal microbial load ... load and behavioural activities (eating, drinking, physical pen interaction and ... Total organism counts varied significantly (p<0.05) with pigs on T1, T2, ...

  14. Response time patterns in a stated choice experiment

    Börjesson, Maria; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies how response times vary between unlabelled binary choice occasions in a stated choice (SC) experiment, with alternatives differing with respect to in-vehicle travel time and travel cost. The pattern of response times is interpreted as an indicator of the cognitive processes...... employed by the respondents when making their choices. We find clear signs of reference-dependence in response times in the form of a strong gain–loss asymmetry. Moreover, different patterns of response times for travel time and travel cost indicate that these attributes are processed in different ways...

  15. Hemoparasites in a wild primate: Infection patterns suggest interaction of Plasmodium and Babesia in a lemur species

    Andrea Springer; Claudia Fichtel; Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer; Fabian H. Leendertz; Peter M. Kappeler

    2015-01-01

    Hemoparasites can cause serious morbidity in humans and animals and often involve wildlife reservoirs. Understanding patterns of hemoparasite infections in natural populations can therefore inform about emerging disease risks, especially in the light of climate change and human disruption of natural ecosystems. We investigated the effects of host age, sex, host group size and season on infection patterns of Plasmodium sp., Babesia sp. and filarial nematodes in a population of wild Malagasy pr...

  16. Plagiarism in Student Research: Responsibility of the Supervisors and Suggestions to Ensure Plagiarism Free Research.

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Baryah, Neha; Mukhra, Richa

    2017-08-01

    Plagiarism is a serious threat plaguing the research in publication of science globally. There is an increasing need to address the issue of plagiarism especially among young researchers in the developing part of the world. Plagiarism needs to be earnestly discouraged to ensure a plagiarism free research environment. We provide further suggestions to combat student plagiarism at Master's level and the regulations/guidelines regarding plagiarism in India.

  17. Pain, psychological distress and motor pattern in women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) - symptom characteristics and therapy suggestions.

    Haugstad, Gro Killi; Wojniusz, Slawomir; Kirste, Unni Merete; Kirschner, Rolf Steinar; Lilleheie, Ingvild; Haugstad, Tor Sigbjørn

    2018-04-25

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) represent a longstanding pain syndrome that affects large numbers of women worldwide. However, no standardized guidelines for PVD treatment exist. In a cross-sectional pilot study we examined 30 PVD patients on multidimensional parameters including pain, psychological distress and quality of movement, in order to obtain a broader understanding of the somatic and psychological symptoms in PVD, and for the future to develop better interventions. Additionally, we compare the findings to previously published results regarding the same parameters in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Thirty women with PVD recruited from a tertiary care university clinic of gynecology were assessed for demographic data, pain intensity (VAS), psychological distress (GHQ-30 and Tampa scale of Kinesophobia) and quality of movement (standardized Mensendieck test, SMT). Average age of the PVD women was 24.7±3.60 years, 60% of them were in permanent relationships, all were nulliparous, none had been subjected to surgical procedures, 100% were working full or part time and 90% were educated to at least undergraduate level. Mean VAS score was 7.77±1.97 (mean±SD), kinesiophobia 24.4±3.95 and anxiety domain of GHQ-30 9.73±4.06. SMT scores were particularly low for the domains of respiration and gait (less than 50% of optimal scores). PVD women display reduced quality of movement, especially for gait and respiration patterns, increased level of anxiety and high average pain scores. These findings are similar to what we have previously reported in CPP patients. However, in contrast to CPP group, PVD women are on average younger, have higher work participation, higher education level and have not been subjected to surgical procedures. Since PVD women display similar, although somewhat less severe, symptom profile than CPP, we suggest that a multidimensional approach to treatment, such as "somatocognitive therapy" should be investigated in this group as it has

  18. Enhancing the Australian healthcare sector's responsiveness to environmental sustainability issues: suggestions from Australian healthcare professionals.

    Dunphy, Jillian L

    2013-05-01

    Identify strategies to implement change across the Australian healthcare sector to better support social and natural environments. Methods. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with Australian healthcare professionals. Interviewees described multiple barriers to implementing change and numerous strategies to overcome these barriers. They argued that action must be taken at the individual and systemic levels to produce substantial and effective change. The strategies recommended fall into four main categories: altering workplace cultures and professional identities, community engagement, political activity, and change from within. The overarching goals of these strategies are to reduce negative impacts on the natural environment, and increase social equity within and across generations. By implementing the strategies described, a more cohesive effort to address sustainability issues across the sector can be made. This may improve local and global health, within current and future generations. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? Healthcare has a significant impact on the natural and social environments, which in turn have a significant impact upon health and healthcare. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper describes strategies to alter healthcare to better support environmental sustainability. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? Collective implementation of the described strategies may allow a more cohesive and effective response across the Australian healthcare sector, to enhance local and global health for current and future generations.

  19. Surveying and analyzing injection responses for patterns with horizontal wells

    Fedenczuk, L.; Hoffman, K.

    1998-12-31

    A novel method for visualizing injection responses in patterns that include horizontal and/or vertical wells is described. Understanding fluid communication between the horizontal well and the surrounding injectors is essential to estimating the effectiveness of the waterflood. Armed with the understanding of responses, injection patterns can be optimized, production rates can be increased and more efficient oil recovery can be achieved. In this study the time lags of correlations and a new parameter, the waterflood response type is introduced. The response type is based on the oil and total fluid responses. In addition spider diagrams are introduced to help visualizing the correlations, time lags and response types. Integration of the results with geology, petrophysics and completion techniques can help to find the cause and effect rules in waterflood fields. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Pattern analysis and suggestion of energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region

    Lv Shilei; Wu Yong; Sun Jinying

    2009-01-01

    In China, Energy Efficiency Retrofit for Existing Residential Buildings (EERFERB) is faced with a fast development status. The Central Government decided to prompt the retrofit of 1.5x10 8 m 2 existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region during the '11th Five-Years Plan'. But, at present, the relative incentive policies and measurements are very insufficient. Especially, on the aspect of the retrofit pattern about the organization, retrofit content, investing and financing mode, the policy and management and other factors, no existing successful one can be spreaded into the whole northern heating region. This research not only analyzed the foreign advanced methods, drew lessons from their retrofit in Germany and Poland, but contrasted and analyzed energy efficiency retrofit demonstrations from Harbin, Tianjin, Tangshan and Baotou in China to get our domestic successful patterns and experience. Finally, some recommended retrofit patterns are presented, which can be applied for the instruction and decision-making for the Chinese local governments.

  1. Nonlinear response in runoff magnitude to fluctuating rain patterns.

    Curtu, R; Fonley, M

    2015-03-01

    The runoff coefficient of a hillslope is a reliable measure for changes in the streamflow response at the river link outlet. A high runoff coefficient is a good indicator of the possibility of flash floods. Although the relationship between runoff coefficient and streamflow has been the subject of much study, the physical mechanisms affecting runoff coefficient including the dependence on precipitation pattern remain open topics for investigation. In this paper, we analyze a rainfall-runoff model at the hillslope scale as that hillslope is forced with different rain patterns: constant rain and fluctuating rain with different frequencies and amplitudes. When an oscillatory precipitation pattern is applied, although the same amount of water may enter the system, its response (measured by the runoff coefficient) will be maximum for a certain frequency of precipitation. The significant increase in runoff coefficient after a certain pattern of rainfall can be a potential explanation for the conditions preceding flash-floods.

  2. Analyzing a problem-solution pattern in the transcription of a conversation: suggestions for the ELF classroom

    Navas Brenes, César A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a problem-solution pattern shown in the transcription of a conversation. This analysis is based on a conversation that has been elicited from three native speakers of English. These speakers were given a topic that dealt with the problem of children being constantly exposed to violent video games. As a result, the writer recorded an oral text that contains several elements related to a problem-solution pattern such as the main issue, opinions, personal examples, possible solutions, and the evaluation of these solutions. The writer analyzed this pattern in terms of discourse analysis using idea units from the transcription. Moreover, the writer will point out how appropriate this transcription is for preparing teaching tasks for the EFL classroom. Este artículo analiza el patrón estructural de la solución de un problema evidente en la transcripción de una conversación. El análisis esta basado en un diálogo obtenido de tres hablantes nativos de la lengua inglesa. El autor suministró a dichas personas un tema relacionado con el problema de la exposición de niños al contenido violento de los juegos de video. Como resultado, el escritor obtuvo una grabación del texto oral que contiene varios elementos relacionados con el patrón estructural de la solución de un problema. Algunos de estos elementos son el problema principal, opiniones, ejemplos personales, soluciones viables al problema, y la evaluación de dichas soluciones. El autor analizó algunas líneas de la transcripción con la ayuda de algunos conceptos relacionados con el análisis del discurso. Cabe destacar que el uso de tales trascripciones es muy apropiado en la preparación de actividades para una clase de inglés como lengua extranjera.

  3. Topographic Patterns of Mortality and Succession in the Alpine Treeline Ecotone Suggest Hydrologic Controls on Post-Fire Tree Establishment

    McCaffrey, D. R.; Hopkinson, C.

    2017-12-01

    Alpine Treeline Ecotone (ATE), the transition zone between closed canopy forest and alpine tundra, is a prominent vegetation pattern in mountain regions. At continental scales, the elevation of ATE is negatively correlated with latitude and is generally explained by thermal limitations. However, at landscape scales, precipitation and moisture regimes can suppress ATE elevation below thermal limits, causing variability and patterning in ATE position. Recent studies have investigated the relative effects of hydroclimatic variables on ATE position at multiple scales, but less attention has been given to interactions between hydroclimatic variables and disturbance agents, such as fire. Observing change in the ATE at sufficient spatial resolution and temporal extent to identify correlations between topographic variables and disturbance agents has proved challenging. Recent advances in monoplotting have enabled the extraction of canopy cover information from oblique photography, at a resolution of 20 m. Using airborne lidar and repeat photography from the Mountain Legacy Project, we observed canopy cover change in West Castle Watershed (Alberta, Canada; 103 km2; 49.3° N, 114.4° W) over a 92-year period (i.e. 1914-2006). Two wildfires, occurring 1934 and 1936, affected 63% of the watershed area, providing an opportunity to contrast topographic patterns of mortality and succession in the ATE, while factoring by exposure to fire. Slope aspect was a strong predictor of mortality and succession: the frequency of mortality was four times higher in fire-exposed areas, with 72% of all mortality occurring on south- and east-facing slope aspects; the frequency of succession was balanced between fire-exposed and unexposed areas, with 66% of all succession occurred on north- and east-facing slope aspects. Given previous experiments have demonstrated that moisture limitation inhibits tree establishment, suppressing elevation of ATE below thermal growth boundaries, we hypothesize

  4. Patterns of genetic diversity of the cryptogenic red alga Polysiphonia morrowii (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) suggest multiple origins of the Atlantic populations.

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Destombe, Christophe; Kim, Byeongseok; Mauger, Stéphane; Raffo, María Paula; Kim, Myung Sook; Le Gall, Line

    2016-08-01

    The red alga Polysiphonia morrowii, native to the North Pacific (Northeast Asia), has recently been reported worldwide. To determine the origin of the French and Argentine populations of this introduced species, we compared samples from these two areas with samples collected in Korea and at Hakodate, Japan, the type locality of the species. Combined analyses of chloroplastic (rbcL) and mitochondrial (cox1) DNA revealed that the French and Argentine populations are closely related and differ substantially from the Korean and Japanese populations. The genetic structure of P. morrowii populations from South Atlantic and North Atlantic, which showed high haplotype diversity compared with populations from the North Pacific, suggested the occurrence of multiple introduction events from areas outside of the so-called native regions. Although similar, the French and Argentine populations are not genetically identical. Thus, the genetic structure of these two introduced areas may have been modified by cryptic and recurrent introduction events directly from Asia or from other introduced areas that act as introduction relays. In addition, the large number of private cytoplasmic types identified in the two introduced regions strongly suggests that local populations of P. morrowii existed before the recent detection of these invasions. Our results suggest that the most likely scenario is that the source population(s) of the French and Argentine populations was not located only in the North Pacific and/or that P. morrowii is a cryptogenic species.

  5. Demand response driven load pattern elasticity analysis for smart households

    Paterakis, N.G.; Catalao, J.P.S.; Tascikaraoglu, A.; Bakirtzis, A.G.; Erdinc, O.

    2015-01-01

    The recent interest in smart grid vision enables several smart applications in different parts of the power grid structure, where specific importance should be given to the demand side. As a result, changes in load patterns due to demand response (DR) activities at end-user premises, such as smart

  6. Pilot test of a novel food response and attention training treatment for obesity: Brain imaging data suggest actions shape valuation.

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Veling, Harm; Kemps, Eva; Lawrence, Natalia S

    2017-07-01

    Elevated brain reward and attention region response, and weaker inhibitory region response to high-calorie food images have been found to predict future weight gain. These findings suggest that an intervention that reduces reward and attention region response and increases inhibitory control region response to such foods might reduce overeating. We conducted a randomized pilot experiment that tested the hypothesis that a multi-faceted food response and attention training with personalized high- and low-calorie food images would produce changes in behavioral and neural responses to food images and body fat compared to a control training with non-food images among community-recruited overweight/obese adults. Compared to changes observed in controls, completing the intervention was associated with significant reductions in reward and attention region response to high-calorie food images (Mean Cohen's d = 1.54), behavioral evidence of learning, reductions in palatability ratings and monetary valuation of high-calorie foods (p = 0.009, d's = 0.92), and greater body fat loss over a 4-week period (p = 0.009, d = 0.90), though body fat effects were not significant by 6-month follow-up. Results suggest that this multifaceted response and attention training intervention was associated with reduced reward and attention region responsivity to food cues, and a reduction in body fat. Because this implicit training treatment is both easy and inexpensive to deliver, and does not require top-down executive control that is necessary for negative energy balance obesity treatment, it may prove useful in treating obesity if future studies can determine how to create more enduring effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Presence of Tube isoforms in Litopenaeus vannamei suggests various regulatory patterns of signal transduction in invertebrate NF-κB pathway.

    Li, Chaozheng; Chen, Yixiao; Weng, Shaoping; Li, Sedong; Zuo, Hongliang; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Li, Haoyang; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2014-02-01

    The toll-like receptor (TLR)/NF-κB signaling pathways play critical roles in the innate immune system. The intracellular signal transduction of most TLR pathways in invertebrate cells is triggered by formation of a heterotrimeric complex composed of MyD88, Tube and Pelle. In this study, we identified a Litopenaeus vannamei Pelle (LvPelle) and an isoform of L. vannamei Tube (LvTube) designated as LvTube-1. The interactions among LvPelle, LvTube/LvTube-1 and LvMyD88/LvMyD88-1 were elucidated and their functions during pathogen infections were investigated. Knockdowns of LvPelle and LvTube/LvTube-1 using RNAi strategy led to higher mortalities of shrimps during Vibrio parahemolyticus infection, and could reduce the genome copy number of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the infected muscle tissue but did not affect the mortality caused by WSSV infection. The effects of LvPelle and LvTube/LvTube-1 on promoters containing NF-κB binding motifs were analyzed by dual-luciferase reporter assays and the results demonstrated that LvTube-1 could activate the NF-κB activity to significantly higher level than LvTube did. Moreover, tissue distributions of LvTube and LvTube-1 mRNAs and their expression profiles during pathogen and immune stimulant challenges were different, indicating that they could play different roles in immune responses. This is the first report of Tube isoforms in invertebrates. Together with our previous study on LvMyD88 isoforms, our results suggest that various isoforms of adaptor components may be involved in various regulatory patterns of signal transduction in invertebrate TLR/NF-κB pathway and this could be a strategy adopted by invertebrates to modulate immune responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Overlapping Patterns of Rapid Evolution in the Nucleic Acid Sensors cGAS and OAS1 Suggest a Common Mechanism of Pathogen Antagonism and Escape.

    Hancks, Dustin C; Hartley, Melissa K; Hagan, Celia; Clark, Nathan L; Elde, Nels C

    2015-05-01

    A diverse subset of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) detects pathogen-associated nucleic acids to initiate crucial innate immune responses in host organisms. Reflecting their importance for host defense, pathogens encode various countermeasures to evade or inhibit these immune effectors. PRRs directly engaged by pathogen inhibitors often evolve under recurrent bouts of positive selection that have been described as molecular 'arms races.' Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) was recently identified as a key PRR. Upon binding cytoplasmic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) from various viruses, cGAS generates the small nucleotide secondary messenger cGAMP to signal activation of innate defenses. Here we report an evolutionary history of cGAS with recurrent positive selection in the primate lineage. Recent studies indicate a high degree of structural similarity between cGAS and 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthase 1 (OAS1), a PRR that detects double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), despite low sequence identity between the respective genes. We present comprehensive comparative evolutionary analysis of cGAS and OAS1 primate sequences and observe positive selection at nucleic acid binding interfaces and distributed throughout both genes. Our data revealed homologous regions with strong signatures of positive selection, suggesting common mechanisms employed by unknown pathogen encoded inhibitors and similar modes of evasion from antagonism. Our analysis of cGAS diversification also identified alternately spliced forms missing multiple sites under positive selection. Further analysis of selection on the OAS family in primates, which comprises OAS1, OAS2, OAS3 and OASL, suggests a hypothesis where gene duplications and domain fusion events result in paralogs that provide another means of escaping pathogen inhibitors. Together our comparative evolutionary analysis of cGAS and OAS provides new insights into distinct mechanisms by which key molecular sentinels of the innate immune system have adapted

  9. Overlapping Patterns of Rapid Evolution in the Nucleic Acid Sensors cGAS and OAS1 Suggest a Common Mechanism of Pathogen Antagonism and Escape.

    Dustin C Hancks

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A diverse subset of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs detects pathogen-associated nucleic acids to initiate crucial innate immune responses in host organisms. Reflecting their importance for host defense, pathogens encode various countermeasures to evade or inhibit these immune effectors. PRRs directly engaged by pathogen inhibitors often evolve under recurrent bouts of positive selection that have been described as molecular 'arms races.' Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS was recently identified as a key PRR. Upon binding cytoplasmic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA from various viruses, cGAS generates the small nucleotide secondary messenger cGAMP to signal activation of innate defenses. Here we report an evolutionary history of cGAS with recurrent positive selection in the primate lineage. Recent studies indicate a high degree of structural similarity between cGAS and 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthase 1 (OAS1, a PRR that detects double-stranded RNA (dsRNA, despite low sequence identity between the respective genes. We present comprehensive comparative evolutionary analysis of cGAS and OAS1 primate sequences and observe positive selection at nucleic acid binding interfaces and distributed throughout both genes. Our data revealed homologous regions with strong signatures of positive selection, suggesting common mechanisms employed by unknown pathogen encoded inhibitors and similar modes of evasion from antagonism. Our analysis of cGAS diversification also identified alternately spliced forms missing multiple sites under positive selection. Further analysis of selection on the OAS family in primates, which comprises OAS1, OAS2, OAS3 and OASL, suggests a hypothesis where gene duplications and domain fusion events result in paralogs that provide another means of escaping pathogen inhibitors. Together our comparative evolutionary analysis of cGAS and OAS provides new insights into distinct mechanisms by which key molecular sentinels of the innate immune system

  10. Phylogeographic Analyses of American Black Bears (Ursus americanus) Suggest Four Glacial Refugia and Complex Patterns of Postglacial Admixture.

    Puckett, Emily E; Etter, Paul D; Johnson, Eric A; Eggert, Lori S

    2015-09-01

    Studies of species with continental distributions continue to identify intraspecific lineages despite continuous habitat. Lineages may form due to isolation by distance, adaptation, divergence across barriers, or genetic drift following range expansion. We investigated lineage diversification and admixture within American black bears (Ursus americanus) across their range using 22 k single nucleotide polymorphisms and mitochondrial DNA sequences. We identified three subcontinental nuclear clusters which we further divided into nine geographic regions: Alaskan (Alaska-East), eastern (Central Interior Highlands, Great Lakes, Northeast, Southeast), and western (Alaska-West, West, Pacific Coast, Southwest). We estimated that the western cluster diverged 67 ka, before eastern and Alaskan divergence 31 ka; these divergence dates contrasted with those from the mitochondrial genome where clades A and B diverged 1.07 Ma, and clades A-east and A-west diverged 169 ka. We combined estimates of divergence timing with hindcast species distribution models to infer glacial refugia for the species in Beringia, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, and Southeast. Our results show a complex arrangement of admixture due to expansion out of multiple refugia. The delineation of the genomic population clusters was inconsistent with the ranges for 16 previously described subspecies. Ranges for U. a. pugnax and U. a. cinnamomum were concordant with admixed clusters, calling into question how to order taxa below the species level. Additionally, our finding that U. a. floridanus has not diverged from U. a. americanus also suggests that morphology and genetics should be reanalyzed to assess taxonomic designations relevant to the conservation management of the species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved.For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Color-pattern evolution in response to environmental stress in butterflies

    Atsuki eHiyama

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that butterfly wing color patterns have ecological and behavioral functions that evolved through natural selection. However, particular wing color patterns may physiologically be produced in response to environmental stress without significant function. These patterns would represent an extreme expression of phenotypic plasticity and can eventually be fixed genetically in a population. Here, three such cases in butterflies are concisely reviewed and their possible mechanisms of genetic assimilation are discussed. First, certain modified color pattern of Vanessa indica induced by temperature treatments resembles the natural color patterns of its closely related species of the genus Vanessa (sensu stricto. Second, a different type of color-pattern modification can be induced in Vanessa cardui as a result of a general stress response, which is very similar to the natural color pattern of its sister species Vanessa kershawi. Third, a field observation was reported, together with experimental support, to show that the color-pattern diversity of a regional population of Zizeeria maha increased at the northern range margin of this species in response to temperature stress. In these three cases, modified color patterns are unlikely to have significant functions, and these cases suggest that phenotypic plasticity plays an important role in butterfly wing color-pattern evolution. A neutral or non-functional trait can be assimilated genetically if it is linked, like a parasitic trait, with another functional trait. In addition, it is possible that environmental stress causes epigenetic modifications of genes related to color patterns and that their transgenerational inheritance facilitates the process of genetic assimilation of a neutral or non-functional trait.

  12. Patterns of Song across Natural and Anthropogenic Soundscapes Suggest That White-Crowned Sparrows Minimize Acoustic Masking and Maximize Signal Content.

    Elizabeth P Derryberry

    Full Text Available Soundscapes pose both evolutionarily recent and long-standing sources of selection on acoustic communication. We currently know more about the impact of evolutionarily recent human-generated noise on communication than we do about how natural sounds such as pounding surf have shaped communication signals over evolutionary time. Based on signal detection theory, we hypothesized that acoustic phenotypes will vary with both anthropogenic and natural background noise levels and that similar mechanisms of cultural evolution and/or behavioral flexibility may underlie this variation. We studied song characteristics of white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli across a noise gradient that includes both anthropogenic and natural sources of noise in San Francisco and Marin counties, California, USA. Both anthropogenic and natural soundscapes contain high amplitude low frequency noise (traffic or surf, respectively, so we predicted that birds would produce songs with higher minimum frequencies in areas with higher amplitude background noise to avoid auditory masking. We also anticipated that song minimum frequencies would be higher than the projected lower frequency limit of hearing based on site-specific masking profiles. Background noise was a strong predictor of song minimum frequency, both within a local noise gradient of three urban sites with the same song dialect and cultural evolutionary history, and across the regional noise gradient, which encompasses 11 urban and rural sites, several dialects, and several anthropogenic and natural sources of noise. Among rural sites alone, background noise tended to predict song minimum frequency, indicating that urban sites were not solely responsible for driving the regional pattern. These findings support the hypothesis that songs vary with local and regional soundscapes regardless of the source of noise. Song minimum frequency from five core study sites was also higher than the lower frequency

  13. Patterns of Song across Natural and Anthropogenic Soundscapes Suggest That White-Crowned Sparrows Minimize Acoustic Masking and Maximize Signal Content.

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P; Danner, Raymond M; Danner, Julie E; Derryberry, Graham E; Phillips, Jennifer N; Lipshutz, Sara E; Gentry, Katherine; Luther, David A

    2016-01-01

    Soundscapes pose both evolutionarily recent and long-standing sources of selection on acoustic communication. We currently know more about the impact of evolutionarily recent human-generated noise on communication than we do about how natural sounds such as pounding surf have shaped communication signals over evolutionary time. Based on signal detection theory, we hypothesized that acoustic phenotypes will vary with both anthropogenic and natural background noise levels and that similar mechanisms of cultural evolution and/or behavioral flexibility may underlie this variation. We studied song characteristics of white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli) across a noise gradient that includes both anthropogenic and natural sources of noise in San Francisco and Marin counties, California, USA. Both anthropogenic and natural soundscapes contain high amplitude low frequency noise (traffic or surf, respectively), so we predicted that birds would produce songs with higher minimum frequencies in areas with higher amplitude background noise to avoid auditory masking. We also anticipated that song minimum frequencies would be higher than the projected lower frequency limit of hearing based on site-specific masking profiles. Background noise was a strong predictor of song minimum frequency, both within a local noise gradient of three urban sites with the same song dialect and cultural evolutionary history, and across the regional noise gradient, which encompasses 11 urban and rural sites, several dialects, and several anthropogenic and natural sources of noise. Among rural sites alone, background noise tended to predict song minimum frequency, indicating that urban sites were not solely responsible for driving the regional pattern. These findings support the hypothesis that songs vary with local and regional soundscapes regardless of the source of noise. Song minimum frequency from five core study sites was also higher than the lower frequency limit of hearing

  14. Plasma-Sprayed Titanium Patterns for Enhancing Early Cell Responses

    Shi, Yunqi; Xie, Youtao; Pan, Houhua; Zheng, Xuebin; Huang, Liping; Ji, Fang; Li, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Titanium coating has been widely used as a biocompatible metal in biomedical applications. However, the early cell responses and long-term fixation of titanium implants are not satisfied. To obviate these defects, in this paper, micro-post arrays with various widths (150-1000 μm) and intervals (100-300 μm) were fabricated on the titanium substrate by template-assisted plasma spraying technology. In vitro cell culture experiments showed that MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited significantly higher osteogenic differentiation as well as slightly improved adhesion and proliferation on the micro-patterned coatings compared with the traditional one. The cell number on the pattern with 1000 µm width reached 130% after 6 days of incubation, and the expressions of osteopontin (OPN) as well as osteocalcin (OC) were doubled. No obvious difference was found in cell adhesion on various size patterns. The present micro-patterned coatings proposed a new modification method for the traditional plasma spraying technology to enhance the early cell responses and convenience for the bone in-growth.

  15. Priors engaged in long-latency responses to mechanical perturbations suggest a rapid update in state estimation.

    Frédéric Crevecoeur

    Full Text Available In every motor task, our brain must handle external forces acting on the body. For example, riding a bike on cobblestones or skating on irregular surface requires us to appropriately respond to external perturbations. In these situations, motor predictions cannot help anticipate the motion of the body induced by external factors, and direct use of delayed sensory feedback will tend to generate instability. Here, we show that to solve this problem the motor system uses a rapid sensory prediction to correct the estimated state of the limb. We used a postural task with mechanical perturbations to address whether sensory predictions were engaged in upper-limb corrective movements. Subjects altered their initial motor response in ∼60 ms, depending on the expected perturbation profile, suggesting the use of an internal model, or prior, in this corrective process. Further, we found trial-to-trial changes in corrective responses indicating a rapid update of these perturbation priors. We used a computational model based on Kalman filtering to show that the response modulation was compatible with a rapid correction of the estimated state engaged in the feedback response. Such a process may allow us to handle external disturbances encountered in virtually every physical activity, which is likely an important feature of skilled motor behaviour.

  16. Mechanical response of wall-patterned GaAs surface

    Le Bourhis, E.; Patriarche, G.

    2005-01-01

    Wall-patterned GaAs surfaces have been elaborated by photolithography and dry etching. Different surfaces were produced in order to change the aspect ratio of the walls formed at the substrate surface. The mechanical behaviour of individual walls was investigated by nanoindentation and the responses were compared to that of a standard bulk reference (flat surface). Deviation from the bulk response is detected in a load range of 1-25 mN depending on the aspect ratio of the walls. A central plastic zone criterion is proposed in view of transmission electron microscopy images of indented walls and allows the prediction of the response deviation of a given wall if its width is known. The mechanical response of the different types of walls is further investigated in terms of stiffness, total penetration of indenter and apparent hardness, and is scanned in relation to the proximity of a wall side. Overall results show that contact stiffness remains almost unaffected by aspect ratio, while penetration drastically increases because of the free sides of the wall as compared to a flat surface (bulk substrate). The application of substrate patterning for optoelectronic devices is discussed in the perspective of eliminating residual dislocations appearing in mismatched structures

  17. A comparative experimental approach to ecotoxicology in shallow-water and deep-sea holothurians suggests similar behavioural responses.

    Brown, Alastair; Wright, Roseanna; Mevenkamp, Lisa; Hauton, Chris

    2017-10-01

    Exploration of deep-sea mineral resources is burgeoning, raising concerns regarding ecotoxicological impacts on deep-sea fauna. Assessing toxicity in deep-sea species is technologically challenging, which promotes interest in establishing shallow-water ecotoxicological proxy species. However, the effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on toxicity, and how adaptation to deep-sea environmental conditions might moderate these effects, are unknown. To address these uncertainties we assessed behavioural and physiological (antioxidant enzyme activity) responses to exposure to copper-spiked artificial sediments in a laboratory experiment using a shallow-water holothurian (Holothuria forskali), and in an in situ experiment using a deep-sea holothurian (Amperima sp.). Both species demonstrated sustained avoidance behaviour, evading contact with contaminated artificial sediment. However, A. sp. demonstrated sustained avoidance of 5mgl -1 copper-contaminated artificial sediment whereas H. forskali demonstrated only temporary avoidance of 5mgl -1 copper-contaminated artificial sediment, suggesting that H. forskali may be more tolerant of metal exposure over 96h. Nonetheless, the acute behavioural response appears consistent between the shallow-water species and the deep-sea species, suggesting that H. forskali may be a suitable ecotoxicological proxy for A. sp. in acute (≤24h) exposures, which may be representative of deep-sea mining impacts. No antioxidant response was observed in either species, which was interpreted to be the consequence of avoiding copper exposure. Although these data suggest that shallow-water taxa may be suitable ecotoxicological proxies for deep-sea taxa, differences in methodological and analytical approaches, and in sex and reproductive stage of experimental subjects, require caution in assessing the suitability of H. forskali as an ecotoxicological proxy for A. sp. Nonetheless, avoidance behaviour may have bioenergetic consequences that

  18. Physiological stress response patterns during a blood donation.

    Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Tarvainen, M P; Merz, E-M; Huis In 't Veld, E M J; de Kort, W L A M; Sluiter, J K; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2018-03-24

    Donating blood is associated with increased psychological stress. This study investigates whether a blood donation induces physiological stress and if response patterns differ by gender, donation experience and non-acute stress. In 372 donors, physiological stress [blood pressure, pulse rate, pulse rate variability (PRV)] was measured at seven moments during routine donation. PRV was assessed using time domain [root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD)] and frequency domain [high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) power] parameters. Non-acute stress was assessed by questionnaire. Shape and significance of time course patterns were assessed by fitting multilevel models for each stress measure and comparing men and women, first-time and experienced donors, and donors with high and low levels of non-acute stress. Significant response patterns were found for all stress measures, where levels of systolic blood pressure (F(1,1315) = 24·2, P blood pressure (F(1,1326) = 50·9, P blood pressure/pulse rate in women; higher pulse rate in first-time donors; higher RMSSD at arrival and from screening until leaving in first-time donors; and higher LF and HF in first-time donors. This study shows an increase in physiological stress related to needle insertion, followed by a decrease when leaving the donation centre. Some group effects were also found. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  19. Voices that want to be heard: Using bereaved Danish students suggestions to update school bereavement response plans.

    Lytje, Martin

    2018-04-01

    This study explored how Danish students experienced returning to school following parental bereavement. Eighteen focus group interviews were conducted with 39 participants aged 9 to 17. All participants had experienced the loss of a primary caregiver. Data collection was divided into two phases. In Phase I, 22 participants from four grief groups were interviewed 4 times over the course of a year. During Phase II, confirmatory focus groups were undertaken with the 17 participants. This article explores the findings related to ideas and suggestions made by the students about how the Danish school response could be improved to better meet their needs. The presentation of data is divided into seven themes, which are: Desired school response; Desired support from teachers; Desired boundaries between students and teachers; Desired collaboration; Desired support from peers; Desired rules and structure, and; Desires related to gifts and rituals. Study findings indicate that most students want to be included and have a say when the school plans how to respond to their loss. Students further highlight a need for teacher support when having to reconnect with the class; a need for set rules in relation to leaving the class when feeling sad, and; a need for schools to see the loss as a life-changing event, and grief as something that does not simply disappear after a few months. The article concludes by discussing the ways in which the recommendations provided by the participants can be incorporated into a modern revision of Danish school bereavement response plans.

  20. European temperature responses to blocking and ridge regional patterns

    Sousa, Pedro M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Barriopedro, David; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Santos, João A.

    2018-01-01

    Blocking occurrence and its impacts on European temperature have been studied in the last decade. However, most previous studies on blocking impacts have focused on winter only, disregarding its fingerprint in summer and differences with other synoptic patterns that also trigger temperature extremes. In this work, we provide a clear distinction between high-latitude blocking and sub-tropical ridges occurring in three sectors of the Euro-Atlantic region, describing their climatology and consequent impacts on European temperature during both winter and summer. Winter blocks (ridges) are generally associated to colder (warmer) than average conditions over large regions of Europe, in some areas with anomalies larger than 5 °C, particularly for the patterns occurring in the Atlantic and Central European sectors. During summer, there is a more regional response characterized by above average temperature for both blocking and ridge patterns, especially those occurring in continental areas, although negative temperature anomalies persist in southernmost areas during blocking. An objective analysis of the different forcing mechanisms associated to each considered weather regime has been performed, quantifying the importance of the following processes in causing the temperature anomalies: horizontal advection, vertical advection and diabatic heating. While during winter advection processes tend to be more relevant to explain temperature responses, in summer radiative heating under enhanced insolation plays a crucial role for both blocking and ridges. Finally, the changes in the distributions of seasonal temperature and in the frequencies of extreme temperature indices were also examined for specific areas of Europe. Winter blocking and ridge patterns are key drivers in the occurrence of regional cold and warm extreme temperatures, respectively. In summer, they are associated with substantial changes in the frequency of extremely warm days, but with different signatures in

  1. Autonomic nervous system response patterns specificity to basic emotions.

    Collet, C; Vernet-Maury, E; Delhomme, G; Dittmar, A

    1997-01-12

    The aim of this study was to test the assumption that the autonomic nervous system responses to emotional stimuli are specific. A series of six slides was randomly presented to the subjects while six autonomic nervous system (ANS) parameters were recorded: skin conductance, skin potential, skin resistance, skin blood flow, skin temperature and instantaneous respiratory frequency. Each slide induced a basic emotion: happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness and disgust. Results have been first considered with reference to electrodermal responses (EDR) and secondly through thermo-vascular and respiratory variations. Classical as well as original indices were used to quantify autonomic responses. The six basic emotions were distinguished by Friedman variance analysis. Thus, ANS values corresponding to each emotion were compared two-by-two. EDR distinguished 13 emotion-pairs out of 15. 10 emotion-pairs were separated by skin resistance as well as skin conductance ohmic perturbation duration indices whereas conductance amplitude was only capable of distinguishing 7 emotion-pairs. Skin potential responses distinguished surprise and fear from sadness, and fear from disgust, according to their elementary pattern analysis in form and sign. Two-by-two comparisons of skin temperature, skin blood flow (estimated by the new non-oscillary duration index) and instantaneous respiratory frequency, enabled the distinction of 14 emotion-pairs out of 15. 9 emotion-pairs were distinguished by the non-oscillatory duration index values. Skin temperature was demonstrated to be different i.e. positive versus negative in response to anger and fear. The instantaneous respiratory frequency perturbation duration index was the only one capable of separating sadness from disgust. From the six ANS parameters study, different autonomic patterns were identified, each characterizing one of the six basic emotion used as inducing signals. No index alone, nor group of parameters (EDR and thermovascular

  2. The dependencies of fronto-parietal BOLD responses evoked by covert visual search suggest eye-centred coding.

    Atabaki, A; Dicke, P W; Karnath, H-O; Thier, P

    2013-04-01

    Visual scenes explored covertly are initially represented in a retinal frame of reference (FOR). On the other hand, 'later' stages of the cortical network allocating spatial attention most probably use non-retinal or non-eye-centred representations as they may ease the integration of different sensory modalities for the formation of supramodal representations of space. We tested if the cortical areas involved in shifting covert attention are based on eye-centred or non-eye-centred coding by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects were scanned while detecting a target item (a regularly oriented 'L') amidst a set of distractors (rotated 'L's). The array was centred either 5° right or left of the fixation point, independent of eye-gaze orientation, the latter varied in three steps: straight relative to the head, 10° left or 10° right. A quantitative comparison of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses for the three eye-gaze orientations revealed stronger BOLD responses in the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the right frontal eye field (FEF) for search in the contralateral (i.e. left) eye-centred space, independent of whether the array was located in the right or left head-centred hemispace. The left IPS showed the reverse pattern, i.e. an activation by search in the right eye-centred hemispace. In other words, the IPS and the right FEF, members of the cortical network underlying covert search, operate in an eye-centred FOR. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Visually-evoked pattern and photomyoclonic responses in video game and television epilepsy: case reports.

    Anyanwu, E; Watson, N A

    1996-01-01

    This research paper reports a case study of two male photosensitive epileptic patients, aged 14 and 16 years old respectively, whose epileptic seizures were often triggered by the flickers from television and video games respectively. The 14-year old patient had no family history of epilepsy, while the 16 year old had a family history of epilepsy. A comprehensive electroencephalogram (EEG), including hyperventilation, intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) and pattern stimulation were carried out on them and EEG abnormalities including photoparoxysmal responses (PPR) and generalized myoclonic responses were evoked. A thorough analysis of the EEG morphology of the myclonic responses and the clinical manifestations showed evidence of two separate entitles of seizures namely: visually evoked pattern-myoclonic responses (PTMR) and visually evoked photomyoclonic responses (PMR). PTMR was independent of flash rate and occurred before a PPR and at the same time as the flash rate, while PMR occurred after the PPR and was dependent on flash rate. These findings suggest that "Video Game" epilepsy is probably a pattern sensitive epilepsy, electronic screen being the source of the triggering patterns; hence, the morphology and the family histories and the myoclonic phenomena differ from those of pure photosensitive epilepsy.

  4. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation.

    Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Merz, E-M; de Kort, W L A M; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2017-11-01

    Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal stress during the course of a blood donation, and whether responses differed between men and women, first-time and experienced donors and donors with high or low non-acute stress. In 363 donors, psychological (donation-stress and arousal) and hormonal (cortisol) stress were measured by questionnaire and salivary sample at seven key moments during a routine donation. Non-acute stress was assessed by a questionnaire. Repeated measurement analyses were performed, using the last measurement (leaving the donation center) as reference value. Levels of donation-stress, arousal and cortisol were significantly higher during donation than when leaving the donation center. When compared with men, women reported higher levels of donation-stress and cortisol in the first part of the visit. When compared with first-time donors, experienced donors reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and higher levels of arousal but less reactivity throughout the visit. When compared to donors high on non-acute stress, donors low on non-acute stress reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and showed less cortisol reactivity throughout the visit. Donating blood influences psychological and hormonal stress response patterns. The response patterns differ between women and men, first-time and experienced donors and between donors high and low on non-acute stress. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  5. Radiolabelled somatostatin analogue treatment in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: factors associated with response and suggestions for therapeutic sequence

    Campana, Davide; Nori, Francesca; Cacciari, Giulia; Tomassetti, Paola [University of Bologna, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Bologna (Italy); Capurso, Gabriele; Panzuto, Francesco; Delle Fave, Gianfranco [University of Rome, Digestive and Liver Disease Unit, Rome (Italy); Partelli, Stefano [Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Department of Surgery, Negrar (Italy); University of Verona, Department of Surgery, Verona (Italy); Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Pancreas Surgical Unit, Ancona (Italy); Tamburrino, Domenico; Falconi, Massimo [University of Verona, Department of Surgery, Verona (Italy); Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Pancreas Surgical Unit, Ancona (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a relatively new treatment modality for patients with unresectable or metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP NETs). The aim of this study was to determine the time to progression of patients treated with PRRT and to identify the prognostic factors related to treatment response. Patients with sporadic GEP NETs prospectively treated with PRRT were retrospectively analysed. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). A total of 69 patients (37 men and 32 women; 45 with pancreatic and 24 with gastrointestinal lesion; 22 NET G1 and 41 NET G2) were treated with {sup 90}Y or {sup 177}Lu. The objective response rate was 27.5 % (partial response, PR), while 50.7 % had stable disease and 23.2 % had progressive disease. Significant differences in PFS were observed in relationship to the stage of the disease (44 months for stage III, 23 months for stage IV), the evidence of a PR 6 months after the end of the PRRT (39 months in patients with a PR, 22 months in patients without a PR) and previous transarterial chemoembolization (TACE, yes 13 months vs no 31 months). Stage IV, NET G2 and previous TACE were found to be significant factors for tumour progression at multivariate analysis. Low tumour burden and a low proliferation index represent independent prognostic factors for long PFS, while previous chemoembolization techniques represent independent prognostic factors for early tumour progression and shorter PFS. Our data suggest that chemoembolization techniques to reduce the hepatic tumour burden should be avoided. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (FIQL) using item response theory reveals limitations and suggests revisions.

    Peterson, Alexander C; Sutherland, Jason M; Liu, Guiping; Crump, R Trafford; Karimuddin, Ahmer A

    2018-06-01

    The Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (FIQL) is a commonly used patient-reported outcome measure for fecal incontinence, often used in clinical trials, yet has not been validated in English since its initial development. This study uses modern methods to thoroughly evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the FIQL and its potential for differential functioning by gender. This study analyzed prospectively collected patient-reported outcome data from a sample of patients prior to colorectal surgery. Patients were recruited from 14 general and colorectal surgeons in Vancouver Coastal Health hospitals in Vancouver, Canada. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess construct validity. Item response theory was used to evaluate test reliability, describe item-level characteristics, identify local item dependence, and test for differential functioning by gender. 236 patients were included for analysis, with mean age 58 and approximately half female. Factor analysis failed to identify the lifestyle, coping, depression, and embarrassment domains, suggesting lack of construct validity. Items demonstrated low difficulty, indicating that the test has the highest reliability among individuals who have low quality of life. Five items are suggested for removal or replacement. Differential test functioning was minimal. This study has identified specific improvements that can be made to each domain of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale and to the instrument overall. Formatting, scoring, and instructions may be simplified, and items with higher difficulty developed. The lifestyle domain can be used as is. The embarrassment domain should be significantly revised before use.

  7. Dryland responses to global change suggest the potential for rapid non-linear responses to some changes but resilience to others

    Reed, S.; Ferrenberg, S.; Tucker, C.; Rutherford, W. A.; Wertin, T. M.; McHugh, T. A.; Morrissey, E.; Kuske, C.; Belnap, J.

    2017-12-01

    Drylands represent our planet's largest terrestrial biome, making up over 35% of Earth's land surface. In the context of this vast areal extent, it is no surprise that recent research suggests dryland inter-annual variability and responses to change have the potential to drive biogeochemical cycles and climate at the global-scale. Further, the data we do have suggest drylands can respond rapidly and non-linearly to change. Nevertheless, our understanding of the cross-system consistency of and mechanisms behind dryland responses to a changed environment remains relatively poor. This poor understanding hinders not only our larger understanding of terrestrial ecosystem function, but also our capacity to forecast future global biogeochemical cycles and climate. Here we present data from a series of Colorado Plateau manipulation experiments - including climate, land use, and nitrogen deposition manipulations - to explore how vascular plants, microbial communities, and biological soil crusts (a community of mosses, lichens, and/or cyanobacteria living in the interspace among vascular plants in arid and semiarid ecosystems worldwide) respond to a host of environmental changes. These responses include not only assessments of community composition, but of their function as well. We will explore photosynthesis, net soil CO2 exchange, soil carbon stocks and chemistry, albedo, and nutrient cycling. The experiments were begun with independent questions and cover a range of environmental change drivers and scientific approaches, but together offer a relatively holistic picture of how some drylands can change their structure and function in response to change. In particular, the data show very high ecosystem vulnerability to particular drivers, but surprising resilience to others, suggesting a multi-faceted response of these diverse systems.

  8. Preliminary Finnish Measures of Eating Competence Suggest Association with Health-Promoting Eating Patterns and Related Psychobehavioral Factors in 10–17 Year Old Adolescents

    Tilles-Tirkkonen Tanja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10–17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10–17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58% of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC. Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group.

  9. Preliminary Finnish measures of eating competence suggest association with health-promoting eating patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10-17 year old adolescents.

    Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen

    2015-05-21

    Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10-17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10-17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group.

  10. Preliminary Finnish Measures of Eating Competence Suggest Association with Health-Promoting Eating Patterns and Related Psychobehavioral Factors in 10–17 Year Old Adolescents

    Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen

    2015-01-01

    Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10–17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10–17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. PMID:26007335

  11. Near-infrared light-responsive dynamic wrinkle patterns.

    Li, Fudong; Hou, Honghao; Yin, Jie; Jiang, Xuesong

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic micro/nanopatterns provide an effective approach for on-demand tuning of surface properties to realize a smart surface. We report a simple yet versatile strategy for the fabrication of near-infrared (NIR) light-responsive dynamic wrinkles by using a carbon nanotube (CNT)-containing poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer as the substrate for the bilayer systems, with various functional polymers serving as the top stiff layers. The high photon-to-thermal energy conversion of CNT leads to the NIR-controlled thermal expansion of the elastic CNT-PDMS substrate, resulting in dynamic regulation of the applied strain (ε) of the bilayer system by the NIR on/off cycle to obtain a reversible wrinkle pattern. The switchable surface topological structures can transfer between the wrinkled state and the wrinkle-free state within tens of seconds via NIR irradiation. As a proof-of-concept application, this type of NIR-driven dynamic wrinkle pattern was used in smart displays, dynamic gratings, and light control electronics.

  12. 1H NMR spectra of vertebrate [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins. Hyperfine resonances suggest different electron delocalization patterns from plant ferredoxins

    Skjeldal, L.; Markley, J.L.; Coghlan, V.M.; Vickery, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report the observation of paramagnetically shifted (hyperfine) proton resonances from vertebrate mitochondrial [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins. The hyperfine signals of human, bovine, and chick [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins are described and compared with those of Anabena 7120 vegetative ferredoxin, a plant-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin studied previously. The hyperfine resonances of the three vertebrate ferredoxins were very similar to one another both in the oxidized state and in the reduced state, and slow (on the NMR scale) electron self-exchange was observed in partially reduced samples. For the oxidized vertebrate ferredoxins, hyperfine signals were observed downfield of the diamagnetic envelope from +13 to +50 ppm, and the general pattern of peaks and their anti-Curie temperature dependence are similar to those observed for the oxidized plant-type ferredoxins. For the reduced vertebrate ferredoxins, hyperfine signals were observed for the oxidized plant-type ferredoxins. For the reduced vertebrate ferredoxins, hyperfine signals were observed both upfield (-2 to -18 ppm) and downfield (+15 to +45 ppm), and all were found to exhibit Curie-type temperature dependence. These results indicate that the contact-shifted resonances in the reduced vertebrate ferredoxins detect different spin magnetization from those in the reduced plant ferredoxins and suggest that plant and vertebrate ferredoxins have fundamentally different patterns of electron delocalization in the reduced [2Fe-2S] center

  13. Reversible chemical patterning on stimuli-responsive polymer film: Environment-responsive lithography

    Ionov, Leonid; Minko, Sergiy; Stamm, Manfred; Gohy, Jean-Francois; Jerome, Robert; Scholl, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    We report on a novel type of chemical patterning based on thin stimuli-responsive polymer films. The basic concept is the permanent storage (writing) of a pattern, which is reversibly developed and erased upon exposure to appropriate environment, e.g., solvent, pH, and temperature. The smart surface is fabricated from the mixed brush of poly(2-vinylpyridine) and polyisoprene. The mixed brush demonstrates switching behavior upon exposure to different solvents. Cross-linking of polyisoprene via illumination through a photomask results in formation of patterns with suppressed switching. Due to the contrast in switching between illuminated and dark areas, exposure of the smart surface to different solvents causes either reversible formation or erasing of chemical contrast between the illuminated and dark areas. Thus, the pattern surface can very locally attract colloidal particles or can be wetted by water only upon exposure to the special solvent which introduces the contrast between the illuminated and dark areas. Appearance of the patterns indicates particular environment and can be used for local switching of adsorption

  14. Patterns of intraspecific variability in the response to caloric restriction

    Gribble, Kristin E.; Kaido, Oksana; Jarvis, George; Mark Welch, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is cited as the most robust means of increasing lifespan across a range of taxa, yet there is a high degree of variability in the response to CR, both within and between species. To examine the intraspecific evolutionary conservation of lifespan extension by CR, we tested the effects of chronic caloric restriction (CCR) at multiple food levels and of intermittent fasting (IF) in twelve isolates from the Brachionus plicatilis species complex of monogonont rotifers. While CCR generally increased or did not change lifespan and total fecundity, IF caused increased, unchanged, or decreased lifespan, depending upon the isolate, and decreased total fecundity in all but one isolate. Lifespan under ad libitum (AL) feeding varied among isolates and predicted the lifespan response to CR: longer-lived isolates under AL were less likely to have a significant increase in lifespan under CCR and were more likely to have a significantly shortened lifespan under IF. Lifespan under AL conditions and the response to CR were not correlated with hydroperiodicity of native habitat or with time in culture. Lack of trade-off between lifespan and fecundity under CCR, and differences in lifespan and fecundity under CCR and IF, even when average food intake was similar, suggest that longevity changes are not always directly determined by energy intake and that CCR and IF regimens extend lifespan through diverse genetic mechanisms. PMID:24384399

  15. Patterns of Sympathetic Responses Induced by Different Stress Tasks

    Fechir, M; Schlereth, T; Purat, T; Kritzmann, S; Geber, C; Eberle, T; Gamer, M; Birklein, F

    2008-01-01

    Stress tasks are used to induce sympathetic nervous system (SNS) arousal. However, the efficacy and the patterns of SNS activation have not been systematically compared between different tasks. Therefore, we analyzed SNS activation during the following stress tasks: Presentation of negative, positive, and – as a control – neutral affective pictures, Color-Word interference test (CWT), mental arithmetic under time limit, singing a song aloud, and giving a spontaneous talk. We examined 11 healthy subjects and recorded the following SNS parameters: Activation of emotional sweating by quantitative sudometry, skin vasoconstriction by laser-Doppler flowmetry, heart rate by ECG, blood pressure by determination of pulse wave transit time (PWTT), and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trapezius muscle. Moreover, subjective stress ratings were acquired for each task using a visual analog scale. All tasks were felt significantly stressful when compared to viewing neutral pictures. However, SNS activation was not reliable: Affective pictures did not induce a significant SNS response; singing, giving a talk and mental arithmetic selectively increased heart rate and emotional sweating. Only the CWT globally activated the SNS. Regarding all tasks, induction of emotional sweating, increase of heart rate and blood pressure significantly correlated with subjective stress ratings, in contrast to EMG and skin vasoconstriction. Our results show that the activation of the SNS widely varies depending on the stress task. Different stress tasks differently activate the SNS, which is an important finding when considering sympathetic reactions - in clinical situations and in research. PMID:19018304

  16. Suggestion of optimal radiation fields in rectal cancer patients after surgical resection for the development of the patterns of care study

    Kim, Jong Hoon; Park, Jin Hong; Kim, Dae Yong

    2003-01-01

    To suggest the optimal radiation fields after a surgical resection based on a nationwide survey on the principles of radiotherapy for rectal cancer in the Korean Patterns of Care Study. A consensus committee, composed of radiation oncologists from 18 hospitals in Seoul Metropolitan area, developed a survey format to analyze radiation oncologist's treatment principles for rectal cancer after a surgical resection. The survey format included 19 questions on the principles of defining field margins, and was sent to the radiation oncologists in charge of gastrointestinal malignancies in all Korean hospitals (48 hospitals). Thirty three (69%) oncologists replied. On the basis of the replies and literature review, the committee developed guidelines for the optimal radiation fields for rectal cancer. The following guidelines were developed: superior border between the lower tip of the L5 vertebral body and upper sacroiliac joint; inferior border 2-3 cm distal to the anastomosis in patient whose sphincter was saved, and 2-3 cm distal to the perineal scar in patients whose anal sphincter was sacrificed; anterior margin at the posterior tip of the symphysis pubis or 2-3 cm anterior to the vertebral body, to include the internal iliac lymph node and posterior margin 1.5-2 cm posterior to the anterior surface of the sacrum, to include the presacral space with enough margin. Comparison with the guidelines, the replies on the superior margin coincided in 23 cases (70%), the inferior margin after sphincter saving surgery in 13 (39%), the inferior margin after abdominoperineal resection in 32 (97%), the lateral margin in 32 (97%), the posterior margins in 32 (97%) and the anterior margin in 16 (45%). These recommendations should be tailored to each patient according to the clinical characteristics such as tumor location, pathological and operative findings, for the optimal treatment. The adequacy of these guidelines should be proved by following the Korean Patterns of Care Study

  17. Suggestion of optimal radiation fields in rectal cancer patients after surgical resection for the development of the patterns of care study

    Kim, Jong Hoon; Park, Jin Hong; Kim, Dae Yong [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2003-06-01

    To suggest the optimal radiation fields after a surgical resection based on a nationwide survey on the principles of radiotherapy for rectal cancer in the Korean Patterns of Care Study. A consensus committee, composed of radiation oncologists from 18 hospitals in Seoul Metropolitan area, developed a survey format to analyze radiation oncologist's treatment principles for rectal cancer after a surgical resection. The survey format included 19 questions on the principles of defining field margins, and was sent to the radiation oncologists in charge of gastrointestinal malignancies in all Korean hospitals (48 hospitals). Thirty three (69%) oncologists replied. On the basis of the replies and literature review, the committee developed guidelines for the optimal radiation fields for rectal cancer. The following guidelines were developed: superior border between the lower tip of the L5 vertebral body and upper sacroiliac joint; inferior border 2-3 cm distal to the anastomosis in patient whose sphincter was saved, and 2-3 cm distal to the perineal scar in patients whose anal sphincter was sacrificed; anterior margin at the posterior tip of the symphysis pubis or 2-3 cm anterior to the vertebral body, to include the internal iliac lymph node and posterior margin 1.5-2 cm posterior to the anterior surface of the sacrum, to include the presacral space with enough margin. Comparison with the guidelines, the replies on the superior margin coincided in 23 cases (70%), the inferior margin after sphincter saving surgery in 13 (39%), the inferior margin after abdominoperineal resection in 32 (97%), the lateral margin in 32 (97%), the posterior margins in 32 (97%) and the anterior margin in 16 (45%). These recommendations should be tailored to each patient according to the clinical characteristics such as tumor location, pathological and operative findings, for the optimal treatment. The adequacy of these guidelines should be proved by following the Korean Patterns of Care

  18. Serum Levels of Human MIC-1/GDF15 Vary in a Diurnal Pattern, Do Not Display a Profile Suggestive of a Satiety Factor and Are Related to BMI.

    Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai

    Full Text Available The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in the blood of healthy humans. Its levels rise substantially in cancer and other diseases and this may sometimes lead to development of an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. This is mediated by a direct action of MIC-1/GDF15 on feeding centres in the hypothalamus and brainstem. More recent studies in germline gene deleted mice also suggest that this cytokine may play a role in physiological regulation of energy homeostasis. To further characterize the role of MIC-1/GDF15 in physiological regulation of energy homeostasis in man, we have examined diurnal and food associated variation in serum levels and whether variation in circulating levels relate to BMI in human monozygotic twin pairs. We found that the within twin pair differences in serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels were significantly correlated with within twin pair differences in BMI, suggesting a role for MIC-1/GDF15 in the regulation of energy balance in man. MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels altered slightly in response to a meal, but comparison with variation its serum levels over a 24 hour period suggested that these changes are likely to be due to bimodal diurnal variation which can alter serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels by about plus or minus 10% from the mesor. The lack of a rapid and substantial postprandial increase in MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels suggests that MIC1/GDF15 is unlikely to act as a satiety factor. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 may be a physiological regulator of energy homeostasis in man, most probably due to actions on long-term regulation of energy homeostasis.

  19. Transformative Learning: Patterns of Psychophysiologic Response and Technology-Enabled Learning and Intervention Systems

    2008-09-01

    Psychophysiologic Response and Technology -Enabled Learning and Intervention Systems PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Leigh W. Jerome, Ph.D...NUMBER Transformative Learning : Patterns of Psychophysiologic Response and Technology - Enabled Learning and Intervention Systems 5b. GRANT NUMBER...project entitled “Transformative Learning : Patterns of Psychophysiologic Response in Technology Enabled Learning and Intervention Systems.” The

  20. Extreme MHC class I diversity in the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus); selection patterns and allelic divergence suggest that different genes have different functions.

    Biedrzycka, Aleksandra; O'Connor, Emily; Sebastian, Alvaro; Migalska, Magdalena; Radwan, Jacek; Zając, Tadeusz; Bielański, Wojciech; Solarz, Wojciech; Ćmiel, Adam; Westerdahl, Helena

    2017-07-05

    Recent work suggests that gene duplications may play an important role in the evolution of immunity genes. Passerine birds, and in particular Sylvioidea warblers, have highly duplicated major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, which are key in immunity, compared to other vertebrates. However, reasons for this high MHC gene copy number are yet unclear. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) allows MHC genotyping even in individuals with extremely duplicated genes. This HTS data can reveal evidence of selection, which may help to unravel the putative functions of different gene copies, i.e. neofunctionalization. We performed exhaustive genotyping of MHC class I in a Sylvioidea warbler, the sedge warbler, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, using the Illumina MiSeq technique on individuals from a wild study population. The MHC diversity in 863 genotyped individuals by far exceeds that of any other bird species described to date. A single individual could carry up to 65 different alleles, a large proportion of which are expressed (transcribed). The MHC alleles were of three different lengths differing in evidence of selection, diversity and divergence within our study population. Alleles without any deletions and alleles containing a 6 bp deletion showed characteristics of classical MHC genes, with evidence of multiple sites subject to positive selection and high sequence divergence. In contrast, alleles containing a 3 bp deletion had no sites subject to positive selection and had low divergence. Our results suggest that sedge warbler MHC alleles that either have no deletion, or contain a 6 bp deletion, encode classical antigen presenting MHC molecules. In contrast, MHC alleles containing a 3 bp deletion may encode molecules with a different function. This study demonstrates that highly duplicated MHC genes can be characterised with HTS and that selection patterns can be useful for revealing neofunctionalization. Importantly, our results highlight the need to consider the

  1. Investigating and Managing the Characteristics of Travel Behavior and Travel Patterns for the University of Kufa and Suggestion a Future Transportation Plan

    Hamid Athab Al-Jameel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Educational institutions are one of the main trip generators and distributors in the cities around the world. The main campus of the University of Kufa has more than 10 faculties with more than 12,000 people (staff and students. This makes the university is one of the high attracting area of trips in the city. These attracted trips use different modes of transportation such as taxi, private car, min-bus and even walking mode. This study aims to investigate the travel behavior and travel patterns for the current trips and put the suitable suggestions for shifting the travel characteristics using efficient modern modes of transportation. More than 4000 samples have been investigated using interviews asking about the origin, the purpose of trips and the mode of trips. The results of this analysis indicate the urgent need for improving the current transportation system by encouraging public transport such as bus and tram. Moreover, there is a need for improving the design and traffic management for the gates of the university.

  2. The reasonable timing of the adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of uterine carcinosarcoma according to the surgical intent: suggestion based on progression patterns

    Yu, Jeong Il; Choi, Doo Ho; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Oh, Dong Ryul; Bae, Duk Soo

    2013-01-01

    We designed this study to identify and suggest the reasonable timing of adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of uterine carcinosarcoma according to the surgical intent and patterns of progression. We retrospectively analyzed a total of 50 carcinosarcoma patients diagnosed between 1995 and 2010. Among these 50 patients, 32 underwent curative surgery and 13 underwent maximal tumor debulking surgery. The remaining five patients underwent biopsy only. Twenty-six patients received chemotherapy, and 15 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. The median follow-up period was 17.3 months. Curative resection (p < 0.001) and stage (p < 0.001) were statistically significant factors affecting survival. During follow-up, 30 patients showed progression. Among these, eight patients (16.0%) had loco-regional progression only. The patients who had received adjuvant radiotherapy did not show loco-regional progression, and radiotherapy was a significant negative risk factor for loco-regional progression (p = 0.01). The time to loco-regional progression was much earlier for non-curative than curative resection (range, 0.7 to 7.6 months vs. 7.5 to 39.0 months). Adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of carcinosarcoma might be related to a low loco-regional progression rate. Radiotherapy should be considered in non-curatively resected patients as soon as possible.

  3. Genome-wide investigation and expression analysis suggest diverse roles and genetic redundancy of Pht1 family genes in response to Pi deficiency in tomato.

    Chen, Aiqun; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Huimin; Liao, Dehua; Gu, Mian; Qu, Hongye; Sun, Shubin; Xu, Guohua

    2014-03-11

    Phosphorus (P) deficiency is one of the major nutrient stresses limiting plant growth. The uptake of P by plants is well considered to be mediated by a number of high-affinity phosphate (Pi) transporters belonging to the Pht1 family. Although the Pht1 genes have been extensively identified in several plant species, there is a lack of systematic analysis of the Pht1 gene family in any solanaceous species thus far. Here, we report the genome-wide analysis, phylogenetic evolution and expression patterns of the Pht1 genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). A total of eight putative Pht1 genes (LePT1 to 8), distributed on three chromosomes (3, 6 and 9), were identified through extensive searches of the released tomato genome sequence database. Chromosomal organization and phylogenetic tree analysis suggested that the six Pht1 paralogues, LePT1/3, LePT2/6 and LePT4/5, which were assigned into three pairs with very close physical distance, were produced from recent tandem duplication events that occurred after Solanaceae splitting with other dicot families. Expression analysis of these Pht1 members revealed that except LePT8, of which the transcript was undetectable in all tissues, the other seven paralogues showed differential but partial-overlapping expression patterns. LePT1 and LePT7 were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined, and their transcripts were induced abundantly in response to Pi starvation; LePT2 and LePT6, the two paralogues harboring identical coding sequence, were predominantly expressed in Pi-deficient roots; LePT3, LePT4 and LePT5 were strongly activated in the roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under low-P, but not high-P condition. Histochemical analysis revealed that a 1250-bp LePT3 promoter fragment and a 471-bp LePT5 promoter fragment containing the two elements, MYCS and P1BS, were sufficient to direct the GUS reporter expression in mycorrhizal roots and were limited to distinct cells harboring AM fungal structures

  4. Exposure–response model for sibutramine and placebo: suggestion for application to long-term weight-control drug development

    Han, Seunghoon; Jeon, Sangil; Hong, Taegon; Lee, Jongtae; Bae, Soo Hyeon; Park, Wan-su; Park, Gab-jin; Youn, Sunil; Jang, Doo Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    No wholly successful weight-control drugs have been developed to date, despite the tremendous demand. We present an exposure–response model of sibutramine mesylate that can be applied during clinical development of other weight-control drugs. Additionally, we provide a model-based evaluation of sibutramine efficacy. Data from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study were used (N=120). Subjects in the treatment arm were initially given 8.37 mg sibutramine base daily, and those who lost sibutramine, including the placebo effect, were modeled using NONMEM 7.2. An asymptotic model approaching the final body weight was chosen to describe the time course of weight loss. Extent of weight loss was described successfully using a sigmoidal exposure–response relationship of the drug with a constant placebo effect in each individual. The placebo effect was influenced by subjects’ sex and baseline body mass index. Maximal weight loss was predicted to occur around 1 year after treatment initiation. The difference in mean weight loss between the sibutramine (daily 12.55 mg) and placebo groups was predicted to be 4.5% in a simulation of 1 year of treatment, with considerable overlap of prediction intervals. Our exposure–response model, which included the placebo effect, is the first example of a quantitative model that can be used to predict the efficacy of weight-control drugs. Similar approaches can help decision-making during clinical development of novel weight-loss drugs. PMID:26392753

  5. Exposure-response model for sibutramine and placebo: suggestion for application to long-term weight-control drug development.

    Han, Seunghoon; Jeon, Sangil; Hong, Taegon; Lee, Jongtae; Bae, Soo Hyeon; Park, Wan-su; Park, Gab-jin; Youn, Sunil; Jang, Doo Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    No wholly successful weight-control drugs have been developed to date, despite the tremendous demand. We present an exposure-response model of sibutramine mesylate that can be applied during clinical development of other weight-control drugs. Additionally, we provide a model-based evaluation of sibutramine efficacy. Data from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study were used (N=120). Subjects in the treatment arm were initially given 8.37 mg sibutramine base daily, and those who lost sibutramine, including the placebo effect, were modeled using NONMEM 7.2. An asymptotic model approaching the final body weight was chosen to describe the time course of weight loss. Extent of weight loss was described successfully using a sigmoidal exposure-response relationship of the drug with a constant placebo effect in each individual. The placebo effect was influenced by subjects' sex and baseline body mass index. Maximal weight loss was predicted to occur around 1 year after treatment initiation. The difference in mean weight loss between the sibutramine (daily 12.55 mg) and placebo groups was predicted to be 4.5% in a simulation of 1 year of treatment, with considerable overlap of prediction intervals. Our exposure-response model, which included the placebo effect, is the first example of a quantitative model that can be used to predict the efficacy of weight-control drugs. Similar approaches can help decision-making during clinical development of novel weight-loss drugs.

  6. Human physiological benefits of viewing nature: EEG responses to exact and statistical fractal patterns.

    Hagerhall, C M; Laike, T; Küller, M; Marcheschi, E; Boydston, C; Taylor, R P

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and physiological benefits of viewing nature have been extensively studied for some time. More recently it has been suggested that some of these positive effects can be explained by nature's fractal properties. Virtually all studies on human responses to fractals have used stimuli that represent the specific form of fractal geometry found in nature, i.e. statistical fractals, as opposed to fractal patterns which repeat exactly at different scales. This raises the question of whether human responses like preference and relaxation are being driven by fractal geometry in general or by the specific form of fractal geometry found in nature. In this study we consider both types of fractals (statistical and exact) and morph one type into the other. Based on the Koch curve, nine visual stimuli were produced in which curves of three different fractal dimensions evolve gradually from an exact to a statistical fractal. The patterns were shown for one minute each to thirty-five subjects while qEEG was continuously recorded. The results showed that the responses to statistical and exact fractals differ, and that the natural form of the fractal is important for inducing alpha responses, an indicator of a wakefully relaxed state and internalized attention.

  7. Exposure–response model for sibutramine and placebo: suggestion for application to long-term weight-control drug development

    Han S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seunghoon Han,1,2 Sangil Jeon,1,2 Taegon Hong,1,2 Jongtae Lee,1,2 Soo Hyeon Bae,1,2 Wan-su Park,1,2 Gab-jin Park,1,2 Sunil Youn,1,2 Doo Yeon Jang,1,2 Kyung-Soo Kim,3 Dong-Seok Yim1,2 1Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 2Pharmacometrics Institute for Practical Education and Training, 3Department of Family Medicine, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, Seochogu, Seoul, Republic of KoreaAbstract: No wholly successful weight-control drugs have been developed to date, despite the tremendous demand. We present an exposure–response model of sibutramine mesylate that can be applied during clinical development of other weight-control drugs. Additionally, we provide a model-based evaluation of sibutramine efficacy. Data from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study were used (N=120. Subjects in the treatment arm were initially given 8.37 mg sibutramine base daily, and those who lost <2 kg after 4 weeks’ treatment were escalated to 12.55 mg. The duration of treatment was 24 weeks. Drug concentration and body weight were measured predose and at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 24 weeks after treatment initiation. Exposure and response to sibutramine, including the placebo effect, were modeled using NONMEM 7.2. An asymptotic model approaching the final body weight was chosen to describe the time course of weight loss. Extent of weight loss was described successfully using a sigmoidal exposure–response relationship of the drug with a constant placebo effect in each individual. The placebo effect was influenced by subjects’ sex and baseline body mass index. Maximal weight loss was predicted to occur around 1 year after treatment initiation. The difference in mean weight loss between the sibutramine (daily 12.55 mg and placebo groups was predicted to be 4.5% in a simulation of 1 year of treatment, with considerable overlap of prediction intervals. Our exposure–response model, which

  8. Analysis of emergency response to fukushima nuclear accident in Japan and suggestions for China's nuclear emergency management

    Li Wei; Ding Qihua; Wu Haosong

    2014-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station of the Tokyo Electric Power Company ('TEPCO') was hit and damaged by a magnitude 9 earthquake and accompanying tsunami. The accident is determined to be of the highest rating on the International Nuclear Event Scale. The Government of Japan and TEPCO have taken emergency response actions on-site and off-site at the accident. It became clear through the investigation that the accident had been initiated on the occasion of a natural disaster of an earthquake and tsunami, but there have been various complex problems behind this very serious and large scale accident. For an example, the then-available accident preventive measures and disaster preparedness of TEPCO were insufficient against tsunami and severe accidents; inadequate TEPCO emergency responses to the accident at the site were also identified. The accident rang the alarm for the nuclear safety of nuclear power plants. It also taught us a great of lessons in nuclear emergency management. (authors)

  9. Molecular epidemiology and in vitro evidence suggest that Leishmania braziliensis strain helps determine antimony response among American tegumenary leishmaniasis patients.

    Silva, Silvana C; Guimarães, Luiz Henrique; Silva, Juliana A; Magalhães, Viviane; Medina, Lilian; Queiroz, Adriano; Machado, Paulo Roberto L; Schriefer, Albert

    2018-02-01

    Antimony is the first line drug for treating American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil. In this country, Leishmania braziliensis causes at least three distinct forms of disease: localized cutaneous (CL), mucosal (ML) and disseminated leishmaniasis (DL). All forms can be found in Corte de Pedra, Northeast Brazil. ML and DL respond poorly to antimony, in contrast to CL. The L. braziliensis population causing ATL in Corte de Pedra is genetically very diverse, with strains of the parasite associating with the clinical form of leishmaniasis. We tested the hypotheses that antimony refractoriness is associated with L. braziliensis genotypes, and that parasites from ML and DL present greater in vitro resistance to antimony than L. braziliensis from CL. Comparison of geographic coordinates of living sites between antimony responders and non-responders by Cusick and Edward́s test showed that refractoriness and responsiveness to the drug were similarly wide spread in the region (p>0.05). Parasites were then genotyped by sequencing a locus starting at position 425,451 on chromosome 28, which is polymorphic among L. braziliensis of Corte de Pedra. Haplotype CC- in CHR28/425,451 was associated with risk of treatment failure among CL patients (Fisheŕs exact test, p=0.03, odds ratio=4.65). This haplotype could not be found among parasites from ML or DL. Finally, sensitivity to antimony was evaluated exposing L. braziliensis promastigotes to increasing concentrations of meglumine antimoniate in vitro. Parasites from ML and DL were more resistant to antimony at doses of 2mg/100μL and beyond than those isolated from CL (Fisher's exact test, p=0.02 and p=0.004, respectively). The intrinsically lower susceptibility of L. brazliensis from ML and DL to antimony parallels what is observed for patients' responsiveness in the field. This finding reinforces that ML and DL patients would benefit from initiating treatment with drugs currently considered as second line, like

  10. A Complex Story: Universal Preference vs. Individual Differences Shaping Aesthetic Response to Fractals Patterns

    Street, Nichola; Forsythe, Alexandra M.; Reilly, Ronan; Taylor, Richard; Helmy, Mai S.

    2016-01-01

    Fractal patterns offer one way to represent the rough complexity of the natural world. Whilst they dominate many of our visual experiences in nature, little large-scale perceptual research has been done to explore how we respond aesthetically to these patterns. Previous research (Taylor et al., 2011) suggests that the fractal patterns with mid-range fractal dimensions (FDs) have universal aesthetic appeal. Perceptual and aesthetic responses to visual complexity have been more varied with findings suggesting both linear (Forsythe et al., 2011) and curvilinear (Berlyne, 1970) relationships. Individual differences have been found to account for many of the differences we see in aesthetic responses but some, such as culture, have received little attention within the fractal and complexity research fields. This two-study article aims to test preference responses to FD and visual complexity, using a large cohort (N = 443) of participants from around the world to allow universality claims to be tested. It explores the extent to which age, culture and gender can predict our preferences for fractally complex patterns. Following exploratory analysis that found strong correlations between FD and visual complexity, a series of linear mixed-effect models were implemented to explore if each of the individual variables could predict preference. The first tested a linear complexity model (likelihood of selecting the more complex image from the pair of images) and the second a mid-range FD model (likelihood of selecting an image within mid-range). Results show that individual differences can reliably predict preferences for complexity across culture, gender and age. However, in fitting with current findings the mid-range models show greater consistency in preference not mediated by gender, age or culture. This article supports the established theory that the mid-range fractal patterns appear to be a universal construct underlying preference but also highlights the fragility of

  11. Movement response patterns of livestock to rainfall variability in the ...

    Livestock movement patterns indicated that forage is the motivation for winter movements and water is the motivation for summer. The movement followed a predictable ... The latter can be considered as a 'key resource' area to sustain animal numbers through critical periods of low rainfall. Overall, seasonal movement ...

  12. Mouse V1 population correlates of visual detection rely on heterogeneity within neuronal response patterns

    Montijn, Jorrit S; Goltstein, Pieter M; Pennartz, Cyriel MA

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of the primary sensory cortex for the detection, discrimination, and awareness of visual stimuli, but it is unknown how neuronal populations in this area process detected and undetected stimuli differently. Critical differences may reside in the mean strength of responses to visual stimuli, as reflected in bulk signals detectable in functional magnetic resonance imaging, electro-encephalogram, or magnetoencephalography studies, or may be more subtly composed of differentiated activity of individual sensory neurons. Quantifying single-cell Ca2+ responses to visual stimuli recorded with in vivo two-photon imaging, we found that visual detection correlates more strongly with population response heterogeneity rather than overall response strength. Moreover, neuronal populations showed consistencies in activation patterns across temporally spaced trials in association with hit responses, but not during nondetections. Contrary to models relying on temporally stable networks or bulk signaling, these results suggest that detection depends on transient differentiation in neuronal activity within cortical populations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10163.001 PMID:26646184

  13. Soil Landscape Pattern Changes in Response to Rural Anthropogenic Activity across Tiaoxi Watershed, China

    Xiao, Rui; Jiang, Diwei; Christakos, George; Fei, Xufeng; Wu, Jiaping

    2016-01-01

    Soil sealing (loss of soil resources due to extensive land covering for the purpose of house building, road construction etc.) and subsequent soil landscape pattern changes constitute typical environmental problems in many places worldwide. Previous studies concentrated on soil sealing in urbanized regions, whereas rural areas have not been given sufficient attention. Accordingly, this paper studies soil landscape pattern dynamics (i.e., landscape pattern changes in response to rural anthropogenic activities) in the Tiaoxi watershed (Zhejiang province, eastern China), in which surface sealing is by far the predominant component of human forcing with respect to environmental change. A novel approach of quantifying the impacts of rural anthropogenic activities on soil resources is presented. Specifically, quantitative relationships were derived between five soil landscape pattern metrics (patch density, edge density, shape index, Shannon’s diversity index and aggregation index) and three rural anthropogenic activity indicators (anthropogenic activity intensity, distance to towns, and distance to roads) at two landscape block scales (3 and 5 km) between 1985 and 2010. The results showed that the Tiaoxi watershed experienced extensive rural settlement expansion and high rates of soil sealing. Soil landscapes became more fragmented, more irregular, more isolated, and less diverse. Relationships between soil landscape pattern changes and rural anthropogenic activities differed with the scale (spatial and temporal) and variable considered. In particular, the anthropogenic activity intensity was found to be the most important indicator explaining social development intensity, whereas the other two proximity indicators had a significant impact at certain temporal interval. In combination with scale effects, spatial dependency (correlation) was shown to play a key role that should be carefully taken into consideration in any relevant environmental study. Overall, the

  14. Sediment-palaeosol successions in Calabria and Sardinia suggest spatially differentiated palaeo-vegetation patterns in southern Italy during the Last Glacial period

    Sauer, Daniela; Zucca, Claudio; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Zwanzig, Lisa; Madrau, Salvatore; Andreucci, Stefano; Pascucci, Vincenzo; Kadereit, Annette; Scarciglia, Fabio; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    .9-30.3 ka cal BP, respectively. Thus, the formation of these soils falls into the period for which the lacustrine record indicates alternations between open and wooded steppe. The second palaeosol-sediment succession was found in a similar geomorphological situation near Piale, ca. 30 km north of the Lazzaro profile. In this case, the major part of the alluvial fan was removed by the creek (flowing from east to west), so that only its southernmost edge is preserved. SOM of the two lowermost palaeosols embedded in it was 14C-dated to 44.8-45.8 ka cal BP and 45.2-46.2 ka cal BP, respectively. The palaeosols of the Piale profile are very dark, almost carbonate-free, and several of them are characterized by an aeolian component (volcanic ash). The third sediment-palaeosol succession is exposed at the north-western coast of Sardinia, ca. 1.5 km north of Porto Palmas. The succession has developed in alluvial fan deposits that are constrained in a narrow valley, thus forming a valley infilling. Where the valley opens into the sea, this infilling is exposed in a high cliff. The sediment-palaeosol succession is sandwiched between marine deposits at the bottom (attributed to MIS 5c), and a sandy cover on top, dated to 23±4 ka by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). 14C dating was performed on charcoal fragments that were abundant in several horizons. Interestingly, in contrast to the two sediment-palaeosol successions in Calabria, the palaeosols exposed in NW Sardinia do not represent dark steppe and forest steppe soils. The NW Sardinian Late Pleistocene palaeosols are brownish, reflecting rather forest environments. This difference suggests somewhat more humid and less continental conditions in this area compared to Calabria, during the Last Glacial period. However, more of these terrestrial archives along the coast of S Italy would need to be studied to gain a deeper understanding of spatial patterns of Last Glacial vegetation and environments.

  15. Effects of low temperature on breathing pattern and ventilatory responses during hibernation in the golden-mantled ground squirrel.

    Webb, Cheryl L; Milsom, William K

    2017-07-01

    During entrance into hibernation in golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis), ventilation decreases as metabolic rate and body temperature fall. Two patterns of respiration occur during deep hibernation. At 7 °C body temperature (T b ), a breathing pattern characterized by episodes of multiple breaths (20.6 ± 1.9 breaths/episode) separated by long apneas or nonventilatory periods (T nvp ) (mean = 11.1 ± 1.2 min) occurs, while at 4 °C T b , a pattern in which breaths are evenly distributed and separated by a relatively short T nvp (0.5 ± 0.05 min) occurs. Squirrels exhibiting each pattern have similar metabolic rates and levels of total ventilation (0.2 and 0.23 ml O 2 /hr/kg and 0.11 and 0.16 ml air/min/kg, respectively). Squirrels at 7 °C T b exhibit a significant hypoxic ventilatory response, while squirrels at 4 °C T b do not respond to hypoxia at any level of O 2 tested. Squirrels at both temperatures exhibit a significant hypercapnic ventilatory response, but the response is significantly reduced in the 4 °C T b squirrels. Carotid body denervation has little effect on the breathing patterns or on the hypercapnic ventilatory responses. It does reduce the magnitude and threshold for the hypoxic ventilatory response. Taken together the data suggest that (1) the fundamental rhythm generator remains functional at low temperatures; (2) the hypercapnic ventilatory response arises from central chemoreceptors that remain functional at very low temperatures; (3) the hypoxic ventilatory response arises from both carotid body and aortic chemoreceptors that are silenced at lower temperatures; and (4) there is a strong correlation between breathing pattern and chemosensitivity.

  16. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation

    Hoogerwerf, M. D.; Veldhuizen, I. J. T.; Merz, E.-M.; de Kort, W. L. A. M.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and ObjectivesDonating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal

  17. AUDITORY NUCLEI: DISTINCTIVE RESPONSE PATTERNS TO WHITE NOISE AND TONES IN UNANESTHETIZED CATS.

    GALIN, D

    1964-10-09

    Electrical responses to "white" noise and tonal stimuli were recorded from unanesthetized cats with permanently implanted bipolar electrodes. The cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus, and medial geniculate each showed distinctive patterns of evoked activity. White noise and tones produced qualitatively different types of response. A decrease in activity characterized the response of the inferior colliculus to tonal stimuli.

  18. Patterns of Incorrect Responses on the FCI and Course Success

    Wells, James; Mokaya, Fridah; Valente, Diego

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is often used to measure the effectiveness of instructional pedagogy in introductory physics courses both at the algebra- and calculus-based level. Scores on the FCI are correlated with the performance of students in a class, as measured by their final course grade. We have collected data from several semesters of first-semester introductory mechanics courses at a public 4-year university, taught in large-scale classrooms with pedagogy including elements of Just-in-Time Teaching pedagogy along with active learning course components. The data collected includes pre- and post-test FCI scores, midterm exam grades, and final course grades. We examine whether certain patterns of incorrect answers on the FCI post-test are predictive of course grades, indicating whether certain specific student preconceptions are more detrimental than others to the success of students in an introductory mechanics course. Funding from UConn - College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (CLAS).

  19. Priming of the Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity response upon infection by necrotrophic Pectobacterium carotovorum bacteria.

    Po-Wen, Chen; Singh, Prashant; Zimmerli, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Boosted responsiveness of plant cells to stress at the onset of pathogen- or chemically induced resistance is called priming. The chemical β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) enhances Arabidopsis thaliana resistance to hemibiotrophic bacteria through the priming of the salicylic acid (SA) defence response. Whether BABA increases Arabidopsis resistance to the necrotrophic bacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum (Pcc) is not clear. In this work, we show that treatment with BABA protects Arabidopsis against the soft-rot pathogen Pcc. BABA did not prime the expression of the jasmonate/ethylene-responsive gene PLANT DEFENSIN 1.2 (PDF1.2), the up-regulation of which is usually associated with resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. Expression of the SA marker gene PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (PR1) on Pcc infection was primed by BABA treatment, but SA-defective mutants demonstrated a wild-type level of BABA-induced resistance against Pcc. BABA primed the expression of the pattern-triggered immunity (PTI)-responsive genes FLG22-INDUCED RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE 1 (FRK1), ARABIDOPSIS NON-RACE SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE GENE (NDR1)/HAIRPIN-INDUCED GENE (HIN1)-LIKE 10 (NHL10) and CYTOCHROME P450, FAMILY 81 (CYP81F2) after inoculation with Pcc or after treatment with purified bacterial microbe-associated molecular patterns, such as flg22 or elf26. PTI-mediated callose deposition was also potentiated in BABA-treated Arabidopsis, and BABA boosted Arabidopsis stomatal immunity to Pcc. BABA treatment primed the PTI response in the SA-defective mutants SA induction deficient 2-1 (sid2-1) and phytoalexin deficient 4-1 (pad4-1). In addition, BABA priming was associated with open chromatin configurations in the promoter region of PTI marker genes. Our data indicate that BABA primes the PTI response upon necrotrophic bacterial infection and suggest a role for the PTI response in BABA-induced resistance. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  20. Cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis activate distinct patterns of defence responses in grapevine.

    Farace, Giovanni; Fernandez, Olivier; Jacquens, Lucile; Coutte, François; Krier, François; Jacques, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Barka, Essaid Ait; Jacquard, Cédric; Dorey, Stéphan

    2015-02-01

    Non-self-recognition of microorganisms partly relies on the perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and leads to the activation of an innate immune response. Bacillus subtilis produces three main families of cyclic lipopeptides (LPs), namely surfactins, iturins and fengycins. Although LPs are involved in induced systemic resistance (ISR) activation, little is known about defence responses induced by these molecules and their involvement in local resistance to fungi. Here, we showed that purified surfactin, mycosubtilin (iturin family) and plipastatin (fengycin family) are perceived by grapevine plant cells. Although surfactin and mycosubtilin stimulated grapevine innate immune responses, they differentially activated early signalling pathways and defence gene expression. By contrast, plipastatin perception by grapevine cells only resulted in early signalling activation. Gene expression analysis suggested that mycosubtilin activated salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathways, whereas surfactin mainly induced an SA-regulated response. Although mycosubtilin and plipastatin displayed direct antifungal activity, only surfactin and mycosubtilin treatments resulted in a local long-lasting enhanced tolerance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea in grapevine leaves. Moreover, challenge with specific strains overproducing surfactin and mycosubtilin led to a slightly enhanced stimulation of the defence response compared with the LP-non-producing strain of B. subtilis. Altogether, our results provide the first comprehensive view of the involvement of LPs from B. subtilis in grapevine plant defence and local resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Bo. cinerea. Moreover, this work is the first to highlight the ability of mycosubtilin to trigger an immune response in plants. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  1. Simple regional strain pattern analysis to predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Risum, Niels; Jons, Christian; Olsen, Niels T

    2012-01-01

    A classical strain pattern of early contraction in one wall and prestretching of the opposing wall followed by late contraction has previously been associated with left bundle branch block (LBBB) activation and short-term response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Aims of this study were...... to establish the long-term predictive value of an LBBB-related strain pattern and to identify changes in contraction patterns during short-term and long-term CRT....

  2. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  3. Stressor-induced proteome alterations in zebrafish: A meta-analysis of response patterns

    Groh, Ksenia J., E-mail: ksenia.groh@eawag.ch [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Suter, Marc J.-F. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Department of Environmental Systems Science, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-02-15

    . We suggest that the results of any differential proteomics experiment performed with zebrafish should be interpreted keeping in mind the list of the most frequent responders that we have identified. Similar reservations should apply to any other species where proteome responses are analyzed by global proteomics methods. Careful consideration of the reliability and significance of observed changes is necessary in order not to over-interpret the experimental results and to prevent the proliferation of false positive linkages between the chemical and the cellular functions it perturbs. We further discuss the implications of the identified “top lists” of frequently responding proteins and protein families, and suggest further directions for proteomics research in ecotoxicology. Apart from improving the proteome coverage, further research should focus on defining the significance of the observed stress response patterns for organism phenotypes and on searching for common upstream regulators that can be targeted by specific assays.

  4. Stressor-induced proteome alterations in zebrafish: A meta-analysis of response patterns

    Groh, Ksenia J.; Suter, Marc J.-F.

    2015-01-01

    . We suggest that the results of any differential proteomics experiment performed with zebrafish should be interpreted keeping in mind the list of the most frequent responders that we have identified. Similar reservations should apply to any other species where proteome responses are analyzed by global proteomics methods. Careful consideration of the reliability and significance of observed changes is necessary in order not to over-interpret the experimental results and to prevent the proliferation of false positive linkages between the chemical and the cellular functions it perturbs. We further discuss the implications of the identified “top lists” of frequently responding proteins and protein families, and suggest further directions for proteomics research in ecotoxicology. Apart from improving the proteome coverage, further research should focus on defining the significance of the observed stress response patterns for organism phenotypes and on searching for common upstream regulators that can be targeted by specific assays

  5. Epidemics: Lessons from the past and current patterns of response

    Martin, Paul

    2008-09-01

    Hippocrates gave the term 'epidemic' its medical meaning. From antiquity to modern times, the meaning of the word epidemic has continued to evolve. Over the centuries, researchers have reached an understanding of the varying aspects of epidemics and have tried to combat them. The role played by travel, trade, and human exchanges in the propagation of epidemic infectious diseases has been understood. In 1948, the World Health Organization was created and given the task of advancing ways of combating epidemics. An early warning system to combat epidemics has been implemented by the WHO. The Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) is collaboration between existing institutions and networks that pool their human and technical resources to fight outbreaks. Avian influenza constitutes currently the most deadly epidemic threat, with fears that it could rapidly reach pandemic proportions and put several thousands of lives in jeopardy. Thanks to the WHO's support, most of the world's countries have mobilised and implemented an 'Action Plan for Pandemic Influenza'. As a result, most outbreaks of the H5N1 avian flu virus have so far been speedily contained. Cases of dengue virus introduction in countries possessing every circumstance required for its epidemic spread provide another example pertinent to the prevention of epidemics caused by vector-borne pathogens.

  6. Interaction Pattern of Arg 62 in the A-Pocket of Differentially Disease-Associated HLA-B27 Subtypes Suggests Distinct TCR Binding Modes

    Cauli, Alberto; Mathieu, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Valentina; Caristi, Silvana; Sorrentino, Rosa; Böckmann, Rainer A.; Fiorillo, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The single amino acid replacement Asp116His distinguishes the two subtypes HLA-B*2705 and HLA-B*2709 which are, respectively, associated and non-associated with Ankylosing Spondylitis, an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease. The reason for this differential association is so far poorly understood and might be related to subtype-specific HLA:peptide conformations as well as to subtype/peptide-dependent dynamical properties on the nanoscale. Here, we combine functional experiments with extensive molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the molecular dynamics and function of the conserved Arg62 of the α1-helix for both B27 subtypes in complex with the self-peptides pVIPR (RRKWRRWHL) and TIS (RRLPIFSRL), and the viral peptides pLMP2 (RRRWRRLTV) and NPflu (SRYWAIRTR). Simulations of HLA:peptide systems suggest that peptide-stabilizing interactions of the Arg62 residue observed in crystal structures are metastable for both B27 subtypes under physiological conditions, rendering this arginine solvent-exposed and, probably, a key residue for TCR interaction more than peptide-binding. This view is supported by functional experiments with conservative (R62K) and non-conservative (R62A) B*2705 and B*2709 mutants that showed an overall reduction in their capability to present peptides to CD8+ T cells. Moreover, major subtype-dependent differences in the peptide recognition suggest distinct TCR binding modes for the B*2705 versus the B*2709 subtype. PMID:22403718

  7. Detecting Aberrant Response Patterns in the Rasch Model. Rapport 87-3.

    Kogut, Jan

    In this paper, the detection of response patterns aberrant from the Rasch model is considered. For this purpose, a new person fit index, recently developed by I. W. Molenaar (1987) and an iterative estimation procedure are used in a simulation study of Rasch model data mixed with aberrant data. Three kinds of aberrant response behavior are…

  8. Fabrications and Applications of Stimulus-Responsive Polymer Films and Patterns on Surfaces: A Review

    Jem-Kun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, we have witnessed significant progress in developing high performance stimuli-responsive polymeric materials. This review focuses on recent developments in the preparation and application of patterned stimuli-responsive polymers, including thermoresponsive layers, pH/ionic-responsive hydrogels, photo-responsive film, magnetically-responsive composites, electroactive composites, and solvent-responsive composites. Many important new applications for stimuli-responsive polymers lie in the field of nano- and micro-fabrication, where stimuli-responsive polymers are being established as important manipulation tools. Some techniques have been developed to selectively position organic molecules and then to obtain well-defined patterned substrates at the micrometer or submicrometer scale. Methods for patterning of stimuli-responsive hydrogels, including photolithography, electron beam lithography, scanning probe writing, and printing techniques (microcontact printing, ink-jet printing were surveyed. We also surveyed the applications of nanostructured stimuli-responsive hydrogels, such as biotechnology (biological interfaces and purification of biomacromoles, switchable wettability, sensors (optical sensors, biosensors, chemical sensors, and actuators.

  9. MRI patterns in prolonged low response states following traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents.

    Patrick, Peter D; Mabry, Jennifer L; Gurka, Matthew J; Buck, Marcia L; Boatwright, Evelyn; Blackman, James A

    2007-01-01

    To explore the relationship between location and pattern of brain injury identified on MRI and prolonged low response state in children post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). This observational study compared 15 children who spontaneously recovered within 30 days post-TBI to 17 who remained in a prolonged low response state. 92.9% of children with brain stem injury were in the low response group. The predicted probability was 0.81 for brain stem injury alone, increasing to 0.95 with a regional pattern of injury to the brain stem, basal ganglia, and thalamus. Low response state in children post-TBI is strongly correlated with two distinctive regions of injury: the brain stem alone, and an injury pattern to the brain stem, basal ganglia, and thalamus. This study demonstrates the need for large-scale clinical studies using MRI as a tool for outcome assessment in children and adolescents following severe TBI.

  10. Tungstate-induced color-pattern modifications of butterfly wings are independent of stress response and ecdysteroid effect.

    Otaki, Joji M; Ogasawara, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Haruhiko

    2005-06-01

    Systemic injections of sodium tungstate, a protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) inhibitor, to pupae immediately after pupation have been shown to efficiently produce characteristic color-pattern modifications on the wings of many species of butterflies. Here we demonstrated that the tungstate-induced modification pattern was entirely different from other chemically-induced ones in a species of nymphalid butterfly Junonia (Precis) orithya. In this species, the systemic injections of tungstate produced characteristic expansion of black area and shrinkage of white area together with the move of parafocal elements toward the wing base. Overall, pattern boundaries became obscure. In contrast, an entirely different modification pattern, overall darkening of wings, was observed by the injections of stress-inducing chemicals, thapsigargin, ionomycin, or geldanamycin, to pupae under the rearing conditions for the adult summer form. On the ventral wings, this darkening was due to an increase of the proportion of peppered dark scales, which was reminiscent of the natural fall form of this species. Under the same rearing conditions, the injections of ecdysteroid, which is a well-known hormone being responsible for the seasonal polyphenism of nymphalid butterflies, yielded overall expansion of orange area especially around eyespots. Taken together, we conclude that the tungstate-induced modifications are clearly distinguishable from those of stress response and ecdysteroid effect. This conclusion then suggests that the putative PTPase signaling pathway that is sensitive to tungstate uniquely contributes to the wing-wide color-pattern development in butterflies.

  11. Spatial Pattern and Scale Influence Invader Demographic Response to Simulated Precipitation Change in an Annual Grassland Community.

    Meghan J Skaer Thomason

    Full Text Available It is important to predict which invasive species will benefit from future changes in climate, and thereby identify those invaders that need particular attention and prioritization of management efforts. Because establishment, persistence, and spread determine invasion success, this prediction requires detailed demographic information. Explicit study of the impact of pattern on demographic response is particularly important for species that are naturally patchy, such as the invasive grass, Aegilops triuncialis. In the northern California Coast Range, where climate change may increase or decrease mean annual rainfall, we conducted a field experiment to understand the interaction of climate change and local-scale patterning on the demography of A. triuncialis. We manipulated precipitation (reduced, ambient, or augmented, seed density, and seeding pattern. Demographic and environmental data were collected for three years following initial seeding. Pattern and scale figure prominently in the demographic response of A. triuncialis to precipitation manipulation. Pattern interacts with precipitation and seeding density in its influence on per-plant seed output. Although per-plot seed production was highest when seeds were not aggregated, per-plant seed output was higher in aggregated patches. Results suggest aggregation of invasive A. triuncialis reduces the detrimental impact of interspecific competition in its invaded community, and that interspecific competition per se has a stronger impact than intraspecific competition.

  12. Hot utilitarianism and cold deontology: Insights from a response patterns approach to sacrificial and real world dilemmas.

    Rosas, Alejandro; Viciana, Hugo; Caviedes, Esteban; Arciniegas, Alejandra

    2018-04-18

    Research on moral judgment with moral dilemmas suggests that "utilitarian" responses (UR) to sacrificial high-conflict dilemmas are due to decreased harm aversion, not only in individuals with clinical conditions, but also in healthy participants with high scores in antisocial personality traits. We investigated the patterns of responses to different dilemma types in healthy participants and present evidence that some URs to sacrificial dilemmas are morally motivated, as indicated by their empathic concern (EC) or primary psychopathy (PP) scores. In study 1 (N = 230) we tested students with four categories of sacrificial dilemmas featuring innocent victims. In study 2 (N = 590) we tested students with two categories of sacrificial dilemmas and two "real-world" moral dilemmas, where the agent can improve the lot of strangers by making a personal sacrifice. Results in both studies showed no decreased harm aversion in a pattern where the only UR is to the sacrificial dilemma where the number of saved people is very high, and significantly lower harm aversion only in the pattern of all-deontological respondents in Study 2. The analysis by response patterns allowed a better discrimination of the moral motivations of participants and showed that at least some of them express moral concerns in their URs.

  13. Transcriptomics reveal several gene expression patterns in the piezophile Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis in response to hydrostatic pressure.

    Amira Amrani

    Full Text Available RNA-seq was used to study the response of Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis, isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal chimney on the East-Pacific Rise at a depth of 2,600 m, to various hydrostatic pressure growth conditions. The transcriptomic datasets obtained after growth at 26, 10 and 0.1 MPa identified only 65 differentially expressed genes that were distributed among four main categories: aromatic amino acid and glutamate metabolisms, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and unknown function. The gene expression patterns suggest that D. hydrothermalis uses at least three different adaptation mechanisms, according to a hydrostatic pressure threshold (HPt that was estimated to be above 10 MPa. Both glutamate and energy metabolism were found to play crucial roles in these mechanisms. Quantitation of the glutamate levels in cells revealed its accumulation at high hydrostatic pressure, suggesting its role as a piezolyte. ATP measurements showed that the energy metabolism of this bacterium is optimized for deep-sea life conditions. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms linked to hydrostatic pressure adaptation in sulfate-reducing bacteria.

  14. Transcriptomics Reveal Several Gene Expression Patterns in the Piezophile Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis in Response to Hydrostatic Pressure

    Amrani, Amira; Bergon, Aurélie; Holota, Hélène; Tamburini, Christian; Garel, Marc; Ollivier, Bernard; Imbert, Jean; Dolla, Alain; Pradel, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    RNA-seq was used to study the response of Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis, isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal chimney on the East-Pacific Rise at a depth of 2,600 m, to various hydrostatic pressure growth conditions. The transcriptomic datasets obtained after growth at 26, 10 and 0.1 MPa identified only 65 differentially expressed genes that were distributed among four main categories: aromatic amino acid and glutamate metabolisms, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and unknown function. The gene expression patterns suggest that D. hydrothermalis uses at least three different adaptation mechanisms, according to a hydrostatic pressure threshold (HPt) that was estimated to be above 10 MPa. Both glutamate and energy metabolism were found to play crucial roles in these mechanisms. Quantitation of the glutamate levels in cells revealed its accumulation at high hydrostatic pressure, suggesting its role as a piezolyte. ATP measurements showed that the energy metabolism of this bacterium is optimized for deep-sea life conditions. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms linked to hydrostatic pressure adaptation in sulfate-reducing bacteria. PMID:25215865

  15. Improved prognostic classification of breast cancer defined by antagonistic activation patterns of immune response pathway modules

    Teschendorff, Andrew E; Gomez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex; El-Ashry, Dorraya; Schmidt, Marcus; Gehrmann, Mathias; Caldas, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Elucidating the activation pattern of molecular pathways across a given tumour type is a key challenge necessary for understanding the heterogeneity in clinical response and for developing novel more effective therapies. Gene expression signatures of molecular pathway activation derived from perturbation experiments in model systems as well as structural models of molecular interactions ('model signatures') constitute an important resource for estimating corresponding activation levels in tumours. However, relatively few strategies for estimating pathway activity from such model signatures exist and only few studies have used activation patterns of pathways to refine molecular classifications of cancer. Here we propose a novel network-based method for estimating pathway activation in tumours from model signatures. We find that although the pathway networks inferred from cancer expression data are highly consistent with the prior information contained in the model signatures, that they also exhibit a highly modular structure and that estimation of pathway activity is dependent on this modular structure. We apply our methodology to a panel of 438 estrogen receptor negative (ER-) and 785 estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers to infer activation patterns of important cancer related molecular pathways. We show that in ER negative basal and HER2+ breast cancer, gene expression modules reflecting T-cell helper-1 (Th1) and T-cell helper-2 (Th2) mediated immune responses play antagonistic roles as major risk factors for distant metastasis. Using Boolean interaction Cox-regression models to identify non-linear pathway combinations associated with clinical outcome, we show that simultaneous high activation of Th1 and low activation of a TGF-beta pathway module defines a subtype of particularly good prognosis and that this classification provides a better prognostic model than those based on the individual pathways. In ER+ breast cancer, we find that

  16. Effects of hemisphere speech dominance and seizure focus on patterns of behavioral response errors for three types of stimuli.

    Rausch, R; MacDonald, K

    1997-03-01

    We used a protocol consisting of a continuous presentation of stimuli with associated response requests during an intracarotid sodium amobarbital procedure (IAP) to study the effects of hemisphere injected (speech dominant vs. nondominant) and seizure focus (left temporal lobe vs. right temporal lobe) on the pattern of behavioral response errors for three types of visual stimuli (pictures of common objects, words, and abstract forms). Injection of the left speech dominant hemisphere compared to the right nondominant hemisphere increased overall errors and affected the pattern of behavioral errors. The presence of a seizure focus in the contralateral hemisphere increased overall errors, particularly for the right temporal lobe seizure patients, but did not affect the pattern of behavioral errors. Left hemisphere injections disrupted both naming and reading responses at a rate similar to that of matching-to-sample performance. Also, a short-term memory deficit was observed with all three stimuli. Long-term memory testing following the left hemisphere injection indicated that only for pictures of common objects were there fewer errors during the early postinjection period than for the later long-term memory testing. Therefore, despite the inability to respond to picture stimuli, picture items, but not words or forms, could be sufficiently encoded for later recall. In contrast, right hemisphere injections resulted in few errors, with a pattern suggesting a mild general cognitive decrease. A selective weakness in learning unfamiliar forms was found. Our findings indicate that different patterns of behavioral deficits occur following the left vs. right hemisphere injections, with selective patterns specific to stimulus type.

  17. Early transcriptional response to aminoglycoside antibiotic suggests alternate pathways leading to apoptosis of sensory hair cells in the mouse inner ear

    Neil eSegil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aminoglycoside antibiotics are the drug of choice for treating many bacterial infections, but their administration results in hearing loss in nearly one fourth of the patients who receive them. Several biochemical pathways have been implicated in aminoglycoside antibiotic ototoxicity; however, little is known about how hair cells respond to aminoglycoside antibiotics at the transcriptome level. Here we have investigated the genome-wide response to the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin. Using organotypic cultures of the perinatal organ of Corti, we performed RNA sequencing using cDNA libraries obtained from FACS-purified hair cells. Within 3 hours of gentamicin treatment, the messenger RNA level of more than three thousand genes in hair cells changed significantly. Bioinformatic analysis of these changes highlighted several known signal transduction pathways, including the JNK pathway and the NF-κB pathway, in addition to genes involved in the stress response, apoptosis, cell cycle control, and DNA damage repair. In contrast, only 698 genes, mainly involved in cell cycle and metabolite biosynthetic processes, were significantly affected in the non-hair cell population. The gene expression profiles of hair cells in response to gentamicin share a considerable similarity with those previously observed in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Our findings suggest that previously observed early responses to gentamicin in hair cells in specific signaling pathways are reflected in changes in gene expression. Additionally, the observed changes in gene expression of cell cycle regulatory genes indicate a disruption of the postmitotic state, which may suggest an alternative pathway regulating gentamicin-induced hair cell death. This work provides a more comprehensive view of aminoglycoside antibiotic ototoxicity, and thus contribute to identifying potential pathways or therapeutic targets to alleviate this important side effect of aminoglycoside

  18. Patterns in response to chronic terrorism threats: A construct of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses among Israeli citizens.

    Cohen-Louck, Keren; Saka, Yael

    2017-10-01

    Israeli citizens are exposed to unpredictable and chronic terrorism threats that significantly jeopardize their personal sense of safety. The purpose of the present study is to present how Israeli discourse is structured with regard to emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to chronic terrorism threats and to understand the range of responses as well as map the risk and protective factors of this existential threat. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 40 Israeli adults (22 women and 18 men). Qualitative analysis revealed three patterns of responses to ongoing terrorism: emotional, cognitive, and behavioral. Emotional responses include fear, worry, sense of empathy, and detachment. Cognitive responses include situational assessment and pursuit of solutions, the use of traumatic imagining, beliefs in fate and luck, and optimism. Behavioral responses include looking for information, alertness, and habituation. The findings also revealed another response, which combines cognitive and behavioral responses. Some of the responses are innovative and unique to the threat of terrorism. Mapping the responses revealed mental health risk factors, as well as protective factors that can help structure personal and national resilience. These findings have implications on the treatment and prevention of personal and social pathologies, and how to effectively cope with terrorism threats. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Body temperatures of hibernating little brown bats reveal pronounced behavioural activity during deep torpor and suggest a fever response during white-nose syndrome.

    Mayberry, Heather W; McGuire, Liam P; Willis, Craig K R

    2018-03-01

    Hibernating animals use torpor [reduced body temperature (T b ) and metabolic rate] to reduce energy expenditure during winter. Periodic arousals to normal T b are energetically expensive, so hibernators trade off arousal benefits against energetic costs. This is especially important for bats with white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease causing increased arousal frequency. Little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) with WNS show upregulation of endogenous pyrogens and sickness behaviour. Therefore, we hypothesized that WNS should cause a fever response characterized by elevated T b . Hibernators could also accrue some benefits of arousals with minimal T b increase, thus avoiding full arousal costs. We compared skin temperature (T sk ) of captive Myotis lucifugus inoculated with the WNS-causing fungus to T sk of sham-inoculated controls. Infected bats re-warmed to higher T sk during arousals which is consistent with a fever response. Torpid T sk did not differ. During what we term "cold arousals", bats exhibited movement following T sk increases of only 2.2 ± 0.3 °C, compared to >20 °C increases during normal arousals. Cold arousals occurred in both infected and control bats, suggesting they are not a pathophysiological consequence of WNS. Fever responses are energetically costly and could exacerbate energy limitation and premature fat depletion for bats with WNS. Cold arousals could represent an energy-saving mechanism for both healthy and WNS-affected bats when complete arousals are unnecessary or too costly. A few cold arousals were observed mid-hibernation, typically in response to disturbances. Cold arousals may, therefore, represent a voluntary restriction of arousal temperature instead of loss of thermoregulatory control.

  20. Network Analysis Reveals a Common Host–Pathogen Interaction Pattern in Arabidopsis Immune Responses

    Hong Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many plant pathogens secrete virulence effectors into host cells to target important proteins in host cellular network. However, the dynamic interactions between effectors and host cellular network have not been fully understood. Here, an integrative network analysis was conducted by combining Arabidopsis thaliana protein–protein interaction network, known targets of Pseudomonas syringae and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis effectors, and gene expression profiles in the immune response. In particular, we focused on the characteristic network topology of the effector targets and differentially expressed genes (DEGs. We found that effectors tended to manipulate key network positions with higher betweenness centrality. The effector targets, especially those that are common targets of an individual effector, tended to be clustered together in the network. Moreover, the distances between the effector targets and DEGs increased over time during infection. In line with this observation, pathogen-susceptible mutants tended to have more DEGs surrounding the effector targets compared with resistant mutants. Our results suggest a common plant–pathogen interaction pattern at the cellular network level, where pathogens employ potent local impact mode to interfere with key positions in the host network, and plant organizes an in-depth defense by sequentially activating genes distal to the effector targets.

  1. Play It Again: Neural Responses to Reunion with Excluders Predicted by Attachment Patterns

    White, Lars O.; Wu, Jia; Borelli, Jessica L.; Mayes, Linda C.; Crowley, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Reunion behavior following stressful separations from caregivers is often considered the single most sensitive clue to infant attachment patterns. Extending these ideas to middle childhood/early adolescence, we examined participants' neural responses to reunion with peers who had previously excluded them. We recorded event-related potentials…

  2. Response to multi-generational selection under elevated [CO2] in two temperature regimes suggests enhanced carbon assimilation and increased reproductive output in Brassica napus L

    Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    different temperature regimes. To reveal phenotypic divergence at the manipulated [CO2] and temperature conditions, a full-factorial natural selection regime was established in a phytotron environment over the range of four generations. It is demonstrated that a directional response to selection at elevated......Functional plant traits are likely to adapt under the sustained pressure imposed by environmental changes through natural selection. Employing Brassica napus as a model, a multi-generational study was performed to investigate the potential trajectories of selection at elevated [CO2] in two...... subjected to increased levels of CO2 over the generational range investigated. The results of this study suggest that phenotypic divergence of plants selected under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration may drive the future functions of plant productivity to be different from projections that do...

  3. Stomatal responses to flooding of the intercellular air spaces suggest a vapor-phase signal between the mesophyll and the guard cells.

    Sibbernsen, Erik; Mott, Keith A

    2010-07-01

    Flooding the intercellular air spaces of leaves with water was shown to cause rapid closure of stomata in Tradescantia pallida, Lactuca serriola, Helianthus annuus, and Oenothera caespitosa. The response occurred when water was injected into the intercellular spaces, vacuum infiltrated into the intercellular spaces, or forced into the intercellular spaces by pressurizing the xylem. Injecting 50 mm KCl or silicone oil into the intercellular spaces also caused stomata to close, but the response was slower than with distilled water. Epidermis-mesophyll grafts for T. pallida were created by placing the epidermis of one leaf onto the exposed mesophyll of another leaf. Stomata in these grafts opened under light but closed rapidly when water was allowed to wick between epidermis and the mesophyll. When epidermis-mesophyll grafts were constructed with a thin hydrophobic filter between the mesophyll and epidermis stomata responded normally to light and CO(2). These data, when taken together, suggest that the effect of water on stomata is caused partly by dilution of K(+) in the guard cell and partly by the existence of a vapor-phase signal that originates in the mesophyll and causes stomata to open in the light.

  4. Stomatal Responses to Flooding of the Intercellular Air Spaces Suggest a Vapor-Phase Signal Between the Mesophyll and the Guard Cells1[OA

    Sibbernsen, Erik; Mott, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    Flooding the intercellular air spaces of leaves with water was shown to cause rapid closure of stomata in Tradescantia pallida, Lactuca serriola, Helianthus annuus, and Oenothera caespitosa. The response occurred when water was injected into the intercellular spaces, vacuum infiltrated into the intercellular spaces, or forced into the intercellular spaces by pressurizing the xylem. Injecting 50 mm KCl or silicone oil into the intercellular spaces also caused stomata to close, but the response was slower than with distilled water. Epidermis-mesophyll grafts for T. pallida were created by placing the epidermis of one leaf onto the exposed mesophyll of another leaf. Stomata in these grafts opened under light but closed rapidly when water was allowed to wick between epidermis and the mesophyll. When epidermis-mesophyll grafts were constructed with a thin hydrophobic filter between the mesophyll and epidermis stomata responded normally to light and CO2. These data, when taken together, suggest that the effect of water on stomata is caused partly by dilution of K+ in the guard cell and partly by the existence of a vapor-phase signal that originates in the mesophyll and causes stomata to open in the light. PMID:20472750

  5. Lack of genetic variation in tree ring delta13C suggests a uniform, stomatally-driven response to drought stress across Pinus radiata genotypes.

    Rowell, Douglas M; Ades, Peter K; Tausz, Michael; Arndt, Stefan K; Adams, Mark A

    2009-02-01

    We assessed the variation in delta(13)C signatures of Pinus radiata D. Don stemwood taken from three genetic trials in southern Australia. We sought to determine the potential of using delta(13)C signatures as selection criteria for drought tolerance. Increment cores were taken from P. radiata and were used to determine the basal area increment and the delta(13)C signature of extracted cellulose. Both growth increment and cellulose delta(13)C were affected by water availability. Growth increment and delta(13)C were negatively correlated suggesting that growth was water-limited. While there was significant genetic variation in growth, there was no significant genetic variation in cellulose delta(13)C of tree rings. This suggests that different genotypes of P. radiata display significant differences in growth and yet respond similarly to drought stress. The delta(13)C response to drought stress was more due to changes in stomatal conductance than to the variation in photosynthetic capacity, and this may explain the lack of genetic variation in delta(13)C. The lack of genetic variation in cellulose delta(13)C of tree rings precludes its use as a selection criterion for drought tolerance among P. radiata genotypes.

  6. Pattern of neural responses to verbal fluency shows diagnostic specificity for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    Walshe Muriel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impairments in executive function and language processing are characteristic of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Their functional neuroanatomy demonstrate features that are shared as well as specific to each disorder. Determining the distinct pattern of neural responses in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may provide biomarkers for their diagnoses. Methods 104 participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scans while performing a phonological verbal fluency task. Subjects were 32 patients with schizophrenia in remission, 32 patients with bipolar disorder in an euthymic state, and 40 healthy volunteers. Neural responses to verbal fluency were examined in each group, and the diagnostic potential of the pattern of the neural responses was assessed with machine learning analysis. Results During the verbal fluency task, both patient groups showed increased activation in the anterior cingulate, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right putamen as compared to healthy controls, as well as reduced deactivation of precuneus and posterior cingulate. The magnitude of activation was greatest in patients with schizophrenia, followed by patients with bipolar disorder and then healthy individuals. Additional recruitment in the right inferior frontal and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was observed in schizophrenia relative to both bipolar disorder and healthy subjects. The pattern of neural responses correctly identified individual patients with schizophrenia with an accuracy of 92%, and those with bipolar disorder with an accuracy of 79% in which mis-classification was typically of bipolar subjects as healthy controls. Conclusions In summary, both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with altered function in prefrontal, striatal and default mode networks, but the magnitude of this dysfunction is particularly marked in schizophrenia. The pattern of response to verbal fluency is highly

  7. Complex patterns of response to oral hygiene instructions: longitudinal evaluation of periodontal patients.

    Amoo-Achampong, Felice; Vitunac, David E; Deeley, Kathleen; Modesto, Adriana; Vieira, Alexandre R

    2018-05-02

    Oral hygiene instruction is an intervention widely practiced but increased knowledge about oral health does not necessarily dramatically impact oral disease prevalence in populations. We aimed to measure plaque and bleeding in periodontal patients over time to determine patterns of patient response to oral hygiene instructions. Longitudinal plaque and bleeding index data were evaluated in 227 periodontal patients to determine the impact of oral hygiene instructions. Over multiple visits, we determined relative plaque accumulation and gingival bleeding for each patient. Subsequently, we grouped them in three types of oral hygiene status in response to initial instructions, using the longitudinal data over the period they were treated and followed for their periodontal needs. These patterns of oral hygiene based on the plaque and gingival bleeding indexes were evaluated based on age, sex, ethnic background, interleukin 1 alpha and beta genotypes, diabetes status, smoking habits, and other concomitant diseases. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to determine if any differences between these variables were statistically significant with alpha set at 0.05. Three patterns in response to oral hygiene instructions emerged. Plaque and gingival bleeding indexes improved, worsened, or fluctuated over time in the periodontal patients studied. Out of all the confounders considered, only ethnic background showed statistically significant differences. White individuals more often than other ethnic groups fluctuated in regards to oral hygiene quality after instructions. There are different responses to professional oral hygiene instructions. These responses may be related to ethnicity.

  8. Response patterns in adult forest trees to chronic ozone stress: identification of variations and consistencies

    Nunn, Angela J.; Reiter, Ilja M.; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Langebartels, Christian; Bahnweg, Guenther; Pretzsch, Hans; Sandermann, Heinrich; Matyssek, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    The responsiveness of adult beech and spruce trees to chronic O 3 stress was studied at a free-air O 3 exposure experiment in Freising/Germany. Over three growing seasons, gas exchange characteristics, biochemical parameters, macroscopic O 3 injury and the phenology of leaf organs were investigated, along with assessments of branch and stem growth as indications of tree performance. To assess response pattern to chronic O 3 stress in adult forest trees, we introduce a new evaluation approach, which provides a comprehensive, readily accomplishable overview across several tree-internal scaling levels, different canopy regions and growing seasons. This new approach, based on a three-grade colour coding, combines statistical analysis and the proficient ability of the 'human eye' in pattern recognition. - Responses of adult forest trees to chronic O 3 stress can be visualized in a survey table applying a three-grade colour coding to each investigated parameter

  9. Simulated Vegetation Response to Climate Change in California: The Importance of Seasonal Production Patterns

    Kim, J. B.; Pitts, B.

    2013-12-01

    MC1 dynamic global vegetation model simulates vegetation response to climate change by simulating vegetation production, soil biogeochemistry, plant biogeography and fire. It has been applied at a wide range of spatial scales, yet the spatio-temporal patterns of simulated vegetation production, which drives the model's response to climate change, has not been examined in detail. We ran MC1 for California at a relatively fine scale, 30 arc-seconds, for the historical period (1895-2006) and for the future (2007-2100), using downscaled data from four CMIP3-based climate projections: A2 and B1 GHG emissions scenarios simulated by PCM and GFDL GCMs. The use of these four climate projections aligns our work with a body of climate change research work commissioned by the California Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. The four climate projections vary not only in terms of changes in their annual means, but in the seasonality of projected climate change. We calibrated MC1 using MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011 as a guide, and adapting a published technique for adjusting simulated vegetation production by increasing the simulated plant rooting depths. We evaluated the simulation results by comparing the model output for the historical period with several benchmark datasets, summarizing by EPA Level 3 Ecoregions. Multi-year summary statistics of model predictions compare moderately well with Kuchler's potential natural vegetation map, National Biomass and Carbon Dataset, Leenhouts' compilation of fire return intervals, and, of course, the MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011. When we compared MC1's monthly NPP values with MODIS monthly GPP data (2000-2011), however, the seasonal patterns compared very poorly, with NPP/GPP ratio for spring (Mar-Apr-May) often exceeding 1, and the NPP/GPP ratio for summer (Jun-Jul-Aug) often flattening to zero. This suggests MC1's vegetation production algorithms are overly biased for spring production at the cost of summer production. We

  10. Development of infant mismatch responses to auditory pattern changes between 2 and 4 months old.

    He, Chao; Hotson, Lisa; Trainor, Laurel J

    2009-02-01

    In order to process speech and music, the auditory cortex must learn to process patterns of sounds. Our previous studies showed that with a stream consisting of a repeating (standard) sound, younger infants show an increase in the amplitude of a positive slow wave in response to occasional changes (deviants) in pitch or duration, whereas older infants show a faster negative response that resembles mismatch negativity (MMN) in adults (Trainor et al., 2001, 2003; He et al., 2007). MMN reflects an automatic change-detection process that does not require attention, conscious awareness or behavioural response for its elicitation (Picton et al., 2000; Näätänen et al., 2007). It is an important tool for understanding auditory perception because MMN reflects a change-detection mechanism, and not simply that repetition of a stimulus results in a refractory state of sensory neural circuits while occasional changes to a new sound activate new non-refractory neural circuits (Näätänen et al., 2005). For example, MMN is elicited by a change in the pattern of a repeating note sequence, even when no new notes are introduced that could activate new sensory circuits (Alain et al., 1994, 1999;Schröger et al., 1996). In the present study, we show that in response to a change in the pattern of two repeating tones, MMN in 4-month-olds remains robust whereas the 2-month-old response does not. This indicates that the MMN response to a change in pattern at 4 months reflects the activation of a change-detection mechanism similarly as in adults.

  11. Gut microbiome and innate immune response patterns in IgE-associated eczema.

    West, C E; Rydén, P; Lundin, D; Engstrand, L; Tulic, M K; Prescott, S L

    2015-09-01

    Gut microbiome patterns have been associated with predisposition to eczema potentially through modulation of innate immune signalling. We examined gut microbiome development in the first year of life in relation to innate immune responses and onset of IgE-associated eczema over the first 2.5 years in predisposed children due to maternal atopy [www.anzctr.org.au, trial ID ACTRN12606000280505]. Microbial composition and diversity were analysed with barcoded 16S rRNA 454 pyrosequencing in stool samples in pregnancy and at ages 1 week, 1 month and 12 months in infants (n = 10) who developed IgE-associated eczema and infants who remained free of any allergic symptoms at 2.5 years of age (n = 10). Microbiome data at 1 week and 1 month were analysed in relation to previously assessed immune responses to TLR 2 and 4 ligands at 6 months of age. The relative abundance of Gram-positive Ruminococcaceae was lower at 1 week of age in infants developing IgE-associated eczema, compared with controls (P = 0.0047). At that age, the relative abundance of Ruminococcus was inversely associated with TLR2 induced IL-6 (-0.567, P = 0.042) and TNF-α (-0.597, P = 0.032); there was also an inverse association between the abundance of Proteobacteria (comprising Gram-negative taxa) and TLR4-induced TNF-α (rs = -0.629, P = 0.024). This relationship persisted at 1 month, with inverse associations between the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae (within the Proteobacteria phylum) and TLR4-induced TNF-α (rs = -0.697, P = 0.038) and Enterobacteriaceae and IL-6 (rs = -0.709, P = 0.035). Mothers whose infants developed IgE-associated eczema had lower α-diversity of Bacteroidetes (P = 0.04) although this was not seen later in their infants. At 1 year, α-diversity of Actinobacteria was lower in infants with IgE-associated eczema compared with controls (P = 0.002). Our findings suggest that reduced relative abundance of potentially immunomodulatory gut bacteria is associated with exaggerated

  12. Vocal responses of austral forest frogs to amplitude and degradation patterns of advertisement calls.

    Penna, Mario; Moreno-Gómez, Felipe N; Muñoz, Matías I; Cisternas, Javiera

    2017-07-01

    Degradation phenomena affecting animal acoustic signals may provide cues to assess the distance of emitters. Recognition of degraded signals has been extensively demonstrated in birds, and recently studies have also reported detection of degraded patterns in anurans that call at or above ground level. In the current study we explore the vocal responses of the syntopic burrowing male frogs Eupsophus emiliopugini and E. calcaratus from the South American temperate forest to synthetic conspecific calls differing in amplitude and emulating degraded and non-degraded signal patterns. The results show a strong dependence of vocal responses on signal amplitude, and a general lack of differential responses to signals with different pulse amplitude modulation depths in E. emiliopugini and no effect of relative amplitude of harmonics in E. calcaratus. Such limited discrimination of signal degradation patterns from non-degraded signals is likely related to the burrowing habits of these species. Shelters amplify outgoing and incoming conspecific vocalizations, but do not counteract signal degradation to an extent comparable to calling strategies used by other frogs. The limited detection abilities and resultant response permissiveness to degraded calls in these syntopic burrowing species would be advantageous for animals communicating in circumstances in which signal alteration prevails. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential effects of MPEP and diazepam in tests of conditioned emotional response and Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer suggests 'anxiolytic' effects are mediated by different mechanisms.

    George, S A; Hutson, P H; Stephens, D N

    2009-06-01

    The selective mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) is reported to be anxiolytic in several animal models of anxiety, including the conditioned emotional response (CER) paradigm. Suppression of responding during conditioned stimulus (CS) presentation in CER may reflect behavioural competition between lever pressing and adopting a shock-avoidance posture, or it may alternatively reflect altered value of the food reward following its association with a footshock, thus reducing its ability to motivate responding. If this is the case, then drugs that reduce the CER may interfere with the mechanism by which CSs are able to motivate responding, rather than by reducing anxiety. The standard test of the ability of Pavlovian cues to motivate responding is the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm and it has recently been suggested that CER may be 'negative PIT'. We compared the effect of MPEP (0, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) and diazepam (0, 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) in CER and PIT. Both MPEP and diazepam significantly reduced conditioned suppression in the CER paradigm. MPEP, but not diazepam, significantly reduced PIT. The findings support the hypothesis that MPEP may reduce expression of anxiety in the CER paradigm by interfering with the way in which emotionally salient cues are able to affect behaviour, but do not support such an analysis of the effect of diazepam. Diazepam and MPEP may therefore achieve their effects in CER by influencing different psychological processes.

  14. Alternative responses to predation in two headwater stream minnows is reflected in their contrasting diel activity patterns.

    Kadye, Wilbert T; Booth, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Animals exhibit diel periodicity in their activity in part to meet energy requirements whilst evading predation. A competing hypothesis suggests that partitioning of diel activities is less important because animals capitalise on opportunity. To test these hypotheses we examined the diel activity patterns for two cyprinid minnows, chubbyhead barb Barbus anoplus and the Eastern Cape redfin minnow Pseudobarbus afer that both occur within headwater streams in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Chubbyhead barbs exhibited consistent nocturnal activity based on both field and laboratory observations. Due to the absence of fish predators within its habitat, its nocturnal behaviour suggests a response to the cost associated with diurnal activity, such as predation risk by diving and wading birds. In contrast, redfin minnows showed high diurnal activity and a shoaling behaviour in the wild, whereas, in the laboratory, they showed high refuge use during the diel cycle. Despite their preference for refuge in the laboratory, they were diurnally active, a behaviour that was consistent with observations in the wild. The diurnal activity of this species suggests a response to the cost associated with nocturnal activity. Such a cost could be inferred from the presence of the longfin eel, a native predator that was active at night, whereas the daytime shoaling behaviour suggests an anti-predator mechanism to diurnal visual predators. The implications of these findings relate to the impacts associated with the potential invasions by non-native piscivores that occur in the mainstem sections. Diurnal activity patterns for redfin minnows, that are IUCN-listed as endangered, may, in part, explain their susceptibility to high predation by visual non-native piscivores, such as bass and trout. In contrast, the nocturnal habits of chubbyhead barbs suggest a probable pre-adaptation to visual predation. The likelihood of invasion by nocturnally-active sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus

  15. Alternative responses to predation in two headwater stream minnows is reflected in their contrasting diel activity patterns.

    Wilbert T Kadye

    Full Text Available Animals exhibit diel periodicity in their activity in part to meet energy requirements whilst evading predation. A competing hypothesis suggests that partitioning of diel activities is less important because animals capitalise on opportunity. To test these hypotheses we examined the diel activity patterns for two cyprinid minnows, chubbyhead barb Barbus anoplus and the Eastern Cape redfin minnow Pseudobarbus afer that both occur within headwater streams in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Chubbyhead barbs exhibited consistent nocturnal activity based on both field and laboratory observations. Due to the absence of fish predators within its habitat, its nocturnal behaviour suggests a response to the cost associated with diurnal activity, such as predation risk by diving and wading birds. In contrast, redfin minnows showed high diurnal activity and a shoaling behaviour in the wild, whereas, in the laboratory, they showed high refuge use during the diel cycle. Despite their preference for refuge in the laboratory, they were diurnally active, a behaviour that was consistent with observations in the wild. The diurnal activity of this species suggests a response to the cost associated with nocturnal activity. Such a cost could be inferred from the presence of the longfin eel, a native predator that was active at night, whereas the daytime shoaling behaviour suggests an anti-predator mechanism to diurnal visual predators. The implications of these findings relate to the impacts associated with the potential invasions by non-native piscivores that occur in the mainstem sections. Diurnal activity patterns for redfin minnows, that are IUCN-listed as endangered, may, in part, explain their susceptibility to high predation by visual non-native piscivores, such as bass and trout. In contrast, the nocturnal habits of chubbyhead barbs suggest a probable pre-adaptation to visual predation. The likelihood of invasion by nocturnally-active sharptooth catfish

  16. Utilizing the response patterns of a temperature modulated chemoresistive gas sensor for gas diagnosis

    Amini, Amir [Jannatabad College, Sama Organization, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghafarinia, Vahid, E-mail: amir.amini.elec@gmail.com, E-mail: ghafarinia@ee.kntu.ac.ir [Electrical Engineering Department, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The observed features in the temporal response patterns of a temperature-modulated chemoresistive gas sensor were used for gas diagnosis. The patterns were recorded for clean air and air contaminated with different levels of some volatile organic compounds while a staircase heating voltage waveform had been applied to the microheater of a tin oxide gas sensor that modulated its operating temperature. Combining the steady-state and transient parameters of the recorded responses in the 50-400 deg. C range resulted in discriminatory feature vectors which were utilized for contaminant classification. The information content of these feature vectors was proved sufficient for discrimination of methanol, ethanol, 1-butanol, and acetone contaminations in a wide concentration range.

  17. Utilizing the response patterns of a temperature modulated chemoresistive gas sensor for gas diagnosis

    Amini, Amir; Ghafarinia, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    The observed features in the temporal response patterns of a temperature-modulated chemoresistive gas sensor were used for gas diagnosis. The patterns were recorded for clean air and air contaminated with different levels of some volatile organic compounds while a staircase heating voltage waveform had been applied to the microheater of a tin oxide gas sensor that modulated its operating temperature. Combining the steady-state and transient parameters of the recorded responses in the 50-400 deg. C range resulted in discriminatory feature vectors which were utilized for contaminant classification. The information content of these feature vectors was proved sufficient for discrimination of methanol, ethanol, 1-butanol, and acetone contaminations in a wide concentration range.

  18. Spatial and temporal patterns of floral scent emission in Dianthus inoxianus and electroantennographic responses of its hawkmoth pollinator.

    Balao, Francisco; Herrera, Javier; Talavera, Salvador; Dötterl, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Scent emission is important in nocturnal pollination systems, and plant species pollinated by nocturnal insects often present characteristic odor compositions and temporal patterns of emission. We investigated the temporal (day/night; flower lifetime) and spatial (different flower parts, nectar) pattern of flower scent emission in nocturnally pollinated Dianthusinoxianus, and determined which compounds elicit physiological responses on the antennae of the sphingid pollinator Hyles livornica. The scent of D.inoxianus comprises 68 volatile compounds, but is dominated by aliphatic 2-ketones and sesquiterpenoids, which altogether make up 82% of collected volatiles. Several major and minor compounds elicit electrophysiological responses in the antennae of H. livornica. Total odor emission does not vary along day and night hours, and neither does along the life of the flower. However, the proportion of compounds eliciting physiological responses varies between day and night. All flower parts as well as nectar release volatiles. The scent of isolated flower parts is dominated by fatty acid derivatives, whereas nectar is dominated by benzenoids. Dissection (= damage) of flowers induced a ca. 20-fold increase in the rate of emission of EAD-active volatiles, especially aliphatic 2-ketones. We suggest that aliphatic 2-ketones might contribute to pollinator attraction in D. inoxianus, even though they have been attributed an insect repellent function in other plant species. We also hypothesize that the benzenoids in nectar may act as an honest signal ('nectar guide') for pollinators. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Response pattern's of immunoglobulins evaluation in different lineages of mice infected with T. cruzi

    Silva, Andreia dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    The present work has employed different mice lineages (A/J, C57BL/6, B6AF1, BXA1 and BXA2) that were challenged with different doses of T. cruzi. The objective was to evaluate the pattern of immunoglobulins response presented by resistant and susceptible mice to T. cruzi as well as the lineages developed from the matting between them. So that evaluation was done by using lineages serums' sample, analyzed by ELISA's method. In agreement with the results observed all the lineages presented higher response to IgG2a and IgG2b, if compared with the titles to IgG1. IgG1 immunoglobulins involve a type Th2 pattern response which expressed allergic immunological responses, while IgG2 involves a pattern response Th1 that expresses cellular immunological response. The different lineages used in this research also presented different immunological response pattern by the infection with T. cruzi. Mice of the lineage C57BL/6 are resistant to the infection, while the animals of the lineage A/J are susceptible. The animals of the lineage B6AF1 are more resistant to the infection than their original parental C57BL/6. The immunological response developed by hybrid mice present traces of both susceptible and resistant parental A/J and C57BL/6, respectively. The animals of the lineage BXA1 can be considered resistant to the infection, but they don't present the same control as that presented by those of the lineages B6AF1 and C57BL/6. The animals of the lineage BXA2 can be considered susceptible to the infection, but they can control it for a long period, surviving like this, longer than the animals of the lineage A/J. In addition it was observed that the IgG2b immunoglobulins are very important to the resistance of mice to T. cruzi infection. (author)

  20. Pattern recognition receptor-mediated cytokine response in infants across 4 continents.

    Smolen, Kinga K; Ruck, Candice E; Fortuno, Edgardo S; Ho, Kevin; Dimitriu, Pedro; Mohn, William W; Speert, David P; Cooper, Philip J; Esser, Monika; Goetghebuer, Tessa; Marchant, Arnaud; Kollmann, Tobias R

    2014-03-01

    Susceptibility to infection as well as response to vaccination varies among populations. To date, the underlying mechanisms responsible for these clinical observations have not been fully delineated. Because innate immunity instructs adaptive immunity, we hypothesized that differences between populations in innate immune responses may represent a mechanistic link to variation in susceptibility to infection or response to vaccination. Determine whether differences in innate immune responses exist among infants from different continents of the world. We determined the innate cytokine response following pattern recognition receptor (PRR) stimulation of whole blood from 2-year-old infants across 4 continents (Africa, North America, South America, and Europe). We found that despite the many possible genetic and environmental exposure differences in infants across 4 continents, innate cytokine responses were similar for infants from North America, South America, and Europe. However, cells from South African infants secreted significantly lower levels of cytokines than did cells from infants from the 3 other sites, and did so following stimulation of extracellular and endosomal but not cytosolic PRRs. Substantial differences in innate cytokine responses to PRR stimulation exist among different populations of infants that could not have been predicted. Delineating the underlying mechanism(s) for these differences will not only aid in improving vaccine-mediated protection but possibly also provide clues for the susceptibility to infection in different regions of the world. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evidence of an evolutionary hourglass pattern in herbivory-induced transcriptomic responses.

    Durrant, Matthew; Boyer, Justin; Zhou, Wenwu; Baldwin, Ian T; Xu, Shuqing

    2017-08-01

    Herbivory-induced defenses are specific and activated in plants when elicitors, frequently found in the herbivores' oral secretions, are introduced into wounds during attack. While complex signaling cascades are known to be involved, it remains largely unclear how natural selection has shaped the evolution of these induced defenses. We analyzed herbivory-induced transcriptomic responses in wild tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, using a phylotranscriptomic approach that measures the origin and sequence divergence of herbivory-induced genes. Highly conserved and evolutionarily ancient genes of primary metabolism were activated at intermediate time points (2-6 h) after elicitation, while less constrained and young genes associated with defense signaling and biosynthesis of specialized metabolites were activated at early (before 2 h) and late (after 6 h) stages of the induced response, respectively - a pattern resembling the evolutionary hourglass pattern observed during embryogenesis in animals and the developmental process in plants and fungi. The hourglass patterns found in herbivory-induced defense responses and developmental process are both likely to be a result of signaling modularization and differential evolutionary constraints on the modules involved in the signaling cascade. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Expertly validated models and phylogenetically-controlled analysis suggests responses to climate change are related to species traits in the order lagomorpha.

    Katie Leach

    Full Text Available Climate change during the past five decades has impacted significantly on natural ecosystems, and the rate of current climate change is of great concern among conservation biologists. Species Distribution Models (SDMs have been used widely to project changes in species' bioclimatic envelopes under future climate scenarios. Here, we aimed to advance this technique by assessing future changes in the bioclimatic envelopes of an entire mammalian order, the Lagomorpha, using a novel framework for model validation based jointly on subjective expert evaluation and objective model evaluation statistics. SDMs were built using climatic, topographical, and habitat variables for all 87 lagomorph species under past and current climate scenarios. Expert evaluation and Kappa values were used to validate past and current models and only those deemed 'modellable' within our framework were projected under future climate scenarios (58 species. Phylogenetically-controlled regressions were used to test whether species traits correlated with predicted responses to climate change. Climate change is likely to impact more than two-thirds of lagomorph species, with leporids (rabbits, hares, and jackrabbits likely to undertake poleward shifts with little overall change in range extent, whilst pikas are likely to show extreme shifts to higher altitudes associated with marked range declines, including the likely extinction of Kozlov's Pika (Ochotona koslowi. Smaller-bodied species were more likely to exhibit range contractions and elevational increases, but showing little poleward movement, and fecund species were more likely to shift latitudinally and elevationally. Our results suggest that species traits may be important indicators of future climate change and we believe multi-species approaches, as demonstrated here, are likely to lead to more effective mitigation measures and conservation management. We strongly advocate studies minimising data gaps in our knowledge of

  3. Global patterns in lake ecosystem responses to warming based on the temperature dependence of metabolism.

    Kraemer, Benjamin M; Chandra, Sudeep; Dell, Anthony I; Dix, Margaret; Kuusisto, Esko; Livingstone, David M; Schladow, S Geoffrey; Silow, Eugene; Sitoki, Lewis M; Tamatamah, Rashid; McIntyre, Peter B

    2017-05-01

    Climate warming is expected to have large effects on ecosystems in part due to the temperature dependence of metabolism. The responses of metabolic rates to climate warming may be greatest in the tropics and at low elevations because mean temperatures are warmer there and metabolic rates respond exponentially to temperature (with exponents >1). However, if warming rates are sufficiently fast in higher latitude/elevation lakes, metabolic rate responses to warming may still be greater there even though metabolic rates respond exponentially to temperature. Thus, a wide range of global patterns in the magnitude of metabolic rate responses to warming could emerge depending on global patterns of temperature and warming rates. Here we use the Boltzmann-Arrhenius equation, published estimates of activation energy, and time series of temperature from 271 lakes to estimate long-term (1970-2010) changes in 64 metabolic processes in lakes. The estimated responses of metabolic processes to warming were usually greatest in tropical/low-elevation lakes even though surface temperatures in higher latitude/elevation lakes are warming faster. However, when the thermal sensitivity of a metabolic process is especially weak, higher latitude/elevation lakes had larger responses to warming in parallel with warming rates. Our results show that the sensitivity of a given response to temperature (as described by its activation energy) provides a simple heuristic for predicting whether tropical/low-elevation lakes will have larger or smaller metabolic responses to warming than higher latitude/elevation lakes. Overall, we conclude that the direct metabolic consequences of lake warming are likely to be felt most strongly at low latitudes and low elevations where metabolism-linked ecosystem services may be most affected. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Making assessments while taking repeated risks: a pattern of multiple response pathways.

    Pleskac, Timothy J; Wershbale, Avishai

    2014-02-01

    Beyond simply a decision process, repeated risky decisions also require a number of cognitive processes including learning, search and exploration, and attention. In this article, we examine how multiple response pathways develop over repeated risky decisions. Using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) as a case study, we show that 2 different response pathways emerge over the course of the task. The assessment pathway is a slower, more controlled pathway where participants deliberate over taking a risk. The 2nd pathway is a faster, more automatic process where no deliberation occurs. Results imply the slower assessment pathway is taken as choice conflict increases and that the faster automatic response is a learned response. Based on these results, we modify an existing formal cognitive model of decision making during the BART to account for these dual response pathways. The slower more deliberative response process is modeled with a sequential sampling process where evidence is accumulated to a threshold, while the other response is given automatically. We show that adolescents with conduct disorder and substance use disorder symptoms not only evaluate risks differently during the BART but also differ in the rate at which they develop the more automatic response. More broadly, our results suggest cognitive models of judgment decision making need to transition from treating observed decisions as the result of a single response pathway to the result of multiple response pathways that change and develop over time.

  5. Genome-wide analysis of ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 reveals divergent patterns in Arabidopsis and rice

    Riaño-Pachón Diego

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, complex regulatory mechanisms are at the core of physiological and developmental processes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA is involved in the regulation of various such processes, including stomatal closure, seed and bud dormancy, and physiological responses to cold, drought and salinity stress. The underlying tissue or plant-wide control circuits often include combinatorial gene regulatory mechanisms and networks that we are only beginning to unravel with the help of new molecular tools. The increasing availability of genomic sequences and gene expression data enables us to dissect ABA regulatory mechanisms at the individual gene expression level. In this paper we used an in-silico-based approach directed towards genome-wide prediction and identification of specific features of ABA-responsive elements. In particular we analysed the genome-wide occurrence and positional arrangements of two well-described ABA-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs, ABRE and CE3, in thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa. Results Our results show that Arabidopsis and rice use the ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 distinctively. Earlier reports for various monocots have identified CE3 as a coupling element (CE associated with ABRE. Surprisingly, we found that while ABRE is equally abundant in both species, CE3 is practically absent in Arabidopsis. ABRE-ABRE pairs are common in both genomes, suggesting that these can form functional ABA-responsive complexes (ABRCs in Arabidopsis and rice. Furthermore, we detected distinct combinations, orientation patterns and DNA strand preferences of ABRE and CE3 motifs in rice gene promoters. Conclusion Our computational analyses revealed distinct recruitment patterns of ABA-responsive CREs in upstream sequences of Arabidopsis and rice. The apparent absence of CE3s in Arabidopsis suggests that another CE pairs with ABRE to establish a functional ABRC capable of

  6. Genome-wide analysis of ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 reveals divergent patterns in Arabidopsis and rice.

    Gómez-Porras, Judith L; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Dreyer, Ingo; Mayer, Jorge E; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2007-08-01

    In plants, complex regulatory mechanisms are at the core of physiological and developmental processes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in the regulation of various such processes, including stomatal closure, seed and bud dormancy, and physiological responses to cold, drought and salinity stress. The underlying tissue or plant-wide control circuits often include combinatorial gene regulatory mechanisms and networks that we are only beginning to unravel with the help of new molecular tools. The increasing availability of genomic sequences and gene expression data enables us to dissect ABA regulatory mechanisms at the individual gene expression level. In this paper we used an in-silico-based approach directed towards genome-wide prediction and identification of specific features of ABA-responsive elements. In particular we analysed the genome-wide occurrence and positional arrangements of two well-described ABA-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs), ABRE and CE3, in thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa). Our results show that Arabidopsis and rice use the ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 distinctively. Earlier reports for various monocots have identified CE3 as a coupling element (CE) associated with ABRE. Surprisingly, we found that while ABRE is equally abundant in both species, CE3 is practically absent in Arabidopsis. ABRE-ABRE pairs are common in both genomes, suggesting that these can form functional ABA-responsive complexes (ABRCs) in Arabidopsis and rice. Furthermore, we detected distinct combinations, orientation patterns and DNA strand preferences of ABRE and CE3 motifs in rice gene promoters. Our computational analyses revealed distinct recruitment patterns of ABA-responsive CREs in upstream sequences of Arabidopsis and rice. The apparent absence of CE3s in Arabidopsis suggests that another CE pairs with ABRE to establish a functional ABRC capable of interacting with transcription factors. Further studies will be

  7. Response of coral assemblages to thermal stress: are bleaching intensity and spatial patterns consistent between events?

    Penin, Lucie; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Adjeroud, Mehdi

    2013-06-01

    Mass bleaching events resulting in coral mortality are among the greatest threats to coral reefs, and are projected to increase in frequency and intensity with global warming. Achieving a better understanding of the consistency of the response of coral assemblages to thermal stress, both spatially and temporally, is essential to determine which reefs are more able to tolerate climate change. We compared variations in spatial and taxonomic patterns between two bleaching events at the scale of an island (Moorea Island, French Polynesia). Despite similar thermal stress and light conditions, bleaching intensity was significantly lower in 2007 (approximately 37 % of colonies showed signs of bleaching) than in 2002, when 55 % of the colonies bleached. Variations in the spatial patterns of bleaching intensity were consistent between the two events. Among nine sampling stations at three locations and three depths, the stations at which the bleaching response was lowest in 2002 were those that showed the lowest levels of bleaching in 2007. The taxonomic patterns of susceptibility to bleaching were also consistent between the two events. These findings have important implications for conservation because they indicate that corals are capable of acclimatization and/or adaptation and that, even at small spatial scales, some areas are consistently more susceptible to bleaching than others.

  8. Analysis of Microbe-Associated Molecular Pattern-Responsive Synthetic Promoters with the Parsley Protoplast System.

    Kanofsky, Konstantin; Lehmeyer, Mona; Schulze, Jutta; Hehl, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Plants recognize pathogens by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and subsequently induce an immune response. The regulation of gene expression during the immune response depends largely on cis-sequences conserved in promoters of MAMP-responsive genes. These cis-sequences can be analyzed by constructing synthetic promoters linked to a reporter gene and by testing these constructs in transient expression systems. Here, the use of the parsley (Petroselinum crispum) protoplast system for analyzing MAMP-responsive synthetic promoters is described. The synthetic promoter consists of four copies of a potential MAMP-responsive cis-sequence cloned upstream of a minimal promoter and the uidA reporter gene. The reporter plasmid contains a second reporter gene, which is constitutively expressed and hence eliminates the requirement of a second plasmid used as a transformation control. The reporter plasmid is transformed into parsley protoplasts that are elicited by the MAMP Pep25. The MAMP responsiveness is validated by comparing the reporter gene activity from MAMP-treated and untreated cells and by normalizing reporter gene activity using the constitutively expressed reporter gene.

  9. Dialysate White Blood Cell Change after Initial Antibiotic Treatment Represented the Patterns of Response in Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis.

    Tantiyavarong, Pichaya; Traitanon, Opas; Chuengsaman, Piyatida; Patumanond, Jayanton; Tasanarong, Adis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients with peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis usually have different responses to initial antibiotic treatment. This study aimed to explore the patterns of response by using the changes of dialysate white blood cell count on the first five days of the initial antibiotic treatment. Materials and Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. All peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis episodes from January 2014 to December 2015 were reviewed. We categorized the patterns of antibiotic response into 3 groups: early response, delayed response, and failure group. The changes of dialysate white blood cell count for each pattern were determined by multilevel regression analysis. Results. There were 644 episodes in 455 patients: 378 (58.7%) of early response, 122 (18.9%) of delayed response, and 144 (22.3%) of failure episodes. The patterns of early, delayed, and failure groups were represented by the average rate reduction per day of dialysate WBC of 68.4%, 34.0%, and 14.2%, respectively (p value patterns, which were categorized by types of responses, have variable rates of WBC declining. Clinicians should focus on the delayed response and failure patterns in order to make a decision whether to continue medical therapies or to aggressively remove the peritoneal catheter.

  10. Evidence for universality and cultural variation of differential emotion response patterning.

    Scherer, K R; Wallbott, H G

    1994-02-01

    The major controversy concerning psychobiological universality of differential emotion patterning versus cultural relativity of emotional experience is briefly reviewed. Data from a series of cross-cultural questionnaire studies in 37 countries on 5 continents are reported and used to evaluate the respective claims of the proponents in the debate. Results show highly significant main effects and strong effect sizes for the response differences across 7 major emotions (joy, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, shame, and guilt). Profiles of cross-culturally stable differences among the emotions with respect to subjective feeling, physiological symptoms, and expressive behavior are also reported. The empirical evidence is interpreted as supporting theories that postulate both a high degree of universality of differential emotion patterning and important cultural differences in emotion elicitation, regulation, symbolic representation, and social sharing.

  11. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns

    Lu, Huijie

    2015-11-05

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three

  12. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns

    Lu, Huijie; Ulanov, Alexander V.; Nobu, Masaru; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three

  13. Doppler laser imaging predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

    McCoy, J; Kovacevic, M; Situm, M; Stanimirovic, A; Bolanca, Z; Goren, A

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only drug approved by the US FDA for the treatment of female pattern hair loss. Unfortunately, following 16 weeks of daily application, less than 40% of patients regrow hair. Several studies have demonstrated that sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles predicts topical minoxidil response in female pattern hair loss patients. However, due to patients’ discomfort with the procedure, and the time required to perform the enzymatic assay it would be ideal to develop a rapid, non-invasive test for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Minoxidil is a pro-drug converted to its active form, minoxidil sulfate, by sulfotransferase enzymes in the outer root sheath of hair. Minoxidil sulfate is the active form required for both the promotion of hair regrowth and the vasodilatory effects of minoxidil. We thus hypothesized that laser Doppler velocimetry measurement of scalp blood perfusion subsequent to the application of topical minoxidil would correlate with sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles. In this study, plucked hair follicles from female pattern hair loss patients were analyzed for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Additionally, laser Doppler velocimetry was used to measure the change in scalp perfusion at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, after the application of minoxidil. In agreement with our hypothesis, we discovered a correlation (r=1.0) between the change in scalp perfusion within 60 minutes after topical minoxidil application and sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hairs. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the feasibility of using laser Doppler imaging as a rapid, non-invasive diagnostic test to predict topical minoxidil response in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

  14. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns.

    Lu, Huijie; Ulanov, Alexander V; Nobu, Masaru; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-02-01

    The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three studies on N. europaea were compared to achieve a

  15. A small unconditional non-financial incentive suggests an increase in survey response rates amongst older general practitioners (GPs): a randomised controlled trial study.

    Pit, Sabrina Winona; Hansen, Vibeke; Ewald, Dan

    2013-07-30

    Few studies have investigated the effect of small unconditional non-monetary incentives on survey response rates amongst GPs or medical practitioners. This study assessed the effectiveness of offering a small unconditional non-financial incentive to increase survey response rates amongst general practitioners within a randomised controlled trial (RCT). An RCT was conducted within a general practice survey that investigated how to prolong working lives amongst ageing GPs in Australia. GPs (n = 125) were randomised to receive an attractive pen or no pen during their first invitation for participation in a survey. GPs could elect to complete the survey online or via mail. Two follow up reminders were sent without a pen to both groups. The main outcome measure was response rates. The response rate for GPs who received a pen was higher in the intervention group (61.9%) compared to the control group (46.8%). This study did not find a statistically significant effect of a small unconditional non-financial incentive (in the form of a pen) on survey response rates amongst GPs (Odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.85 (0.91 to 3.77). No GPs completed the online version. A small unconditional non-financial incentives, in the form of a pen, may improve response rates for GPs.

  16. Transcriptional Responses of Chilean Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Water Deficit Conditions Uncovers ABA-Independent Expression Patterns.

    Morales, Andrea; Zurita-Silva, Andres; Maldonado, Jonathan; Silva, Herman

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS R49 genotype displayed best performance on selected physiological parameters and highest tolerance to drought.R49 drought over-represented transcripts has exhibited 19% of genes (306 contigs) that presented no homology to published databases.Expression pattern for canonical responses to drought such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced in response to drought were assessed by qPCR. Global freshwater shortage is one of the biggest challenges of our time, often associated to misuse, increased consumption demands and the effects of climate change, paralleled with the desertification of vast areas. Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) represents a very promising species, due to both nutritional content and cultivation under water constraint. We characterized drought tolerance of three Chilean genotypes and selected Genotype R49 (Salares ecotype) based upon Relative Water Content (RWC), Electrolyte Leakage (EL) and maximum efficiency of photosystem II (F v /F m ) after drought treatment, when compared to another two genotypes. Exploratory RNA-Seq of R49 was generated by Illumina paired-ends method comparing drought and control irrigation conditions. We obtained 104.8 million reads, with 54 million reads for control condition and 51 million reads for drought condition. Reads were assembled in 150,952 contigs, were 31,523 contigs have a reading frame of at least 300 nucleotides (100 aminoacids). BLAST2GO annotation showed a 15% of genes without homology to NCBI proteins, but increased to 19% (306 contigs) when focused into drought-induced genes. Expression pattern for canonical drought responses such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced were assessed by qPCR, suggesting novelty of R49 drought responses.

  17. Theoretical study of the high-latitude ionosphere's response to multicell convection patterns

    Sojka, J.J.; Schunk, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that the convection electric fields have an important effect on the ionosphere at high latitudes and that a quantitative understanding of their effect requires a knowledge of the plasma convection pattern. When the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is southward, plasma convection at F region altitudes displays a two-cell pattern with antisunward flow over the polar cap and return flow at lower latitudes. However, when the IMF is northward, multiple convection cells can exist, with both sunward flow and auroral precipitation (theta aurora) in the polar cap. The characteristic ionospheric signatures associated with multicell convection patterns were studied with the aid of a three-dimensional time-dependent ionospheric model. Two-, three-, and four-cell patterns were considered and the ionosphere's response was calculated for the same cross-tail potential and for solar maximum and winter conditions in the northern hemisphere. As expected, there are major distinguishing ionospheric features associated with the different convection patterns, particularly in the polar cap. For two-cell convection the antisunward flow the plasma from the dayside into the polar cap. For two-cell convection the antisunward flow of plasma from the dayside into the polar cap acts to maintain the densities in this region in winter. For four-cell convection, on the other hand, the two aditional convection cells in the polar cap are in darkness most of the time, and the resulting O + decay acts to produce twin polar holes that are separated by a sun-aligned ridge of enhanced ionization due to theta aurora precipitation

  18. Patterns of physiological and affective responses to vehicle pass-by noises

    Gert Notbohm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is considered causing annoyance and severe health effects like cardiovascular disease (CVD. The present laboratory study examines the importance of individual factors, namely age, gender and personality traits on short term physiological and affective response to vehicle pass-by noises. Four groups of subjects (20-30 vs. 40-55 year-old male or female, n = 66 in total were exposed to a series of vehicle pass-by noises. Physiological responses (finger-pulse amplitude [FPA], skin conductance level [SCL] were registered during the exposure; affective responses and judgements regarding the sounds were assessed by questionnaires. Noise sensitivity and sensation seeking were measured by validated questionnaires. The results show different patterns of response depending on age, gender and personality. The strongest sympathetic stress reaction as measured by SCL was found for the older female group. In regression analysis, the SCL response was predicted by the female gender and low score of sensation seeking only (adjusted R2 = 0.139. The FPA response was strongest among the young men and age was the only significant predictor. For affective responses of pleasantness and activation, regression analysis proved noise sensitivity and sensation seeking to be significant predictors (adjusted R2 = 0.187 respectively 0.154. Age, gender and personality influence physiological and affective reactions to traffic noise, which might affect health conditions. Especially, a potential risk of older women for CVD owing to noise should be investigated further. Individual sensitiveness in terms of noise sensitivity or sensation seeking proves to be important for explaining differences in response to noise.

  19. Sex hormones affect acute and chronic stress responses in sexually dimorphic patterns: Consequences for depression models.

    Guo, Lei; Chen, Yi-Xi; Hu, Yu-Ting; Wu, Xue-Yan; He, Yang; Wu, Juan-Li; Huang, Man-Li; Mason, Matthew; Bao, Ai-Min

    2018-05-21

    Alterations in peripheral sex hormones may play an important role in sex differences in terms of stress responses and mood disorders. It is not yet known whether and how stress-related brain systems and brain sex steroid levels fluctuate in relation to changes in peripheral sex hormone levels, or whether the different sexes show different patterns. We aimed to investigate systematically, in male and female rats, the effect of decreased circulating sex hormone levels following gonadectomy on acute and chronic stress responses, manifested as changes in plasma and hypothalamic sex steroids and hypothalamic stress-related molecules. Experiment (Exp)-1: Rats (14 males, 14 females) were gonadectomized or sham-operated (intact); Exp-2: gonadectomized and intact rats (28 males, 28 females) were exposed to acute foot shock or no stressor; and Exp-3: gonadectomized and intact rats (32 males, 32 females) were exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) or no stressor. For all rats, plasma and hypothalamic testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and the expression of stress-related molecules were determined, including corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, oxytocin, aromatase, and the receptors for estrogens, androgens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was observed in terms of plasma sex hormones, brain sex steroids, and hypothalamic stress-related molecule mRNAs (p > 0.113) in intact or gonadectomized, male or female, rats. Male and female rats, either intact or gonadectomized and exposed to acute or chronic stress, showed different patterns of stress-related molecule changes. Diminished peripheral sex hormone levels lead to different peripheral and central patterns of change in the stress response systems in male and female rats. This has implications for the choice of models for the study of the different types of mood disorders which also show sex differences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Using the ovarian sensitivity index to define poor, normal, and high response after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in the long gonadotropin-releasing hormone-agonist protocol: suggestions for a new principle to solve an old problem.

    Huber, Malin; Hadziosmanovic, Nermin; Berglund, Lars; Holte, Jan

    2013-11-01

    To explore the utility of using the ratio between oocyte yield and total dose of FSH, i.e., the ovarian sensitivity index (OSI), to define ovarian response patterns. Retrospective cross-sectional study. University-affiliated private center. The entire unselected cohort of 7,520 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatments (oocyte pick-ups [OPUs]) during an 8-year period (long GnRH agonist-recombinant FSH protocol). None. The distribution of the OSI (oocytes recovered × 1,000/total dose of FSH), the cutoff levels for poor and high response, set at ±1 SD, and the relationship between OSI and treatment outcome. OSI showed a log-normal distribution with cutoff levels for poor and high response at 1.697/IU and 10.07/IU, respectively. A nomogram is presented. Live-birth rates per OPU were 10.5 ± 0.1%, 26.9 ± 0.6%, and 36.0 ± 1.4% for poor, normal, and high response treatments, respectively. The predictive power (C-statistic) for OSI to predict live birth was superior to that of oocyte yield. The OSI improves the definition of ovarian response patterns because it takes into account the degree of stimulation. The nomogram presents evidence-based cutoff levels for poor, normal, and high response and could be used for unifying study designs involving ovarian response patterns. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Innate Immune Responses Activated in Arabidopsis Roots by Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns[W][OA

    Millet, Yves A.; Danna, Cristian H.; Clay, Nicole K.; Songnuan, Wisuwat; Simon, Matthew D.; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that roots are the organs most subject to microbial interactions, very little is known about the response of roots to microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). By monitoring transcriptional activation of β-glucuronidase reporters and MAMP-elicited callose deposition, we show that three MAMPs, the flagellar peptide Flg22, peptidoglycan, and chitin, trigger a strong tissue-specific response in Arabidopsis thaliana roots, either at the elongation zone for Flg22 and peptidoglycan or in the mature parts of the roots for chitin. Ethylene signaling, the 4-methoxy-indole-3-ylmethylglucosinolate biosynthetic pathway, and the PEN2 myrosinase, but not salicylic acid or jasmonic acid signaling, play major roles in this MAMP response. We also show that Flg22 induces the cytochrome P450 CYP71A12-dependent exudation of the phytoalexin camalexin by Arabidopsis roots. The phytotoxin coronatine, an Ile-jasmonic acid mimic produced by Pseudomonas syringae pathovars, suppresses MAMP-activated responses in the roots. This suppression requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase COI1 as well as the transcription factor JIN1/MYC2 but does not rely on salicylic acid–jasmonic acid antagonism. These experiments demonstrate the presence of highly orchestrated and tissue-specific MAMP responses in roots and potential pathogen-encoded mechanisms to block these MAMP-elicited signaling pathways. PMID:20348432

  2. Innate immune responses activated in Arabidopsis roots by microbe-associated molecular patterns.

    Millet, Yves A; Danna, Cristian H; Clay, Nicole K; Songnuan, Wisuwat; Simon, Matthew D; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2010-03-01

    Despite the fact that roots are the organs most subject to microbial interactions, very little is known about the response of roots to microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). By monitoring transcriptional activation of beta-glucuronidase reporters and MAMP-elicited callose deposition, we show that three MAMPs, the flagellar peptide Flg22, peptidoglycan, and chitin, trigger a strong tissue-specific response in Arabidopsis thaliana roots, either at the elongation zone for Flg22 and peptidoglycan or in the mature parts of the roots for chitin. Ethylene signaling, the 4-methoxy-indole-3-ylmethylglucosinolate biosynthetic pathway, and the PEN2 myrosinase, but not salicylic acid or jasmonic acid signaling, play major roles in this MAMP response. We also show that Flg22 induces the cytochrome P450 CYP71A12-dependent exudation of the phytoalexin camalexin by Arabidopsis roots. The phytotoxin coronatine, an Ile-jasmonic acid mimic produced by Pseudomonas syringae pathovars, suppresses MAMP-activated responses in the roots. This suppression requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase COI1 as well as the transcription factor JIN1/MYC2 but does not rely on salicylic acid-jasmonic acid antagonism. These experiments demonstrate the presence of highly orchestrated and tissue-specific MAMP responses in roots and potential pathogen-encoded mechanisms to block these MAMP-elicited signaling pathways.

  3. Association Between Inflammatory Diet Pattern and Risk of Colorectal Carcinoma Subtypes Classified by Immune Responses to Tumor.

    Liu, Li; Nishihara, Reiko; Qian, Zhi Rong; Tabung, Fred K; Nevo, Daniel; Zhang, Xuehong; Song, Mingyang; Cao, Yin; Mima, Kosuke; Masugi, Yohei; Shi, Yan; da Silva, Annacarolina; Twombly, Tyler; Gu, Mancang; Li, Wanwan; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Kosumi, Keisuke; Inamura, Kentaro; Nowak, Jonathan A; Drew, David A; Lochhead, Paul; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Wu, Kana; Wang, Molin; Garrett, Wendy S; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L; Ogino, Shuji

    2017-12-01

    Dietary patterns affect systemic and local intestinal inflammation, which have been linked to colorectal carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation can interfere with the adaptive immune response. We investigated whether the association of a diet that promotes intestinal inflammation with risk of colorectal carcinoma was stronger for tumors with lower lymphocytic reactions than tumors with higher lymphocytic reactions. We collected data from the molecular pathological epidemiology databases of 2 prospective cohort studies: the Nurses' Health Study (since 1976) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (since 1986). We used duplication-method time-varying Cox proportional cause-specific hazards regression to assess the association of empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score (derived from food frequency questionnaire data) with colorectal carcinoma subtype. Foods that contribute to high EDIP scores include red and processed meats, refined grains, carbonated beverages, and some vegetables; foods that contribute to low EDIP scores include beer, wine, coffee, tea, yellow and leafy vegetables, and fruit juice. Colorectal tissue samples were analyzed histologically for patterns of lymphocytic reactions (Crohn's-like lymphoid reaction, peritumoral lymphocytic reaction, intratumoral periglandular reaction, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes). During follow-up of 124,433 participants, we documented 1311 incident colon and rectal cancer cases with available tissue data. The association between the EDIP and colorectal cancer risk was significant (P trend  = .02), and varied with degree of peritumoral lymphocytic reaction (P heterogeneity colorectal cancer with an absent or low peritumoral lymphocytic reaction (highest vs lowest EDIP score quintile hazard ratio, 2.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.60-4.23; P trend .80). In 2 prospective cohort studies, we associated inflammatory diets with a higher risk of colorectal cancer subtype that contains little or no peritumoral

  4. Sequential response patterns to chemotherapy and radiotherapy in head and neck cancer

    Hong, W.K.; O'Donoghue, G.M.; Sheetz, S.

    1985-01-01

    Surgery and/or radiotherapy have been the standard therapies for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region. Despite major improvement in these therapeutic techniques, the control rate in cases of advanced cancer remains poor. More recently, induction chemotherapy as initial treatment has been used in previously untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. For the last 6 years at the Boston Veterans Administration (V.A.) Medical Center, initial induction chemotherapy followed by surgery and/or radiotherapy has been employed in the treatment of advanced head and neck cancer. The use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy has allowed the authors to monitor and correlate sequential response patterns produced by each modality of treatment. The authors have observed that responders to chemotherapy can be predicted to have further response to subsequent radiotherapy

  5. Multilevel regression models describing regional patterns of invertebrate and algal responses to urbanization across the USA

    Cuffney, T.F.; Kashuba, R.; Qian, S.S.; Alameddine, I.; Cha, Y.K.; Lee, B.; Coles, J.F.; McMahon, G.

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel hierarchical regression was used to examine regional patterns in the responses of benthic macroinvertebrates and algae to urbanization across 9 metropolitan areas of the conterminous USA. Linear regressions established that responses (intercepts and slopes) to urbanization of invertebrates and algae varied among metropolitan areas. Multilevel hierarchical regression models were able to explain these differences on the basis of region-scale predictors. Regional differences in the type of land cover (agriculture or forest) being converted to urban and climatic factors (precipitation and air temperature) accounted for the differences in the response of macroinvertebrates to urbanization based on ordination scores, total richness, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera richness, and average tolerance. Regional differences in climate and antecedent agriculture also accounted for differences in the responses of salt-tolerant diatoms, but differences in the responses of other diatom metrics (% eutraphenic, % sensitive, and % silt tolerant) were best explained by regional differences in soils (mean % clay soils). The effects of urbanization were most readily detected in regions where forest lands were being converted to urban land because agricultural development significantly degraded assemblages before urbanization and made detection of urban effects difficult. The effects of climatic factors (temperature, precipitation) on background conditions (biogeographic differences) and rates of response to urbanization were most apparent after accounting for the effects of agricultural development. The effects of climate and land cover on responses to urbanization provide strong evidence that monitoring, mitigation, and restoration efforts must be tailored for specific regions and that attainment goals (background conditions) may not be possible in regions with high levels of prior disturbance (e.g., agricultural development). ?? 2011 by The North American

  6. Oxidative burst and nitric oxide responses in carp macrophages induced by zymosan, MacroGard® and selective dectin-1 agonists suggest recognition by multiple pattern recognition receptors

    Pietretti, D.; Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera; Hoole, D.

    2013-01-01

    phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene. In addition, dectin-1-specific ligands in mammals i.e. zymosan treated to deplete the TLR-stimulating properties and curdlan, were monitored for their effects on carp macrophages by measuring reactive oxygen and nitrogen radicals production, as well as cytokine gene...

  7. 'Present nuclear emergency responses in India: tracing requirements and guidelines suggested after Fukushima accident in regards to public and plant safety

    Jawale, Priyanka M.

    2014-01-01

    In this poster the primary initiative is to educate the public at large and instill confidence about the present Emergency Response Systems of DAE and the imminent agencies in India. Poster attempts to analyse present regulatory and safety systems, mechanisms like plant and site emergency response plans are in place to handle radiation emergencies and how public will not be affected in any manner. In India also we needed some supplementary provisions to cope up with major disasters in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) apart from the existing one. Some of the NPPs are not under the UN safeguards, which can not import Uranium also need extra care and protection. Regulatory and safety functions of Atomic Energy in India are carried out by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (Atomic Energy Regulatory Board), the poster attempts to explain the present regulatory and safety mechanism under Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. We have the plant and site emergency response plans in place. The well planned functioning of these is demonstrated here. India is equipped with detail plans of emergency response system, to handle the radiation emergencies in public domain even at the locations where DAE facility is not available

  8. L-Amino Acids Elicit Diverse Response Patterns in Taste Sensory Cells: A Role for Multiple Receptors

    Pal Choudhuri, Shreoshi; Delay, Rona J.; Delay, Eugene R.

    2015-01-01

    Umami, the fifth basic taste, is elicited by the L-amino acid, glutamate. A unique characteristic of umami taste is the response potentiation by 5’ ribonucleotide monophosphates, which are also capable of eliciting an umami taste. Initial reports using human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells suggested that there is one broadly tuned receptor heterodimer, T1r1+T1r3, which detects L-glutamate and all other L-amino acids. However, there is growing evidence that multiple receptors detect glutamate in the oral cavity. While much is understood about glutamate transduction, the mechanisms for detecting the tastes of other L-amino acids are less well understood. We used calcium imaging of isolated taste sensory cells and taste cell clusters from the circumvallate and foliate papillae of C57BL/6J and T1r3 knockout mice to determine if other receptors might also be involved in detection of L-amino acids. Ratiometric imaging with Fura-2 was used to study calcium responses to monopotassium L-glutamate, L-serine, L-arginine, and L-glutamine, with and without inosine 5’ monophosphate (IMP). The results of these experiments showed that the response patterns elicited by L-amino acids varied significantly across taste sensory cells. L-amino acids other than glutamate also elicited synergistic responses in a subset of taste sensory cells. Along with its role in synergism, IMP alone elicited a response in a large number of taste sensory cells. Our data indicate that synergistic and non-synergistic responses to L-amino acids and IMP are mediated by multiple receptors or possibly a receptor complex. PMID:26110622

  9. Build-up forces at Military Institute of Medical Radiology and Oncology for emergency medical response to some eventualities of radiological accidents - some suggestions

    Ho Van Cu; Nguyen Huu Nghia

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the use of various nuclear sources in some fields of the life has brought many practical advantages in general; especially in the next several years, our country will begin construction of the first nuclear plant. However, if there were user carelessness or objective disadvantageous factors (earthquake, tsunami, etc.), that disadvantages could lead to a radiation accident or nuclear accident which causes damages not only for economy but also for public health. Therefore, the emergency response to radiation accident, especially the emergency medical response that has a great important position. To satisfy this real demand, in 1996, Vietnam Ministry of Defence made the decision to establish Center for Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Protecting (now becomes Military Institute of Medical Radiology and Oncology) with the main missions are research, applying radiation protecting methods and organizing treatments to radiation injured victims. To fulfill above main missions, with the help of Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute (VAEI), Vietnam Agency for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (VARANS), the doctors and staffs of our Institute have been participated in the international training courses and workshops that organized in Vietnam or in regional countries about emergency medical response to radiation accidents, they get valuable information, knowledge and documents from these courses and workshops. Depending on the principles of radiation emergency medical response to nuclear/ radiation accidents that International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) guided, and with the experience learned from other countries in Asia region, our Institute have been gradually improving on organization and curing processes for the radiation victims and also setting the preparedness for emergency medical response to radiation accidents if maybe they could occur. (author)

  10. Giant panda foraging and movement patterns in response to bamboo shoot growth.

    Zhang, Mingchun; Zhang, Zhizhong; Li, Zhong; Hong, Mingsheng; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhou, Shiqiang; Zhang, Jindong; Hull, Vanessa; Huang, Jinyan; Zhang, Hemin

    2018-03-01

    Diet plays a pivotal role in dictating behavioral patterns of herbivorous animals, particularly specialist species. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is well-known as a bamboo specialist. In the present study, the response of giant pandas to spatiotemporal variation of bamboo shoots was explored using field surveys and GPS collar tracking. Results show the dynamics in panda-bamboo space-time relationships that have not been previously articulated. For instance, we found a higher bamboo stump height of foraged bamboo with increasing elevation, places where pandas foraged later in spring when bamboo shoots become more fibrous and woody. The time required for shoots to reach optimum height for foraging was significantly delayed as elevation increased, a pattern which corresponded with panda elevational migration patterns beginning from the lower elevational end of Fargesia robusta distribution and gradually shifting upward until the end of the shooting season. These results indicate that giant pandas can respond to spatiotemporal variation of bamboo resources, such as available shoots. Anthropogenic interference of low-elevation F. robusta habitat should be mitigated, and conservation attention and increased monitoring should be given to F. robusta areas at the low- and mid-elevation ranges, particularly in the spring shooting season.

  11. Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) change their activity patterns in response to frugivory.

    Masi, Shelly; Cipolletta, Chloé; Robbins, Martha M

    2009-02-01

    The most important environmental factor explaining interspecies variation in ecology and sociality of the great apes is likely to be variation in resource availability. Relatively little is known about the activity patterns of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), which inhabit a dramatically different environment from the well-studied mountain gorillas (G. beringei beringei). This study aims to provide a detailed quantification of western lowland gorillas' activity budgets using direct observations on one habituated group in Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. We examined how activity patterns of both sexes are shaped by seasonal frugivory. Activity was recorded with 5-min instantaneous sampling between December 2004 and December 2005. During the high-frugivory period the gorillas spent less time feeding and more time traveling than during the low-frugivory period. The silverback spent less time feeding but more time resting than both females and immatures, which likely results from a combination of social and physiological factors. When compared with mountain gorillas, western lowland gorillas spend more time feeding (67 vs. 55%) and traveling (12 vs. 6.5%), but less time resting (21 vs. 34%) and engaging in social/other activities (0.5 vs. 3.6%). This disparity in activity budgets of western lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas may be explained by the more frugivorous diet and the greater dispersion of food resources experienced by western lowland gorillas. Like other apes, western lowland gorillas change their activity patterns in response to changes in the diet. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. The grapevine kinome: annotation, classification and expression patterns in developmental processes and stress responses.

    Zhu, Kaikai; Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Jinyi; Tang, Jun; Cheng, Qunkang; Chen, Jin-Gui; Cheng, Zong-Ming Max

    2018-01-01

    Protein kinases (PKs) have evolved as the largest family of molecular switches that regulate protein activities associated with almost all essential cellular functions. Only a fraction of plant PKs, however, have been functionally characterized even in model plant species. In the present study, the entire grapevine kinome was identified and annotated using the most recent version of the grapevine genome. A total of 1168 PK-encoding genes were identified and classified into 20 groups and 121 families, with the RLK-Pelle group being the largest, with 872 members. The 1168 kinase genes were unevenly distributed over all 19 chromosomes, and both tandem and segmental duplications contributed to the expansion of the grapevine kinome, especially of the RLK-Pelle group. Ka/Ks values indicated that most of the tandem and segmental duplication events were under purifying selection. The grapevine kinome families exhibited different expression patterns during plant development and in response to various stress treatments, with many being coexpressed. The comprehensive annotation of grapevine kinase genes, their patterns of expression and coexpression, and the related information facilitate a more complete understanding of the roles of various grapevine kinases in growth and development, responses to abiotic stress, and evolutionary history.

  13. Functional dissection of drought-responsive gene expression patterns in Cynodon dactylon L.

    Kim, Changsoo; Lemke, Cornelia; Paterson, Andrew H

    2009-05-01

    Water deficit is one of the main abiotic factors that affect plant productivity in subtropical regions. To identify genes induced during the water stress response in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), cDNA macroarrays were used. The macroarray analysis identified 189 drought-responsive candidate genes from C. dactylon, of which 120 were up-regulated and 69 were down-regulated. The candidate genes were classified into seven groups by cluster analysis of expression levels across two intensities and three durations of imposed stress. Annotation using BLASTX suggested that up-regulated genes may be involved in proline biosynthesis, signal transduction pathways, protein repair systems, and removal of toxins, while down-regulated genes were mostly related to basic plant metabolism such as photosynthesis and glycolysis. The functional classification of gene ontology (GO) was consistent with the BLASTX results, also suggesting some crosstalk between abiotic and biotic stress. Comparative analysis of cis-regulatory elements from the candidate genes implicated specific elements in drought response in Bermudagrass. Although only a subset of genes was studied, Bermudagrass shared many drought-responsive genes and cis-regulatory elements with other botanical models, supporting a strategy of cross-taxon application of drought-responsive genes, regulatory cues, and physiological-genetic information.

  14. Typhoid fever in young children in Bangladesh: clinical findings, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and immune responses.

    Farhana Khanam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Children bear a large burden of typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi in endemic areas. However, immune responses and clinical findings in children are not well defined. Here, we describe clinical and immunological characteristics of young children with S. Typhi bacteremia, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated strains.As a marker of recent infection, we have previously characterized antibody-in-lymphocyte secretion (TPTest during acute typhoid fever in adults. We similarly assessed membrane preparation (MP IgA responses in young children at clinical presentation, and then 7-10 days and 21-28 days later. We also assessed plasma IgA, IgG and IgM responses and T cell proliferation responses to MP at these time points. We compared responses in young children (1-5 years with those seen in older children (6-17 years, adults (18-59 years, and age-matched healthy controls.We found that, compared to age-matched controls patients in all age cohorts had significantly more MP-IgA responses in lymphocyte secretion at clinical presentation, and the values fell in all groups by late convalescence. Similarly, plasma IgA responses in patients were elevated at presentation compared to controls, with acute and convalescent IgA and IgG responses being highest in adults. T cell proliferative responses increased in all age cohorts by late convalescence. Clinical characteristics were similar in all age cohorts, although younger children were more likely to present with loss of appetite, less likely to complain of headache compared to older cohorts, and adults were more likely to have ingested antibiotics. Multi-drug resistant strains were present in approximately 15% of each age cohort, and 97% strains had resistance to nalidixic acid.This study demonstrates that S. Typhi bacteremia is associated with comparable clinical courses, immunologic responses in various age cohorts, including in young children, and that TPTest

  15. Whole-transcriptome analysis of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Sakai suggests plant-species-specific metabolic responses on exposure to spinach and lettuce extracts.

    Louise Crozier

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC can contaminate crop plants, potentially using them as secondary hosts, which can lead to food-borne infection. Currently, little is known about the influence of the specific plant species on the success of bacterial colonisation. As such, we compared the ability of the VTEC strain, E. coli O157:H7 ‘Sakai’, to colonise the roots and leaves of four leafy vegetables: spinach (Spinacia oleracea, lettuce (Lactuca sativa, vining green pea (Pisum sativum and prickly lettuce (L. serriola, a wild relative of domesticated lettuce. Also, to determine the drivers of the initial response on interaction with plant tissue, the whole transcriptome of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai was analysed following exposure to plant extracts of varying complexity (spinach leaf lysates or root exudates, and leaf cell wall polysaccharides from spinach or lettuce. Plant extracts were used to reduce heterogeneity inherent in plant-microbe interactions and remove the effect of plant immunity. This dual approach provided information on the initial adaptive response of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai to the plant environment together with the influence of the living plant during bacterial establishment and colonisation. Results showed that both the plant tissue type and the plant species strongly influence the short-term (1 hour transcriptional response to extracts as well as longer-term (10 days plant colonisation or persistence. We show that propagation temperature (37 versus 18 oC has a major impact on the expression profile and therefore pre-adaptation of bacteria to a plant-relevant temperature is necessary to avoid misleading temperature-dependent wholescale gene-expression changes in response to plant material. For each of the plant extracts tested, the largest group of (annotated differentially regulated genes were associated with metabolism. However, large-scale differences in the metabolic and biosynthetic pathways between treatment types

  16. Hysteresis responses of evapotranspiration to meteorological factors at a diel timescale: patterns and causes.

    Han Zheng

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET is an important component of the water cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. Understanding the ways in which ET changes with meteorological factors is central to a better understanding of ecological and hydrological processes. In this study, we used eddy covariance measurements of ET from a typical alpine shrubland meadow ecosystem in China to investigate the hysteresis response of ET to environmental variables including air temperature (Ta, vapor pressure deficit (VPD and net radiation (Rn at a diel timescale. Meanwhile, the simulated ET by Priestly-Taylor equation was used to interpret the measured ET under well-watered conditions. Pronounced hysteresis was observed in both Ta and VPD response curves of ET. At a similar Ta and VPD, ET was always significantly depressed in the afternoon compared with the morning. But the hysteresis response of ET to Rn was not evident. Similar hysteresis patterns were also observed in the Ta/VPD response curves of simulated ET. The magnitudes of the measured and simulated hysteresis loops showed similar seasonal variation, with relatively smaller values occurring from May to September, which agreed well with the lifetime of plants and the period of rainy season at this site. About 62% and 23% of changes in the strength of measured ET-Ta and ET-VPD loops could be explained by the changes in the strength of simulated loops, respectively. Thus, the time lag between Rn and Ta/VPD is the most important factor generating and modulating the ET-Ta/VPD hysteresis, but plants and water status also contribute to the hysteresis response of ET. Our research confirmed the different hysteresis in the responses of ET to meteorological factors and proved the vital role of Rn in driving the diel course of ET.

  17. The Zygosaccharomyces bailii transcription factor Haa1 is required for acetic acid and copper stress responses suggesting subfunctionalization of the ancestral bifunctional protein Haa1/Cup2.

    Palma, Margarida; Dias, Paulo Jorge; Roque, Filipa de Canaveira; Luzia, Laura; Guerreiro, Joana Fernandes; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2017-01-13

    The food spoilage yeast species Zygosaccharomyces bailii exhibits an extraordinary capacity to tolerate weak acids, in particular acetic acid. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Haa1 (ScHaa1) is considered the main player in genomic expression reprogramming in response to acetic acid stress, but the role of its homologue in Z. bailii (ZbHaa1) is unknown. In this study it is demonstrated that ZbHaa1 is a ScHaa1 functional homologue by rescuing the acetic acid susceptibility phenotype of S. cerevisiae haa1Δ. The disruption of ZbHAA1 in Z. bailii IST302 and the expression of an extra ZbHAA1 copy confirmed ZbHAA1 as a determinant of acetic acid tolerance. ZbHaa1 was found to be required for acetic acid stress-induced transcriptional activation of Z. bailii genes homologous to ScHaa1-target genes. An evolutionary analysis of the Haa1 homologues identified in 28 Saccharomycetaceae species genome sequences, including Z bailii, was carried out using phylogenetic and gene neighbourhood approaches. Consistent with previous studies, this analysis revealed a group containing pre-whole genome duplication species Haa1/Cup2 single orthologues, including ZbHaa1, and two groups containing either Haa1 or Cup2 orthologues from post-whole genome duplication species. S. cerevisiae Cup2 (alias Ace1) is a transcription factor involved in response and tolerance to copper stress. Taken together, these observations led us to hypothesize and demonstrate that ZbHaa1 is also involved in copper-induced transcriptional regulation and copper tolerance. The transcription factor ZbHaa1 is required for adaptive response and tolerance to both acetic acid and copper stresses. The subfunctionalization of the single ancestral Haa1/Cup2 orthologue that originated Haa1 and Cup2 paralogues after whole genome duplication is proposed.

  18. The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China.

    Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

    2014-05-01

    Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C(-1) and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C⁻¹, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially.

  19. Shorebird Migration Patterns in Response to Climate Change: A Modeling Approach

    Smith, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of satellite remote sensing observations at multiple spatial and temporal scales, coupled with advances in climate modeling and information technologies offer new opportunities for the application of mechanistic models to predict how continental scale bird migration patterns may change in response to environmental change. In earlier studies, we explored the phenotypic plasticity of a migratory population of Pectoral sandpipers by simulating the movement patterns of an ensemble of 10,000 individual birds in response to changes in stopover locations as an indicator of the impacts of wetland loss and inter-annual variability on the fitness of migratory shorebirds. We used an individual based, biophysical migration model, driven by remotely sensed land surface data, climate data, and biological field data. Mean stop-over durations and stop-over frequency with latitude predicted from our model for nominal cases were consistent with results reported in the literature and available field data. In this study, we take advantage of new computing capabilities enabled by recent GP-GPU computing paradigms and commodity hardware (general purchase computing on graphics processing units). Several aspects of our individual based (agent modeling) approach lend themselves well to GP-GPU computing. We have been able to allocate compute-intensive tasks to the graphics processing units, and now simulate ensembles of 400,000 birds at varying spatial resolutions along the central North American flyway. We are incorporating additional, species specific, mechanistic processes to better reflect the processes underlying bird phenotypic plasticity responses to different climate change scenarios in the central U.S.

  20. Open to Suggestion.

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  1. Motivation alters response bias and neural activation patterns in a perceptual decision-making task.

    Reckless, G E; Bolstad, I; Nakstad, P H; Andreassen, O A; Jensen, J

    2013-05-15

    Motivation has been demonstrated to affect individuals' response strategies in economic decision-making, however, little is known about how motivation influences perceptual decision-making behavior or its related neural activity. Given the important role motivation plays in shaping our behavior, a better understanding of this relationship is needed. A block-design, continuous performance, perceptual decision-making task where participants were asked to detect a picture of an animal among distractors was used during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The effect of positive and negative motivation on sustained activity within regions of the brain thought to underlie decision-making was examined by altering the monetary contingency associated with the task. In addition, signal detection theory was used to investigate the effect of motivation on detection sensitivity, response bias and response time. While both positive and negative motivation resulted in increased sustained activation in the ventral striatum, fusiform gyrus, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, only negative motivation resulted in the adoption of a more liberal, closer to optimal response bias. This shift toward a liberal response bias correlated with increased activation in the left DLPFC, but did not result in improved task performance. The present findings suggest that motivation alters aspects of the way perceptual decisions are made. Further, this altered response behavior is reflected in a change in left DLPFC activation, a region involved in the computation of perceptual decisions. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-Inflammation Activities of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids (MAAs) in Response to UV Radiation Suggest Potential Anti-Skin Aging Activity

    Suh, Sung-Suk; Hwang, Jinik; Park, Mirye; Seo, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Shik; Lee, Jeong Hun; Moh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Certain photosynthetic marine organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract UV-radiation by synthesizing UV-absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). In this study, MAAs were separated from the extracts of marine green alga Chlamydomonas hedleyi using HPLC and were identified as porphyra-334, shinorine, and mycosporine-glycine (mycosporine-Gly), based on their retention times and maximum absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, their structures were confirmed by triple quadrupole MS/MS. Their roles as UV-absorbing compounds were investigated in the human fibroblast cell line HaCaT by analyzing the expression levels of genes associated with antioxidant activity, inflammation, and skin aging in response to UV irradiation. The mycosporine-Gly extract, but not the other MAAs, had strong antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Furthermore, treatment with mycosporine-Gly resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels, which are typically increased in response to inflammation in the skin, in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, in the presence of MAAs, the UV-suppressed genes, procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE) and elastin, which are related to skin aging, had increased expression levels equal to those in UV-mock treated cells. Interestingly, the increased expression of involucrin after UV exposure was suppressed by treatment with the MAAs mycosporine-Gly and shinorine, but not porphyra-334. This is the first report investigating the biological activities of microalgae-derived MAAs in human cells. PMID:25317535

  3. An exposure-response analysis based on rifampin suggests CYP3A4 induction is driven by AUC: an in vitro investigation.

    Chang, Cheng; Yang, Xin; Fahmi, Odette A; Riccardi, Keith A; Di, Li; Obach, R Scott

    2017-08-01

    1. Induction is an important mechanism contributing to drug-drug interactions. It is most commonly evaluated in the human hepatocyte assay over 48-h or 72-h incubation period. However, whether the overall exposure (i.e. Area Under the Curve (AUC) or C ave ) or maximum exposure (i.e. C max ) of the inducer is responsible for the magnitude of subsequent induction has not been thoroughly investigated. Additionally, in vitro induction assays are typically treated as static systems, which could lead to inaccurate induction potency estimation. Hence, European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidance now specifies quantitation of drug levels in the incubation. 2. This work treated the typical in vitro evaluation of rifampin induction as an in vivo system by generating various target engagement profiles, measuring free rifampin concentration over 3 d of incubation and evaluating the impact of these factors on final induction response. 3. This rifampin-based analysis demonstrates that the induction process is driven by time-averaged target engagement (i.e. AUC-driven). Additionally, depletion of rifampin in the incubation medium over 3 d as well as non-specific/specific binding were observed. 4. These findings should help aid the discovery of clinical candidates with minimal induction liability and further expand our knowledge in the quantitative translatability of in vitro induction assays.

  4. The pattern of auditory brainstem response wave V maturation in cochlear-implanted children.

    Thai-Van, Hung; Cozma, Sebastian; Boutitie, Florent; Disant, François; Truy, Eric; Collet, Lionel

    2007-03-01

    Maturation of acoustically evoked brainstem responses (ABR) in hearing children is not complete at birth but rather continues over the first two years of life. In particular, it has been established that the decrease in ABR wave V latency can be modeled as the sum of two decaying exponential functions with respective time-constants of 4 and 50 weeks [Eggermont, J.J., Salamy, A., 1988a. Maturational time-course for the ABR in preterm and full term infants. Hear Res 33, 35-47; Eggermont, J.J., Salamy, A., 1988b. Development of ABR parameters in a preterm and a term born population. Ear Hear 9, 283-9]. Here, we investigated the maturation of electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (EABR) in 55 deaf children who recovered hearing after cochlear implantation, and proposed a predictive model of EABR maturation depending on the onset of deafness. The pattern of EABR maturation over the first 2 years of cochlear implant use was compared with the normal pattern of ABR maturation in hearing children. Changes in EABR wave V latency over the 2 years following cochlear implant connection were analyzed in two groups of children. The first group (n=41) consisted of children with early-onset of deafness (mostly congenital), and the second (n=14) of children who had become profoundly deaf after 1 year of age. The modeling of changes in EABR wave V latency with time was based on the mean values from each of the two groups, allowing comparison of the rates of EABR maturation between groups. Differences between EABRs elicited at the basal and apical ends of the implant electrode array were also tested. There was no influence of age at implantation on the rate of wave V latency change. The main factor for EABR changes was the time in sound. Indeed, significant maturation was observed over the first 2 years of implant use only in the group with early-onset deafness. In this group maturation of wave V progressed as in the ABR model of [Eggermont, J.J., Salamy, A., 1988a

  5. Variability of electricity load patterns and its effect on demand response: A critical peak pricing experiment on Korean commercial and industrial customers

    Jang, Dongsik; Eom, Jiyong; Jae Park, Min; Jeung Rho, Jae

    2016-01-01

    To the extent that demand response represents an intentional electricity usage adjustment to price changes or incentive payments, consumers who exhibit more-variable load patterns on normal days may be capable of altering their loads more significantly in response to dynamic pricing plans. This study investigates the variation in the pre-enrollment load patterns of Korean commercial and industrial electricity customers and their impact on event-day loads during a critical peak pricing experiment in the winter of 2013. Contrary to conventional approaches to profiling electricity loads, this study proposes a new clustering technique based on variability indices that collectively represent the potential demand–response resource that these customers would supply. Our analysis reveals that variability in pre-enrollment load patterns does indeed have great predictive power for estimating their impact on demand–response loads. Customers in relatively low-variability clusters provided limited or no response, whereas customers in relatively high-variability clusters consistently presented large load impacts, accounting for most of the program-level peak reductions. This study suggests that dynamic pricing programs themselves may not offer adequate motivation for meaningful adjustments in load patterns, particularly for customers in low-variability clusters. - Highlights: • A method of clustering customers by variability indices is developed. • Customers in high-variability clusters provide substantial peak reductions. • Low-variability clusters exhibit limited reductions. • For low-variability customers, alternative policy instruments is well advised. • A model of discerning customer's demand response potential is suggested.

  6. Physiological limitation at alpine treeline: relationships of threshold responses of conifers to their establishment patterns

    Germino, M. J.; Lazarus, B.; Castanha, C.; Moyes, A. B.; Kueppers, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    An understanding of physiological limitations to tree establishment at alpine treeline form the basis for predicting how this climate-driven boundary will respond to climate shifts. Most research on this topic has focused on limitations related to carbon balance and growth of trees. Carbon balance could limit survival and establishment primarily through slow-acting, chronic means. We asked whether tree survival and thus establishment patterns reflect control by chronic effects in comparison to acute, threshold responses, such as survival of frost events. Seedling survivorship patterns were compared to thresholds in freezing (temperature causing leaf freezing, or freezing point, FP; and physiological response to freezing) and water status (turgor loss point, TLP; and related physiological adjustments). Subject seedlings were from forest, treeline, and alpine sites in the Alpine Treeline Warming Experiment in Colorado, and included limber and lodgepole pine (a low-elevation species), and Engelmann Spruce. Preliminary results show survival increases with seedling age, but the only corresponding increase in stress acclimation was photosynthetic resistance to freezing and TLP, not FP. Differences in survivorship among the species were not consistent with variation in FP but they generally agreed with variation in photosynthetic resistance to deep freezing and to early-season drought avoidance. Mortality of limber pine increased 35% when minimum temperatures decreased below -9C, which compares with FPs of >-8.6C, and about 1/3 of its mortality occurred during cold/wet events, particularly in the alpine. The other major correlate of mortality is midsummer drying events, as previously reported. Also in limber pine, the TLP for year-old seedlings (-2.5 MPa) corresponded with seasonal-drought mortality. In summary, we show several examples of correspondence in physiological thresholds to mortality events within a species, although the relationships are not strong. Across

  7. Weather patterns, food security and humanitarian response in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Haile, Menghestab

    2005-11-29

    Although considerable achievements in the global reduction of hunger and poverty have been made, progress in Africa so far has been very limited. At present, a third of the African population faces widespread hunger and chronic malnutrition and is exposed to a constant threat of acute food crisis and famine. The most affected are rural households whose livelihood is heavily dependent on traditional rainfed agriculture. Rainfall plays a major role in determining agricultural production and hence the economic and social well being of rural communities. The rainfall pattern in sub-Saharan Africa is influenced by large-scale intra-seasonal and inter-annual climate variability including occasional El Niño events in the tropical Pacific resulting in frequent extreme weather event such as droughts and floods that reduce agricultural outputs resulting in severe food shortages. Households and communities facing acute food shortages are forced to adopt coping strategies to meet the immediate food requirements of their families. These extreme responses may have adverse long-term, impacts on households' ability to have sustainable access to food as well as the environment. The HIV/AIDS crisis has also had adverse impacts on food production activities on the continent. In the absence of safety nets and appropriate financial support mechanisms, humanitarian aid is required to enable households effectively cope with emergencies and manage their limited resources more efficiently. Timely and appropriate humanitarian aid will provide households with opportunities to engage in productive and sustainable livelihood strategies. Investments in poverty reduction efforts would have better impact if complemented with timely and predictable response mechanisms that would ensure the protection of livelihoods during crisis periods whether weather or conflict-related. With an improved understanding of climate variability including El Niño, the implications of weather patterns for the food

  8. Anti-Inflammation Activities of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids (MAAs in Response to UV Radiation Suggest Potential Anti-Skin Aging Activity

    Sung-Suk Suh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Certain photosynthetic marine organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract UV-radiation by synthesizing UV-absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs. In this study, MAAs were separated from the extracts of marine green alga Chlamydomonas hedleyi using HPLC and were identified as porphyra-334, shinorine, and mycosporine-glycine (mycosporine-Gly, based on their retention times and maximum absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, their structures were confirmed by triple quadrupole MS/MS. Their roles as UV-absorbing compounds were investigated in the human fibroblast cell line HaCaT by analyzing the expression levels of genes associated with antioxidant activity, inflammation, and skin aging in response to UV irradiation. The mycosporine-Gly extract, but not the other MAAs, had strong antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Furthermore, treatment with mycosporine-Gly resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels, which are typically increased in response to inflammation in the skin, in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, in the presence of MAAs, the UV-suppressed genes, procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE and elastin, which are related to skin aging, had increased expression levels equal to those in UV-mock treated cells. Interestingly, the increased expression of involucrin after UV exposure was suppressed by treatment with the MAAs mycosporine-Gly and shinorine, but not porphyra-334. This is the first report investigating the biological activities of microalgae-derived MAAs in human cells.

  9. Visually guided avoidance in the chameleon (Chamaeleo chameleon): response patterns and lateralization.

    Lustig, Avichai; Ketter-Katz, Hadas; Katzir, Gadi

    2012-01-01

    The common chameleon, Chamaeleo chameleon, is an arboreal lizard with highly independent, large-amplitude eye movements. In response to a moving threat, a chameleon on a perch responds with distinct avoidance movements that are expressed in its continuous positioning on the side of the perch distal to the threat. We analyzed body-exposure patterns during threat avoidance for evidence of lateralization, that is, asymmetry at the functional/behavioral levels. Chameleons were exposed to a threat approaching horizontally from the left or right, as they held onto a vertical pole that was either wider or narrower than the width of their head, providing, respectively, monocular or binocular viewing of the threat. We found two equal-sized sub-groups, each displaying lateralization of motor responses to a given direction of stimulus approach. Such an anti-symmetrical distribution of lateralization in a population may be indicative of situations in which organisms are regularly exposed to crucial stimuli from all spatial directions. This is because a bimodal distribution of responses to threat in a natural population will reduce the spatial advantage of predators.

  10. l-Dopa responsiveness is associated with distinctive connectivity patterns in advanced Parkinson's disease.

    Akram, Harith; Wu, Chengyuan; Hyam, Jonathan; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; De Vita, Enrico; Yousry, Tarek; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Hariz, Marwan; Behrens, Timothy; Ashburner, John; Zrinzo, Ludvic

    2017-06-01

    Neuronal loss and dopamine depletion alter motor signal processing between cortical motor areas, basal ganglia, and the thalamus, resulting in the motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease. Dopamine replacement therapy can reverse these manifestations with varying degrees of improvement. To evaluate functional connectivity in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and changes in functional connectivity in relation to the degree of response to l-dopa, 19 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in the on-medication state. Scans were obtained on a 3-Tesla scanner in 3 × 3 × 2.5 mm 3 voxels. Seed-based bivariate regression analyses were carried out with atlas-defined basal ganglia regions as seeds, to explore relationships between functional connectivity and improvement in the motor section of the UPDRS-III following an l-dopa challenge. False discovery rate-corrected P was set at basal ganglia resting-state functional connectivity patterns associated with different degrees of l-dopa responsiveness in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. l-Dopa exerts a graduated influence on remapping connectivity in distinct motor control networks, potentially explaining some of the variance in treatment response. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  11. Visually guided avoidance in the chameleon (Chamaeleo chameleon: response patterns and lateralization.

    Avichai Lustig

    Full Text Available The common chameleon, Chamaeleo chameleon, is an arboreal lizard with highly independent, large-amplitude eye movements. In response to a moving threat, a chameleon on a perch responds with distinct avoidance movements that are expressed in its continuous positioning on the side of the perch distal to the threat. We analyzed body-exposure patterns during threat avoidance for evidence of lateralization, that is, asymmetry at the functional/behavioral levels. Chameleons were exposed to a threat approaching horizontally from the left or right, as they held onto a vertical pole that was either wider or narrower than the width of their head, providing, respectively, monocular or binocular viewing of the threat. We found two equal-sized sub-groups, each displaying lateralization of motor responses to a given direction of stimulus approach. Such an anti-symmetrical distribution of lateralization in a population may be indicative of situations in which organisms are regularly exposed to crucial stimuli from all spatial directions. This is because a bimodal distribution of responses to threat in a natural population will reduce the spatial advantage of predators.

  12. Urethral pressure response patterns induced by squeeze in continent and incontinent women.

    Teleman, Pia M; Mattiasson, Anders

    2007-09-01

    Our aim was to compare the urethral pressure response pattern to pelvic floor muscle contractions in 20-27 years old, nulliparous continent women (n = 31) to that of continent (n = 28) and formerly untreated incontinent (n = 59) (53-63 years old) women. These women underwent urethral pressure measurements during rest and repeated pelvic muscle contractions. The response to the contractions was graded 0-4. The young continent women showed a mean urethral pressure response of 2.8, the middle-aged continent women 2.2 (NS vs young continent), and the incontinent women 1.5 (p continent, p continent). Urethral pressures during rest were significantly higher in the younger women than in both groups of middle-aged women. The decreased ability to increase urethral pressure on demand seen in middle-aged incontinent women compared to continent women of the same age as well as young women seems to be a consequence of a neuromuscular disorder rather than of age.

  13. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  14. Brain response pattern identification of fMRI data using a particle swarm optimization-based approach.

    Ma, Xinpei; Chou, Chun-An; Sayama, Hiroki; Chaovalitwongse, Wanpracha Art

    2016-09-01

    Many neuroscience studies have been devoted to understand brain neural responses correlating to cognition using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In contrast to univariate analysis to identify response patterns, it is shown that multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data becomes a relatively effective approach using machine learning techniques in the recent literature. MVPA can be considered as a multi-objective pattern classification problem with the aim to optimize response patterns, in which informative voxels interacting with each other are selected, achieving high classification accuracy associated with cognitive stimulus conditions. To solve the problem, we propose a feature interaction detection framework, integrating hierarchical heterogeneous particle swarm optimization and support vector machines, for voxel selection in MVPA. In the proposed approach, we first select the most informative voxels and then identify a response pattern based on the connectivity of the selected voxels. The effectiveness of the proposed approach was examined for the Haxby's dataset of object-level representations. The computational results demonstrated higher classification accuracy by the extracted response patterns, compared to state-of-the-art feature selection algorithms, such as forward selection and backward selection.

  15. Right fusiform response patterns reflect visual object identity rather than semantic similarity.

    Bruffaerts, Rose; Dupont, Patrick; De Grauwe, Sophie; Peeters, Ronald; De Deyne, Simon; Storms, Gerrit; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2013-12-01

    We previously reported the neuropsychological consequences of a lesion confined to the middle and posterior part of the right fusiform gyrus (case JA) causing a partial loss of knowledge of visual attributes of concrete entities in the absence of category-selectivity (animate versus inanimate). We interpreted this in the context of a two-step model that distinguishes structural description knowledge from associative-semantic processing and implicated the lesioned area in the former process. To test this hypothesis in the intact brain, multi-voxel pattern analysis was used in a series of event-related fMRI studies in a total of 46 healthy subjects. We predicted that activity patterns in this region would be determined by the identity of rather than the conceptual similarity between concrete entities. In a prior behavioral experiment features were generated for each entity by more than 1000 subjects. Based on a hierarchical clustering analysis the entities were organised into 3 semantic clusters (musical instruments, vehicles, tools). Entities were presented as words or pictures. With foveal presentation of pictures, cosine similarity between fMRI response patterns in right fusiform cortex appeared to reflect both the identity of and the semantic similarity between the entities. No such effects were found for words in this region. The effect of object identity was invariant for location, scaling, orientation axis and color (grayscale versus color). It also persisted for different exemplars referring to a same concrete entity. The apparent semantic similarity effect however was not invariant. This study provides further support for a neurobiological distinction between structural description knowledge and processing of semantic relationships and confirms the role of right mid-posterior fusiform cortex in the former process, in accordance with previous lesion evidence. © 2013.

  16. Motor unit recruitment patterns 1: responses to changes in locomotor velocity and incline.

    Hodson-Tole, Emma F; Wakeling, James M

    2008-06-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscles are composed of a mixture of motor unit types, which contribute a range of mechanical and physiological properties to the muscle. For a muscle to effectively contribute to smooth, co-ordinated movement it must activate an appropriate number and combination of motor units to generate the required force over a suitable time period. Much evidence exists indicating that motor units are activated in an orderly fashion, from the slowest through to the fastest. A growing body of evidence, however, indicates that such a recruitment strategy does not always hold true. Here we investigate how motor unit recruitment patterns were influenced by changes in locomotor velocity and incline. Kinematics data and myoelectric signals were collected from three rat ankle extensor muscles during running on a treadmill at nine velocity and incline combinations. Wavelet and principal component analysis were used to simultaneously decompose the signals into time and frequency space. The relative frequency components of the signals were quantified during 20 time windows of a stride from each locomotor condition. Differences in signal frequency components existed between muscles and locomotor conditions. Faster locomotor velocities led to a relative increase in high frequency components, whereas greater inclines led to a relative increase in the low frequency components. These data were interpreted as representing changes in motor unit recruitment patterns in response to changes in the locomotor demand. Motor units were not always recruited in an orderly manner, indicating that recruitment is a multi-factorial phenomenon that is not yet fully understood.

  17. Photosensitive response of azobenzene containing films towards pure intensity or polarization interference patterns

    Yadavalli, Nataraja Sekhar; Santer, Svetlana, E-mail: santer@uni-potsdam.de [Department of Experimental Physics, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Saphiannikova, Marina [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-08-04

    In this paper, we report on differences in the response of photosensitive azobenzene containing films upon irradiation with the intensity or polarization interference patterns. Two materials are studied differing in the molecular weight: an azobenzene-containing polymer and a molecular glass formed from a much smaller molecule consisting of three connected azobenzene units. Topography changes occurring along with the changes in irradiation conditions are recorded using a homemade set-up combining an optical part for generation and shaping of interference patterns and an atomic force microscope for acquiring the kinetics of film deformation. In this way, we could reveal the unique behavior of photosensitive materials during the first few minutes of irradiation: the change in topography is initially driven by an increase in the azobenzene free volume along with the trans-cis isomerization, followed by the mass transport finally resulting in the surface relief grating. This study demonstrates the great potential of our setup to experimentally highlight puzzling processes governing the formation of surface relief gratings.

  18. Patterns of Precipitation and Streamflow Responses to Moisture Fluxes during Atmospheric Rivers

    Henn, B. M.; Wilson, A. M.; Asgari Lamjiri, M.; Ralph, M.

    2017-12-01

    Precipitation from landfalling atmospheric rivers (ARs) have been shown to dominate the hydroclimate of many parts of the world. ARs are associated with saturated, neutrally-stable profiles in the lower atmosphere, in which forced ascent by topography induces precipitation. Understanding the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation over complex terrain during AR-driven precipitation is critical for accurate forcing of distributed hydrologic models and streamflow forecasts. Past studies using radar wind profilers and radiosondes have demonstrated predictability of precipitation rates based on upslope water vapor flux over coastal terrain, with certain levels of moisture flux exhibiting the greatest influence on precipitation. Additionally, these relationships have been extended to show that streamflow in turn responds predictably to upslope vapor flux. However, past studies have focused on individual pairs of profilers and precipitation gauges; the question of how orographic precipitation in ARs is distributed spatially over complex terrain, at different topographic scales, is less well known. Here, we examine profiles of atmospheric moisture transport from radiosondes and wind profilers, against a relatively dense network of precipitation gauges, as well as stream gauges, to assess relationships between upslope moisture flux and the spatial response of precipitation and streamflow. We focus on California's Russian River watershed in the 2016-2017 cool season, when regular radiosonde launches were made at two locations during an active sequence of landfalling ARs. We examine how atmospheric water vapor flux results in precipitation patterns across gauges with different topographic relationships to the prevailing moisture-bearing winds, and conduct a similar comparison of runoff volume response from several unimpaired watersheds in the upper Russian watershed, taking into account antecedent soil moisture conditions that influence runoff generation. Finally

  19. Temporal pattern changes in duodenal protein tyrosine nitration events in response to Eimeria acervulina infection in chickens.

    Elsasser, Ted H; Miska, Kate; Kahl, Stanislaw; Fetterer, Raymond H; Martínez Ramirez, Alfredo

    2018-06-04

    Intracellular generation of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (SOA) can result in the formation of 3'-nitrotyrosine proteins (NTp). Nitrated proteins usually are associated with significant perturbation in protein function, apoptosis, autophagy, and cell death. We undertook the present study to establish the temporal dynamics of NTp generation in cytokeratin-18-positive epithelial cells (ETCs) of broiler chickens in response to infection with Eimeria acervulina. Duodenal tissue was harvested from noninfected (NOI) and infected (INF) broilers on days (d) 1, 3, 6, 7, and 10 postinfection (PI) and fixed, embedded, and sectioned for quantitative image analysis, immunohistochemistry with antibodies specific to NTp and the SOA-generating enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO). The pixel density characteristics for NTp and XO representative of ETCs demonstrated that NTp and XO increased in intestinal villi as early as d1 PI (P ETCs through d6 PI. For XO, increases in cell content increased only through d3. On d6 and d7 PI, high levels of NTp were present in immune infiltrating cells (IIC) where no XO was detected. The increases in ETC NTp occurred in a defined pattern, significant by villus-to-crypt location for day of infection, initiating in the distal villus and progressing down into the crypts. Two NTp patterns were observed for ETCs: a high level associated with ETCs harboring parasites and a low-level increase in ETCs not containing Eimeria but in proximity to such. The data suggest that NTp and XO responses may mediate some of the processes through which ETCs respond to Eimeria to limit the extent of infection by this pathogen.

  20. Legacy nutrient dynamics and patterns of catchment response under changing land use and management

    Attinger, S.; Van, M. K.; Basu, N. B.

    2017-12-01

    Watersheds are complex heterogeneous systems that store, transform, and release water and nutrients under a broad distribution of both natural and anthropogenic controls. Many current watershed models, from complex numerical models to simpler reservoir-type models, are considered to be well-developed in their ability to predict fluxes of water and nutrients to streams and groundwater. They are generally less adept, however, at capturing watershed storage dynamics. In other words, many current models are run with an assumption of steady-state dynamics, and focus on nutrient flows rather than changes in nutrient stocks within watersheds. Although these commonly used modeling approaches may be able to adequately capture short-term watershed dynamics, they are unable to represent the clear nonlinearities or hysteresis responses observed in watersheds experiencing significant changes in nutrient inputs. To address such a lack, we have, in the present work, developed a parsimonious modeling approach designed to capture long-term catchment responses to spatial and temporal changes in nutrient inputs. In this approach, we conceptualize the catchment as a biogeochemical reactor that is driven by nutrient inputs, characterized internally by both biogeochemical degradation and residence or travel time distributions, resulting in a specific nutrient output. For the model simulations, we define a range of different scenarios to represent real-world changes in land use and management implemented to improve water quality. We then introduce the concept of state-space trajectories to describe system responses to these potential changes in anthropogenic forcings. We also increase model complexity, in a stepwise fashion, by dividing the catchment into multiple biogeochemical reactors, coupled in series or in parallel. Using this approach, we attempt to answer the following questions: (1) What level of model complexity is needed to capture observed system responses? (2) How can we

  1. Do stress responses promote leukemia progression? An animal study suggesting a role for epinephrine and prostaglandin-E2 through reduced NK activity.

    Shelly Inbar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In leukemia patients, stress and anxiety were suggested to predict poorer prognosis. Oncological patients experience ample physiological and psychological stress, potentially leading to increased secretion of stress factors, including epinephrine, corticosteroids, and prostaglandins. Here we tested whether environmental stress and these stress factors impact survival of leukemia-challenged rats, and studied mediating mechanisms. F344 rats were administered with a miniscule dose of 60 CRNK-16 leukemia cells, and were subjected to intermittent forced swim stress or to administration of physiologically relevant doses of epinephrine, prostaglandin-E(2 or corticosterone. Stress and each stress factor, and/or their combinations, doubled mortality rates when acutely applied simultaneously with, or two or six days after tumor challenge. Acute administration of the β-adrenergic blocker nadolol diminished the effects of environmental stress, without affecting baseline survival rates. Prolonged β-adrenergic blockade or COX inhibition (using etodolac also increased baseline survival rates, possibly by blocking tumor-related or normal levels of catecholamines and prostaglandins. Searching for mediating mechanisms, we found that each of the stress factors transiently suppressed NK activity against CRNK-16 and YAC-1 lines on a per NK basis. In contrast, the direct effects of stress factors on CRNK-16 proliferation, vitality, and VEGF secretion could not explain or even contradicted the in vivo survival findings. Overall, it seems that environmental stress, epinephrine, and prostaglandins promote leukemia progression in rats, potentially through suppressing cell mediated immunity. Thus, patients with hematological malignancies, which often exhibit diminished NK activity, may benefit from extended β-blockade and COX inhibition.

  2. Posttraumatic stress disorder among refugees: Measurement invariance of Harvard Trauma Questionnaire scores across global regions and response patterns.

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Verkuilen, Jay; Ho, Emily; Fan, Yuyu

    2015-12-01

    Despite the central role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in international humanitarian aid work, there has been little examination of the measurement invariance of PTSD measures across culturally defined refugee subgroups. This leaves mental health workers in disaster settings with little to support inferences made using the results of standard clinical assessment tools, such as the severity of symptoms and prevalence rates. We examined measurement invariance in scores from the most widely used PTSD measure in refugee populations, the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ; Mollica et al., 1992), in a multinational and multilingual sample of asylum seekers from 81 countries of origin in 11 global regions. Clustering HTQ responses to justify grouping regional groups by response patterns resulted in 3 groups for testing measurement invariance: West Africans, Himalayans, and all others. Comparing log-likelihood ratios showed that while configural invariance seemed to hold, metric and scalar invariance did not. These findings call into question the common practice of using standard cut-off scores on PTSD measures across culturally dissimilar refugee populations. In addition, high correlation between factors suggests that the construct validity of scores from North American and European measures of PTSD may not hold globally. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Expression patterns of odorant receptors and response properties of olfactory sensory neurons in aged mice.

    Lee, Anderson C; Tian, Huikai; Grosmaitre, Xavier; Ma, Minghong

    2009-10-01

    The sense of smell deteriorates in normal aging, but the underling mechanisms are still elusive. Here we investigated age-related alterations in expression patterns of odorant receptor (OR) genes and functional properties of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs)-2 critical factors that define the odor detection threshold in the olfactory epithelium. Using in situ hybridization for 9 representative OR genes, we compared the cell densities of each OR in coronal nose sections at different ages (3-27 months). The cell density for different ORs peaked at different time points and a decline was observed for 6 of 9 ORs at advanced ages. Using patch clamp recordings, we then examined the odorant responses of individual OSNs coexpressing a defined OR (MOR23) and green fluorescent protein. The MOR23 neurons recorded from aged animals maintained a similar sensitivity and dynamic range in response to the cognate odorant (lyral) as those from younger mice. The results indicate that although the cell densities of OSNs expressing certain types of ORs decline at advanced ages, individual OSNs can retain their sensitivity. The implications of these findings in age-related olfactory deterioration are discussed.

  4. Quantifying stimulus-response rehabilitation protocols by auditory feedback in Parkinson's disease gait pattern

    Pineda, Gustavo; Atehortúa, Angélica; Iregui, Marcela; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    External auditory cues stimulate motor related areas of the brain, activating motor ways parallel to the basal ganglia circuits and providing a temporary pattern for gait. In effect, patients may re-learn motor skills mediated by compensatory neuroplasticity mechanisms. However, long term functional gains are dependent on the nature of the pathology, follow-up is usually limited and reinforcement by healthcare professionals is crucial. Aiming to cope with these challenges, several researches and device implementations provide auditory or visual stimulation to improve Parkinsonian gait pattern, inside and outside clinical scenarios. The current work presents a semiautomated strategy for spatio-temporal feature extraction to study the relations between auditory temporal stimulation and spatiotemporal gait response. A protocol for auditory stimulation was built to evaluate the integrability of the strategy in the clinic practice. The method was evaluated in transversal measurement with an exploratory group of people with Parkinson's (n = 12 in stage 1, 2 and 3) and control subjects (n =6). The result showed a strong linear relation between auditory stimulation and cadence response in control subjects (R=0.98 +/-0.008) and PD subject in stage 2 (R=0.95 +/-0.03) and stage 3 (R=0.89 +/-0.05). Normalized step length showed a variable response between low and high gait velocity (0.2> R >0.97). The correlation between normalized mean velocity and stimulus was strong in all PD stage 2 (R>0.96) PD stage 3 (R>0.84) and controls (R>0.91) for all experimental conditions. Among participants, the largest variation from baseline was found in PD subject in stage 3 (53.61 +/-39.2 step/min, 0.12 +/- 0.06 in step length and 0.33 +/- 0.16 in mean velocity). In this group these values were higher than the own baseline. These variations are related with direct effect of metronome frequency on cadence and velocity. The variation of step length involves different regulation strategies and

  5. Landform elevation suggests ecohydrologic footprints in subsurface geomorphology

    Watts, A. C.; Watts, D.; Kaplan, D. A.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Heffernan, J. B.; Martin, J. B.; Murray, A.; Osborne, T.; Cohen, M. J.; Kobziar, L. N.

    2012-12-01

    Many landscapes exhibit patterns in their arrangement of biota, or in their surface geomorphology as a result of biotic activity. Examples occur around the globe and include northern peatlands, Sahelian savannas, and shallow marine reefs. Such self-organized patterning is strongly suggestive of coupled, reciprocal feedbacks (i.e. locally positive, and distally negative) among biota and their environment. Much research on patterned landscapes has concerned emergent biogeomorphologic surfaces such as those found in peatlands, or the influence of biota on soil formation or transport. Our research concerns ecohydrologic feedbacks hypothesized to produce patterned occurrence of depressions in a subtropical limestone karst landscape. Our findings show strong evidence of self-organized patterning, in the form of overdispersed dissolution basins. Distributions of randomized bedrock elevation measurements on the landscape are bimodal, with means clustered about either higher- or lower-elevation modes. Measurements on the thin mantle of soil overlying this landscape, however, display reduced bimodality and mode separation. These observations indicate abiotic processes in diametric opposition to the biogenic forces which may be responsible for generating landscape pattern. Correlograms show higher spatial autocorrelation among soil measurements compared to bedrock measurements, and measurements of soil-layer thickness show high negative correlation with bedrock elevation. Our results are consistent with predictions of direct ecohydrologic feedbacks that would produce patterned "footprints" directly on bedrock, and of abiotic processes operating to obfuscate this pattern. The study suggests new steps to identify biogeochemical mechanisms for landscape patterning: an "ecological drill" by which plant communities modify geology.

  6. Differential response of Acidobacteria subgroups to forest-to-pasture conversion and their biogeographic patterns in the western Brazilian Amazon

    Acacio Aparecido Navarrete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are among the most abundant soil bacteria on Earth, but little is known about their response to environmental changes. We asked how the relative abundance and biogeographic patterning of this phylum and its subgroups responded to forest-to-pasture conversion in soils of the western Brazilian Amazon. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was employed to assess the abundance and composition of the Acidobacteria community across 54 soil samples taken using a spatially nested sampling scheme at the landscape level. Numerically, Acidobacteria represented 20% of the total bacterial community in forest soils and 11% in pasture soils. Overall, 15 different Acidobacteria subgroups of the current 26 subgroups were detected, with Acidobacteria subgroups 1, 3, 5, and 6 accounting together for 87% of the total Acidobacteria community in forest soils and 75% in pasture soils. Concomitant with changes in soil chemistry after forest-to-pasture conversion - particularly an increase in properties linked to soil acidity and nutrient availability - we observed an increase in the relative abundances of Acidobacteria subgroups 4, 10, 17, and 18, and a decrease in the relative abundances of other Acidobacteria subgroups in pasture relative to forest soils. The composition of the total Acidobacteria community as well as the most abundant Acidobacteria subgroups (1, 3, 5, and 6 was significantly more similar in composition across space in pasture soils than in forest soils. These results suggest that preponderant responses of Acidobacteria subgroups, especially subgroups 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6, to forest-to-pasture conversion effects in soils could be used to define management-indicators of agricultural practices in the Amazon Basin. These acidobacterial responses are at least in part through alterations on acidity- and nutrient-related properties of the Amazon soils.

  7. Differential Response of Acidobacteria Subgroups to Forest-to-Pasture Conversion and Their Biogeographic Patterns in the Western Brazilian Amazon

    Navarrete, Acacio A.; Venturini, Andressa M.; Meyer, Kyle M.; Klein, Ann M.; Tiedje, James M.; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.; Nüsslein, Klaus; Tsai, Siu M.; Rodrigues, Jorge L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are among the most abundant soil bacteria on Earth, but little is known about their response to environmental changes. We asked how the relative abundance and biogeographic patterning of this phylum and its subgroups responded to forest-to-pasture conversion in soils of the western Brazilian Amazon. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was employed to assess the abundance and composition of the Acidobacteria community across 54 soil samples taken using a spatially nested sampling scheme at the landscape level. Numerically, Acidobacteria represented 20% of the total bacterial community in forest soils and 11% in pasture soils. Overall, 15 different Acidobacteria subgroups of the current 26 subgroups were detected, with Acidobacteria subgroups 1, 3, 5, and 6 accounting together for 87% of the total Acidobacteria community in forest soils and 75% in pasture soils. Concomitant with changes in soil chemistry after forest-to-pasture conversion—particularly an increase in properties linked to soil acidity and nutrient availability—we observed an increase in the relative abundances of Acidobacteria subgroups 4, 10, 17, and 18, and a decrease in the relative abundances of other Acidobacteria subgroups in pasture relative to forest soils. The composition of the total Acidobacteria community as well as the most abundant Acidobacteria subgroups (1, 3, 5, and 6) was significantly more similar in composition across space in pasture soils than in forest soils. These results suggest that preponderant responses of Acidobacteria subgroups, especially subgroups 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6, to forest-to-pasture conversion effects in soils could be used to define management-indicators of agricultural practices in the Amazon Basin. These acidobacterial responses are at least in part through alterations on acidity- and nutrient-related properties of the Amazon soils. PMID:26733981

  8. Extracting gene expression patterns and identifying co-expressed genes from microarray data reveals biologically responsive processes

    Paules Richard S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common observation in the analysis of gene expression data is that many genes display similarity in their expression patterns and therefore appear to be co-regulated. However, the variation associated with microarray data and the complexity of the experimental designs make the acquisition of co-expressed genes a challenge. We developed a novel method for Extracting microarray gene expression Patterns and Identifying co-expressed Genes, designated as EPIG. The approach utilizes the underlying structure of gene expression data to extract patterns and identify co-expressed genes that are responsive to experimental conditions. Results Through evaluation of the correlations among profiles, the magnitude of variation in gene expression profiles, and profile signal-to-noise ratio's, EPIG extracts a set of patterns representing co-expressed genes. The method is shown to work well with a simulated data set and microarray data obtained from time-series studies of dauer recovery and L1 starvation in C. elegans and after ultraviolet (UV or ionizing radiation (IR-induced DNA damage in diploid human fibroblasts. With the simulated data set, EPIG extracted the appropriate number of patterns which were more stable and homogeneous than the set of patterns that were determined using the CLICK or CAST clustering algorithms. However, CLICK performed better than EPIG and CAST with respect to the average correlation between clusters/patterns of the simulated data. With real biological data, EPIG extracted more dauer-specific patterns than CLICK. Furthermore, analysis of the IR/UV data revealed 18 unique patterns and 2661 genes out of approximately 17,000 that were identified as significantly expressed and categorized to the patterns by EPIG. The time-dependent patterns displayed similar and dissimilar responses between IR and UV treatments. Gene Ontology analysis applied to each pattern-related subset of co-expressed genes revealed underlying

  9. Pattern analysis of defecography in patients with chronic functional constipation: is it predictable for the responsiveness of biofeedback therapy?

    Yang, Hye Rin; Kim, Ah Young; Hong, Seong Sook; Byun, Jae Ho; Myung Seung Jae; Ha, Hyun Kwon [University of Ulsan of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-08-15

    To determine of pattern analysis of defecography can predict the responsiveness of biofeedback therapy in patients with chronic functional constipation. Over a two-year period, 104 patients with chronic functional constipation underwent defecography and biofeedback therapy. Two blinded readers analyzed the defecographic findings and classified them into six types; I = normal defecation, II = hypertonic lower anal sphincter (poor anal opening due to a persistent contraction of the lower anal sphincter), III dyskinetic puborectal sling (inadequate laxity of the puborectal sling), IV spastic pelvic floor syndrome (persistent contraction of both the puborectal sling and the lower and sphincter), V unclassified (including paradoxical contraction of the anal sphincter), VI anatomical obstruction. In addition, the degree of rectal contraction during defecation was scored (grade 0 to 3). After biofeedback therapy, the differences in the defecography patterns or rectal contraction between the two groups, the responsive or non-responsive group, were analyzed. The defecograms revealed that the type IV of the spastic pelvic floor syndrome was most common (50 of 104 patients, 48%), followed by II (21/104, 20%), III (12/104, 11.5%), V (9/104, 9%) and VI (12/104, 11.5%). Biofeedback therapy showed a therapeutic response in 71 out of 104 patients (68%) but failed in 33 patients (32%). However, there were no significant differences in the defecographic pattern between the responsive and non-responsive groups ({rho} = 0.630). The defecograms revealed contractions in 78 patients (75%) and moderate to vigorous contractions (more than grade 2) in 66 patients. Most of the biofeedback-responsive group showed rectal contractions (66 of 71 patients, 93%, {rho} < 0.001). In patients with chronic functional constipation, there was no significant difference in the morphological patterns of the defecogram between the responsive and non-responsive biofeedback groups. However, the presence of

  10. Pattern analysis of defecography in patients with chronic functional constipation: is it predictable for the responsiveness of biofeedback therapy?

    Yang, Hye Rin; Kim, Ah Young; Hong, Seong Sook; Byun, Jae Ho; Myung Seung Jae; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2005-01-01

    To determine of pattern analysis of defecography can predict the responsiveness of biofeedback therapy in patients with chronic functional constipation. Over a two-year period, 104 patients with chronic functional constipation underwent defecography and biofeedback therapy. Two blinded readers analyzed the defecographic findings and classified them into six types; I = normal defecation, II = hypertonic lower anal sphincter (poor anal opening due to a persistent contraction of the lower anal sphincter), III dyskinetic puborectal sling (inadequate laxity of the puborectal sling), IV spastic pelvic floor syndrome (persistent contraction of both the puborectal sling and the lower and sphincter), V unclassified (including paradoxical contraction of the anal sphincter), VI anatomical obstruction. In addition, the degree of rectal contraction during defecation was scored (grade 0 to 3). After biofeedback therapy, the differences in the defecography patterns or rectal contraction between the two groups, the responsive or non-responsive group, were analyzed. The defecograms revealed that the type IV of the spastic pelvic floor syndrome was most common (50 of 104 patients, 48%), followed by II (21/104, 20%), III (12/104, 11.5%), V (9/104, 9%) and VI (12/104, 11.5%). Biofeedback therapy showed a therapeutic response in 71 out of 104 patients (68%) but failed in 33 patients (32%). However, there were no significant differences in the defecographic pattern between the responsive and non-responsive groups (ρ = 0.630). The defecograms revealed contractions in 78 patients (75%) and moderate to vigorous contractions (more than grade 2) in 66 patients. Most of the biofeedback-responsive group showed rectal contractions (66 of 71 patients, 93%, ρ < 0.001). In patients with chronic functional constipation, there was no significant difference in the morphological patterns of the defecogram between the responsive and non-responsive biofeedback groups. However, the presence of rectal

  11. The design of and chronic tissue response to a composite nerve electrode with patterned stiffness

    Freeberg, M. J.; Stone, M. A.; Triolo, R. J.; Tyler, D. J.

    2017-06-01

    Objective. As neural interfaces demonstrate success in chronic applications, a novel class of reshaping electrodes with patterned regions of stiffness will enable application to a widening range of anatomical locations. Patterning stiff regions and flexible regions of the electrode enables nerve reshaping while accommodating anatomical constraints of various implant locations ranging from peripheral nerves to spinal and autonomic plexi. Approach. Introduced is a new composite electrode enabling patterning of regions of various electrode mechanical properties. The initial demonstration of the composite’s capability is the composite flat interface nerve electrode (C-FINE). The C-FINE is constructed from a sandwich of patterned PEEK within layers of pliable silicone. The shape of the PEEK provides a desired pattern of stiffness: stiff across the width of the nerve to reshape the nerve, but flexible along its length to allow for bending with the nerve. This is particularly important in anatomical locations near joints or organs, and in constrained compartments. We tested pressure and volume design constraints in vitro to verify that the C-FINE can attain a safe cuff-to-nerve ratio (CNR) without impeding intraneural blood flow. We measured nerve function as well as nerve and axonal morphology following 3 month implantation of the C-FINE without wires on feline peripheral nerves in anatomically constrained areas near mobile joints and major blood vessels in both the hind and fore limbs. Main Results. In vitro inflation tests showed effective CNRs (1.93  ±  0.06) that exceeded the industry safety standard of 1.5 at an internal pressure of 20 mmHg. This is less than the 30 mmHg shown to induce loss of conduction or compromise blood flow. Implanted cats showed no changes in physiology or electrophysiology. Behavioral signs were normal suggesting healthy nerves. Motor nerve conduction velocity and compound motor action potential did not change significantly

  12. Decoding of visual activity patterns from fMRI responses using multivariate pattern analyses and convolutional neural network.

    Zafar, Raheel; Kamel, Nidal; Naufal, Mohamad; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Dass, Sarat C; Ahmad, Rana Fayyaz; Abdullah, Jafri M; Reza, Faruque

    2017-01-01

    Decoding of human brain activity has always been a primary goal in neuroscience especially with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. In recent years, Convolutional neural network (CNN) has become a popular method for the extraction of features due to its higher accuracy, however it needs a lot of computation and training data. In this study, an algorithm is developed using Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) and modified CNN to decode the behavior of brain for different images with limited data set. Selection of significant features is an important part of fMRI data analysis, since it reduces the computational burden and improves the prediction performance; significant features are selected using t-test. MVPA uses machine learning algorithms to classify different brain states and helps in prediction during the task. General linear model (GLM) is used to find the unknown parameters of every individual voxel and the classification is done using multi-class support vector machine (SVM). MVPA-CNN based proposed algorithm is compared with region of interest (ROI) based method and MVPA based estimated values. The proposed method showed better overall accuracy (68.6%) compared to ROI (61.88%) and estimation values (64.17%).

  13. Amphibian responses to wildfire in the western united states: Emerging patterns from short-term studies

    Hossack, B.R.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The increased frequency and severity of large wildfires in the western United States is an important ecological and management issue with direct relevance to amphibian conservation. Although the knowledge of fire effects on amphibians in the region is still limited relative to most other vertebrate species, we reviewed the current literature to determine if there are evident patterns that might be informative for conservation or management strategies. Of the seven studies that compared pre- and post-wildfire data on a variety of metrics, ranging from amphibian occupancy to body condition, two reported positive responses and five detected negative responses by at least one species. Another seven studies used a retrospective approach to compare effects of wildfire on populations: two studies reported positive effects, three reported negative effects from wildfire, and two reported no effects. All four studies that included plethodontid salamanders reported negative effects on populations or individuals; these effects were greater in forests where fire had been suppressed and in areas that burned with high severity. Species that breed in streams are also vulnerable to post-wildfire changes in habitat, especially in the Southwest. Wildfire is also important for maintaining suitable habitat for diverse amphibian communities, although those results may not be evident immediately after an area burns. We expect that wildfire will extirpate few healthy amphibian populations, but it is still unclear how populations will respond to wildfire in the context of land management (including pre- and post-fire timber harvest) and fragmentation. Wildfire may also increase the risk of decline or extirpation for small, isolated, or stressed (e.g., from drought or disease) populations. Improved understanding of how these effects vary according to changes in fire frequency and severity are critical to form more effective conservation strategies for amphibians in the western United States.

  14. Understanding response patterns in dyadic conflict: An interactive approach combining self-construal and opponent's dominance-submissiveness.

    Au, Al K C; Lam, Shui-Fong

    2017-04-01

    Previous works on the effect of self-construal in interpersonal behaviours tend to adopt a main effect approach. The present research proposes an interactive approach in understanding two response patterns in dyadic conflict by combining self-construal and the stance of the opponent. Independent self-construal was hypothesised to be associated with a self-centred pattern of conflict response, which is characterised by taking contending responses regardless of whether the stance of the opponent is dominant or submissive. Relational self-construal was hypothesised to be associated with a tuning-in pattern of conflict response, which is characterised by showing contending responses when the opponent is submissive but yielding responses when the opponent is dominant. With trait self-construal measured and opponent's stance manipulated, Study 1 provided initial support for the hypotheses. Study 2 showed a three-way interaction effect between trait self-construal, manipulated self-construal and the opponent's stance on actual conflict responses during discussion of a scenario. The effect of self-construal manipulation was only observed among people who were low in trait independent self-construal and average in trait relational self-construal. The results pinpoint the importance of considering personal and opponent factors simultaneously in understanding the dynamics of dyadic conflict processes. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Modifying rainfall patterns in a Mediterranean shrubland: system design, plant responses, and experimental burning.

    Parra, Antonio; Ramírez, David A; Resco, Víctor; Velasco, Ángel; Moreno, José M

    2012-11-01

    Global warming is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the Mediterranean region, as well as the occurrence of large fires. Understanding the interactions between drought, fire and plant responses is therefore important. In this study, we present an experiment in which rainfall patterns were modified to simulate various levels of drought in a Mediterranean shrubland of central Spain dominated by Cistus ladanifer, Erica arborea and Phillyrea angustifolia. A system composed of automatic rainout shelters with an irrigation facility was used. It was designed to be applied in vegetation 2 m tall, treat relatively large areas (36 m2), and be quickly dismantled to perform experimental burning and reassembled back again. Twenty plots were subjected to four rainfall treatments from early spring: natural rainfall, long-term average rainfall (2 months drought), moderate drought (25% reduction from long-term rainfall, 5 months drought) and severe drought (45% reduction, 7 months drought). The plots were burned in late summer, without interfering with rainfall manipulations. Results indicated that rainfall manipulations caused differences in soil moisture among treatments, leading to reduced water availability and growth of C. ladanifer and E. arborea in the drought treatments. However, P. angustifolia was not affected by the manipulations. Rainout shelters had a negligible impact on plot microenvironment. Experimental burns were of high fire intensity, without differences among treatments. Our system provides a tool to study the combined effects of drought and fire on vegetation, which is important to assess the threats posed by climate change in Mediterranean environments.

  16. Physiological pattern changes in response to a simulated competition in elite women artistic gymnasts.

    Isacco, Laurie; Ennequin, Gaël; Cassirame, Johan; Tordi, Nicolas

    2017-08-04

    The outstanding progress in women's artistic gymnastics in recent decades has led to increased technical and physiological demands. The aim of this study was to investigate i) the physiological demands of elite French gymnasts and ii) the impact of a competitive routine on physiological pattern changes. Fourteen French elite female gymnasts performed anthropometric measurements, physical fitness tests and a simulated four event competition. Heart rate (HR) was continuously recorded throughout the duration of the simulated competition. Blood lactate concentrations were assessed at rest, before the beginning and at 2, 4 and 10 min after completion of the routine on each apparatus. Isometric handgrip strength and anaerobic endurance and power were assessed during the simulated competition. The highest values of HR and blood lactate concentrations were reached during the floor and uneven bar exercises. Blood lactate concentrations and HR kinetics were apparatus dependent and values remained significantly increased at 10 min of recovery compared with resting data. Anaerobic endurance and power decreased significantly as the competition progressed (P <0.001). The present results show specifically cardiorespiratory and anaerobic apparatus- dependent responses throughout a simulated competition. Recovery approaches appear relevant to prevent and/or minimize fatigue and optimize performance in these athletes.

  17. Predicting pathologic tumor response to chemoradiotherapy with histogram distances characterizing longitudinal changes in 18F-FDG uptake patterns

    Tan, Shan; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Yongxue; Chen, Wengen; D’Souza, Warren D.; Lu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    (AUC = 0.87), and match distance (AUC = 0.84). These crossbin histogram distance features showed slightly higher prediction accuracy than texture features on post-PET images. Conclusions: The results suggest that longitudinal patterns in 18F-FDG uptake characterized using histogram distances provide useful information for predicting the pathologic response of esophageal cancer to CRT. PMID:24089897

  18. Comparative sodium transport patterns provide clues for understanding salinity and metal responses in aquatic insects.

    Scheibener, S A; Richardi, V S; Buchwalter, D B

    2016-02-01

    The importance of insects in freshwater ecosystems has led to their extensive use in ecological monitoring programs. As freshwater systems are increasingly challenged by salinization and metal contamination, it is important to understand fundamental aspects of aquatic insect physiology (e.g., osmoregulatory processes) that contribute to insect responses to these stressors. Here we compared the uptake dynamics of Na as NaCl, NaHCO3 and Na2SO4 in the caddisfly Hydropsyche betteni across a range of Na concentrations (0.06-15.22 mM) encompassing the vast majority of North American freshwater ecosystems. Sulfate as the major anion resulted in decreased Na uptake rates relative to the chloride and bicarbonate salts. A comparison of Na (as NaHCO3) turnover rates in the caddisfly Hydropsyche sparna and the mayfly Maccaffertium sp. revealed different patterns in the 2 species. Both species appeared to tightly regulate their whole body sodium concentrations (at ∼47±1.8 μmol/g wet wt) across a range of Na concentrations (0.06-15.22 mM) over 7 days. However, at the highest Na concentration (15.22 mM), Na uptake rates in H. sparna (419.1 μM Na g(-1) hr(-1) wet wt) appeared close to saturation while Na uptake rates in Maccaffertium sp. were considerably faster (715 g μM Na g(-1) hr(-1) wet wt) and appeared to not be close to saturation. Na efflux studies in H. sparna revealed that loss rates are commensurate with uptake rates and are responsive to changes in water Na concentrations. A comparison of Na uptake rates (at 0.57 mM Na) across 9 species representing 4 major orders (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Diptera) demonstrated profound physiological differences across species after accounting for the influence of body weight. Faster Na uptake rates were associated with species described as being sensitive to salinization in field studies. The metals silver (Ag) and copper (Cu), known to be antagonistic to Na uptake in other aquatic taxa did not generally

  19. A qualitative investigation of the temporal patterning of the precompetitive anxiety response.

    Hanton, Sheldon; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Young, Stuart G

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine retrospective perceptions and causal beliefs about temporal experiences of competitive anxiety and related symptoms in the lead up to competition. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 9 elite performers to examine the interaction of intensity, frequency and direction of symptoms associated with competitive anxiety before competition. Data analysis identified six causal networks that supported theoretical predictions suggesting that intensity of cognitive anxiety symptoms remained relatively stable in the lead up to competition, whereas somatic anxiety peaked sharply at the onset of performance. Frequency of anxiety symptoms increased as the competition approached and changes in interpretation of anxiety symptoms were also reported, with self-confidence identified as a moderating variable. The findings highlight the dynamic properties of the stress response and emphasize the need to consider the idiosyncratic nature of the level, frequency and interpretation of performers' precompetitive experiences.

  20. Suggestive Objects at Work

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  1. Response Pattern Based on the Amplitude of Ear Canal Recorded Cochlear Microphonic Waveforms across Acoustic Frequencies in Normal Hearing Subjects

    Zhang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Low-frequency otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are often concealed by acoustic background noise such as those from a patient’s breathing and from the environment during recording in clinics. When using electrocochleaography (ECochG or ECoG), such as cochlear microphonics (CMs), acoustic background noise do not contaminate the recordings. Our objective is to study the response pattern of CM waveforms (CMWs) to explore an alternative approach in assessing cochlear functions. In response to a 14-mse...

  2. Post-spike hyperpolarization participates in the formation of auditory behavior-related response patterns of inferior collicular neurons in Hipposideros pratti.

    Li, Y-L; Fu, Z-Y; Yang, M-J; Wang, J; Peng, K; Yang, L-J; Tang, J; Chen, Q-C

    2015-03-19

    To probe the mechanism underlying the auditory behavior-related response patterns of inferior collicular neurons to constant frequency-frequency modulation (CF-FM) stimulus in Hipposideros pratti, we studied the role of post-spike hyperpolarization (PSH) in the formation of response patterns. Neurons obtained by in vivo extracellular (N=145) and intracellular (N=171) recordings could be consistently classified into single-on (SO) and double-on (DO) neurons. Using intracellular recording, we found that both SO and DO neurons have a PSH with different durations. Statistical analysis showed that most SO neurons had a longer PSH duration than DO neurons (p<0.01). These data suggested that the PSH directly participated in the formation of SO and DO neurons, and the PSH elicited by the CF component was the main synaptic mechanism underlying the SO and DO response patterns. The possible biological significance of these findings relevant to bat echolocation is discussed. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low back pain in drivers exposed to whole body vibration: analysis of a dose-response pattern

    Tiemessen, I. J. H.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of a dose-response pattern between exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and low back pain (LBP) in a group of drivers. This study assessed individual factors, work-related risk factors, various LBP outcome measures and LBP disability in a group of drivers (n = 571) approached at baseline

  4. Diurnal Cortisol Patterns and Dexamethasone Suppression Test Responses in Healthy Young Adults Born Preterm at Very Low Birth Weight.

    Nina Kaseva

    Full Text Available Early life stress, such as painful and stressful procedures during neonatal intensive care after preterm birth, can permanently affect physiological, hormonal and neurobiological systems. This may contribute to altered programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA and provoke changes in HPAA function with long-term health impacts. Previous studies suggest a lower HPAA response to stress in young adults born preterm compared with controls born at term. We assessed whether these differences in HPAA stress responsiveness are reflected in everyday life HPAA functioning, i.e. in diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, and reactivity to a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST, in unimpaired young adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g.The participants were recruited from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults cohort study. At mean age 23.3 years (2.1 SD, 49 VLBW and 36 controls born at term participated in the study. For cortisol analyzes, saliva samples were collected on two consecutive days at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min after wake-up, at 12:00 h, 17:00 h and 22:00 h. After the last salivary sample of the first study day the participants were instructed to take a 0.5 mg dexamethasone tablet.With mixed-effects model no difference was seen in overall diurnal salivary cortisol between VLBW and control groups [13.9% (95% CI: -11.6, 47.0, P = 0.31]. Salivary cortisol increased similarly after awakening in both VLBW and control participants [mean difference -2.9% (29.2, 33.0, P = 0.85]. Also reactivity to the low-dose DST (awakening cortisol ratio day2/day1 was similar between VLBW and control groups [-1.1% (-53.5, 103.8, P = 0.97].Diurnal cortisol patterns and reactivity to a low-dose DST in young adulthood were not associated with preterm birth.

  5. Grassland to woodland transitions: Dynamic response of microbial community structure and carbon use patterns

    Creamer, Courtney A.; Filley, Timothy R.; Boutton, Thomas W.; Rowe, Helen I.

    2016-06-01

    Woodland encroachment into grasslands is a globally pervasive phenomenon attributed to land use change, fire suppression, and climate change. This vegetation shift impacts ecosystem services such as ground water allocation, carbon (C) and nutrient status of soils, aboveground and belowground biodiversity, and soil structure. We hypothesized that woodland encroachment would alter microbial community structure and function and would be related to patterns in soil C accumulation. To address this hypothesis, we measured the composition and δ13C values of soil microbial phospholipids (PLFAs) along successional chronosequences from C4-dominated grasslands to C3-dominated woodlands (small discrete clusters and larger groves) spanning up to 134 years. Woodland development increased microbial biomass, soil C and nitrogen (N) concentrations, and altered microbial community composition. The relative abundance of gram-negative bacteria (cy19:0) increased linearly with stand age, consistent with decreases in soil pH and/or greater rhizosphere development and corresponding increases in C inputs. δ13C values of all PLFAs decreased with time following woody encroachment, indicating assimilation of woodland C sources. Among the microbial groups, fungi and actinobacteria in woodland soils selectively assimilated grassland C to a greater extent than its contribution to bulk soil. Between the two woodland types, microbes in the groves incorporated relatively more of the relict C4-C than those in the clusters, potentially due to differences in below ground plant C allocation and organo-mineral association. Changes in plant productivity and C accessibility (rather than C chemistry) dictated microbial C utilization in this system in response to shrub encroachment.

  6. Evolution of HVR-1 quasispecies after 1-year treatment in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients according to the pattern of response to highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Solmone, Mariacarmela; Girardi, Enrico; Lalle, Eleonora; Abbate, Isabella; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Alessandrini, Anna; Piscopo, Rita; Ebo, Francesca; Cosco, Lucio; Antonucci, Giorgio; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Capobianchi, Maria R

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) variability is mainly attributed to the ability of the virus to respond to host immune pressure, acting as a driving force for the evolution of quasispecies. This study was aimed at studying the changes in HVR-1 heterogeneity and the evolution of HCV quasispecies in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients according to the pattern of response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Sixteen HIV/HCV-coinfected patients harbouring HCV genotype 1 and who had been on HAART for at least 1 year, 8 showing increasing CD4+ T-cell counts (immunological responders) and 8 showing a stable or decreasing CD4+ T-cell counts (immunological nonresponders), were selected from a prospective cohort study. After 1 year of HAART, 11 patients showed HIV viral load HVR-1 region of HCV. Nonsynonymous/synonymous substitutions ratio (Ka/Ks), aminoacidic complexity (normalized Shannon entropy) and diversity (p-distance), were considered as parameters of quasispecies heterogeneity. After 1 year of HAART, heterogeneity of HVR-1 quasispecies significantly decreased in virological non-responders, whereas the heterogeneity tended to increase in virological responders. The differences in the evolution were less stringent, when considering immunological response. On the other hand, profound qualitative modifications of HVR-1 quasispecies were observed only in patients with both immunological and virological HAART response. On the whole, these findings suggest that, in patients undergoing HAART, the extent of HCV variability and the evolution of HVR-1 quasispecies is influenced by the pattern of response to antiretroviral therapy.

  7. Tailor-made cell patterning using a near-infrared-responsive composite gel composed of agarose and carbon nanotubes

    Koga, Haruka; Nakazawa, Kohji; Sada, Takao; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2013-01-01

    Micropatterning is useful for regulating culture environments. We developed a highly efficient near-infrared-(NIR)-responsive gel and established a new technique that enables cell patterning by NIR irradiation. As a new culture substratum, we designed a tissue culture plate that was coated with a composite gel composed of agarose and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A culture plate coated with agarose only showed no response to NIR irradiation. In contrast, NIR laser irradiation induced heat generation by CNTs; this permitted local solation of the CNT/agarose gel, and consequently, selective cell-adhesive regions were exposed on the tissue culture plate. The solation area was controlled by the NIR intensity, magnification of the object lens and CNT concentration in the gel. Furthermore, we formed circular patterns of HeLa cells and linear patterns of 3T3 cells on the same culture plate through selective and stepwise NIR irradiation of the CNT/agarose gel, and we also demonstrated that individual 3T3 cells migrated along a linear path formed on the CNT/agarose gel by NIR irradiation. These results indicate that our technique is useful for tailor-made cell patterning of stepwise and/or complex cell patterns, which has various biological applications such as stepwise co-culture and the study of cell migration. (paper)

  8. Dynamic response and transfer function of social systems: A neuro-inspired model of collective human activity patterns.

    Lymperopoulos, Ilias N

    2017-10-01

    The interaction of social networks with the external environment gives rise to non-stationary activity patterns reflecting the temporal structure and strength of exogenous influences that drive social dynamical processes far from an equilibrium state. Following a neuro-inspired approach, based on the dynamics of a passive neuronal membrane, and the firing rate dynamics of single neurons and neuronal populations, we build a state-of-the-art model of the collective social response to exogenous interventions. In this regard, we analyze online activity patterns with a view to determining the transfer function of social systems, that is, the dynamic relationship between external influences and the resulting activity. To this end, first we estimate the impulse response (Green's function) of collective activity, and then we show that the convolution of the impulse response with a time-varying external influence field accurately reproduces empirical activity patterns. To capture the dynamics of collective activity when the generating process is in a state of statistical equilibrium, we incorporate into the model a noisy input convolved with the impulse response function, thus precisely reproducing the fluctuations of stationary collective activity around a resting value. The outstanding goodness-of-fit of the model results to empirical observations, indicates that the model explains human activity patterns generated by time-dependent external influences in various socio-economic contexts. The proposed model can be used for inferring the temporal structure and strength of external influences, as well as the inertia of collective social activity. Furthermore, it can potentially predict social activity patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial and temporal expression patterns of auxin response transcription factors in the syncytium induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis.

    Hewezi, Tarek; Piya, Sarbottam; Richard, Geoffrey; Rice, J Hollis

    2014-09-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes induce the formation of a multinucleated feeding site in the infected root, termed the syncytium. Recent studies point to key roles of the phytohormone auxin in the regulation of gene expression and establishment of the syncytium. Nevertheless, information about the spatiotemporal expression patterns of the transcription factors that mediate auxin transcriptional responses during syncytium formation is limited. Here, we provide a gene expression map of 22 auxin response factors (ARFs) during the initiation, formation and maintenance stages of the syncytium induced by the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis. We observed distinct and overlapping expression patterns of ARFs throughout syncytium development phases. We identified a set of ARFs whose expression is predominantly located inside the developing syncytium, whereas others are expressed in the neighbouring cells, presumably to initiate specific transcriptional programmes required for their incorporation within the developing syncytium. Our analyses also point to a role of certain ARFs in determining the maximum size of the syncytium. In addition, several ARFs were found to be highly expressed in fully developed syncytia, suggesting a role in maintaining the functional phenotype of mature syncytia. The dynamic distribution and overlapping expression patterns of various ARFs seem to be essential characteristics of ARF activity during syncytium development. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  10. Patterns of cross-sensitivity in the responses of clonal subpopulations isolated from the RIF-1 mouse sarcoma to selected nitrosoureas and nitrogen mustards.

    Reeve, J. G.; Wright, K. A.; Workman, P.

    1984-01-01

    The response of clonal subpopulations isolated from the RIF-1 mouse sarcoma to melphalan treatment is independent of cell ploidy, whereas a clear relationship exists between ploidy and cell sensitivity to CCNU treatment. In the present study RIF-1 clones have been exposed to nitrogen mustard, aniline mustard and chlorambucil, and to nitrosoureas BCNU, MeCCNU and chlorozotocin, in order to evaluate whether or not the different physiochemical and biological activities of these agents would affect the patterns of drug sensitivity obtained for melphalan and CCNU. Irrespective of the different lipophilicities, transport properties and chemical reactivities of the nitrogen mustards, RIF-1 clones showed the same pattern of sensitivity as previously observed for melphalan. Similarly, RIF-1 clones when exposed to nitrosoureas BCNU, MeCCNU and chlorozotocin, showed the same pattern of sensitivity as that obtained for CCNU exposure. These data suggest (a) that the variation in the sensitivity of RIF-1 clones to treatment by the nitrogen mustards is unlikely to reflect differences in either membrane permeability or in drug transport and (b) that the ploidy dependent nitrosourea responses shown by RIF-1 clones similarly do not reflect differences in drug uptake. PMID:6466534

  11. Biodiversity patterns of epifaunal assemblages associated with the gorgonians Eunicella gazella and Leptogorgia lusitanica in response to host, space and time

    Carvalho, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of biodiversity (alpha- and beta-diversity), abundance and community structure of the epifaunal assemblages associated with two gorgonians, Eunicella gazella and Leptogorgia lusitanica, were analysed in relation to host, colony size, location and time. Colony size and time were the major factors shaping attendant assemblages. Patterns of alpha-diversity and beta-diversity were host-dependent. Assemblages associated with E. gazella showed a significant inter-annual variability for most of the metrics analysed, while in those associated with L. lusitanica only Shannon-Wiener varied significantly between years. In L lusitanica Hurlbert\\'s expected number of taxa was significantly lower in small-sized than in medium- to large-sized colonies, but an opposite pattern was detected for beta-diversity, reflecting the higher heterogeneity among small-sized colonies. The dbRDA analysis segregated the assemblages associated with each of the two hosts; the faunal patterns were mainly explained by colony size related attributes (area, number of branches and, to a lesser extent, width) and the "colonial" epibiont cover. However, we suggest that altogether they may act as a metacommunity, with high temporal and spatial fluidity in their composition and structure related to multiple factors including not only a component of stochasticity but also life history events, biotic interactions and response to habitat heterogeneity and environmental variability. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biodiversity patterns of epifaunal assemblages associated with the gorgonians Eunicella gazella and Leptogorgia lusitanica in response to host, space and time

    Carvalho, Susana; Cú rdia, Joã o; Pereira, Fá bio; Guerra-Garcí a, José Manuel; Santos, Miguel N.; Cunha, Marina R.

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of biodiversity (alpha- and beta-diversity), abundance and community structure of the epifaunal assemblages associated with two gorgonians, Eunicella gazella and Leptogorgia lusitanica, were analysed in relation to host, colony size, location and time. Colony size and time were the major factors shaping attendant assemblages. Patterns of alpha-diversity and beta-diversity were host-dependent. Assemblages associated with E. gazella showed a significant inter-annual variability for most of the metrics analysed, while in those associated with L. lusitanica only Shannon-Wiener varied significantly between years. In L lusitanica Hurlbert's expected number of taxa was significantly lower in small-sized than in medium- to large-sized colonies, but an opposite pattern was detected for beta-diversity, reflecting the higher heterogeneity among small-sized colonies. The dbRDA analysis segregated the assemblages associated with each of the two hosts; the faunal patterns were mainly explained by colony size related attributes (area, number of branches and, to a lesser extent, width) and the "colonial" epibiont cover. However, we suggest that altogether they may act as a metacommunity, with high temporal and spatial fluidity in their composition and structure related to multiple factors including not only a component of stochasticity but also life history events, biotic interactions and response to habitat heterogeneity and environmental variability. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. In vivo evidence suggesting reciprocal renal hypoxia-inducible factor-1 upregulation and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation in response to hypoxic and non-hypoxic stimuli.

    Nechemia-Arbely, Yael; Khamaisi, Mogher; Rosenberger, Christian; Koesters, Robert; Shina, Ahuva; Geva, Carmit; Shriki, Anat; Klaus, Stephen; Rosen, Seymour; Rose-John, Stefan; Galun, Eithan; Axelrod, Jonathan H; Heyman, Samuel N

    2013-04-01

    In vitro studies suggest that combined activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) promotes the hypoxia response. However, their interrelationship in vivo remains poorly defined. The present study investigated the possible relationship between HIF-1 upregulation and STAT3 activation in the rodent kidney in vivo. Activation of HIF-1 and STAT3 was analysed by immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis in: (i) models of hypoxia-associated kidney injury induced by radiocontrast media or rhabdomyolysis; (ii) following activation of STAT3 by the interleukin (IL)-6-soluble IL-6 receptor complex; or (iii) following HIF-1α stabilization using hypoxic and non-hypoxic stimuli (mimosine, FG-4497, CO, CoCl(2)) and in targeted von Hippel-Lindau-knockout mice. Western blot analysis and immunostaining revealed marked induction of both transcription factors under all conditions tested, suggesting that in vivo STAT3 can trigger HIF and vice versa. Colocalization of HIF-1α and phosphorylated STAT3 was detected in some, but not all, renal cell types, suggesting that in some cells a paracrine mechanism may be responsible for the reciprocal activation of the two transcription factors. Nevertheless, in several cell types spatial concordance was observed under the majority of conditions tested, suggesting that HIF-1 and STAT3 may act as cotranscription factors. These in vivo studies suggest that, in response to renal hypoxic-stress, upregulation of HIF-1 and activation of STAT3 may be both reciprocal and cell type dependent. © 2013 The Authors Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Responsiveness of performance and morphological traits to experimental submergence predicts field distribution pattern of wetland plants

    Luo, Fang-Li; Huang, Lin; Lei, Ting; Xue, Wei; Li, Hong-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2016-01-01

    Question: Plant trait mean values and trait responsiveness to different environmental regimes are both important determinants of plant field distribution, but the degree to which plant trait means vs trait responsiveness predict plant distribution has rarely been compared quantitatively. Because

  15. Dating couples' attachment styles and patterns of cortisol reactivity and recovery in response to a relationship conflict.

    Powers, Sally I; Pietromonaco, Paula R; Gunlicks, Meredith; Sayer, Aline

    2006-04-01

    This study investigated theoretically predicted links between attachment style and a physiological indicator of stress, salivary cortisol levels, in 124 heterosexual dating couples. Cortisol was assessed at 7 points before and after an experimental conflict negotiation task, creating a trajectory of stress reactivity and recovery for each participant. Growth modeling of cortisol data tested hypotheses that (a) insecurely attached individuals show patterns of greater physiological stress reactions to interpersonal conflict than do securely attached individuals and (b) people with insecurely attached partners show patterns of greater stress in reaction to relationship conflict than those with securely attached partners. Hypothesis 1 was supported, but men and women differed in the type of insecure attachment that predicted stress trajectories. Hypothesis 2 was supported for men, but not for women. The discussion emphasizes the role of gender role norms and partner characteristics in understanding connections between adult attachment and patterns of cortisol responses to interpersonal stress.

  16. Salivary alpha amylase diurnal pattern and stress response are associated with body mass index in low-income preschool-aged children.

    Miller, Alison L; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    Physiological stress responses are proposed as a pathway through which stress can "get under the skin" and lead to health problems, specifically obesity. We tested associations of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) diurnal patterns and stress responses with body mass index (BMI) in young, low-income children (51% male; 54% non-Hispanic white). Diurnal saliva samples were collected three times per day across three days for 269 children (M age 50.8 months, SD 6.3). Individual sAA intercept and slope values were calculated using random effect models to represent morning sAA levels and rate of sAA change across the day. A subset of children (n=195; M age 56.6 months, SD 6.9) participated in a lab-based behavioral stress protocol. Area under the curve increase (AUCI) across four timepoints was calculated to represent increase in sAA output during stress elicitation. Children were weighed and height measured and BMI z-score was calculated. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations of sAA intercept, sAA slope, and sAA AUCI with BMI z-score, controlling for child age, sex, and race/ethnicity; maternal weight status; and family income-to-needs ratio. Diurnal and stress-response sAA patterns were related to child adiposity: for each 1-standard deviation unit (SDU) decrease in morning sAA level, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.11 (SE 0.05) SDU's (pstress elicitation, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.14 (SE 0.06) SDU's (pstress responses and atypical diurnal patterns of sAA have been found following exposure to chronic life stressors such as poverty. Findings suggest that associations of stress, sAA, and elevated body mass index may develop very early in the lifespan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Using cluster analysis to identify patterns in students’ responses to contextually different conceptual problems

    John Stewart

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the evolution of student responses to seven contextually different versions of two Force Concept Inventory questions in an introductory physics course at the University of Arkansas. The consistency in answering the closely related questions evolved little over the seven-question exam. A model for the state of student knowledge involving the probability of selecting one of the multiple-choice answers was developed. Criteria for using clustering algorithms to extract model parameters were explored and it was found that the overlap between the probability distributions of the model vectors was an important parameter in characterizing the cluster models. The course data were then clustered and the extracted model showed that students largely fit into two groups both pre- and postinstruction: one that answered all questions correctly with high probability and one that selected the distracter representing the same misconception with high probability. For the course studied, 14% of the students were left with persistent misconceptions post instruction on a static force problem and 30% on a dynamic Newton’s third law problem. These students selected the answer representing the predominant misconception slightly more consistently postinstruction, indicating that the course studied had been ineffective at moving this subgroup of students nearer a Newtonian force concept and had instead moved them slightly farther away from a correct conceptual understanding of these two problems. The consistency in answering pairs of problems with varied physical contexts is shown to be an important supplementary statistic to the score on the problems and suggests that the inclusion of such problem pairs in future conceptual inventories would be efficacious. Multiple, contextually varied questions further probe the structure of students’ knowledge. To allow working instructors to make use of the additional insight gained from cluster analysis, it

  18. Searching for Truth: Internet Search Patterns as a Method of Investigating Online Responses to a Russian Illicit Drug Policy Debate

    Zheluk, Andrey; Gillespie, James A; Quinn, Casey

    2012-01-01

    Background This is a methodological study investigating the online responses to a national debate over an important health and social problem in Russia. Russia is the largest Internet market in Europe, exceeding Germany in the absolute number of users. However, Russia is unusual in that the main search provider is not Google, but Yandex. Objective This study had two main objectives. First, to validate Yandex search patterns against those provided by Google, and second, to test this method's a...

  19. Changes in muscle activation patterns in response to enhanced sensory input during treadmill stepping in infants born with myelomeningocele

    Pantall, Annette; Teulier, Caroline; Ulrich, Beverly D.

    2012-01-01

    Infants with myelomeningocele (MMC) increase step frequency in response to modifications to the treadmill surface. The aim was to investigate how these modifications impacted the electromyographic (EMG) patterns. We analyzed EMG from 19 infants aged 2–10 months, with MMC at the lumbosacral level. We supported infants upright on the treadmill for 12 trials, each 30 seconds long. Modifications included visual flow, unloading, weights, Velcro and lcriction. Surface electrodes recorded EMG from t...

  20. Metastatic pattern and DNA ploidy in stage IV breast cancer at initial diagnosis. Relation to response and survival.

    De Lena, M; Romero, A; Rabinovich, M; Leone, B; Vallejo, C; Machiavelli, M; Cuevas, M; Rodriguez, R; Lacava, J; Perez, J

    1993-06-01

    Sixty-nine patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) at initial diagnosis were analyzed to verify if metastatic pattern and clinical outcome are related to DNA ploidy determined by flow cytometry (FCM). Characteristics of 55 fully evaluable patients were as follows: median age: 61 years; postmenopausal: 75%; bone-only metastases (BM): 60%; extraosseous-only metastases (EM): 40%. Overall response rates (CR + PR) obtained with different chemotherapies and/or hormonal therapies were 58% and 68% for patients with BM and EM, respectively. Sixty percent of specimens resulted aneuploid, and the mean coefficient of variation of the complete series was 5.1%. In the whole group of patients DNA ploidy of primary tumor did not predict the metastatic pattern and had no influence upon response to treatment, duration of response, time to progression, and overall survival. When analyses were carried out according to metastatic pattern, those patients with BM showed similar results. However, within the group with EM, those with diploid tumors presented a significantly better survival (median 18 vs 13 months, p = .04). FCM-DNA analysis seems to identify a subgroup of patients with poor prognosis constituted by those who had aneuploid primary tumors and metastases to extraosseous sites.

  1. Neural patterning of human induced pluripotent stem cells in 3-D cultures for studying biomolecule-directed differential cellular responses.

    Yan, Yuanwei; Bejoy, Julie; Xia, Junfei; Guan, Jingjiao; Zhou, Yi; Li, Yan

    2016-09-15

    Appropriate neural patterning of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is critical to generate specific neural cells/tissues and even mini-brains that are physiologically relevant to model neurological diseases. However, the capacity of signaling factors that regulate 3-D neural tissue patterning in vitro and differential responses of the resulting neural populations to various biomolecules have not yet been fully understood. By tuning neural patterning of hiPSCs with small molecules targeting sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, this study generated different 3-D neuronal cultures that were mainly comprised of either cortical glutamatergic neurons or motor neurons. Abundant glutamatergic neurons were observed following the treatment with an antagonist of SHH signaling, cyclopamine, while Islet-1 and HB9-expressing motor neurons were enriched by an SHH agonist, purmorphamine. In neurons derived with different neural patterning factors, whole-cell patch clamp recordings showed similar voltage-gated Na(+)/K(+) currents, depolarization-evoked action potentials and spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents. Moreover, these different neuronal populations exhibited differential responses to three classes of biomolecules, including (1) matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors that affect extracellular matrix remodeling; (2) N-methyl-d-aspartate that induces general neurotoxicity; and (3) amyloid β (1-42) oligomers that cause neuronal subtype-specific neurotoxicity. This study should advance our understanding of hiPSC self-organization and neural tissue development and provide a transformative approach to establish 3-D models for neurological disease modeling and drug discovery. Appropriate neural patterning of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is critical to generate specific neural cells, tissues and even mini-brains that are physiologically relevant to model neurological diseases. However, the capability of sonic hedgehog-related small molecules to tune

  2. Response of S.C.704 maize hybrid seed production to planting pattern

    In order to determine the best planting pattern for producing the S.C.704 hybrid seed of maize, a field experiment was conducted in 2007 at Safiabad Dezful Research Center via a complete block design with four treatments and replicates each. The treatments were: D1 (one row each of paternal and maternal lines), D2 (two ...

  3. Meth mouth severity in response to drug-use patterns and dental access in methamphetamine users.

    Brown, Ronni E; Morisky, Donald E; Silverstein, Steven J

    2013-06-01

    Meth mouth is the rapid development of tooth decay in methamphetamine users. Our study questioned whether drug-use patterns and dental care access are risk factors affecting the severity of meth mouth. Participants received dental examinations, and the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) were counted and used to measure meth mouth severity.

  4. Response of SC704 maize hybrid seed production to planting pattern

    Mohammed Reza

    2012-05-08

    May 8, 2012 ... EC, Electrical conductivity; N, nitrogen; P, phosphorus;. K, potassium; OC, organic carbon. in plants leads to more assimilation in them, thereby increasing yield. Leaf area index increases yield in two ways: increase in the reformation of leaf surface in plants and increase in plant density. Planting pattern ...

  5. Conversion of palatal rugae pattern to scanable Quick Response code in an Arabian population

    Sadatullah Syed

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The alphanumeric and QR code of the rugae pattern are unique for each individual and can be used for digital record keeping and person identification. A high degree of sexual dimorphism in PR exists in the studied Arab population studied.

  6. Pattern- and contrast-dependent visual response in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora

    Garm, Anders; Hedal, Ida; Islin, Majken

    2013-01-01

    Cubomedusae possess a total of 24 eyes, some of which are structurally similar to vertebrate eyes. Accordingly, the medusae also display a range of light-guided behaviours including obstacle avoidance, diurnal activity patterns and navigation. Navigation is supported by spatial resolution and image...

  7. Proliferative response of the murine esophageal epithelium to radiation: Modification by food consumption patterns

    Burholt, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The single layer of proliferative epithelial cells of the murine esophagus undergoes a sequence of damage and recovery following cytotoxic insult. The modification of both damage and proliferative recovery by the alteration of animal eating patterns was investigated following thoracic field irradiation through the determination of /sup 3/H-TdR incorporation into the esophagus along with selective counting of labeled nuclei and mitotic figures. Initial radiation-induced damage, as determined by /sup 3/H-TdR incorporation suppression and mitotic delay, is under normal conditions dependent on the time of day of treatment. This circadian sensitivity may be altered by changing the eating pattern of the animal. The proliferative recovery following single dose irradiation is also dependent on food consumption patterns: fasting immediately following treatment and then refeeding 2 days later results in a more rapid proliferative recovery than observed under control eating conditions, while reduced food consumption during the period of proliferative hyperplasia reduces the extent of recovery. During multifraction radiation schedules both the damage produced by a subsequent dose and recovery capacity are influenced by the food consumption pattern between fractions

  8. Comparing genomic expression patterns across plant species reveals highly diverged transcriptional dynamics in response to salt stress

    Close Timothy J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice and barley are both members of Poaceae (grass family but have a marked difference in salt tolerance. The molecular mechanism underlying this difference was previously unexplored. This study employs a comparative genomics approach to identify analogous and contrasting gene expression patterns between rice and barley. Results A hierarchical clustering approach identified several interesting expression trajectories among rice and barley genotypes. There were no major conserved expression patterns between the two species in response to salt stress. A wheat salt-stress dataset was queried for comparison with rice and barley. Roughly one-third of the salt-stress responses of barley were conserved with wheat while overlap between wheat and rice was minimal. These results demonstrate that, at transcriptome level, rice is strikingly different compared to the more closely related barley and wheat. This apparent lack of analogous transcriptional programs in response to salt stress is further highlighted through close examination of genes associated with root growth and development. Conclusion The analysis provides support for the hypothesis that conservation of transcriptional signatures in response to environmental cues depends on the genetic similarity among the genotypes within a species, and on the phylogenetic distance between the species.

  9. Experience drives innovation of new migration patterns of whooping cranes in response to global change.

    Teitelbaum, Claire S; Converse, Sarah J; Fagan, William F; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B; Lacy, Anne E; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-09-06

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution.

  10. Experience drives innovation of new migration patterns of whooping cranes in response to global change

    Teitelbaum, Claire S.; Converse, Sarah J.; Fagan, William F.; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B.; Lacy, Anne E; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution.

  11. Expression Patterns of Odorant Receptors and Response Properties of Olfactory Sensory Neurons in Aged Mice

    Lee, Anderson C.; Tian, Huikai; Grosmaitre, Xavier; Ma, Minghong

    2009-01-01

    The sense of smell deteriorates in normal aging, but the underling mechanisms are still elusive. Here we investigated age-related alterations in expression patterns of odorant receptor (OR) genes and functional properties of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs)—2 critical factors that define the odor detection threshold in the olfactory epithelium. Using in situ hybridization for 9 representative OR genes, we compared the cell densities of each OR in coronal nose sections at different ages (3–27 ...

  12. Emotional response patterns of depression, grief, sadness and stress to differing life events: a quantitative analysis.

    Parker, Gordon; Paterson, Amelia; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan

    2015-04-01

    In clarifying the clinical definition of an episode of major depression, DSM-5 equates bereavement with a number of other loss-related stressors (e.g. financial ruin, serious medical problems) and infers differences between such loss-related and non-loss-related responses. We undertook a study with the aim of examining the likelihood of varying life stressors leading to depression or to other emotional responses, and so allowing consideration as to whether bereavement might be equivalent to other loss-related stressful triggers. We studied a sample comprising sub-sets of those likely to have either experienced or never experienced a clinical depressive episode and report data for both the whole sample and the separate sub-sets. Participants were asked to report their exposure to 16 differing stressors and, given definitions of depression, grief, sadness and stress, to rate (in order of importance) their primary and secondary reactions if so experienced. Only one event (i.e. the individual being left by their partner) generated depression as the most likely response within the sample. A grief reaction was nominated as the most likely primary response to the death of a first-degree relative (52%) and was also a relatively common primary response to the death of a more distant relative or close family friend (36%). While one-fourth (24%) nominated grief as the primary response to being left by one's partner, it was rarely nominated as a primary response to all other events, including the DSM-5 'loss-related' exemplars of a financial crisis and of a medical illness (rates of 3% and 2%, respectively). As participants were given a definition of the emotional responses and candidate contexts, their responses may have been a reflection of the definitions provided. Additionally, a retrospective, self-report design was used which may have impacted on the veracity of responses. Findings position a grief response as showing relative specificity to bereavement events and that

  13. No-reference stereoscopic image quality measurement based on generalized local ternary patterns of binocular energy response

    Zhou, Wujie; Yu, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual no-reference (NR) quality measurement of stereoscopic images has become a challenging issue in three-dimensional (3D) imaging fields. In this article, we propose an efficient binocular quality-aware features extraction scheme, namely generalized local ternary patterns (GLTP) of binocular energy response, for general-purpose NR stereoscopic image quality measurement (SIQM). More specifically, we first construct the binocular energy response of a distorted stereoscopic image with different stimuli of amplitude and phase shifts. Then, the binocular quality-aware features are generated from the GLTP of the binocular energy response. Finally, these features are mapped to the subjective quality score of the distorted stereoscopic image by using support vector regression. Experiments on two publicly available 3D databases confirm the effectiveness of the proposed metric compared with the state-of-the-art full reference and NR metrics. (paper)

  14. Esterase isozymes patterns of grape vine (Vitis vinifera L. are altered in response to fungicide exposure

    Gleice Ribeiro Orasmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis characterizes the effect of different fungicides often applied for pest control on a-and b-esterase patterns of four economically important table-wine grape cultivars (Italia, Rubi, Benitaka and Brasil of Vitis vinifera. The a- and b-esterase patterns in bud leaves of the cultivars were assessed by native PAGE analysis. Cabrio Top® compound inhibited Est-2, Est-5, Est-6, Est-7, Est-8, Est-9 and Est-10 carboxylesterases, whereas Est-4, Est-11, Est-12, Est-13, Est-14 acetylesterases and Est-16 carboxylesterase were detected as weakly stained bands. Carboxylesterases and acetylesterases were also detected as weakly stained bands when exposed to fungicides Orthocide 500®, Positron Duo® and Folicur PM®. No changes in a- and b-esterase patterns were reported when the vines were exposed to the fungicides Rovral SC®, Kumulus DF®, Curzate M®, Score® or Cuprogarb 500®. The evidence of functional changes in carboxylesterase and acetylesterase levels in current study is a warning to grape producers on the dangers inherent in the indiscriminate use of potent and modern fungicides extensively used in agriculture. The inhibition effect of fungicides on esterase isozyme molecules seems to be independent of the fungicide chemical.

  15. Response of spatial point pattern of halostachys caspica population to ground water depth

    Niu, P.; Wang, M.; Jiang, P.; Li, M.; Chu, G.

    2017-01-01

    We subjected Halostachys caspica populations to three groundwater depths: shallow ( 4.5 m) in the sample plots, at the diluvial fan of the South Junggar Basin. Both the spatial pattern and spatial association of the population among all three groundwater depths and four growth stages were studied to investigate the impact of groundwater depth on the formation and persistence mechanism of the spatial pattern of Halostachys caspica populations. In this study, Ripley's K function was utilized to characterize spatial patterns and intraspecific associations of H. caspica in three 1-ha plots, as well as to study their relationship with groundwater depth. The seedling supplement severely decreased with increasing groundwater depth, and the population structure changed noticeably due to increased amount of dead standing plants. Different growth stages of the H. caspica population all had aggregated distributions at small scale in the three groundwater depth areas. With increasing scales, the aggregation intensity weakened in all growth stages. Distribution was aggregated at 50 m scales in both the shallow and middle groundwater depth areas, while the deep groundwater depth area followed a random distribution. (author)

  16. Modeling and simulation of placebo response and dropout patterns in treatment of schizophrenia

    Pilla Reddy, Venkatesh; Kozielska, Magdalena; Johnson, Martin; Vermeulen, An; de Greef, Rik; Liu, Jing; Groothuis, Genoveva; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Unpredictable variation in placebo response within and among clinical trials can substantially affect conclusions about the efficacy of new antipsychotic medications. Developing a robust placebo model accounting for factors like dropouts, disease progression and trial design is crucial

  17. Exercise effects on lipids in persons with varying dietary patterns - Does diet matter if they exercise? Responses in STRRIDE I

    Huffman, Kim M.; Hawk, Victoria H.; Henes, Sarah T.; Ocampo, Christine I.; Orenduff, Melissa C.; Slentz, Cris A.; Johnson, Johanna L.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Samsa, Gregory P.; Kraus, William E.; Bales, Connie W.

    2012-01-01

    Background The standard clinical approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk due to dyslipidemia is to prescribe changes in diet and physical activity. The purpose of the current study was to determine if, across a range of dietary patterns, there were variable lipoprotein responses to an aerobic exercise training intervention. Methods Subjects were participants in the Studies of a Targeted Risk Reduction Intervention through Defined Exercise (STRRIDE I), a supervised exercise program in sedentary, overweight subjects randomized to 6 months of inactivity or one of 3 aerobic exercise programs. To characterize diet patterns observed during the study, we calculated a modified z-score that included intakes of total fat, saturated fat, trans fatty acids, cholesterol, omega-3 fatty acids and fiber as compared to the 2006 AHA diet recommendations. Linear models were used to evaluate relationships between diet patterns and exercise effects on lipoproteins/lipids. Results Independent of diet, exercise had beneficial effects on LDL-cholesterol particle number, LDL-cholesterol size, HDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol size, and triglycerides (Pdiet pattern that closely adhered to AHA recommendations was not related to changes in these or any other serum lipids or lipoproteins in any of the exercise groups. Conclusions We found that even in sedentary individuals whose habitual diets vary in the extent of adherence to AHA dietary recommendations, a rigorous, supervised exercise intervention can achieve significant beneficial lipid effects. PMID:22795291

  18. Immunobiotic Bifidobacteria Strains Modulate Rotavirus Immune Response in Porcine Intestinal Epitheliocytes via Pattern Recognition Receptor Signaling.

    Takamasa Ishizuka

    Full Text Available In this work, we aimed to characterize the antiviral response of an originally established porcine intestinal epithelial cell line (PIE cells by evaluating the molecular innate immune response to rotavirus (RVs. In addition, we aimed to select immunomodulatory bacteria with antiviral capabilities. PIE cells were inoculated with RVs isolated from different host species and the infective titers and the molecular innate immune response were evaluated. In addition, the protection against RVs infection and the modulation of immune response by different lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains was studied. The RVs strains OSU (porcine and UK (bovine effectively infected PIE cells. Our results also showed that RVs infection in PIE cells triggered TLR3-, RIG-I- and MDA-5-mediated immune responses with activation of IRF3 and NF-κB, induction of IFN-β and up-regulation of the interferon stimulated genes MxA and RNase L. Among the LAB strains tested, Bifidobacterium infantis MCC12 and B. breve MCC1274 significantly reduced RVs titers in infected PIE cells. The beneficial effects of both bifidobacteria were associated with reduction of A20 expression, and improvements of IRF-3 activation, IFN-β production, and MxA and RNase L expressions. These results indicate the value of PIE cells for studying RVs molecular innate immune response in pigs and for the selection of beneficial bacteria with antiviral capabilities.

  19. MicroRNA profiling of the bovine alveolar macrophage response to Mycobacterium bovis infection suggests pathogen survival is enhanced by microRNA regulation of endocytosis and lysosome trafficking.

    Vegh, Peter; Magee, David A; Nalpas, Nicolas C; Bryan, Kenneth; McCabe, Matthew S; Browne, John A; Conlon, Kevin M; Gordon, Stephen V; Bradley, Daniel G; MacHugh, David E; Lynn, David J

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, a major problem for global agriculture, spreads via an airborne route and is taken up by alveolar macrophages (AM) in the lung. Here, we describe the first next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq) approach to temporally profile miRNA expression in primary bovine AMs post-infection with M. bovis. One, six, and forty miRNAs were identified as significantly differentially expressed at 2, 24 and 48 h post-infection, respectively. The differential expression of three miRNAs (bta-miR-142-5p, bta-miR-146a, and bta-miR-423-3p) was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Pathway analysis of the predicted mRNA targets of differentially expressed miRNAs suggests that these miRNAs preferentially target several pathways that are functionally relevant for mycobacterial pathogenesis, including endocytosis and lysosome trafficking, IL-1 signalling and the TGF-β pathway. Over-expression studies using a bovine macrophage cell-line (Bomac) reveal the targeting of two key genes in the innate immune response to M. bovis, IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) and TGF-β receptor 2 (TGFBR2), by miR-146. Taken together, our study suggests that miRNAs play a key role in tuning the complex interplay between M. bovis survival strategies and the host immune response.

  20. Symbiotic specificity, association patterns, and function determine community responses to global changes: defining critical research areas for coral-Symbiodinium symbioses.

    Fabina, Nicholas S; Putnam, Hollie M; Franklin, Erik C; Stat, Michael; Gates, Ruth D

    2013-11-01

    Climate change-driven stressors threaten the persistence of coral reefs worldwide. Symbiotic relationships between scleractinian corals and photosynthetic endosymbionts (genus Symbiodinium) are the foundation of reef ecosystems, and these associations are differentially impacted by stress. Here, we couple empirical data from the coral reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia, and a network theoretic modeling approach to evaluate how patterns in coral-Symbiodinium associations influence community stability under climate change. To introduce the effect of climate perturbations, we simulate local 'extinctions' that represent either the loss of coral species or the ability to engage in symbiotic interactions. Community stability is measured by determining the duration and number of species that persist through the simulated extinctions. Our results suggest that four factors greatly increase coral-Symbiodinium community stability in response to global changes: (i) the survival of generalist hosts and symbionts maximizes potential symbiotic unions; (ii) elevated symbiont diversity provides redundant or complementary symbiotic functions; (iii) compatible symbiotic assemblages create the potential for local recolonization; and (iv) the persistence of certain traits associate with symbiotic diversity and redundancy. Symbiodinium may facilitate coral persistence through novel environmental regimes, but this capacity is mediated by symbiotic specificity, association patterns, and the functional performance of the symbionts. Our model-based approach identifies general trends and testable hypotheses in coral-Symbiodinium community responses. Future studies should consider similar methods when community size and/or environmental complexity preclude experimental approaches. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Patterns of MHC-DRB1 polymorphism in a post-glacial island canid, the Newfoundland red fox (Vulpes vulpes deletrix), suggest balancing selection at species and population timescales.

    Marshall, H Dawn; Langille, Barbara L; Hann, Crystal A; Whitney, Hugh G

    2016-05-01

    As the only native insular Newfoundland canid between the extinction of the wolf in the 1930s and the recent arrival of coyotes, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes deletrix Bangs 1898) poses interesting questions about genetic distinctiveness and the post-glacial colonization history of the island's depauperate mammalian fauna. Here, we characterized genetic variability at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DR β1 domain (DRB1) locus in 28 red foxes from six sampling localities island-wide and compared it with mitochondrial control region (CR) diversity and DRB1 diversity in other canids. Our goals were to describe novel DRB1 alleles in a new canid population and to make inferences about the role of selection in maintaining their diversity. As in numerous studies of vertebrates, we found an order-of-magnitude higher nucleotide diversity at the DRB1 locus compared with the CR and significantly positive nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution ratios, indicative of selection in the distant past. Although the evidence is weaker, the Ewens-Watterson test of neutrality and the geographical distribution of variation compared with the CR suggest a role for selection over the evolutionary timescale of populations. We report the first genetic data from the DRB1 locus in the red fox and establish baseline information regarding immunogenetic variation in this island canid population which should inform continued investigations of population demography, adaptive genetic diversity, and wildlife disease in red foxes and related species.

  2. Consumer purchasing patterns in response to calorie labeling legislation in New York City

    Elbel Brian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health threat and policies aimed at curbing this epidemic are emerging. National calorie labeling legislation is forthcoming and requires rigorous evaluation to examine its impact on consumers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether point-of-purchase calorie labels in New York City (NYC chain restaurants affected food purchasing patterns in a sample of lower income adults in NYC and Newark, NJ. Methods This study utilized a difference-in-difference design to survey 1,170 adult patrons of four popular chain restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ (which did not introduce labeling before and after calorie labeling was implemented in NYC. Receipt data were collected and analyzed to examine food and beverage purchases and frequency of fast food consumption. Descriptive statistics were generated, and linear and logistic regression, difference-in-difference analysis, and predicted probabilities were used to analyze the data. Results A difference-in-difference analysis revealed no significant favorable differences and some unfavorable differences in food purchasing patterns and frequency of fast food consumption between adult patrons of fast food restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ. Adults in NYC who reported noticing and using the calorie labels consumed fast food less frequently compared to adults who did not notice the labels (4.9 vs. 6.6 meals per week, p Conclusion While no favorable differences in purchasing as a result of labeling were noted, self-reported use of calorie labels was associated with some favorable behavioral patterns in a subset of adults in NYC. However, overall impact of the legislation may be limited. More research is needed to understand the most effective way to deliver calorie information to consumers.

  3. Consumer purchasing patterns in response to calorie labeling legislation in New York City.

    Vadiveloo, Maya K; Dixon, L Beth; Elbel, Brian

    2011-05-27

    Obesity is a major public health threat and policies aimed at curbing this epidemic are emerging. National calorie labeling legislation is forthcoming and requires rigorous evaluation to examine its impact on consumers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether point-of-purchase calorie labels in New York City (NYC) chain restaurants affected food purchasing patterns in a sample of lower income adults in NYC and Newark, NJ. This study utilized a difference-in-difference design to survey 1,170 adult patrons of four popular chain restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ (which did not introduce labeling) before and after calorie labeling was implemented in NYC. Receipt data were collected and analyzed to examine food and beverage purchases and frequency of fast food consumption. Descriptive statistics were generated, and linear and logistic regression, difference-in-difference analysis, and predicted probabilities were used to analyze the data. A difference-in-difference analysis revealed no significant favorable differences and some unfavorable differences in food purchasing patterns and frequency of fast food consumption between adult patrons of fast food restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ. Adults in NYC who reported noticing and using the calorie labels consumed fast food less frequently compared to adults who did not notice the labels (4.9 vs. 6.6 meals per week, p behavioral patterns in a subset of adults in NYC. However, overall impact of the legislation may be limited. More research is needed to understand the most effective way to deliver calorie information to consumers.

  4. Seismic Responses of Shot Span Bridge under Three Different Patterns of Earthquake Excitations

    Zhou Daochuan; Chen Guorong; Lu Yan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the influence of three different types of seismic input methods on the longitudinal seismic response of a short, three-span, variable cross-section, reinforced concrete bridge. Research progress of the seismic model is introduced briefly. Finite element model is created for the bridge and time history analysis conducted. Three different types of illustrative excitations are considered: 1) the EI-Centro seismic wave is used as uniform excitations at all bridge supports; 2) fixed apparent wave velocity is used for response analysis of traveling wave excitations on the bridge; 3) conforming to a selected coherency model, the multiple seismic excitation time histories considering spatially variable effects are generated. The contrast study of the response analysis result under the three different seismic excitations is conducted and the influence of different seismic input methods is studied. The comparative analysis of the bridge model shows that the uniform ground motion input can not provide conservative seismic demands-in a number of cases it results in lower response than that predicted by multiple seismic excitations. The result of uniform excitation and traveling wave excitation shows very small difference. Consequently, multiple seismic excitations needs to be applied at the bridge supports for response analysis of short span bridge.

  5. Patterns in the Parathyroid Response to Sodium Bicarbonate Infusion Test in Healthy Volunteers

    Theodossis S. Papavramidis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The sodium bicarbonate infusion test evaluates the function of the parathyroid glands. The present study aims to evaluate the range of parathyroid response in healthy individuals and the potential influence of various factors. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers were subjected to the test. Levels of vitamin D, calcium, albumin, and PTH were measured before infusion. PTH was measured at 3, 5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes after infusion. Results. A curve describing the response of parathyroids to the test was drawn. Twenty percent of the subjects had blunted PTH response. No significant difference was observed between normal and blunted responders concerning age, BMI, baseline PTH, or calcium levels. Nonetheless, there was a significant difference in vitamin D levels (P=0.024. Interpretation. The test is easy to perform and may be used for everyday screening. It has to be clarified whether our observations are, at least partly, produced due to the presence of individuals with a constitutively blunted response or if low levels of vitamin D decrease the ability of the parathyroids to respond. Whichever the case, PTH response of normal individuals to sodium bicarbonate infusion test is more varied than previously thought and vitamin D levels influence it.

  6. Attend or defend? Sex differences in behavioral, autonomic, and respiratory response patterns to emotion-eliciting films.

    Wilhelm, Frank H; Rattel, Julina A; Wegerer, Melanie; Liedlgruber, Michael; Schweighofer, Simon; Kreibig, Sylvia D; Kolodyazhniy, Vitaliy; Blechert, Jens

    2017-12-01

    Sex differences in emotional reactivity have been studied primarily for negative but less so for positive stimuli; likewise, sex differences in the psychophysiological response-patterning during such stimuli are poorly understood. Thus, the present study examined sex differences in response to negative/positive and high/low arousing films (classified as threat-, loss-, achievement-, and recreation-related, vs. neutral films), while measuring 18 muscular, autonomic, and respiratory parameters. Sex differences emerged for all films, but were most prominent for threat-related films: Despite equivalent valence and arousal ratings, women displayed more facial-muscular and respiratory responding than men and pronounced sympathetic activation (preejection period, other cardiovascular and electrodermal measures), while men showed coactivated sympathetic/parasympathetic responding (including increased respiratory sinus arrhythmia). This indicates a prototypical threat-related defense response in women, while men showed a pattern of sustained orienting, which can be understood as a shift toward less threat proximity in the defense cascade model. Clinical implications are discussed within a socio-evolutionary framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Objective assessment of chromatic and achromatic pattern adaptation reveals the temporal response properties of different visual pathways.

    Robson, Anthony G; Kulikowski, Janus J

    2012-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the temporal response properties of magnocellular, parvocellular, and koniocellular visual pathways using increment/decrement changes in contrast to elicit visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Static achromatic and isoluminant chromatic gratings were generated on a monitor. Chromatic gratings were modulated along red/green (R/G) or subject-specific tritanopic confusion axes, established using a minimum distinct border criterion. Isoluminance was determined using minimum flicker photometry. Achromatic and chromatic VEPs were recorded to contrast increments and decrements of 0.1 or 0.2 superimposed on the static gratings (masking contrast 0-0.6). Achromatic increment/decrement changes in contrast evoked a percept of apparent motion when the spatial frequency was low; VEPs to such stimuli were positive in polarity and largely unaffected by high levels of static contrast, consistent with transient response mechanisms. VEPs to finer achromatic gratings showed marked attenuation as static contrast was increased. Chromatic VEPs to R/G or tritan chromatic contrast increments were of negative polarity and showed progressive attenuation as static contrast was increased, in keeping with increasing desensitization of the sustained responses of the color-opponent visual pathways. Chromatic contrast decrement VEPs were of positive polarity and less sensitive to pattern adaptation. The relative contribution of sustained/transient mechanisms to achromatic processing is spatial frequency dependent. Chromatic contrast increment VEPs reflect the sustained temporal response properties of parvocellular and koniocellular pathways. Cortical VEPs can provide an objective measure of pattern adaptation and can be used to probe the temporal response characteristics of different visual pathways.

  8. Alteration of protein patterns in black rock inhabiting fungi as a response to different temperatures

    Tesei, Donatella; Marzban, Gorji; Zakharova, Kristina; Isola, Daniela; Selbmann, Laura; Sterflinger, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Rock inhabiting fungi are among the most stress tolerant organisms on Earth. They are able to cope with different stressors determined by the typical conditions of bare rocks in hot and cold extreme environments. In this study first results of a system biological approach based on two-dimensional protein profiles are presented. Protein patterns of extremotolerant black fungi – Coniosporium perforans, Exophiala jeanselmei – and of the extremophilic fungus – Friedmanniomyces endolithicus – were compared with the cosmopolitan and mesophilic hyphomycete Penicillium chrysogenum in order to follow and determine changes in the expression pattern under different temperatures. The 2D protein gels indicated a temperature dependent qualitative change in all the tested strains. Whereas the reference strain P. chrysogenum expressed the highest number of proteins at 40 °C, thus exhibiting real signs of temperature induced reaction, black fungi, when exposed to temperatures far above their growth optimum, decreased the number of proteins indicating a down-regulation of their metabolism. Temperature of 1 °C led to an increased number of proteins in all of the analysed strains, with the exception of P. chrysogenum. These first results on temperature dependent reactions in rock inhabiting black fungi indicate a rather different strategy to cope with non-optimal temperature than in the mesophilic hyphomycete P. chrysogenum. PMID:22862921

  9. Metabolic Response on Post-therapy FDG-PET Predicts Patterns of Failure After Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Schwarz, Julie K.; Siegel, Barry A.; Dehdashti, Farrokh; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the patterns of failure in patients with cervical cancer treated with definitive radiotherapy and evaluated for metabolic response with early posttherapy 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Methods and Materials: The records of 238 patients with cervical cancer were reviewed. All patients were treated with a combination of external radiotherapy and intracavitary brachytherapy. Two hundred and nineteen patients (92%) received concurrent chemotherapy. All patients underwent pretreatment FDG-PET, and posttherapy FDG-PET was performed within 8–16 weeks of the completion of radiotherapy. Posttherapy FDG-PET results were categorized as complete metabolic response (CMR), partial metabolic response (PMR), and progressive disease (PD). Failure patterns were categorized as none, isolated local failure (central pelvis ± pelvic lymph nodes), distant failure, or combined local plus distant failure. Results: Of the 91 patients (38%) who had a recurrence, 22 had isolated local failures, and 69 had distant failures (49 distant failures and 20 combined local plus distant failures). Of the 173 patients with a CMR, 40 (23%) experienced treatment failure. All 25 patients with PD experienced treatment failure, which was distant in 24 patients (96%). Among the 40 patients with PMR, no failure has been observed for 14 patients (35%). Of the 26 failures within the PMR group, 15 (58%) were limited to the pelvis. Differences in the patterns of failure between the three groups (CMR, PMR, PD) were statistically significant (chi-square test; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The majority of failures after definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer include distant failures, even in the setting of concurrent chemotherapy. PMR within the cervix or lymph nodes is more commonly associated with isolated local recurrence.

  10. Sex hormones affect acute and chronic stress responses in sexually dimorphic patterns : Consequences for depression models

    Guo, Lei; Chen, Yi-Xi; Hu, Yu-Ting; Wu, Xue-Yan; He, Yang; Wu, Juan-Li; Huang, Man-Li; Mason, M.R.J.; Bao, Ai-Min

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alterations in peripheral sex hormones may play an important role in sex differences in terms of stress responses and mood disorders. It is not yet known whether and how stress-related brain systems and brain sex steroid levels fluctuate in relation to changes in peripheral sex hormone

  11. Methanol and ethanol modulate responses to danger- and microbe-associated molecular patterns

    Methanol is a byproduct of cell wall modification, released through the action of pectin methylesterases (PMEs), which demethylesterify cell wall pectins. Plant PMEs play not only a role in developmental processes but also in responses to herbivory and infection by fungal or bacterial pathogens. Mol...

  12. Elucidation of time-dependent systems biology cell response patterns with time course network enrichment

    Wiwie, Christian; Rauch, Alexander; Haakonsson, Anders

    2018-01-01

    , no methods exist to integrate time series data with networks, thus preventing the identification of time-dependent systems biology responses. We close this gap with Time Course Network Enrichment (TiCoNE). It combines a new kind of human-augmented clustering with a novel approach to network enrichment...

  13. ALTERNATE MECHANISMS OF INITIAL PATTERN RECOGNITION DRIVE DIFFERENTIAL IMMUNE RESPONSES TO RELATED POXVIRUSES

    O’Gorman, William E.; Sampath, Padma; Simonds, Erin F.; Sikorski, Rachel; O’Malley, Mark; Krutzik, Peter O.; Chen, Hannah; Panchanathan, Vijay; Chaudhri, Geeta; Karupiah, Gunasegaran; Lewis, David B.; Thorne, Steve H.; Nolan, Garry P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although vaccinia virus infection results in induction of a robust immunizing response, many closely related poxviruses such as variola (smallpox) and ectromelia (mousepox) are highly pathogenic in their natural hosts. We developed a strategy to map the activation of key signaling networks in vivo and applied this approach to define and compare the earliest signaling events elicited by poxvirus infections in mice. Vaccinia induced rapid TLR2-dependent responses leading to IL-6 production, which then initiated STAT3 signaling in dendritic cells and T cells. In contrast, ectromelia did not induce TLR2 activation and profound mouse strain-dependent responses were observed. In resistant C57BL/6 mice, the STAT1 and STAT3 pathways were rapidly activated, whereas in susceptible BALB/c mice, IL-6-dependent STAT3 activation did not occur. These results indicate that vaccination with vaccinia is dependent on rapid TLR2 and IL-6 driven responses and link the earliest immune signaling events to the outcome of infection. PMID:20709294

  14. From dissent to resistance: Locating patterns of horizontalist self-management crisis responses in Spain

    Wigger, A.

    2018-01-01

    In response to the EU-wide austerity politics, large numbers of people took to the streets, occupied central squares, held popular assemblies, and participated in strikes or acts of civil disobedience. Scholarly attention has predominantly focused on the disruptive event politics of short-lived mass

  15. An Alternative Estimator for the Maximum Likelihood Estimator for the Two Extreme Response Patterns.

    1981-06-29

    is the item discrimination parameter and b is the g X g item response difficulty parameter which satisfies (2.3) - = b 0 < b1 < b 2 < ....... < b...Tuscon, AZ 85721 4833 Rugby Avenue Dr. John B. Carroll Bethesda, MD 20014 Psychometric Lab 1 Dr. Leonard Feldt Univ. of No. Carolina Lindquist Center for

  16. Quality control of the soil moisture probe response patterns from a green infrastructure site using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) and association rule learning

    Yu, Z.; Bedig, A.; Quigley, M.; Montalto, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    In-situ field monitoring can help to improve the design and management of decentralized Green Infrastructure (GI) systems in urban areas. Because of the vast quantity of continuous data generated from multi-site sensor systems, cost-effective post-construction opportunities for real-time control are limited; and the physical processes that influence the observed phenomena (e.g. soil moisture) are hard to track and control. To derive knowledge efficiently from real-time monitoring data, there is currently a need to develop more efficient approaches to data quality control. In this paper, we employ dynamic time warping method to compare the similarity of two soil moisture patterns without ignoring the inherent autocorrelation. We also use a rule-based machine learning method to investigate the feasibility of detecting anomalous responses from soil moisture probes. The data was generated from both individual and clusters of probes, deployed in a GI site in Milwaukee, WI. In contrast to traditional QAQC methods, which seek to detect outliers at individual time steps, the new method presented here converts the continuous time series into event-based symbolic sequences from which unusual response patterns can be detected. Different Matching rules are developed on different physical characteristics for different seasons. The results suggest that this method could be used alternatively to detect sensor failure, to identify extreme events, and to call out abnormal change patterns, compared to intra-probe and inter-probe historical observations. Though this algorithm was developed for soil moisture probes, the same approach could easily be extended to advance QAQC efficiency for any continuous environmental datasets.

  17. Varenicline in prevention of relapse to smoking: effect of quit pattern on response to extended treatment

    Hajek, Peter; Tønnesen, Philip; Arteaga, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: While older behavioural and pharmacological approaches to preventing relapse to smoking show little efficacy, a recent randomized trial of an extended course of varenicline reported positive results. In this secondary analysis, trial data were examined to see whether smokers who manage......, 44% of the 12-week abstainers were abstinent from the target quit date (TQD), while the rest stopped smoking later. We examined the relationship between quit pattern and the varenicline versus placebo difference in continuous abstinence rates at week 52 and contributions of baseline patient...... characteristics. RESULTS: With increasing delay in initial quitting, 12-month success rates declined. Participants who had their last cigarette at week 11 of open-label treatment had quit rates at 52 weeks of 5.7% compared with 54.9% in those who last smoked in week 1 [odds ratio (OR) 20.3 (6.3, 65.9); P

  18. Theoretical and experimental analysis of the structural pattern responsible for the iridescence of Morpho butterflies.

    Siddique, Radwanul Hasan; Diewald, Silvia; Leuthold, Juerg; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2013-06-17

    Morpho butterflies are well-known for their iridescence originating from nanostructures in the scales of their wings. These optical active structures integrate three design principles leading to the wide angle reflection: alternating lamellae layers, "Christmas tree" like shape, and offsets between neighboring ridges. We study their individual effects rigorously by 2D FEM simulations of the nanostructures of the Morpho sulkowskyi butterfly and show how the reflection spectrum can be controlled by the design of the nanostructures. The width of the spectrum is broad (≈ 90 nm) for alternating lamellae layers (or "brunches") of the structure while the "Christmas tree" pattern together with a height offset between neighboring ridges reduces the directionality of the reflectance. Furthermore, we fabricated the simulated structures by e-beam lithography. The resulting samples mimicked all important optical features of the original Morpho butterfly scales and feature the intense blue iridescence with a wide angular range of reflection.

  19. Vegetation Carbon Storage, Spatial Patterns and Response to Altitude in Lancang River Basin, Southwest China

    Long Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation plays a very important role of carbon (C sinks in the global C cycle. With its complex terrain and diverse vegetation types, the Lancang River Basin (LRB of southwest China has huge C storage capacity. Therefore, understanding the spatial variations and controlling mechanisms of vegetation C storage is important to understand the regional C cycle. In this study, data from a forest inventory and field plots were used to estimate and map vegetation C storage distribution in the LRB, to qualify the quantitative relationships between vegetation C density and altitude at sublot and township scale, and a linear model or polynomial model was used to identify the relationship between C density and altitude at two spatial scales and two statistical scales. The results showed that a total of 300.32 Tg C was stored in the LRB, an important C sink in China. The majority of C storage was contributed by forests, notably oaks. The vegetation C storage exhibited nonlinear variation with latitudinal gradients. Altitude had tremendous influences on spatial patterns of vegetation C storage of three geomorphological types in the LRB. C storage decreased with increasing altitude at both town and sublot scales in the flat river valley (FRV region and the mid-low mountains gorge (MMG region, and first increased then decreased in the alpine gorge (AG region. This revealed that, in southwest China, altitude changes the latitudinal patterns of vegetation C storage; especially in the AG area, C density in the mid-altitude (3100 m area was higher than that of adjacent areas.

  20. Response of Surface Soil Hydrology to the Micro-Pattern of Bio-Crust in a Dry-Land Loess Environment, China.

    Wei, Wei; Yu, Yun; Chen, Liding

    2015-01-01

    The specific bio-species and their spatial patterns play crucial roles in regulating eco-hydrologic process, which is significant for large-scale habitat promotion and vegetation restoration in many dry-land ecosystems. Such effects, however, are not yet fully studied. In this study, 12 micro-plots, each with size of 0.5 m in depth and 1 m in length, were constructed on a gentle grassy hill-slope with a mean gradient of 8° in a semiarid loess hilly area of China. Two major bio-crusts, including mosses and lichens, had been cultivated for two years prior to the field simulation experiments, while physical crusts and non-crusted bare soils were used for comparison. By using rainfall simulation method, four designed micro-patterns (i.e., upper bio-crust and lower bare soil, scattered bio-crust, upper bare soil and lower bio-crust, fully-covered bio-crust) to the soil hydrological response were analyzed. We found that soil surface bio-crusts were more efficient in improving soil structure, water holding capacity and runoff retention particularly at surface 10 cm layers, compared with physical soil crusts and non-crusted bare soils. We re-confirmed that mosses functioned better than lichens, partly due to their higher successional stage and deeper biomass accumulation. Physical crusts were least efficient in water conservation and erosion control, followed by non-crusted bare soils. More importantly, there were marked differences in the efficiency of the different spatial arrangements of bio-crusts in controlling runoff and sediment generation. Fully-covered bio-crust pattern provides the best option for soil loss reduction and runoff retention, while a combination of upper bio-crust and lower bare soil pattern is the least one. These findings are suggested to be significant for surface-cover protection, rainwater infiltration, runoff retention, and erosion control in water-restricted and degraded natural slopes.

  1. Common and distinct organ and stress responsive transcriptomic patterns in Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Castleden Ian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arabidopsis thaliana is clearly established as the model plant species. Given the ever-growing demand for food, there is a need to translate the knowledge learned in Arabidopsis to agronomically important species, such as rice (Oryza sativa. To gain a comparative insight into the similarities and differences into how organs are built and how plants respond to stress, the transcriptomes of Arabidopsis and rice were compared at the level of gene orthology and functional categorisation. Results Organ specific transcripts in rice and Arabidopsis display less overlap in terms of gene orthology compared to the orthology observed between both genomes. Although greater overlap in terms of functional classification was observed between root specific transcripts in rice and Arabidopsis, this did not extend to flower, leaf or seed specific transcripts. In contrast, the overall abiotic stress response transcriptome displayed a significantly greater overlap in terms of gene orthology compared to the orthology observed between both genomes. However, ~50% or less of these orthologues responded in a similar manner in both species. In fact, under cold and heat treatments as many or more orthologous genes responded in an opposite manner or were unchanged in one species compared to the other. Examples of transcripts that responded oppositely include several genes encoding proteins involved in stress and redox responses and non-symbiotic hemoglobins that play central roles in stress signalling pathways. The differences observed in the abiotic transcriptomes were mirrored in the presence of cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of stress responsive genes and the transcription factors that potentially bind these regulatory elements. Thus, both the abiotic transcriptome and its regulation differ between rice and Arabidopsis. Conclusions These results reveal significant divergence between Arabidopsis and rice, in terms of the

  2. Pattern Recognition of Cardiovascular and Psychomotor Variability in Response to Pharmacological Agent.

    1985-06-10

    research. 7. A. Sleep research, chronobiology , and performance research have developed as three separate areas, but there is (and should be) growing...and Oxygen Uptake Response to performance of Xarate Kata, Journal ot Sports Medicine, Vol. 22, 1982. (6] D.A. Sideris, J.N. Nanas, S.Thomakos, and...DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) S. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  3. Characterization of Rice Homeobox Genes, OsHOX22 and OsHOX24, and Over-expression of OsHOX24 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Suggest their Role in Abiotic Stress Response

    Annapurna eBhattacharjee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Homeobox transcription factors are well known regulators of plant growth and development. In this study, we carried out functional analysis of two candidate stress-responsive HD-ZIP I class homeobox genes from rice, OsHOX22 and OsHOX24. These genes were highly upregulated under various abiotic stress conditions at different stages of rice development, including seedling, mature and reproductive stages. The transcript levels of these genes were enhanced significantly in the presence of plant hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA, auxin, salicylic acid and gibberellic acid. The recombinant full-length and truncated homeobox proteins were found to be localized in the nucleus. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay established the binding of these homeobox proteins with specific DNA sequences, AH1 (CAAT(A/TATTG and AH2 (CAAT(C/GATTG. Transactivation assays in yeast revealed the transcriptional activation potential of full-length OsHOX22 and OsHOX24 proteins. Homo- and hetero-dimerization capabilities of these proteins have also been demonstrated. Further, we identified putative novel interacting proteins of OsHOX22 and OsHOX24 via yeast-two hybrid analysis. Over-expression of OsHOX24 imparted higher sensitivity to stress hormone, ABA, and abiotic stresses in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants as revealed by various physiological and phenotypic assays. Microarray analysis revealed differential expression of several stress-responsive genes in transgenic lines as compared to wild-type. Many of these genes were found to be involved in transcriptional regulation and various metabolic pathways. Altogether, our results suggest the possible role of OsHOX22/OsHOX24 homeobox proteins as negative regulators in abiotic stress responses.

  4. Pattern of esophageal eosinophilic infiltration in patients with achalasia and response to Heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication.

    Cools-Lartigue, J; Chang, S-Y; Mckendy, K; Mayrand, S; Marcus, V; Fried, G M; Ferri, L E

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is now recognized as a common cause of dysphagia. Eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus has also been associated with other conditions, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); however, the incidence, pattern, and clinical significance of eosinophilic infiltration in achalasia are poorly documented. We sought to characterize this histological finding in patients undergoing Heller myotomy (HM) for achalasia. Ninety-six patients undergoing laparoscopic HM for primary achalasia between 1999 and 2008 were identified from a prospective database. Serial mid and distal per-endoscopic esophageal biopsies taken from patients before and after surgery were assessed for the presence of elevated intraepithelial eosinophils (EIEs). Slides from patients with reports suggestive of EIE were reviewed independently by two pathologists, and the highest eosinophil count/high-power field (eos/hpf) was recorded. Dysphagia scores (0 = none to 5 = severe dysphagia), GERD health-related quality of life scores (0 = best to 45 = worst), and 24-hour pH results were compared before and 3 months after surgery. We related the highest eos to the symptoms and response to HM. Data are presented as median (range). Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test determined significance, *P < 0.05. Of 96 patients with achalasia, 50 had undergone pre-HM biopsies revealing EIE in 17/50 (34%), with a median of 3 eos/hpf (1-21). Two patients were found to have superimposed esophageal candidiasis. One patient met the pathologic criteria for EoE. Twenty-five of 50 (50%) postoperative biopsies demonstrated a median of 5 eos/hpf (1-62) for a total of 28/50 patients (56%) with EIE in either the preoperative or postoperative period. Four patients (8%) met the pathologic criteria for EoE, and two demonstrated persistent esophageal candidiasis. A decrease in eosinophils was found in 6/28 patients (21%) from 3/hpf (1-21) to 0.5/hpf (0-4). Increase in eosinophils was found in

  5. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  6. Differential associations between sensory response patterns and language, social, and communication measures in children with autism or other developmental disabilities.

    Watson, Linda R; Patten, Elena; Baranek, Grace T; Poe, Michele; Boyd, Brian A; Freuler, Ashley; Lorenzi, Jill

    2011-12-01

    To examine patterns of sensory responsiveness (i.e., hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsiveness, and sensory seeking) as factors that may account for variability in social-communicative symptoms of autism and variability in language, social, and communication skill development in children with autism or other developmental disabilities (DDs). Children with autistic disorder (AD; n = 72, mean age = 52.3 months) and other DDs (n = 44, mean age = 48.1 months) participated in a protocol measuring sensory response patterns; social-communicative symptoms of autism; and language, social, and communication skills. Hyporesponsiveness was positively associated with social-communicative symptom severity, with no significant group difference in the association. Hyperresponsiveness was not significantly associated with social-communicative symptom severity. A group difference emerged for sensory seeking and social-communicative symptom severity, with a positive association for the AD group only. For the 2 groups of children combined, hyporesponsiveness was negatively associated with language skills and social adaptive skills. Sensory seeking also was negatively associated with language skills. These associations did not differ between the 2 groups. Aberrant sensory processing may play an important role in the pathogenesis of autism and other DDs as well as in the rate of acquisition of language, social, and communication skills.

  7. DNA methylation patterns of genes related to immune response in the different clinical forms of oral lichen planus.

    Cruz, Aline Fernanda; de Resende, Renata Gonçalves; de Lacerda, Júlio César Tanos; Pereira, Núbia Braga; Melo, Leonardo Augusto; Diniz, Marina Gonçalves; Gomes, Carolina Cavalieri; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2018-01-01

    The oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease. Although its aetiology is not well understood, the role of T lymphocytes in its inflammatory events is recognised. Identifying the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this immune-mediated condition is fundamental for understanding the inflammatory reaction that occurs in the disease. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the methylation pattern of 21 immune response-related genes in the different clinical forms of oral lichen planus. A cross-sectional study was performed to analyse the DNA methylation patterns in three distinct groups of oral lichen planus: (i) reticular/plaque lesions; (ii) erosive lesions; (iii) normal oral mucosa (control group). After DNA extraction from biopsies, the samples were submitted to digestions by methylation-sensitive and methylation-dependent enzymes and double digestion. The relative percentage of methylated DNA for each gene was provided using real-time polymerase chain reaction arrays. Hypermethylation of the STAT5A gene was observed only in the control group (59.0%). A higher hypermethylation of the ELANE gene was found in reticular/plaque lesions (72.1%) compared to the erosive lesions (50.0%). Our results show variations in the methylation profile of immune response-related genes, according to the clinical type of oral lichen planus after comparing with the normal oral mucosa. Further studies are necessary to validate these findings using gene expression analysis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Gene expression patterns of the coral Acropora millepora in response to contact with macroalgae

    Shearer, T. L.; Rasher, D. B.; Snell, T. W.; Hay, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Contact with macroalgae often causes coral mortality, but the roles of abrasion versus shading versus allelopathy in these interactions are rarely clear, and effects on gene expression are unknown. Identification of gene expression changes within corals in response to contact with macroalgae can provide insight into the mode of action of allelochemicals, as well as reveal transcriptional strategies of the coral that mitigate damage from this competitive interaction, enabling the coral to survive. Gene expression responses of the coral Acropora millepora after long-term (20 days) direct contact with macroalgae ( Chlorodesmis fastigiata, Dictyota bartayresiana, Galaxaura filamentosa, and Turbinaria conoides) and short-term (1 and 24 h) exposure to C. fastigiata thalli and their hydrophobic extract were assessed. After 20 days of exposure, T. conoides thalli elicited no significant change in visual bleaching or zooxanthellae PSII quantum yield within A. millepora nubbins, but stimulated the greatest alteration in gene expression of all treatments. Chlorodesmis fastigiata, D. bartayresiana, and G. filamentosa caused significant visual bleaching of coral nubbins and reduced the PSII quantum yield of associated zooxanthellae after 20 days, but elicited fewer changes in gene expression relative to T. conoides at day 20. To evaluate initial molecular processes leading to reduction of zooxanthella PSII quantum yield, visual bleaching, and coral death, short-term exposures to C. fastigiata thalli and hydrophobic extracts were conducted; these interactions revealed protein degradation and significant changes in catalytic and metabolic activity within 24 h of contact. These molecular responses are consistent with the hypothesis that allelopathic interactions lead to alteration of signal transduction and an imbalance between reactive oxidant species production and antioxidant capabilities within the coral holobiont. This oxidative imbalance results in rapid protein degradation

  9. Differential Response Pattern of Oropharyngeal Pressure by Bolus and Dry Swallows.

    Hasegawa, Mana; Kurose, Masayuki; Okamoto, Keiichiro; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Tsujimura, Takanori; Inoue, Makoto; Sato, Taisuke; Narumi, Takatsune; Fujii, Noritaka; Yamamura, Kensuke

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if bolus and dry swallow showed similar pressure changes in the oropharynx using our newly developed device. A unique character of it includes that baropressure can be measured with the sensor being placed in the balloon and can assess the swallowing mechanics in terms of pressure changes in the oropharynx with less influences of direct contacts of boluses and oropharyngeal structures during swallow indirectly. Fifteen healthy subjects swallowed saliva (dry), 15 ml of water, 45 ml of water, and 15 ml of two different types of food in terms of viscosity (potage soup-type and mayonnaise-type foods). Suprahyoid muscle activity was recorded simultaneously. Three parameters, area under the curve (AUC), peak amplitude, and duration of pressure, were analyzed from each swallow. Almost all of the bolus swallowing events had biphasic baropressure responses consisting of an early phase and late phase (99%), whereas 90% of the saliva swallowing events had a single phase. AUC, peak, and duration displayed greater effects during the late phase than during the early phase. Baropressure of the early phase, but not of the late phase, significantly increased with increasing volume; however, small but significant viscosity effects on pressure were seen during both phases. Peak pressure of the late phase was preceded by maximum muscle activity, whereas that of the early phase was seen when muscle activity displayed a peak response. These findings indicated that our device with the ability to measure baropressure has the potential to provide additional parameter to assess the swallow physiology, and biphasic baropressure responses in the early and late phases could reflect functional aspects of the swallowing reflexes.

  10. Disordered semantic representation in schizophrenic temporal cortex revealed by neuromagnetic response patterns

    Silberman Yaron

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loosening of associations and thought disruption are key features of schizophrenic psychopathology. Alterations in neural networks underlying this basic abnormality have not yet been sufficiently identified. Previously, we demonstrated that spatio-temporal clustering of magnetic brain responses to pictorial stimuli map categorical representations in temporal cortex. This result has opened the possibility to quantify associative strength within and across semantic categories in schizophrenic patients. We hypothesized that in contrast to controls, schizophrenic patients exhibit disordered representations of semantic categories. Methods The spatio-temporal clusters of brain magnetic activities elicited by object pictures related to super-ordinate (flowers, animals, furniture, clothes and base-level (e.g. tulip, rose, orchid, sunflower categories were analysed in the source space for the time epochs 170–210 and 210–450 ms following stimulus onset and were compared between 10 schizophrenic patients and 10 control subjects. Results Spatio-temporal correlations of responses elicited by base-level concepts and the difference of within vs. across super-ordinate categories were distinctly lower in patients than in controls. Additionally, in contrast to the well-defined categorical representation in control subjects, unsupervised clustering indicated poorly defined representation of semantic categories in patients. Within the patient group, distinctiveness of categorical representation in the temporal cortex was positively related to negative symptoms and tended to be inversely related to positive symptoms. Conclusion Schizophrenic patients show a less organized representation of semantic categories in clusters of magnetic brain responses than healthy adults. This atypical neural network architecture may be a correlate of loosening of associations, promoting positive symptoms.

  11. The developmental pattern of stimulus and response interference in a color-object Stroop task: an ERP study

    Jongen Ellen MM

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that Stroop interference is stronger in children than in adults. However, in a standard Stroop paradigm, stimulus interference and response interference are confounded. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether interference at the stimulus level and the response level are subject to distinct maturational patterns across childhood. Three groups of children (6–7 year-olds, 8–9 year-olds, and 10–12 year-olds and a group of adults performed a manual Color-Object Stroop designed to disentangle stimulus interference and response interference. This was accomplished by comparing three trial types. In congruent (C trials there was no interference. In stimulus incongruent (SI trials there was only stimulus interference. In response incongruent (RI trials there was stimulus interference and response interference. Stimulus interference and response interference were measured by a comparison of SI with C, and RI with SI trials, respectively. Event-related potentials (ERPs were measured to study the temporal dynamics of these processes of interference. Results There was no behavioral evidence for stimulus interference in any of the groups, but in 6–7 year-old children ERPs in the SI condition in comparison with the C condition showed an occipital P1-reduction (80–140 ms and a widely distributed amplitude enhancement of a negative component followed by an amplitude reduction of a positive component (400–560 ms. For response interference, all groups showed a comparable reaction time (RT delay, but children made more errors than adults. ERPs in the RI condition in comparison with the SI condition showed an amplitude reduction of a positive component over lateral parietal (-occipital sites in 10–12 year-olds and adults (300–540 ms, and a widely distributed amplitude enhancement of a positive component in all age groups (680–960 ms. The size of the enhancement correlated positively

  12. Response Patterns in Health State Valuation Using Endogenous Attribute Attendance and Latent Class Analysis.

    Hole, Arne Risa; Norman, Richard; Viney, Rosalie

    2016-02-01

    Not accounting for simplifying decision-making heuristics when modelling data from discrete choice experiments has been shown potentially to lead to biased inferences. This study considers two ways of exploring the presence of attribute non-attendance (that is, respondents considering only a subset of the attributes that define the choice options) in a health state valuation discrete choice experiment. The methods used include the latent class (LC) and endogenous attribute attendance (EAA) models, which both required adjustment to reflect the structure of the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) framework for valuing health outcomes. We find that explicit consideration of attendance patterns substantially improves model fit. The impact of allowing for non-attendance on the estimated QALY weights is dependent on the assumed source of non-attendance. If non-attendance is interpreted as a form of preference heterogeneity, then the inferences from the LC and EAA models are similar to those from standard models, while if respondents ignore attributes to simplify the choice task, the QALY weights differ from those using the standard approach. Because the cause of non-attendance is unknown in the absence of additional data, a policymaker may use the range of weights implied by the two approaches to conduct a sensitivity analysis. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Enteric fever in Mumbai--clinical profile, sensitivity patterns and response to antimicrobials.

    Jog, S; Soman, R; Singhal, T; Rodrigues, C; Mehta, A; Dastur, F D

    2008-04-01

    Enteric fever is endemic in Mumbai and its diagnosis poses several problems. Our main aim was to study the clinical profile, haematological features of culture proven typhoid cases, the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates and the time to defervescence with the treatment received. This was a retospective chart review of all cases of culture proven enteric fever carried out at a tertiary care private hospital in Mumbai over the period January 2003 to September 2005. Culture positivity in our study was 52.6%. Sixty one percent of the isolates were Salmonella typhi while 39% were Salmonella paratyphi A. An absolute eosinopenia was seen in 76.9% of the patients. Before being admitted to the hospital, 46.2% received antibiotics. The mean time to defervescence in patients who received prior antibiotics was 4.5 days while that in those who did not receive prior antibiotics was 5.1 days. A high culture positivity despite prior or ongoing antibiotic treatment was seen. Absolute eosinophil count of 0% could be an important marker of typhoid. High prevalence of nalidixic acid resistance, a marker of resistance to fluoroquinolones was observed. Combination treatment was not found to be superior to treatment with a single antibiotic.

  14. Strain-Specific Virolysis Patterns of Human Noroviruses in Response to Alcohols.

    Park, Geun Woo; Collins, Nikail; Barclay, Leslie; Hu, Liya; Prasad, B V Venkataram; Lopman, Benjamin A; Vinjé, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are widely used to disinfect hands to prevent the spread of pathogens including noroviruses. Alcohols inactivate norovirus by destruction of the viral capsid, resulting in the leakage of viral RNA (virolysis). Since conflicting results have been reported on the susceptibility of human noroviruses against alcohols, we exposed a panel of 30 human norovirus strains (14 GI and 16 GII strains) to different concentrations (50%, 70%, 90%) of ethanol and isopropanol and tested the viral RNA titer by RT-qPCR. Viral RNA titers of 10 (71.4%), 14 (100%), 3 (21.4%) and 7 (50%) of the 14 GI strains were reduced by > 1 log10 RNA copies/ml after exposure to 70% and 90% ethanol, and 70% and 90% isopropanol, respectively. RNA titers of 6 of the 7 non-GII 4 strains remained unaffected after alcohol exposure. Compared to GII strains, GI strains were more susceptible to ethanol than to isopropanol. At 90%, both alcohols reduced RNA titers of 8 of the 9 GII.4 strains by ≥ 1 log10 RNA copies/ml. After exposure to 70% ethanol, RNA titers of GII.4 Den Haag and Sydney strains decreased by ≥ 1.9 log10, whereas RNA reductions for GII.4 New Orleans strains were alcohol susceptibility patterns between different norovirus genotypes vary widely and that virolysis data for a single strain or genotype are not representative for all noroviruses.

  15. Hepatitis C Virus Frameshift/Alternate Reading Frame Protein Suppresses Interferon Responses Mediated by Pattern Recognition Receptor Retinoic-Acid-Inducible Gene-I.

    Seung Bum Park

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV actively evades host interferon (IFN responses but the mechanisms of how it does so are not completely understood. In this study, we present evidence for an HCV factor that contributes to the suppression of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I-mediated IFN induction. Expression of frameshift/alternate reading frame protein (F/ARFP from HCV -2/+1 frame in Huh7 hepatoma cells suppressed type I IFN responses stimulated by HCV RNA pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP and poly(IC. The suppression occurred independently of other HCV factors; and activation of interferon stimulated genes, TNFα, IFN-λ1, and IFN-λ2/3 was likewise suppressed by HCV F/ARFP. Point mutations in the full-length HCV sequence (JFH1 genotype 2a strain were made to introduce premature termination codons in the -2/+1 reading frame coding for F/ARFP while preserving the original reading frame, which enhanced IFNα and IFNβ induction by HCV. The potentiation of IFN response by the F/ARFP mutations was diminished in Huh7.5 cells, which already have a defective RIG-I, and by decreasing RIG-I expression in Huh7 cells. Furthermore, adding F/ARFP back via trans-complementation suppressed IFN induction in the F/ARFP mutant. The F/ARFP mutants, on the other hand, were not resistant to exogenous IFNα. Finally, HCV-infected human liver samples showed significant F/ARFP antibody reactivity, compared to HCV-uninfected control livers. Therefore, HCV F/ARFP likely cooperates with other viral factors to suppress type I and III IFN induction occurring through the RIG-I signaling pathway. This study identifies a novel mechanism of pattern recognition receptor modulation by HCV and suggests a biological function of the HCV alternate reading frame in the modulation of host innate immunity.

  16. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    Johan Källstrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Johan Källstrand1, Olle Olsson2, Sara Fristedt Nehlstedt1, Mia Ling Sköld1, Sören Nielzén21SensoDetect AB, Lund, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS. Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16, schizophrenic patients (n = 16 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16, respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005, which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases.Keywords: asperger syndrome, auditory brainstem response, forward masking, psychoacoustics

  17. Innate immune humoral factors, C1q and factor H, with differential pattern recognition properties, alter macrophage response to carbon nanotubes.

    Pondman, Kirsten M; Pednekar, Lina; Paudyal, Basudev; Tsolaki, Anthony G; Kouser, Lubna; Khan, Haseeb A; Shamji, Mohamed H; Ten Haken, Bennie; Stenbeck, Gudrun; Sim, Robert B; Kishore, Uday

    2015-11-01

    Interaction between the complement system and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can modify their intended biomedical applications. Pristine and derivatised CNTs can activate complement primarily via the classical pathway which enhances uptake of CNTs and suppresses pro-inflammatory response by immune cells. Here, we report that the interaction of C1q, the classical pathway recognition molecule, with CNTs involves charge pattern and classical pathway activation that is partly inhibited by factor H, a complement regulator. C1q and its globular modules, but not factor H, enhanced uptake of CNTs by macrophages and modulated the pro-inflammatory immune response. Thus, soluble complement factors can interact differentially with CNTs and alter the immune response even without complement activation. Coating CNTs with recombinant C1q globular heads offers a novel way of controlling classical pathway activation in nanotherapeutics. Surprisingly, the globular heads also enhance clearance by phagocytes and down-regulate inflammation, suggesting unexpected complexity in receptor interaction. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) maybe useful in the clinical setting as targeting drug carriers. However, it is also well known that they can interact and activate the complement system, which may have a negative impact on the applicability of CNTs. In this study, the authors functionalized multi-walled CNT (MWNT), and investigated the interaction with the complement pathway. These studies are important so as to gain further understanding of the underlying mechanism in preparation for future use of CNTs in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting the distribution pattern of small carnivores in response to environmental factors in the Western Ghats.

    Kalle, Riddhika; Ramesh, Tharmalingam; Qureshi, Qamar; Sankar, Kalyanasundaram

    2013-01-01

    Due to their secretive habits, predicting the pattern of spatial distribution of small carnivores has been typically challenging, yet for conservation management it is essential to understand the association between this group of animals and environmental factors. We applied maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) to build distribution models and identify environmental predictors including bioclimatic variables, forest and land cover type, topography, vegetation index and anthropogenic variables for six small carnivore species in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve. Species occurrence records were collated from camera-traps and vehicle transects during the years 2010 and 2011. We used the average training gain from forty model runs for each species to select the best set of predictors. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic plot (ROC) ranged from 0.81 to 0.93 for the training data and 0.72 to 0.87 for the test data. In habitat models for F. chaus, P. hermaphroditus, and H. smithii "distance to village" and precipitation of the warmest quarter emerged as some of the most important variables. "Distance to village" and aspect were important for V. indica while "distance to village" and precipitation of the coldest quarter were significant for H. vitticollis. "Distance to village", precipitation of the warmest quarter and land cover were influential variables in the distribution of H. edwardsii. The map of predicted probabilities of occurrence showed potentially suitable habitats accounting for 46 km(2) of the reserve for F. chaus, 62 km(2) for V. indica, 30 km(2) for P. hermaphroditus, 63 km(2) for H. vitticollis, 45 km(2) for H. smithii and 28 km(2) for H. edwardsii. Habitat heterogeneity driven by the east-west climatic gradient was correlated with the spatial distribution of small carnivores. This study exemplifies the usefulness of modeling small carnivore distribution to prioritize and direct conservation planning for habitat specialists in

  19. Environmental influences on and responses to changing patterns in energy supply. [12 refs

    Martinez, J D

    1976-12-01

    The benefits of modern technology can readily be identified with energy availability. A clear correlation has been established between per-capita energy consumption and the GNP for various nations. The United States is an outstanding example of a nation that has benefited from vast energy reserves. The nation is now challenged, however, by dwindling reserves and the need to develop new sources consistent with the preservation of environmental quality. The development of new, virtually inexhaustible and environmentally acceptable sources cannot be expected for several decades. Meanwhile, we will have to depend on coal, nuclear energy, and/or rigorous conservation measures. The net effect of environmental considerations has been to delay and perhaps ultimately eliminate the nuclear energy option as a national energy alternative. This forces a more positive move toward coal as the next major source of electrical power. Our coal resources are large, but the use and production of coal is also a threat to the environment. Thus, we seem to be moving from one major accessible source to another due to environmental concern only to face the probability that the alternative is also environmentally unacceptable. Controversies revolving about energy choices must be resolved by an analysis of the relative benefits and impacts of these two sources and others. The pattern of changing energy sources is not new. We have moved from wood to coal to oil and gas in the past and must learn to adapt in the future. Rational decisions must be made relative to the utilization of intermediate energy sources pending development of promising future approaches. A collapse of current levels of energy supply could threaten our technological society and the means to develop a new energy base.

  20. Low-intensity focused ultrasound alters the latency and spatial patterns of sensory-evoked cortical responses in vivo

    Fisher, Jonathan A. N.; Gumenchuk, Iryna

    2018-06-01

    Objective. The use of transcranial, low intensity focused ultrasound (FUS) is an emerging neuromodulation technology that shows promise for both therapeutic and research applications. Among many, one of the most exciting applications is the use of FUS to rehabilitate or augment human sensory capabilities. While there is compelling empirical evidence demonstrating this capability, basic questions regarding the spatiotemporal extent of the modulatory effects remain. Our objective was to assess the basic, yet often overlooked hypothesis that FUS in fact alters sensory-evoked neural activity within the region of the cerebral cortex at the beam’s focus. Approach. To address this knowledge gap, we developed an approach to optically interrogate patterns of neural activity in the cortex directly at the acoustic focus, in vivo. Implementing simultaneous wide-field optical imaging and FUS stimulation in mice, our experiments probed somatosensory-evoked electrical activity through the use of voltage sensitive dyes (VSDs) and, in transgenic mice expressing GCaMP6f, monitored associated Ca2+ responses. Main results. Our results demonstrate that low-intensity FUS alters both the kinetics and spatial patterns of neural activity in primary somatosensory cortex at the acoustic focus. When preceded by 1 s of pulsed ultrasound at intensities below 1 W cm‑2 (I sppa), the onset of sensory-evoked cortical responses occurred 3.0  ±  0.7 ms earlier and altered the surface spatial morphology of Ca2+ responses. Significance. These findings support the heretofore unconfirmed assumption that FUS-induced sensory modulation reflects, at least in part, altered reactivity in primary sensory cortex at the site of sonication. The findings are significant given the interest in using FUS to target and alter spatial aspects of sensory receptive fields on the cerebral cortex.

  1. Low-intensity focused ultrasound alters the latency and spatial patterns of sensory-evoked cortical responses in vivo.

    Fisher, Jonathan A N; Gumenchuk, Iryna

    2018-02-13

    The use of transcranial, low intensity focused ultrasound (FUS) is an emerging neuromodulation technology that shows promise for both therapeutic and research applications. Among many, one of the most exciting applications is the use of FUS to rehabilitate or augment human sensory capabilities. While there is compelling empirical evidence demonstrating this capability, basic questions regarding the spatiotemporal extent of the modulatory effects remain. Our objective was to assess the basic, yet often overlooked hypothesis that FUS in fact alters sensory-evoked neural activity within the region of the cerebral cortex at the beam's focus. To address this knowledge gap, we developed an approach to optically interrogate patterns of neural activity in the cortex directly at the acoustic focus, in vivo. Implementing simultaneous wide-field optical imaging and FUS stimulation in mice, our experiments probed somatosensory-evoked electrical activity through the use of voltage sensitive dyes (VSDs) and, in transgenic mice expressing GCaMP6f, monitored associated Ca 2+ responses. Our results demonstrate that low-intensity FUS alters both the kinetics and spatial patterns of neural activity in primary somatosensory cortex at the acoustic focus. When preceded by 1 s of pulsed ultrasound at intensities below 1 W cm -2 (I sppa ), the onset of sensory-evoked cortical responses occurred 3.0  ±  0.7 ms earlier and altered the surface spatial morphology of Ca 2+ responses. These findings support the heretofore unconfirmed assumption that FUS-induced sensory modulation reflects, at least in part, altered reactivity in primary sensory cortex at the site of sonication. The findings are significant given the interest in using FUS to target and alter spatial aspects of sensory receptive fields on the cerebral cortex.

  2. Neural activity patterns in response to interspecific and intraspecific variation in mating calls in the túngara frog.

    Mukta Chakraborty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During mate choice, individuals must classify potential mates according to species identity and relative attractiveness. In many species, females do so by evaluating variation in the signals produced by males. Male túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus can produce single note calls (whines and multi-note calls (whine-chucks. While the whine alone is sufficient for species recognition, females greatly prefer the whine-chuck when given a choice.To better understand how the brain responds to variation in male mating signals, we mapped neural activity patterns evoked by interspecific and intraspecific variation in mating calls in túngara frogs by measuring expression of egr-1. We predicted that egr-1 responses to conspecific calls would identify brain regions that are potentially important for species recognition and that at least some of those brain regions would vary in their egr-1 responses to mating calls that vary in attractiveness. We measured egr-1 in the auditory brainstem and its forebrain targets and found that conspecific whine-chucks elicited greater egr-1 expression than heterospecific whines in all but three regions. We found no evidence that preferred whine-chuck calls elicited greater egr-1 expression than conspecific whines in any of eleven brain regions examined, in contrast to predictions that mating preferences in túngara frogs emerge from greater responses in the auditory system.Although selectivity for species-specific signals is apparent throughout the túngara frog brain, further studies are necessary to elucidate how neural activity patterns vary with the attractiveness of conspecific mating calls.

  3. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility.

    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz

    2006-10-01

    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH Toxocara cati IN PIGS: MIGRATORY PATTERN AND PATHOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN EARLY PHASE

    Irma Estela Sommerfelt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental inoculations of approximately 100,000 infective Toxocara cati larval eggs were done in twelve pigs. The T. cati eggs used for inoculation were collected from cat's feces. Another group of three pigs served as an uninfected control. Groups of infected pigs were euthanized at seven, 14, 21, and 28 days post-inoculation (dpi. Tissue samples were taken for digestion and histopathology changes in early phase. The number of larvae recovered from the lungs peaked at seven and 14 dpi and were also present at 21, and 28 dpi. Larvae of T. cati were present in the lymph nodes of the small and large intestine at seven, 14, and 28 dpi and at seven, 14, 21, and 28 dpi respectively. In other studied tissues, no larvae or less than one larva per gram was detected. The pathological response observed in the liver and lungs at seven and 14 dpi, showed white spots on the liver surface and areas of consolidation were observed in the lungs. The lungs showed an inflammatory reaction with larvae in center at 28 dpi. In the liver we observed periportal and perilobular hepatitis. The lymph nodes of the intestines displayed eosinophil lymphadenitis with reactive centers containing parasitic forms in some of them. The granulomatous reaction was not observed in any tissues. The role of the other examined tissues had less significance. The relevance of this parasite as an etiological agent that leads to disease in paratenic hosts is evident.

  5. [Medicinal use of cannabis in the Netherlands: towards a responsible pattern of use].

    de Jong, Floris A

    2009-01-01

    Since 2003, medicinal cannabis has been legally cultivated and distributed in the Netherlands under the auspices of the Dutch Office of Medicinal Cannabis (BMC), part of the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport. As a result of this measure, the indication, dosage, administration route, and safety of cannabis can now be investigated, information necessary for justifying its potentially future position as a standard medicinal product. Despite the current lack of reliable scientific efficacy data, standardised medicinal cannabis without microbes has also been made available on prescription. This has led to a safer and more responsible use. However, it is a bridge too far to say that 'it doesn't hurt to try'. The legalization of medicinal cannabis has also stimulated the development of new purified cannabis-based products, although it is claimed that some patients specifically benefit from using cannabis as a whole product. Despite disappointing sales at the end of 2007, the Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport has announced that the current policy will be extended for a further five years. The Minister also indicated that he would consider discontinuing the availability of medicinal cannabis for patients, if new cannabis products are granted market authorization. This might, however, give rise to a new era of illegal cannabis use for medicinal purposes, notably for the use as a whole product.

  6. Cytokines, Chaperones and Neuroinflammatory Responses in Heroin-Related Death: What Can We Learn from Different Patterns of Cellular Expression?

    Vittorio Fineschi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Heroin (3,6-diacetylmorphine has various effects on the central nervous system with several neuropathological alterations including hypoxic-ischemic brain damage from respiratory depressing effects and neuroinflammatory response. Both of these mechanisms induce the release of cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory mediators by the activation of many cell types such as leucocytes and endothelial and glial cells, especially microglia, the predominant immunocompetent cell type within the central nervous system. The aim of this study is to clarify the correlation between intravenous heroin administration in heroin related death and the neuroinflammatory response. We selected 45 cases among autopsies executed for heroin-related death (358 total cases; immunohistochemical studies and Western blotting analyses were used to investigate the expression of brain markers such as tumor necrosis factor-α, oxygen-regulated protein 150, (interleukins IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, cyclooxygenase-2, heat shock protein 70, and CD68 (MAC387. Findings demonstrated that morphine induces inflammatory response and cytokine release. In particular, oxygen-regulated protein 150, cyclooxygenase-2, heat shock protein 70, IL-6 and IL-15 cytokines were over-expressed with different patterns of cellular expression.

  7. Single cell analysis of innate cytokine responses to pattern recognition receptor stimulation in children across four continents

    Smolen, Kinga K; Cai, Bing; Fortuno, Edgardo S; Gelinas, Laura; Larsen, Martin; Speert, David P; Chamekh, Mustapha; Kollmann, Tobias R

    2014-01-01

    Innate immunity instructs adaptive immunity, and suppression of innate immunity is associated with increased risk for infection. We had previously shown that whole blood cellular components from a cohort of South African children secreted significantly lower levels of most cytokines following stimulation of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) as compared to whole blood from cohorts of Ecuadorian, Belgian, or Canadian children. To begin dissecting the responsible molecular mechanisms, we now set out to identify the relevant cellular source of these differences. Across the four cohorts represented in our study, we identified significant variation in the cellular composition of whole blood; however, significant reduction of the intracellular cytokine production on the single cell level was only detected in South African childrens’ monocytes, cDC, and pDC. We also uncovered a marked reduction in polyfunctionality for each of these cellular compartments in South African children as compared to children from other continents. Together our data identify differences in cell composition as well as profoundly lower functional responses of innate cells in our cohort of South African children. A possible link between altered innate immunity and increased risk for infection or lower response to vaccines in South African infants needs to be explored. PMID:25135829

  8. Seed dormancy responses to temperature relate to Nothofagus species distribution and determine temporal patterns of germination across altitudes in Patagonia.

    Arana, María V; Gonzalez-Polo, Marina; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Gallo, Leonardo A; Benech-Arnold, Roberto L; Sánchez, Rodolfo A; Batlla, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Seeds integrate environmental cues that modulate their dormancy and germination. Although many mechanisms have been identified in laboratory experiments, their contribution to germination dynamics in existing communities and their involvement in defining species habitats remain elusive. By coupling mathematical models with ecological data we investigated the contribution of seed temperature responses to the dynamics of germination of three Nothofagus species that are sharply distributed across different altitudes in the Patagonian Andes. Seed responsiveness to temperature of the three Nothofagus species was linked to the thermal characteristics of their preferred ecological niche. In their natural distribution range, there was overlap in the timing of germination of the species, which was restricted to mid-spring. By contrast, outside their species distribution range, germination was temporally uncoupled with altitude. This phenomenon was described mathematically by the interplay between interspecific differences in seed population thermal parameters and the range in soil thermic environments across different altitudes. The observed interspecific variations in seed responsiveness to temperature and its environmental regulation, constitute a major determinant of the dynamics of Nothofagus germination across elevations. This phenomenon likely contributes to the maintenance of patterns of species abundance across altitude by placing germinated seeds in a favorable environment for plant growth. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Survival patterns and hemopathological responses of dogs under continuous gamma irradiation

    Seed, T.M.; Fritz, T.E.; Tolle, D.V.; Poole, C.M.; Lombard, L.S.; Doyle, D.E.; Kaspar, L.V.; Cullen, S.M.; Carnes, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    Survival curves were constructed and analyzed relative to contributing hematopathological responses for groups of beagles exposed continuously for duration of life to low daily doses of whole body 60 Co gamma irradiation (27.3 rads/day to 4 rads/day). The survival curves versus time were progressively displaced toward longer survival as rates of exposure were reduced from the relatively high dose rate of 27.3 rads/day to the low dose rate of 4.0 rads/day. Average survival times increased from 57 days at 27.3 rads/day to 1830 days at 4.0 rads/day, representing fractional increased life-spans from 1.5% to 50.8%, respectively. Survival curves versus total dose were markedly displaced along the cumulative radiation dose axis at the extreme dose rates (i.e., 27.3 and 4.0 rads/day), but not at the intermediate dose rates (i.e., 13.4 and 7.9 rads/day) in which the upper linear portions of the survival curves are superimposed. From these dose-dependent survival curves, LD 50 values for whole body gamma irradiation, delivered chronically at 27.3, 13.4, 7.9, and 4.0 rads per day were estimated to be 1442, 2124, 2039, and 7161 rads, respectively. Both time- and dose-dependent survival curves for the intermediate dose rates, in contrast to the extreme dose rates, exhibited pronounced transitions in the lethality rate below the 50% survival level. These lethality rate transitions occurred at approx. 2500 rads of accumulated dose and were attributed to a shift in the spectrum of developing hematopathologies: namely, from a predominance of the acutely ablative radiation-induced lymphohematopoietic syndromes (i.e., septicemias and aplastic anemias) to a predominance of the late arising hematopoietic neoplasias (myelogenous leukemia and related myeloproliferative disorders)

  10. Complex small pelagic fish population patterns arising from individual behavioral responses to their environment

    Brochier, Timothée; Auger, Pierre-Amaël; Pecquerie, Laure; Machu, Eric; Capet, Xavier; Thiaw, Modou; Mbaye, Baye Cheikh; Braham, Cheikh-Baye; Ettahiri, Omar; Charouki, Najib; Sène, Ousseynou Ndaw; Werner, Francisco; Brehmer, Patrice

    2018-05-01

    Small pelagic fish (SPF) species are heavily exploited in eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS) as their transformation products are increasingly used in the world's food chain. Management relies on regular monitoring, but there is a lack of robust theories for the emergence of the populations' traits and their evolution in highly variable environments. This work aims to address existing knowledge gaps by combining physical and biogeochemical modelling with an individual life-cycle based model applied to round sardinella (Sardinella aurita) off northwest Africa, a key species for regional food security. Our approach focused on the processes responsible for seasonal migrations, spatio-temporal size-structure, and interannual biomass fluctuations. Emergence of preferred habitat resulted from interactions between natal homing behavior and environmental variability that impacts early life stages. Exploration of the environment by the fishes was determined by swimming capabilities, mesoscale to regional habitat structure, and horizontal currents. Fish spatio-temporal abundance variability emerged from a complex combination of distinct life-history traits. An alongshore gradient in fish size distributions is reported and validated by in situ measurements. New insights into population structure are provided, within an area where the species is abundant year-round (Mauritania) and with latitudinal migrations of variable (300-1200 km) amplitude. Interannual biomass fluctuations were linked to modulations of fish recruitment over the Sahara Bank driven by variability in alongshore current intensity. The identified processes constitute an analytical framework that can be implemented in other EBUS and used to explore impacts of regional climate change on SPF.

  11. Suggestibility and suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect.

    Kirsch, Irving

    2011-06-01

    Although the induction of a hypnotic state does not seem necessary for suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect, this important phenomenon has seemed to be dependent on the subject's level of hypnotic suggestibility. Raz and Campbell's (2011) study indicates that suggestion can modulate the Stroop effect substantially in very low suggestible subjects, as well as in those who are highly suggestible. This finding casts doubt on the presumed mechanism by which suggestive modulation is brought about. Research aimed at uncovering the means by which low suggestible individuals are able to modulate the Stroop effect would be welcome, as would assessment of this effect in moderately suggestible people. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of cortisol infusion patterns and castration on metabolic and immunological indices of stress response in cattle.

    Ting, S T L; Earley, B; Crowe, M A

    2004-05-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that: (1) either acute stress induced by Burdizzo castration, or cortisol infusion would modulate plasma glucose, insulin and growth hormone (GH) concentrations; and (2) immune modulation induced by cortisol would be dependent on the pattern, intensity and duration of circulating cortisol concentrations. Fifty 9.2-month-old Holstein x Friesian bulls (232 +/- 2.0 kg) were blocked by weight and randomly assigned to one of five treatments (n = 10 per treatment): (1) sham handled control; (2) Burdizzo castration; (3) hydrocortisone infusion to mimic the castration-induced secretion pattern of cortisol; (4) hourly pulse infusion of hydrocortisone; and (5) sustained infusion of hydrocortisone for 8h. Blood samples were collected intensively on day 0, and weekly from days 1 to 35. Castration acutely increased plasma cortisol, GH and haptoglobin concentrations, suppressed lymphocyte in vitro interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production, but had no effect on plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Cortisol infusion to simulate the castration-induced secretion pattern of cortisol, and pulse infusion of cortisol did not suppress the IFN-gamma production. A sustained infusion of cortisol resulted in the transient suppression of IFN-gamma production. Moreover, the sustained cortisol infusion resulted in increased plasma glucose, insulin and GH concentrations. The overall 14-day feed intakes and 35-day growth rates were not affected by treatments. In conclusion, cortisol infusion to induce immune suppression in vivo occurred only at pharmacological doses. Within physiological ranges, cortisol was not associated with the suppression of immune function, indicating that during castration cortisol per se is not responsible for the suppression of in vitro IFN-gamma production.

  13. Changes of population trends and mortality patterns in response to the reintroduction of large predators: The case study of African ungulates

    Grange, Sophie; Owen-Smith, Norman; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Druce, Dave J.; Moleón, Marcos; Mgobozi, Mandisa

    2012-07-01

    Large predators have been reintroduced to an increasing number of protected areas in South Africa. However, the conditions allowing both prey and predator populations to be sustained in enclosed areas are still unclear as there is a lack of understanding of the consequences of such reintroductions for ungulate population dynamics. Variation in lion numbers, two decades after their first release, offered a special opportunity to test the effects of predation pressure on the population dynamics of seven ungulate species in the 960 km2 Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP), South Africa. We used two different approaches to examine predator-prey relationships: the population response of ungulates to predation pressure after accounting for possible confounding factors, and the pattern of ungulate adult mortality observed from carcass records. Rainfall patterns affected observed mortalities of several ungulate species in HiP. Although lion predation accounted for most ungulate mortality, it still had no detectable influence on ungulate population trends and mortality patterns, with one possible exception. This evidence suggests that the lion population had not yet attained the maximum abundance potentially supported by their ungulate prey; but following recent increases in lion numbers it will probably occur soon. It remains uncertain whether a quasi-stable balance will be reached between prey and predator populations, or whether favoured prey species will be depressed towards levels potentially generating oscillatory dynamics in this complex large mammal assemblage. We specifically recommend a continuous monitoring of predator and prey populations in HiP since lions are likely to show more impacts on their prey species in the next years.

  14. Sweetening of the global diet, particularly beverages: patterns, trends, and policy responses.

    Popkin, Barry M; Hawkes, Corinna

    2016-02-01

    Evidence suggests that excessive intake of added sugars has adverse effects on cardiometabolic health, which is consistent with many reviews and consensus reports from WHO and other unbiased sources. 74% of products in the US food supply contain caloric or low-calorie sweeteners, or both. Of all packaged foods and beverages purchased by a nationally representative sample of US households in 2013, 68% (by proportion of calories) contain caloric sweeteners and 2% contain low-calorie sweeteners. We believe that in the absence of intervention, the rest of the world will move towards this pervasiveness of added sugars in the food supply. Our analysis of trends in sales of sugar-sweetened beverages around the world, in terms of calories sold per person per day and volume sold per person per day, shows that the four regions with the highest consumption are North America, Latin America, Australasia, and western Europe. The fastest absolute growth in sales of sugar-sweetened beverages by country in 2009-14 was seen in Chile. We believe that action is needed to tackle the high levels and continuing growth in sales of such beverages worldwide. Many governments have initiated actions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in the past few years, including taxation (eg, in Mexico); reduction of their availability in schools; restrictions on marketing of sugary foods to children; public awareness campaigns; and positive and negative front-of-pack labelling. In our opinion, evidence of the effectiveness of these actions shows that they are moving in the right direction, but governments should view them as a learning process and improve their design over time. A key challenge for policy makers and researchers is the absence of a consensus on the relation of beverages containing low-calorie sweeteners and fruit juices with cardiometabolic outcomes, since decisions about whether these are healthy substitutes for sugar-sweetened beverages are an integral part of policy

  15. Geographic patterns of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance distinguished by differential responses to amodiaquine and chloroquine

    Sá, Juliana Martha; Twu, Olivia; Hayton, Karen; Reyes, Sahily; Fay, Michael P.; Ringwald, Pascal; Wellems, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) resistance (CQR) in Plasmodium falciparum originated from at least six foci in South America, Asia, and Oceania. Malaria parasites from these locations exhibit contrasting resistance phenotypes that are distinguished by point mutations and microsatellite polymorphisms in and near the CQR transporter gene, pfcrt, and the multidrug resistance transporter gene, pfmdr1. Amodiaquine (AQ), a 4-aminoquinoline related to CQ, is recommended and often used successfully against CQ-resistant P. falciparum in Africa, but it is largely ineffective across large regions of South America. The relationship of different pfcrt and pfmdr1 combinations to these drug-resistant phenotypes has been unclear. In two P. falciparum genetic crosses, particular pfcrt and pfmdr1 alleles from South America interact to yield greater levels of resistance to monodesethylamodiaquine (MDAQ; the active metabolite of AQ) than to CQ, whereas a pfcrt allele from Southeast Asia and Africa is linked to greater CQ than MDAQ resistance with all partner pfmdr1 alleles. These results, together with (i) available haplotype data from other parasites; (ii) evidence for an emerging focus of AQ resistance in Tanzania; and (iii) the persistence of 4-aminoquinoline-resistant parasites in South America, where CQ and AQ use is largely discontinued, suggest that different histories of drug use on the two continents have driven the selection of distinct suites of pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations. Increasing use of AQ in Africa poses the threat of a selective sweep of highly AQ-resistant, CQ-resistant parasites with pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations that are as advantaged and persistent as in South America. PMID:19884511

  16. Changes in muscle activation patterns in response to enhanced sensory input during treadmill stepping in infants born with myelomeningocele.

    Pantall, Annette; Teulier, Caroline; Ulrich, Beverly D

    2012-12-01

    Infants with myelomeningocele (MMC) increase step frequency in response to modifications to the treadmill surface. The aim was to investigate how these modifications impacted the electromyographic (EMG) patterns. We analyzed EMG from 19 infants aged 2-10 months, with MMC at the lumbosacral level. We supported infants upright on the treadmill for 12 trials, each 30 seconds long. Modifications included visual flow, unloading, weights, Velcro and lcriction. Surface electrodes recorded EMG from tibialis anterior, lateral gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris. We determined muscle bursts for each stride cycle and from these calculated various parameters. Results indicated that each of the five sensory conditions generated different motor patterns. Visual flow and friction which we previously reported increased step frequency impacted lateral gastrocnemius most. Weights, which significantly decreased step frequency increased burst duration and co-activity of the proximal muscles. We also observed an age effect, with all conditions increasing muscle activity in younger infants whereas in older infants visual flow and unloading stimulated most activity. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that infants with myelomeningocele at levels which impact the myotomes of major locomotor muscles find ways to respond and adapt their motor output to changes in sensory input. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression patterns of endogenous avian retrovirus ALVE1 and its response to infection with exogenous avian tumour viruses.

    Hu, Xuming; Zhu, Wenqi; Chen, Shihao; Liu, Yangyang; Sun, Zhen; Geng, Tuoyu; Song, Chengyi; Gao, Bo; Wang, Xiaoyan; Qin, Aijian; Cui, Hengmi

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are genomic elements that are present in a wide range of vertebrates and have been implicated in a variety of human diseases, including cancer. However, the characteristic expression patterns of ERVs, particularly in virus-induced tumours, is not fully clear. DNA methylation was analysed by bisulfite pyrosequencing, and gene expression was analysed by RT-qPCR. In this study, we first found that the endogenous avian retrovirus ALVE1 was highly expressed in some chicken tissues (including the heart, bursa, thymus, and spleen) at 2 days of age, but its expression was markedly decreased at 35 days of age. In contrast, the CpG methylation level of ALVE1 was significantly lower in heart and bursa at 2 days than at 35 days of age. Moreover, we found that the expression of ALVE1 was significantly inhibited in chicken embryo fibroblast cells (CEFs) and MSB1 cells infected with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALVJ) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) at the early stages of infection. In contrast, the expression of the ALVE1 env gene was significantly induced in CEFs and MSB1 cells infected with Marek's disease virus (MDV). However, the methylation and expression levels of the ALVE1 long terminal repeat (LTR) did not show obvious alterations in response to viral infection. The present study revealed the expression patterns of ALVE1 in a variety of chicken organs and tissues and in chicken cells in response to avian tumour virus infection. These findings may be of significance for understanding the role and function of ERVs that are present in the host genome.

  18. Particles from wood smoke and traffic induce differential pro-inflammatory response patterns in co-cultures

    Kocbach, Anette; Herseth, Jan Inge; Lag, Marit; Refsnes, Magne; Schwarze, Per E.

    2008-01-01

    The inflammatory potential of particles from wood smoke and traffic has not been well elucidated. In this study, a contact co-culture of monocytes and pneumocytes was exposed to 10-40 μg/cm 2 of particles from wood smoke and traffic for 12, 40 and 64 h to determine their influence on pro-inflammatory cytokine release (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8) and viability. To investigate the role of organic constituents in cytokine release the response to particles, their organic extracts and the washed particles were compared. Antagonists were used to investigate source-dependent differences in intercellular signalling (TNF-α, IL-1). The cytotoxicity was low after exposure to particles from both sources. However, wood smoke, and to a lesser degree traffic-derived particles, induced a reduction in cell number, which was associated with the organic fraction. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines was similar for both sources after 12 h, but traffic induced a greater release than wood smoke particles with increasing exposure time. The organic fraction accounted for the majority of the cytokine release induced by wood smoke, whereas the washed traffic particles induced a stronger response than the corresponding organic extract. TNF-α and IL-1 antagonists reduced the release of IL-8 induced by particles from both sources. In contrast, the IL-6 release was only reduced by the IL-1 antagonist during exposure to traffic-derived particles. In summary, particles from wood smoke and traffic induced differential pro-inflammatory response patterns with respect to cytokine release and cell number. Moreover, the influence of the organic particle fraction and intercellular signalling on the pro-inflammatory response seemed to be source-dependent

  19. Multivariate patterns of biochemical responses of Pinus ponderosa trees at field plots in the San Bernardino Mountains, southern California.

    Tausz, M; Bytnerowicz, A; Arbaugh, M J; Wonisch, A; Grill, D

    2001-03-01

    Most environmental stress conditions promote the production of potentially toxic active oxygen species in plant cells. Plants respond with changes in their antioxidant and photoprotective systems. Antioxidants and pigments have been widely used to measure these responses. Because trees are exposed to multiple man-made and natural stresses, their responses are not reflected by changes in single stress markers, but by complex biochemical changes. To evaluate such response patterns, explorative multivariate statistics have been used. In the present study, 12 biochemical variables (chloroplast pigments, state of the xanthophyll cycle, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, glutathione and oxidized glutathione) were measured in previous-year needles of field-grown Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. The trees were sampled in two consecutive years in the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California, where a pollution gradient is overlaid by gradients in natural stresses (drought, altitude). To explore irradiance effects, needle samples were taken directly in the field (sun exposed) and from detached, dark-adapted branches. A principal component analysis on this data set (n = 80) resulted in four components (Components 1-4) that explained 67% of the variance in the original data. Component 1 was positively loaded by concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, total ascorbate and xanthophyll cycle pools, as well as by the proportion of de-epoxides in the xanthophyll cycle. It was negatively loaded by the proportion of dehydroascorbate in the ascorbate pool. Component 2 was negatively loaded by chlorophyll concentrations, and positively loaded by the ratios of lutein and beta-carotene to chlorophyll and by the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle. Component 3 was negatively loaded by GSH concentrations and positively loaded by the proportions of GSSG and tocopherol concentrations. Component 4 was positively loaded by neoxanthin and negatively loaded by beta

  20. Response patterns of phytoplankton growth to variations in resuspension in the German Bight revealed by daily MERIS data in 2003 and 2004

    Jian Su

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll (chl a concentration in coastal seas exhibits variability on various spatial and temporal scales. Resuspension of particulate matter can somewhat limit algal growth, but can also enhance productivity because of the intrusion of nutrient-rich pore water from sediments or bottom water layers into the whole water column. This study investigates whether characteristic changes in net phytoplankton growth can be directly linked to resuspension events within the German Bight. Satellite-derived chl a were used to derive spatial patterns of net rates of chl a increase/decrease (NR in 2003 and 2004. Spatial correlations between NR and mean water column irradiance were analysed. High correlations in space and time were found in most areas of the German Bight (R2 > 0.4, suggesting a tight coupling between light availability and algal growth during spring. These correlations were reduced within a distinct zone in the transition between shallow coastal areas and deeper offshore waters. In summer and autumn, a mismatch was found between phytoplankton blooms (chl a > 6 mg m−3 and spring-tidal induced resuspension events as indicated by bottom velocity, suggesting that there is no phytoplankton resuspension during spring tides. It is instead proposed here that frequent and recurrent spring-tidal resuspension events enhance algal growth by supplying remineralized nutrients. This hypothesis is corroborated by a lag correlation analysis between resuspension events and in-situ measured nutrient concentrations. This study outlines seasonally different patterns in phytoplankton productivity in response to variations in resuspension, which can serve as a reference for modelling coastal ecosystem dynamics.

  1. Responses of the sustainable yield of groundwater to annual rainfall and pumping patterns in the Baotou Plain, North China

    Liao, Z.; LONG, Y., Sr.; Wei, Y.; Guo, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Serious water deficits and deteriorating environmental quality are threatening the sustainable socio-economic development and the protection of the ecology and the environment in North China, especially in Baotou City. There is a common misconception that groundwater extraction can be sustainable if the pumping rate does not exceed the total natural recharge in a groundwater basin. The truth is that the natural recharge is mainly affected by the rainfall and that groundwater withdrawal determines the sustainable yield of the aquifer flow system. The concept of the sustainable yield is defined as the allowance pumping patterns and rates that avoid adverse impacts on the groundwater system. The sustainable yield introduced in this paper is a useful baseline for groundwater management under all rainfall conditions and given pumping scenarios. A dynamic alternative to the groundwater sustainable yield for a given pumping pattern and rate should consider the responses of the recharge, discharge, and evapotranspiration to the groundwater level fluctuation and to different natural rainfall conditions. In this study, methods for determining the sustainable yield through time series data of groundwater recharge, discharge, extraction, and precipitation in an aquifer are introduced. A numerical simulation tool was used to assess and quantify the dynamic changes in groundwater recharge and discharge under excessive pumping patterns and rates and to estimate the sustainable yield of groundwater flow based on natural rainfall conditions and specific groundwater development scenarios during the period of 2007 to 2014. The results of this study indicate that the multi-year sustainable yield only accounts for about one-half of the average annual recharge. The future sustainable yield for the current pumping scenarios affected by rainfall conditions are evaluated quantitatively to obtain long-term groundwater development strategies. The simulation results show that sufficient

  2. A distinct urinary biomarker pattern characteristic of female Fabry patients that mirrors response to enzyme replacement therapy.

    Andreas D Kistler

    Full Text Available Female patients affected by Fabry disease, an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, exhibit a wide spectrum of symptoms, which renders diagnosis, and treatment decisions challenging. No diagnostic test, other than sequencing of the alpha-galactosidase A gene, is available and no biomarker has been proven useful to screen for the disease, predict disease course and monitor response to enzyme replacement therapy. Here, we used urine proteomic analysis based on capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry and identified a biomarker profile in adult female Fabry patients. Urine samples were taken from 35 treatment-naïve female Fabry patients and were compared to 89 age-matched healthy controls. We found a diagnostic biomarker pattern that exhibited 88.2% sensitivity and 97.8% specificity when tested in an independent validation cohort consisting of 17 treatment-naïve Fabry patients and 45 controls. The model remained highly specific when applied to additional control patients with a variety of other renal, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Several of the 64 identified diagnostic biomarkers showed correlations with measures of disease severity. Notably, most biomarkers responded to enzyme replacement therapy, and 8 of 11 treated patients scored negative for Fabry disease in the diagnostic model. In conclusion, we defined a urinary biomarker model that seems to be of diagnostic use for Fabry disease in female patients and may be used to monitor response to enzyme replacement therapy.

  3. Minoxidil dose response study in female pattern hair loss patients determined to be non-responders to 5% topical minoxidil.

    McCoy, J; Goren, A; Kovacevic, M; Shapiro, J

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only US FDA approved drug for the treatment of female pattern hair loss (FPHL). 5% minoxidil foam is only effective at re-growing hair in a minority of women (approximately 40%). Thus, the majority of FPHL patients remain untreated. Previously, we demonstrated that nonresponders to 5% minoxidil have low metabolism of minoxidil in hair follicles. As such, we hypothesized that increasing the dosage of topical minoxidil to low metabolizers would increase the number of responders without increasing the incidence of adverse events. In this study, we recruited FPHL subjects that were identified as non-responders to 5% topical minoxidil utilizing the previously validated assay for minoxidil response. Subjects were treated for 12 weeks with a novel 15% topical minoxidil solution. At 12 weeks, 60% of subjects achieved a clinically significant response based on target area hair counts (>13.7% from baseline), as well as significant improvement in global photographic assessment. None of the subjects experienced significant hemodynamic changes or any other adverse events. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the potentially beneficial effect of a higher dosage of minoxidil in FPHL subjects who fail to respond to 5% minoxidil.

  4. Self-Organized Patterns Induced by Neimark-Sacker, Flip and Turing Bifurcations in a Discrete Predator-Prey Model with Lesie-Gower Functional Response

    Feifan Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of self-organized patterns in predator-prey models has been a very hot topic recently. The dynamics of these models, bifurcations and pattern formations are so complex that studies are urgently needed. In this research, we transformed a continuous predator-prey model with Lesie-Gower functional response into a discrete model. Fixed points and stability analyses were studied. Around the stable fixed point, bifurcation analyses including: flip, Neimark-Sacker and Turing bifurcation were done and bifurcation conditions were obtained. Based on these bifurcation conditions, parameters values were selected to carry out numerical simulations on pattern formation. The simulation results showed that Neimark-Sacker bifurcation induced spots, spirals and transitional patterns from spots to spirals. Turing bifurcation induced labyrinth patterns and spirals coupled with mosaic patterns, while flip bifurcation induced many irregular complex patterns. Compared with former studies on continuous predator-prey model with Lesie-Gower functional response, our research on the discrete model demonstrated more complex dynamics and varieties of self-organized patterns.

  5. Use of Sine Shaped High-Frequency Rhythmic Visual Stimuli Patterns for SSVEP Response Analysis and Fatigue Rate Evaluation in Normal Subjects

    Ahmadreza Keihani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent EEG-SSVEP signal based BCI studies have used high frequency square pulse visual stimuli to reduce subjective fatigue. However, the effect of total harmonic distortion (THD has not been considered. Compared to CRT and LCD monitors, LED screen displays high-frequency wave with better refresh rate. In this study, we present high frequency sine wave simple and rhythmic patterns with low THD rate by LED to analyze SSVEP responses and evaluate subjective fatigue in normal subjects.Materials and Methods: We used patterns of 3-sequence high-frequency sine waves (25, 30, and 35 Hz to design our visual stimuli. Nine stimuli patterns, 3 simple (repetition of each of above 3 frequencies e.g., P25-25-25 and 6 rhythmic (all of the frequencies in 6 different sequences e.g., P25-30-35 were chosen. A hardware setup with low THD rate (<0.1% was designed to present these patterns on LED. Twenty two normal subjects (aged 23–30 (25 ± 2.1 yrs were enrolled. Visual analog scale (VAS was used for subjective fatigue evaluation after presentation of each stimulus pattern. PSD, CCA, and LASSO methods were employed to analyze SSVEP responses. The data including SSVEP features and fatigue rate for different visual stimuli patterns were statistically evaluated.Results: All 9 visual stimuli patterns elicited SSVEP responses. Overall, obtained accuracy rates were 88.35% for PSD and > 90% for CCA and LASSO (for TWs > 1 s. High frequency rhythmic patterns group with low THD rate showed higher accuracy rate (99.24% than simple patterns group (98.48%. Repeated measure ANOVA showed significant difference between rhythmic pattern features (P < 0.0005. Overall, there was no significant difference between the VAS of rhythmic [3.85 ± 2.13] compared to the simple patterns group [3.96 ± 2.21], (P = 0.63. Rhythmic group had lower within group VAS variation (min = P25-30-35 [2.90 ± 2.45], max = P35-25-30 [4.81 ± 2.65] as well as least individual pattern VAS (P25

  6. Simulating carbon dioxide exchange rates of deciduous tree species: evidence for a general pattern in biochemical changes and water stress response.

    Reynolds, Robert F; Bauerle, William L; Wang, Ying

    2009-09-01

    Deciduous trees have a seasonal carbon dioxide exchange pattern that is attributed to changes in leaf biochemical properties. However, it is not known if the pattern in leaf biochemical properties - maximum Rubisco carboxylation (V(cmax)) and electron transport (J(max)) - differ between species. This study explored whether a general pattern of changes in V(cmax), J(max), and a standardized soil moisture response accounted for carbon dioxide exchange of deciduous trees throughout the growing season. The model MAESTRA was used to examine V(cmax) and J(max) of leaves of five deciduous trees, Acer rubrum 'Summer Red', Betula nigra, Quercus nuttallii, Quercus phellos and Paulownia elongata, and their response to soil moisture. MAESTRA was parameterized using data from in situ measurements on organs. Linking the changes in biochemical properties of leaves to the whole tree, MAESTRA integrated the general pattern in V(cmax) and J(max) from gas exchange parameters of leaves with a standardized soil moisture response to describe carbon dioxide exchange throughout the growing season. The model estimates were tested against measurements made on the five species under both irrigated and water-stressed conditions. Measurements and modelling demonstrate that the seasonal pattern of biochemical activity in leaves and soil moisture response can be parameterized with straightforward general relationships. Over the course of the season, differences in carbon exchange between measured and modelled values were within 6-12 % under well-watered conditions and 2-25 % under water stress conditions. Hence, a generalized seasonal pattern in the leaf-level physiological change of V(cmax) and J(max), and a standardized response to soil moisture was sufficient to parameterize carbon dioxide exchange for large-scale evaluations. Simplification in parameterization of the seasonal pattern of leaf biochemical activity and soil moisture response of deciduous forest species is demonstrated. This

  7. Pattern analysis of total item score and item response of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6 in a nationally representative sample of US adults

    Shinichiro Tomitaka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Several recent studies have shown that total scores on depressive symptom measures in a general population approximate an exponential pattern except for the lower end of the distribution. Furthermore, we confirmed that the exponential pattern is present for the individual item responses on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. To confirm the reproducibility of such findings, we investigated the total score distribution and item responses of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6 in a nationally representative study. Methods Data were drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS, which comprises four subsamples: (1 a national random digit dialing (RDD sample, (2 oversamples from five metropolitan areas, (3 siblings of individuals from the RDD sample, and (4 a national RDD sample of twin pairs. K6 items are scored using a 5-point scale: “none of the time,” “a little of the time,” “some of the time,” “most of the time,” and “all of the time.” The pattern of total score distribution and item responses were analyzed using graphical analysis and exponential regression model. Results The total score distributions of the four subsamples exhibited an exponential pattern with similar rate parameters. The item responses of the K6 approximated a linear pattern from “a little of the time” to “all of the time” on log-normal scales, while “none of the time” response was not related to this exponential pattern. Discussion The total score distribution and item responses of the K6 showed exponential patterns, consistent with other depressive symptom scales.

  8. Response of Surface Soil Hydrology to the Micro-Pattern of Bio-Crust in a Dry-Land Loess Environment, China.

    Wei Wei

    Full Text Available The specific bio-species and their spatial patterns play crucial roles in regulating eco-hydrologic process, which is significant for large-scale habitat promotion and vegetation restoration in many dry-land ecosystems. Such effects, however, are not yet fully studied. In this study, 12 micro-plots, each with size of 0.5 m in depth and 1 m in length, were constructed on a gentle grassy hill-slope with a mean gradient of 8° in a semiarid loess hilly area of China. Two major bio-crusts, including mosses and lichens, had been cultivated for two years prior to the field simulation experiments, while physical crusts and non-crusted bare soils were used for comparison. By using rainfall simulation method, four designed micro-patterns (i.e., upper bio-crust and lower bare soil, scattered bio-crust, upper bare soil and lower bio-crust, fully-covered bio-crust to the soil hydrological response were analyzed. We found that soil surface bio-crusts were more efficient in improving soil structure, water holding capacity and runoff retention particularly at surface 10 cm layers, compared with physical soil crusts and non-crusted bare soils. We re-confirmed that mosses functioned better than lichens, partly due to their higher successional stage and deeper biomass accumulation. Physical crusts were least efficient in water conservation and erosion control, followed by non-crusted bare soils. More importantly, there were marked differences in the efficiency of the different spatial arrangements of bio-crusts in controlling runoff and sediment generation. Fully-covered bio-crust pattern provides the best option for soil loss reduction and runoff retention, while a combination of upper bio-crust and lower bare soil pattern is the least one. These findings are suggested to be significant for surface-cover protection, rainwater infiltration, runoff retention, and erosion control in water-restricted and degraded natural slopes.

  9. Response of Surface Soil Hydrology to the Micro-Pattern of Bio-Crust in a Dry-Land Loess Environment, China

    Wei, Wei; Yu, Yun; Chen, Liding

    2015-01-01

    The specific bio-species and their spatial patterns play crucial roles in regulating eco-hydrologic process, which is significant for large-scale habitat promotion and vegetation restoration in many dry-land ecosystems. Such effects, however, are not yet fully studied. In this study, 12 micro-plots, each with size of 0.5 m in depth and 1 m in length, were constructed on a gentle grassy hill-slope with a mean gradient of 8° in a semiarid loess hilly area of China. Two major bio-crusts, including mosses and lichens, had been cultivated for two years prior to the field simulation experiments, while physical crusts and non-crusted bare soils were used for comparison. By using rainfall simulation method, four designed micro-patterns (i.e., upper bio-crust and lower bare soil, scattered bio-crust, upper bare soil and lower bio-crust, fully-covered bio-crust) to the soil hydrological response were analyzed. We found that soil surface bio-crusts were more efficient in improving soil structure, water holding capacity and runoff retention particularly at surface 10 cm layers, compared with physical soil crusts and non-crusted bare soils. We re-confirmed that mosses functioned better than lichens, partly due to their higher successional stage and deeper biomass accumulation. Physical crusts were least efficient in water conservation and erosion control, followed by non-crusted bare soils. More importantly, there were marked differences in the efficiency of the different spatial arrangements of bio-crusts in controlling runoff and sediment generation. Fully-covered bio-crust pattern provides the best option for soil loss reduction and runoff retention, while a combination of upper bio-crust and lower bare soil pattern is the least one. These findings are suggested to be significant for surface-cover protection, rainwater infiltration, runoff retention, and erosion control in water-restricted and degraded natural slopes. PMID:26207757

  10. Searching for Truth: Internet Search Patterns as a Method of Investigating Online Responses to a Russian Illicit Drug Policy Debate

    Gillespie, James A; Quinn, Casey

    2012-01-01

    Background This is a methodological study investigating the online responses to a national debate over an important health and social problem in Russia. Russia is the largest Internet market in Europe, exceeding Germany in the absolute number of users. However, Russia is unusual in that the main search provider is not Google, but Yandex. Objective This study had two main objectives. First, to validate Yandex search patterns against those provided by Google, and second, to test this method's adequacy for investigating online interest in a 2010 national debate over Russian illicit drug policy. We hoped to learn what search patterns and specific search terms could reveal about the relative importance and geographic distribution of interest in this debate. Methods A national drug debate, centering on the anti-drug campaigner Egor Bychkov, was one of the main Russian domestic news events of 2010. Public interest in this episode was accompanied by increased Internet search. First, we measured the search patterns for 13 search terms related to the Bychkov episode and concurrent domestic events by extracting data from Google Insights for Search (GIFS) and Yandex WordStat (YaW). We conducted Spearman Rank Correlation of GIFS and YaW search data series. Second, we coded all 420 primary posts from Bychkov's personal blog between March 2010 and March 2012 to identify the main themes. Third, we compared GIFS and Yandex policies concerning the public release of search volume data. Finally, we established the relationship between salient drug issues and the Bychkov episode. Results We found a consistent pattern of strong to moderate positive correlations between Google and Yandex for the terms "Egor Bychkov" (r s = 0.88, P < .001), “Bychkov” (r s = .78, P < .001) and “Khimki”(r s = 0.92, P < .001). Peak search volumes for the Bychkov episode were comparable to other prominent domestic political events during 2010. Monthly search counts were 146,689 for “Bychkov” and

  11. Searching for truth: internet search patterns as a method of investigating online responses to a Russian illicit drug policy debate.

    Zheluk, Andrey; Gillespie, James A; Quinn, Casey

    2012-12-13

    This is a methodological study investigating the online responses to a national debate over an important health and social problem in Russia. Russia is the largest Internet market in Europe, exceeding Germany in the absolute number of users. However, Russia is unusual in that the main search provider is not Google, but Yandex. This study had two main objectives. First, to validate Yandex search patterns against those provided by Google, and second, to test this method's adequacy for investigating online interest in a 2010 national debate over Russian illicit drug policy. We hoped to learn what search patterns and specific search terms could reveal about the relative importance and geographic distribution of interest in this debate. A national drug debate, centering on the anti-drug campaigner Egor Bychkov, was one of the main Russian domestic news events of 2010. Public interest in this episode was accompanied by increased Internet search. First, we measured the search patterns for 13 search terms related to the Bychkov episode and concurrent domestic events by extracting data from Google Insights for Search (GIFS) and Yandex WordStat (YaW). We conducted Spearman Rank Correlation of GIFS and YaW search data series. Second, we coded all 420 primary posts from Bychkov's personal blog between March 2010 and March 2012 to identify the main themes. Third, we compared GIFS and Yandex policies concerning the public release of search volume data. Finally, we established the relationship between salient drug issues and the Bychkov episode. We found a consistent pattern of strong to moderate positive correlations between Google and Yandex for the terms "Egor Bychkov" (r(s) = 0.88, P < .001), "Bychkov" (r(s) = .78, P < .001) and "Khimki"(r(s) = 0.92, P < .001). Peak search volumes for the Bychkov episode were comparable to other prominent domestic political events during 2010. Monthly search counts were 146,689 for "Bychkov" and 48,084 for "Egor Bychkov", compared to 53

  12. Functional study of the Hap4-like genes suggests that the key regulators of carbon metabolism HAP4 and oxidative stress response YAP1 in yeast diverged from a common ancestor.

    Nataliya Petryk

    Full Text Available The transcriptional regulator HAP4, induced by respiratory substrates, is involved in the balance between fermentation and respiration in S. cerevisiae. We identified putative orthologues of the Hap4 protein in all ascomycetes, based only on a conserved sixteen amino acid-long motif. In addition to this motif, some of these proteins contain a DNA-binding motif of the bZIP type, while being nonetheless globally highly divergent. The genome of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha contains two HAP4-like genes encoding the protein HpHap4-A which, like ScHap4, is devoid of a bZIP motif, and HpHap4-B which contains it. This species has been chosen for a detailed examination of their respective properties. Based mostly on global gene expression studies performed in the S. cerevisiae HAP4 disruption mutant (ScΔhap4, we show here that HpHap4-A is functionally equivalent to ScHap4, whereas HpHap4-B is not. Moreover HpHAP4-B is able to complement the H2O2 hypersensitivity of the ScYap1 deletant, YAP1 being, in S. cerevisiae, the main regulator of oxidative stress. Finally, a transcriptomic analysis performed in the ScΔyap1 strain overexpressing HpHAP4-B shows that HpHap4-B acts both on oxidative stress response and carbohydrate metabolism in a manner different from both ScYap1 and ScHap4. Deletion of these two genes in their natural host, H. polymorpha, confirms that HpHAP4-A participates in the control of the fermentation/respiration balance, while HpHAP4-B is involved in oxidative stress since its deletion leads to hypersensitivity to H2O2. These data, placed in an evolutionary context, raise new questions concerning the evolution of the HAP4 transcriptional regulation function and suggest that Yap1 and Hap4 have diverged from a unique regulatory protein in the fungal ancestor.

  13. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  14. Temporal Patterns of Fatigue Predict Pathologic Response in Patients Treated With Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer

    Park, Hee Chul; Janjan, Nora A.; Mendoza, Tito R.; Lin, Edward H.; Vadhan-Raj, Saroj; Hundal, Mandeep; Zhang Yiqun; Delclos, Marc E.; Crane, Christopher H.; Das, Prajnan; Wang, Xin Shelley; Cleeland, Charles S.; Krishnan, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether symptom burden before and during preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for rectal cancer predicts for pathologic tumor response. Methods and Materials: Fifty-four patients with T3/T4/N+ rectal cancers were treated on a Phase II trial using preoperative capecitabine and concomitant boost radiotherapy. Symptom burden was prospectively assessed before (baseline) and weekly during CRT by patient self-reported questionnaires, the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI), and Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI). Survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Symptom scores according to tumor downstaging (TDS) were compared using Student's t tests. Logistic regression was used to determine whether symptom burden levels predicted for TDS. Lowess curves were plotted for symptom burden across time. Results: Among 51 patients evaluated for pathologic response, 26 patients (51%) had TDS. Fatigue, pain, and drowsiness were the most common symptoms. All symptoms increased progressively during treatment. Patients with TDS had lower MDASI fatigue scores at baseline and at completion (Week 5) of CRT (p = 0.03 for both) and lower levels of BFI 'usual fatigue' at baseline. Conclusion: Lower levels of fatigue at baseline and completion of CRT were significant predictors of pathologic tumor response gauged by TDS, suggesting that symptom burden may be a surrogate for tumor burden. The relationship between symptom burden and circulating cytokines merits evaluation to characterize the molecular basis of this phenomenon.

  15. Can non-cholesterol sterols and lipoprotein subclasses distribution predict different patterns of cholesterol metabolism and statin therapy response?

    Gojkovic, Tamara; Vladimirov, Sandra; Spasojevic-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Zeljkovic, Aleksandra; Vekic, Jelena; Kalimanovska-Ostric, Dimitra; Djuricic, Ivana; Sobajic, Sladjana; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana

    2017-03-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis disorders may cause dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis progression and coronary artery disease (CAD) development. Evaluation of non-cholesterol sterols (NCSs) as synthesis and absorption markers, and lipoprotein particles quality may indicate the dyslipidemia early development. This study investigates associations of different cholesterol homeostasis patterns with low-density (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) subclasses distribution in statin-treated and statin-untreated CAD patients, and potential use of aforementioned markers for CAD treatment optimization. The study included 78 CAD patients (47 statin-untreated and 31 statin-treated) and 31 controls (CG). NCSs concentrations were quantified using gas chromatography- flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Lipoprotein subclasses were separated by gradient gel electrophoresis. In patients, cholesterol-synthesis markers were significantly higher comparing to CG. Cholesterol-synthesis markers were inversely associated with LDL size in all groups. For cholesterol homeostasis estimation, each group was divided to good and/or poor synthetizers and/or absorbers according to desmosterol and β-sitosterol median values. In CG, participants with reduced cholesterol absorption, the relative proportion of small, dense LDL was higher in those with increased cholesterol synthesis compared to those with reduced synthesis (p<0.01). LDL I fraction was significantly higher in poor synthetizers/poor absorbers subgroup compared to poor synthetizers/good absorbers (p<0.01), and good synthetizers/poor absorbers (p<0.01). Statin-treated patients with increased cholesterol absorption had increased proportion of LDL IVB (p<0.05). The results suggest the existence of different lipoprotein abnormalities according to various patterns of cholesterol homeostasis. Desmosterol/β-sitosterol ratio could be used for estimating individual propensity toward dyslipidemia development and direct the future treatment.

  16. Response pattern of depressive symptoms among college students: What lies behind items of the Beck Depression Inventory-II?

    de Sá Junior, Antonio Reis; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Andrade, Laura Helena; Gorenstein, Clarice; Wang, Yuan-Pang

    2018-07-01

    This study examines the response pattern of depressive symptoms in a nationwide student sample, through item analyses of a rating scale by both classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT). The 21-item Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was administered to 12,711 college students. First, the psychometric properties of the scale were described. Thereafter, the endorsement probability of depressive symptom in each scale item was analyzed through CTT and IRT. Graphical plots depicted the endorsement probability of scale items and intensity of depression. Three items of different difficulty level were compared through CTT and IRT approach. Four in five students reported the presence of depressive symptoms. The BDI-II items presented good reliability and were distributed along the symptomatic continuum of depression. Similarly, in both CTT and IRT approaches, the item 'changes in sleep' was easily endorsed, 'loss of interest' moderately and 'suicidal thoughts' hardly. Graphical representation of BDI-II of both methods showed much equivalence in terms of item discrimination and item difficulty. The item characteristic curve of the IRT method provided informative evaluation of item performance. The inventory was applied only in college students. Depressive symptoms were frequent psychopathological manifestations among college students. The performance of the BDI-II items indicated convergent results from both methods of analysis. While the CTT was easy to understand and to apply, the IRT was more complex to understand and to implement. Comprehensive assessment of the functioning of each BDI-II item might be helpful in efficient detection of depressive conditions in college students. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of information type on children's interrogative suggestibility: is Theory-of-Mind involved?

    Hünefeldt, Thomas; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Furia, Augusta

    2009-08-01

    This research was aimed at learning more about the different psychological mechanisms underlying children's suggestibility to leading questions, on the one hand, and children's suggestibility to negative feedback, on the other, by distinguishing between interview questions concerning different types of information. Results showed that, unlike the developmental pattern of children's suggestibility to leading questions, the developmental pattern of children's suggestibility to negative feedback differed depending on whether the interview questions concerned external facts (physical states and events) or internal facts (mental states and events). This difference was not manifested in response to questions concerning central versus peripheral facts. Results are interpreted in terms of the hypothesis that children's suggestibility to negative feedback is differently affected by "Theory-of-Mind" abilities than children's suggestibility to leading questions. Further research is needed in order to test this hypothesis.

  18. Influence of the control bars pattern on the response of the operation channels of the TRIGA Mark III reactor

    Paredes G, L.C.

    1991-07-01

    The local flow perturbations not generated by movements of bars not planned adequately to operate the reactor to 1 MW of thermal power, are reflected in the independent responses of the operation channels of the same one, find variations average from 17% to 30% for the channel of the power percent and of until 10% for the logarithmic channel. For the case of the lineal and percent power channels, these are between 14% and 46% as maximum when moving some of the bars. These variations can diminish until 5% in the channel of the power percent and until 3% on the average for the logarithmic one, all times when the calculated bars pattern for that irradiation considers that all the bars operate inside the lineal region of its calibration curve with approximately the same reactivity value each one and that during the operation the required reactivity compensations are carried out with the diametrically opposed bar to the irradiation installation used in that experiment. (Author)

  19. Correlation between ability of biofilm formation with their responsible genes and MDR patterns in clinical and environmental Acinetobacter baumannii isolates.

    Bardbari, Ali Mohammadi; Arabestani, Mohammad Reza; Karami, Manoochehr; Keramat, Fariba; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Bagheri, Kamran Pooshang

    2017-07-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii potential to form biofilm and exhibit multiple antibiotic resistances may be responsible in its survival in hospital environment. Accordingly, our study was aimed to determine the correlation between ability of biofilm formation and the frequency of biofilm related genes with antibiotic resistance phenotypes, and also the categorization of their patterns in clinical and environmental isolates. A total of 75 clinical and 32 environmental strains of the A. baumannii were collected and identified via API 20NE. Antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated by disk diffusion and microdilution broth methods. Biofilm formation assay was performed by microtiter plate method. OXA types and biofilm related genes including Bla OXA-51 , Bla OXA-23 , Bla OXA-24 , Bla OXA-58 , bap, bla PER-1 , and ompA were amplified by PCR. The rate of MDR A. baumannii in clinical isolates (100%) was higher than environmental (81.2%) isolates (p baumannii isolates was associated with biofilm formation. There was a significant correlation between multiple drug resistance and biofilm formation. The clinical isolates had a higher ability to form strong biofilms compared to the environmental samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tissue specificity of the hormonal response in sex accessory tissues is associated with nuclear matrix protein patterns.

    Getzenberg, R H; Coffey, D S

    1990-09-01

    The DNA of interphase nuclei have very specific three-dimensional organizations that are different in different cell types, and it is possible that this varying DNA organization is responsible for the tissue specificity of gene expression. The nuclear matrix organizes the three-dimensional structure of the DNA and is believed to be involved in the control of gene expression. This study compares the nuclear structural proteins between two sex accessory tissues in the same animal responding to the same androgen stimulation by the differential expression of major tissue-specific secretory proteins. We demonstrate here that the nuclear matrix is tissue specific in the rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle, and undergoes characteristic alterations in its protein composition upon androgen withdrawal. Three types of nuclear matrix proteins were observed: 1) nuclear matrix proteins that are different and tissue specific in the rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle, 2) a set of nuclear matrix proteins that either appear or disappear upon androgen withdrawal, and 3) a set of proteins that are common to both the ventral prostate and seminal vesicle and do not change with the hormonal state of the animal. Since the nuclear matrix is known to bind androgen receptors in a tissue- and steroid-specific manner, we propose that the tissue specificity of the nuclear matrix arranges the DNA in a unique conformation, which may be involved in the specific interaction of transcription factors with DNA sequences, resulting in tissue-specific patterns of secretory protein expression.

  1. Representational constraints on children's suggestibility.

    Ceci, Stephen J; Papierno, Paul B; Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    In a multistage experiment, twelve 4- and 9-year-old children participated in a triad rating task. Their ratings were mapped with multidimensional scaling, from which euclidean distances were computed to operationalize semantic distance between items in target pairs. These children and age-mates then participated in an experiment that employed these target pairs in a story, which was followed by a misinformation manipulation. Analyses linked individual and developmental differences in suggestibility to children's representations of the target items. Semantic proximity was a strong predictor of differences in suggestibility: The closer a suggested distractor was to the original item's representation, the greater was the distractor's suggestive influence. The triad participants' semantic proximity subsequently served as the basis for correctly predicting memory performance in the larger group. Semantic proximity enabled a priori counterintuitive predictions of reverse age-related trends to be confirmed whenever the distance between representations of items in a target pair was greater for younger than for older children.

  2. Use of Sine Shaped High-Frequency Rhythmic Visual Stimuli Patterns for SSVEP Response Analysis and Fatigue Rate Evaluation in Normal Subjects.

    Keihani, Ahmadreza; Shirzhiyan, Zahra; Farahi, Morteza; Shamsi, Elham; Mahnam, Amin; Makkiabadi, Bahador; Haidari, Mohsen R; Jafari, Amir H

    2018-01-01

    Background: Recent EEG-SSVEP signal based BCI studies have used high frequency square pulse visual stimuli to reduce subjective fatigue. However, the effect of total harmonic distortion (THD) has not been considered. Compared to CRT and LCD monitors, LED screen displays high-frequency wave with better refresh rate. In this study, we present high frequency sine wave simple and rhythmic patterns with low THD rate by LED to analyze SSVEP responses and evaluate subjective fatigue in normal subjects. Materials and Methods: We used patterns of 3-sequence high-frequency sine waves (25, 30, and 35 Hz) to design our visual stimuli. Nine stimuli patterns, 3 simple (repetition of each of above 3 frequencies e.g., P25-25-25) and 6 rhythmic (all of the frequencies in 6 different sequences e.g., P25-30-35) were chosen. A hardware setup with low THD rate ( 90% for CCA and LASSO (for TWs > 1 s). High frequency rhythmic patterns group with low THD rate showed higher accuracy rate (99.24%) than simple patterns group (98.48%). Repeated measure ANOVA showed significant difference between rhythmic pattern features ( P rhythmic [3.85 ± 2.13] compared to the simple patterns group [3.96 ± 2.21], ( P = 0.63). Rhythmic group had lower within group VAS variation (min = P25-30-35 [2.90 ± 2.45], max = P35-25-30 [4.81 ± 2.65]) as well as least individual pattern VAS (P25-30-35). Discussion and Conclusion: Overall, rhythmic and simple pattern groups had higher and similar accuracy rates. Rhythmic stimuli patterns showed insignificantly lower fatigue rate than simple patterns. We conclude that both rhythmic and simple visual high frequency sine wave stimuli require further research for human subject SSVEP-BCI studies.

  3. Dominant gain-of-function mutations in transmembrane domain III of ERS1 and ETR1 suggest a novel role for this domain in regulating the magnitude of ethylene response in Arabidopsis.

    Deslauriers, Stephen D; Alvarez, Ashley A; Lacey, Randy F; Binder, Brad M; Larsen, Paul B

    2015-10-01

    Prior work resulted in identification of an Arabidopsis mutant, eer5-1, with extreme ethylene response in conjunction with failure to induce a subset of ethylene-responsive genes, including AtEBP. EER5, which is a TREX-2 homolog that is part of a nucleoporin complex, functions as part of a cryptic aspect of the ethylene signaling pathway that is required for regulating the magnitude of ethylene response. A suppressor mutagenesis screen was carried out to identify second site mutations that could restore the growth of ethylene-treated eer5-1 to wild-type levels. A dominant gain-of-function mutation in the ethylene receptor ETHYLENE RESPONSE SENSOR 1 (ERS1) was identified, with the ers1-4 mutation being located in transmembrane domain III at a point nearly equivalent to the previously described etr1-2 mutation in the other Arabidopsis subfamily I ethylene receptor, ETHYLENE RESPONSE 1 (ETR1). Although both ers1-4 and etr1-2 partially suppress the ethylene hypersensitivity of eer5-1 and are at least in part REVERSION TO ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY 1 (RTE1)-dependent, ers1-4 was additionally found to restore the expression of AtEBP in ers1-4;eer5-1 etiolated seedlings after ethylene treatment in an EIN3-dependent manner. Our work indicates that ERS1-regulated expression of a subset of ethylene-responsive genes is related to controlling the magnitude of ethylene response, with hyperinduction of these genes correlated with reduced ethylene-dependent growth inhibition. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Cytokine response patterns in severe pandemic 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza among hospitalized adults.

    Nelson Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studying cytokine/chemokine responses in severe influenza infections caused by different virus subtypes may improve understanding on pathogenesis. METHODS: Adults hospitalized for laboratory-confirmed seasonal and pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 (pH1N1 influenza were studied. Plasma concentrations of 13 cytokines/chemokines were measured at presentation and then serially, using cytometric-bead-array with flow-cytometry and ELISA. PBMCs from influenza patients were studied for cytokine/chemokine expression using ex-vivo culture (Whole Blood Assay,±PHA/LPS stimulation. Clinical variables were prospectively recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: 63 pH1N1 and 53 seasonal influenza patients were studied. pH1N1 patients were younger (mean±S.D. 42.8±19.2 vs 70.5±16.7 years, and fewer had comorbidities. Respiratory/cardiovascular complications were common in both groups (71.4% vs 81.1%, although severe pneumonia with hypoxemia (54.0% vs 28.3% and ICU admissions (25.4% vs 1.9% were more frequent with pH1N1. Hyperactivation of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, CXCL8/IL-8, CCL2/MCP-1 and sTNFR-1 was found in pH1N1 pneumonia (2-15 times normal and in complicated seasonal influenza, but not in milder pH1N1 infections. The adaptive-immunity (Th1/Th17-related CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL9/MIG and IL-17A however, were markedly suppressed in severe pH1N1 pneumonia (2-27 times lower than seasonal influenza; P-values<0.01. This pattern was further confirmed with serial measurements. Hypercytokinemia tended to be sustained in pH1N1 pneumonia, associated with a slower viral clearance [PCR-negativity: day 3-4, 55% vs 85%; day 6-7, 67% vs 100%]. Elevated proinflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-6, predicted ICU admission (adjusted OR 12.6, 95%CI 2.6-61.5, per log(10unit increase; P = 0.002, and correlated with fever, tachypnoea, deoxygenation, and length-of-stay (Spearman's rho, P-values<0.01 in influenza infections. PBMCs in seasonal influenza patients were activated and

  5. Diurnal pattern of serum BDNF before partial sleep deprivation in stress-related mood disorders – an association with therapy response in major depression

    Maria Giese

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Depression is one of the most prevalent forms of mood disorders. Compelling evidence suggests that mood disorders are characterized by reduced neuronal plasticity, which can be brought about by exposure to stress. Furthermore, there is good agreement in considering key proteins such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, as a central player for the effects of stress on brain function and plasticity and psychopathological implications. Still, there is a high non-responder rate in antidepressant therapy, which explains the need to find reliable predictors for adequate treatment. Previous studies revealed that plasma and serum BDNF levels in depressed patients were significantly lower than in healthy controls. Since the protein can cross the blood brain-barrier serum content correspondingly correlates with cortical BDNF concentrations suggesting BDNF levels as a promising candidate biomarker for depression and antidepressant treatment response. Methods : To investigate the association between serum BDNF levels and treatment outcome, blood was drawn from 28 patients with a major depressive episode (DMS-IV, ICD-10 that participated in a double-blind placebo controlled treatment study. All patients were treated with a stable mirtazapine monotherapy. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD was performed after one week. Placebo controlled additional morning treatment with the stimulant modafinil to reduce microsleep throughout the day was started during PSD and maintained over two weeks. Serum concentrations of BDNF and cortisol were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from day 1 (“before PSD” at 8 am, 2 pm, 8 pm and day 2 (“after PSD” at 8 am, 2 pm and 8 pm. Samples were appropriately diluted and detection of soluble BDNF or cortisol was carried out in an antibody sandwich format in duplicates and means were calculated for the corresponding group. Moreover, sleep EEG and microsleep episodes were

  6. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  7. Seasonal patterns in soil N availability in the arctic tundra in response to accelerated snowmelt and warming

    Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Steltzer, H.; Sullivan, P.; Melle, C.; Segal, A.; Weintraub, M. N.

    2010-12-01

    Arctic soils contain large stocks of carbon (C) and may act as a significant CO2 source in response to climate warming. However, nitrogen (N) availability limits both plant growth and decomposition in many Arctic sites, and may thus be a key constraint on climate-carbon feedbacks. While current models of tundra ecosystems and their responses to climate change assume that N limits plant growth and C limits decomposition, there is strong evidence to the contrary showing that N can also limit decomposition. For example, the production of both new microbial biomass and enzymes that degrade organic matter appear to be limited by N during the summer. N availability is strongly seasonal: we have previously observed relatively high availability early in the growing season followed by a pronounced crash in tussock tundra soils. To investigate the drivers of N availability throughout the season, we used a field manipulation of tussock tundra growing season length (~4 days acceleration of snowmelt) and air temperature (open top chambers) and a laboratory soil N addition in both early and late season. Nutrient availability throughout the field season was measured at high temporal resolution (25 measurements from soil thaw through early plant senescence). Results from a laboratory experiment in which N was added to early season and late season soils suggests that soil respiration is in fact N limited at both times of the season, though this limitation is temperature dependent with effects most pronounced at 10°C. High-resolution measurements of nutrients in the soil solution and extractable N throughout the season showed that although a nutrient crash in N can be observed mid-season, N availability can still fluctuate later in the season. Finally, effects of the extended growing season and increased air temperature have so far had few effects on soil nutrient N dynamics throughout the summer growing season, suggesting either an insensitivity of N availability to these

  8. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  9. Liposome-based DNA carriers may induce cellular stress response and change gene expression pattern in transfected cells

    2011-01-01

    Background During functional studies on the rat stress-inducible Hspa1b (hsp70.1) gene we noticed that some liposome-based DNA carriers, which are used for transfection, induce its promoter activity. This observation concerned commercial liposome formulations (LA), Lipofectin and Lipofectamine 2000. This work was aimed to understand better the mechanism of this phenomenon and its potential biological and practical consequences. Results We found that a reporter gene driven by Hspa1b promoter is activated both in the case of transient transfections and in the stably transfected cells treated with LA. Using several deletion clones containing different fragments of Hspa1b promoter, we found that the regulatory elements responsible for most efficient LA-driven inducibility were located between nucleotides -269 and +85, relative to the transcription start site. Further studies showed that the induction mechanism was independent of the classical HSE-HSF interaction that is responsible for gene activation during heat stress. Using DNA microarrays we also detected significant activation of the endogenous Hspa1b gene in cells treated with Lipofectamine 2000. Several other stress genes were also induced, along with numerous genes involved in cellular metabolism, cell cycle control and pro-apoptotic pathways. Conclusions Our observations suggest that i) some cationic liposomes may not be suitable for functional studies on hsp promoters, ii) lipofection may cause unintended changes in global gene expression in the transfected cells. PMID:21663599

  10. Liposome-based DNA carriers may induce cellular stress response and change gene expression pattern in transfected cells

    Lisowska Katarzyna Marta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During functional studies on the rat stress-inducible Hspa1b (hsp70.1 gene we noticed that some liposome-based DNA carriers, which are used for transfection, induce its promoter activity. This observation concerned commercial liposome formulations (LA, Lipofectin and Lipofectamine 2000. This work was aimed to understand better the mechanism of this phenomenon and its potential biological and practical consequences. Results We found that a reporter gene driven by Hspa1b promoter is activated both in the case of transient transfections and in the stably transfected cells treated with LA. Using several deletion clones containing different fragments of Hspa1b promoter, we found that the regulatory elements responsible for most efficient LA-driven inducibility were located between nucleotides -269 and +85, relative to the transcription start site. Further studies showed that the induction mechanism was independent of the classical HSE-HSF interaction that is responsible for gene activation during heat stress. Using DNA microarrays we also detected significant activation of the endogenous Hspa1b gene in cells treated with Lipofectamine 2000. Several other stress genes were also induced, along with numerous genes involved in cellular metabolism, cell cycle control and pro-apoptotic pathways. Conclusions Our observations suggest that i some cationic liposomes may not be suitable for functional studies on hsp promoters, ii lipofection may cause unintended changes in global gene expression in the transfected cells.

  11. An Analysis of Differential Response Patterns on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IIIB in Struggling Adult Readers and Third-Grade Children

    Pae, Hye K.; Greenberg, Daphne; Williams, Rihana S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IIIB (PPVT-IIIB) performance of 130 adults identified as struggling readers, in comparison to 175 third-grade children. Response patterns to the items on the PPVT-IIIB by these two groups were investigated, focusing on items, semantic categories, and lexical features, including word length,…

  12. Temporal patterns of vegetation phenology and their responses to climate change in mid-latitude grasslands of the Northern Hemisphere

    Ren, S.; Chen, X.; Qin, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Grassland ecosystem is greatly sensitive to regional and global climate changes. In this study, the start (SOS) and end (EOS) date of growing season were extracted from NDVI data (1981 2014) across the mid-latitude (30°N 55°N) grasslands of Northern Hemisphere. We first validated their accuracy by ground observed phenological data and phenological metrics derived from gross primary production (GPP) data. And then, main climatic factors influencing the temporal patterns of SOS/EOS were explored by means of gridded meteorological data and partial correlation analysis. Based on the results of above statistical analysis, the similarities and differences of spring and autumn phenological responses to climate change among North American grasslands, Mid-West Asian grasslands, and Mongolian grasslands were analyzed. The main results and conclusions are as follows. First, a significant positive correlation was found between SOS/EOS and observed green-up/brown-off date (PSOS/EOS (PSOS/EOS can reflect temporal dynamics of terrestrial vegetation phenology. Second, SOS in Mid-West Asian grasslands showed a significant advancing trend (0.22 days/year, PSOS in North American grasslands and Mongolian grasslands was not significant. EOS in North American grasslands (0.31 dyas/year, PSOS/EOS inter-annual fluctuations and hydrothermal factors showed that a significant negative correlation was found between SOS and the pre-season temperature in 41.6% of pixels (PSOS and pre-season rainfall/snowfall in 14.6%/19.0% of pixels (PSOS and EOS are mainly affected by pre-season temperature and pre-season rainfall.

  13. Emergence time and skin melanin spot patterns do not correlate with growth performance, social competitive ability or stress response in farmed rainbow trout

    Gesto, Manuel; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Jokumsen, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    dissimilarities in the acute stress responses, emergence fraction displayed no correlation with growth rates, or the ability to compete for feed. Within the whole group of fish utilized in the experiments, no relationship between skinmelanin spot pattern and growth performance, stress response intensity......, or competitive ability was found. Altogether, the differences in physiological traits related to emergence time were not as strong as those found in earlier studies. It is hypothesized, that the origin and degree of domestication of the fish might be partly responsible for this. The predictive value of skin...... spots or emergence time to infer the fish stress coping style in farmed fish is also discussed...

  14. Ventromedial hypothalamic expression of Bdnf is required to establish normal patterns of afferent GABAergic connectivity and responses to hypoglycemia

    Anna Kamitakahara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH controls energy and glucose homeostasis through direct connections to a distributed network of nuclei in the hypothalamus, midbrain, and hindbrain. Structural changes in VMH circuit morphology have the potential to alter VMH function throughout life, however, molecular signals responsible for specifying its neural connections are not fully defined. The VMH contains a high density of neurons that express brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a potent neurodevelopmental effector known to regulate neuronal survival, growth, differentiation, and connectivity in a number of neural systems. In the current study, we examined whether BDNF impacts the afferent and efferent connections of the VMH, as well as energy homeostatic function. Methods: To determine if BDNF is required for VMH circuit formation, a transgenic mouse model was used to conditionally delete Bdnf from steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1 expressing neurons of the VMH prior to the onset of establishing neural connections with other regions. Projections of SF1 expressing neurons were visualized with a genetically targeted fluorescent label and immunofluorescence was used to measure the density of afferents to SF1 neurons in the absence of BDNF. Physiological changes in body weight and circulating blood glucose were also evaluated in the mutant mice. Results: Our findings suggest that BDNF is required to establish normal densities of GABAergic afferents onto SF1 neurons located in the ventrolateral part of the VMH. Furthermore, loss of BDNF from VMH SF1 neurons results in impaired physiological responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that BDNF is required for formation and/or maintenance of inhibitory inputs to SF1 neurons, with enduring effects on glycemic control. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus

  15. The socio-economic patterning of survey participation and non-response error in a multilevel study of food purchasing behaviour: area- and individual-level characteristics.

    Turrell, Gavin; Patterson, Carla; Oldenburg, Brian; Gould, Trish; Roy, Marie-Andree

    2003-04-01

    To undertake an assessment of survey participation and non-response error in a population-based study that examined the relationship between socio-economic position and food purchasing behaviour. The study was conducted in Brisbane City (Australia) in 2000. The sample was selected using a stratified two-stage cluster design. Respondents were recruited using a range of strategies that attempted to maximise the involvement of persons from disadvantaged backgrounds: respondents were contacted by personal visit and data were collected using home-based face-to-face interviews; multiple call-backs on different days and at different times were used; and a financial gratuity was provided. Non-institutionalised residents of private dwellings located in 50 small areas that differed in their socio-economic characteristics. Rates of survey participation - measured by non-contacts, exclusions, dropped cases, response rates and completions - were similar across areas, suggesting that residents of socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged areas were equally likely to be recruited. Individual-level analysis, however, showed that respondents and non-respondents differed significantly in their sociodemographic and food purchasing characteristics: non-respondents were older, less educated and exhibited different purchasing behaviours. Misclassification bias probably accounted for the inconsistent pattern of association between the area- and individual-level results. Estimates of bias due to non-response indicated that although respondents and non-respondents were qualitatively different, the magnitude of error associated with this differential was minimal. Socio-economic position measured at the individual level is a strong and consistent predictor of survey non-participation. Future studies that set out to examine the relationship between socio-economic position and diet need to adopt sampling strategies and data collection methods that maximise the likelihood of recruiting

  16. Has the Pattern of Practice in the Prescription of Radiotherapy for the Palliation of Thoracic Symptoms Changed Between 1999 and 2006 at the Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program?

    Fairchild, Alysa; Goh, Philiz; Sinclair, Emily; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Ghosh, Sunita; Danjoux, Cyril; Barbera, Lisa; Tsao, May; Chow, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Eleven randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing various radiotherapy (RT) schedules for locally advanced lung cancer published since 1991 found no difference in palliation of intrathoracic symptoms. The most commonly prescribed schedule by Canadian Radiation Oncologists (RO) (20 Gy in five fractions [20 Gy/5]), when first evaluated versus 10 Gy/1 in a 2002 RCT, showed a significant survival benefit. A subsequent RCT assessing 20 Gy/5 found worse survival versus 16 Gy/2. This study examines whether the RT prescription for lung cancer palliation in the Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program (RRRP) has changed over time. Methods and Materials: Chart review was conducted for patients treated with palliative thoracic RT across three periods (1999-2006). Patient demographics, tumor, treatment, and organizational factors were analyzed descriptively. Chi-square test was used to detect differences in proportions between unordered categorical variables. Continuous variables were tested using analysis of variance. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of RT schedule prescribed. Results: A total of 117 patients received 121 courses of palliative thoracic RT. The most common dose (20 Gy/5) comprised 65% of courses in 1999, 68% in 2003, and 60% in 2005-2006 (p = 0.76). The next most common dose was 30 Gy/10 (13%). Overall, the median survival was 14.9 months, independent of RT schedule (p = 0.68). Multivariate analysis indicated palliative chemotherapy and certification year of RO were significant predictors of prescription of 20 Gy/5. Conclusion: RT schedule for palliation of intrathoracic symptoms did not mirror the results of sequential, conflicting RCTs, suggesting that factors other than the literature influenced practice patterns in palliative thoracic RT

  17. Transcriptional analysis of the conidiation pattern shift of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum in response to different nutrients.

    Wang, Zhenglong; Jin, Kai; Xia, Yuxian

    2016-08-09

    Most fungi, including entomopathogenic fungi, have two different conidiation patterns, normal and microcycle conidiation, under different culture conditions, eg, in media containing different nutrients. However, the mechanisms underlying the conidiation pattern shift are poorly understood. In this study, Metarhizium acridum undergoing microcycle conidiation on sucrose yeast extract agar (SYA) medium shifted to normal conidiation when the medium was supplemented with sucrose, nitrate, or phosphate. By linking changes in nutrients with the conidiation pattern shift and transcriptional changes, we obtained conidiation pattern shift libraries by Solexa/Illumina deep-sequencing technology. A comparative analysis demonstrated that the expression of 137 genes was up-regulated during the shift to normal conidiation, while the expression of 436 genes was up-regulated at the microcycle conidiation stage. A comparison of subtractive libraries revealed that 83, 216, and 168 genes were related to sucrose-induced, nitrate-induced, and phosphate-induced conidiation pattern shifts, respectively. The expression of 217 genes whose expression was specific to microcycle conidiation was further analyzed by the gene expression profiling via multigene concatemers method using mRNA isolated from M. acridum grown on SYA and the four normal conidiation media. The expression of 142 genes was confirmed to be up-regulated on standard SYA medium. Of these 142 genes, 101 encode hypothetical proteins or proteins of unknown function, and only 41 genes encode proteins with putative functions. Of these 41 genes, 18 are related to cell growth, 10 are related to cell proliferation, three are related to the cell cycle, three are related to cell differentiation, two are related to cell wall synthesis, two are related to cell division, and seven have other functions. These results indicate that the conidiation pattern shift in M. acridum mainly results from changes in cell growth and proliferation. The

  18. Patterns of combustible tobacco use in U.S. young adults and potential response to graphic cigarette health warning labels.

    Villanti, Andrea C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M; Rath, Jessica M

    2015-03-01

    In the evolving landscape of tobacco use, it remains unclear how tobacco control efforts should be designed and promoted for maximum impact. The current study links the identification of latent classes of young adult combustible tobacco users with anticipated responses to graphic health warning labels (HWLs). Data were collected in January 2012 using an online address-based panel as part of the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study, and analyses were conducted in 2013. Latent class analyses identified five groups of tobacco users in a national sample of 4,236 young adults aged 18-34years: (1) little cigar/cigarillo/bidi (LCC) and hookah users (4%); (2) nonusers, open to smoking (3%); (3) daily smokers who self-identify as "smokers" (11%); (4) nondaily, light smokers who self-identify as "social or occasional smokers" (9%); and (5) nonusers closed to smoking (73%). Of the nonusers closed to smoking, 23% may be better characterized as at risk for tobacco initiation. Results indicate differences in the potential effectiveness of HWLs across classes. Compared to the daily "smokers," LCC and hookah users (RRR=2.35) and nonusers closed to smoking (RRR=2.33) were more than twice as likely to report that new graphic HWLs would make them think about not smoking. This study supports the potential of graphic HWLs to prevent young nonusers from using tobacco products. It suggests that the extension of prominent HWLs to other tobacco products, including LCCs and hookah tobacco, may also serve a prevention function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Zymosan-induced immune challenge modifies the stress response of hypoxic air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus Bloch): Evidence for reversed patterns of cortisol and thyroid hormone interaction, differential ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response.

    Simi, S; Peter, Valsa S; Peter, M C Subhash

    2017-09-15

    Fishes have evolved physiological mechanisms to exhibit stress response, where hormonal signals interact with an array of ion transporters and regulate homeostasis. As major ion transport regulators in fish, cortisol and thyroid hormones have been shown to interact and fine-tune the stress response. Likewise, in fishes many interactions have been identified between stress and immune components, but the physiological basis of such interaction has not yet delineated particularly in air-breathing fish. We, therefore, investigated the responses of thyroid hormones and cortisol, ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response of an obligate air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch to zymosan treatment or hypoxia stress or both, to understand how immune challenge modifies the pattern of stress response in this fish. Induction of experimental peritonitis in these fish by zymosan treatment (200ngg -1 ) for 24h produced rise in respiratory burst and lysozomal activities in head kidney phagocytes. In contrast, hypoxia stress for 30min in immune-challenged fish reversed these non-specific responses of head kidney phagocytes. The decline in plasma cortisol in zymosan-treated fish and its further suppression by hypoxia stress indicate that immune challenge suppresses the cortisol-driven stress response of this fish. Likewise, the decline in plasma T 3 and T 4 after zymosan-treatment and the rise in plasma T 4 after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish indicate a critical role for thyroid hormone in immune-stress response due to its differential sensitivity to both immune and stress challenges. Further, analysis of the activity pattern of ion-dependent ATPases viz. Na + /K + -ATPase, H + /K + -ATPase and Na + /NH 4 + -ATPase indicates a functional interaction of ion transport system with the immune response as evident in its differential and spatial modifications after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish. The immune-challenge that produced differential

  20. Patterns of indole alkaloids synthesis in response to heat shock, 5-azacytidine and Na-butyrate treatment of cultured catharanthus roseus mesophyll protoplasts

    Saleem, M.; Cutler, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Alkaloids of C. roseus are in high demand for therapeutic and other reasons. Cultured Catharanthus cells can produce limited quantities of these alkaloids. The authors have found that cultured mesophyll protoplasts in the presence of 14 C-Tryptamine are capable of synthesizing alkaloids. The pattern of alkaloids synthesis changes when protoplasts are subjected to a heat shock at 37 0 C. The heat shocked protoplasts incorporated 33% more 14 C-Tryptamine and produced 3 new types of alkaloids. Treatment of protoplasts with 5-azacytidine, a DNA hypomethylating agent and Na-butyrate which induces hyperacetylation of histones produced qualitative and quantitative changes in the alkaloid pattern. Four new alkaloids following the above treatments were detected by TLC and HPLC of the extracts. It is suggested that the alkaloid pattern of the cultured protoplasts can be altered by treatment with compounds known as regulators of gene expression. Work is in progress to isolate and identify these new alkaloids

  1. Changing patterns of inpatient respiratory care services over a decade at the Cleveland Clinic: challenges posed and proposed responses.

    Orens, Douglas K; Kester, Lucy; Konrad, Dale J; Stoller, James K

    2005-08-01

    Changing characteristics of hospitalized patients over the last decade have created challenges for all health-care providers in delivering optimal care. In the specific case of respiratory care, trends that hospitalized patients have generally become sicker over time and that average lengths of stay have generally become shorter have posed the challenge of meeting demands for more services delivered with greater immediacy. We undertook the current analysis to assess how the delivery of respiratory care services at a tertiary-care academic medical center, the Cleveland Clinic Foundation Hospital, has evolved over the decade 1991 to 2001. In this observational study, we examined concurrent departmental trends and speculated that the capability to increase clinical activity with maintained or improved clinical outcomes, preserved costs, and a lower turnover rate among respiratory therapists reflects features of the professional environment within our Section of Respiratory Therapy. This analysis compares patterns of respiratory care service delivery in two 5-year intervals: from 1991 to 1996 and from 1996 to 2001. Data were collected using a respiratory care information-management system and an inpatient hospital information system, which track the volume and actual cost of services provided. These analyses accounted for the actual time-based cost of the services, including labor (with benefits), necessary equipment and supplies, medications, and equipment maintenance and depreciation. Hospital case-mix index values were determined according to guidelines from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, as the weighted average of resource allocation scores assigned to diagnosis-related-group categories of hospitalized patients. From 1991 to 2001, there were important expansions in the scope of respiratory care practice by our Section of Respiratory Care, while the volume of respiratory care services delivered per year increased 1.96-fold (from 339,600 to 665

  2. Patterns of DNA damage response in intracranial germ cell tumors versus glioblastomas reflect cell of origin rather than brain environment

    Bartkova, Jirina; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Krizova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) machinery becomes commonly activated in response to oncogenes and during early stages of development of solid malignancies, with an exception of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). The active DDR signaling evokes cell death or senescence but this anti-tumor barrier ...... checkpoints in intracranial tumorigenesis, with implications for the differential biological responses of diverse tumor types to endogenous stress as well as to genotoxic treatments such as ionizing radiation or chemotherapy....

  3. The Pattern of Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Human Sperm in Response to Binding to Zona Pellucida or Hyaluronic Acid

    Sati, Leyla; Cayli, Sevil; Delpiano, Elena; Sakkas, Denny

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian species, acquisition of sperm fertilization competence is dependent on the phenomenon of sperm capacitation. One of the key elements of capacitation is protein tyrosine phosphorylation (TP) in various sperm membrane regions. In previous studies performed, the pattern of TP was examined in human sperm bound to zona pellucida of oocytes. In the present comparative study, TP patterns upon sperm binding to the zona pellucida or hyaluronic acid (HA) were investigated in spermatozoa arising from the same semen samples. Tyrosine phosphorylation, visualized by immunofluorescence, was localized within the acrosomal cap, equatorial head region, neck, and the principal piece. Tyrosine phosphorylation has increased in a time-related manner as capacitation progressed, and the phosphorylation pattern was identical within the principal piece and neck, regardless of the sperm bound to the zona pellucida or HA. Thus, the data demonstrated that the patterns of sperm activation-related TP were similar regardless of the spermatozoa bound to zona pellucida or HA. Further, sperm with incomplete development, as detected by excess cytoplasmic retention, failed to exhibit TP. PMID:24077441

  4. Dynamics of ecosystem service values in response to landscape pattern changes from 1995 to 2005 in Guangzhou, Southern China

    Yanqiong Ye; Jia' en Zhang; Lili Chen; Ying Ouyang; Prem Parajuli

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the landscape pattern changes, the dynamics of the ecosystem service values (ESVs) and the spatial distribution of ESVs from 1995 to 2005 in Guangzhou, which is the capital of Guangdong Province and a regional central city in South China. Remote sensing data and geographic information system techniques, in conjunction with spatial metrics, were used...

  5. Expression patterns of WRKY genes in di-haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra in response to salinity stress revealed by quantitative real-time PCR and RNA sequencing.

    Wang, Shengji; Wang, Jiying; Yao, Wenjing; Zhou, Boru; Li, Renhua; Jiang, Tingbo

    2014-10-01

    Spatio-temporal expression patterns of 13 out of 119 poplar WRKY genes indicated dynamic and tissue-specific roles of WRKY family proteins in salinity stress tolerance. To understand the expression patterns of poplar WRKY genes under salinity stress, 51 of the 119 WRKY genes were selected from di-haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). We used qRT-PCR to profile the expression of the top 13 genes under salinity stress across seven time points, and employed RNA-Seq platforms to cross-validate it. Results demonstrated that all the 13 WRKY genes were expressed in root, stem, and leaf tissues, but their expression levels and overall patterns varied notably in these tissues. Regarding overall gene expression in roots, the 13 genes were significantly highly expressed at all six time points after the treatment, reaching the plateau of expression at hour 9. In leaves, the 13 genes were similarly up-regulated from 3 to 12 h in response to NaCl treatment. In stems, however, expression levels of the 13 genes did not show significant changes after the NaCl treatment. Regarding individual gene expression across the time points and the three tissues, the 13 genes can be classified into three clusters: the lowly expressed Cluster 1 containing PthWRKY28, 45 and 105; intermediately expressed Clusters 2 including PthWRKY56, 88 and 116; and highly expressed Cluster 3 consisting of PthWRKY41, 44, 51, 61, 62, 75 and 106. In general, genes in Cluster 2 and 3 displayed a dynamic pattern of "induced amplification-recovering", suggesting that these WRKY genes and corresponding pathways may play a critical role in mediating salt response and tolerance in a dynamic and tissue-specific manner.

  6. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Examining waterborne and dietborne routes of exposure and their contribution to biological response patterns in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Rozon-Ramilo, Lisa D.; Dubé, Monique G.; Squires, Allison J.; Niyogi, Som

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: Objective (i) was achieved by isolating each route of exposure (diet, water and the combination of the two) and comparing it to a control. The metal mining effluent studied encompassed several different effluent types including: mine water, mill facility, tailing impoundment, treatment pond, treatment facility, seepage and surface drainage effluent. Experiment 1 examined exposure pathways by isolating effluent exposure through the diet, water or the combination of the two. Experiment 2 examined whether differences in Fathead minnow responses occurred when fish were fed a live or frozen (dead) diet of chironomids. Multiple trophic levels (consumers and carnivores) were placed in each artificial stream simultaneously. Primary route of exposure to Fathead minnow when held in control water and fed effluent-exposed chironomid larvae. - Abstract: The objectives of the current study were: (i) to gain a better understanding of the relative importance of water and diet as routes of exposure causing toxicity in fathead minnow (FHM) exposed to metal mining effluents (MME) using a full factorial water/food experimental design (Experiment 1), and (ii) to assess differences in the effects of food quality on toxicity by comparing FHM fed both a live and frozen diet of Chironomus dilutus (Experiment 2). The results showed significant increases in general water quality parameters (e.g., hardness, conductivity) and various metals in the effluent treatment waters compared to control waters, with maximum increase seen in the multi-trophic streams. Metals accumulation (Rb, Al, Se, Sr, Tl, Ce, Co, Cu, Pb) effects of both waterborne and multi-trophic exposures were significant in one or more fathead minnow tissue type (muscle, gonads, liver, larvae) relative to those in the control systems. Condition factor and liver somatic index (LSI) of FHM were also significantly affected in both exposures by one or both routes of exposure (water and/or diet). In addition, cumulative

  8. Different gene-specific mechanisms determine the 'revised-response' memory transcription patterns of a subset of A. thaliana dehydration stress responding genes.

    Liu, Ning; Ding, Yong; Fromm, Michael; Avramova, Zoya

    2014-05-01

    Plants that have experienced several exposures to dehydration stress show increased resistance to future exposures by producing faster and/or stronger reactions, while many dehydration stress responding genes in Arabidopsis thaliana super-induce their transcription as a 'memory' from the previous encounter. A previously unknown, rather unusual, memory response pattern is displayed by a subset of the dehydration stress response genes. Despite robustly responding to a first stress, these genes return to their initial, pre-stressed, transcript levels during the watered recovery; surprisingly, they do not respond further to subsequent stresses of similar magnitude and duration. This transcriptional behavior defines the 'revised-response' memory genes. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating this transcription memory behavior. Potential roles of abscisic acid (ABA), of transcription factors (TFs) from the ABA signaling pathways (ABF2/3/4 and MYC2), and of histone modifications (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) as factors in the revised-response transcription memory patterns are elucidated. We identify the TF MYC2 as the critical component for the memory behavior of a specific subset of MYC2-dependent genes. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Vaginal epithelial cell-derived S100 alarmins induced by Candida albicans via pattern recognition receptor interactions are sufficient but not necessary for the acute neutrophil response during experimental vaginal candidiasis.

    Yano, Junko; Palmer, Glen E; Eberle, Karen E; Peters, Brian M; Vogl, Thomas; McKenzie, Andrew N; Fidel, Paul L

    2014-02-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused by Candida albicans, affects women worldwide. Animal and clinical studies suggest that the immunopathogenic inflammatory condition of VVC is initiated by S100 alarmins in response to C. albicans, which stimulate polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) migration to the vagina. The purpose of this study was to extend previous in vitro data and determine the requirement for the alarmin S100A8 in the PMN response and to evaluate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that initiate the response. For the former, PMN migration was evaluated in vitro or in vivo in the presence or absence of S100 alarmins initiated by several approaches. For the latter, vaginal epithelial cells were evaluated for PRR expression and C. albicans-induced S100A8 and S100A9 mRNAs, followed by evaluation of the PMN response in inoculated PRR-deficient mice. Results revealed that, consistent with previously reported in vitro data, eukaryote-derived S100A8, but not prokaryote-derived recombinant S100A8, induced significant PMN chemotaxis in vivo. Conversely, a lack of biologically active S100A8 alarmin, achieved by antibody neutralization or by using S100A9(-/-) mice, had no effect on the PMN response in vivo. In PRR analyses, whereas Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and SIGNR1-deficient vaginal epithelial cells showed a dramatic reduction in C. albicans-induced S100A8/S100A9 mRNAs in vitro, inoculated mice deficient in these PRRs showed PMN migration similar to that in wild-type controls. These results suggest that S100A8 alarmin is sufficient, but not necessary, to induce PMN migration during VVC and that the vaginal PMN response to C. albicans involves PRRs in addition to SIGNR1 and TLR4, or other induction pathways.

  10. What is the correlation of in vivo wear and damage patterns with in vitro TDR motion response?

    Kurtz, Steven M.; Patwardhan, Avinash; MacDonald, Daniel; Ciccarelli, Lauren; van Ooij, André; Lorenz, Mark; Zindrick, Michael; O’Leary, Patrick; Isaza, Jorge; Ross, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Background Context Total disc replacements (TDRs) have been used to reduce pain and preserve motion. However, the comparison of polyethylene wear following long-term implantation to those tested using an in vitro model had not yet been investigated. Purpose The purpose of this study was to correlate wear and damage patterns in retrieved TDRs with motion patterns observed in a clinically validated in vitro lumbar spine model. We also sought to determine whether one-sided wear and motion patterns were associated with greater in vivo wear. Study Design This two-part study combined the evaluation of retrieved total disc replacements with a biomechanical study using human lumbar spines. Patient Sample 38 CHARITÉ lumbar artificial discs were retrieved from 32 patients (24 female, 75%) after 7.3 years average implantation (range: 1.8 to 16.1y). The components were implanted at L2/L3 (n=1), L3/L4 (n=2), L4/L5 (n=20), and L5/S1 (n=15). All the implants were removed due to intractable back pain and/or facet degeneration. In addition, they were removed due to subsidence (n=10), anterior migration (n=3), core dislocation (n=2), lateral subluxation (n=1), endplate loosening (n = 2), and osteolysis (n=1). In parallel, 7 new implants were evaluated at L4-L5 and 13 implants at L5-S1 in an in vitro lumbar spine model. Outcome Measures Retrieval analysis included evaluation of clinical data, dimensional measurements and assessment of the extent and severity of PE surface damage mechanisms. In vitro testing involved the observation of motion patterns during physiological loading. Methods For the retrievals, each side of the PE core was independently analyzed at the rim and dome for the presence of machining marks, wear, and fracture. 35 cores were further analyzed using MicroCT to determine whether the wear was one-sided, or symmetrically distributed. For the in vitro study the new implants were tested under physiologic loads (flexion-extension with a compressive follower preload

  11. Live Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis activate the inflammatory response trhough Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9 in species-specific patterns

    Mogensen, T.H.; Paludan, Søren Riis; Kilian, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    activation by live bacteria. Here, we demonstrate that live Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and Neisseria meningitidis, the three principal causes of bacterial meningitis, use distinct sets of TLRs to trigger the inflammatory response. Using human embryonic kidney 293 cell lines......, each overexpressing one type of TLR, we found that S. pneumoniae triggered activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB and expression of interleukin-8, only in cells expressing TLR2 or -9. The same response was evoked by H. influenzae in cells expressing TLR2 or -4 and by N...... and confirmed the essential role of these TLRs and also identified differential functions of TLRs in activation of the inflammatory response. Collectively, we here demonstrate that S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and N. meningitidis each activate several TLRs in species-specific patterns and show that infection...

  12. Plant Water Use Strategy in Response to Spatial and Temporal Variation in Precipitation Patterns in China: A Stable Isotope Analysis

    Ying Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variation in precipitation patterns can directly alter the survival and growth of plants, yet in China there is no comprehensive and systematic strategy for plant use based on the effects of precipitation patterns. Here, we examined information from 93 published papers (368 plant species on plant xylem water stable isotopes (δD and δ18O in China. The results showed that: (1 The slope of the local meteoric water line (LMWL gradually increased from inland areas to the coast, as a result of continental and seasonal effects. The correlation between δD and δ18O in plant stem water is also well fitted and the correlation coefficients range from 0.78 to 0.89. With respect to the soil water line, the δ18O values in relation to depth (0–100 cm varied over time; (2 Plants’ main water sources are largely affected by precipitation patterns. In general, plants prioritize the use of stable and continuous water sources, while they have a more variable water uptake strategy under drought conditions; (3 There are no spatial and temporal variations in the contribution of the main water source (p > 0.05 because plants maintain growth by shifting their use of water sources when resources are unreliable.

  13. Correlation of uptake patterns on single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT)and treatment response in patients with knee pain

    Koh, Geon; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Hae Jin; Kim, Seog Gyun; Lee, Beom Koo

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether treatment response in patients with knee pain could be predicted using uptake patterns on single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) images. Ninety-five patients with knee pain who had undergone SPECT/CT were included in this retrospective study. Subjects were divided into three groups: increased focal uptake (FTU), increased irregular tracer uptake (ITU), and no tracer uptake (NTU). A numeric rating scale (NRS-11) assessed pain intensity. We analyzed the association between uptake patterns and treatment response using Pearson's chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Uptake was quantified from SPECT/CT with region of interest (ROI) counting, and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) calculated agreement. We used Student' t-test to calculate statistically significant differences of counts between groups and the Pearson correlation to measure the relationship between counts and initial NRS-1k1. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined which variables were significantly associated with uptake. The FTU group included 32 patients; ITU, 39; and NTU, 24. With conservative management, 64 % of patients with increased tracer uptake (TU, both focal and irregular) and 36 % with NTU showed positive response. Conservative treatment response of FTU was better than NTU, but did not differ from that of ITU. Conservative treatment response of TU was significantly different from that of NTU (OR 3.1; p 0.036). Moderate positive correlation was observed between ITU and initial NRS-11. Age and initial NRS-11 significantly predicted uptake. Patients with uptake in their knee(s) on SPECT/CT showed positive treatment response under conservative treatment

  14. Correlation of uptake patterns on single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT)and treatment response in patients with knee pain

    Koh, Geon; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Hae Jin; Kim, Seog Gyun; Lee, Beom Koo [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To determine whether treatment response in patients with knee pain could be predicted using uptake patterns on single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) images. Ninety-five patients with knee pain who had undergone SPECT/CT were included in this retrospective study. Subjects were divided into three groups: increased focal uptake (FTU), increased irregular tracer uptake (ITU), and no tracer uptake (NTU). A numeric rating scale (NRS-11) assessed pain intensity. We analyzed the association between uptake patterns and treatment response using Pearson's chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Uptake was quantified from SPECT/CT with region of interest (ROI) counting, and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) calculated agreement. We used Student' t-test to calculate statistically significant differences of counts between groups and the Pearson correlation to measure the relationship between counts and initial NRS-1k1. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined which variables were significantly associated with uptake. The FTU group included 32 patients; ITU, 39; and NTU, 24. With conservative management, 64 % of patients with increased tracer uptake (TU, both focal and irregular) and 36 % with NTU showed positive response. Conservative treatment response of FTU was better than NTU, but did not differ from that of ITU. Conservative treatment response of TU was significantly different from that of NTU (OR 3.1; p 0.036). Moderate positive correlation was observed between ITU and initial NRS-11. Age and initial NRS-11 significantly predicted uptake. Patients with uptake in their knee(s) on SPECT/CT showed positive treatment response under conservative treatment.

  15. Estimation of individual response in finger blood concentration change under occlusion on human arm using speckle patterns

    Yokoi, Naomichi; Shinohara, Tomomi; Okazaki, Syunya; Funamizu, Hideki; Kyoso, Masaki; Shimatani, Yuichi; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2017-07-01

    We have developed the method for imaging blood flow and blood concentration change by using laser speckle in fiber illumination. We experimentally discuss the relationship of blood occlusion condition and individual response of blood concentration change measured by the method.

  16. Response of heat shock protein genes of the oriental fruit moth under diapause and thermal stress reveals multiple patterns dependent on the nature of stress exposure.

    Zhang, Bo; Peng, Yu; Zheng, Jincheng; Liang, Lina; Hoffmann, Ary A; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2016-07-01

    Heat shock protein gene (Hsp) families are thought to be important in thermal adaptation, but their expression patterns under various thermal stresses have still been poorly characterized outside of model systems. We have therefore characterized Hsp genes and their stress responses in the oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta, a widespread global orchard pest, and compared patterns of expression in this species to that of other insects. Genes from four Hsp families showed variable expression levels among tissues and developmental stages. Members of the Hsp40, 70, and 90 families were highly expressed under short exposures to heat and cold. Expression of Hsp40, 70, and Hsc70 family members increased in OFM undergoing diapause, while Hsp90 was downregulated. We found that there was strong sequence conservation of members of large Hsp families (Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsc70) across taxa, but this was not always matched by conservation of expression patterns. When the large Hsps as well as small Hsps from OFM were compared under acute and ramping heat stress, two groups of sHsps expression patterns were apparent, depending on whether expression increased or decreased immediately after stress exposure. These results highlight potential differences in conservation of function as opposed to sequence in this gene family and also point to Hsp genes potentially useful as bioindicators of diapause and thermal stress in OFM.

  17. Early immune response patterns to pathogenic bacteria are associated to increased risk of lower respiratory infections in children

    Vissing, N. H.; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Mette Annelie

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal colonisation of the airways with respiratory pathogens is associated with increased risk of lower respiratory infections (LRI) in early childhood (1). Therefore, we hypothesized that children developing LRI have an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We aimed...... to characterise the systemic immune response to pathogenic bacteria at the age of 6 months and study the association with incidence of LRI during the first 3 years of life....

  18. Distinct patterns of DNA damage response and apoptosis correlate with Jak/Stat and PI3kinase response profiles in human acute myelogenous leukemia.

    David B Rosen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Single cell network profiling (SCNP utilizing flow cytometry measures alterations in intracellular signaling responses. Here SCNP was used to characterize Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML disease subtypes based on survival, DNA damage response and apoptosis pathways. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty four diagnostic non-M3 AML samples from patients with known clinical outcome were treated with a panel of myeloid growth factors and cytokines, as well as with apoptosis-inducing agents. Analysis of induced Jak/Stat and PI3K pathway responses in blasts from individual patient samples identified subgroups with distinct signaling profiles that were not seen in the absence of a modulator. In vitro exposure of patient samples to etoposide, a DNA damaging agent, revealed three distinct "DNA damage response (DDR/apoptosis" profiles: 1 AML blasts with a defective DDR and failure to undergo apoptosis; 2 AML blasts with proficient DDR and failure to undergo apoptosis; 3 AML blasts with proficiency in both DDR and apoptosis pathways. Notably, AML samples from clinical responders fell within the "DDR/apoptosis" proficient profile and, as well, had low PI3K and Jak/Stat signaling responses. In contrast, samples from clinical non responders had variable signaling profiles often with in vitro apoptotic failure and elevated PI3K pathway activity. Individual patient samples often harbored multiple, distinct, leukemia-associated cell populations identifiable by their surface marker expression, functional performance of signaling pathway in the face of cytokine or growth factor stimulation, as well as their response to apoptosis-inducing agents. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Characterizing and tracking changes in intracellular pathway profiles in cell subpopulations both at baseline and under therapeutic pressure will likely have important clinical applications, potentially informing the selection of beneficial targeted agents, used either alone or in

  19. Movement pattern and physiological response in recreational small-sided football - effect of number of players with a fixed pitch size

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen; Hagman, Marie von Ahnen

    2018-01-01

    Recreational soccer is an effective health-promoting activity, but it is unclear how different game formats influence internal and external load. Thus, to be able to advise how to maximise the outcome of recreational football, we examined movement pattern and physiological response in 11 untrained...... men (32.6 ± 6.7 yrs, 23.3 ± 4.9 fat%, 43.4 ± 5.3 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) during three football sessions comprising 4 × 12 min of 3v3, 5v5 or 7v7 with a constant pitch size of 20 × 40 m. Movement pattern, heart rate (HR), blood lactate and RPE were measured during and after the 12-min periods. Greater (P...

  20. Patterns of stress responses shift during seasonal life-history transitions: An analysis comparing baseline, maximal and integrated corticosterone in female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis).

    Dayger, Catherine A; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I

    2017-05-15

    Glucocorticoids often rise and fall with a variety of external and internal cues and frequently vary among life-history stages. This suggests that changing glucocorticoids may coordinate life-history transitions. To explore this hypothesis, we asked if the time-course of stress-induced glucocorticoid levels differ between two life-history transitions (i.e., spring and fall migration) in female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis). We collected non-migratory females from a communal den and migratory females from a road along the migration route and treated them with 4h of capture stress; plasma corticosterone was measured before, during and after capture stress. During the spring, den-collected females exhibited a stress-induced peak in corticosterone at an earlier sampling time than migrating, road-collected females. Because the pattern of corticosterone responses varied with migratory state, negative feedback on and/or sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis may be linked to spring migration. During the fall, capture stress elicited an increase in corticosterone in den-collected females but not in migrating, road-collected females. Baseline corticosterone was higher and both maximal and integrated corticosterone responses were lower during the fall compared to spring, indicating that stress responses are smaller when baseline corticosterone is elevated, perhaps due to a "ceiling effect". These data suggest that HPA axis regulation changes during seasonal migration, possibly via altering negative feedback, HPA axis sensitivity, or some other mechanism. This study supports the hypothesis that glucocorticoids coordinate life-history events and suggests that examining a suite of stress response characteristics is most informative for understanding the function of HPA modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Different zinc sensitivity of Brassica organs is accompanied by distinct responses in protein nitration level and pattern.

    Feigl, Gábor; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Lehotai, Nóra; Molnár, Árpád; Ördög, Attila; Bordé, Ádám; Laskay, Gábor; Erdei, László

    2016-03-01

    Zinc is an essential microelement, but its excess exerts toxic effects in plants. Heavy metal stress can alter the metabolism of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) leading to oxidative and nitrosative damages; although the participation of these processes in Zn toxicity and tolerance is not yet known. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the zinc tolerance of Brassica organs and the putative correspondence of it with protein nitration as a relevant marker for nitrosative stress. Both examined Brassica species (B. juncea and B. napus) proved to be moderate Zn accumulators; however B. napus accumulated more from this metal in its organs. The zinc-induced damages (growth diminution, altered morphology, necrosis, chlorosis, and the decrease of photosynthetic activity) were slighter in the shoot system of B. napus than in B. juncea. The relative zinc tolerance of B. napus shoot was accompanied by moderate changes of the nitration pattern. In contrast, the root system of B. napus suffered more severe damages (growth reduction, altered morphology, viability loss) and slighter increase in nitration level compared to B. juncea. Based on these, the organs of Brassica species reacted differentially to excess zinc, since in the shoot system modification of the nitration pattern occurred (with newly appeared nitrated protein bands), while in the roots, a general increment in the nitroproteome could be observed (the intensification of the same protein bands being present in the control samples). It can be assumed that the significant alteration of nitration pattern is coupled with enhanced zinc sensitivity of the Brassica shoot system and the general intensification of protein nitration in the roots is attached to relative zinc endurance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Community patterns of tropical tree phenology derived from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle images: intra- and interspecific variation, association with species plant traits, and response to interannual climate variation

    Bohlman, Stephanie; Rifai, Sami; Park, John; Dandois, Jonathan; Muller-Landau, Helene

    2017-04-01

    Phenology is a key life history trait of plant species and critical driver of ecosystem processes. There is strong evidence that phenology is shifting in temperate ecosystems in response to climate change, but tropical forest phenology remains poorly quantified and understood. A key challenge is that tropical forests contain hundreds of plant species with a wide variety of phenological patterns, which makes it difficult to collect sufficient ground-based field data to characterize individual tropical tree species phenologies. Satellite-based observations, an important source of phenology data in northern latitudes, are hindered by frequent cloud cover in the tropics. To quantify phenology over a large number of individuals and species, we collected bi-weekly images from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the well-studied 50-ha forest inventory plot on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. The objective of this study is to quantify inter- and intra-specific responses of tropical tree leaf phenology to environmental variation over large spatial scales and identify key environmental variables and physiological mechanisms underpinning phenological variation. Between October 2014 and December 2015 and again in May 2015, we collected a total of 35 sets of UAV images, each with continuous coverage of the 50-ha plot, where every tree ≥ 1 cm DBH is mapped. UAV imagery was corrected for exposure, orthorectified, and then processed to extract spectral, texture, and image information for individual tree crowns, which was then used as inputs for a machine learning algorithm that successfully predicted the percentages of leaf, branch, and flower cover for each tree crown (r2=0.76 between observed and predicted percent branch cover for individual tree crowns). We then quantified cumulative annual deciduousness for each crown by fitting a non-parametric curve of flexible shape to its predicted percent branch time series and calculated the area under the curve. We obtained the species

  3. Genetic Variations in Pattern Recognition Receptor Loci Are Associated with Anti-TNF Response in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Jacob Sode

    Full Text Available To determine whether genetic variation within genes related to the Toll-like receptor, inflammasome and interferon-γ pathways contributes to the differences in treatment response to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (anti-TNF in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.In a retrospective case-case study, we assessed 23 functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 15 genes. We included 538 anti-TNF naïve Danish RA patients from the nationwide DANBIO database. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to detect associations (p-value<0.05 between genotypes and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR treatment responses. False Discovery Rate corrections for multiple testing (q-value and stratified analyses were performed to investigate association with individual therapies and IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF status.Six of twenty successfully genotyped polymorphisms were nominally associated with EULAR treatment response. Three of these were in weak to moderate linkage disequilibrium with polymorphisms previously reported associated with anti-TNF treatment response. TLR5(rs5744174 variant allele carriers (odds ratio(OR = 1.7(1.1-2.5,p = 0.010,q = 0.46 and TLR1(rs4833095 homozygous variant carriers (OR = 2.8(1.1-7.4,p = 0.037,q = 0.46 had higher odds for a positive treatment response. NLRP3(rs10754558 variant allele carriers (odds ratio(OR = 0.6(0.4-1.0,p = 0.045,q = 0.46 were more likely to have a negative treatment response. The association in TLR5(rs5744174 remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons among patients negative for RF (OR = 6.2(2.4-16.3,p = 0.0002,q = 0.024. No other association withstood correction for multiple testing. Post hoc analyses showed that change in Patient Global score on a visual analogue scale (VAS and change in pain VAS were the main factors responsible for the association.We reproduced previously reported associations between genetic variation in the TLR10/1/6 gene cluster, TLR5

  4. Response of the ionospheric convection pattern to a rotation of the interplanetary magnetic field on January 14, 1988

    Cumnock, J.A.; Heelis, R.A.; Hairston, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Ionospheric convection signatures observed over the polar regions are provided by the DMSP F8 satellite. The authors consider five passes over the southern summer hemisphere during a time when the z component of the interplantary magnetic field was stable and positive and the y component changed slowly from positive to negative. Large-scale regions of sunward flow are observed at very high latitudes consistent with a strong z component. When B y and B z are positive, but B y is greater than B z , strong evidence exists for dayside merging in a manner similar to that expected when B z is negative. This signature is diminished as B y decreases and becomes smaller than B z resulting in a four-cell convection pattern displaced toward the sunward side of the dawn-dusk meridian. In this case the sign of B y affects the relative sizes of the two highest-latitude cells. In the southern hemisphere the duskside high-latitude cell is dominant for B y positive and the dawnside high-latitude cell is dominant for B y negative. The relative importance of possible electric field sources in the low-latitude boundary layer, the dayside cusp, and the lobe all need to be considered to adequately explain the observed evolution of the convection pattern

  5. Vascular pattern of the spontaneous C3H mouse mammary carcinoma and its significance in radiation response and in hyperthermia

    Falk, P [Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK). M.R.C. Cyclotron Unit

    1980-02-01

    This study showed that the vascular pattern of the spontaneous C3H mouse mammary carcinoma develops from a capillary network into an afferent system lacking arterioles and consisting only of capillary-like vessels and an efferent system characterized by large sinuses. Lack of correlation between the growth of stroma and parenchyma leads to a circuitous and uneven supply of blood and to a high degree of occlusion of the efferent system with consequent reduction in the rate of flow of blood. The parenchyma consists of tubules formed of single or multiple layers of cells between which capillaries do not penetrate. The diffusion pathway of oxygen and nutrients to the inner cells of the multi-layered tubules is considerably longer than that to their outer cells or to the cells of the single-layered tubules. Consequently it is in the former parts that anoxia and severe hypoxia are likely to prevail. The pattern of necrosis agrees with this supposition. It is predicted that radiation hyperthermia will act differentially and in opposite senses on these two tumour components, hyperthermia being more effective on the former, radiation on the latter.

  6. Responses of Spartina alterniflora to Multiple Stressors: Changing Precipitation Patterns, Accelerated Sea Level Rise, and Nutrient Enrichment

    Coastal wetlands, well recognized for their ecosystem services, have faced many threats throughout the United States and elsewhere. Managers require good information on responses of wetlands to the combined stressors that these habitats experience, or may in the future as a resul...

  7. A novel biomarker of amnestic MCI based on dynamic Cross-Frequency Coupling patterns during cognitive brain responses

    Stavros I Dimitriadis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI, the transitional stage between normal cognitive changes of aging and the cognitive decline caused by AD, is of paramount clinical importance, since MCI patients are at increased risk of progressing into AD. Electroencephalographic (EEG alterations in the spectral content of brainwaves and connectivity at resting state have been associated with early-stage AD. Recently, cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs have entered into the picture as an easy to perform screening test. Motivated by the recent findings about the role of cross-frequency coupling (CFC in cognition, we introduce a relevant methodological approach for detecting MCI based on cognitive responses from a standard auditory oddball paradigm. By using the single trial signals recorded at Pz sensor and comparing the responses to target and non-target stimuli, we first demonstrate that increased CFC is associated with the cognitive task. Then, considering the dynamic character of CFC, we identify instances during which the coupling between particular pairs of brainwave frequencies carries sufficient information for discriminating between normal subjects and patients with MCI. In this way, we form a multiparametric signature of impaired cognition. The new composite biomarker was tested using data from a cohort that consists of 25 amnestic MCI patients and 15 age-matched controls. Standard machine-learning algorithms were employed so as to implement the binary classification task. Based on leave-one-out cross-validation, the measured classification rate was found reaching very high levels (95%. Our approach compares favorably with the traditional alternative of using the morphology of averaged ERP response to make the diagnosis and the usage of features from spectro-temporal analysis of single-trial response. This further indicates that task-related CFC measurements can provide invaluable analytics in AD diagnosis and prognosis.

  8. Genome-wide analysis of ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 reveals divergent patterns in Arabidopsis and rice

    Riaño-Pachón Diego; Gómez-Porras Judith L; Dreyer Ingo; Mayer Jorge E; Mueller-Roeber Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In plants, complex regulatory mechanisms are at the core of physiological and developmental processes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in the regulation of various such processes, including stomatal closure, seed and bud dormancy, and physiological responses to cold, drought and salinity stress. The underlying tissue or plant-wide control circuits often include combinatorial gene regulatory mechanisms and networks that we are only beginning to unravel with...

  9. Assessment of the quality and quantity of naturally induced antibody responses to EBA175RIII-V in Ghanaian children living in two communities with varying malaria transmission patterns

    Abagna, Hamza B; Acquah, Festus K; Okonu, Ruth

    2018-01-01

    of malaria parasites, which can enhance immune responses against parasite antigens. This study determined the prevalence and relative avidities of naturally induced antibodies to EBA175RIII-VLl in asymptomatic children living in two communities with varying malaria transmission patterns. METHODS: An asexual...... each study site however, children living in Obom had significantly higher EBA175RIII-VLl antibody concentrations than children living in Abura (P 0.05, Mann-Whitney test). Over the course of the study, the relative antibody avidities of EBA175RIII-VLl IgG antibodies were similar within and between......BACKGROUND: Recent global reports on malaria suggest significant decrease in disease severity and an increase in control interventions in many malaria endemic countries, including Ghana. However, a major driving force sustaining malaria transmission in recent times is the asymptomatic carriage...

  10. Seasonal variations in the pattern of RNA metabolism of tuber tissue in response to excision and culture

    Macleod, A.J.; Mills, E.D.; Yeoman, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    Between December 1975 and June 1976 explants excised from Jerusalem artichoke tubers were cultured in the presence and in the absence of 2,4-D, the cells in the tissue dividing only in the presence of 2,4-D, in which the length of the first cell cycle increased nonlinearly from 18 hours to 40 hours as the tubers aged in storage at 4 0 C. Simultaneously the amount of RNA in the tissue declined linearly from 8 to 5 μg RNA per explant. Detailed examination of the RNA metabolism in dividing and in non-dividing cells during February and June 1976 revealed superimposed but independent responses to wounding during excision and to stimulation into growth by 2,4-D. The responses to wounding involved only a very low level of metabolic activity, were complete within a few hours of excision and changed very little with the storage of the tubers. Tissue treated with 2,4-D showed a much higher level of metabolic activity including the periodic accumulation of RNA coupled to its discontinuous synthesis. The features of these growth-related responses changed considerably during the investigation. (author)

  11. Contrasting response of coexisting plant’s water-use patterns to experimental precipitation manipulation in an alpine grassland community of Qinghai Lake watershed, China

    Li, Xiao-Yan; He, Bin; Liu, Jinzhao; Jiang, Zhiyun; Zhang, Cicheng

    2018-01-01

    Understanding species-specific changes in water-use patterns under recent climate scenarios is necessary to predict accurately the responses of seasonally dry ecosystems to future climate. In this study, we conducted a precipitation manipulation experiment to investigate the changes in water-use patterns of two coexisting species (Achnatherum splendens and Allium tanguticum) to alterations in soil water content (SWC) resulting from increased and decreased rainfall treatments. The results showed that the leaf water potential (Ψ) of A. splendens and A. tanguticum responded to changes in shallow and middle SWC at both the control and treatment plots. However, A. splendens proportionally extracted water from the shallow soil layer (0–10cm) when it was available but shifted to absorbing deep soil water (30–60 cm) during drought. By contrast, the A. tanguticum did not differ significantly in uptake depth between treatment and control plots but entirely depended on water from shallow soil layers. The flexible water-use patterns of A.splendens may be a key factor facilitating its dominance and it better acclimates the recent climate change in the alpine grassland community around Qinghai Lake. PMID:29677195

  12. Treatment patterns and prognostic indicators of response to therapy among patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in Australia, Canada, and South Korea.

    Whiteley, Jennifer; Iyer, Shrividya; Candrilli, Sean D; Kaye, James A

    2015-02-01

    Given the multiple options for treatment of chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, our objective was to understand treatment patterns in routine practice and prognostic indicators of response. We conducted a retrospective medical record review of 681 patients with CML in Australia, Canada, and South Korea. Eligible patients had a diagnosis of chronic-phase CML, were Philadelphia chromosome and/or BCR-ABL positive, were aged 18 years or older, and had been treated with first-line imatinib therapy between January 2005 and September 2010. Data on patient demographics, medical history (e.g., comorbidities, Sokal score), and treatment characteristics (e.g., time to initiation, therapy duration) were abstracted. Descriptive analyses were stratified by country and therapy line. Prognostic indicators of response to imatinib were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for country, patient demographics, medical history, treatment characteristics, and side effects. Hematologic, cytogenetic, and molecular responses at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months following initiation of each therapy line. Patients' average age was 57 years, and 59% were male. Overall, imatinib was initiated approximately 4 months following CML diagnosis. Complete or major molecular response (C/MMR) at 6 months following imatinib initiation was 54% in Australia, 22% in Canada, and 38% in South Korea. At 18 months, over 60% of patients achieved C/MMR. Approximately 30% of patients discontinued imatinib primarily due to intolerance and lack of response. Among patients who received second-line treatment, dasatinib was used more frequently than nilotinib. Multivariable regression results indicated Sokal score was identified as a prognostic indicator of response to imatinib therapy at several time points. There are several limitations to this study. First, we selected a convenience sample of patients and physicians and therefore results may not be

  13. Comparing success levels of different neural network structures in extracting discriminative information from the response patterns of a temperature-modulated resistive gas sensor

    Hosseini-Golgoo, S. M.; Bozorgi, H.; Saberkari, A.

    2015-06-01

    Performances of three neural networks, consisting of a multi-layer perceptron, a radial basis function, and a neuro-fuzzy network with local linear model tree training algorithm, in modeling and extracting discriminative features from the response patterns of a temperature-modulated resistive gas sensor are quantitatively compared. For response pattern recording, a voltage staircase containing five steps each with a 20 s plateau is applied to the micro-heater of the sensor, when 12 different target gases, each at 11 concentration levels, are present. In each test, the hidden layer neuron weights are taken as the discriminatory feature vector of the target gas. These vectors are then mapped to a 3D feature space using linear discriminant analysis. The discriminative information content of the feature vectors are determined by the calculation of the Fisher’s discriminant ratio, affording quantitative comparison among the success rates achieved by the different neural network structures. The results demonstrate a superior discrimination ratio for features extracted from local linear neuro-fuzzy and radial-basis-function networks with recognition rates of 96.27% and 90.74%, respectively.

  14. Comparing success levels of different neural network structures in extracting discriminative information from the response patterns of a temperature-modulated resistive gas sensor

    Hosseini-Golgoo, S M; Bozorgi, H; Saberkari, A

    2015-01-01

    Performances of three neural networks, consisting of a multi-layer perceptron, a radial basis function, and a neuro-fuzzy network with local linear model tree training algorithm, in modeling and extracting discriminative features from the response patterns of a temperature-modulated resistive gas sensor are quantitatively compared. For response pattern recording, a voltage staircase containing five steps each with a 20 s plateau is applied to the micro-heater of the sensor, when 12 different target gases, each at 11 concentration levels, are present. In each test, the hidden layer neuron weights are taken as the discriminatory feature vector of the target gas. These vectors are then mapped to a 3D feature space using linear discriminant analysis. The discriminative information content of the feature vectors are determined by the calculation of the Fisher’s discriminant ratio, affording quantitative comparison among the success rates achieved by the different neural network structures. The results demonstrate a superior discrimination ratio for features extracted from local linear neuro-fuzzy and radial-basis-function networks with recognition rates of 96.27% and 90.74%, respectively. (paper)

  15. Structural Response of the Earth's Crust to an Extra-Terrestrial Source of Stress by Identifying its Characteristic Pattern

    Dasgupta, B.

    2016-12-01

    The earth's crust is a geodynamic realm, which is constantly evolving. Due to its dynamic nature, the crust is constantly being subjected to remodelling. The earth's crustal response to stress is a result of isostatic compensation. The crust is also a living proof of yesteryears' dynamics. Extra-terrestrial agents of deformation refers to meteorites, asteroids etc. These are catastrophic events that influence a larger area (considering larger impact bodies). They effect the crust from outside, hence leave behind very specific structural signatures.Consider an extra-terrestrial object impacting the earth's crust. The problem can be broken down into 3 parts: Pre Impact (kinematics of the object and nature of surface of impact); Syn Impact (dissipation of energy and formation of crater); and Post Impact (structural response, geophysical anomalies and effect on biota)Upon impact, the projectile penetrates the earth's crust to a depth of twice its diameter. Shock waves generated due impact propagate in all possible directions. The reflected waves cause complete melting and vaporization of the impact body. At the same time, increased internal energy of the system melts the target rock. Depending on the thickness and density of crustal matter, its' interaction with the mantle is determined. Data collection from such impact sites is the first step towards its theoretical modeling. Integrating geophysical (seismic, magnetic), paleomagnetic, geochemical and geo-chronological data one can determine the kinematic parameters that governed the event. A working model that illustrates the crustal responses to extraterrestrial stress of extreme magnitude cannot be qualitative. Hence the most fundamental thing at this point is quantification of these parameters. The variables form a `mass-energy equation', a simple theorem in Classical Physics. This project is directed to give the equation its shape. The equation will be the foundation on which the simulation model will rest. Mass

  16. Effects of response-independent stimuli on fixed-interval and fixed-ratio performance of rats: a model for stressful disruption of cyclical eating patterns.

    Reed, Phil

    2011-03-01

    Binge eating is often associated with stress-induced disruption of typical eating patterns. Three experiments were performed with the aim of developing a potential model for this effect by investigating the effect of presenting response-independent stimuli on rats' lever-pressing for food reinforcement during both fixed-interval (FI) and fixed-ratio (FR) schedules of reinforcement. In Experiment 1, a response-independent brief tone (500-ms, 105-dB, broadband, noisy signal, ranging up to 16 kHz, with spectral peaks at 3 and 500 Hz) disrupted the performance on an FI 60-s schedule. Responding with the response-independent tone was more vigorous than in the absence of the tone. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 using a within-subject design, but no such effect was noted when a light was employed as a disrupter. In Experiment 3, a 500-ms tone, but not a light, had a similar effect on rats' performance on FR schedules. This tone-induced effect may represent a release from response-inhibition produced by an aversive event. The implications of these results for modeling binge eating are discussed.

  17. Atypical serum immunofixation patterns frequently emerge in immunomodulatory therapy and are associated with a high degree of response in multiple myeloma.

    Mark, Tomer; Jayabalan, David; Coleman, Morton; Pearse, Roger N; Wang, Y Lynn; Lent, Richard; Christos, Paul J; Lee, Joong W; Agrawal, Yash P; Matthew, Susan; Ely, Scott; Mazumdar, Madhu; Cesarman, Ethel; Leonard, John P; Furman, Richard R; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Niesvizky, Ruben

    2008-12-01

    The M-protein is the major reference measure for response in multiple myeloma (MM) and its correct interpretation is key to clinical management. The emergence of oligoclonal banding is recognized as a benign finding in the postautologous stem cell transplantation setting (ASCT) for MM but its significance during non-myeloablative therapy is unknown. In a study of the immunomodulatory combination BiRD, (lenalidomide and dexamethasone with clarithromycin), we frequently detected the emergence of mono- and oligo-clonal immunoglobulins unrelated to the baseline diagnostic M-protein. The new M-proteins seen on serum immunofixation electrophoresis were clearly different in either heavy or light chain component(s) from the original M-spike protein and were termed atypical serum immunofixation patterns (ASIPs). Overall, 24/72 (33%) patients treated with BiRD developed ASIPs. Patients who developed ASIPs compared with patients treated with BiRD without ASIPs, had a significantly greater overall response (100% vs. 85%) and complete response rates (71% vs. 23%). ASIPs were not associated with new clonal plasma cells or other lymphoproliferative processes, and molecular remissions were documented. This is the first time this phenomenon has been seen with regularity in non-myeloablative therapy for MM. Analogous to the ASCT experience, ASIPs do not signal incipient disease progression, but rather herald robust response.

  18. Genetic Variations in Pattern Recognition Receptor Loci Are Associated with Anti-TNF Response in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Sode, Jacob; Vogel, Ulla; Bank, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    : In a retrospective case-case study, we assessed 23 functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 15 genes. We included 538 anti-TNF naïve Danish RA patients from the nationwide DANBIO database. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to detect associations (p-value... and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) treatment responses. False Discovery Rate corrections for multiple testing (q-value) and stratified analyses were performed to investigate association with individual therapies and IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF) status. RESULTS: Six of twenty successfully genotyped...

  19. A remarkable hematological and molecular response pattern in a patient with polycythemia vera during combination therapy with simvastatin and alendronate

    Anders Lindholm Sørensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 57-year old man with polycythemia vera, who had a remarkable hematological and molecular response during treatment with simvastatin and alendronate. The patient was treated with this combination for 56 months, and during this period the patient has been in complete hematological remission. The JAK2-V617F allele burden has dropped from 64% to sustained values below 20%, and follow-up bone marrow biopsies have revealed no change in PV features, without any regular cytoreductive treatment.

  20. Evolution of patterns of regional groundwater flow in southeastern New Mexico: Response to post-Pleistocene changes in climate

    Corbet, T.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a potential repository for transuranic wastes generated by defense programs of the US Department of Energy. The repository site is located 42 km east of the city of Carlsbad, New Mexico in a thick, Permian-age deposit of bedded salt. One consideration in evaluating the performance of the repository is that a future society might inadvertently penetrate the repository with one or more drill holes. Given certain circumstances, these holes could provide a pathway for contaminated brine to move upward into relatively permeable strata located above the bedded salt. There is concern that flowing groundwater could then transport radionuclides laterally to the sub-surface portion of the accessible environment, currently defined by the disposal regulations as the region more than 5 kilometers from the radioactive waste. The simulations presented here are part of a numerical modeling study of the possible impact that a change in climate over the next 10,000 years could have on the pattern of groundwater flow and, consequently, on the migration of radionuclides in strata overlying the repository

  1. Phenotypic Plasticity Explains Response Patterns of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. Saplings to Nitrogen Fertilization and Drought Events

    Christoph Dziedek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Climate and atmospheric changes affect forest ecosystems worldwide, but little is known about the interactive effects of global change drivers on tree growth. In the present study, we analyzed single and combined effects of nitrogen (N fertilization and drought events (D on the growth of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. saplings in a greenhouse experiment. We quantified morphological and physiological responses to treatments for one‐ and two‐year‐old plants. N fertilization increased the saplings’ aboveground biomass investments, making them more susceptible to D treatments. This was reflected by the highest tissue dieback in combined N and D treatments and a significant N × D interaction for leaf δ13C signatures. Thus, atmospheric N deposition can strengthen the drought sensitivity of beech saplings. One‐year‐old plants reacted more sensitively to D treatments than two‐year‐old plants (indicated by D‐induced shifts in leaf δ13C signatures of one‐year‐old and two‐year‐old plants by +0.5‰ and −0.2‰, respectively, attributable to their higher shoot:root‐ratios (1.8 and 1.2, respectively. In summary, the saplings’ treatment responses were determined by their phenotypic plasticity (shifts in shoot:root‐ratios, which in turn was a function of both the saplings’ age (effects of allometric growth trajectories = apparent plasticity and environmental impacts (effects of N fertilization = plastic allometry.

  2. Application of Entropy and Fractal Dimension Analyses to the Pattern Recognition of Contaminated Fish Responses in Aquaculture

    Harkaitz Eguiraun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to develop a non-invasive methodology for image acquisition, processing and nonlinear trajectory analysis of the collective fish response to a stochastic event. Object detection and motion estimation were performed by an optical flow algorithm in order to detect moving fish and simultaneously eliminate background, noise and artifacts. The Entropy and the Fractal Dimension (FD of the trajectory followed by the centroids of the groups of fish were calculated using Shannon and permutation Entropy and the Katz, Higuchi and Katz-Castiglioni’s FD algorithms respectively. The methodology was tested on three case groups of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, two of which were similar (C1 control and C2 tagged fish and very different from the third (C3, tagged fish submerged in methylmercury contaminated water. The results indicate that Shannon entropy and Katz-Castiglioni were the most sensitive algorithms and proved to be promising tools for the non-invasive identification and quantification of differences in fish responses. In conclusion, we believe that this methodology has the potential to be embedded in online/real time architecture for contaminant monitoring programs in the aquaculture industry.

  3. Response

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  4. Growth patterns reflect response to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive infants: potential utility in resource-poor settings.

    Benjamin, D K; Miller, W C; Ryder, R W; Weber, D J; Walter, E; McKinney, R E

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory monitoring of HIV-infected children is the current standard of care in the United States to guide the appropriate use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although ART is becoming a reality in some developing countries, laboratory monitoring of ART is costly, necessitating creative approaches to monitoring. As an initial step to guide monitoring of HIV progression in low resource settings, we assessed the utility of the physical examination to predict clinical progression of HIV. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected children using data from Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 300. We developed a clinical predictive model, and compared the utility of the clinical model to the change in HIV RNA viral load as diagnostic tests of ART failure. The clinical model incorporated treatment regimen, age, and height velocity: a three-level clinical predictive model provided likelihood ratios of 0.3, 3.9, and 14. For decline in RNA the likelihood ratios were 0.2 (> 1 log decline), 1.4, and 3.5 (> log increase). We developed a simple clinical predictive model that was able to predict clinical progression of HIV after initiation of new ART. The clinical model performed similarly to using changes in HIV RNA viral load. These data should be validated internationally and prospectively, because the test subjects were from a resource rich environment and growth patterns in undernourished children may be impacted differently by HIV and its treatment. The model was most pertinent to children 36 months of age or younger, and was conducted in children receiving monotherapy and dual therapy.

  5. Regional pattern and interannual variations in global terrestrial carbon uptake in response to changes in climate and atmospheric CO2

    Cao, Mingkui; Tao, B.; Li, Kerang; Prince, Stephen D.; Small, J.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric measurements indicate that the terrestrial carbon sink increased substantially from the 1980s to the 1990s, but which factors and regions were responsible for the increase are not well identified yet. Using process- and remote sensing-based ecosystem models, we show that changes in climate and atmospheric CO 2 in the period 1981-2000 enhanced net ecosystem production (NEP) and caused major geographical changes in the global distribution of NEP. In the 1980s the Americas accounted for almost all of the global NEP, but in the 1990s NEP in Eurasia and Africa became higher than that of the Americas. The year-to-year variation in global NEP was up to 2.5 Pg C (1 Pg = 10 15 g), in which 1.4 Pg C was attributable to the El Nino Southern Oscillation cycle (ENSO). NEP clearly decreased in El Nino and increased in La Nina in South America and Africa, but the response in North America and Eurasia was mixed. The estimated NEP increases accounted for only 30% of the global terrestrial carbon sink but can explain almost all of the increase from the 1980s to the 1990s. Because a large part of the increase in NEP was driven by the long-term trend of climate and atmospheric CO 2 , the increase in the global terrestrial carbon sink from the 1980s to the 1990s was a continuation of the trend since the middle of the twentieth century, rather than merely a consequence of short-time climate variability

  6. Clarification of the Memory Artefact in the Assessment of Suggestibility

    Willner, P.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) assesses suggestibility by asking respondents to recall a short story, followed by exposure to leading questions and pressure to change their responses. Suggestibility, as assessed by the GSS, appears to be elevated in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This has been shown to reflect to some…

  7. Modelling of Arabidopsis LAX3 expression suggests auxin homeostasis.

    Mellor, Nathan; Péret, Benjamin; Porco, Silvana; Sairanen, Ilkka; Ljung, Karin; Bennett, Malcolm; King, John

    2015-02-07

    Emergence of new lateral roots from within the primary root in Arabidopsis has been shown to be regulated by the phytohormone auxin, via the expression of the auxin influx carrier LAX3, mediated by the ARF7/19 IAA14 signalling module (Swarup et al., 2008). A single cell model of the LAX3 and IAA14 auxin response was formulated and used to demonstrate that hysteresis and bistability may explain the experimentally observed 'all-or-nothing' LAX3 spatial expression pattern in cortical cells containing a gradient of auxin concentrations. The model was tested further by using a parameter fitting algorithm to match model output with qRT-PCR mRNA expression data following exogenous auxin treatment. It was found that the model is able to show good agreement with the data, but only when the exogenous auxin signal is degraded over time, at a rate higher than that measured in the experimental medium, suggesting the triggering of an endogenous auxin homeostasis mechanism. Testing the model over a more physiologically relevant range of extracellular auxin shows bistability and hysteresis still occur when using the optimised parameters, providing the rate of LAX3 active auxin transport is sufficiently high relative to passive diffusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of fMRI BOLD response patterns by electrical stimulation of the ventroposterior complex and medial thalamus of the rat.

    Pai-Feng Yang

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the functional connectivity of the lateral and medial thalamocortical pain pathways by investigating the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD activation patterns in the forebrain elicited by direct electrical stimulation of the ventroposterior (VP and medial (MT thalamus. An MRI-compatible stimulation electrode was implanted in the VP or MT of α-chloralose-anesthetized rats. Electrical stimulation was applied to the VP or MT at various intensities (50 µA to 300 µA and frequencies (1 Hz to 12 Hz. BOLD responses were analyzed in the ipsilateral forelimb region of the primary somatosensory cortex (iS1FL after VP stimulation and in the ipsilateral cingulate cortex (iCC after MT stimulation. When stimulating the VP, the strongest activation occurred at 3 Hz. The stimulation intensity threshold was 50 µA and the response rapidly peaked at 100 µA. When stimulating the MT, The optimal frequency for stimulation was 9 Hz or 12 Hz, the stimulation intensity threshold was 100 µA and we observed a graded increase in the BOLD response following the application of higher intensity stimuli. We also evaluated c-Fos expression following the application of a 200-µA stimulus. Ventroposterior thalamic stimulation elicited c-Fos-positivity in few cells in the iS1FL and caudate putamen (iCPu. Medial thalamic stimulation, however, produced numerous c-Fos-positive cells in the iCC and iCPu. The differential BOLD responses and c-Fos expressions elicited by VP and MT stimulation indicate differences in stimulus-response properties of the medial and lateral thalamic pain pathways.

  9. Determinants of emergency response willingness in the local public health workforce by jurisdictional and scenario patterns: a cross-sectional survey.

    Barnett, Daniel J; Thompson, Carol B; Errett, Nicole A; Semon, Natalie L; Anderson, Marilyn K; Ferrell, Justin L; Freiheit, Jennifer M; Hudson, Robert; Koch, Michelle M; McKee, Mary; Mejia-Echeverry, Alvaro; Spitzer, James; Balicer, Ran D; Links, Jonathan M

    2012-03-07

    The all-hazards willingness to respond (WTR) of local public health personnel is critical to emergency preparedness. This study applied a threat-and efficacy-centered framework to characterize these workers' scenario and jurisdictional response willingness patterns toward a range of naturally-occurring and terrorism-related emergency scenarios. Eight geographically diverse local health department (LHD) clusters (four urban and four rural) across the U.S. were recruited and administered an online survey about response willingness and related attitudes/beliefs toward four different public health emergency scenarios between April 2009 and June 2010 (66% response rate). Responses were dichotomized and analyzed using generalized linear multilevel mixed model analyses that also account for within-cluster and within-LHD correlations. Comparisons of rural to urban LHD workers showed statistically significant odds ratios (ORs) for WTR context across scenarios ranging from 1.5 to 2.4. When employees over 40 years old were compared to their younger counterparts, the ORs of WTR ranged from 1.27 to 1.58, and when females were compared to males, the ORs of WTR ranged from 0.57 to 0.61. Across the eight clusters, the percentage of workers indicating they would be unwilling to respond regardless of severity ranged from 14-28% for a weather event; 9-27% for pandemic influenza; 30-56% for a radiological 'dirty' bomb event; and 22-48% for an inhalational anthrax bioterrorism event. Efficacy was consistently identified as an important independent predictor of WTR. Response willingness deficits in the local public health workforce pose a threat to all-hazards response capacity and health security. Local public health agencies and their stakeholders may incorporate key findings, including identified scenario-based willingness gaps and the importance of efficacy, as targets of preparedness curriculum development efforts and policies for enhancing response willingness. Reasons for an

  10. Determinants of emergency response willingness in the local public health workforce by jurisdictional and scenario patterns: a cross-sectional survey

    Barnett Daniel J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The all-hazards willingness to respond (WTR of local public health personnel is critical to emergency preparedness. This study applied a threat-and efficacy-centered framework to characterize these workers' scenario and jurisdictional response willingness patterns toward a range of naturally-occurring and terrorism-related emergency scenarios. Methods Eight geographically diverse local health department (LHD clusters (four urban and four rural across the U.S. were recruited and administered an online survey about response willingness and related attitudes/beliefs toward four different public health emergency scenarios between April 2009 and June 2010 (66% response rate. Responses were dichotomized and analyzed using generalized linear multilevel mixed model analyses that also account for within-cluster and within-LHD correlations. Results Comparisons of rural to urban LHD workers showed statistically significant odds ratios (ORs for WTR context across scenarios ranging from 1.5 to 2.4. When employees over 40 years old were compared to their younger counterparts, the ORs of WTR ranged from 1.27 to 1.58, and when females were compared to males, the ORs of WTR ranged from 0.57 to 0.61. Across the eight clusters, the percentage of workers indicating they would be unwilling to respond regardless of severity ranged from 14-28% for a weather event; 9-27% for pandemic influenza; 30-56% for a radiological 'dirty' bomb event; and 22-48% for an inhalational anthrax bioterrorism event. Efficacy was consistently identified as an important independent predictor of WTR. Conclusions Response willingness deficits in the local public health workforce pose a threat to all-hazards response capacity and health security. Local public health agencies and their stakeholders may incorporate key findings, including identified scenario-based willingness gaps and the importance of efficacy, as targets of preparedness curriculum development efforts and

  11. Physiological response and differential leaf proteome pattern in the European invasive Asteraceae Solidago canadensis colonizing a former cokery soil.

    Immel, Françoise; Renaut, Jenny; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2012-02-02

    Derelict contaminated sites are often colonized spontaneously by plant species leading to a vegetal cover thought to limit particle dispersal and polluted water infiltration. Those plants must cope with soil pollutants through tolerance mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. Here, we focused our attention on a particular Asteraceae plant, Solidago canadensis, considered as invasive in Europe. S. canadensis spontaneously growing on either polluted (NM soil) or control soils dumped on experimental plots were studied for their physiological status, oxidative stress and 2D-DIGE of leaf extracts. S. canadensis tolerance to soil pollutants was demonstrated since growth rates, allocation to reproduction ratios and Fv/Fm ratios were similar in plants from control and NM soil. At the cell level, the catalase activity level was increased in plants collected on NM soil while lipoperoxidation was unaffected. Also, the leaf proteomic study revealed thirty down-regulated and sixty-six up-regulated proteins. Abundances of proteins related to oxidative stress, carbohydrate metabolism, ion transport were mainly up-regulated while those of proteins involved in cell cycle and transcription/translation were mostly down-regulated. Proteins associated to protein metabolism were either down- or up-regulated. Considered altogether, we highlighted that S. canadensis exhibited a complex proteome response when experiencing a multicontaminated soil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Numerical modeling of cracking pattern's influence on the dynamic response of thickened tailings disposals: a periodic approach

    Ferrer, Gabriel; Sáez, Esteban; Ledezma, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Copper production is an essential component of the Chilean economy. During the extraction process of copper, large quantities of waste materials (tailings) are produced, which are typically stored in large tailing ponds. Thickened Tailings Disposal (TTD) is an alternative to conventional tailings ponds. In TTD, a considerable amount of water is extracted from the tailings before their deposition. Once a thickened tailings layer is deposited, it loses water and it shrinks, forming a relatively regular structure of tailings blocks with vertical cracks in between, which are then filled up with "fresh" tailings once the new upper layer is deposited. The dynamic response of a representative column of this complex structure made out of tailings blocks with softer material in between was analyzed using a periodic half-space finite element model. The tailings' behavior was modeled using an elasto-plastic multi-yielding constitutive model, and Chilean earthquake records were used for the seismic analyses. Special attention was given to the liquefaction potential evaluation of TTD.

  13. Refining in the 1990s: Technological response to environmental concerns, product quality requirements and changes in demand patterns

    Naber, J.E.; Stork, W.H.J.; Blauwhoff, P.M.M. (Koninklijke Shell, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Lab.); Groeneveld, K.J.W. (Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands))

    1990-01-01

    The refining industry is faced with a pressing need to protect the environment and with increasing demands for higher quality and changes in the composition of the product mix, partly as a result of a continued decline in demand for residual fuel due to energy savings and competition from other energy sources. An important part of the response to these challenges has been the development and implementation of new and improved technology to increase the refiner's ability to upgrade relatively low-value products to high-quality fuels. This generally involves an increase of the hydrogen content of the products, either by rejecting carbon or by adding hydrogen. In consequence, advanced technology has recently been developed for the conversion of residual components in catalytic crackers (carbon rejection) as well as in residue hydroprocessing (hydrogen addition). However, as a result of the increasing amounts of aromatic components in distillates from residue conversion, higher product quality demands in conjunction with a shift to diesel fuel can only be met by significant further developments in hydroprocessing. These developments favour the low hetero-atom and low-aromatics production in modern hydrocrackers utilising advanced catalysts and process technology. In the more distant future, the advent of new technology for large-scale production of synthesis gas (CO/H{sub 2}) from partial oxidation of natural gas, heavy oil or coal will enable the production of superior-quality non-aromatic middle distillates through sophisticated Fischer-Tropsch catalysis. (orig./EF).

  14. Sex-specific variation in signaling pathways and gene expression patterns in human leukocytes in response to endotoxin and exercise.

    Abbasi, Asghar; de Paula Vieira, Rodolfo; Bischof, Felix; Walter, Michael; Movassaghi, Masoud; Berchtold, Nicole C; Niess, Andreas M; Cotman, Carl W; Northoff, Hinnak

    2016-11-10

    While exercise effects on the immune system have received increasing attention in recent years, it remains unclear to what extent gender and fluctuations in sex hormones during menstrual cycle influence immunological responses to exercise. We investigated mRNA changes induced through exhaustive exercise (half-marathon; pre-exercise and post-exercise [30 min, 3 h, 24 h] on whole blood cultures ± lipopolysaccharide [LPS] [1 h]) with a specific focus on sex differences (men vs women in luteal phase) as an extension of our previous study. Inflammation related signaling pathways, TLRs, cytosolic DNA sensing and RIG-I like receptors were differentially activated between sexes in LPS-stimulated cultures. Genes differentially regulated between sexes included TNIP-1, TNIP-3, IL-6, HIVEP1, CXCL3, CCR3, IL-8, and CD69, revealing a bias towards less anti-inflammatory gene regulation in women compared to men. In addition, several genes relevant to brain function (KMO, DDIT4, VEGFA, IGF1R, IGF2R, and FGD4) showed differential activation between sexes. Some of these genes (e.g., KMO in women, DDIT4 in both sexes) potentially constitute neuroprotective mechanisms. These data reveal that the exercise-induced change in gene expression might be gender and menstrual cycle phase dependent.

  15. Is high hypnotic suggestibility necessary for successful hypnotic pain intervention?

    Milling, Leonard S

    2008-04-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility is a trait-like, individual difference variable reflecting the general tendency to respond to hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions. Research with standardized measures of hypnotic suggestibility has demonstrated that there are substantial individual differences in this variable. Higher suggestibility has been found to be associated with greater relief from hypnotic pain interventions. Although individuals in the high suggestibility range show the strongest response to hypnotic analgesia, people of medium suggestibility, who represent approximately one third of the population, also have been found to obtain significant relief from hypnosis. Thus, high hypnotic suggestibility is not necessary for successful hypnotic pain intervention. However, the available evidence does not support the efficacy of hypnotic pain interventions for people who fall in the low hypnotic suggestibility range. However, some studies suggest that these individuals may benefit from imaginative analgesia suggestions, or suggestions for pain reduction that are delivered while the person is not in hypnosis.

  16. Determination of key environmental factors responsible for distribution patterns of fiddler crabs in a tropical mangrove ecosystem.

    Mohammad Mokhtari

    Full Text Available In tropical regions, different species of fiddler crabs coexist on the mangrove floor, which sometimes makes it difficult to define species-specific habitat by visual inspection. The aim of this study is to find key environmental parameters which affect the distribution of fiddler crabs and to determine the habitats in which each species was most abundant. Crabs were collected from 19 sites within the mudflats of Sepang-Lukut mangrove forest. Temperature, porewater salinity, organic matter, water content, carbon and nitrogen content, porosity, chlorophyll content, pH, redox potential, sediment texture and heavy metals were determined in each 1 m2 quadrate. Pearson correlation indicated that all sediment properties except pH and redox potential were correlated with sediment grain size. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA indicated that Uca paradussumieri was negatively correlated with salinity and redox potential. Sand dwelling species, Uca perplexa and Uca annulipes, were highly dependent on the abundance of 250 μm and 150 μm grain size particles in the sediment. Canonical Discriminative Analysis (CDA indicated that variation in sediment grain size best explained where each crab species was most abundant. Moreover, U. paradussumieri commonly occupies muddy substrates of low shore, while U. forcipata lives under the shade of mangrove trees. U. annulipes and U. perplexa with the high number of spoon tipped setae on their second maxiliped are specialized to feed on the sandy sediments. U. rosea and U. triangularis are more common on muddy sediment with high sediment density. In conclusion, sediment grain size that influences most sediment properties acts as a main factor responsible for sediment heterogeneity. In this paper, the correlation between fiddler crab species and environmental parameters, as well as the interaction between sediment characteristics, was explained in order to define the important environmental factors in fiddler crab

  17. Longitudinal patterns and response lengths of algae in riverine ecosystems: A model analysis emphasising benthic-pelagic interactions.

    Jäger, Christoph G; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2018-04-07

    In riverine ecosystems primary production is principally possible in two habitats: in the benthic layer by sessile algae and in the surface water by planktonic algae being transported downstream. The relevance of these two habitats generally changes along the rivers' continuum. However, analyses of the interaction of algae in these two habitats and their controlling factors in riverine ecosystems are, so far, very rare. We use a simplified advection-diffusion model system combined with ecological process kinetics to analyse the interaction of benthic and planktonic algae and nutrients along idealised streams and rivers at regional to large scales. Because many of the underlying processes affecting algal dynamics are influenced by depth, we focus particularly on the impact of river depth on this interaction. At constant environmental conditions all state variables approach stable spatial equilibria along the river, independent of the boundary conditions at the upstream end. Because our model is very robust against changes of turbulent diffusion and stream velocity, these spatial equilibria can be analysed by a simplified ordinary differential equation (ode) version of our model. This model variant reveals that at shallower river depths, phytoplankton can exist only when it is subsidised by detaching benthic algae, and in turn, at deeper river depths, benthic algae can exist only in low biomasses which are subsidised by sinking planktonic algae. We generalise the spatial dynamics of the model system using different conditions at the upstream end of the model, which mimic various natural or anthropogenic factors (pristine source, dam, inflow of a waste water treatment plant, and dilution from e.g. a tributary) and analyse how these scenarios influence different aspects of the longitudinal spatial dynamics of the full spatial model: the relation of spatial equilibrium to spatial maximum, the distance to the spatial maximum, and the response length. Generally, our

  18. Pattern of NDVI-based vegetation greening along an altitudinal gradient in the eastern Himalayas and its response to global warming.

    Li, Haidong; Jiang, Jiang; Chen, Bin; Li, Yingkui; Xu, Yuyue; Shen, Weishou

    2016-03-01

    The eastern Himalayas, especially the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon Nature Reserve (YNR), is a global hotspot of biodiversity because of a wide variety of climatic conditions and elevations ranging from 500 to > 7000 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The mountain ecosystems at different elevations are vulnerable to climate change; however, there has been little research into the patterns of vegetation greening and their response to global warming. The objective of this paper is to examine the pattern of vegetation greening in different altitudinal zones in the YNR and its relationship with vegetation types and climatic factors. Specifically, the inter-annual change of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and its variation along altitudinal gradient between 1999 and 2013 was investigated using SPOT-VGT NDVI data and ASTER global digital elevation model (GDEM) data. We found that annual NDVI increased by 17.58% in the YNR from 1999 to 2013, especially in regions dominated by broad-leaved and coniferous forests at lower elevations. The vegetation greening rate decreased significantly as elevation increased, with a threshold elevation of approximately 3000 m. Rising temperature played a dominant role in driving the increase in NDVI, while precipitation has no statistical relationship with changes in NDVI in this region. This study provides useful information to develop an integrated management and conservation plan for climate change adaptation and promote biodiversity conservation in the YNR.

  19. Dose-response and failure pattern for bulky or barrel-shaped stage IB cervical cancer treated by combined photon irradiation and extrafascial hysterectomy

    Maruyama, Y.; van Nagell, J.R.; Yoneda, J.; Donaldson, E.; Gallion, H.H.; Higgins, R.; Powell, D.; Kryscio, R.; Berner, B.

    1989-01-01

    From 1975 to 1987, 80 patients with bulky or barrel-shaped Stage IB cervical cancer were treated with preoperative irradiation and Cs-137 intracavitary implant therapy, before a planned extrafascial abdominal hysterectomy, using a consistent treatment policy. Of the hysterectomy specimens obtained, 37% were positive histologically at 89 +/- 2.3 days after the start of radiotherapy and at 4 to 6 weeks after the completion of radiation therapy. Sixty-three percent were negative after a total external and internal cervix irradiation dose of 9642 cGy at point T. The average point A dose contributed by intracavitary therapy was 2104 cGy. The survival rate at 5 years was 84%: At 10 years the survival rate was 78%. The failure pattern was analyzed for patients who had positive and negative specimens. The patients with positive specimens failed pelvically or pelvically and distantly. Patients with negative specimens failed in extrapelvic or distant metastatic sites. Preoperative radiotherapy led to excellent local and pelvic control of tumor, and the failures became predominantly distant metastases. The combined radiosurgical therapy was tolerated well and allowed surgical staging of disease. This permitted earlier and selective consideration of adjunctive therapy (i.e., paraaortic irradiation, chemotherapy, or chemoradiotherapy). The dose-response data give insight into the effects of photon radiotherapy on bulky or barrel Stage IB cervical cancers and correlate histologic status with failure pattern, outcome, and long-term survival

  20. Comparison of Pain Response of Patients Undergoing Panretinal Photocoagulation for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: 532 nm Standard Laser vs. Multispot Pattern Scan Laser

    Göktuğ Seymenoğlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare pain response of patients undergoing panretinal photocoagulation (PRP for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR using 532 nm standard laser versus multispot pattern scan laser and to evaluate the relationship between pain response and patient characteristics. Material and Method: Thirty-five patients had PRP with the Pascal system in a single session, while other 35 patients had PRP with conventional laser in 2 sessions. Parameters used in conventional laser were as follows: spot size 200 µm, exposure time 0.2 s, and power sufficient to produce visible grey-white burns. We used same spot size, 20-30 ms exposure time, and higher levels of laser power in order to get a similar endpoint in the Pascal system. The patients were required to evaluate the severity of pain on a visual analog scale (VAS and verbally 5 minutes after PRP with Pascal and 5 minutes after the first session of PRP with conventional laser. The relationship between pain experienced and patient characteristics was evaluated. Results: At baseline, both groups did not differ significantly (p >0.05, for all with respect to sex, age, duration of diabetes, most recent HbA1c, treatment regimen, or patient experience. The patients in the Pascal group had a mean pain score of 0.55±0.70 on verbal scale and 1.54±1.22 on VAS compared to 2.17±1.18 and 5.54±3.28, respectively in the conventional laser group which was, statistically, significantly different in both scales (p<0.05. Discussion: Our study confirms that new generation pattern scanning photocoagulators satisfactorily decrease the pain by shortening the exposure time while increasing the laser power. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 221-4

  1. Brain Activation Patterns in Response to Conspecific and Heterospecific Social Acoustic Signals in Female Plainfin Midshipman Fish, Porichthys notatus.

    Mohr, Robert A; Chang, Yiran; Bhandiwad, Ashwin A; Forlano, Paul M; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2018-01-01

    .e., the central posterior nucleus of the thalamus and the anterior tuberal hypothalamus, when exposed to conspecific calls versus either ambient noise or heterospecific calls. Our results suggest that higher-order neurons in the female midshipman midbrain torus semicircularis, thalamic central posterior nucleus, and hypothalamic anterior tuberal nucleus may be necessary for the discrimination of complex social acoustic signals. Furthermore, neurons in the central posterior and anterior tuberal nuclei are differentially activated by exposure to conspecific versus other acoustic stimuli. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Suggestion on Information Sharing for AP implementation

    Shim, Hye Won; Kim, Min Su; Koh, Byung Marn [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Under the Additional Protocol, States should provide the IAEA with expanded declarations of activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle and other nuclear activities, and with expanded access to the relevant information and sites to allow the IAEA to verify the completeness of these declarations. The AP to the Safeguards Agreement (the Additional Protocol) was signed on June 21{sup st}, 1999 and entered into force on February 19{sup th}, 2004. ROK submitted initial declarations in August 2004. Since then, ROK has been submitting annual updated reports of initial declaration on every May 15{sup th}. To achieve successful implementation, it is necessary to collect the information for each individual article in Article 2 of the AP and verify the declared information provided by facility operators. Therefore, the cooperation among the ministries and offices concerned is a prerequisite for successful implementation of AP. Unfortunately, the formal procedure for inter-organizational information sharing and cooperation is not established. This paper will briefly outline the AP declarations and suggest the information sharing among the ministries, offices and organizations for effective and efficient implementation of AP. The State authority has responsibility for AP implementation and it should verify correctness and completeness of the information declared by facility operators before submitting the declarations. The close cooperation and information sharing among the ministries, offices and organizations are indispensable to effective and efficient implementation of AP.

  3. Bullous pemphigoid antigen localization suggests an intracellular association with hemidesmosomes

    Westgate, G E; Weaver, A C; Couchman, J R

    1985-01-01

    immunofluorescent staining for BPA is linear at the basement membrane zone (BMZ) of skin and many other epithelial tissues. At higher magnification however, we observed a punctate staining pattern for BPA which was regular in appearance and suggested localization of BPA to discrete structures at the BMZ. Subsequent...... intracellularly both in vivo and in vitro. We suggest that BPA is not normally a lamina lucida component, but that it may form part of a linkage between the cytoskeleton and the basement membrane....

  4. Differences in the Pattern of Hemodynamic Response to Self-Face and Stranger-Face Images in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Study.

    Takeshi Inoue

    Full Text Available There have been no reports concerning the self-face perception in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN. The purpose of this study was to compare the neuronal correlates of viewing self-face images (i.e. images of familiar face and stranger-face images (i.e. images of an unfamiliar face in female adolescents with and without AN. We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS to measure hemodynamic responses while the participants viewed full-color photographs of self-face and stranger-face. Fifteen females with AN (mean age, 13.8 years and 15 age- and intelligence quotient (IQ-matched female controls without AN (mean age, 13.1 years participated in the study. The responses to photographs were compared with the baseline activation (response to white uniform blank. In the AN group, the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb significantly increased in the right temporal area during the presentation of both the self-face and stranger-face images compared with the baseline level. In contrast, in the control group, the concentration of oxy-Hb significantly increased in the right temporal area only during the presentation of the self-face image. To our knowledge the present study is the first report to assess brain activities during self-face and stranger-face perception among female adolescents with AN. There were different patterns of brain activation in response to the sight of the self-face and stranger-face images in female adolescents with AN and controls.

  5. Differences in the Pattern of Hemodynamic Response to Self-Face and Stranger-Face Images in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Study.

    Inoue, Takeshi; Sakuta, Yuiko; Shimamura, Keiichi; Ichikawa, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Megumi; Otani, Ryoko; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kanazawa, So; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Sakuta, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    There have been no reports concerning the self-face perception in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The purpose of this study was to compare the neuronal correlates of viewing self-face images (i.e. images of familiar face) and stranger-face images (i.e. images of an unfamiliar face) in female adolescents with and without AN. We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure hemodynamic responses while the participants viewed full-color photographs of self-face and stranger-face. Fifteen females with AN (mean age, 13.8 years) and 15 age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched female controls without AN (mean age, 13.1 years) participated in the study. The responses to photographs were compared with the baseline activation (response to white uniform blank). In the AN group, the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) significantly increased in the right temporal area during the presentation of both the self-face and stranger-face images compared with the baseline level. In contrast, in the control group, the concentration of oxy-Hb significantly increased in the right temporal area only during the presentation of the self-face image. To our knowledge the present study is the first report to assess brain activities during self-face and stranger-face perception among female adolescents with AN. There were different patterns of brain activation in response to the sight of the self-face and stranger-face images in female adolescents with AN and controls.

  6. Patterns of long-term and short-term responses in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a completer cohort of 12 weeks or more with atomoxetine.

    Sobanski, E; Leppämäki, S; Bushe, C; Berggren, L; Casillas, M; Deberdt, W

    2015-11-01

    Atomoxetine is a well-established pharmacotherapy for adult ADHD. Long-term studies show incremental reductions in symptoms over time. However, clinical experience suggests that patients differ in their response patterns. From 13 Eli Lilly-sponsored studies, we pooled and analyzed data for adults with ADHD who completed atomoxetine treatment at long-term (24 weeks; n=1443) and/or short-term (12 weeks; n=2830) time-points, and had CAARS-Inv:SV total and CGI-S data up to or after these time-points and at Week 0 (i.e. at baseline, when patients first received atomoxetine). The goal was to identify and describe distinct trajectories of response to atomoxetine using hierarchical clustering methods and linear mixed modelling. Based on the homogeneity of changes in CAARS-Inv:SV total scores, 5 response clusters were identified for patients who completed long-term (24 weeks) treatment with atomoxetine, and 4 clusters were identified for patients who completed short-term (12 weeks) treatment. Four of the 5 long-term clusters (comprising 95% of completer patients) showed positive trajectories: 2 faster responding clusters (L1 and L2), and 2 more gradually responding clusters (L3 and L4). Responses (i.e.≥30% reduction in CAARS-Inv:SV total score, and CGI-S score≤3) were observed at 8 and 24 weeks in 80% and 95% of completers in Cluster L1, versus 5% and 48% in Cluster L4. While many adults with ADHD responded relatively rapidly to atomoxetine, others responded more gradually without a clear plateau at 24 weeks. Longer-term treatment may be associated with greater numbers of responders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. RETAIL ORGANIZATION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    MAURO, RALPH N.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A COURSE ON RETAIL ORGANIZATION IS PLANNED FOR FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) EVOLUTION OF RETAIL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE, (2) ORGANIZATION, INCLUDING CONCEPTS, PRINCIPLES, AND PRACTICES, (3) TYPICAL RETAIL ORGANIZATION PATTERNS, (4) ORGANIZATIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANAYSIS, INCLUDING MERCHANDISING, SALES PROMOTION, AND…

  8. Response

    Hartman, Nancy C.

    1974-01-01

    Suggests more stringent use of task analysis in identifying and teaching reading subskills and the use of reinforcement contingencies which make it worthwhile for the child to tolerate frustration when teaching remedial reading to children with low frustration tolerance levels. (TO)

  9. Quantitative histological models suggest endothermy in plesiosaurs

    Corinna V. Fleischle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Plesiosaurs are marine reptiles that arose in the Late Triassic and survived to the Late Cretaceous. They have a unique and uniform bauplan and are known for their very long neck and hydrofoil-like flippers. Plesiosaurs are among the most successful vertebrate clades in Earth’s history. Based on bone mass decrease and cosmopolitan distribution, both of which affect lifestyle, indications of parental care, and oxygen isotope analyses, evidence for endothermy in plesiosaurs has accumulated. Recent bone histological investigations also provide evidence of fast growth and elevated metabolic rates. However, quantitative estimations of metabolic rates and bone growth rates in plesiosaurs have not been attempted before. Methods Phylogenetic eigenvector maps is a method for estimating trait values from a predictor variable while taking into account phylogenetic relationships. As predictor variable, this study employs vascular density, measured in bone histological sections of fossil eosauropterygians and extant comparative taxa. We quantified vascular density as primary osteon density, thus, the proportion of vascular area (including lamellar infillings of primary osteons to total bone area. Our response variables are bone growth rate (expressed as local bone apposition rate and resting metabolic rate (RMR. Results Our models reveal bone growth rates and RMRs for plesiosaurs that are in the range of birds, suggesting that plesiosaurs were endotherm. Even for basal eosauropterygians we estimate values in the range of mammals or higher. Discussion Our models are influenced by the availability of comparative data, which are lacking for large marine amniotes, potentially skewing our results. However, our statistically robust inference of fast growth and fast metabolism is in accordance with other evidence for plesiosaurian endothermy. Endothermy may explain the success of plesiosaurs consisting in their survival of the end-Triassic extinction

  10. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Emergence Time and Skin Melanin Spot Patterns Do Not Correlate with Growth Performance, Social Competitive Ability or Stress Response in Farmed Rainbow Trout

    Manuel Gesto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In wild salmonid fish, specific individual behavioral traits have been correlated with the timing of fry emergence from their gravel spawning nests; Early emerging fish display more aggressive behavior and have a higher probability of becoming socially dominant, compared to fish that emerge at a later stage. Apart from aggression and dominance, other behavioral and metabolic traits, such as boldness, metabolic rate, or growth, have also been linked to emergence time. Altogether, the traits of early- and late-emerging fish resemble those of the proactive and reactive stress-coping style, respectively. As proactive fish are considered more resilient to stress, it may be desirable to select these for aquaculture production. However, it is currently unclear to what extent the link between emergence time and stress-coping styles is maintained in the selective breeding of farmed fish. In the present study, eyed eggs from a commercial supplier were hatched, and larvae fractionated according to their emergence time. Later on, juvenile fish from different emergence fractions were subjected to a stress challenge and also tested to evaluate their competitive ability for food. Beyond some slight dissimilarities in the acute stress responses, emergence fraction displayed no correlation with growth rates, or the ability to compete for feed. Within the