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Sample records for response mode differences

  1. Effects of Different Student Response Modes on Science Learning

    Kho, Lee Sze; Chen, Chwen Jen

    2017-01-01

    Student response systems (SRSs) are wireless answering devices that enable students to provide simple real-time feedback to instructors. This study aims to evaluate the effects of different SRS interaction modes on elementary school students' science learning. Three interaction modes which include SRS Individual, SRS Collaborative, and Classroom…

  2. Life cycle responses of the midge Chironomus riparius to compounds with different modes of action.

    Marinkovic, M.; Verweij, R.A.; Nummerdor, G.A.; Jonker, M.J.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2011-01-01

    Compounds with different modes of action may affect life cycles of biota differently. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the impact of four chemicals with different modes of action, including the essential metal copper, the nonessential metal cadmium, the organometal

  3. Life cycle responses of the midge Chironomus riparius to compounds with different modes of action

    Marinkovic, M.; Verweij, R.A.; Nummerdor, G.A.; Jonker, M.J.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2011-01-01

    Compounds with different modes of action may affect life cycles of biota differently. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the impact of four chemicals with different modes of action, including the essential metal copper, the nonessential metal cadmium, the organometal

  4. Individual differences in anxiety responses to stressful situations : A three-mode component analysis model

    Van Mechelen, Iven; Kiers, Henk A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The three-mode component analysis model is discussed as a tool for a contextualized study of personality. When applied to person x situation x response data, the model includes sets of latent dimensions for persons, situations, and responses as well as a so-called core array, which may be considered

  5. Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after sub-lethal exposure to organic contaminants with different toxic modes of action

    McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda A.; Alaee, Mehran; Simpson, Andre J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - based metabolomics has the potential to identify toxic responses of contaminants within a mixture in contaminated soil. This study evaluated the metabolic response of Eisenia fetida after exposure to an array of organic compounds to determine whether contaminant-specific responses could be identified. The compounds investigated in contact tests included: two pesticides (carbaryl and chlorpyrifos), three pharmaceuticals (carbamazephine, estrone and caffeine), two persistent organohalogens (Aroclor 1254 and PBDE 209) and two industrial compounds (nonylphenol and dimethyl phthalate). Control and contaminant-exposed metabolic profiles were distinguished using principal component analysis and potential contaminant-specific biomarkers of exposure were found for several contaminants. These results suggest that NMR-based metabolomics offers considerable promise for differentiating between the different toxic modes of action (MOA) associated with sub-lethal toxicity to earthworms. - Highlights: → NMR-based earthworm metabolomic analysis of the toxic mode of action of various environmental contaminants. → Organic chemicals with different toxic modes of action resulted in varied metabolomic responses for E. fetida. → NMR-based metabolomics differentiates between the different modes of action associated with sub-lethal toxicity. - 1 H NMR metabolomics was used to identify potential biomarkers of organic contaminant exposure in Eisenia fetida earthworms.

  6. Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after sub-lethal exposure to organic contaminants with different toxic modes of action

    McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda A. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Alaee, Mehran [Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Simpson, Andre J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.ca [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - based metabolomics has the potential to identify toxic responses of contaminants within a mixture in contaminated soil. This study evaluated the metabolic response of Eisenia fetida after exposure to an array of organic compounds to determine whether contaminant-specific responses could be identified. The compounds investigated in contact tests included: two pesticides (carbaryl and chlorpyrifos), three pharmaceuticals (carbamazephine, estrone and caffeine), two persistent organohalogens (Aroclor 1254 and PBDE 209) and two industrial compounds (nonylphenol and dimethyl phthalate). Control and contaminant-exposed metabolic profiles were distinguished using principal component analysis and potential contaminant-specific biomarkers of exposure were found for several contaminants. These results suggest that NMR-based metabolomics offers considerable promise for differentiating between the different toxic modes of action (MOA) associated with sub-lethal toxicity to earthworms. - Highlights: > NMR-based earthworm metabolomic analysis of the toxic mode of action of various environmental contaminants. > Organic chemicals with different toxic modes of action resulted in varied metabolomic responses for E. fetida. > NMR-based metabolomics differentiates between the different modes of action associated with sub-lethal toxicity. - {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics was used to identify potential biomarkers of organic contaminant exposure in Eisenia fetida earthworms.

  7. How different location modes influence responses in a Simon-like task.

    Luo, Chunming; Proctor, Robert W

    2017-11-01

    Spatial information can be conveyed not only by stimulus position but by the meaning of a location word or direction of an arrow. We examined whether all the location-, arrow- and word-based Simon effects or some of them can be observed when a location word or an arrow is presented eccentrically and a left-right keypress is made to indicate its ink color. Results showed that only the location-based Simon effect was observed for location words, whereas an additional smaller arrow-based Simon effect, compared to the location-based Simon effect was observed, for arrows. These results showed spatial location, arrow direction, and location word stimulus dimensions affect response position codes in a spatial-to-verbal priority order, consistent with the possibility that they can activate mode-specific spatial representations.

  8. Respiratory, cardiovascular and metabolic responses during different modes of overground bionic ambulation in persons with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury: A case series

    Jochen Kressler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of overground bionic ambulation with variable assistance on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses in persons with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury. Design: Case series. Subjects: Four participants with chronic, motor-incomplete spinal cord injury. Methods: Subjects completed a maximal graded exercise test on an arm-ergometer and 3 6-min bouts of overground bionic ambulation using different modes of assistance, i.e. Maximal, Adaptive, Fixed. Cardiorespiratory (oxygen consumption and metabolic (caloric expenditure and substrate utilization measures were taken using a mobile metabolic cart at each overground bionic ambulation assistance. Results: Cardiorespiratory responses ranged from low (24% VO2peak for the least impaired and fittest individual to supramaximal (124% VO2peak for the participant with the largest impairments and the lowest level of fitness. Different overground bionic ambulation assistive modes elicited small (3–8% VO2peak differences in cardiorespiratory responses for 3 participants. One participant had a large (28% VO2peak difference in cardiorespiratory responses to different modes of overground bionic ambulation. Metabolic responses mostly tracked closely with cardiorespiratory responses. Total energy expenditure ranged from 1.39 to 7.17 kcal/min. Fat oxidation ranged from 0.00 to 0.17 g/min across participants and different overground bionic ambulation modes. Conclusion: Overground bionic ambulation with variable assistance can substantially increase cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses; however, these responses vary widely across participants and overground bionic ambulation modes.

  9. Language Differences and Operation Mode

    Dasi, Angels; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Language serves different purposes depending on the international activity in question. Language has many dimensions and firms’ communicative requirements vary by operational platform. We argue that different dimensions of language vary in their importance depending on the operation mode chosen...... for a foreign market, so that language distance matters in the case of a home-based sales force, while language incidence is key when operating through a local agent. The hypotheses are tested on a large data set encompassing 462 multinational corporations headquartered in Finland, South Korea, New Zealand......, and Sweden that have undertaken a business operation in a foreign country....

  10. Growth performance, innate immune responses and disease resistance of fingerling blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala adapted to different berberine-dietary feeding modes.

    Xu, Wei-Na; Chen, Dan-Hong; Chen, Qing-Qing; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2017-09-01

    A 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of different berberine-dietary feeding modes on growth, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish (average initial weight 4.70 ± 0.02 g) were fed two fat levels (5% and 10%) diets in three berberine-feeding modes (supplementing 50 mg/kg berberine continuously, two-week or four-week intervals) with four replicates, respectively. Then, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and mortality was recorded for the next 96 h after feeding trial. The results showed that different feeding modes of berberine significantly influenced growth, innate immunity and antioxidant capability of fish. Fish fed normal diet with 50 mg/kg berberine at two-week interval mode reflected remarkably (P complement component 3 (C3) and complement component 4 (C4) concentrations were significantly (P feeding modes. Based on fish healthy improvement and feeding cost saving, blunt snout bream fed normal diet with 50 mg/kg berberine at two-week interval or fed high-fat diet with berberine at two-week or four-week intervals were optimal feeding mode, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effect of survey mode on response patterns

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    .7%). Marital status, ethnic background and highest completed education were associated with non-response in both modes. Furthermore, sex and age were associated with non-response in the self-administered mode. No significant mode effects were observed for indicators related to use of health services......BACKGROUND: While face-to-face interviews are considered the gold standard of survey modes, self-administered questionnaires are often preferred for cost and convenience. This article examines response patterns in two general population health surveys carried out by face-to-face interview and self......-administered questionnaire, respectively. METHOD: Data derives from a health interview survey in the Region of Southern Denmark (face-to-face interview) and The Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2010 (self-administered questionnaire). Identical questions were used in both surveys. Data on all individuals were obtained from...

  12. Embracing different semiotic modes in undergraduate assignments

    Leedham, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The traditional focus within English for Academic Purposes (EAP) teaching of writing in Higher Education is on language produced as linear prose within genres such as the essay, report or case study. While attention is increasingly paid to disciplinary variation and, to a lesser extent, the different range of genres required in assessment, little research has been conducted on additional semiotic modes which may be employed. This paper focuses on resources such as images and layout and the wa...

  13. A randomised trial and economic evaluation of the effect of response mode on response rate, response bias, and item non-response in a survey of doctors

    Witt Julia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveys of doctors are an important data collection method in health services research. Ways to improve response rates, minimise survey response bias and item non-response, within a given budget, have not previously been addressed in the same study. The aim of this paper is to compare the effects and costs of three different modes of survey administration in a national survey of doctors. Methods A stratified random sample of 4.9% (2,702/54,160 of doctors undertaking clinical practice was drawn from a national directory of all doctors in Australia. Stratification was by four doctor types: general practitioners, specialists, specialists-in-training, and hospital non-specialists, and by six rural/remote categories. A three-arm parallel trial design with equal randomisation across arms was used. Doctors were randomly allocated to: online questionnaire (902; simultaneous mixed mode (a paper questionnaire and login details sent together (900; or, sequential mixed mode (online followed by a paper questionnaire with the reminder (900. Analysis was by intention to treat, as within each primary mode, doctors could choose either paper or online. Primary outcome measures were response rate, survey response bias, item non-response, and cost. Results The online mode had a response rate 12.95%, followed by the simultaneous mixed mode with 19.7%, and the sequential mixed mode with 20.7%. After adjusting for observed differences between the groups, the online mode had a 7 percentage point lower response rate compared to the simultaneous mixed mode, and a 7.7 percentage point lower response rate compared to sequential mixed mode. The difference in response rate between the sequential and simultaneous modes was not statistically significant. Both mixed modes showed evidence of response bias, whilst the characteristics of online respondents were similar to the population. However, the online mode had a higher rate of item non-response compared

  14. Cognitive Complexity and Verbal Response Mode Use in Discussion.

    Kline, Susan L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Uses William B. Stiles' discourse analysis system to determine whether there are general differences in the way individuals varying in construct system development use their utterances to establish understanding with each other. Finds that construct system development was positively correlated with edification and question response mode use, and…

  15. Competition between modes with different axial structures in gyrotrons

    Khutoryan, Eduard M.; Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Sinitsyn, Oleksandr V.

    2014-01-01

    This study was motivated by some experiments in which it was found that during the voltage rise, instead of expected excitation of a high-frequency parasitic mode, the excitation of a lower-frequency parasitic mode takes place in a certain range of voltages. For explaining this fact, the dependence of start currents of possible competing modes on the beam voltage was carried out in the cold-cavity approximation and by using the self-consistent approach. It was found that in the case of cavities, which consist of the combination of a section of constant radius waveguide and a slightly uptapered waveguide, these two approaches yield completely different results. Thus, experimentally observed excitation of the low-frequency parasitic mode can be explained by the self-consistent modification of the axial profile of the excited field, which has strong influence on the diffractive quality factor of competing modes. This modification is especially pronounced in the case of excitation of modes with many axial variations which can be excited in the region of beam interaction with the backward-wave component of such modes

  16. Comparing Collision Avoidance Systems of Different Type of Transportation Mode

    Serkan ÖZDEMİR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Different modes of transportation are often used in our daily lives. Therefore, how safe these modes are commonly researched by researchers. Many models and methods are developed to avoid collision with the development of technology. This development is aimed to improving the safety of life and property. The technological developments also aim to reduce the minimum level of the human error. Technological devices developed to prevent collision are applied in systematic way according to type of transportation mode. When comparatively examined, it is similar to each other technology used in different modes. In this respect, proposed model and methods are similar in general. These approaches are generally based on position of vehicles relative to each other and also rules have been developed taking into consideration the possibilities that may occur. Real-time sensors used to avoid collision in vehicles reduce risk of collision and provide significant achievements on behalf of avoiding collision. Besides this, it has been considered important a communication network between vehicles. As a result, the importance of the technological devices developed to ensure collision avoidance is increasing in our life. Thus, the study aims to explain and compare the methods, models and techniques used in the different transportation modes so as to avoid collision.

  17. The characteristic response of whistler mode waves to interplanetary shocks

    Yue, C.; Chen, L.; Bortnik, J.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Li, J.; An, X.; Zhou, C.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetospheric whistler mode waves play a key role in regulating the dynamics of the electron radiation belts. Recent satellite observations indicate a significant influence of interplanetary (IP) shocks on whistler mode wave power in the inner magnetosphere. In this study, we statistically investigate the response of whistler mode chorus and plasmaspheric hiss to IP shocks based on Van Allen Probes and THEMIS satellite observations. Immediately after the IP shock arrival, chorus wave power is usually intensified, often at dawn, while plasmaspheric hiss wave power predominantly decreases near the dayside but intensifies near the nightside. We conclude that chorus wave intensification outside the plasmasphere is probably associated with the suprathermal electron flux enhancement caused by the IP shock. On the other hand, the solar wind dynamic pressure increase changes the magnetic field configuration to favor ray penetration into the nightside and promote ray refraction away from the dayside, explaining the magnetic local time (MLT) dependent responses of plasmaspheric hiss waves following IP shock arrivals.

  18. Critical Thinking and EFL Learners' Performance on Different Writing Modes

    Golpour, Farhad

    2014-01-01

    The essential function of critical thinking in education is obvious by many studies done in this field. The main purpose of this article is to find the relationship between critical thinking levels of Iranian EFL learners and their performance on different modes of writing. The sample of the study selected among those who studying English at the…

  19. Positron two-photon annihilation coincidence technique: difference mode

    Karol, P J; Klobuchar, R L [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1978-05-01

    A difference (or comparative) mode in the measurement of two-photon coincidences from positron or positronium annihilation has been developed. The method can be used to advantage, particularly in gases, in determining annihilation parameters such as quenching cross sections for low concentration strongly quenching chemical species in a reference medium which is relatively non-quenching.

  20. Investigations on response time of magnetorheological elastomer under compression mode

    Zhu, Mi; Yu, Miao; Qi, Song; Fu, Jie

    2018-05-01

    For efficient fast control of vibration system with magnetorheological elastomer (MRE)-based smart device, the response time of MRE material is the key parameter which directly affects the control performance of the vibration system. For a step coil current excitation, this paper proposed a Maxwell behavior model with time constant λ to describe the normal force response of MRE, and the response time of MRE was extracted through the separation of coil response time. Besides, the transient responses of MRE under compression mode were experimentally investigated, and the effects of (i) applied current, (ii) particle distribution and (iii) compressive strain on the response time of MRE were addressed. The results revealed that the three factors can affect the response characteristic of MRE quite significantly. Besides the intrinsic importance for contributing to the response evaluation and effective design of MRE device, this study may conduce to the optimal design of controller for MRE control system.

  1. Modes of supraglacial lake drainage and dynamic ice sheet response

    Das, S. B.; Behn, M. D.; Joughin, I. R.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate modes of supraglacial lake drainage using geophysical, ground, and remote sensing observations over the western margin of the Greenland ice sheet. Lakes exhibit a characteristic life cycle defined by a pre-drainage, drainage, and post-drainage phase. In the pre-drainage phase winter snow fills pre-existing cracks and stream channels, efficiently blocking past drainage conduits. As temperatures increase in the spring, surface melting commences, initially saturating the snow pack and subsequently forming a surface network of streams that fills the lake basins. Basins continue to fill until lake drainage commences, which for individual lakes occurs at different times depending on the previous winter snow accumulation and summer temperatures. Three styles of drainage behavior have been observed: (1) no drainage, (2) slow drainage over the side into an adjacent pre-existing crack, and (3) rapid drainage through a new crack formed beneath the lake basin. Moreover, from year-to-year individual lakes exhibit different drainage behaviors. Lakes that drain slowly often utilize the same outflow channel for multiple years, creating dramatic canyons in the ice. Ultimately, these surface channels are advected out of the lake basin and a new channel forms. In the post-drainage phase, melt water continues to access the bed typically through a small conduit (e.g. moulin) formed near a local topographic minimum along the main drainage crack, draining the lake catchment throughout the remainder of the melt season. This melt water input to the bed leads to continued basal lubrication and enhanced ice flow compared to background velocities. Lakes that do not completely drain freeze over to form a surface ice layer that persists into the following year. Our results show that supraglacial lakes show a spectrum of drainage behaviors and that these styles of drainage lead to varying rates and timing of surface meltwater delivery to the bed resulting in different dynamic ice

  2. Contributions of different modes of TRPV1 activation to TRPV1 antagonist-induced hyperthermia.

    Garami, Andras; Shimansky, Yury P; Pakai, Eszter; Oliveira, Daniela L; Gavva, Narender R; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2010-01-27

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) antagonists are widely viewed as next-generation pain therapeutics. However, these compounds cause hyperthermia, a serious side effect. TRPV1 antagonists differentially block three modes of TRPV1 activation: by heat, protons, and chemical ligands (e.g., capsaicin). We asked what combination of potencies in these three modes of TRPV1 activation corresponds to the lowest potency of a TRPV1 antagonist to cause hyperthermia. We studied hyperthermic responses of rats, mice, and guinea pigs to eight TRPV1 antagonists with different pharmacological profiles and used mathematical modeling to find a relative contribution of the blockade of each activation mode to the development of hyperthermia. We found that the hyperthermic effect has the highest sensitivity to the extent of TRPV1 blockade in the proton mode (0.43 to 0.65) with no to moderate sensitivity in the capsaicin mode (-0.01 to 0.34) and no sensitivity in the heat mode (0.00 to 0.01). We conclude that hyperthermia-free TRPV1 antagonists do not block TRPV1 activation by protons, even if they are potent blockers of the heat mode, and that decreasing the potency to block the capsaicin mode may further decrease the potency to cause hyperthermia.

  3. Economic analysis of fast reactor fuel cycle with different modes

    Ding Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Because of limitations on the access to technical and economic data and the lack of effective verification, the lack of in-depth study on the economy of fast reactor fuel cycle in China. This paper introduces the analysis and calculation results of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) under three different fuel cycle modes including fast reactor fuel cycle carried out by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The author used the evaluation method and hypothesis parameters provided by the MIT to carry out the sensitivity analysis for the impact of the overnight cost, the discount rate and changes of uranium price on the LCOE under three fuel cycle modes. Finally, some suggestions are proposed on the study of economy in China's fast reactor fuel cycle. (authors)

  4. The different modes of hydro-economic analysis (Invited)

    Harou, J. J.; Binions, O.; Erfani, T.

    2013-12-01

    In the face of growing water demands, climate change and spatial and temporal water access variability, accurately assessing the economic impacts of proposed water resource management changes is useful. The objective of this project funded by UK Water Industry Research was to present and demonstrate a framework for identifying and using the ';value of water' to enable water utilities and their regulators to make better decisions. A hydro-economic model can help evaluate water management options in terms of their hydrological and economic impact at different locations throughout a catchment over time. In this talk we discuss three modes in which hydro-economic models can be implemented: evaluative, behavioral and prescriptive. In evaluation mode economic water demand and benefit functions are used to post-process water resource management model results to assess the economic impacts (over space and time) of a policy under consideration. In behavioral hydro-economic models users are represented as agents and the economics is used to help predict their actions. In prescriptive mode optimization is used to find the most economically efficient management actions such as allocation patterns or source selection. These three types of hydro-economic analysis are demonstrated on a UK watershed (Great River Ouse) that includes 97 different water abstractors from amongst the public water supply, agriculture, industry and energy plant cooling sectors. The following issues under dry and normal historical conditions were investigated: Supply/demand investment planning, societal cost of environmental flows, water market prices, and scarcity-sensitive charges for water rights. The talk discusses which hydro-economic modeling mode is used to study each of these issues and why; example results are shown and discussed. The topic of how hydro-economic models can be built and deployed effectively is covered along with how existing water utility operational and planning tools can be

  5. High power blue LED development using different growth modes

    Lee, Dong S.; Florescu, Doru I.; Ramer, Jeff C.; Merai, Vinod; Parekh, Aniruddh; Begarney, Michael J.; Armour, Eric A. [Veeco TurboDisc Operations, 394 Elizabeth Avenue, Somerset, NJ 08873 (United States); Lu Dong [Veeco TurboDisc Operations, 394 Elizabeth Avenue, Somerset, NJ 08873 (United States); School of Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Blue high brightness light emitting diodes (HB-LEDs) have been developed using different growth modes in the active layers. Piezoelectric field engineering improves the optical output power in multiple quantum well (MQW) LEDs by inserting an optimized transitional superlattice (TSL) before the active MQW layers. Within single quantum well (SQW) LEDs, quasi-Quantum Dot (QD) growth for Indium localization has been realized. The SQW LED output power exceeds the strain engineered MQW LEDs. The experimental data indicates that Indium localization enhances overall quantum efficiency and results in increased output power for HB-LEDs. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Properties of a novel linear sulfur response mode in a multiple flame photometric detector.

    Clark, Adrian G; Thurbide, Kevin B

    2014-01-24

    A new linear sulfur response mode was established in the multiple flame photometric detector (mFPD) by monitoring HSO* emission in the red spectral region above 600nm. Optimal conditions for this mode were found by using a 750nm interference filter and oxygen flows to the worker flames of this device that were about 10mL/min larger than those used for monitoring quadratic S2* emission. By employing these parameters, this mode provided a linear response over about 4 orders of magnitude, with a detection limit near 5.8×10(-11)gS/s and a selectivity of sulfur over carbon of about 3.5×10(3). Specifically, the minimum detectable masses for 10 different sulfur analytes investigated ranged from 0.4 to 3.6ng for peak half-widths spanning 4-6s. The response toward ten different sulfur compounds was examined and produced an average reproducibility of 1.7% RSD (n=10) and an average equimolarity value of 1.0±0.1. In contrast to this, a conventional single flame S2* mode comparatively yielded respective values of 6.7% RSD (n=10) and 1.1±0.4. HSO* emission in the mFPD was also found to be relatively much less affected by response quenching due to hydrocarbons compared to a conventional single flame S2* emission mode. Results indicate that this new alternative linear mFPD response mode could be beneficial for sulfur monitoring applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A finite different field solver for dipole modes

    Nelson, E.M.

    1992-08-01

    A finite element field solver for dipole modes in axisymmetric structures has been written. The second-order elements used in this formulation yield accurate mode frequencies with no spurious modes. Quasi-periodic boundaries are included to allow travelling waves in periodic structures. The solver is useful in applications requiring precise frequency calculations such as detuned accelerator structures for linear colliders. Comparisons are made with measurements and with the popular but less accurate field solver URMEL

  8. Environmental impact from different modes of transport. Method of comparison

    2002-03-01

    A prerequisite of long-term sustainable development is that activities of various kinds are adjusted to what humans and the natural world can tolerate. Transport is an activity that affects humans and the environment to a very great extent and in this project, several actors within the transport sector have together laid the foundation for the development of a comparative method to be able to compare the environmental impact at the different stages along the transport chain. The method analyses the effects of different transport concepts on the climate, noise levels, human health, acidification, land use and ozone depletion. Within the framework of the method, a calculation model has been created in Excel which acts as a basis for the comparisons. The user can choose to download the model from the Swedish EPA's on-line bookstore or order it on a floppy disk. Neither the method nor the model are as yet fully developed but our hope is that they can still be used in their present form as a basis and inspire further efforts and research in the field. In the report, we describe most of these shortcomings, the problems associated with the work and the existing development potential. This publication should be seen as the first stage in the development of a method of comparison between different modes of transport in non-monetary terms where there remains a considerable need for further development and amplification

  9. Few-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser: Optional emission of transverse modes with different polarizations

    Zhong, Chuyu; Zhang, Xing; Hofmann, Werner; Yu, Lijuan; Liu, Jianguo; Ning, Yongqiang; Wang, Lijun

    2018-05-01

    Few-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers that can be controlled to emit certain modes and polarization states simply by changing the biased contacts are proposed and fabricated. By directly etching trenches in the p-doped distributed Bragg reflector, the upper mesa is separated into several submesas above the oxide layer. Individual contacts are then deposited. Each contact is used to control certain transverse modes with different polarization directions emitted from the corresponding submesa. These new devices can be seen as a prototype of compact laser sources in mode division multiplexing communications systems.

  10. INVESTIGATION OF RESPONSE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ...

    Total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have long been used to estimate the amount of natural organic matter (NOM) found in raw and finished drinking water. In recent years, computer automation and improved instrumental analysis technologies have created a variety of TOC instrument systems. However, the amount of organic carbon (OC) measured in a sample has been found to depend upon the way a specific TOC instrument treats the sample and the way the OC is calculated and reported. Specifically, relative instrument response differences for TOC/DOC, ranging between 15 to 62%, were documented when five different source waters were each analyzed by five different TOC instrument systems operated according to the manufacturer's specifications. Problems and possible solutions for minimizing these differences are discussed. Establish optimum performance criteria for current TOC technologies for application to Stage 2 D/DBP Rule.Develop a TOC and SUVA (incorporating DOC and UV254) method to be published in the Stage 2 D/DBP Rule that will meet requirements as stated in the Stage 1 D/DBP Rule (Revise Method 415.3,

  11. Comprehensive comparison of macro-strain mode and displacement mode based on different sensing technologies

    Hong, Wan; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Gang; Wu, Zhishen

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive comparison of macro-strain mode and displacement mode obtained from distributed macro-strain sensing and high-density point sensing (such as accelerometers) technologies is presented in this paper. Theoretical derivation reveals that displacement mode shape from accelerometers and modal macro-strain from distributed macro-strain sensors can be converted into each other. However, it is realized that displacement mode shape as global behavior of a structure can still be calculated with high-precision from modal macro-strain considering measurement errors in practical monitoring, whereas modal macro-strain can hardly be accurately achieved from displacement mode shape when signals are corrupted with noise in practical monitoring. Simulation and experiment results show that the calculated displacement mode shapes are very close to the actual ones even if the noise level reaches 5%. Meanwhile, damage index using measured modal macro-strain is still effective when the measurements are corrupted with 5% noise which is reliable for damage detection in practical monitoring. Calculating modal macro-strain from noise-polluted displacement mode shape will cause an unacceptable error if the noise level reaches only 0.5%, which has been verified in the simulation.

  12. Comparing web and mail responses in a mixed mode survey in college alcohol use research

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Diez, Alison; Boyd, Carol J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Weitzman, Elissa R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This exploratory study examined potential mode effects (web versus U.S. mail) in a mixed mode design survey of alcohol use at eight U.S. colleges. Methods Randomly selected students from eight U.S. colleges were invited to participate in a self-administered survey on their alcohol use in the spring of 2002. Data were collected initially by web survey (n =2619) and non-responders to this mode were mailed a hardcopy survey (n =628). Results College students who were male, living on-campus and under 21 years of age were significantly more likely to complete the initial web survey. Multivariate analyses revealed few substantive differences between survey modality and alcohol use measures. Conclusions The findings from this study provide preliminary evidence that web and mail surveys produce comparable estimates of alcohol use in a non-randomized mixed mode design. The results suggest that mixed mode survey designs could be effective at reaching certain college sub-populations and improving overall response rate while maintaining valid measurement of alcohol use. Web surveys are gaining popularity in survey research and more work is needed to examine whether these results can extend to web surveys generally or are specific to mixed mode designs. PMID:16460882

  13. Extraction of the mode shapes of a segmented ship model with a hydroelastic response

    Yooil Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The mode shapes of a segmented hull model towed in a model basin were predicted using both the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD and cross random decrement technique. The proper orthogonal decomposition, which is also known as Karhunen-Loeve decomposition, is an emerging technology as a useful signal processing technique in structural dynamics. The technique is based on the fact that the eigenvectors of a spatial coherence matrix become the mode shapes of the system under free and randomly excited forced vibration conditions. Taking advantage of the sim-plicity of POD, efforts have been made to reveal the mode shapes of vibrating flexible hull under random wave ex-citation. First, the segmented hull model of a 400 K ore carrier with 3 flexible connections was towed in a model basin under different sea states and the time histories of the vertical bending moment at three different locations were meas-ured. The measured response time histories were processed using the proper orthogonal decomposition, eventually to obtain both the first and second vertical vibration modes of the flexible hull. A comparison of the obtained mode shapes with those obtained using the cross random decrement technique showed excellent correspondence between the two results.

  14. Multi-control modes for a master-slave manipulator with different configurations and its maneuverability

    Matsuhira, Nobuto; Asakura, Makoto; Bamba, Hiroyuki

    1995-01-01

    The new master-slave control method is proposed on multi-control modes for a master-slave manipulator with different configurations. A virtual internal model following control is applied to position symmetrical bilateral control. In our method, a master-slave control mode (MS-mode), a joystick control mode (JS-mode), a master arm offset mode (OM-mode), and a servo hold mode (LK-mode) are able to be realized by operating the desired output values of the virtual internal models in a common control algorithm. There is compliant characteristic between the master and slave models. In the result of evaluation experiments between the MS-mode and the JS-mode, although the MS-mode is superior to the JS-mode in manipulating a fine task, our JS-mode is found to be useful to carry out such a task compared with a conventional JS-mode which only directs the rates for the slave arm. In the JS-mode, the slave arm moves to the position where the reaction force of the slave arm and the operating force of the master arm are balanced. Thus, it is possible either to control an overload for an object and to control the contact force. The validity of the proposed method is verified. (author)

  15. Exposure to volatile organic compounds: Comparison among different transportation modes

    Do, Duc Hoai; Van Langenhove, Herman; Chigbo, Stephen Izuchukwu; Amare, Abebech Nuguse; Demeestere, Kristof; Walgraeve, Christophe

    2014-09-01

    The increasing trend of promoting public transportation (bus tram, metro, train) and more environmental friendly and sustainable non fossil-fuel alternatives (walking, cycling etc) as substitutes for auto vehicles brings forward new questions with regard to pollutant levels to which commuters are exposed. In this study, three transportation modes (tram, auto vehicle and bicycle) are studied and concentration levels of 84 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, oxygen containing hydrocarbons, terpenes and halogenated compounds) are measured along a route in the city of Ghent, Belgium. The concentration levels are obtained by active sampling on Tenax TA sorbent tubes followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) using deuterated toluene as an internal standard. The median total VOC concentrations for the tram mode (33 μg/m³) is 1.7 times higher than that of the bicycle mode (20 μg/m³) and 1.5 times higher than for the car mode (22 μg/m³). It is found that aromatic hydrocarbons account for a significant proportion in the total VOCs concentration (TVOCs) being as high as 41-57%, 59-72% and 58-72% for the tram, car and bicycle respectively. In all transportation modes, there was a high (r > 0.6) degree of correlation between BTEX compounds, isopropylbenzene, n-propylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. When comparing time weighed average concentrations along a fixed route in Ghent, it is found that commuters using the tram mode experience the highest TVOCs concentration levels. However, next to the concentration level to which commuters are exposed, the physical activity level involving the mode of transportation is important to assess the exposure to toxic VOCs. It is proven that the commuter using a bicycle (4.3 ± 1.5 μg) inhales seven and nine times more benzene compared to the commuter using the car and tram respectively, when the same route is followed.

  16. Optimal Protection Coordination for Microgrid under Different Operating Modes

    Ming-Ta Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant consequences result when a microgrid is connected to a distribution system. This study discusses the impacts of bolted three-phase faults and bolted single line-to-ground faults on the protection coordination of a distribution system connected by a microgrid which operates in utility-only mode or in grid-connected mode. The power system simulation software is used to build the test system. The linear programming method is applied to optimize the coordination of relays, and the relays coordination simulation software is used to verify if the coordination time intervals (CTIs of the primary/backup relay pairs are adequate. In addition, this study also proposes a relays protection coordination strategy when the microgrid operates in islanding mode during a utility power outage. Because conventional CO/LCO relays are not capable of detecting high impedance fault, intelligent electrical device (IED combined with wavelet transformer and neural network is proposed to accurately detect high impedance fault and identify the fault phase.

  17. Muscular Contraction Mode Differently Affects Autonomic Control During Heart Rate Matched Exercise

    Matthias eWeippert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The precise contributions of afferent feedback to cardiovascular and respiratory responses to exercise are still unclear. Aim of this crossover study was to assess whether and how autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory control differed in response to dynamic (DYN and isometric contractions (ISO at a similar, low heart rate (HR level. Therefore, 22 healthy males (26.7 ± 3.6 yrs performed two kinds of voluntary exercises at similar HR: ISO and DYN of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Although HR was eqivalent (82 ± 8 bpm for DYN and ISO, respectively, rating of exertion, blood pressures, and rate pressure product were higher, whereas breathing frequency, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output were significantly lower during ISO. Tidal volume, end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and capillary blood lactate concentration were comparable between both contraction modes. Heart rate variability (HRV indicators, SDNN, HF-Power and LF-Power, representing both vagal and sympathetic influences, were significantly higher during ISO. Sample entropy, a nonlinear measure of HRV was also significantly affected by contraction mode. It can be concluded that, despite the same net effect on HR, the quality of cardiovascular control during low intensity exercise is significantly different between DYN and ISO. HRV analysis indicated a sympatho-vagal coactivation during ISO. Whether mechanoreceptor feedback alone, a change in central command, or the interaction of both mechanisms is the main contributor of the distinct autonomic responses to the different exercise modes remains to be elucidated.

  18. Phase space interrogation of the empirical response modes for seismically excited structures

    Paul, Bibhas; George, Riya C.; Mishra, Sudib K.

    2017-07-01

    Conventional Phase Space Interrogation (PSI) for structural damage assessment relies on exciting the structure with low dimensional chaotic waveform, thereby, significantly limiting their applicability to large structures. The PSI technique is presently extended for structure subjected to seismic excitations. The high dimensionality of the phase space for seismic response(s) are overcome by the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), decomposing the responses to a number of intrinsic low dimensional oscillatory modes, referred as Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). Along with their low dimensionality, a few IMFs, retain sufficient information of the system dynamics to reflect the damage induced changes. The mutually conflicting nature of low-dimensionality and the sufficiency of dynamic information are taken care by the optimal choice of the IMF(s), which is shown to be the third/fourth IMFs. The optimal IMF(s) are employed for the reconstruction of the Phase space attractor following Taken's embedding theorem. The widely referred Changes in Phase Space Topology (CPST) feature is then employed on these Phase portrait(s) to derive the damage sensitive feature, referred as the CPST of the IMFs (CPST-IMF). The legitimacy of the CPST-IMF is established as a damage sensitive feature by assessing its variation with a number of damage scenarios benchmarked in the IASC-ASCE building. The damage localization capability, remarkable tolerance to noise contamination and the robustness under different seismic excitations of the feature are demonstrated.

  19. Different modes of hydrogen peroxide action during seed germination

    Łukasz eWojtyla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide was initially recognized as a toxic molecule that causes damage at different levels of cell organization and thus losses in cell viability. From the 1990s, the role of hydrogen peroxide as a signaling molecule in plants has also been discussed. The beneficial role of H2O2 as a central hub integrating signaling network in response to biotic and abiotic stress and during developmental processes is now well established. Seed germination is the most pivotal phase of the plant life cycle, affecting plant growth and productivity. The function of hydrogen peroxide in seed germination and seed aging has been illustrated in numerous studies; however, the exact role of this molecule remains unknown. This review evaluates evidence that shows that H2O2 functions as a signaling molecule in seed physiology in accordance with the known biology and biochemistry of H2O2. The importance of crosstalk between hydrogen peroxide and a number of signaling molecules, including plant phytohormones such as abscisic acid, gibberellins and ethylene and reactive molecules such as nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide acting on cell communication and signaling during seed germination, is highlighted. The current study also focuses on the detrimental effects of H2O2 on seed biology, i.e., seed aging that leads to a loss of germination efficiency. The dual nature of hydrogen peroxide as a toxic molecule on one hand and as a signal molecule on the other is made possible through the precise spatial and temporal control of its production and degradation. Levels of hydrogen peroxide in germinating seeds and young seedlings can be modulated via pre-sowing seed priming/conditioning. This rather simple method is shown to be a valuable tool for improving seed quality and for enhancing seed stress tolerance during post-priming germination. In this review, we outline how seed priming/conditioning affects the integrative role of hydrogen peroxide in seed germination and

  20. Static contribution of the higher modes in the dynamic response of structures

    Barbosa, H.J.C.

    1982-03-01

    In the dynamic response of structures by the modal superposition method usually only the lower modes are taken into account and a procedure that could estimate the contribution due to the higher modes without calculating them would be useful. The technique which consists of assuming that the higher modes respond statically is discussed here. Structures subjected to support motion which are analysed by response spectra techniques are considered and some numerical results are presented. (Author) [pt

  1. Emotional and psychophysiological responses to tempo, mode, and percussiveness

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; van den Broek, Egon

    People often listen to music to influence their emotional state. However, the specific musical characteristics which cause this process are not yet fully understood. We have investigated the influence of the musical characteristics of tempo, mode and percussiveness on our emotions. In a quest

  2. Is a Responsive Default Mode Network Required for Successful Working Memory Task Performance?

    Čeko, Marta; Gracely, John L.; Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Seminowicz, David A.; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2015-01-01

    In studies of cognitive processing using tasks with externally directed attention, regions showing increased (external-task-positive) and decreased or “negative” [default-mode network (DMN)] fMRI responses during task performance are dynamically responsive to increasing task difficulty. Responsiveness (modulation of fMRI signal by increasing load) has been linked directly to successful cognitive task performance in external-task-positive regions but not in DMN regions. To investigate whether a responsive DMN is required for successful cognitive performance, we compared healthy human subjects (n = 23) with individuals shown to have decreased DMN engagement (chronic pain patients, n = 28). Subjects performed a multilevel working-memory task (N-back) during fMRI. If a responsive DMN is required for successful performance, patients having reduced DMN responsiveness should show worsened performance; if performance is not reduced, their brains should show compensatory activation in external-task-positive regions or elsewhere. All subjects showed decreased accuracy and increased reaction times with increasing task level, with no significant group differences on either measure at any level. Patients had significantly reduced negative fMRI response (deactivation) of DMN regions (posterior cingulate/precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex). Controls showed expected modulation of DMN deactivation with increasing task difficulty. Patients showed significantly reduced modulation of DMN deactivation by task difficulty, despite their successful task performance. We found no evidence of compensatory neural recruitment in external-task-positive regions or elsewhere. Individual responsiveness of the external-task-positive ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, but not of DMN regions, correlated with task accuracy. These findings suggest that a responsive DMN may not be required for successful cognitive performance; a responsive external-task-positive network may be sufficient

  3. Is a Responsive Default Mode Network Required for Successful Working Memory Task Performance?

    Čeko, Marta; Gracely, John L; Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Seminowicz, David A; Schweinhardt, Petra; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2015-08-19

    In studies of cognitive processing using tasks with externally directed attention, regions showing increased (external-task-positive) and decreased or "negative" [default-mode network (DMN)] fMRI responses during task performance are dynamically responsive to increasing task difficulty. Responsiveness (modulation of fMRI signal by increasing load) has been linked directly to successful cognitive task performance in external-task-positive regions but not in DMN regions. To investigate whether a responsive DMN is required for successful cognitive performance, we compared healthy human subjects (n = 23) with individuals shown to have decreased DMN engagement (chronic pain patients, n = 28). Subjects performed a multilevel working-memory task (N-back) during fMRI. If a responsive DMN is required for successful performance, patients having reduced DMN responsiveness should show worsened performance; if performance is not reduced, their brains should show compensatory activation in external-task-positive regions or elsewhere. All subjects showed decreased accuracy and increased reaction times with increasing task level, with no significant group differences on either measure at any level. Patients had significantly reduced negative fMRI response (deactivation) of DMN regions (posterior cingulate/precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex). Controls showed expected modulation of DMN deactivation with increasing task difficulty. Patients showed significantly reduced modulation of DMN deactivation by task difficulty, despite their successful task performance. We found no evidence of compensatory neural recruitment in external-task-positive regions or elsewhere. Individual responsiveness of the external-task-positive ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, but not of DMN regions, correlated with task accuracy. These findings suggest that a responsive DMN may not be required for successful cognitive performance; a responsive external-task-positive network may be sufficient. We studied the

  4. Impurity deposition on surface probes during different operation modes at EXTRAP T1

    Gudowska, I.; Bergsaker, H.; Hellblom, G.

    1991-01-01

    Surface probes were used in the impurity control program during initial operation of the EXTRAP T1 device. The EXTRAP concept, design and operation characteristics are given elsewhere. The dimensions of the device are R/a=0.5m/0.06m. Four different modes of operation were studied: pure EXTRAP, mixed EXTRAP, RFP and ULQ. Briefly, all four are toroidal plasma discharges, with poloidal magnetic field due to the toroidal plasma current. In the ULQ case, a relatively strong external toroidal magnetic field is applied. In the RFP, and in the mixed mode, an external toroidal field is applied early in the discharge, and the plasma subsequently relaxes into a state with self-generated toroidal field. In the EXTRAP and mixed EXTRAP modes, an additional strong external octupole field is applied, breaking the poloidal symmetry. Throughout the initial period of operation of the device, the plasma performance was largely dominated by impurities, in particular fluorine, which was present due to an accidental contamination of the vessel. Probes have been exposed in wall/liner position, and the objective has been to measure erosion and deposition and try to identify which mechanisms are mainly responsible for impurity production. (author) 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Children's Sensitivity to Different Modes of Colour Use in Art.

    O'Hare, D.; Cook, Deborah

    1983-01-01

    Reviews studies of children's drawings and summarizes experiment which tested 5- to 11-year-olds for ability to execute color use differences and sensitivity to differences in heraldic, gradation, harmonic, and pure color use. It was found that children go from being completely unable to consistently able to produce appropriate differences. (MBR)

  6. Differences and similarities in therapeutic mode use between occupational therapists and occupational therapy students in Norway.

    Carstensen, Tove; Bonsaksen, Tore

    2017-11-01

    The Intentional Relationship Model (IRM) is a new model of the therapeutic relationship in occupational therapy practice. Two previous studies have focused on therapist communication style, or 'mode' use, but to date no group comparisons have been reported. To explore differences between occupational therapists and occupational therapy students with regard to their therapeutic mode use. The study had a cross-sectional design, and convenience samples consisting of occupational therapists (n = 109) and of second-year occupational therapy students (n = 96) were recruited. The Self-Assessment of Modes Questionnaire was the main data collection tool. Group differences were analysed with independent t-tests. The occupational therapists responded more within the collaborative and empathizing modes than the students did. The students responded more within the advocating and instructing modes than the occupational therapists did. There may be systematic differences between occupational therapists and students concerning their therapeutic mode use. Some modes, such as the collaborating and empathizing modes, may be viewed as requiring more experience, whereas other modes, such as the advocating mode may be related to more recent rehabilitation ideologies. These factors may contribute to explaining several of the group differences observed.

  7. Multifunction Voltage-Mode Filter Using Single Voltage Differencing Differential Difference Amplifier

    Chaichana Amornchai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a voltage mode multifunction filter based on single voltage differencing differential difference amplifier (VDDDA is presented. The proposed filter with three input voltages and single output voltage is constructed with single VDDDA, two capacitors and two resistors. Its quality factor can be adjusted without affecting natural frequency. Also, the natural frequency can be electronically tuned via adjusting of bias current. The filter can offer five output responses, high-pas (HP, band-pass (BP, band-reject (BR, low-pass (LP and all-ass (AP functions in the same circuit topology. The output response can be selected by choosing the suitable input voltage without the component matching condition and the requirement of additional double gain voltage amplifier. PSpice simulation results to confirm an operation of the proposed filter correspond to the theory.

  8. Effect of various bleaching treatments on shear bond strength of different universal adhesives and application modes

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength of 2 universal adhesives used in different application modes to bleached enamel. Materials and Methods Extracted 160 sound human incisors were used for the study. Teeth were divided into 4 treatment groups: No treatment, 35% hydrogen peroxide, 16% carbamid peroxide, 7.5% carbamid peroxide. After bleaching treatments, groups were divided into subgroups according to the adhesive systems used and application modes (n = 10): 1) Single Bond Universal, etch and rinse mode; 2) Single Bond Universal, self-etch mode; 3) Gluma Universal, etch and rinse mode; 4) Gluma Universal, self-etch mode. After adhesive procedures nanohybrid composite resin cylinders were bonded to the enamel surfaces. All specimens were subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) test after thermocycling. Data were analyzed using a 3-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc test. Results No significant difference were found among bleaching groups (35% hydrogen peroxide, 16% carbamid peroxide, 7.5% carbamid peroxide, and no treatment groups) in the mean SBS values. There was also no difference in SBS values between Single Bond Universal and Gluma Universal at same application modes, whereas self-etch mode showed significantly lower SBS values than etch and rinse mode (p adhesives was enhanced with the etch and rinse mode application to bleached enamel and non-bleached enamel. PMID:29765900

  9. Do Formica species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have a different attack mode?

    Mabelis, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    It is questioned whether a different degree of agressiveness of Formica species will lead to a different type of lesions of their victims and if so whether dissimilar lesions, caused by two related Formica species (Formica rufa and F polyctena), might give support to their morphological separation.

  10. Rational Design Approach for Enhancing Higher-Mode Response of a Microcantilever in Vibro-Impacting Mode

    Ieva Migliniene

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach for designing an efficient vibration energy harvester based on a vibro-impacting piezoelectric microcantilever with a geometric shape that has been rationally modified in accordance with results of dynamic optimization. The design goal is to increase the amplitudes of higher-order vibration modes induced during the vibro-impact response of the piezoelectric transducer, thereby providing a means to improve the energy conversion efficiency and power output. A rational configuration of the energy harvester is proposed and it is demonstrated that the new design retains essential modal characteristics of the optimal microcantilever structures, further providing the added benefit of less costly fabrication. The effects of structural dynamics associated with advantageous exploitation of higher vibration modes are analyzed experimentally by means of laser vibrometry as well as numerically via transient simulations of microcantilever response to random excitation. Electrical characterization results indicate that the proposed harvester outperforms its conventional counterpart (based on the microcantilever of the constant cross-section in terms of generated electrical output. Reported results may serve for the development of impact-type micropower generators with harvesting performance that is enhanced by virtue of self-excitation of large intensity higher-order mode responses when the piezoelectric transducer is subjected to relatively low-frequency excitation with strongly variable vibration magnitudes.

  11. Between-mode-differences in the value of travel time: Self-selection or strategic behaviour?

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Hjorth, Katrine; Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Using stated preference survey data, we measure the value of travel time for several transport modes. We find, like many before us, that the value of travel time varies across modes in the opposite direction of what would be the consequence of differences in comfort. We examine three candidate...... causes for the observed differences: Comfort effects, self-selection and strategic behaviour of respondents. Using experiments with both the current and an alternative mode we find that the differences in the value of travel time are consistent with self-selection and comfort effects. Moreover......, respondents having bus as the current or the alternative mode seem not to value comfort differently across modes. Strategic behaviour seems to play no role....

  12. Contributions from the Second and Third Internal Gravity Modes for the Vertical Motion Response.

    Julio Buchmann

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In earlier papers of a series of real data integrations of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community ClimateModel with tropical heat anomalies display regions of pronounced subsidence and drying located several thousand kilometers westwardpoleward of the heating for cases of tropical Atlantic heating and tropical east Pacifi c heating. This highly predictable sinking responseis established within the fi rst fi ve days of these integrations. The normal-modes of a set of adiabatic primitive equations linearizedabout a basic state at rest are used to partition model response into gravity-inertia and Rossby modes. The most important contributionfor the vertical motion response comes from the gravity modes added for all vertical modes. The principal emphasis is given upon thecontributions of the second and third internal vertical modes (with equivalent depths on the order of a fews hundred meters for thevertical motion response.

  13. Pulmonary Capillary Hemorrhage Induced by Different Imaging Modes of Diagnostic Ultrasound.

    Miller, Douglas L; Dong, Zhihong; Dou, Chunyan; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    2018-05-01

    The induction of pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) is a well-established non-thermal biological effect of pulsed ultrasound in animal models. Typically, research has been done using laboratory pulsed ultrasound systems with a fixed beam and, recently, by B-mode diagnostic ultrasound. In this study, a GE Vivid 7 Dimension ultrasound machine with 10 L linear array probe was used at 6.6 MHz to explore the relative PCH efficacy of B-mode imaging, M-mode (fixed beam), color angio mode Doppler imaging and pulsed Doppler mode (fixed beam). Anesthetized rats were scanned in a warmed water bath, and thresholds were determined by scanning at different power steps, 2 dB apart, in different groups of six rats. Exposures were performed for 5 min, except for a 15-s M-mode group. Peak rarefactional pressure amplitude thresholds were 1.5 MPa for B-mode and 1.1 MPa for angio Doppler mode. For the non-scanned modes, thresholds were 1.1 MPa for M-mode and 0.6 MPa for pulsed Doppler mode with its relatively high duty cycle (7.7 × 10 -3 vs. 0.27 × 10 -3 for M-mode). Reducing the duration of M-mode to 15 s (from 300 s) did not significantly reduce PCH (area, volume or depth) for some power settings, but the threshold was increased to 1.4 MPa. Pulmonary sonographers should be aware of this unique adverse bio-effect of diagnostic ultrasound and should consider reduced on-screen mechanical index settings for potentially vulnerable patients. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of cigarette smoke exposure atmospheres in different puffing modes

    Chen, B.T.; Bechtold, W.E.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Mainstream cigarette smoke generated using different puffing profiles was characterized for particle size distribution, vapor/gas concentration, and chemical composition. Three puffing profiles were compared: (1) a standard, 2-sec, 35 ml puff (SP), once per minute; (2) a puff of double the standard volume (70 mL), once per minute (DP); and (3) a double puff, twice per minute (2-DP). Results from samples collected with a multijet Mercer impactor indicated that the mass median aerodynamic diameter of smoke particles decreased with puff volume. The concentrations of specific chemicals from gas samples (CO, CO 2 , nitrogen oxides, and small molecular weight hydrocarbons), organic vapor samples (acetone, 2-methylfuran, benzene, meta- and para-xylene, ortho-xylene, and limonene), and particulate samples (nicotine, glycerol, hydroquinone, and palmitic acid) showed good agreement among the three puffing profiles. They support a prediction that the health effects of cigarette smoke generated from 2-DP or DP profiles would not be different from those resulting from SP profiles. (author)

  15. Red cell properties after different modes of blood transportation

    Asya Makhro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of blood samples is unavoidable for assessment of specific parameters in blood of patients with rare anemias, blood doping testing or for research purposes. Despite the awareness that shipment may substantially alter multiple parameters, no study of that extend has been performed to assess these changes and optimize shipment conditions to reduce transportation-related artifacts. Here we investigate the changes in multiple parameters in blood of healthy donors over 72 hours of simulated shipment conditions. Three different anticoagulants (K3EDTA, Sodium Heparin and citrate-based CPDA for two temperatures (4oC and room temperature were tested to define the optimal transportation conditions. Parameters measured cover common cytology and biochemistry parameters (complete blood count, hematocrit, morphological examination, red blood cell (RBC volume, ion content and density, membrane properties and stability (hemolysis, osmotic fragility, membrane heat stability, patch-clamp investigations and formation of micro vesicles, Ca2+ handling, RBC metabolism, activity of numerous enzymes and O2 transport capacity. Our findings indicate that individual sets of parameter may require different shipment settings (anticoagulants, temperature. Most of the parameters except for ion (Na+, K+, Ca2+ handling and, possibly, reticulocytes counts, tend to favor transportation at 4oC. Whereas plasma and intraerythrocytic Ca2+ cannot be accurately measured in the presence of chelators such as citrate and EDTA, majority of Ca2+-dependent parameters are stabilized in CPDA samples. Even in blood samples from healthy donors transported using optimized shipment protocol the majority of parameters were stable within 24 hours, the condition that may not hold for the samples of patients with rare anemias. This implies for the as short as possible shipping using fast courier services to the closest expert laboratory at reach. Mobile laboratories or the travel of the

  16. Diversification patterns in cosmopolitan earthworms: similar mode but different tempo.

    Fernández, Rosa; Novo, Marta; Marchán, Daniel F; Díaz Cosín, Darío J

    2016-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography of widespread species that span the same geographic areas can elucidate the influence of historical events on current patterns of biodiversity, identify patterns of co-vicariance, and therefore aid the understanding of general evolutionary processes. Soil-dwelling animals present characteristics that make them suitable for testing the effect of the palaeogeographical events on their distribution and diversification, such as their low vagility and population structure. In this study, we shed light on the spatial lineage diversification and cladogenesis of two widely-distributed cosmopolitan and invasive earthworms (Aporrectodea rosea and A. trapezoides) in their putative ancestral area of origin, the Western Palearctic, and a few populations in North America. Molecular analyses were conducted on mitochondrial and nuclear markers from 220 (A. rosea) and 198 (A. trapezoides) individuals collected in 56 and 57 localities, respectively. We compared the lineage diversification pattern, genetic variability and cladogenesis in both species. Our findings showed that both species underwent a similar diversification from the Western Mediterranean plates to (i) Northern Europe and (ii) the Iberian Peninsula, establishing their two main lineages. Their diversification was in concordance with the main palaeogeographical events in the Iberian Peninsula and Western Mediterranean, followed by a later colonization of North America from individuals derived exclusively from the Eurosiberian lineage. Their diversification occurred at different times, with the diversification of A. rosea being potentially more ancient. Cladogenesis in both species seems to have been modelled only by the Mediterranean plate shifts, ignoring historical climatic oscillations such as the Messinian salinity crisis. Their high genetic variability, strong population structure, lack of gene flow and stepping-stone-like cladogenesis suggest the existence of different cryptic lineages

  17. Different magnetospheric modes: solar wind driving and coupling efficiency

    N. Partamies

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a systematic statistical comparison of isolated non-storm substorms, steady magnetospheric convection (SMC intervals and sawtooth events. The number of events is approximately the same in each group and the data are taken from about the same years to avoid biasing by different solar cycle phase. The very same superposed epoch analysis is performed for each event group to show the characteristics of ground-based indices (AL, PCN, PC potential, particle injection at the geostationary orbit and the solar wind and IMF parameters. We show that the monthly occurrence of sawtooth events and isolated non-stormtime substorms closely follows maxima of the geomagnetic activity at (or close to the equinoxes. The most strongly solar wind driven event type, sawtooth events, is the least efficient in coupling the solar wind energy to the auroral ionosphere, while SMC periods are associated with the highest coupling ratio (AL/EY. Furthermore, solar wind speed seems to play a key role in determining the type of activity in the magnetosphere. Slow solar wind is capable of maintaining steady convection. During fast solar wind streams the magnetosphere responds with loading–unloading cycles, represented by substorms during moderately active conditions and sawtooth events (or other storm-time activations during geomagnetically active conditions.

  18. Adaptive Synchronization for Two Different Stochastic Chaotic Systems with Unknown Parameters via a Sliding Mode Controller

    Zengyun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of synchronization for two different stochastic chaotic systems with unknown parameters and uncertain terms. The main work of this paper consists of the following aspects. Firstly, based on the Lyapunov theory in stochastic differential equations and the theory of sliding mode control, we propose a simple sliding surface and discuss the occurrence of the sliding motion. Secondly, we design an adaptive sliding mode controller to realize the asymptotical synchronization in mean squares. Thirdly, we design an adaptive sliding mode controller to realize the almost surely synchronization. Finally, the designed adaptive sliding mode controllers are used to achieve synchronization between two pairs of different stochastic chaos systems (Lorenz-Chen and Chen-Lu in the presence of the uncertainties and unknown parameters. Numerical simulations are given to demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed robust adaptive sliding mode controller.

  19. Two Modes of the Axonal Interferon Response Limit Alphaherpesvirus Neuroinvasion

    Ren Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Infection by alphaherpesviruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV and pseudorabies virus (PRV, typically begins at epithelial surfaces and continues into the peripheral nervous system (PNS. Inflammatory responses are induced at the infected peripheral site prior to invasion of the PNS. When the peripheral tissue is first infected, only the innervating axons are exposed to this inflammatory milieu, which includes the interferons (IFNs. The fundamental question is how do PNS cell bodies respond to these distant, potentially damaging events experienced by axons. Using compartmented cultures that physically separate neuron axons from cell bodies, we found that pretreating isolated axons with beta interferon (IFN-β or gamma interferon (IFN-γ significantly diminished the number of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 and PRV particles moving in axons toward the cell bodies in a receptor-dependent manner. Exposing axons to IFN-β induced STAT1 phosphorylation (p-STAT1 only in axons, while exposure of axons to IFN-γ induced p-STAT1 accumulation in distant cell body nuclei. Blocking transcription in cell bodies eliminated antiviral effects induced by IFN-γ, but not those induced by IFN-β. Proteomic analysis of IFN-β- or IFN-γ-treated axons identified several differentially regulated proteins. Therefore, unlike treatment with IFN-γ, IFN-β induces a noncanonical, local antiviral response in axons. The activation of a local IFN response in axons represents a new paradigm for cytokine control of neuroinvasion.

  20. Ice dynamic response to two modes of surface lake drainage on the Greenland ice sheet

    Tedesco, Marco; Alexander, Patrick; Willis, Ian C; Banwell, Alison F; Arnold, Neil S; Hoffman, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Supraglacial lake drainage on the Greenland ice sheet opens surface-to-bed connections, reduces basal friction, and temporarily increases ice flow velocities by up to an order of magnitude. Existing field-based observations of lake drainages and their impact on ice dynamics are limited, and focus on one specific draining mechanism. Here, we report and analyse global positioning system measurements of ice velocity and elevation made at five locations surrounding two lakes that drained by different mechanisms and produced different dynamic responses. For the lake that drained slowly (>24 h) by overtopping its basin, delivering water via a channel to a pre-existing moulin, speedup and uplift were less than half those associated with a lake that drained rapidly (∼2 h) through hydrofracturing and the creation of new moulins in the lake bottom. Our results suggest that the mode and associated rate of lake drainage govern the impact on ice dynamics. (letter)

  1. The influence of different auto-ignition modes on the behavior of pressure waves

    Xu, Han; Yao, Anren; Yao, Chunde

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modes of pressure oscillations in knocking, HCCI and super knock are recognized. • Three representative auto-ignition modes in engines are proposed. • A new method of “Energy Injected” is brought into understanding pressure wave. • Simulation results revealed the decisive factors for these three auto-ignition modes. • Different modes lead to different pressure wave behaviors damaging engines. - Abstract: For internal combustion engines, the knock of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition engines, the conventional knock of gasoline engines and the super knock are all caused by the auto-ignition of unburned mixture which leads to the oscillation burning, but their Maximal Pressure Oscillation Amplitude (MPOA) and Maximum Pressure Rising Rate (MPRR) are totally different. In order to explore the reason, we propose three typical auto-ignition modes and then bring up the method of “Energy Injected” (EI) which is based on the experiment measured heat release rate. Through changing the heat source term in the energy equation for different auto-ignition modes, we conducted a series of numerical simulations for these three modes. After that, the following pressure oscillations can be compared and analyzed. The numerical simulation results show that different combustion pressure waves with different oscillation characteristics come from different auto-ignition modes, thus the macroscopic MPRR and MPOA are totally different. Furthermore, the method of “EI” based on the experiment measured heat release rate can accurately and rapidly help to research the formation and propagation of pressure waves in the engine combustion chamber.

  2. Pricing decisions from experience: the roles of information-acquisition and response modes.

    Golan, Hagai; Ert, Eyal

    2015-03-01

    While pricing decisions that are based on experience are quite common, e.g., setting a selling price for a used car, this type of decision has been surprisingly overlooked in psychology and decision research. Previous studies have focused on either choice decisions from experience, or pricing decisions from description. Those studies revealed that pricing involves cognitive mechanisms other than choice, while experience-based decisions involve mechanisms that differ from description-based ones. Thus, the mutual effect of pricing and experience on decision-making remains unclear. To test this effect, we experimentally compared real-money pricing decisions from experience with those from description, and with choices from experience. The results show that the mode of acquiring information affects pricing: the tendency to underprice high-probability prospects and overprice low-probability ones is diminished when pricing is based on experience rather than description. The findings further reveal attenuation of the tendency to underweight rare events, which underlies choices from experience, in pricing decisions from experience. The difference occurs because the response mode affects the search effort and decision strategy in decisions from experience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Numerical study of the mode selection in response spectrum analysis-condensed version

    Ng, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    For quality assurance of the dynamic response spectrum analysis, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) recommends retaining all modes below the cutoff frequency at which the spectral acceleration (S/sub a/) returns to the peak zero period acceleration (ZPA). It also suggests that modes accounting for at least 90 percent of the structural masses be included in the analysis. A simple frame-type structure is generated as a baseline frame. Then groups of oscillators representing substructure are added onto the frame to study substructure behavior. A base case is established for each frame by including the specific number of modes used. The tests are conducted by incrementing the number of modes in the response spectrum analyses starting with one mode. The structural response of each modal increment is compared with the base case to identify the efficiency of mode selection method. All three methods are then applied to the MFTF-B Axicell Vacuum Vessel. The responses in critical components of the vessel, such as hangers and foundations, will be analyzed to confirm the accuracy of the selected method

  4. Mathematics anxiety reduces default mode network deactivation in response to numerical tasks

    Belinda ePletzer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics anxiety is negatively related to mathematics performance, thereby threatening the professional success. Preoccupation with the emotional content of the stimuli may consume working memory resources, which may be reflected in decreased deactivation of areas associated with the default mode network (DMN activated during self-referential and emotional processing. The common problem is that math anxiety is usually associated with poor math performance, so that any group differences are difficult to interpret.Here we compared the BOLD-response of 18 participants with high (HMAs and 18 participants with low mathematics anxiety (LMAs matched for their mathematical performance to two numerical tasks (number comparison, number bisection. During both tasks, we found stronger deactivation within the DMN in LMAs compared to HMAs, while BOLD-response in task-related activation areas did not differ between HMAs and LMAs. The difference in DMN deactivation between the HMA and LMA group was more pronounced in stimuli with additional requirement on inhibitory functions, but did not differ between number magnitude processing and arithmetic fact retrieval.

  5. Mathematics anxiety reduces default mode network deactivation in response to numerical tasks.

    Pletzer, Belinda; Kronbichler, Martin; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Kerschbaum, Hubert H

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety is negatively related to mathematics performance, thereby threatening the professional success. Preoccupation with the emotional content of the stimuli may consume working memory resources, which may be reflected in decreased deactivation of areas associated with the default mode network (DMN) activated during self-referential and emotional processing. The common problem is that math anxiety is usually associated with poor math performance, so that any group differences are difficult to interpret. Here we compared the BOLD-response of 18 participants with high (HMAs) and 18 participants with low mathematics anxiety (LMAs) matched for their mathematical performance to two numerical tasks (number comparison, number bisection). During both tasks, we found stronger deactivation within the DMN in LMAs compared to HMAs, while BOLD-response in task-related activation areas did not differ between HMAs and LMAs. The difference in DMN deactivation between the HMA and LMA group was more pronounced in stimuli with additional requirement on inhibitory functions, but did not differ between number magnitude processing and arithmetic fact retrieval.

  6. Bimanual microincision phacoemulsification in treating hard cataracts using different power modes.

    Liu, Yizhi; Jiang, Yuzhen; Wu, Mingxing; Liu, Yuhua; Zhang, Tieying

    2008-07-01

    To compare the performance of the Multiburst mode, the Shortpulse mode and the Whitestar technology of the Sovereign platform in treating hard cataracts with bimanual microincision phacoemulsification. 101 eyes with hard cataracts (nuclear density Grade 3 and Grade 4 or above) were randomized into three groups. Bimanual microincision phacoemulsification was performed using the Multiburst mode, the Shortpulse mode and the Whitestar technology of the Sovereign phacoemulsification machine respectively. The average power, total duration of ultrasonic power release (US Time), effective phaco time, complications, best-corrected visual acuity and rate of corneal endothelial cell loss were measured and compared among the study groups. For hard cataracts of various nuclear densities, average ultrasonic power was highest in the Whitestar group followed by the Shortpulse group. The Multiburst group had the highest US Time, effective phaco time and rate of corneal endothelial cell loss whereas the Whitestar Group had the lowest.The differences between the groups were found to be statistically significant by variation analysis and the Fisher's least significant difference procedure. However, there were no significant differences between the USTime values of the Shortpulse Group and the Whitestar Group (P = 0.051). In the Multiburst Group, wound burn occurred in one eye, and three eyes had abnormal fluctuations in the anterior chamber depth. The Whitestar technology showed the best performance in this study.The Multiburst mode was proved to be a relatively unsuitable ultrasonic power mode in treating hard cataracts with bimanual microincision phacoemulsification.

  7. Bifurcation and phase diagram of turbulence constituted from three different scale-length modes

    Itoh, S.-I.; Kitazawa, A.; Yagi, M. [Kyushu Univ., Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    Cases where three kinds of fluctuations having the different typical scale-lengths coexist are analyzed, and the statistical theory of strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas is developed. Statistical nonlinear interactions between fluctuations are kept in the analysis as the renormalized drag, statistical noise and the averaged drive. The nonlinear interplay through them induces a quenching or suppressing effect, even if all the modes are unstable when they are analyzed independently. Variety in mode appearance takes place: one mode quenches the other two modes, or one mode is quenched by the other two modes, etc. The bifurcation of turbulence is analyzed and a phase diagram is drawn. Phase diagrams with cusp type catastrophe and butterfly type catastrophe are obtained. The subcritical bifurcation is possible to occur through the nonlinear interplay, even though each one is supercritical turbulence when analyzed independently. Analysis reveals that the nonlinear stability boundary (marginal point) and the amplitude of each mode may substantially shift from the conventional results of independent analyses. (author)

  8. Effects of Different Exercise Modes on the Urinary Metabolic Fingerprint of Men with and without Metabolic Syndrome.

    Siopi, Aikaterina; Deda, Olga; Manou, Vasiliki; Kellis, Spyros; Kosmidis, Ioannis; Komninou, Despina; Raikos, Nikolaos; Christoulas, Kosmas; Theodoridis, Georgios A; Mougios, Vassilis

    2017-01-26

    Exercise is important in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of risk factors that raises morbidity. Metabolomics can facilitate the optimization of exercise prescription. This study aimed to investigate whether the response of the human urinary metabolic fingerprint to exercise depends on the presence of MetS or exercise mode. Twenty-three sedentary men (MetS, n = 9, and Healthy, n = 14) completed four trials: resting, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME), and resistance exercise (RE). Urine samples were collected pre-exercise and at 2, 4, and 24 h for targeted analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Time exerted the strongest differentiating effect, followed by exercise mode and health status. The greatest changes were observed in the first post-exercise samples, with a gradual return to baseline at 24 h. RE caused the greatest responses overall, followed by HIIE, while CME had minimal effect. The metabolic fingerprints of the two groups were separated at 2 h, after HIIE and RE; and at 4 h, after HIIE, with evidence of blunted response to exercise in MetS. Our findings show diverse responses of the urinary metabolic fingerprint to different exercise modes in men with and without metabolic syndrome.

  9. Effects of Different Exercise Modes on the Urinary Metabolic Fingerprint of Men with and without Metabolic Syndrome

    Aikaterina Siopi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is important in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, a cluster of risk factors that raises morbidity. Metabolomics can facilitate the optimization of exercise prescription. This study aimed to investigate whether the response of the human urinary metabolic fingerprint to exercise depends on the presence of MetS or exercise mode. Twenty-three sedentary men (MetS, n = 9, and Healthy, n = 14 completed four trials: resting, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE, continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME, and resistance exercise (RE. Urine samples were collected pre-exercise and at 2, 4, and 24 h for targeted analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Time exerted the strongest differentiating effect, followed by exercise mode and health status. The greatest changes were observed in the first post-exercise samples, with a gradual return to baseline at 24 h. RE caused the greatest responses overall, followed by HIIE, while CME had minimal effect. The metabolic fingerprints of the two groups were separated at 2 h, after HIIE and RE; and at 4 h, after HIIE, with evidence of blunted response to exercise in MetS. Our findings show diverse responses of the urinary metabolic fingerprint to different exercise modes in men with and without metabolic syndrome.

  10. A Review Paper: Contributions from the Gravity and the Kelvin Modes for the Vertical Motion Response.

    Julio Buchmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In earlier papers of a series of real data integrations of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM with tropical heat anomalies display regions of pronounced subsidence and drying located several thousand kilometers westward poleward of the heating for cases of tropical Atlantic heating and tropical east Pacific heating. This highly predictable sinking response is established within the first five days of these integrations. The normal-modes of a set of nonlinear primitive equations for an atmosphere: Adiabatic, hydrostatic, incompressible, dry, without friction and viscosity are linearized about a basic state at rest and used to partition model response into gravity-inertia and Rossby modes. The emphasis of this review is given upon the contributions of the gravity and Kelvin modes for the vertical motion response.

  11. A Comparison of Different Modes of Morning Priming Exercise on Afternoon Performance.

    Russell, Mark; King, Aden; Bracken, Richard M; Cook, Christian J; Giroud, Thibault; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-09-01

    To assess the effects of different modes of morning (AM) exercise on afternoon (PM) performance and salivary hormone responses in professional rugby union players. On 4 occasions (randomized, crossover design), 15 professional rugby players provided AM (~8 AM) and PM (~2 PM) saliva samples before PM assessments of countermovement-jump height, reaction time, and repeated-sprint ability. Control (passive rest), weights (bench press: 5 × 10 repetitions, 75% 1-repetition maximum, 90-s intraset recovery), cycling (6 × 6-s maximal sprint cycling, 7.5% body mass load, 54-s intraset recovery), and running (6 × 40-m maximal sprints, 20-s intraset recovery) interventions preceded (~5 h) PM testing. PM sprint performance improved (P 0.15 ± 0.19 s, >2.04% ± 2.46%) and running (>0.15 ± 0.17 s, >2.12% ± 2.22%) but not cycling (P > .05). PM jump height increased after cycling (0.012 ± 0.009 m, 2.31% ± 1.76%, P < .001) and running (0.020 ± 0.009 m, 3.90% ± 1.79%, P < .001) but not weights (P = .936). Reaction time remained unchanged between trials (P = .379). Relative to control (131 ± 21 pg/mL), PM testosterone was greater in weights (21 ± 23 pg/mL, 17% ± 18%, P = .002) and running (28 ± 26 pg/mL, 22% ± 20%, P = .001) but not cycling (P = .072). Salivary cortisol was unaffected by AM exercise (P = .540). All modes of AM exercise improved at least 1 marker of PM performance, but running appeared the most beneficial to professional rugby union players. A rationale therefore exists for preceding PM competition with AM exercise.

  12. Influence of different exposure modes on image quality and radiation dose in digital mammography

    Liu Jie; Wang Xia; Li Xiaokang; Liu Peifang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different exposure modes on radiation dose and image quality in digital mammography, and to explore how to reduce patient's radiation injury by choosing proper exposure mode and exposure conditions without sacrifice image quality. Methods: A breast phantom was exposed by using automatic exposure mode (60 mAs, 28 k/V) and manual exposure modes (37.5 to 70 mAs range, 24 to 32 kV range) respectively. Same oppression thickness and pressure were set for all modes. The average glandular dose (AGD), entrance surface dose (ESD), and image quality score according to American College of Radiology (ACR) criteria were recorded for each image. Kruskal Wallis test was used to compare the image quality scores between automatic and manual modes. All statistic analyses were performed by using SPSS17.0. Results: Compared to automatic exposure mode (60 mAs, 28 k/V), the overall score of image quality of manual modes (45 to 70 mAs range, 26 to 32 kV range) had no significant difference. Both ESD and ACD decreased 26.1% and increased 15.4% when the tube loading was changed from 60 mAs to 45 mAs and 70 mAs respectively. The ESD and ACD decreased 22.6%, 28.2% and increased 47.0%, 62.7% when the tube voltage was changed from 28 kV to 26 kV and 32 kV respectively. Conclusion: When the image quality reaches to a certain level, it will not be raised by a higher photographic condition. Without sacrifice image quality, the tube loading and tube voltage can be manually decreased to reduce radiation dose. (authors)

  13. Identifying Different Transportation Modes from Trajectory Data Using Tree-Based Ensemble Classifiers

    Zhibin Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of transportation modes can be used in different applications including human behavior research, transport management and traffic control. Previous work on transportation mode recognition has often relied on using multiple sensors or matching Geographic Information System (GIS information, which is not possible in many cases. In this paper, an approach based on ensemble learning is proposed to infer hybrid transportation modes using only Global Position System (GPS data. First, in order to distinguish between different transportation modes, we used a statistical method to generate global features and extract several local features from sub-trajectories after trajectory segmentation, before these features were combined in the classification stage. Second, to obtain a better performance, we used tree-based ensemble models (Random Forest, Gradient Boosting Decision Tree, and XGBoost instead of traditional methods (K-Nearest Neighbor, Decision Tree, and Support Vector Machines to classify the different transportation modes. The experiment results on the later have shown the efficacy of our proposed approach. Among them, the XGBoost model produced the best performance with a classification accuracy of 90.77% obtained on the GEOLIFE dataset, and we used a tree-based ensemble method to ensure accurate feature selection to reduce the model complexity.

  14. Numerical Study on Different Series Modes of Jet Fan in a Longitudinal Tunnel Ventilation System

    Guihong Pei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient ventilation systems will contribute to maintaining air quality in the tunnel. In order to improve ventilation performance in normal traffic condition, the 3D tunnel models were established according to the original design for the tunnel located in central plains of China. Based on the commercial CFD software Fluent 6.3 and k-ε turbulence model, numerical simulations were carried out to study the patterns of jet flow and the optimization of fan combinations. It is found that the axial velocity profile obtained from numerical simulation agrees quite well with turbulent free jet theory although there is a little difference on the magnitude. The comparison of four combination modes under the condition of operating four fans indicates that the ventilation effectiveness is affected mainly by both the interval of adjacent groups of fans and the combination modes of operational fans. According to the simulation results, a novel combination mode which consists of a group double paralleled fans and two groups single fan is designed. The novel combination mode is regarded as the optimum combination mode with respect to maximizing air velocity in the tunnel. Compared to the traditional combination modes, it will increase the air velocity by 5.7%.

  15. Sample Entropy and Traditional Measures of Heart Rate Dynamics Reveal Different Modes of Cardiovascular Control During Low Intensity Exercise

    Matthias Weippert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear parameters of heart rate variability (HRV have proven their prognostic value in clinical settings, but their physiological background is not very well established. We assessed the effects of low intensity isometric (ISO and dynamic (DYN exercise of the lower limbs on heart rate matched intensity on traditional and entropy measures of HRV. Due to changes of afferent feedback under DYN and ISO a distinct autonomic response, mirrored by HRV measures, was hypothesized. Five-minute inter-beat interval measurements of 43 healthy males (26.0 ± 3.1 years were performed during rest, DYN and ISO in a randomized order. Blood pressures and rate pressure product were higher during ISO vs. DYN (p < 0.001. HRV indicators SDNN as well as low and high frequency power were significantly higher during ISO (p < 0.001 for all measures. Compared to DYN, sample entropy (SampEn was lower during ISO (p < 0.001. Concluding, contraction mode itself is a significant modulator of the autonomic cardiovascular response to exercise. Compared to DYN, ISO evokes a stronger blood pressure response and an enhanced interplay between both autonomic branches. Non-linear HRV measures indicate a more regular behavior under ISO. Results support the view of the reciprocal antagonism being only one of many modes of autonomic heart rate control. Under different conditions; the identical “end product” heart rate might be achieved by other modes such as sympathovagal co-activation as well.

  16. Adrenal hormones and liver cAMP in exercising rats--different modes of anesthesia.

    Winder, W W; Fuller, E O; Conlee, R K

    1983-11-01

    We have compared five different modes of anesthesia (iv and ip pentobarbital sodium, ether, CO2, and cervical dislocation) with respect to their effects on liver glycogen, liver adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), blood glucose and lactate, plasma corticosterone, norepinephrine, and epinephrine in resting rats and in rats run on a treadmill at 26 m/min for 30 min. Ether, CO2, and cervical dislocation were found to be unsuitable due to the marked elevation in plasma catecholamines seen in both resting and exercising rats. Injection of pentobarbital sodium ip required an average of 8 min before onset of surgical anesthesia as opposed to less than 5 s for iv pentobarbital. Exercising rats anesthetized with ip pentobarbital showed markedly lower plasma catecholamines compared with rats given iv pentobarbital. Hepatic cAMP increased in response to exercise in all groups except the ip pentobarbital group. This is most likely due to the long delay between the end of the exercise and freezing of the liver in the ip pentobarbital-anesthetized animals. We conclude that iv injection of pentobarbital is the most suitable method of anesthesia for obtaining accurate measurements of plasma stress hormones, substrates, and metabolites and of hepatic cAMP and glycogen in resting and exercising rats.

  17. Coherent coupling of two different semiconductor quantum dots via an optical cavity mode

    Laucht, Arne; Villas-Boas, Jose M.; Hauke, Norman; Hofbauer, Felix; Boehm, Gerhard; Kaniber, Michael; Finley, Jonathan J. [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of a strongly coupled system consisting of two spatially separated self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots and a single optical nanocavity mode. Due to their different size and strain profile, the two dots exhibit markedly different electric field dependences due to the quantum confined Stark effect. This allows us to tune them into resonance simply by changing the applied bias voltage and to independently tune them into the photonic crystal nanocavity mode. Photoluminescence measurements show a characteristic triple peak during the double anticrossing, which is a clear signature of a coherently coupled system of three quantum states. We fit the emission spectra of the coupled system to theory and are able to investigate the coupling between the two quantum dots directly via the cavity mode. Furthermore, we investigate the coupling between the two quantum dots when they are detuned from the cavity mode in a V-system where dephasing due to incoherent losses from the cavity mode can be reduced.

  18. Coherent coupling of two different semiconductor quantum dots via an optical cavity mode

    Villas-Boas, Jose M. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Laucht, Arne; Hauke, Norman; Hofbauer, Felix; Boehm, Gerhard; Kaniber, Michael; Finley, Jonathan J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Walter Schottky Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Full text. We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of a strongly coupled system consisting of two spatially separated self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots and a single optical nano cavity mode. Due to their different size and strain profile, the two dots exhibit markedly different electric field dependences due to the quantum confined Stark effect. This allows us to tune them into resonance simply by changing the applied bias voltage and to independently tune them into the photonic crystal nano cavity mode. Photoluminescence measurements show a characteristic triple peak during the double anti crossing, which is a clear signature of a coherently coupled system of three quantum states. We fit the emission spectra of the coupled system to theory and are able to investigate the coupling between the two quantum dots directly via the cavity mode. Furthermore, we investigate the coupling between the two quantum dots when they are detuned from the cavity mode in a V-system where dephasing due to incoherent losses from the cavity mode can be reduced

  19. Optimization of electrocoagulation process to treat grey wastewater in batch mode using response surface methodology.

    Karichappan, Thirugnanasambandham; Venkatachalam, Sivakumar; Jeganathan, Prakash Maran

    2014-01-10

    Discharge of grey wastewater into the ecological system causes the negative impact effect on receiving water bodies. In this present study, electrocoagulation process (EC) was investigated to treat grey wastewater under different operating conditions such as initial pH (4-8), current density (10-30 mA/cm2), electrode distance (4-6 cm) and electrolysis time (5-25 min) by using stainless steel (SS) anode in batch mode. Four factors with five levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) was employed to optimize and investigate the effect of process variables on the responses such as total solids (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and fecal coliform (FC) removal. The process variables showed significant effect on the electrocoagulation treatment process. The results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second order polynomial models were developed in order to study the electrocoagulation process statistically. The optimal operating conditions were found to be: initial pH of 7, current density of 20 mA/cm2, electrode distance of 5 cm and electrolysis time of 20 min. These results indicated that EC process can be scale up in large scale level to treat grey wastewater with high removal efficiency of TS, COD and FC.

  20. Optimization of electrocoagulation process to treat grey wastewater in batch mode using response surface methodology

    2014-01-01

    Background Discharge of grey wastewater into the ecological system causes the negative impact effect on receiving water bodies. Methods In this present study, electrocoagulation process (EC) was investigated to treat grey wastewater under different operating conditions such as initial pH (4–8), current density (10–30 mA/cm2), electrode distance (4–6 cm) and electrolysis time (5–25 min) by using stainless steel (SS) anode in batch mode. Four factors with five levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) was employed to optimize and investigate the effect of process variables on the responses such as total solids (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and fecal coliform (FC) removal. Results The process variables showed significant effect on the electrocoagulation treatment process. The results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second order polynomial models were developed in order to study the electrocoagulation process statistically. The optimal operating conditions were found to be: initial pH of 7, current density of 20 mA/cm2, electrode distance of 5 cm and electrolysis time of 20 min. Conclusion These results indicated that EC process can be scale up in large scale level to treat grey wastewater with high removal efficiency of TS, COD and FC. PMID:24410752

  1. Respiratory Physiology and the Impact of Different Modes of Ventilation on the Photoplethysmographic Waveform

    Alian, Aymen A.; Shelley, Kirk H.

    2012-01-01

    The photoplethysmographic waveform sits at the core of the most used, and arguably the most important, clinical monitor, the pulse oximeter.  Interestingly, the pulse oximeter was discovered while examining an artifact during the development of a noninvasive cardiac output monitor.  This article will explore the response of the pulse oximeter waveform to various modes of ventilation.  Modern digital signal processing is allowing for a re-examination of this ubiquitous signal. The effect of ve...

  2. Experimental evaluation on the damages of different drilling modes to tight sandstone reservoirs

    Gao Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The damages of different drilling modes to reservoirs are different in types and degrees. In this paper, the geologic characteristics and types of such damages were analyzed. Then, based on the relationship between reservoir pressure and bottom hole flowing pressure corresponding to different drilling modes, the experimental procedures on reservoir damages in three drilling modes (e.g. gas drilling, liquid-based underbalanced drilling and overbalanced drilling were designed. Finally, damage simulation experiments were conducted on the tight sandstone reservoir cores of the Jurassic Ahe Fm in the Tarim Basin and Triassic Xujiahe Fm in the central Sichuan Basin. It is shown that the underbalanced drilling is beneficial to reservoir protection because of its less damage on reservoir permeability, but it is, to some extent, sensitive to the stress and the empirical formula of stress sensitivity coefficient is obtained; and that the overbalanced drilling has more reservoir damages due to the invasion of solid and liquid phases. After the water saturation of cores rises to the irreducible water saturation, the decline of gas logging permeability speeds up and the damage degree of water lock increases. It is concluded that the laboratory experiment results of reservoir damage are accordant with the reservoir damage characteristics in actual drilling conditions. Therefore, this method reflects accurately the reservoir damage characteristics and can be used as a new experimental evaluation method on reservoir damage in different drilling modes.

  3. Mode of action of pectin lyase A of Aspergillus niger on differently C6-substituted oligogalacturonides

    Alebeek, van G.J.W.M.; Christensen, T.M.I.E.; Schols, H.A.; Mikkelsen, J.D.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    A thorough investigation of the mode of action of Aspergillus niger (4M-147) pectin lyase A (PLA) on differently C6-substituted oligogalacturonides is described. PLA appeared to be very specific for fully methyl-esterified oligogalacturonides: removal of the methyl-ester or changing the type of

  4. In vitro evaluation of aerosol delivery by different nebulization modes in pediatric and adult mechanical ventilators.

    Wan, Gwo-Hwa; Lin, Hui-Ling; Fink, James B; Chen, Yen-Hey; Wang, Wei-Jhen; Chiu, Yu-Chun; Kao, Yu-Yao; Liu, Chia-Jung

    2014-10-01

    Aerosol delivery through mechanical ventilation is influenced by the type of aerosol generator, pattern of nebulization, and a patient's breathing pattern. This study compares the efficiency of pneumatic nebulization modes provided by a ventilator with adult and pediatric in vitro lung models. Three pneumatic nebulization modes (inspiratory intermittent [IIM], continuous [CM], and expiratory intermittent [EIM]) provided by the Galileo Gold ventilator delivered medical aerosol to collection filters distal to an endotracheal tube with adult and pediatric test lungs. A unit dose of 5 mg/2.5 mL albuterol was diluted into 4 mL with distilled water and added to a jet nebulizer. The nebulizer was placed proximal to the ventilator, 15 cm from the inlet of the heated humidifier chamber with a T-piece and corrugated aerosol tubing and powered by gas from the ventilator in each of the 3 modes. Time for nebulization was recorded in minutes. Albuterol samples collected in the inhalation filter, nebulizer, T-piece, and corrugated tubing were eluted with distilled water and analyzed with a spectrophotometer. The inhaled drug, as a percentage of total dose in both lung models, was 5.1-7.5%, without statistical significance among the 3 modes. Median nebulization times for IIM, CM, and EIM were 38.9, 14.3, and 17.7 min, respectively, and nebulization time for the 3 modes significantly differed (P ventilator was not dependent on nebulization mode during simulated pediatric and adult conventional mechanical ventilation. Use of expiratory intermittent mode and continuous nebulization should be considered to reduce treatment time. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. Polariton condensation, superradiance and difference combination parametric resonance in mode-locked laser

    Bagayev, S. N.; Arkhipov, R. M.; Arkhipov, M. V.; Egorov, V. S.; Chekhonin, I. A.; Chekhonin, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    The generation of the ring mode-locked laser containing resonant absorption medium in the cavity was investigated. It is shown that near the strong resonant absorption lines a condensation of polaritons arises. Intensive radiation looks like as superradiance in a medium without population inversion. We studied theoretically the microscopic mechanism of these phenomena. It was shown that in this system in absorbing medium a strong self-induced difference combination parametric resonance exists. Superradiance on polaritonic modes in the absorbing medium are due to the emergence of light-induced resonant polarization as a result of fast periodic nonadiabatic quantum jumps in the absorber.

  6. Muscle involvement during intermittent contraction patterns with different target force feedback modes

    Sjøgaard, G; Jørgensen, L V; Ekner, D

    2000-01-01

    and following 30 min of intermittent contractions showed larger fatigue development with proprioceptive feedback than visual feedback. Also rating of perceived exertion increased more during proprioceptive feedback than visual feedback. This may in part be explained by small differences in the mechanics during......: Feedback mode significantly effects the muscle involvement and fatigue during intermittent contractions. RelevanceIntermittent contractions are common in many work places and various feedback modes are being given regarding work requirements. The choice of feedback may significantly affect the muscle load...... and consequently the development muscle fatigue and disorders....

  7. Sensibility to Changes of Vibrational Modes of Excited Electron: Sum Frequency Signals Versus Difference Frequency Signals

    Gu Anna; Liang Xianting

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a two electronic level system with vibrational modes coupled to a Brownian oscillator bath. The difference frequency generation (DFG) signals and sum frequency generation (SFG) signals are calculated. It is shown that, for the same model, the SFG signals are more sensitive than the DFG signals to the changes of the vibrational modes of the electronic two-level system. Because the SFG conversion efficiency can be improved by using the time-delay method, the findings in this paper predict that the SFG spectrum may probe the changes of the microstructure more effectively. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  8. Identification of different magnetic modes in CsFeCl{sub 3} by polarisation analysis

    Dorner, B [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Toperverg, B [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Baehr, M [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany); Petitgrand, D [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) - Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1996-11-01

    CsFeCl{sub 3} is a quasi 1D magnetic system with a singlet groundstate. The Fe{sup 2+} ion has an effective spin S=1. Experimental results in a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the anisotropy axis show that the excited states (doubly degenerate in zero field) split and shift to higher frequencies with increasing field. The split of the high frequency modes is very small compared to the instrumental resolution. Only polarisation analysis of inelastic neutron scattering made it possible to observe the splitting everywhere in reciprocal space. The frequency shift of the two modes with field is different such that a mode crossing appears for fields below about 4 Tesla. (author) 9 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  9. Identification of different magnetic modes in CsFeCl3 by polarisation analysis

    Dorner, B.; Toperverg, B.; Baehr, M.; Petitgrand, D.

    1996-01-01

    CsFeCl 3 is a quasi 1D magnetic system with a singlet groundstate. The Fe 2+ ion has an effective spin S=1. Experimental results in a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the anisotropy axis show that the excited states (doubly degenerate in zero field) split and shift to higher frequencies with increasing field. The split of the high frequency modes is very small compared to the instrumental resolution. Only polarisation analysis of inelastic neutron scattering made it possible to observe the splitting everywhere in reciprocal space. The frequency shift of the two modes with field is different such that a mode crossing appears for fields below about 4 Tesla. (author) 9 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  10. Imaging surface nanobubbles at graphite–water interfaces with different atomic force microscopy modes

    Yang, Chih-Wen; Lu, Yi-Hsien; Hwang, Ing-Shouh

    2013-01-01

    We have imaged nanobubbles on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces in pure water with different atomic force microscopy (AFM) modes, including the frequency-modulation, the tapping, and the PeakForce techniques. We have compared the performance of these modes in obtaining the surface profiles of nanobubbles. The frequency-modulation mode yields a larger height value than the other two modes and can provide more accurate measurement of the surface profiles of nanobubbles. Imaging with PeakForce mode shows that a nanobubble appears smaller and shorter with increasing peak force and disappears above a certain peak force, but the size returns to the original value when the peak force is reduced. This indicates that imaging with high peak forces does not cause gas removal from the nanobubbles. Based on the presented findings and previous AFM observations, the existing models for nanobubbles are reviewed and discussed. The model of gas aggregate inside nanobubbles provides a better explanation for the puzzles of the high stability and the contact angle of surface nanobubbles. (paper)

  11. Dealing with Difference: Building Culturally Responsive Classrooms

    Nina Burridge

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Australia continues to develop as a multicultural society with levels of immigration increasing significantly over recent years as a result of government policies. More recently, the new period of financial turmoil, continuing threats from terrorism and environmental concerns, have all exacerbated the challenges of dealing with difference in our society. In response, schools continue to face the challenges of the impact of a range of different cultures, languages and religions among their student and school communities. How effectively schools deal with difference and how well they are supported in their endeavours to build culturally response classrooms is a perennial issue for both teachers and educators. A major challenge for teachers is to at a minimum, understand cultural differences as they manifest in their particular school settings and to draw on approaches that support student learning in culturally appropriate ways so to assist them to better realise their full potential. In this paper we will consider cultural diversity in the context of recent school policies, highlight a number of frameworks for addressing cultural diversity in the classroom, in particular the approaches by Kalantzis and Cope’s (1999 and Hickling-Hudson (2003. We also draw on the findings from a recent qualitative study of representations of cultural diversity in a number of Sydney metropolitan schools to discuss the need for more greater resource and policy support for progressive teaching approaches that support the development of a more tolerant and inclusive multicultural society. Key words: cultural diversity, schools, teacher education, classroom practice, social inclusion

  12. Investigating evidence for different black hole accretion modes since redshift z ˜ 1

    Georgakakis, A.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Fanidakis, N.; Salvato, M.; Aird, J.; Messias, H.; Lotz, J. M.; Barro, G.; Hsu, Li-Ting; Nandra, K.; Rosario, D.; Cooper, M. C.; Kocevski, D. D.; Newman, J. A.

    2014-05-01

    Chandra data in the COSMOS, AEGIS-XD and 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field South are combined with multiwavelength photometry available in those fields to determine the rest-frame U - V versus V - J colours of X-ray AGN hosts in the redshift intervals 0.1 exclusively of bulges, while star-forming hosts are equally split between early- and late-type hosts. The position of AGN hosts on the U - V versus V - J diagram is then used to set limits on the accretion density of the Universe associated with evolved and star-forming systems independent of dust induced biases. It is found that most of the black hole growth at z ≈ 0.40 and 0.85 is associated with star-forming hosts. Nevertheless, a non-negligible fraction of the X-ray luminosity density, about 15-20 per cent, at both overline{z}=0.40 and 0.85, is taking place in galaxies in the quiescent region of the U - V versus V - J diagram. For the low-redshift sub-sample, 0.1 0.6, such differences are significant at the 2σ level only for sources with Eddington ratios ≳ 10- 3. These findings are consistent with scenarios in which diverse accretion modes are responsible for the build-up of supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. We compare these results with the predictions of the GALFORM semi-analytic model for the cosmological evolution of AGN and galaxies. This model postulates two black hole fuelling modes, the first is linked to star formation events and the second takes place in passive galaxies. GALFORM predicts that a substantial fraction of the black hole growth at z < 1 is associated with quiescent galaxies, in apparent conflict with the observations. Relaxing the strong assumption of the model that passive AGN hosts have zero star formation rate could bring those predictions in better agreement with the data.

  13. Response of two-band systems to a single-mode quantized field

    Shi, Z. C.; Shen, H. Z.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-03-01

    The response of topological insulators (TIs) to an external weakly classical field can be expressed in terms of Kubo formula, which predicts quantized Hall conductivity of the quantum Hall family. The response of TIs to a single-mode quantized field, however, remains unexplored. In this work, we take the quantum nature of the external field into account and define a Hall conductance to characterize the linear response of a two-band system to the quantized field. The theory is then applied to topological insulators. Comparisons with the traditional Hall conductance are presented and discussed.

  14. Microincision versus small-incision coaxial cataract surgery using different power modes for hard nuclear cataract.

    Kim, Eun Chul; Byun, Yong Soo; Kim, Man Soo

    2011-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of microincision and small-incision coaxial phacoemulsification in treating hard cataracts using different ultrasound power modes. Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. Randomized clinical trial. Eyes with hard cataract were randomized to have an initial incision of 1.80 mm, 2.20 mm, or 2.75 mm. The eyes in each group were equally randomized to treatment with burst, pulse, or continuous mode. Ultrasound time (UST), mean cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), surgically induced corneal astigmatism, incisional and central corneal thickness (CCT), and endothelial cell counts were evaluated. The study enrolled 180 eyes, 60 in each group. Two months postoperatively, there were no statistically significant differences in UST, CDE, CDVA, CCT, or percentage endothelial cell loss between the 3 incision groups. The 2.75 mm incision induced more astigmatism at 2 months and less incisional corneal edema at 1 week than the 1.80 mm or 2.20 mm incision (Phard cataract. The intraoperative energy use and ocular damage was less with the pulse and burst modes than with the continuous mode. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Guided mode resonance in planar metamaterials consisting of two ring resonators with different sizes

    Yu Zhen; Che Hang; Liu Jianjun; Jing Xufeng; Li Xiangjun; Hong Zhi

    2017-01-01

    We proposed and experimentally investigated a two-ring-resonator composed planar hybrid metamaterial (MM), in which the spectra of guided mode resonance (GMR) and Fano resonance or EIT-like response induced by coherent interaction between MM resonance and GMR can be easily controlled by the size of the two rings in the terahertz regime. Furthermore, a four-ring-resonator composed MM for polarization-insensitive GMRs was demonstrated, where GMRs of both TE and TM modes are physically attributed to the diffraction coupling by two ±45° tilting gratings. Such kind of device has great potential in ultra-sensitive label-free sensors, filters, or slow light based devices. (paper)

  16. Bioinspired Flexible and Highly Responsive Dual-Mode Strain/Magnetism Composite Sensor.

    Huang, Pei; Li, Yuan-Qing; Yu, Xiao-Guang; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Nie, Shu-Yan; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jin-Rui; Hu, Ning; Fu, Shao-Yun

    2018-04-04

    The mimicry of human skin to detect both oncoming and physical-contacting object is of great importance in the fields of manufacturing, artificial robots and vehicles, etc. Herein, a novel bioinspired flexible and highly responsive dual-mode strain/magnetism composite sensor, which works via both contact and contactless modes, is first fabricated by incorporating Fe 3 O 4 /silicone system into a carbon fiber aerogel (CFA). The distance dependence of magnetic field endorses the CFA/Fe 3 O 4 /silicone composite possible for spatial sensing due to the introduction of Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles. As a result, the as-prepared flexible sensor exhibits precise and real-time response not only to direct-contact compression as usual but also to contactless magnetic field in a wide frequency range from 0.1 to 10 Hz, achieving the maximum variance of 68% and 86% in relative electrical resistance, respectively. The contact and contactless sensing modes of the strain/magnetism sensor are clearly demonstrated by recording the speeds of bicycle riding and walking, respectively. Interestingly, this dual-mode composite sensor exhibits the capacity of identifying the contact and contactless state, which is the first report for flexible sensors. The current protocol is eco-friendly, facile, and thought-provoking for the fabrication of multifunctional sensors.

  17. High frequency switched-mode stimulation can evoke postsynaptic responses in cerebellar principal neurons

    Marijn Van Dongen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the efficacy of high frequency switched-mode neural stimulation. Instead of using a constant stimulation amplitude, the stimulus is switched on and off repeatedly with a high frequency (up to 100kHz duty cycled signal. By means of tissue modeling that includes the dynamic properties of both the tissue material as well as the axon membrane, it is first shown that switched-mode stimulation depolarizes the cell membrane in a similar way as classical constant amplitude stimulation.These findings are subsequently verified using in vitro experiments in which the response of a Purkinje cell is measured due to a stimulation signal in the molecular layer of the cerebellum of a mouse. For this purpose a stimulator circuit is developed that is able to produce a monophasic high frequency switched-mode stimulation signal. The results confirm the modeling by showing that switched-mode stimulation is able to induce similar responses in the Purkinje cell as classical stimulation using a constant current source. This conclusion opens up possibilities for novel stimulation designs that can improve the performance of the stimulator circuitry. Care has to be taken to avoid losses in the system due to the higher operating frequency.

  18. Colorimetric and Fluorescent Dual Mode Sensing of Alcoholic Strength in Spirit Samples with Stimuli-Responsive Infinite Coordination Polymers.

    Deng, Jingjing; Ma, Wenjie; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2015-07-07

    This study demonstrates a new strategy for colorimetric and fluorescent dual mode sensing of alcoholic strength (AS) in spirit samples based on stimuli-responsive infinite coordination polymers (ICPs). The ICP supramolecular network is prepared with 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene (bix) as the ligand and Zn(2+) as the central metal ion in ethanol, in which rhodamine B (RhB) is encapsulated through self-adaptive chemistry. In pure ethanol solvent, the as-formed RhB/Zn(bix) is well dispersed and quite stable. However, the addition of water into the ethanol dispersion of RhB/Zn(bix) destroys Zn(bix) network structure, resulting in the release of RhB from ICP into the solvent. As a consequence, the solvent displays the color of released RhB and, at the meantime, turns on the fluorescence of RhB, which constitutes a new mechanism for colorimetric and fluorescent dual mode sensing of AS in commercial spirit samples. With the method developed here, we could distinguish the AS of different commercial spirit samples by the naked eye within a wide linear range from 20 to 100% vol and by monitoring the increase of fluorescent intensity of the released RhB. This study not only offers a new method for on-spot visible detection of AS in commercial spirit samples, but also provides a strategy for designing dual mode sensing mechanisms for different analytical purposes based on novel stimuli-responsive materials.

  19. Preparative scale production of functional mouse aquaporin 4 using different cell-free expression modes.

    Lei Kai

    Full Text Available The continuous progress in the structural and functional characterization of aquaporins increasingly attracts attention to study their roles in certain mammalian diseases. Although several structures of aquaporins have already been solved by crystallization, the challenge of producing sufficient amounts of functional proteins still remains. CF (cell free expression has emerged in recent times as a promising alternative option in order to synthesize large quantities of membrane proteins, and the focus of this report was to evaluate the potential of this technique for the production of eukaryotic aquaporins. We have selected the mouse aquaporin 4 as a representative of mammalian aquaporins. The protein was synthesized in an E. coli extract based cell-free system with two different expression modes, and the efficiencies of two modes were compared. In both, the P-CF (cell-free membrane protein expression as precipitate mode generating initial aquaporin precipitates as well as in the D-CF (cell-free membrane protein expression in presence of detergent mode, generating directly detergent solubilized samples, we were able to obtain mg amounts of protein per ml of cell-free reaction. Purified aquaporin samples solubilized in different detergents were reconstituted into liposomes, and analyzed for the water channel activity. The calculated P(f value of proteoliposome samples isolated from the D-CF mode was 133 µm/s at 10°C, which was 5 times higher as that of the control. A reversible inhibitory effect of mercury chloride was observed, which is consistent with previous observations of in vitro reconstituted aquaporin 4. In this study, a fast and convenient protocol was established for functional expression of aquaporins, which could serve as basis for further applications such as water filtration.

  20. Ecomorphology of eye shape and retinal topography in waterfowl (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae) with different foraging modes.

    Lisney, Thomas J; Stecyk, Karyn; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Schmidt, Brian K; Corfield, Jeremy R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Wylie, Douglas R

    2013-05-01

    Despite the large body of literature on ecomorphological adaptations to foraging in waterfowl, little attention has been paid to their sensory systems, especially vision. Here, we compare eye shape and retinal topography across 12 species representing 4 different foraging modes. Eye shape was significantly different among foraging modes, with diving and pursuit-diving species having relatively smaller corneal diameters compared to non-diving species. This may be associated with differences in ambient light intensity while foraging or an ability to tightly constrict the pupil in divers in order to facilitate underwater vision. Retinal topography was similar across all species, consisting of an oblique visual streak, a central area of peak cell density, and no discernible fovea. Because the bill faces downwards when the head is held in the normal posture in waterfowl, the visual streak will be held horizontally, allowing the horizon to be sampled with higher visual acuity. Estimates of spatial resolving power were similar among species with only the Canada goose having a higher spatial resolution. Overall, we found no evidence of ecomorphological adaptations to different foraging modes in the retinal ganglion cell layer in waterfowl. Rather, retinal topography in these birds seems to reflect the 'openness' of their habitats.

  1. Frequency Response of the Sample Vibration Mode in Scanning Probe Acoustic Microscope

    Ya-Jun, Zhao; Qian, Cheng; Meng-Lu, Qian

    2010-01-01

    Based on the interaction mechanism between tip and sample in the contact mode of a scanning probe acoustic microscope (SPAM), an active mass of the sample is introduced in the mass-spring model. The tip motion and frequency response of the sample vibration mode in the SPAM are calculated by the Lagrange equation with dissipation function. For the silicon tip and glass assemblage in the SPAM the frequency response is simulated and it is in agreement with the experimental result. The living myoblast cells on the glass slide are imaged at resonance frequencies of the SPAM system, which are 20kHz, 30kHz and 120kHz. It is shown that good contrast of SPAM images could be obtained when the system is operated at the resonance frequencies of the system in high and low-frequency regions

  2. Harmonics Suppression for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in Different Operation Modes

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    -connected PV inverters may be severely affected in different operation modes. In this paper, a detailed analysis is conducted to reveal the relationship between the harmonics level with the power factor and the current level in the PV systems. A current control solution which employs an Internal Model...... Principle (IMP) is proposed to suppress the harmonic currents injected into the grid. Experiments are carried out to verify the analysis and the performance of the proposed control method. It is demonstrated that the proposed method presents an effective solution to harmonics suppression for single......-phase grid-connected PV systems in different operation modes. Especially, it can remove higher order harmonics effectively leading to a better power quality compared to the Proportional plus Multi-Resonant Controller, and it has less computational burden....

  3. Mode of recording and modulation frequency effects of auditory steady state response thresholds

    Jalaei, Bahram; Shaabani, Moslem; Zakaria, Mohd Normani

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The performance of auditory steady state response (ASSR) in threshold testing when recorded ipsilaterally and contralaterally, as well as at low and high modulation frequencies (MFs), has not been systematically studied. Objective To verify the influences of mode of recording (ipsilateral vs. contralateral) and modulation frequency (40 Hz vs. 90 Hz) on ASSR thresholds. Methods Fifteen female and 14 male subjects (aged 18–30 years) with normal hearing bilaterally were ...

  4. Effect of different modes of therapy on vestibular and balance dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease

    El-Kholy, Wafaa Abdel-Hay; Taha, Hesham Mohamed; Hamada, Soha Mohamed; Sayed, Mona Abdel-Fattah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have difficulties in performing various motor tasks such as walking, writing and speaking, together with significant balance dysfunction. Despite gains made in the field of pharmacotherapy and deep brain stimulation, dopaminergic medications may produce a limited improvement in postural stability. Sustained improvement in motor skills can be achieved through physiotherapy. Aim of the work: To measure the effect of different modes of therap...

  5. Design of the scanning mode coated glass color difference online detection system

    Bi, Weihong; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Dajiang; Zhang, Baojun; Fu, Guangwei

    2008-03-01

    A design of scanning mode coated glass color difference online detection system was introduced. The system consisted of color difference data acquirement part and orbit control part. The function of the color difference data acquirement part was to acquire glass spectral reflectance and then processed them to get the color difference value. Using fiber for light guiding, the reflected light from surface of glass was transmitted into light division part, and the dispersive light was imaged on linear CCD, and then the output signals from the CCD was sampled pixel by pixel, and the spectral reflectance of coated glass was obtained finally. Then, the acquired spectral reflectance signals was sent to industrial personal computer through USB interface, using standard color space and color difference formula nominated by International Commission on Illumination (CIE) in 1976 to process these signals, and the reflected color parameter and color difference of coated glass was gained in the end. The function of the orbit control part was to move the detection probe by way of transverse scanning mode above the glass strip, and control the measuring start-stop time of the color difference data acquirement part at the same time. The color difference data acquirement part of the system was put on the orbit which is after annealing area in coated glass production line, and the protected fiber probe was placed on slide of the orbit. Using single chip microcomputer to control transmission mechanism of the slide, which made the slide move by way of transverse scanning mode on the glass strip, meanwhile, the color difference data acquirement part of the system was also controlled by the single chip microcomputer, and it made the acquirement part measure color difference data when the probe reached the needed working speed and required place on the glass strip. The scanning mode coated glass color difference online detection system can measure color parameter and color difference of

  6. A unified model of combined energy systems with different cycle modes and its optimum performance characteristics

    Zhang Yue [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); College of Information Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China); Hu, Weiqiang [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Ou Congjie [College of Information Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China); Chen Jincan [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)], E-mail: jcchen@xmu.edu.cn

    2009-06-15

    A unified model is presented for a class of combined energy systems, in which the systems mainly consist of a heat engine, a combustor and a counter-flow heat exchanger and the heat engine in the systems may have different thermodynamic cycle modes such as the Brayton cycle, Carnot cycle, Stirling cycle, Ericsson cycle, and so on. Not only the irreversibilities of the heat leak and finite-rate heat transfer but also the different cycle modes of the heat engine are considered in the model. On the basis of Newton's law, expressions for the overall efficiency and power output of the combined energy system with an irreversible Brayton cycle are derived. The maximum overall efficiency and power output and other relevant parameters are calculated. The general characteristic curves of the system are presented for some given parameters. Several interesting cases are discussed in detail. The results obtained here are very general and significant and can be used to discuss the optimal performance characteristics of a class of combined energy systems with different cycle modes. Moreover, it is significant to point out that not only the important conclusions obtained in Bejan's first combustor model and Peterson's general combustion driven model but also the optimal performance of a class of solar-driven heat engine systems can be directly derived from the present paper under some limit conditions.

  7. A unified model of combined energy systems with different cycle modes and its optimum performance characteristics

    Zhang Yue; Hu, Weiqiang; Ou Congjie; Chen Jincan

    2009-01-01

    A unified model is presented for a class of combined energy systems, in which the systems mainly consist of a heat engine, a combustor and a counter-flow heat exchanger and the heat engine in the systems may have different thermodynamic cycle modes such as the Brayton cycle, Carnot cycle, Stirling cycle, Ericsson cycle, and so on. Not only the irreversibilities of the heat leak and finite-rate heat transfer but also the different cycle modes of the heat engine are considered in the model. On the basis of Newton's law, expressions for the overall efficiency and power output of the combined energy system with an irreversible Brayton cycle are derived. The maximum overall efficiency and power output and other relevant parameters are calculated. The general characteristic curves of the system are presented for some given parameters. Several interesting cases are discussed in detail. The results obtained here are very general and significant and can be used to discuss the optimal performance characteristics of a class of combined energy systems with different cycle modes. Moreover, it is significant to point out that not only the important conclusions obtained in Bejan's first combustor model and Peterson's general combustion driven model but also the optimal performance of a class of solar-driven heat engine systems can be directly derived from the present paper under some limit conditions

  8. Remote Supervision and Control of Air Conditioning Systems in Different Modes

    Rafeeq, Mohammed; Afzal, Asif; Rajendra, Sree

    2018-01-01

    In the era of automation, most of the application of engineering and science are interrelated with system for optimal operation. To get the efficient result of an operation and desired response, interconnected systems should be controlled by directing, regulating and commanding. Here, air conditioning (AC) system is considered for experimentation, to supervise and control its functioning in both, automated and manual mode. This paper reports the work intended to design and develop an automated and manual AC system working in remote and local mode, to increase the level of comfort, easy operation, reducing human intervention and faults occurring in the system. The Programmable Logical Controller (PLC) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system were used for remote supervision and monitoring of AC systems using series ninety protocol and remote terminal unit modbus protocol as communication module to operate in remote mode. PLC was used as remote terminal for continuous supervision and control of AC system. SCADA software was used as a tool for designing user friendly graphical user interface. The proposed SCADA AC system successfully monitors and controls in accordance within the parameter limits like temperature, pressure, humidity and voltage. With all the features, this designed system is capable of efficient handling of the resources like the compressor, humidifier etc., with all the levels of safety and durability. This system also maintains the temperature and controls the humidity of the remote location and also looks after the health of the compressor.

  9. Experimental investigation of different regimes of mode-locking in a high repetition rate passively mode-locked semiconductor quantum-dot laser.

    Kéfélian, Fabien; O'Donoghue, Shane; Todaro, Maria Teresa; McInerney, John; Huyet, Guillaume

    2009-04-13

    We report experimental investigations on a two-section 16-GHz repetition rate InAs/GaAs quantum dot passively mode-locked laser. Near the threshold current, pseudo-periodic Q-switching with complex dynamics is exhibited. Mode-locking operation regimes characterized by different repetition rates and timing jitter levels are encountered up to twice the threshold current. Evolution of the RF spectrum and optical spectrum with current is compared. The different mode-locked regimes are shown to be associated with different spectral and temporal shapes, ranging from 1.3 to 6 ps. This point is discussed by introducing the existence of two different supermodes. Repetition rate evolution and timing jitter increase is attributed to the coupling between the dominant and the secondary supermodes.

  10. Meditation experience is associated with differences in default mode network activity and connectivity

    Brewer, Judson A.; Worhunsky, Patrick D.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Weber, Jochen; Kober, Hedy

    2011-01-01

    Many philosophical and contemplative traditions teach that “living in the moment” increases happiness. However, the default mode of humans appears to be that of mind-wandering, which correlates with unhappiness, and with activation in a network of brain areas associated with self-referential processing. We investigated brain activity in experienced meditators and matched meditation-naive controls as they performed several different meditations (Concentration, Loving-Kindness, Choiceless Awareness). We found that the main nodes of the default-mode network (medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices) were relatively deactivated in experienced meditators across all meditation types. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis revealed stronger coupling in experienced meditators between the posterior cingulate, dorsal anterior cingulate, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (regions previously implicated in self-monitoring and cognitive control), both at baseline and during meditation. Our findings demonstrate differences in the default-mode network that are consistent with decreased mind-wandering. As such, these provide a unique understanding of possible neural mechanisms of meditation. PMID:22114193

  11. Influence of Different Interlayers on Growth Mode and Properties of InN by MOVPE

    Ri-Qing, Zhang; Xiang-Lin, Liu; Ting-Ting, Kang; Wei-Guo, Hu; Shao-Yan, Yang; Chun-Mei, Jiao; Qing-Sheng, Zhu

    2008-01-01

    We grow InN epilayers on different interlayers by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) method, and investigate the effect of interlayer on the properties and growth mode of InN films. Three InN samples were deposited on nitrided sapphire, low-temperature InN (LT-InN) and high-temperature GaN (HT-GaN), respectively. The InN layer grown directly on nitrided sapphire owns the narrowest x-ray diffraction rocking curve (XRC) width of 300 arcsec among the three samples, and demonstrates a two-dimensional (2D) step-flow-like lateral growth mode, which is much different from the three-dimensional (3D) pillar-like growth mode of LT-InN and HT-GaN buffered samples. It seems that mismatch tensile strain is helpful for the lateral epitaxy of InN film, whereas compressive strain promotes the vertical growth of InN films

  12. Sustainable Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources: Systematic Evaluation on Different Production Modes

    Xiwen Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage amount of medicinal plant rapidly increased along with the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. The higher market demand and the shortage of wild herbal resources enforce us to carry out large-scale introduction and cultivation. Herbal cultivation can ease current contradiction between medicinal resources supply and demand while they bring new problems such as pesticide residues and plant disease and pests. Researchers have recently placed high hopes on the application of natural fostering, a new method incorporated herbal production and diversity protecting practically, which can solve the problems brought by artificial cultivation. However no modes can solve all problems existing in current herbal production. This study evaluated different production modes including cultivation, natural fostering, and wild collection to guide the traditional Chinese medicine production for sustainable utilization of herbal resources.

  13. Tensile and compressive failure modes of laminated composites loaded by fatigue with different mean stress

    Rotem, Assa

    1990-01-01

    Laminated composite materials tend to fail differently under tensile or compressive load. Under tension, the material accumulates cracks and fiber fractures, while under compression, the material delaminates and buckles. Tensile-compressive fatigue may cause either of these failure modes depending on the specific damage occurring in the laminate. This damage depends on the stress ratio of the fatigue loading. Analysis of the fatigue behavior of the composite laminate under tension-tension, compression-compression, and tension-compression had led to the development of a fatigue envelope presentation of the failure behavior. This envelope indicates the specific failure mode for any stress ratio and number of loading cycles. The construction of the fatigue envelope is based on the applied stress-cycles to failure (S-N) curves of both tensile-tensile and compressive-compressive fatigue. Test results are presented to verify the theoretical analysis.

  14. Influence of acoustic dominant mode propagation in a trifurcated lined duct with different impedances

    Ayub, M; Tiwana, M H; Mann, A B

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the diffraction of the acoustic dominant mode in a parallel-plate trifurcated waveguide with normal impedance boundary conditions in the case where surface impedances of the upper and lower infinite plates are different from each other. The acoustic dominant mode is incident in a soft/hard semi-infinite duct located symmetrically in the infinite lined duct. The solution of the boundary value problem using Fourier transform leads to two simultaneous modified Wiener-Hopf equations that are uncoupled using the pole removal technique. Two infinite sets of unknown coefficients are involved in the solution, which satisfy two infinite systems of linear algebraic equations. These systems are solved numerically. The new kernel functions are factorized. Some graphical results showing the influence of sundry parameters of interest on the reflection coefficient are presented.

  15. Individual differences in response conflict adaptations

    Doris eKeye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Conflict-monitoring theory argues for a general cognitive mechanism that monitors for con-flicts in information-processing. If that mechanism detects conflict, it engages cognitive con-trol to resolve it. A slow-down in response to incongruent trials (conflict effect, and a modu-lation of the conflict effect by the congruence of the preceding trial (Gratton or context effect have been taken as indicators of such a monitoring system. The present study (N = 157 investigated individual differences in the conflict and the context effect in a horizontal and a vertical Simon task, and their correlation with working memory capacity. Strength of conflict was varied by proportion of congruent trials. Coherent factors could be formed representing individual differences in speeded performance, conflict adaptation, and context adaptation. Conflict and context factors were not associated with each other. Contrary to theories assuming a close relation between working memory and cognitive control, working memory capacity showed no relation with any factors representing adaptation to conflict.

  16. Respiratory Physiology and the Impact of Different Modes of Ventilation on the Photoplethysmographic Waveform

    Kirk H. Shelley

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The photoplethysmographic waveform sits at the core of the most used, and arguably the most important, clinical monitor, the pulse oximeter.  Interestingly, the pulse oximeter was discovered while examining an artifact during the development of a noninvasive cardiac output monitor.  This article will explore the response of the pulse oximeter waveform to various modes of ventilation.  Modern digital signal processing is allowing for a re-examination of this ubiquitous signal. The effect of ventilation on the photoplethysmographic waveform has long been thought of as a source of artifact. The primary goal of this article is to improve the understanding of the underlying physiology responsible for the observed phenomena, thereby encouraging the utilization of this understanding to develop new methods of patient monitoring. The reader will be presented with a review of respiratory physiology followed by numerous examples of the impact of ventilation on the photoplethysmographic waveform.

  17. Respiratory physiology and the impact of different modes of ventilation on the photoplethysmographic waveform.

    Alian, Aymen A; Shelley, Kirk H

    2012-01-01

    The photoplethysmographic waveform sits at the core of the most used, and arguably the most important, clinical monitor, the pulse oximeter. Interestingly, the pulse oximeter was discovered while examining an artifact during the development of a noninvasive cardiac output monitor. This article will explore the response of the pulse oximeter waveform to various modes of ventilation. Modern digital signal processing is allowing for a re-examination of this ubiquitous signal. The effect of ventilation on the photoplethysmographic waveform has long been thought of as a source of artifact. The primary goal of this article is to improve the understanding of the underlying physiology responsible for the observed phenomena, thereby encouraging the utilization of this understanding to develop new methods of patient monitoring. The reader will be presented with a review of respiratory physiology followed by numerous examples of the impact of ventilation on the photoplethysmographic waveform.

  18. The formation of liquid bridge in different operating modes of AFM

    Wei, Zheng; Sun, Yan; Ding, WenXuan; Wang, ZaiRan

    2016-09-01

    The liquid bridge is one of the principal factors that cause artifacts in ambient-pressure atomic force microscope (AFM) images. Additionally, it is the main component of the adhesion force in ambient conditions. To understand the AFM imaging mechanism and the sample characteristics, it is essential to study the liquid bridge. This study interprets the physical mechanism involved in liquid bridge formation, which is composed of three different physical processes: the squeezing process, capillary condensation, and liquid film flow. We discuss the contributions of these three mechanisms to the volume and the capillary force of the liquid bridge in different AFM operation modes.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Battery Behavior with Different Modes of Discharge for Optimal Capacity Sizing and BMS Operation

    Mazhar Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Battery-operated systems are always concerned about the proper management and sizing of a battery. A Traditional Battery Management System (BMS only includes battery-aware task scheduling based on the discharge characteristics of a whole battery pack and do not take into account the mode of the load being served by the battery. On the other hand, an efficient and intelligent BMS should monitor the battery at a cell level and track the load with significant consideration of the load mode. Depending upon the load modes, the common modes of discharge (MOD of a battery identified so far are Constant Power Mode (CPM, Constant Current Mode (CCM and Constant Impedance Mode (CIM. This paper comparatively analyzes the discharging behavior of batteries at an individual cell level for different load modes. The difference in discharging behavior from mode to mode represents the study of the mode-dependent behavior of the battery before its deployment in some application. Based on simulation results, optimal capacity sizing and BMS operation of battery for an assumed situation in a remote microgrid has been proposed.

  20. Results of different modes conformal radiotherapy in treatment of cervical cancer

    Baranovs'ka, L.M.; Yivankova, V.S.; Khrulenko, T.V.; Skomorokhova, T.V.; Gorelyina, G.L.

    2017-01-01

    Development of techniques for cytotoxic treatment applying different modes of conformal radiotherapy, brachytherapy and high-energy (high dose rate - HDR) is one of the promising areas of optimization and efficiency of conservative treatment of patients with regional forms of cervical cancer. At Radiation Oncology Department, National Cancer Institute, 89 patients with stage 2b-3b cervical cancer, aged 29 to 70, underwent examination and combined radiotherapy course. The patients were divided into 2 main groups (56 patients) depending on the mode of developed conformal radiation therapy, and a control group made up by 33 patients (classic, default conformal radiotherapy). Results. Along with external beam radiotherapy, the patients of Group 2 were provided with conformal radiotherapy carried out by means of the linear accelerator of electrons in the mode of enhanced multi fractionation of irradiation dose applied to the small pelvis area (tumor and lymph efflux channels) with the single tumor dose 1.3 Gy twice per day once 4-6 hours up to the total radiation dose of 45 Gy applied to the small pelvis lymph nodes. The patients of Group 1 and the ones of the control group underwent conformal radiotherapy in the mode of standard fractionation applied to the small pelvis area with the single tumor dose of 1.8 Gy up to the total radiation dose of 45 Gy. Conformal radiotherapy was carried out for the patients of Group 1 associated with chemoradiomodifiers (tegafur, cisplatin). At the stage 2 of combined radiotherapy course, all patients underwent HDR brachytherapy via Co60 source in the mode of the single tumor dose of 5 Gy at point A up to the total radiation dose of 35-40 Gy. Therefore, employing accelerated mode of multifractiation in conformal radiotherapy of patients with regional cervical cancer makes it possible to enhance canrcinocidal irradiation doses applied to a tumor, and an interval between radiotherapy fractions provides conditions for initiation of

  1. Variability of textural features in FDG PET images due to different acquisition modes and reconstruction parameters.

    Galavis, Paulina E; Hollensen, Christian; Jallow, Ngoneh; Paliwal, Bhudatt; Jeraj, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Characterization of textural features (spatial distributions of image intensity levels) has been considered as a tool for automatic tumor segmentation. The purpose of this work is to study the variability of the textural features in PET images due to different acquisition modes and reconstruction parameters. Twenty patients with solid tumors underwent PET/CT scans on a GE Discovery VCT scanner, 45-60 minutes post-injection of 10 mCi of [(18)F]FDG. Scans were acquired in both 2D and 3D modes. For each acquisition the raw PET data was reconstructed using five different reconstruction parameters. Lesions were segmented on a default image using the threshold of 40% of maximum SUV. Fifty different texture features were calculated inside the tumors. The range of variations of the features were calculated with respect to the average value. Fifty textural features were classified based on the range of variation in three categories: small, intermediate and large variability. Features with small variability (range ≤ 5%) were entropy-first order, energy, maximal correlation coefficient (second order feature) and low-gray level run emphasis (high-order feature). The features with intermediate variability (10% ≤ range ≤ 25%) were entropy-GLCM, sum entropy, high gray level run emphsis, gray level non-uniformity, small number emphasis, and entropy-NGL. Forty remaining features presented large variations (range > 30%). Textural features such as entropy-first order, energy, maximal correlation coefficient, and low-gray level run emphasis exhibited small variations due to different acquisition modes and reconstruction parameters. Features with low level of variations are better candidates for reproducible tumor segmentation. Even though features such as contrast-NGTD, coarseness, homogeneity, and busyness have been previously used, our data indicated that these features presented large variations, therefore they could not be considered as a good candidates for tumor

  2. Variability of textural features in FDG PET images due to different acquisition modes and reconstruction parameters

    Galavis, Paulina E.; Jallow, Ngoneh; Paliwal, Bhudatt; Jeraj, Robert; Hollensen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background. Characterization of textural features (spatial distributions of image intensity levels) has been considered as a tool for automatic tumor segmentation. The purpose of this work is to study the variability of the textural features in PET images due to different acquisition modes and reconstruction parameters. Material and methods. Twenty patients with solid tumors underwent PET/CT scans on a GE Discovery VCT scanner, 45-60 minutes post-injection of 10 mCi of [ 18 F]FDG. Scans were acquired in both 2D and 3D modes. For each acquisition the raw PET data was reconstructed using five different reconstruction parameters. Lesions were segmented on a default image using the threshold of 40% of maximum SUV. Fifty different texture features were calculated inside the tumors. The range of variations of the features were calculated with respect to the average value. Results. Fifty textural features were classified based on the range of variation in three categories: small, intermediate and large variability. Features with small variability (range = 5%) were entropy-first order, energy, maximal correlation coefficient (second order feature) and low-gray level run emphasis (high-order feature). The features with intermediate variability (10% = range = 25%) were entropy-GLCM, sum entropy, high gray level run emphasis, gray level non-uniformity, small number emphasis, and entropy-NGL. Forty remaining features presented large variations (range > 30%). Conclusion. Textural features such as entropy-first order, energy, maximal correlation coefficient, and low-gray level run emphasis exhibited small variations due to different acquisition modes and reconstruction parameters. Features with low level of variations are better candidates for reproducible tumor segmentation. Even though features such as contrast-NGTD, coarseness, homogeneity, and busyness have been previously used, our data indicated that these features presented large variations, therefore they could not be

  3. Response of fire detectors to different smokes

    Bjoerkman, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize the behavior of fire alarm systems based on smoke detectors on smoldering fires especially cable fires in nuclear power plants (NPP). Full-scale fire experiments were carried out in a laboratory designed according to the standard EN54-9. The laboratory was instrumented with additional equipment such as thermocouples and flow meters which are not used in standard fire sensitivity tests. This allows the results to be used as experimental data for validation tasks of numerical fire simulation computerized fluid dynamics (CFD)-codes. The ultimate goal of the research is to model theoretically smoldering and flaming cable fires, their smoke production, transfer of smoke to detectors, as well as the response of detectors and fire alarm systems to potential fires. This would allow the use of numerical fire simulation to predict fire hazards in different fire scenarios found important in PSA (probability safety assessment) of NPPs. This report concentrates on explaining full-scale fire experiments in the smoke sensitivity laboratory and experimental results from fire tests of detectors. Validation tasks with CFD-codes will be first carried out 'blind' without any idea about corresponding experimental results. Accordingly, the experimental results cannot be published in this report. (orig.)

  4. Quantum-Chemical Calculation and Visualization of the Vibrational Modes of Graphene in Different Points of the Brillouin Zone.

    Lebedieva, Tetiana; Gubanov, Victor; Dovbeshko, Galyna; Pidhirnyi, Denys

    2015-12-01

    Different notations of graphene irreducible representations and optical modes could be found in the literature. The goals of this paper are to identify the correspondence between available notations, to calculate the optical modes of graphene in different points of the Brillouin zone, and to compare them with experimental data obtained by Raman and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy. The mechanism of the resonance enhancement of vibration modes of the molecules adsorbed on graphene in CARS experiments is proposed. The possibility of appearance of the discrete breathing modes is discussed.

  5. Migration behavior of Cu and Zn in landfill with different operation modes

    Long Yuyang; Shen Dongsheng; Wang Hongtao; Lu Wenjing

    2010-01-01

    Cu and Zn were chosen to study the heavy metal migration behavior and mechanism in three simulated landfills with different operation modes, namely conventional landfill (CL), leachate directly recirculated landfill (RL) and leachate pre-treated bioreactor landfill (BL). It showed that Cu and Zn in refuse experienced periodic migration and retention gradually during decomposition, and the variation of Cu(II) and Zn(II) in leachate correspondingly reflected the releasing behavior of Cu and Zn in landfill refuse at different stabilization stages. Except for their accumulated leaching amounts, Cu(II) and Zn(II) concentrations in leachate from landfills with different operation modes had no significant difference. The accumulated leaching amounts of Cu and Zn from CL showed exponential increase, while those of RL and BL showed exponential decay. The operation of bioreactor landfill with leachate recirculation can obviously attenuate the heavy metal leaching than conventional operation. The introduction of methanogenic reactor (MR) in bioreactor landfill can further promote the immobilization of heavy metal in refuse than leachate recirculation directly.

  6. Severity of injuries in different modes of transport, expressed with disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).

    Tainio, Marko; Olkowicz, Dorota; Teresiński, Grzegorz; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2014-07-29

    Health impact assessment (HIA) studies are increasingly predicting the health effects of mode shifts in traffic. The challenge for such studies is to combine the health effects, caused by injuries, with the disease driven health effects, and to express the change in the health with a common health indicator. Disability-adjusted life year (DALY) combines years lived disabled or injured (YLD) and years of life lost (YLL) providing practical indicator to combine injuries with diseases. In this study, we estimate the average YLDs for one person injured in a transport crash to allow easy to use methods to predict health effects of transport injuries. We calculated YLDs and YLLs for transport fatalities and injuries based on the data from the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA). In STRADA, all the fatalities and most of the injuries in Sweden for 2007-2011 were recorded. The type of injury was recorded with the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) codes. In this study these AIS codes were aggregated to injury types, and YLDs were calculated for each victim by multiplying the type of injury with the disability weight and the average duration of that injury. YLLs were calculated by multiplying the age of the victim with life expectancy of that age and gender. YLDs and YLLs were estimated separately for different gender, mode of transport and location of the crash. The average YLDs for injured person was 14.7 for lifelong injuries and 0.012 for temporal injuries. The average YLDs per injured person for lifelong injuries for pedestrians, cyclists and car occupants were 9.4, 12.8 and 18.4, YLDs, respectively. Lifelong injuries sustained in rural areas were on average 31% more serious than injuries in urban areas. The results show that shifting modes of transport will not only change the likelihood of injuries but also the severity of injuries sustained, if injured. The results of this study can be used to predict DALY changes in HIA studies that take into account

  7. Influence of different etching modes on bond strength and fatigue strength to dentin using universal adhesive systems.

    Takamizawa, Toshiki; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Berry, Thomas P; Watanabe, Hedehiko; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dentin bonding ability of three new universal adhesive systems under different etching modes using fatigue testing. Prime & Bond elect [PE] (DENTSPLY Caulk), Scotchbond Universal [SU] (3M ESPE), and All Bond Universal [AU] (Bisco) were used in this study. A conventional single-step self-etch adhesive, Clearfil Bond SE ONE [CS] (Kuraray Noritake Dental) was also included as a control. Shear bond strengths (SBS) and shear fatigue strength (SFS) to human dentin were obtained in the total-etch mode and self-etch modes. For each test condition, 15 specimens were prepared for the SBS and 30 specimens for SFS. SEM was used to examine representative de-bonded specimens, treated dentin surfaces and the resin/dentin interface for each test condition. Among the universal adhesives, PE in total-etch mode showed significantly higher SBS and SFS values than in self-etch mode. SU and AU did not show any significant difference in SBS and SFS between the total-etch mode and self-etch mode. However, the single-step self-etch adhesive CS showed significantly lower SBS and SFS values in the etch-and-rinse mode when compared to the self-etch mode. Examining the ratio of SFS/SBS, for PE and AU, the etch-and-rinse mode groups showed higher ratios than the self-etch mode groups. The influence of different etching modes on dentin bond quality of universal adhesives was dependent on the adhesive material. However, for the universal adhesives, using the total-etch mode did not have a negative impact on dentin bond quality. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Entangling different degrees of freedom by quadrature squeezing cylindrically polarized modes

    Gabriel, C.; Aiello, A.; Zhong, W.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum systems such as, for example, photons, atoms, or Bose-Einstein condensates, prepared in complex states where entanglement between distinct degrees of freedom is present, may display several intriguing features. In this Letter we introduce the concept of such complex quantum states...... generates entanglement between these two different degrees of freedom. Experimentally we demonstrate amplitude squeezing of an azimuthally polarized mode by exploiting the nonlinear Kerr effect in a specially tailored photonic crystal fiber. These results display that such novel continuous......-variable entangled systems can, in principle, be realized.© 2011 American Physical Society....

  9. Hemoglobin Differences in Uncomplicated Monochorionic Twins in Relation to Birth Order and Mode of Delivery.

    Verbeek, Lianne; Zhao, Depeng P; Te Pas, Arjan B; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Hooper, Stuart B; Oepkes, Dick; Lopriore, Enrico

    2016-06-01

    To determine the differences in hemoglobin (Hb) levels in the first 2 days after birth in uncomplicated monochorionic twins in relation to birth order and mode of delivery. All consecutive uncomplicated monochorionic pregnancies with two live-born twins delivered at our center were included in this retrospective study. We recorded Hb levels at birth and on day 2, and analyzed Hb levels in association with birth order, mode of delivery, and time interval between delivery of twin 1 and 2. A total of 290 monochorionic twin pairs were analyzed, including 171 (59%) twins delivered vaginally and 119 (41%) twins born by cesarean section (CS). In twins delivered vaginally, mean Hb levels at birth and on day 2 were significantly higher in second-born twins compared to first-born twins: 17.8 versus 16.1 g/dL and 18.0 versus 14.8 g/dL, respectively (p < .01). Polycythemia was detected more often in second-born twins (12%, 20/166) compared to first-born twins (1%, 2/166; p < .01). Hb differences within twin pairs delivered by CS were not statistically or clinically significant. We found no association between inter-twin delivery time intervals and Hb differences. Second-born twins after vaginal delivery have higher Hb levels and more often polycythemia than their co-twin, but not when born by CS.

  10. Electronic control of different generation regimes in mode-locked all-fibre F8 laser

    Kobtsev, Sergey; Ivanenko, Aleksey; Kokhanovskiy, Alexey; Smirnov, Sergey

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate for the first time an electronically controlled realisation of markedly different generation regimes in a mode-locked all-fibre figure-eight (F8) Yb-doped laser. Electronic adjustment of the ratio of pumping powers of two amplification stages in a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror enables the establishment of stable pulse generation regimes with different degrees of coherence and control over their parameters within relatively broad limits, with the pulse duration range exceeding a factor of two in the picosecond domain for coherent and incoherent pulses, the energy range exceeding an order of magnitude for incoherent pulses (2.2-24.8 nJ) and over a factor of 8 for coherent pulses (1.9-16.2 nJ). Adjustment of the pumping powers allows one to maintain the duration of the coherent pulses and to set their peak power in the range of 32.5-292.5 W. The proposed configuration of electronic control over the radiation parameters of a mode-locked all-fibre F8 laser enables reproducible generation of pulses of different types with specified parameters within a broad range of values.

  11. Exposure to ultrafine particles in different transport modes in the city of Rome

    Grana, Mario; Toschi, Nicola; Vicentini, Laura; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Magrini, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence of adverse health impacts from human exposure to particulate air pollution, including increased rates of respiratory and cardiovascular illness, hospitalizations, and pre-mature mortality. Most recent hypotheses assign an important role to ultrafine particles (UFP) (<0.1 μm) and to associated transition metals (in particular Fe). In a large city like Rome, where many active people spend more than one hour per day in private or public transportation, it may be important to evaluate the level of exposure to harmful pollutants which occurs during urban travelling. In this context, the aim of this work was to examine the relative contribution of different transport modes to total daily exposure. We performed experimental measurements during both morning and evening traffic peak hours throughout the winter season (December 2013–March 2014), for a total of 98 trips. Our results suggest that the lowest UFP exposures are experienced by underground train commuters, with an average number concentration of 14 134 cm −3 , and are largely a reflection of the routes being at greater distance from vehicular traffic. Motorcyclists experienced significantly higher average concentrations (73 168 cm −3 ) than all other exposure classes, and this is most likely a result of the presence of high-concentration and short-duration peaks which do not occur when the same routes are traveled by car. UFP concentrations in subway train environments were found to be comparable to urban background levels. Still, in underground trains we found the highest values of PM 10 mass concentration with a maximum value of 422 μg/m 3 . PM 10 concentration in trains was found to be four and two times higher than what was measured in car and motorbike trips, respectively. Transport mode contribution to total integrated UFP daily exposure was found to be 16.3%–20.9% while travelling by car, 28.7% for motorbike trips, and 8.7% for subway trips. Due to lower exposure times

  12. Study of inter-modal four wave mixing in two few-mode fibres with different phase matching properties

    Parmigiani, F.; Jung, Y.; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally study inter-modal four-wave mixing (FWM) in few-mode fibres with different phase matching properties. The possibility of transmitting two spatial modes without intermodal FWM cross-talk in the C-band is presented....

  13. Relation between feeding mechanisms and solidification mode in 380 aluminium alloy with different iron contents

    Tovio, D. O.; Gonzalez, A.C.; Mugica, G. W.; Cuyas, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work the effect of iron (0.15, 0.42 and 0.86%) content in feeding mechanisms for 380 aluminium alloy has been studied. The feeding capacity has been evaluated by a device that produces a barrier removable to allowing the movement of the inter dendritic liquid. The results show the flow of different quantity of liquid, it depends of the temperature of operating the device and of the iron content. For minimum and maximum iron content, the inter dendritic and bursts feeding mechanisms are fundamentally involved, for 0.42% of iron the feeding mechanisms was the inter dendritic. The authors establish this behavior by the solidification mode of alloy, which promotes the presence of particles of Si or plates of b-Al 3 FeDi phase, in the inter dendritic channels and produce the different feeding mechanisms. (Author) 15 refs

  14. Feedforward Synchronised PWM for Adjustable Speed AC Drives with Different Control Modes

    Oleschuk, Valentin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jensen, Flemming Buus

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method of direct synchronised pulswidth modulation (PWM) for three-phase voltage source inverters, feeding induction motors with different control regimes. It is based on the universal algorithm with either simplified algebraic or accurate trigonometric control functions......, with vector approached for determination of the pulse patterns, with vector approach for determination of the pulse patterns. Different control modes of the drive system with synchronised PWM, including standard scalar V/F control, and also V2/F = constant and V/F2 = constant control regimes, have been...... analysed in the paper. Simulations give the behaviour of the PWM techniques proposed. Both continuous and discontinuous schemes of synchronised PWM, applied for the corresponding control regime, have been analysed and compared....

  15. Variability of textural features in FDG PET images due to different acquisition modes and reconstruction parameters

    Galavis, P.E.; Hollensen, Christian; Jallow, N.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Characterization of textural features (spatial distributions of image intensity levels) has been considered as a tool for automatic tumor segmentation. The purpose of this work is to study the variability of the textural features in PET images due to different acquisition modes...... reconstruction parameters. Lesions were segmented on a default image using the threshold of 40% of maximum SUV. Fifty different texture features were calculated inside the tumors. The range of variations of the features were calculated with respect to the average value. Results. Fifty textural features were...... classified based on the range of variation in three categories: small, intermediate and large variability. Features with small variability (range 30%). Conclusion. Textural features such as entropy-first order, energy, maximal correlation coefficient, and low-gray level run emphasis exhibited small...

  16. THE DIFFUSION OF I-MODE OVERSEAS: A PERSPECTIVE OF INSTITUTIONAL DIFFERENCES

    CHIA-LIANG HUNG; SHU-YU YEH

    2007-01-01

    The Japanese telecom giant DoCoMo launched promoted its proprietary i-mode mobile services in 1999 and overseas in 2002. Diffusion overseas was much slower than expected, however. This paper investigates the diffusion of Japanese i-mode mobile internet in Europe from an institutional perspective, focusing on five earlier i-mode overseas operators located in Taiwan, The Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, and France. We found four strategic institutional levers that stimulated i-mode domestic diffu...

  17. Optimal decisions of sharing rate and ticket price of different transportation modes in inter-city transportation corridor

    Zhaoping Tang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper concerns competition of different transportation modes coexist in inter-city transportation corridor. The purpose of this paper is to express the competitive relationship by building mathematical model and obtain the best sharing rate and the optimal ticket price of different transportation modes. Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, analyzing influencing factors of passenger choice about transportation modes, we designed an utility function of transportation modes. Secondly, referring to the game theory and logit modle, a non-cooperative game model between railway and highway was built. Finally, the model was applied to Nanchang-Jiujiang transportation corridor in China for an empirical analysis. Findings: The results indicate that the proposed non-cooperative game model is rational and reliable, and it supplies a scientific method to determine the optimal ticket price and passenger sharing rate of different transportation modes, and can be applied to the competition study on different transportation modes in inter-city transportation corridor. Originality/value: The main contribution of this paper is to built the non-cooperative game model, which can consider the needs of different travelers, and achieve reasonable passenger divergence of different transportation modes and coordinated development of whole transport market.

  18. Reverberation chambers a la carte: an overview of the different mode-stirring techniques

    Serra, R.; Marvin, A.C.; Moglie, F.; Mariani Primiani, V.; Cozza, A.; Arnaut, L.R.; Huang, Y.; Hatfield, M.O.; Klingler, M.; Leferink, F.

    2017-01-01

    Reverberation chambers (RC), a name inspired in room acoustics, are also known in literature as reverberating, reverb, mode-stirred or mode-tuned chambers. In their basic form, they consist of a shielded metallic enclosure, forming a cavity resonator, together with some mode-stirring mechanism. The

  19. Reverberation Chambers à La Carte : An Overview of the Different Mode-Stirring Techniques

    Serra, Ramiro; Marvin, Andy C.; Moglie, Franco; Mariani Primiani, Valter; Cozza, Andrea; Arnaut, Luk R.; Huang, Yi; Hatfield, Michael O.; Klingler, Marco; Leferink, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Reverberation chambers (RC), a name inspired in room acoustics, are also known in literature as reverberating, reverb, mode-stirred or mode-tuned chambers. In their basic form, they consist of a shielded metallic enclosure, forming a cavity resonator, together with some mode-stirring mechanism. The

  20. Current-induced massless mode of the interband phase difference in two-band superconductors

    Tanaka, Y.; Hase, I.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kato, G.; Nishio, T.; Arisawa, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A current induces an interband phase difference in two-band superconductors. • By controlling the boundary conditions, we can trap this phase difference. • A phase difference soliton is observed after switching off the current. - Abstract: There is a current-induced massless mode of an interband phase difference in two-band superconductors. For a thin wire, the externally applied current always invokes a finite interband phase difference when the end of the wire is terminated by a natural boundary condition, i.e., where the total current is specified but the other parameters are left as free and a finite interband phase difference is allowed. This condition can be realized by the normal state region formed by the shrinking of a cross section of the wire where the critical current density is lower than that of the other region of the wire. The interband interaction in the wire cannot completely prevent the emergence of the interband phase difference, though it reduces it somewhat. Instead, boundary conditions determine the presence of the interband phase difference. By reverting the normal state into the superconducting state at the shrunken region by decreasing the current, we may trap a rotation of integral multiples of 2π radians of the interband phase difference in the wire. After switching off the current, this rotation of integral multiples of 2π radians, which continuously spreads over the whole wire, is separated into several interband phase difference solitons (i-solitons), where one i-soliton locally generates a 2π interband phase difference

  1. Respostas cardiovasculares agudas na extensão do joelho realizada em diferentes formas de execução Respuestas cardiovasculares agudas a la extensión de rodilla realizada en diferentes formas de ejecución Acute cardiovascular responses on knee extension at different performance modes

    Marcos Doederlein Polito

    2004-06-01

    measured through the auscultatory method at the end of each series and during 20 minutes after the exercise, with 5-minute intervals. The two-way ANOVA with repeated measures showed that the percentile variation in relation to the rest situation (D% of the PAS was significantly higher at the 3rd series (UN = 31.7 ± 11.9%; BI = 38.5 ± 10.9% than at the 1st (UN = 19.5 ± 12.5%; BI = 26.0 ± 10.2%. With regard to the PAD, the D% was higher at the 3rd series (UN = 48.5 ± 13.9%; BI = 51.4 ± 13.3% than at the 1st (UN = 30.5 ± 13.0%; BI = 34.9 ± 16.0% and 2nd (UN = 40.9 ± 15.4%; BI = 47.3 ± 12.9%. No differences for FC and DP were observed as well as between the performance modes. After the exercise, no differences between all variables observed were identified. Apparently, the performance mode of the knee unilateral extension would not reflect on the acute cardiovascular responses, during or after the exercise. However, the bilateral performance showed tendency to elevate the values of PAS and DP in relation to the unilateral performance, what should be considered in prescriptions for people who need special cares.

  2. The Assessment of Selectivity in Different Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry Acquisition Modes

    Berendsen, Bjorn J. A.; Wegh, Robin S.; Meijer, Thijs; Nielen, Michel W. F.

    2015-02-01

    Selectivity of the confirmation of identity in liquid chromatography (tandem) mass spectrometry using Q-Orbitrap instrumentation was assessed using different acquisition modes based on a representative experimental data set constructed from 108 samples, including six different matrix extracts and containing over 100 analytes each. Single stage full scan, all ion fragmentation, and product ion scanning were applied. By generating reconstructed ion chromatograms using unit mass window in targeted MS2, selected reaction monitoring (SRM), regularly applied using triple-quadrupole instruments, was mimicked. This facilitated the comparison of single stage full scan, all ion fragmentation, (mimicked) SRM, and product ion scanning applying a mass window down to 1 ppm. Single factor Analysis of Variance was carried out on the variance (s2) of the mass error to determine which factors and interactions are significant parameters with respect to selectivity. We conclude that selectivity is related to the target compound (mainly the mass defect), the matrix, sample clean-up, concentration, and mass resolution. Selectivity of the different instrumental configurations was quantified by counting the number of interfering peaks observed in the chromatograms. We conclude that precursor ion selection significantly contributes to selectivity: monitoring of a single product ion at high mass accuracy with a 1 Da precursor ion window proved to be equally selective or better to monitoring two transition products in mimicked SRM. In contrast, monitoring a single fragment in all ion fragmentation mode results in significantly lower selectivity versus mimicked SRM. After a thorough inter-laboratory evaluation study, the results of this study can be used for a critical reassessment of the current identification points system and contribute to the next generation of evidence-based and robust performance criteria in residue analysis and sports doping.

  3. Soft phonon modes driven huge difference on lattice thermal conductivity between topological semimetal WC and WN

    Guo, San-Dong; Chen, Peng

    2018-04-01

    Topological semimetals are currently attracting increasing interest due to their potential applications in topological qubits and low-power electronics, which are closely related to their thermal transport properties. Recently, the triply degenerate nodal points near the Fermi level of WC are observed by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. In this work, by solving the Boltzmann transport equation based on first-principles calculations, we systematically investigate the phonon transport properties of topological semimetals WC and WN. The predicted room-temperature lattice thermal conductivities of WC (WN) along the a and c directions are 1140.64 (7.47) W m-1 K-1 and 1214.69 (5.39) W m-1 K-1. Considering the similar crystal structure of WC and WN, it is quite interesting to find that the thermal conductivity of WC is more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of WN. It is found that, different from WN, the large acoustic-optical (a-o) gap prohibits the acoustic+acoustic → optical (aao) scattering, which gives rise to very long phonon lifetimes, leading to ultrahigh lattice thermal conductivity in WC. For WN, the lack of an a-o gap is due to soft phonon modes in optical branches, which can provide more scattering channels for aao scattering, producing very short phonon lifetimes. Further deep insight can be attained from their different electronic structures. Distinctly different from that in WC, the density of states of WN at the Fermi level becomes very sharp, which leads to destabilization of WN, producing soft phonon modes. It is found that the small shear modulus G and C44 limit the stability of WN, compared with WC. Our studies provide valuable information for phonon transports in WC and WN, and motivate further experimental studies to study their lattice thermal conductivities.

  4. Frustration-induced internal stresses are responsible for quasilocalized modes in structural glasses

    Lerner, Edan; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2018-03-01

    It has been recently shown [E. Lerner, G. Düring, and E. Bouchbinder, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 035501 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.035501] that the nonphononic vibrational modes of structural glasses at low frequencies ω are quasilocalized and follow a universal density of states D (ω ) ˜ω4 . Here we show that the gapless nature of the observed density of states depends on the existence of internal stresses that generically emerge in glasses due to frustration, thus elucidating a basic element underlying this universal behavior. Similarly to jammed particulate packings, low-frequency modes in structural glasses emerge from a balance between a local elasticity term and an internal stress term in the dynamical matrix, where the difference between them is orders of magnitude smaller than their typical magnitude. By artificially reducing the magnitude of internal stresses in a computer glass former in three dimensions, we show that a gap is formed in the density of states below which no vibrational modes exist, thus demonstrating the crucial importance of internal stresses. Finally, we show that while better annealing the glass upon cooling from the liquid state significantly reduces its internal stresses, the self-organizational processes during cooling render the gapless D (ω ) ˜ω4 density of state unaffected.

  5. Comparative Study on Photovoltaic Pumping Systems Driven by Different Motors Optimized with Sliding Mode Control

    Abdelhak Bouchakour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the performance of three different photovoltaic (PV water pumping systems driven by three types of motors, namely a separately excited DC motor (DCM, an asynchronous motor (ASM, and a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM, via a DC/DC buck-boost converter coupled to a centrifugal pump. The purpose of this study is to implement a fast and robust control for this type of a nonlinear system, controlled by sliding mode (SM. This paper presents an SM control technique for controlling a DC/DC buck-boost converter to transfer the maximum power delivered by the PV generator. Each component is studied and analyzed to simulate the global system in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The three systems are then compared to determine the overall effectiveness of the proposed command. The study concludes that the ASM-driven PV system yields highly favorable results and requires less maintenance compared with other systems.

  6. Drilling Performance of Rock Drill by High-Pressure Water Jet under Different Configuration Modes

    Songyong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the rock drilling progress, the resistant force results in tools failure and the low drilling efficiency; thus, it is necessary to reduce the tools failure and enhance the drilling efficiency. In this paper, different configuration modes of drilling performance assisted with water jet are explored based on the mechanism and experiment analysis of rock drilling assisted with water jet. Moreover, the rotary sealing device with high pressure is designed to achieve the axial and rotation movement simultaneously as well as good sealing effect under high-pressure water jet. The results indicate that the NDB and NFB have better effects on drilling performance compared with that of NSB. Moreover, the high-pressure water jet is helpful not only to reduce the drill rod deflection, but also to reduce the probability of drill rod bending and improve the drill rod service life.

  7. Trade off study on different envelope detectors for B-mode imaging

    Schlaikjer, Malene; Bagge, J. P.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-01-01

    sum of the real and imaginary signals. The four detectors were evaluated on in-vivo data acquired with a B-K Medical 2102 scanner interfaced to the sampling system RASMINE. Three data sets were acquired with three different center frequencies. Hundred images were acquired as the transducer was moved......Generation of B-mode images involves envelope detection of the RF-signals. Various detection algorithms are available. A trade off between performance, price, and complexity determines the choice of algorithm in an ultrasound system. A Hilbert Transform (HT) and a subsequent computation...... of the magnitude give the ideal envelope, but the approach (IDE) is expensive and complex. A rectifier (REC) is a simple, low-cost solution, but the performance is severely degraded (especially in dynamic imaging). This study has investigated the possibility of providing a detector with a complexity and cost close...

  8. Selective exposure to information: how different modes of decision making affect subsequent confirmatory information processing.

    Fischer, Peter; Fischer, Julia; Weisweiler, Silke; Frey, Dieter

    2010-12-01

    We investigated whether different modes of decision making (deliberate, intuitive, distracted) affect subsequent confirmatory processing of decision-consistent and inconsistent information. Participants showed higher levels of confirmatory information processing when they made a deliberate or an intuitive decision versus a decision under distraction (Studies 1 and 2). As soon as participants have a cognitive (i.e., deliberate cognitive analysis) or affective (i.e., intuitive and gut feeling) reason for their decision, the subjective confidence in the validity of their decision increases, which results in increased levels of confirmatory information processing (Study 2). In contrast, when participants are distracted during decision making, they are less certain about the validity of their decision and thus are subsequently more balanced in the processing of decision-relevant information.

  9. Experimental studies of high-confinement mode plasma response to non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations in ASDEX Upgrade

    Suttrop, W.; Kirk, A.; Nazikian, R.; Leuthold, N.; Strumberger, E.; Willensdorfer, M.; Cavedon, M.; Dunne, M.; Fischer, R.; Fietz, S.; Fuchs, J. C.; Liu, Y. Q.; McDermott, R. M.; Orain, F.; Ryan, D. A.; Viezzer, E.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; The DIII-D Team; The Eurofusion MST1 Team

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of externally applied small non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations (MP) with tokamak high-confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas is reviewed and illustrated by recent experiments in ASDEX Upgrade. The plasma response to the vacuum MP field is amplified by stable ideal kink modes with low toroidal mode number n driven by the H-mode edge pressure gradient (and associated bootstrap current) which is experimentally evidenced by an observable shift of the poloidal mode number m away from field alignment (m  =  qn, with q being the safety factor) at the response maximum. A torque scan experiment demonstrates the importance of the perpendicular electron flow for shielding of the resonant magnetic perturbation, as expected from a two-fluid MHD picture. Two significant effects of MP occur in H-mode plasmas at low pedestal collisionality, ν \\text{ped}\\ast≤slant 0.4 : (a) a reduction of the global plasma density by up to 61 % and (b) a reduction of the energy loss associated with edge localised modes (ELMs) by a factor of up to 9. A comprehensive database of ELM mitigation pulses at low {ν\\ast} in ASDEX Upgrade shows that the degree of ELM mitigation correlates with the reduction of pedestal pressure which in turn is limited and defined by the onset of ELMs, i. e. a modification of the ELM stability limit by the magnetic perturbation.

  10. Effects of adding a virtual reality environment to different modes of treadmill walking.

    Sloot, L H; van der Krogt, M M; Harlaar, J

    2014-03-01

    Differences in gait between overground and treadmill walking are suggested to result from imposed treadmill speed and lack of visual flow. To counteract this effect, feedback-controlled treadmills that allow the subject to control the belt speed along with an immersive virtual reality (VR) have recently been developed. We studied the effect of adding a VR during both fixed speed (FS) and self-paced (SP) treadmill walking. Nineteen subjects walked on a dual-belt instrumented treadmill with a simple endless road projected on a 180° circular screen. A main effect of VR was found for hip flexion offset, peak hip extension, peak knee extension moment, knee flexion moment gain and ankle power during push off. A consistent interaction effect between VR and treadmill mode was found for 12 out of 30 parameters, although the differences were small and did not exceed 50% of the within subject stride variance. At FS, the VR seemed to slightly improve the walking pattern towards overground walking, with for example a 6.5mm increase in stride length. At SP, gait became slightly more cautious by adding a VR, with a 9.1mm decrease in stride length. Irrespective of treadmill mode, subjects rated walking with the VR as more similar to overground walking. In the context of clinical gait analysis, the effects of VR are too small to be relevant and are outweighed by the gains of adding a VR, such as a more stimulating experience and possibility of augmenting it by real-time feedback. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Theory of magnetoelectric effect in multilayer nanocomposites on a substrate: Resonant bending-mode response

    Matthias C. Krantz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Resonant bending-mode magnetoelectric (ME coefficients of magnetostrictive-piezoelectric multilayer cantilevers are calculated analytically using a model developed for arbitrary multilayers on a substrate. Without quality factor effects the ME coefficient maxima in the four-dimensional parameter space of layer numbers, layer sequences, piezoelectric volume fractions, and substrate thicknesses are found to be essentially constant for nonzero substrate thickness. Global maxima occur for bilayers without substrates. Vanishing magnetoelectric response regions result from voltage cancellation in piezoelectric layers or absence of bending-mode excitation. They are determined by the neutral plane position in the multilayer stack. With Q-factor effects dominated by viscous air damping ME coefficients strongly increase with cantilever thickness primarily due to increasing resonance frequencies. The results yield a layer specific prediction of ME coefficients, resonance frequencies, and Q-factors in arbitrary multilayers and thus distinction of linear-coupling and Q-factor effects from exchange interaction, interface, or nonlinear ME effects.

  12. Inferring the Mode of Selection from the Transient Response to Demographic Perturbations

    Balick, Daniel; Do, Ron; Reich, David; Sunyaev, Shamil

    2014-03-01

    Despite substantial recent progress in theoretical population genetics, most models work under the assumption of a constant population size. Deviations from fixed population sizes are ubiquitous in natural populations, many of which experience population bottlenecks and re-expansions. The non-equilibrium dynamics introduced by a large perturbation in population size are generally viewed as a confounding factor. In the present work, we take advantage of the transient response to a population bottleneck to infer features of the mode of selection and the distribution of selective effects. We develop an analytic framework and a corresponding statistical test that qualitatively differentiates between alleles under additive and those under recessive or more general epistatic selection. This statistic can be used to bound the joint distribution of selective effects and dominance effects in any diploid sexual organism. We apply this technique to human population genetic data, and severely restrict the space of allowed selective coefficients in humans. Additionally, one can test a set of functionally or medically relevant alleles for the primary mode of selection, or determine the local regional variation in dominance coefficients along the genome.

  13. Zonally asymmetric response of the Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth to the Southern Annular Mode

    Sallée, J. B.; Speer, K. G.; Rintoul, S. R.

    2010-04-01

    Interactions between the atmosphere and ocean are mediated by the mixed layer at the ocean surface. The depth of this layer is determined by wind forcing and heating from the atmosphere. Variations in mixed-layer depth affect the rate of exchange between the atmosphere and deeper ocean, the capacity of the ocean to store heat and carbon and the availability of light and nutrients to support the growth of phytoplankton. However, the response of the Southern Ocean mixed layer to changes in the atmosphere is not well known. Here we analyse temperature and salinity data from Argo profiling floats to show that the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the Southern Hemisphere, leads to large-scale anomalies in mixed-layer depth that are zonally asymmetric. From a simple heat budget of the mixed layer we conclude that meridional winds associated with departures of the SAM from zonal symmetry cause anomalies in heat flux that can, in turn, explain the observed changes of mixed-layer depth and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that changes in the SAM, including recent and projected trends attributed to human activity, drive variations in Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth, with consequences for air-sea exchange, ocean sequestration of heat and carbon, and biological productivity.

  14. Robust Adaptive Sliding Mode Control for Generalized Function Projective Synchronization of Different Chaotic Systems with Unknown Parameters

    Xiuchun Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When the parameters of both drive and response systems are all unknown, an adaptive sliding mode controller, strongly robust to exotic perturbations, is designed for realizing generalized function projective synchronization. Sliding mode surface is given and the controlled system is asymptotically stable on this surface with the passage of time. Based on the adaptation laws and Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive sliding controller is designed to ensure the occurrence of the sliding motion. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method even when both drive and response systems are perturbed with external disturbances.

  15. Thermoregulatory Responses to Graded Exercise Differ among Sasang Types

    Duong Duc Pham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared sweat rate and variables such as workload (We, metabolic heat production (Hprod, and temperature increment load (Tinc across Sasang types. 304 apparently healthy participants aged 20–49 years with their Sasang type determined were enrolled. Local sweat rates on the chest (LSRchest and back (LSRback were measured using a perspiration meter during a maximum treadmill exercise test. Oxygen uptake was measured continuously using a breath-by-breath mode indirect calorimeter. The TaeEum (TE type had a larger body size, a higher percent body fat, and a lower body area surface area (BSA to body mass compared with the other Sasang types, particularly the SoEum (SE type. The TE type tended to have a shorter exercise time to exhaustion and lower maximal oxygen uptake (mL·kg−1·min−1 than the other types. LSRchest in TE types was greater than that of the SE and SoYang (SY types in men, whereas LSRback was higher in the TE type than that of the other types in women. After normalizing LSR for We, Hprod, Tinc, and BSA, this tendency still remained. Our findings suggest that the thermoregulatory response to graded exercise may differ across Sasang types such that the TE type was the most susceptible to heat stress.

  16. Thermoregulatory Responses to Graded Exercise Differ among Sasang Types.

    Pham, Duong Duc; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Park, Eun Seok; Baek, Hyun Sung; Kim, Ga Yul; Lee, Young Boum; Ku, BonCho; Kim, Jong Yeol; Leem, Chae Hun

    2015-01-01

    We compared sweat rate and variables such as workload (W e ), metabolic heat production (H prod), and temperature increment load (T inc) across Sasang types. 304 apparently healthy participants aged 20-49 years with their Sasang type determined were enrolled. Local sweat rates on the chest (LSRchest) and back (LSRback) were measured using a perspiration meter during a maximum treadmill exercise test. Oxygen uptake was measured continuously using a breath-by-breath mode indirect calorimeter. The TaeEum (TE) type had a larger body size, a higher percent body fat, and a lower body area surface area (BSA) to body mass compared with the other Sasang types, particularly the SoEum (SE) type. The TE type tended to have a shorter exercise time to exhaustion and lower maximal oxygen uptake (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) than the other types. LSRchest in TE types was greater than that of the SE and SoYang (SY) types in men, whereas LSRback was higher in the TE type than that of the other types in women. After normalizing LSR for W e , H prod, T inc, and BSA, this tendency still remained. Our findings suggest that the thermoregulatory response to graded exercise may differ across Sasang types such that the TE type was the most susceptible to heat stress.

  17. Impulse Response of a 36-Core Few-Mode Photonic Lantern Hybrid Spatial-Multiplexer

    Rommel, Simon; Mendinueta, José Manuel Delgado; Klaus, Werner

    2017-01-01

    multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) equalization, provided mode-dependent loss (MDL) is small [3]. Furthermore, mode scrambling at the transmitter improves tolerance to MDL and maximizes system capacity if all supported modes are used to transmit information [3]. Thus, the MDL and mode mixing properties...... significant mode mixing to take place at the multicore few-mode fiber splice. Furthermore, insertion loss and MDL of the system are further analyzed.......Space division multiplexing (SDM) using fibers with multiple cores and/or supporting multiple modes has become an essential technology to support Pbit/s transmissions in a single fiber [1,2]. Despite significant mode-mixing in few-mode fibers (FMF), the original signals can be recovered through...

  18. Different Mode of Afferents Determines the Frequency Range of High Frequency Activities in the Human Brain: Direct Electrocorticographic Comparison between Peripheral Nerve and Direct Cortical Stimulation.

    Katsuya Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Physiological high frequency activities (HFA are related to various brain functions. Factors, however, regulating its frequency have not been well elucidated in humans. To validate the hypothesis that different propagation modes (thalamo-cortical vs. cortico-coritcal projections, or different terminal layers (layer IV vs. layer II/III affect its frequency, we, in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI, compared HFAs induced by median nerve stimulation with those induced by electrical stimulation of the cortex connecting to SI. We employed 6 patients who underwent chronic subdural electrode implantation for presurgical evaluation. We evaluated the HFA power values in reference to the baseline overriding N20 (earliest cortical response and N80 (late response of somatosensory evoked potentials (HFA(SEP(N20 and HFA(SEP(N80 and compared those overriding N1 and N2 (first and second responses of cortico-cortical evoked potentials (HFA(CCEP(N1 and HFA(CCEP(N2. HFA(SEP(N20 showed the power peak in the frequency above 200 Hz, while HFA(CCEP(N1 had its power peak in the frequency below 200 Hz. Different propagation modes and/or different terminal layers seemed to determine HFA frequency. Since HFA(CCEP(N1 and HFA induced during various brain functions share a similar broadband profile of the power spectrum, cortico-coritcal horizontal propagation seems to represent common mode of neural transmission for processing these functions.

  19. Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Drug Response

    E.M. Rodenburg (Eline)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn the early sixties, a prominent professor in Clinical Pharmacology at the University College in London, D.R. Laurence, stated: “There are no clinically important sex differences in drug action, except, of course, to sex steroid hormones, but the subject is poorly documented. Women

  20. Impact response analysis of cask for spent fuel by dimensional analysis and mode superposition method

    Kim, Y. J.; Kim, W. T.; Lee, Y. S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Due to the potentiality of accidents, the transportation safety of radioactive material has become extremely important in these days. The most important means of accomplishing the safety in transportation for radioactive material is the integrity of cask. The cask for spent fuel consists of a cask body and two impact limiters generally. The impact limiters are attached at the upper and the lower of the cask body. The cask comprises general requirements and test requirements for normal transport conditions and hypothetical accident conditions in accordance with IAEA regulations. Among the test requirements for hypothetical accident conditions, the 9 m drop test of dropping the cask from 9 m height to unyielding surface to get maximum damage becomes very important requirement because it can affect the structural soundness of the cask. So far the impact response analysis for 9 m drop test has been obtained by finite element method with complex computational procedure. In this study, the empirical equations of the impact forces for 9 m drop test are formulated by dimensional analysis. And then using the empirical equations the characteristics of material used for impact limiters are analysed. Also the dynamic impact response of the cask body is analysed using the mode superposition method and the analysis method is proposed. The results are also validated by comparing with previous experimental results and finite element analysis results. The present method is simpler than finite element method and can be used to predict the impact response of the cask

  1. Acupuncture induce the different modulation patterns of the default mode network: an fMRI study

    Liu, Peng; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie; Zhang, Yi

    2009-02-01

    According to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory and certain clinical treatment reports, the sustained effects of acupuncture indeed exist, which may last several minutes or hours. Furthermore, increased attention has fallen on the sustained effects of acupuncture. Recently, it is reported that the sustained acupuncture effects may alter the default mode network (DMN). It raises interesting questions: whether the modulations of acupuncture effects to the DMN are still detected at other acupoints and whether the modulation patterns are different induced by different acupoints. In the present study, we wanted to investigate the questions. An experiment fMRI design was carried out on 36 subjects with the electroacupuncture stimulation (EAS) at the three acupoints: Guangming (GB37), Kunlun (BL60) and Jiaoxin (KI8) on the left leg. The data sets were analyzed by a data driven method named independent component analysis (ICA). The results indicated that the three acupoints stimulations may modulate the DMN. Moreover, the modulation patterns were distinct. We suggest the different modulation patterns on the DMN may attribute to the distinct functional effects of acupoints.

  2. Atmospheric circulation response to anthropogenic forcings: from annular modes to storm tracks

    Oudar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Climate variability in mid and high latitudes is very complex due to numerous physical mechanisms implied. This climate variability can be decomposed into 2 components: the internal variability associated with internal processes and the forced variability linked to the external forcings which can be natural (volcanism, natural aerosols) or anthropogenic (greenhouse gases, anthropogenic aerosols). These external forcings play a crucial role on the climate and its variability. The challenge in the climate research is to understand their effects on the climate and their roles relatively with the internal variability. The objective of this thesis is a better understanding of the respective roles of internal variability and forced variability on the past and future atmospheric circulation in both hemispheres characterized by the annular mode and the synoptic activity associated using atmospheric reanalysis and experiments performed with the coupled climate model CNRM-CM5. First, we focus on the annular mode changes in both hemispheres, named the NAM (Northern Annular Mode) and the SAM (Southern Annular Mode). We show that the observed positive trend of the SAM in the 1960's in austral summer is well reproduced by the climate model. However, contrarily to other studies which suggest that this positive trend can be explained by only stratospheric ozone depletion, it is reproduced in the CNRM-CM5 model when the ozone depletion and greenhouse gases (GHG) increase are both prescribed. Then, we investigate the changes in the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation. These are more complex than in the Southern Hemisphere. Indeed, the increase of GHG in the atmosphere causes a general global warming maximum in the tropical high troposphere and over the pole at the surface which is mainly explained by Arctic sea ice loss. So the understanding of the changes is very complex due to several physical processes and retroactions. Thus, we have conducted a protocol with the coupled

  3. Response mode, compatibility, and dual-processes in the evaluation of simple gambles: An eye-tracking investigation

    Paul Slovic

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We employed simple gambles to investigate information processing in relation to the compatibility effect. Subjects should be more likely to engage in a deliberative thinking strategy when completing a pricing task rather than a rating task. We used eye-tracking methodology to measure information acquisition and processing in order to test the above hypothesis as well as to show that losses and alternatives with uncertain outcomes are more likely than gains and alternatives with sure outcomes to be processed through a deliberative thinking process. Results showed that pupil dilations, fixation duration and number of fixations increased when subjects evaluated the gambles with a pricing task. Additionally, the number of fixations increased as the gamble outcome became increasingly negative and when the outcome was uncertain (vs. sure. Fixations were also predictive of subjects' final evaluations of the gambles. We discuss our results in light of the cognitive processes underlying different response modes in economic preferences.

  4. Different modes of interaction by TIAR and HuR with target RNA and DNA.

    Kim, Henry S; Wilce, Matthew C J; Yoga, Yano M K; Pendini, Nicole R; Gunzburg, Menachem J; Cowieson, Nathan P; Wilson, Gerald M; Williams, Bryan R G; Gorospe, Myriam; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2011-02-01

    TIAR and HuR are mRNA-binding proteins that play important roles in the regulation of translation. They both possess three RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and bind to AU-rich elements (AREs), with seemingly overlapping specificity. Here we show using SPR that TIAR and HuR bind to both U-rich and AU-rich RNA in the nanomolar range, with higher overall affinity for U-rich RNA. However, the higher affinity for U-rich sequences is mainly due to faster association with U-rich RNA, which we propose is a reflection of the higher probability of association. Differences between TIAR and HuR are observed in their modes of binding to RNA. TIAR is able to bind deoxy-oligonucleotides with nanomolar affinity, whereas HuR affinity is reduced to a micromolar level. Studies with U-rich DNA reveal that TIAR binding depends less on the 2'-hydroxyl group of RNA than HuR binding. Finally we show that SAXS data, recorded for the first two domains of TIAR in complex with RNA, are more consistent with a flexible, elongated shape and not the compact shape that the first two domains of Hu proteins adopt upon binding to RNA. We thus propose that these triple-RRM proteins, which compete for the same binding sites in cells, interact with their targets in fundamentally different ways.

  5. Effects of different modes of exercise on appetite and appetite-regulating hormones.

    Kawano, Hiroshi; Mineta, Mayuko; Asaka, Meiko; Miyashita, Masashi; Numao, Shigeharu; Gando, Yuko; Ando, Takafumi; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2013-07-01

    The present study determined the changes in appetite and appetite-regulating gut hormones during and following bouts of both rope skipping exercise (weight-bearing) and bicycle ergometer exercise (non-weight-bearing). After a 12-h fast, 15 young men (mean ± SD, age 24.4 ± 1.7 yrs, maximal oxygen uptake 47.0 ± 6.5 mL/kg/min) participated in three 160 min trials: (1) rope skipping exercise (295 ± 40 kcal, 3 sets × 10 min with 5-min interval, then rested for 120 min); (2) bicycle ergometer exercise (288 ± 36 kcal, 3 sets × 10 min with 5-min interval, then rested for 120 min); (3) control (rested for 160 min). Ratings of perceived hunger and acylated ghrelin were suppressed and total peptide YY (PYY) were increased during and immediately after exercise in both exercise trials, but glucagon liked peptide-1 was not changed. Furthermore, suppressed hunger during rope skipping exercise was greater than that during bicycle ergometer exercise, but there were no differences in acylated ghrelin and total PYY. These results indicate that weight-bearing exercise has a greater exercise-induced appetite suppressive effect compared with non-weight-bearing exercise, and both forms of exercise lowered acylated ghrelin and increased total PYY, but the changes did not differ significantly between exercise modes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pathophysiological Characteristics Underlying Different Glucose Response Curves

    Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel R; Vistisen, Dorte

    2018-01-01

    different glucose curve patterns and studied their stability and reproducibility over 3 years of follow-up. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed data from participants without diabetes from the observational cohort from the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance: Relationship between Insulin...... and secretion. The glucose patterns identified at follow-up were similar to those at baseline, suggesting that the latent class method is robust. We integrated our classification model into an easy-to-use online application that facilitates the assessment of glucose curve patterns for other studies. CONCLUSIONS...... Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease study; participants had a five-time point OGTT at baseline (n = 1,443) and after 3 years (n = 1,045). Measures of insulin sensitivity and secretion were assessed at baseline with a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and intravenous glucose tolerance test. Heterogeneous...

  7. Effect of different curing modes on the degree of conversion and the microhardness of different composite restorations

    Reem Ali Ajaj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aims to evaluate the effects of different curing units and modes on the degree of conversion (DC and microhardness (MH of two different resin composites [ESTELITE ∑ QUICK (EQ, and Z350 XT (Z3]. Materials and Methods: One hundred (100 discs of each tested material were made and divided into two subgroups (n = 50 according to the discs′ dimensions: 5 mm diameter × 2 mm thickness, and 2 mm diameter × 2 mm thickness. Each subgroup was further subdivided into the following five classes (n = 10: I cured with halogen light curing-unit; II cured with light-emitting diode (LED unit; III cured with argon laser; IV cured with halogen light-curing unit for 5 s, 10 s rest followed by 20 s curing; and V cured with halogen light-curing unit for 10 s, then 10 s rest, followed by 10 s curing. The first subgroup was tested for MH using the Vickers Microhardness tester and the second subgroup was tested for DC using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey′s post hoc test P < 0.05. Results: Specimens in class IV showed the highest mean DC and MH, followed by class III, then class II. Class I showed significantly lower mean values for both DC and MH. On the other hand, Z3 showed statistically significantly higher mean DC and MH than EQ. Conclusion: Although the two tested composites did not perform similarly under the test conditions, curing with halogen unit for 5 s, then 10 s rest, followed by 10 s curing improved the DC and the MH of both the tested materials.

  8. Differences in the H-mode pedestal width of temperature and density

    Schneider, P A; Wolfrum, E; Günter, S; Kurzan, B; Lackner, K; Zohm, H; Groebner, R J; Osborne, T H; Ferron, J R; Snyder, P B; Beurskens, M N A; Dunne, M G

    2012-01-01

    A pedestal database was built using data from type-I ELMy H-modes of ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D and JET. ELM synchronized pedestal data were analysed with the two-line method. The two-line method is a bilinear fit which shows better reproducibility of pedestal parameters than a modified hyperbolic tangent fit. This was tested with simulated and experimental data. The influence of the equilibrium reconstruction on pedestal parameters was investigated with sophisticated reconstructions from CLISTE and EFIT including edge kinetic profiles. No systematic deviation between the codes could be observed. The flux coordinate system is influenced by machine size, poloidal field and plasma shape. This will change the representation of the width in different coordinates, in particular, the two normalized coordinates Ψ N and r/a show a very different dependence on the plasma shape. The scalings derived for the pedestal width, Δ, of all machines suggest a different scaling for the electron temperature and the electron density. Both cases show similar dependence with machine size, poloidal magnetic field and pedestal electron temperature and density. The influence of ion temperature and toroidal magnetic field is different on each of Δ T e and Δ n e . In dimensionless form the density pedestal width in Ψ N scales with ρ 0.6 i* , the temperature pedestal width with β p,ped 0.5 . Both widths also show a strong correlation with the plasma shape. The shape dependence originates from the coordinate transformation and is not visible in real space. The presented scalings predict that in ITER the temperature pedestal will be appreciably wider than the density pedestal. (paper)

  9. Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies.

    Jung, Sook; Cestaro, Alessandro; Troggio, Michela; Main, Dorrie; Zheng, Ping; Cho, Ilhyung; Folta, Kevin M; Sosinski, Bryon; Abbott, Albert; Celton, Jean-Marc; Arús, Pere; Shulaev, Vladimir; Verde, Ignazio; Morgante, Michele; Rokhsar, Daniel; Velasco, Riccardo; Sargent, Daniel James

    2012-04-04

    Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA) algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae.

  10. Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies

    Jung Sook

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Results Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Conclusion Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae.

  11. Cognitive and default-mode resting state networks: do male and female brains "rest" differently?

    Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Moayedi, Massieh; Taylor, Keri S; Pope, Geoff; Davis, Karen D

    2010-11-01

    Variability in human behavior related to sex is supported by neuroimaging studies showing differences in brain activation patterns during cognitive task performance. An emerging field is examining the human connectome, including networks of brain regions that are not only temporally-correlated during different task conditions, but also networks that show highly correlated spontaneous activity during a task-free state. Both task-related and task-free network activity has been associated with individual task performance and behavior under certain conditions. Therefore, our aim was to determine whether sex differences exist during a task-free resting state for two networks associated with cognitive task performance (executive control network (ECN), salience network (SN)) and the default mode network (DMN). Forty-nine healthy subjects (26 females, 23 males) underwent a 5-min task-free fMRI scan in a 3T MRI. An independent components analysis (ICA) was performed to identify the best-fit IC for each network based on specific spatial nodes defined in previous studies. To determine the consistency of these networks across subjects we performed self-organizing group-level ICA analyses. There were no significant differences between sexes in the functional connectivity of the brain areas within the ECN, SN, or the DMN. These important findings highlight the robustness of intrinsic connectivity of these resting state networks and their similarity between sexes. Furthermore, our findings suggest that resting state fMRI studies do not need to be controlled for sex. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. An experimental randomized study of six different ventilatory modes in a piglet model with normal lungs

    Nielsen, J B; Sjöstrand, U H; Henneberg, S W

    1991-01-01

    A randomized study of 6 ventilatory modes was made in 7 piglets with normal lungs. Using a Servo HFV 970 (prototype system) and a Servo ventilator 900 C the ventilatory modes examined were as follows: SV-20V, i.e. volume-controlled intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV); SV-20VIosc, i...... ventilatory modes. Also the mean airway pressures were lower with the HFV modes 8-9 cm H2O compared to 11-14 cm H2O for the other modes. The gas distribution was evaluated by N2 wash-out and a modified lung clearance index. All modes showed N2 wash-out according to a two-compartment model. The SV-20P mode had.......e. volume-controlled ventilation (IPPV) with superimposed inspiratory oscillations; and SV-20VEf, i.e. volume-controlled ventilation (IPPV) with expiratory flush of fresh gas; HFV-60 denotes low-compressive high-frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV) and HVF-20 denotes low-compressive volume...

  13. Elevation or Suppression? The Resolved Star Formation Main Sequence of Galaxies with Two Different Assembly Modes

    Liu, Qing; Wang, Enci; Lin, Zesen; Gao, Yulong; Liu, Haiyang; Berhane Teklu, Berzaf; Kong, Xu

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the spatially resolved star formation main sequence in star-forming galaxies using Integral Field Spectroscopic observations from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at the Apache Point Observatory survey. We demonstrate that the correlation between the stellar mass surface density (Σ*) and star formation rate surface density (ΣSFR) holds down to the sub-galactic scale, leading to the sub-galactic main sequence (SGMS). By dividing galaxies into two populations based on their recent mass assembly modes, we find the resolved main sequence in galaxies with the “outside-in” mode is steeper than that in galaxies with the “inside-out” mode. This is also confirmed on a galaxy-by-galaxy level, where we find the distributions of SGMS slopes for individual galaxies are clearly separated for the two populations. When normalizing and stacking the SGMS of individual galaxies on one panel for the two populations, we find that the inner regions of galaxies with the “inside-out” mode statistically exhibit a suppression in star formation, with a less significant trend in the outer regions of galaxies with the “outside-in” mode. In contrast, the inner regions of galaxies with “outside-in” mode and the outer regions of galaxies with “inside-out” mode follow a slightly sublinear scaling relation with a slope ∼0.9, which is in good agreement with previous findings, suggesting that they are experiencing a universal regulation without influences of additional physical processes.

  14. Vibration energy harvesting based on integrated piezoelectric components operating in different modes.

    Hu, Junhui; Jong, Januar; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2010-01-01

    To increase the vibration energy-harvesting capability of the piezoelectric generator based on a cantilever beam, we have proposed a piezoelectric generator that not only uses the strain change of piezoelectric components bonded on a cantilever beam, but also employs the weights at the tip of the cantilever beam to hit piezoelectric components located on the 2 sides of weights. A prototype of the piezoelectric generator has been fabricated and its characteristics have been measured and analyzed. The experimental results show that the piezoelectric components operating in the hit mode can substantially enhance the energy harvesting of the piezoelectric generator on a cantilever beam. Two methods are used and compared in the management of rectified output voltages from different groups of piezoelectric components. In one of them, the DC voltages from rectifiers are connected in series, and then the total DC voltage is applied to a capacitor. In another connection, the DC voltage from each group is applied to different capacitors. It is found that 22.3% of the harvested energy is wasted due to the series connection. The total output electric energy of our piezoelectric generator at nonresonance could be up to 43 nJ for one vibration excitation applied by spring, with initial vibration amplitude (0-p) of 18 mm and frequency of 18.5 Hz, when the rectified voltages from different groups of piezoelectric components are connected to their individual capacitors. In addition, the motion and impact of the weights at the tip of the cantilever beam are theoretically analyzed, which well explains the experimental phenomena and suggests the measures to improve the generator.

  15. Response of a hybrid pixel detector (MEDIPIX3) to different radiation sources for medical applications

    Chumacero, E. Miguel; De Celis Alonso, B.; Martínez Hernández, M. I.; Vargas, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E., E-mail: emoreno.emb@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Av. San Claudio y Rio Verde, Puebla (Mexico); Moreno Barbosa, F. [Hospital General del Sur Hospital de la Mujer, Puebla (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    The development in semiconductor CMOS technology has enabled the creation of sensitive detectors for a wide range of ionizing radiation. These devices are suitable for photon counting and can be used in imaging and tomography X-ray diagnostics. The Medipix[1] radiation detection system is a hybrid silicon pixel chip developed for particle tracking applications in High Energy Physics. Its exceptional features (high spatial and energy resolution, embedded ultra fast readout, different operation modes, etc.) make the Medipix an attractive device for applications in medical imaging. In this work the energy characterization of a third-generation Medipix chip (Medipix3) coupled to a silicon sensor is presented. We used different radiation sources (strontium 90, iron 55 and americium 241) to obtain the response curve of the hybrid detector as a function of energy. We also studied the contrast of the Medipix as a measure of pixel noise. Finally we studied the response to fluorescence X rays from different target materials (In, Pd and Cd) for the two data acquisition modes of the chip; single pixel mode and charge summing mode.

  16. Does the casting mode influence microstructure, fracture and properties of different metal ceramic alloys?

    Bauer, José Roberto de Oliveira; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda; Rodrigues-Filho, Leonardo Eloy; Pinto, Marcelo Mendes; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the tensile strength, elongation, microhardness, microstructure and fracture pattern of various metal ceramic alloys cast under different casting conditions. Two Ni-Cr alloys, Co-Cr and Pd-Ag were used. The casting conditions were as follows: electromagnetic induction under argon atmosphere, vacuum, using blowtorch without atmosphere control. For each condition, 16 specimens, each measuring 25 mm long and 2.5 mm in diameter, were obtained. Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation (EL) tests were performed using a Kratos machine. Vickers Microhardness (VM), fracture mode and microstructure were analyzed by SEM. UTS, EL and VM data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. For UTS, alloy composition had a direct influence on casting condition of alloys (Wiron 99 and Remanium CD), with higher values shown when cast with Flame/Air (p casting condition" influenced the EL and VM results, generally presenting opposite results, i.e., alloy with high elongation value had lower hardness (Wiron 99), and casting condition with the lowest EL values had the highest VM values (blowtorch). Both factors had significant influence on the properties evaluated, and prosthetic laboratories should select the appropriate casting method for each alloy composition to obtain the desired property.

  17. Influence of high-frequency electromagnetic fields on different modes of cell death and gene expression.

    Port, M; Abend, M; Römer, B; Van Beuningen, D

    2003-09-01

    International thresholds for exposure to non-ionizing radiation leading to non-thermal effects were conservatively set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The aim of this study was to examine whether biological effects such as different modes of cell death and gene expression modifications related to tumorgenesis are detectable above the threshold defined. Human leukaemia cells (HL-60) grown in vitro were exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF; t 1/2(r) about 1 ns; field strength about 25 times higher than the ICNIRP reference levels for occupational exposure) leading to non-thermal effects using a high-voltage-improved GTEM cell 5302 (EMCO) connected to a pulse generator NP20 (C = 1 nF, U(Load) = 20kV). HL-60 cells were harvested at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after radiation exposure. Micronuclei, apoptosis and abnormal cells (e.g. necrosis) were determined using morphological criteria. In parallel, the expression of 1176 genes was measured using Atlas Human 1.2. Array. Based on high data reproducibility calculated from two independent experiments (> 99%), array analysis was performed. No significant change in apoptosis, micronucleation, abnormal cells and differential gene expression was found. Exposure of HL-60 cells to EMFs 25 times higher than the ICNIRP reference levels for occupational exposure failed to induce any changes in apoptosis, micronucleation, abnormal morphologies and gene expression. Further experiments using EMFs above the conservatively defined reference level set by the ICNIRP may be desirable.

  18. Sex Differences in Jealousy in Response to Actual Infidelity

    John E. Edlund

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present studies address two criticisms of the theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy: (a that the sex difference in jealousy emerges only in response to hypothetical infidelity scenarios, and (b that the sex difference emerges only using forced-choice measures. In two separate studies, one a paper-and-pencil survey with a student sample and the other a web-based survey targeting a non-student sample, men and women showed significant sex differences in jealousy in response to actual infidelity experiences; men experienced more jealousy in response to the sexual aspects of an actual infidelity, whereas women experienced more jealousy in response to the emotional aspects of the infidelity. Sex differences emerged using both continuous measures of jealousy as well as the traditional forced-choice measure. Overall, our results demonstrate that sex differences in jealousy are not limited to responses to hypothetical infidelity scenarios; they also emerge in response to actual infidelity experiences.

  19. Influence of Different Coupling Modes on the Robustness of Smart Grid under Targeted Attack

    WenJie Kang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Many previous works only focused on the cascading failure of global coupling of one-to-one structures in interdependent networks, but the local coupling of dual coupling structures has rarely been studied due to its complex structure. This will result in a serious consequence that many conclusions of the one-to-one structure may be incorrect in the dual coupling network and do not apply to the smart grid. Therefore, it is very necessary to subdivide the dual coupling link into a top-down coupling link and a bottom-up coupling link in order to study their influence on network robustness by combining with different coupling modes. Additionally, the power flow of the power grid can cause the load of a failed node to be allocated to its neighboring nodes and trigger a new round of load distribution when the load of these nodes exceeds their capacity. This means that the robustness of smart grids may be affected by four factors, i.e., load redistribution, local coupling, dual coupling link and coupling mode; however, the research on the influence of those factors on the network robustness is missing. In this paper, firstly, we construct the smart grid as a two-layer network with a dual coupling link and divide the power grid and communication network into many subnets based on the geographical location of their nodes. Secondly, we define node importance ( N I as an evaluation index to access the impact of nodes on the cyber or physical network and propose three types of coupling modes based on N I of nodes in the cyber and physical subnets, i.e., Assortative Coupling in Subnets (ACIS, Disassortative Coupling in Subnets (DCIS, and Random Coupling in Subnets (RCIS. Thirdly, a cascading failure model is proposed for studying the effect of local coupling of dual coupling link in combination with ACIS, DCIS, and RCIS on the robustness of the smart grid against a targeted attack, and the survival rate of functional nodes is used to assess the robustness of

  20. Influence of Different Coupling Modes on the Robustness of Smart Grid under Targeted Attack.

    Kang, WenJie; Hu, Gang; Zhu, PeiDong; Liu, Qiang; Hang, Zhi; Liu, Xin

    2018-05-24

    Many previous works only focused on the cascading failure of global coupling of one-to-one structures in interdependent networks, but the local coupling of dual coupling structures has rarely been studied due to its complex structure. This will result in a serious consequence that many conclusions of the one-to-one structure may be incorrect in the dual coupling network and do not apply to the smart grid. Therefore, it is very necessary to subdivide the dual coupling link into a top-down coupling link and a bottom-up coupling link in order to study their influence on network robustness by combining with different coupling modes. Additionally, the power flow of the power grid can cause the load of a failed node to be allocated to its neighboring nodes and trigger a new round of load distribution when the load of these nodes exceeds their capacity. This means that the robustness of smart grids may be affected by four factors, i.e., load redistribution, local coupling, dual coupling link and coupling mode; however, the research on the influence of those factors on the network robustness is missing. In this paper, firstly, we construct the smart grid as a two-layer network with a dual coupling link and divide the power grid and communication network into many subnets based on the geographical location of their nodes. Secondly, we define node importance ( N I ) as an evaluation index to access the impact of nodes on the cyber or physical network and propose three types of coupling modes based on N I of nodes in the cyber and physical subnets, i.e., Assortative Coupling in Subnets (ACIS), Disassortative Coupling in Subnets (DCIS), and Random Coupling in Subnets (RCIS). Thirdly, a cascading failure model is proposed for studying the effect of local coupling of dual coupling link in combination with ACIS, DCIS, and RCIS on the robustness of the smart grid against a targeted attack, and the survival rate of functional nodes is used to assess the robustness of the smart grid

  1. Optimal design for crosstalk analysis in 12-core 5-LP mode homogeneous multicore fiber for different lattice structure

    Kumar, Dablu; Ranjan, Rakesh

    2018-03-01

    12-Core 5-LP mode homogeneous multicore fibers have been proposed for analysis of inter-core crosstalk and dispersion, with four different lattice structures (circular, 2-ring, square lattice, and triangular lattice) having cladding diameter of 200 μm and a fixed cladding thickness of 35 μm. The core-to-core crosstalk impact has been studied numerically with respect to bending radius, core pitch, transmission distance, wavelength, and core diameter for all 5-LP modes. In anticipation of further reduction in crosstalk levels, the trench-assisted cores have been incorporated for all respective designs. Ultra-low crosstalk (-138 dB/100 km) has been achieved through the triangular lattice arrangement, with trench depth Δ2 = -1.40% for fundamental (LP01) mode. It has been noted that the impact of mode polarization on crosstalk behavior is minor, with difference in crosstalk levels between two polarized spatial modes as ≤0.2 dB. Moreover, the optimized cladding diameter has been obtained for all 5-LP modes for a target value of crosstalk of -50 dB/100 km, with all the core arrangements. The dispersion characteristic has also been analyzed with respect to wavelength, which is nearly 2.5 ps/nm km at operating wavelength 1550 nm. The relative core multiplicity factor (RCMF) for the proposed design is obtained as 64.

  2. Influence of Different Etching Modes on Bond Strength to Enamel using Universal Adhesive Systems.

    Diniz, Ana Cs; Bandeca, Matheus C; Pinheiro, Larissa M; Dos Santosh Almeida, Lauber J; Torres, Carlos Rg; Borges, Alvaro H; Pinto, Shelon Cs; Tonetto, Mateus R; De Jesus Tavarez, Rudys R; Firoozmand, Leily M

    2016-10-01

    The adhesive systems and the techniques currently used are designed to provide a more effective adhesion with reduction of the protocol application. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of universal adhesive systems on enamel in different etching modes (self-etch and total etch). The mesial and distal halves of 52 bovine incisors, healthy, freshly extracted, were used and divided into seven experimental groups (n = 13). The enamel was treated in accordance with the following experimental conditions: FUE-Universal System - Futurabond U (VOCO) with etching; FUWE - Futurabond U (VOCO) without etching; SB-Total Etch System - Single Bond 2 (3M); SBUE-Universal System - Single Bond Universal (3M ESPE) with etching; SBUWE - Single Bond Universal (3M ESPE) without etching; CLE-Self-etch System - Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray) was applied with etching; CLWE - Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray) without etching. The specimens were made using the composite spectrum TPH (Dentsply) and stored in distilled water (37 ± 1°C) for 1 month. The microshear test was performed using the universal testing machine EMIC DL 2000 with the crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The bond strength values were analyzed using statistical tests (Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test) with Bonferroni correction. There was no statistically significant difference between groups (p adhesive interface revealed that most failures occurred between the interface composite resin and adhesive. The universal adhesive system used in dental enamel varies according to the trademark, and the previous enamel etching for universal systems and the self-etch both induced greater bond strength values. Selective enamel etching prior to the application of a universal adhesive system is a relevant strategy for better performance bonding.

  3. Different shades of default mode disturbance in schizophrenia: Subnodal covariance estimation in structure and function.

    Lefort-Besnard, Jérémy; Bassett, Danielle S; Smallwood, Jonathan; Margulies, Daniel S; Derntl, Birgit; Gruber, Oliver; Aleman, Andre; Jardri, Renaud; Varoquaux, Gaël; Thirion, Bertrand; Eickhoff, Simon B; Bzdok, Danilo

    2018-02-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disease with an apparent disruption in the highly associative default mode network (DMN). Interplay between this canonical network and others probably contributes to goal-directed behavior so its disturbance is a candidate neural fingerprint underlying schizophrenia psychopathology. Previous research has reported both hyperconnectivity and hypoconnectivity within the DMN, and both increased and decreased DMN coupling with the multimodal saliency network (SN) and dorsal attention network (DAN). This study systematically revisited network disruption in patients with schizophrenia using data-derived network atlases and multivariate pattern-learning algorithms in a multisite dataset (n = 325). Resting-state fluctuations in unconstrained brain states were used to estimate functional connectivity, and local volume differences between individuals were used to estimate structural co-occurrence within and between the DMN, SN, and DAN. In brain structure and function, sparse inverse covariance estimates of network coupling were used to characterize healthy participants and patients with schizophrenia, and to identify statistically significant group differences. Evidence did not confirm that the backbone of the DMN was the primary driver of brain dysfunction in schizophrenia. Instead, functional and structural aberrations were frequently located outside of the DMN core, such as in the anterior temporoparietal junction and precuneus. Additionally, functional covariation analyses highlighted dysfunctional DMN-DAN coupling, while structural covariation results highlighted aberrant DMN-SN coupling. Our findings reframe the role of the DMN core and its relation to canonical networks in schizophrenia. We thus underline the importance of large-scale neural interactions as effective biomarkers and indicators of how to tailor psychiatric care to single patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Numerical Study of the Dynamic Response of Heat and Mass Transfer to Operation Mode Switching of a Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell

    Hong Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge concerning the complicated changes of mass and heat transfer is desired to improve the performance and durability of unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs. In this study, a transient, non-isothermal, single-phase, and multi-physics mathematical model for a URFC based on the proton exchange membrane is generated to investigate transient responses in the process of operation mode switching from fuel cell (FC to electrolysis cell (EC. Various heat generation mechanisms, including Joule heat, reaction heat, and the heat attributed to activation polarizations, have been considered in the transient model coupled with electrochemical reaction and mass transfer in porous electrodes. The polarization curves of the steady-state models are validated by experimental data in the literatures. Numerical results reveal that current density, gas mass fractions, and temperature suddenly change with the sudden change of operating voltage in the mode switching process. The response time of temperature is longer than that of current density and gas mass fractions. In both FC and EC modes, the cell temperature and gradient of gas mass fraction in the oxygen side are larger than that in the hydrogen side. The temperature difference of the entire cell is less than 1.5 K. The highest temperature appears at oxygen-side catalyst layer under the FC mode and at membrane under a more stable EC mode. The cell is exothermic all the time. These dynamic responses and phenomena have important implications for heat analysis and provide proven guidelines for the improvement of URFCs mode switching.

  5. Reproducibility of trabecular bone score with different scan modes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: a phantom study

    Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milano (Italy); Di Leo, Giovanni [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Pastor Lopez, Maria Juana; Ulivieri, Fabio M. [Servizio di Medicina Nucleare, Ospedale Maggiore, Mineralometria Ossea Computerizzata e Ambulatorio Malattie Metabolismo Minerale e Osseo, Milano (Italy); Mai, Alessandro [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Tecniche di Radiologia Medica, per Immagini e Radioterapia, Milano (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2014-08-12

    The trabecular bone score (TBS) accounts for the bone microarchitecture and is calculated on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We estimated the reproducibility of the TBS using different scan modes compared to the reproducibility bone mineral density (BMD). A spine phantom was used with a Hologic QDR-Discovery A densitometer. For each scan mode [fast array, array, high definition (HD)], 25 scans were automatically performed without phantom repositioning; a further 25 scans were performed with phantom repositioning. For each scan, the TBS was obtained. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated as the ratio between standard deviation and mean; percent least significant change (LSC%) as 2.8 x CoV; reproducibility as the complement to 100 % of LSC%. Differences among scan modes were assessed using ANOVA. Without phantom repositioning, the mean TBS (mm{sup -1}) was: 1.352 (fast array), 1.321 (array), and 1.360 (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 1.345, 1.332, and 1.362, respectively. Reproducibility of the TBS without phantom repositioning was 97.7 % (fast array), 98.3 % (array), and 98.2 % (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 97.9 %, 98.7 %, and 98.4 %, respectively. LSC% was ≤2.26 %. Differences among scan modes were all statistically significant (p ≤ 0.019). Reproducibility of BMD was 99.1 % with all scan modes, while LSC% was from 0.86 % to 0.91 %. Reproducibility error of the TBS was 2-3-fold higher than that of BMD. Although statistically significant, differences in TBS among scan modes were within the highest LSC%. Thus, the three scan modes can be considered interchangeable. (orig.)

  6. [Distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon under different forest restoration modes on opencast coal mine dump].

    Wen, Yue-rong; Dang, Ting-hui; Tang, Jun; Li, Jun-chao

    2016-01-01

    The content and storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) were compared in six wood restoration modes and adjacent abandoned land on opencast coal mine dump, and the mechanisms behind the differences and their influencing factors were analyzed. Results showed that the contents of SOC in six wood lands were significantly higher (23.8%-53.2%) than that of abandoned land (1.92 g · kg⁻¹) at 0-10 cm soil depth, the index were significantly higher (5.8%-70.4%) at 10-20 cm soil depth than the abandoned land (1.39 g · kg⁻¹), and then the difference of the contents of SOC in the deep soil (20-100 cm) were not significant. The contents of SOC decreased with increase of soil depth, but the decreasing magnitude of the topsoil (0-20 cm) was higher than that of the deep soil (20-100 cm). Compared with the deep soil, the topsoil significant higer storage of SOC in different woods, the SOC storage decreased with the soil depth. Along the 0-100 cm soil layer, the storage of SOC in six wood lands higher (18.1%-42.4%) than that of the abandoned land (17.52 t · hm⁻²). The SOC storage of Amorpha fruticosa land (24.95 t · hm⁻²) was obviously higher than that in the other wood lands. The SOC storage in the shrub lands was 12.4% higher than that of the arbor woods. There were significantly positive correlations among forest litter, fine root biomass, soil water content and SOC on the dump. Consequently, different plantation restorations significantly improved the SOC level on the dump in 0-100 cm soil, especially the topsoil. But there was still a big gap about SOC level between the wood restoration lands and the original landform. To improve the SOC on opencast coal mine dump, A. fruticosa could be selected as the main wood vegetation.

  7. Waveguide resonance mode response of stacked structures of metallic sub-wavelength slit arrays

    Tokuda, Yasunori; Takano, Keisuke; Sakaguchi, Koichiro; Kato, Kosaku; Nakajima, Makoto; Akiyama, Koichi

    2018-05-01

    Detailed measurements of the optical properties of two-tier systems composed of metallic plates perforated with periodic sub-wavelength slit patterns were carried out using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the transmission properties observed experimentally for various configurations can be reproduced successfully by simulations based on the finite-differential time-domain method. Fabry-Perot-like waveguide resonance mode behaviors specific to this quasi-dielectric system were then investigated. For structures with no lateral displacement between the slit-array plates, mode disappearance phenomena, which are caused by destructive interference between the odd-order mode and the blue- or red-shifted even-order modes, were observed experimentally. The uncommon behavior of the even-order modes was examined precisely to explain the slit-width dependence. For structures with half-pitched displacement between the plates, extraordinarily strong transmission was observed experimentally, even when the optical paths were shut off. This result was interpreted in terms of the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons through very thin and labyrinthine spacings that inevitably exist between the metallic plates. Furthermore, the optical mode disappearance phenomena are revealed to be characterized by anticrossing of the two mixing modes formed by even- and odd-order modes. These experimental observations that are supported theoretically are indispensable to the practical use of this type of artificial dielectric and are expected to encourage interest in optical mode behaviors that are not typically observed in conventional dielectric systems.

  8. An examination of the default mode network in individuals with autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR).

    Smith, Stephen D; Katherine Fredborg, Beverley; Kornelsen, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) is a perceptual condition in which specific visual and auditory stimuli consistently trigger tingling sensations on the scalp and neck, sometimes spreading to the back and limbs. These triggering stimuli are often social, almost intimate, in nature (e.g., hearing whispering, or watching someone brush her hair), and often elicit a calm and positive emotional state. Surprisingly, despite its prevalence in the general population, no published study has examined the neural underpinnings of ASMR. In the current study, the default mode network (DMN) of 11 individuals with ASMR was contrasted to that of 11 matched controls. The results indicated that the DMN of individuals with ASMR showed significantly less functional connectivity than that of controls. The DMN of individuals with ASMR also demonstrated increased connectivity between regions in the occipital, frontal, and temporal cortices, suggesting that ASMR was associated with a blending of multiple resting-state networks. This atypical functional connectivity likely influences the unique sensory-emotional experiences associated with ASMR.

  9. Electromechanical response and failure modes of a dielectric elastomer tube actuator with boundary constraints

    Zhou, Jianyou; Jiang, Liying; Khayat, Roger E

    2014-01-01

    As a widely used configuration for dielectric elastomer (DE) actuators, DE tube actuators (or cylindrical actuators) are also found to be susceptible to electromechanical instability (EMI), which may lead to a premature electrical breakdown (EB), and inhibit the potential actuation of DE actuators. This work investigates the electromechanical response of a DE tube actuator with and without boundary constraints to demonstrate an alternative to avoid EMI while achieving large actuation. Our simulation results based on the Gent strain energy model show that the EMI of a DE tube actuator can be eliminated, and larger actuation deformation can be achieved by applying boundary constraints. As a result of these constraints, consideration is also given to the possible mechanical buckling failure that may occur. Mechanisms of possible failure modes of constrained and unconstrained DE tube actuators, such as electromechanical instability, electrical breakdown and mechanical buckling, are elucidated. This paper should provide better theoretical guidance on how to improve the actuation performance of DE actuators, thus leading to the optimal design of DE-based devices. (paper)

  10. [Microbial biomass and growth kinetics of microorganisms in chernozem soils under different farm land use modes].

    Blagodatskiĭ, S A; Bogomolova, I N; Blagodatskaia, E V

    2008-01-01

    The carbon content of microbial biomass and the kinetic characteristics of microbial respiration response to substrate introduction have been estimated for chernozem soils of different farm lands: arable lands used for 10, 46, and 76 years, mowed fallow land, non-mowed fallow land, and woodland. Microbial biomass and the content of microbial carbon in humus (Cmic/Corg) decreased in the following order: soils under forest cenoses-mowed fallow land-10-year arable land-46- and 75-year arable land. The amount of microbial carbon in the long-plowed horizon was 40% of its content in the upper horizon of non-mowed fallow land. Arable soils were characterized by a lower metabolic diversity of microbial community and by the highest portion of microorganisms able to grow directly on glucose introduced into soil. The effects of different scenarios of carbon sequestration in soil on the reserves and activity of microbial biomass are discussed.

  11. Effects of Different Exercise Modes on Arterial Stiffness and Nitric Oxide Synthesis.

    Hasegawa, Natsuki; Fujie, Shumpei; Horii, Naoki; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri; Tsuji, Katsunori; Uchida, Masataka; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Tabata, Izumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2018-06-01

    Aerobic training (AT) and high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) reduce arterial stiffness, whereas resistance training (RT) induces deterioration of or no change in arterial stiffness. However, the molecular mechanism of these effects of different exercise modes remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the difference of different exercise effects on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling pathway and arterial stiffness in rats and humans. In the animal study, forty 10-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sedentary control (CON), AT (treadmill running, 60 min at 30 m·min, 5 d·wk for 8 wk), RT (ladder climbing, 8-10 sets per day, 3 d·wk for 8 wk), and HIIT (14 repeats of 20-s swimming session with 10-s pause between sessions, 4 d·wk for 6 wk from 12-wk-old) groups (n = 10 in each group). In the human study, we confirmed the effects of 6-wk HIIT and 8-wk AT interventions on central arterial stiffness and plasma nitrite/nitrate level in untrained healthy young men in randomized controlled trial (HIIT, AT, and CON; n = 7 in each group). In the animal study, the effect on aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), as an index of central arterial stiffness, after HIIT was the same as the decrease in aortic PWV and increase in arterial eNOS/Akt phosphorylation after AT, which was not changed by RT. A negative correlation between aortic PWV and eNOS phosphorylation was observed (r = -0.38, P HIIT- and AT-induced changes in carotid-femoral PWV (HIIT -115.3 ± 63.4 and AT -157.7 ± 45.7 vs CON 71.3 ± 61.1 m·s, each P HIIT may reduce central arterial stiffness via the increase in aortic nitric oxide bioavailability despite it being done in a short time and short term and has the same effects as AT.

  12. Effect of composite resin polymerization modes on temperature rise in human dentin of different thicknesses: an in vitro study

    Baggio Aguiar, Flavio Henrique; Kanda Peres Barros, Gisele; Alves Nunes Leite Lima, Debora; Bovi Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria; Lovadino, Jose Roberto

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different polymerization modes on temperature rise in human dentin of different thicknesses, and to evaluate the relation between dentin thickness and temperature rise (TR). For this purpose, 60 specimens were assigned into 20 groups (n = 3): five polymerization modes (1-conventional; 2-soft-start; 3-high intensity; 4-ramp cure: progressive and high intensity; 5-high intensity with the tip of the light-curing unit at a distance of 1.3 cm for 10 s and the tip leaning on the sample) at four dentin thicknesses (0, 1, 2, 3 mm). During composite sample polymerization (2 mm), the temperature was measured by a digital laser thermometer (CMSS2000-SL/SKF). The statistical analyses were conducted by ANOVA (p = 0.05) and post-hoc Tukey's test. There were statistical differences of TR among polymerization modes and dentin thicknesses. The temperature rise was dependent on the polymerization mode and the dentin thickness: the thicker the dentin and the lower the polymerization mode energy, the lower the temperature rise

  13. Infections by pathogens with different transmission modes in feral cats from urban and rural areas of Korea.

    Hwang, Jusun; Gottdenker, Nicole; Oh, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Hang; Chun, Myung-Sun

    2017-12-31

    In this study, we examine prevalences of three infectious pathogens with different transmission modes ( Bartonella henselae , hemoplasma, and Toxoplasma gondii ) in feral cats from urban and rural habitats. Infection status of the three pathogens in blood samples (n = 117) was determined through molecular or serological diagnostic methods. Overall prevalence of hemoplasma, Toxoplasma gondii , and Bartonella henselae was 47.9%, 50%, and 35.7%, respectively. Comparing the two habitats, only seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae was significantly higher in urban cats. Based on the results, we discuss how pathogens with distinct transmission modes may show different prevalence between urban and rural habitat types.

  14. Network-based analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations between different inheritance modes.

    Hao, Dapeng; Li, Chuanxing; Zhang, Shaojun; Lu, Jianping; Jiang, Yongshuai; Wang, Shiyuan; Zhou, Meng

    2014-11-15

    Recent studies on human disease have revealed that aberrant interaction between proteins probably underlies a substantial number of human genetic diseases. This suggests a need to investigate disease inheritance mode using interaction, and based on which to refresh our conceptual understanding of a series of properties regarding inheritance mode of human disease. We observed a strong correlation between the number of protein interactions and the likelihood of a gene causing any dominant diseases or multiple dominant diseases, whereas no correlation was observed between protein interaction and the likelihood of a gene causing recessive diseases. We found that dominant diseases are more likely to be associated with disruption of important interactions. These suggest inheritance mode should be understood using protein interaction. We therefore reviewed the previous studies and refined an interaction model of inheritance mode, and then confirmed that this model is largely reasonable using new evidences. With these findings, we found that the inheritance mode of human genetic diseases can be predicted using protein interaction. By integrating the systems biology perspectives with the classical disease genetics paradigm, our study provides some new insights into genotype-phenotype correlations. haodapeng@ems.hrbmu.edu.cn or biofomeng@hotmail.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. [Effects of different trophic modes on growth characteristics, metabolism and cellular components of Chlorella vulgaris].

    Kong, Weibao; Wang, Yang; Yang, Hong; Xi, Yuqin; Han, Rui; Niu, Shiquan

    2015-03-04

    We studied the effects of trophic modes related to glucose and light (photoautotrophy, mixotrophy and heterotrophy) on growth, cellular components and carbon metabolic pathway of Chlorella vulgaris. The parameters about growth of algal cells were investigated by using spectroscopy and chromatography techniques. When trophic mode changed from photoautotrophy to mixotrophy and to heterotrophy successively, the concentrations of soluble sugar, lipid and saturated C16/C18 fatty acids in C. vulgaris increased, whereas the concentrations of unsaturated C16, C18 fatty acids, proteins, photosynthetic pigments and 18 relative amino acids decreased. Light and glucose affect the growth, metabolism and the biochemical components biosynthesis of C. vulgaris. Addition of glucose can promote algal biomass accumulation, stimulate the synthesis of carbonaceous components, but inhibit nitrogenous components. Under illumination cultivation, concentration and consumption level of glucose decided the main trophic modes of C. vulgaris. Mixotrophic and heterotrophic cultivation could promote the growth of algal cells.

  16. Correlations of Male College Students' Verbal Response Mode Use in Psychotherapy with Measures of Psychological Disturbance and Psychotherapy Outcome.

    McDaniel, Susan H.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Compared verbal response mode use by male students with measures of clients' psychological distress, disturbance, and change. Results indicated more distressed clients used a higher percentage of disclosures and lower percentage of edifications, clients who improved more participated more, no relationship between improvement in psychotherapy and…

  17. Experimental and numerical investigations of higher mode effects on seismic inelastic response of reinforced concrete shear walls

    Ghorbanirenani, Iman

    This thesis presents two experimental programs together with companion numerical studies that were carried out on reinforced concrete shear walls: static tests and dynamic (shake table) tests. The first series of experiments were monotonic and cyclic quasi-static testing on ductile reinforced concrete shear wall specimens designed and detailed according to the seismic provisions of NBCC 2005 and CSA-A23.3-04 standard. The tests were carried out on full-scale and 1:2.37 reduced scale wall specimens to evaluate the seismic design provisions and similitude law and determine the appropriate scaling factor that could be applied for further studies such as dynamic tests. The second series of experiments were shake table tests conducted on two identical 1:2.33 scaled, 8-storey moderately ductile reinforced concrete shear wall specimens to investigate the effects of higher modes on the inelastic response of slender walls under high frequency ground motions expected in Eastern North America. The walls were designed and detailed according to the seismic provisions of NBCC 2005 and CSA-A23.3-04 standard. The objectives were to validate and understand the inelastic response and interaction of shear, flexure and axial loads in plastic hinge zones of the walls considering the higher mode effects and to investigate the formation of second hinge in upper part of the wall due to higher mode responses. Second mode response significantly affected the response of the walls. This caused inelastic flexural response to develop at the 6th level with approximately the same rotation ductility compared to that observed at the base. Dynamic amplification of the base shear forces was also observed in both walls. Numerical modeling of these two shake table tests was performed to evaluate the test results and validate current modeling approaches. Nonlinear time history analyses were carried out by the reinforced concrete fibre element (OpenSees program) and finite element (VecTor2 program

  18. An experimental randomized study of six different ventilatory modes in a piglet model with normal lungs

    Nielsen, J B; Sjöstrand, U H; Henneberg, S W

    1991-01-01

    -controlled intermittent positive-pressure ventilation; and SV-20P denotes pressure-controlled intermittent positive-pressure ventilation. With all modes of ventilation a PEEP of 7.5 cm H2O was used. In the abbreviations used, the number denotes the ventilatory frequency in breaths per minute (bpm). HFV indicates that all...

  19. Usability Assessment of Two Different Control Modes for the Master Console of a Laparoscopic Surgical Robot

    Xiaoli Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate potential interface control modes for a compact four-degree-of-freedom (4-DOF surgical robot. The goal is to improve robot usability by incorporating a sophisticated haptics-capable interface. Two control modes were developed using a commercially available haptic joystick: (1 a virtually point-constrained interface providing an analog for constrained laparoscopic motion (3-DOF rotation and 1-DOF translation, and (2 an unconstrained Cartesian input interface mapping more directly to the surgical tool tip motions. Subjects (n = 5 successfully performed tissue identification and manipulation tasks in an animal model in point-constrained and unconstrained control modes, respectively, with speed roughly equal to that achieved in similar manual procedures, and without a steep learning curve. The robot control was evaluated through bench-top tests and a subsequent qualitative questionnaire (n = 15. The results suggest that the unconstrained control mode was preferred for both camera guidance and tool manipulations.

  20. Fear on the move: predator hunting mode predicts variation in prey mortality and plasticity in prey spatial response.

    Miller, Jennifer R B; Ament, Judith M; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2014-01-01

    Ecologists have long searched for a framework of a priori species traits to help predict predator-prey interactions in food webs. Empirical evidence has shown that predator hunting mode and predator and prey habitat domain are useful traits for explaining predator-prey interactions. Yet, individual experiments have yet to replicate predator hunting mode, calling into question whether predator impacts can be attributed to hunting mode or merely species identity. We tested the effects of spider predators with sit-and-wait, sit-and-pursue and active hunting modes on grasshopper habitat domain, activity and mortality in a grassland system. We replicated hunting mode by testing two spider predator species of each hunting mode on the same grasshopper prey species. We observed grasshoppers with and without each spider species in behavioural cages and measured their mortality rates, movements and habitat domains. We likewise measured the movements and habitat domains of spiders to characterize hunting modes. We found that predator hunting mode explained grasshopper mortality and spider and grasshopper movement activity and habitat domain size. Sit-and-wait spider predators covered small distances over a narrow domain space and killed fewer grasshoppers than sit-and-pursue and active predators, which ranged farther distances across broader domains and killed more grasshoppers, respectively. Prey adjusted their activity levels and horizontal habitat domains in response to predator presence and hunting mode: sedentary sit-and-wait predators with narrow domains caused grasshoppers to reduce activity in the same-sized domain space; more mobile sit-and-pursue predators with broader domains caused prey to reduce their activity within a contracted horizontal (but not vertical) domain space; and highly mobile active spiders led grasshoppers to increase their activity across the same domain area. All predators impacted prey activity, and sit-and-pursue predators generated strong

  1. Theory of magnetoelectric effect in multilayer nanocomposites on a substrate: Static bending-mode response

    Matthias C. Krantz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoelectric (ME coefficients for bending excitation in static magnetic fields and the bending response of multilayer composites with alternating magnetostrictive (MS and piezoelectric (PE layers on a substrate are investigated systematically. Theory and closed-form analytic solutions for the static magnetoelectric and the bending response coefficients are presented. Results of systematic variation of layer numbers, layer sequences, PE volume fractions, substrate thicknesses, and four different material systems (employing FeCoBSi, Terfenol-D, AlN, PZT, and Si are given for a fixed total composite thickness of 5μm. Among more than 105 structures investigated the greatest static ME coefficient of 62.3 V/cmOe is predicted for all odd layer number FeCoBSi-AlN multilayer composites on a Si substrate at vanishing substrate thickness and a PE material fraction of 38%. Varying the substrate thickness from 0μm to 20μm and the PE fraction from 0% to 100%, broad parameter regions of high ME coefficients are found for odd and large layer number nanocomposites. These regions are further enhanced to narrow maxima at vanishing substrate thickness, which correspond to structures of vanishing static bending response. For bilayers and even layer number cases broad maxima of the ME coefficient are observed at nonzero substrates and bending response. The optimal layer sequence and PE fraction depend on the material system. Bending response maxima occur at zero Si substrate thickness and nonzero PE fractions for bilayers. For multilayers nonzero Si substrates and zero PE fractions are found to be optimal. Structures of even ME layer numbers of PE-MS...Sub layer sequence display regions of vanishing bending response with large ME coefficients, i.e., produced by longitudinal excitation.

  2. Mode of action of pectin lyase A of Aspergillus niger on differently C(6)-substituted oligogalacturonides.

    van Alebeek, Gert-Jan W M; Christensen, Tove M I E; Schols, Henk A; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Voragen, Alphons G J

    2002-07-19

    A thorough investigation of the mode of action of Aspergillus niger (4M-147) pectin lyase A (PLA) on differently C(6)-substituted oligogalacturonides is described. PLA appeared to be very specific for fully methyl-esterified oligogalacturonides: removal of the methyl-ester or changing the type of ester (ethyl esterification) or transamidation resulted in (almost) complete loss of conversion. The PLA activity increased with increasing length of the substrate up to a degree of polymerization (DP) of 8 indicating the presence of at least eight subsites on the enzyme. Product analysis demonstrated the formation of several Delta 4,5 unsaturated products and their saturated counterparts. The Delta 4,5 unsaturated trimer was the main product up to DP 8. For DP 9 and 10 Delta 4,5 unsaturated tetramer was the major product. Based upon the bond cleavage frequencies, a provisional subsite map was calculated, which supports the presence of eight subsites. By limited alkaline de-esterification of fully methyl-esterified pentamer and hexamer two sets of partially methyl-esterified pentamers (x and y methyl groups) and hexamers (a and b methyl groups) were prepared. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis demonstrated that the methyl-ester distribution was fully random. Using these partially methyl-esterified oligogalacturonides as substrates for PLA a 10-fold decrease in reaction rate was recorded compared with the fully methyl-esterified counterparts. Analysis of the methyl-ester distribution of the products showed that PLA tolerates carboxyl groups in the substrate binding cleft. At either subsite +2, +4, or -1 to -4 a free carboxyl group could be tolerated, whereas methyl-esters were obligatory at subsite +1 and +3. So PLA is capable to cleave the bond between a methyl-esterified and a non-esterified galacturonic acid residue, where the newly formed Delta 4,5 unsaturated non-reducing end residue always contains a

  3. The Effect of Different Modes of English Captioning on EFL Learners' General Listening Comprehension: Full Text vs. Keyword Captions

    Behroozizad, Sorayya; Majidi, Sudabeh

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of different modes of English captioning on EFL learners' general listening comprehension. To this end, forty-five intermediate-level learners were selected based on their scores on a standardized English proficiency test (PET) to carry out the study. Then, the selected participants were randomly assigned into…

  4. The Relationship between Music Preferences of Different Mode and Tempo and Personality Traits--Implications for Music Pedagogy

    Dobrota, Snježana; Reic Ercegovac, Ina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between music preferences of different mode and tempo and personality traits. The survey included 323 students who had to fill out the following tests: questionnaire of music preferences, scale of optimism and pessimism and International Personality Item Pool for measuring Big Five…

  5. Mode of the short circuit in the direct current electric traction network with different feed charts of fyder area

    P. Mihalichenko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of mathematical design of the system of electric traction of direct current are represented in the mode of short circuit and different feed charts of fyder area: two-sided; one-sided. Comparison of transitional electric sizes which characterize electromagnetic processes during these malfunctions is analysed and executed.

  6. Response of the Higgs amplitude mode of superfluid Bose gases in a three-dimensional optical lattice

    Nagao, Kazuma; Takahashi, Yoshiro; Danshita, Ippei

    2018-04-01

    We study the Higgs mode of superfluid Bose gases in a three-dimensional optical lattice, which emerges near the quantum phase transition to the Mott insulator at commensurate fillings. Specifically, we consider responses of the Higgs mode to temporal modulations of the onsite interaction and the hopping energy. In order to calculate the response functions including the effects of quantum and thermal fluctuations, we map the Bose-Hubbard model onto an effective pseudospin-1 model and use a perturbative expansion based on the imaginary-time Green's function theory. We also include the effects of an inhomogeneous trapping potential by means of a local density approximation. We find that the response function for the hopping modulation is equal to that for the interaction modulation within our approximation. At the unit filling rate and in the absence of a trapping potential, we show that the Higgs mode can exist as a sharp resonance peak in the dynamical susceptibilities at typical temperatures. However, the resonance peak is significantly broadened due to the trapping potential when the modulations are applied globally to the entire system. We suggest that the Higgs mode can be detected as a sharp resonance peak by partial modulations around the trap center.

  7. Provincial responsibility for carbon emissions in China under different principles

    Zhang, Youguo

    2015-01-01

    By applying a multi-regional input–output model, the study compares the provincial responsibility for carbon emissions and provincial carbon multipliers in China under seven responsibility-allocating principles, including three basic principles, the production, income and consumption principles, and four shared responsibility principles, the income-weighted, consumption weighted, comprehensive, and weighted comprehensive principles. Empirical results indicate that carbon multipliers of provinces under these principles are significantly different from one another. The carbon multipliers of provinces with higher ratios of carbon intensive sectors in their outputs are also larger. At the same time, the carbon multipliers of the same sector in the provinces are significantly different from one another. Changing the principle causes significant changes in the responsibility for carbon emissions of some provinces, but only slight changes in the responsibilities of some other provinces. However, the responsibilities of provinces with large economic sizes (output) are always the largest, whereas provinces with the smallest economic sizes are always the smallest regardless of the principles. Further, this study proposes a series of regional policies for carbon mitigation according to provincial carbon multipliers and responsibility allocation features under the different principles. - Highlights: • We link regional environmental responsibility to seven benefit principles. • We analyze provincial responsibility for carbon emissions in China. • We also report provincial carbon multipliers under different principles. • We compare the seven principles from the regional perspective. • Policy implications of the study are discussed.

  8. Applying Item Response Theory Methods to Examine the Impact of Different Response Formats

    Hohensinn, Christine; Kubinger, Klaus D.

    2011-01-01

    In aptitude and achievement tests, different response formats are usually used. A fundamental distinction must be made between the class of multiple-choice formats and the constructed response formats. Previous studies have examined the impact of different response formats applying traditional statistical approaches, but these influences can also…

  9. Analysis of the response dependence of Ebt3 radiochromic film with energy, dose rate, wavelength, scanning mode and humidity

    Leon M, E. Y.; Camacho L, M. A.; Herrera G, J. A.; Garcia G, O. A.; Villarreal B, J. E.

    2016-10-01

    With the development of new modalities in radiotherapy treatments, the use of radiochromic films has increased considerably. Because the characteristics that presented, they are suitable for quality control and dose measurement. In this work and analysis of the dependence of the response of Ebt3 radiochromic films with energy, dose rate, wavelength, scan mode and humidity, for a dose range of 0-70 Gy is presented. According to the results, the response of Ebt3 radiochromic films has low dependence on energy, dose rate, scan mode and humidity. However, the sensitivity of the response Ebt3 radiochromic films has a high dependence on the wavelength of the optical system used for reading. (Author)

  10. Fast mode decision based on human noticeable luminance difference and rate distortion cost for H.264/AVC

    Li, Mian-Shiuan; Chen, Mei-Juan; Tai, Kuang-Han; Sue, Kuen-Liang

    2013-12-01

    This article proposes a fast mode decision algorithm based on the correlation of the just-noticeable-difference (JND) and the rate distortion cost (RD cost) to reduce the computational complexity of H.264/AVC. First, the relationship between the average RD cost and the number of JND pixels is established by Gaussian distributions. Thus, the RD cost of the Inter 16 × 16 mode is compared with the predicted thresholds from these models for fast mode selection. In addition, we use the image content, the residual data, and JND visual model for horizontal/vertical detection, and then utilize the result to predict the partition in a macroblock. From the experimental results, a greater time saving can be achieved while the proposed algorithm also maintains performance and quality effectively.

  11. Life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact assessment of bioethanol production from sweet potato based on different production modes

    Zhang, Jun; Jia, Chunrong; Wu, Yi; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun; Zhai, Youlong

    2017-01-01

    The bioethanol is playing an increasingly important role in renewable energy in China. Based on the theory of circular economy, integration of different resources by polygeneration is one of the solutions to improve energy efficiency and to reduce environmental impact. In this study, three modes of bioethanol production were selected to evaluate the life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact of sweet potato-based bioethanol. The results showed that, the net energy ratio was greater than 1 and the value of net energy gain was positive in the three production modes, in which the maximum value appeared in the circular economy mode (CEM). The environment emission mainly occurred to bioethanol conversion unit in the conventional production mode (CPM) and the cogeneration mode (CGM), and eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) were the most significant environmental impact category. While compared with CPM and CGM, the environmental impact of CEM significantly declined due to increasing recycling, and plant cultivation unit mainly contributed to EP and GWP. And the comprehensive evaluation score of environmental impact decreased by 73.46% and 23.36%. This study showed that CEM was effective in improving energy efficiency, especially in reducing the environmental impact, and it provides a new method for bioethanol production. PMID:28672044

  12. Pricing Models for Dual-channel Reverse Supply Chain Considering Regional Differences under “Internet Recycling” Mode in China

    Wu, Di; Li, Peng; Chen, Juhong

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the Internet technology has been deeply influencing recycling industry to make it more intelligent and interconnected. However, most existing papers on “Internet Recycling” neglected the problem of pricing strategy under online and offline channels for different levels of recyclers. Moreover, the effect of regional differences has been emphasized a lot in dual-channel forward supply chain, but recycling field has seldom been concerned about it. In this paper, a recycling system consisting of one recycling center and several third-party recyclers (TPR) was investigated based on traditional mode and dual-channel mode. The dual-channel reverse supply chain model is transformed from traditional mode by the introduction of online channel. It involves two recycling modes, as recycling centre for online recovery and “Recycling center+TPR” for offline recovery. By establishing pricing strategies based on Stackelberg game model, the impacts of regional differences were analysed. Finally, numerical analysis was given to illustrate the effectiveness of the pricing mechanisms and strategies.

  13. Soil contamination by phthalate esters in Chinese intensive vegetable production systems with different modes of use of plastic film

    Wang, Jun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Ma, Wenting; Christie, Peter; Li, Zhengao

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in intensively managed suburban vegetable soils in Nanjing, east China, were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The total PAE concentrations in the soils ranged widely from 0.15 to 9.68 mg kg −1 with a median value of 1.70 mg kg −1 , and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were the most abundant phthalate esters. Soil PAE concentrations depended on the mode of use of plastic film in which PAEs were incorporated as plasticizing agents and both the plastic film and poultry manure appeared to be important sources of soil PAEs. Vegetables in rotation with flooded rice led to lower concentrations of PAEs in soil. The results indicate that agricultural plastic film can be an important source of soil PAE contamination and further research is required to fully elucidate the mechanisms of PAE contamination of intensive agricultural soils with different use modes of use of plastic film. -- Highlights: •Phthalate esters in soils from suburban intensive vegetable production systems were investigated. •Phthalate levels and risks of the vegetable soils with different plastic film use modes were examined. •Sources of phthalate esters in vegetable production soils were analyzed. -- PAE contamination of intensively managed vegetable soils varied widely depending on the mode of use of plastic film in different production systems

  14. Behaviour of porous ductile solids at low stress triaxiality in different modes of deformation

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of low stress triaxiality on ductile failure is investigated for a material subject to pure shear or to stress states in the vicinity of pure shear. Many recent studies of ductile failure under low hydrostatic tension have focused on shear with superposed tension, which can result...... that the behaviour of a porous ductile material at low stress triaxiality depends a great deal on the mode of deformation....

  15. Comparison of H-mode pedestals in different confinement regimes in DIII-D

    Groebner, R J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California, 92186-5608 (United States); Leonard, A W [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California, 92186-5608 (United States); Luce, T C [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California, 92186-5608 (United States); Fenstermacher, M E [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Jackson, G L [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California, 92186-5608 (United States); Osborne, T H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California, 92186-5608 (United States); Thomas, D M [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California, 92186-5608 (United States); Wade, M R [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California, 92186-5608 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    A survey of global performance parameters and their correlation with pedestal parameters is performed for standard H-mode, QH-mode and the enhanced confinement regimes of VH-mode, hybrid and advanced tokamak in the DIII-D tokamak. This study shows that there is a trend for global confinement quality or global beta to increase as the pedestal electron pressure or beta increases. However, there are also improvements in core confinement and beta, observed at fixed pedestal pressure or beta, which indicate that factors other than pedestal parameters also contribute to the best core performance. Several other pedestal structure parameters are found to be similar among these regimes. The scale lengths for electron pressure in the pedestal are in the range 0.8-1.6 cm at the outer midplane, most {eta}{sub e} values are in the range 1-3 in the middle of the T{sub e} pedestal and the T{sub e} and n{sub e} pedestals tend to penetrate the same distance into the plasma.

  16. Effects on microstrain and conversion of flowable resin composite using different curing modes and units.

    Tseng, Wan-Yu; Chen, Ruey-Song; Wang, Jaw-Lin; Lee, Ming-Shu; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Chen, Min-Huey

    2007-05-01

    The flowable resin composite, Tetric Flow, was used to measure microstrain and degree of conversion after hardening with each of three curing machines: XL3000(XL) for 10, 20, 30, and 40 s; Optilux 501 using conventional mode (OC) for 10, 20, 30, and 40 s, as well as Optilux boost (OB, 10 s) and ramp modes (OR, 20 s); and LEDemetron (LEDe) for 10, 20, 30, and 40 s. The emitted power density and spectral distribution of the three light curing units were also measured. The LEDe output energy spectrum was centralized between 425 and 490 nm, which encompasses the excited wavelength of camphorquinone. The microstrain produced by the curing process is as a second-degree polynomial for each light source. The OB microstrain was highest, while the OR microstrain was lower. The ranking in order of degree of monomer conversion was as follows: XL10 conversion cured with OB was significant higher than other curing modes except OC30, OC40, LEDe30, LEDe40, and XL40. The conversion value of XL10 was the lowest. The LEDe produced higher conversion for the same emitted energy compared to the two halogen units.

  17. Effect of dipole-quadrupole Robinson mode coupling upon the beam response to radio-frequency phase noise

    R. A. Bosch

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In an electron storage ring, coupling between dipole and quadrupole Robinson oscillations modifies the spectrum of longitudinal beam oscillations driven by radio-frequency (rf generator phase noise. In addition to the main peak at the resonant frequency of the coupled dipole Robinson mode, another peak occurs at the resonant frequency of the coupled quadrupole mode. To describe these peaks analytically for a quadratic synchrotron potential, we include the dipole and quadrupole modes when calculating the beam response to generator noise. We thereby obtain the transfer function from generator-noise phase modulation to beam phase modulation with and without phase feedback. For Robinson-stable bunches confined in a synchrotron potential with a single minimum, the calculated transfer function agrees with measurements at the Aladdin 800-MeV electron storage ring. The transfer function is useful in evaluating phase feedback that suppresses Robinson oscillations in order to obtain quiet operation of an infrared beam line.

  18. Gender differences in the neural response to acupuncture: Clinical implications

    Yeo, S.; Rosen, B.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Lim, S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine gender differences and similarities in the psychophysical and brain responses to acupuncture at GB34, a point that is frequently used to treat motor function issues in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Methods: Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to measure brain activation in response

  19. Development of Gender Differences in Children's Responses to Animated Entertainment.

    Oliver, Mary Beth; Green, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Examined gender differences in children's responses to animated scenes from action adventure and sad films and to animated previews of a prototypical male versus female movie. Girls were more likely than boys to report and express sadness regarding sad segments. Intensities of sadness increased with age. Emotional responses to action adventure…

  20. Modification of Acute Radiation Response in Different Demographic Age Groups

    2017-10-25

    greater radiosensitivity. Other studies provided further mechanistic insight into the observed age effect of radiation responses. For example ...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. October 2017 HDTRA1-14-0003; 0005 Prepared by: Applied ... Research Associates, Inc. 801 N. Quincy Street Suite 700 Arlington, VA 22203 Modification of Acute Radiation Response in Different Demographic Age

  1. Gender differences in binaural speech-evoked auditory brainstem response: are they clinically significant?

    Jalaei, Bahram; Azmi, Mohd Hafiz Afifi Mohd; Zakaria, Mohd Normani

    2018-05-17

    Binaurally evoked auditory evoked potentials have good diagnostic values when testing subjects with central auditory deficits. The literature on speech-evoked auditory brainstem response evoked by binaural stimulation is in fact limited. Gender disparities in speech-evoked auditory brainstem response results have been consistently noted but the magnitude of gender difference has not been reported. The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of gender difference in speech-evoked auditory brainstem response results between monaural and binaural stimulations. A total of 34 healthy Asian adults aged 19-30 years participated in this comparative study. Eighteen of them were females (mean age=23.6±2.3 years) and the remaining sixteen were males (mean age=22.0±2.3 years). For each subject, speech-evoked auditory brainstem response was recorded with the synthesized syllable /da/ presented monaurally and binaurally. While latencies were not affected (p>0.05), the binaural stimulation produced statistically higher speech-evoked auditory brainstem response amplitudes than the monaural stimulation (p0.80), substantive gender differences were noted in most of speech-evoked auditory brainstem response peaks for both stimulation modes. The magnitude of gender difference between the two stimulation modes revealed some distinct patterns. Based on these clinically significant results, gender-specific normative data are highly recommended when using speech-evoked auditory brainstem response for clinical and future applications. The preliminary normative data provided in the present study can serve as the reference for future studies on this test among Asian adults. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Mode of delivery affected questionnaire response rates in a birth cohort study.

    Bray, Isabelle; Noble, Sian; Robinson, Ross; Molloy, Lynn; Tilling, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Cohort studies must collect data from their participants as economically as possible, while maintaining response rates. This randomized controlled trial investigated whether offering a choice of online or paper questionnaires resulted in improved response rates compared with offering online first. Eligible participants were young people in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study (born April 1, 1991, to December 31, 1992, in the Avon area). After exclusions, 8,795 participants were randomized. The "online first" group were invited to complete the questionnaire online. The "choice" group were also sent a paper questionnaire and offered a choice of completion method. The trial was embedded within routine data collection. The main outcome measure was the number of questionnaires returned. Data on costs were also collected. Those in the "online first" arm of the trial were less likely to return a questionnaire [adjusted odds ratio: 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82, 0.99]. The "choice" arm was more expensive (mean difference per participant £0.71; 95% CI: £0.65, £0.76). It cost an extra £47 to have one extra person to complete the questionnaire in the "choice" arm. Offering a choice of completion methods (paper or online) for questionnaires in ALSPAC increased response rates but was more expensive than offering online first. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adolescent Concepts of Responsibility in Different Typesof Moral Dilemmas

    Molchanov S.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of an empirical study of adolescents' concepts of responsibility in different types of moral dilemmas characterized by violations of moral norms. The study proved that the type of moral dilemma and the context of interaction of its participants determine the adolescents' readiness to recognize the responsibility of the main character of the dilemma for violating the norm. In dilemmas of asocial type adolescents are more willing to recognize the responsibility of the offender whose behavior leads to obvious damage for one of the participants in the interaction. As for prosocial dilemmas and dilemmas of confronting norms, adolescents tend to deny the responsibility of the offender. The paper provides a comparative analysis of empirically identified types of adolescent concepts of responsibility, including the differentiated responsibility with egoistic orientation, high responsibility, low responsibility and ‘polar’ responsibility. The authors highlight the ambiguity of the relationship between adolescents’ evaluation of behavior, their readiness to recognize responsibility in moral transgression, and their judgment about the necessity of punishment. The paper concludes with the discussion concerning the relationship between the level of development of moral judgments/moral reasoning and the concepts of responsibility in adolescents.

  4. Sex Differences in Jealousy in Response to Actual Infidelity

    John E. Edlund; Jeremy D. Heider; Cory R. Scherer; Maria-Magdalena Farc; Brad J. Sagarin

    2006-01-01

    The present studies address two criticisms of the theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy: (a) that the sex difference in jealousy emerges only in response to hypothetical infidelity scenarios, and (b) that the sex difference emerges only using forced-choice measures. In two separate studies, one a paper-and-pencil survey with a student sample and the other a web-based survey targeting a non-student sample, men and women showed significant sex differences in jealousy in response to actu...

  5. Degree of conversion and bond strength of resin-cements to feldspathic ceramic using different curing modes

    Veridiana Resende NOVAIS

    Full Text Available Abstract Resin cements have led to great advances in dental ceramic restoration techniques because of their ability to bond to both dental structures and restorative materials. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the performance of resin cements when different curing modes are used, by evaluating the degree of conversion and bond strength to a ceramic substrate. Material and Methods Three resin cements were evaluated, two dual-cured (Variolink II and RelyX ARC and one light-cured (Variolink Veneer. The dual-cured resin cements were tested by using the dual activation mode (base and catalyst and light-activation mode (base paste only. For degree of conversion (DC (n=5, a 1.0 mm thick feldspathic ceramic disc was placed over the resin cement specimens and the set was light activated with a QTH unit. After 24 h storage, the DC was measured with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. For microshear bond strength testing, five feldspathic ceramic discs were submitted to surface treatment, and three cylindrical resin cement specimens were bonded to each ceramic surface according to the experimental groups. After 24 h, microshear bond testing was performed at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until the failure. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (p<0.05. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used for classifying the failure modes. Results Higher DC and bond strength values were shown by the resin cements cured by using the dual activation mode. The Variolink II group presented higher DC and bond strength values when using light-activation only when compared with the Variolink Veneer group. Conclusion The base paste of dual-cured resin cements in light-activation mode can be used for bonding translucent ceramic restorations of up to or less than 1.0 mm thick.

  6. Individual differences in metacontrast masking regarding sensitivity and response bias.

    Albrecht, Thorsten; Mattler, Uwe

    2012-09-01

    In metacontrast masking target visibility is modulated by the time until a masking stimulus appears. The effect of this temporal delay differs across participants in such a way that individual human observers' performance shows distinguishable types of masking functions which remain largely unchanged for months. Here we examined whether individual differences in masking functions depend on different response criteria in addition to differences in discrimination sensitivity. To this end we reanalyzed previously published data and conducted a new experiment for further data analyses. Our analyses demonstrate that a distinction of masking functions based on the type of masking stimulus is superior to a distinction based on the target-mask congruency. Individually different masking functions are based on individual differences in discrimination sensitivities and in response criteria. Results suggest that individual differences in metacontrast masking result from individually different criterion contents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Power of the muscular group's taekwondokas of the different qualification in steady-state mode.

    Saienko Vladimir Grigor'evich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Data are given meaningful totals display of force the muscle groups in athletes in the static mode. Displaying characteristics of muscle groups, hands (7, legs (5, trunk (2.The experiment involved 110 athletes (1-5 years experience training, age - 14-25 years old. Quantitative indicators, which reflect the individual level of informative power trained athletes. The optimum parameters of power qualities of athletes. Recommended use in training of special methods of strength training (isometric, concentric, eccentric, plyometric, isokinetic. In training must take into account the resistance, speed, joint angles, number of repetitions of the same approach.

  8. Current-voltage characteristics of carbon nanostructured field emitters in different power supply modes

    Popov, E. O.; Kolosko, A. G.; Filippov, S. V.; Romanov, P. A.; Terukov, E. I.; Shchegolkov, A. V.; Tkachev, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    We received and compared the current-voltage characteristics of large-area field emitters based on nanocomposites with graphene and nanotubes. The characteristics were measured in two high voltage scanning modes: the "slow" and the "fast". Correlation between two types of hysteresis observed in these regimes was determined. Conditions for transition from "reverse" hysteresis to the "direct" one were experimentally defined. Analysis of the eight-shaped hysteresis was provided with calculation of the effective emission parameters. The phenomenological model of adsorption-desorption processes in the field emission system was proposed.

  9. Robust synchronization of drive-response chaotic systems via adaptive sliding mode control

    Li, W.-L.; Chang, K.-M.

    2009-01-01

    A robust adaptive sliding control scheme is developed in this study to achieve synchronization for two identical chaotic systems in the presence of uncertain system parameters, external disturbances and nonlinear control inputs. An adaptation algorithm is given based on the Lyapunov stability theory. Using this adaptation technique to estimate the upper-bounds of parameter variation and external disturbance uncertainties, an adaptive sliding mode controller is then constructed without requiring the bounds of parameter and disturbance uncertainties to be known in advance. It is proven that the proposed adaptive sliding mode controller can maintain the existence of sliding mode in finite time in uncertain chaotic systems. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  10. Obstetric anal sphincter injury rates among primiparous women with different modes of vaginal delivery.

    Ampt, Amanda J; Patterson, Jillian A; Roberts, Christine L; Ford, Jane B

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether rates of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) are continuing to increase and whether risk of OASIS according to mode of delivery is constant over time. In a retrospective population-based study, data were obtained for vaginal singleton vertex deliveries at 37-41 weeks of pregnancy among primiparous women in New South Wales, Australia, between January 2001 and December 2011. Annual OASIS rates were determined among non-instrumental, forceps, and vacuum deliveries with and without episiotomy. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine adjusted odds ratios for each delivery mode category by year. Trends in adjusted odds ratios over time for each delivery category were compared. OASIS occurred in 955 (4.1%) of 23 081 deliveries in 2001 and 1487 (5.9%) of 25 081 deliveries in 2011. After adjustment for known risk factors, the only delivery categories to show statistically significant increases in OASIS over the study period were non-instrumental deliveries without episiotomy (linear trend Pdeliveries with episiotomy (linear trend P=0.004). Overall, OASIS rates have continued to increase. Known risk factors do not fully explain the increase in OASIS rates in non-instrumental deliveries without an episiotomy and in forceps deliveries with an episiotomy. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Response of Broilers to Different Sources of Vitamin C | Bolu ...

    The response of broilers to different sources of vitamin C was investigated using a completely randomized experimental design. Vitamin C concentration in the baobab pulp was determined to be 250mg/100g baobab pulp. Feed intake, weight gain, feed utilization efficiency and mortality were not different (P<0.05) for the ...

  12. The plant-specific impact of different pressurization rates in the probabilistic estimation of containment failure modes

    Ahn, Kwang Il; Yang, Joon Eon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2003-01-01

    The explicit consideration of different pressurization rates in estimating the probabilities of containment failure modes has a profound effect on the confidence of containment performance evaluation that is so critical for risk assessment of nuclear power plants. Except for the sophisticated NUREG-1150 study, many of the recent containment performance analyses (through level 2 PSAs or IPE back-end analyses) did not take into account an explicit distinction between slow and fast pressurization in their analyses. A careful investigation of both approaches shows that many of the approaches adopted in the recent containment performance analyses exactly correspond to the NUREG-1150 approach for the prediction of containment failure mode probabilities in the presence of fast pressurization. As a result, it was expected that the existing containment performance analysis results would be subjected to greater or less conservatism in light of the ultimate failure mode of the containment. The main purpose of this paper is to assess potential conservatism of a plant-specific containment performance analysis result in light of containment failure mode probabilities

  13. Bifurcations in the theory of current transfer to cathodes of DC discharges and observations of transitions between different modes

    Bieniek, M. S.; Santos, D. F. N.; Almeida, P. G. C.; Benilov, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    General scenarios of transitions between different spot patterns on electrodes of DC gas discharges and their relation to bifurcations of steady-state solutions are analyzed. In the case of cathodes of arc discharges, it is shown that any transition between different modes of current transfer is related to a bifurcation of steady-state solutions. In particular, transitions between diffuse and spot modes on axially symmetric cathodes, frequently observed in the experiment, represent an indication of the presence of pitchfork or fold bifurcations of steady-state solutions. Experimental observations of transitions on cathodes of DC glow microdischarges are analyzed and those potentially related to bifurcations of steady-state solutions are identified. The relevant bifurcations are investigated numerically and the computed patterns are found to conform to those observed in the course of the corresponding transitions in the experiment.

  14. Comparison of response rates and cost-effectiveness for a community-based survey: postal, internet and telephone modes with generic or personalised recruitment approaches

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological research often requires collection of data from a representative sample of the community or recruitment of specific groups through broad community approaches. The population coverage of traditional survey methods such as mail-outs to residential addresses, and telephone contact via public directories or random-digit-dialing is declining and survey response rates are falling. There is a need to explore new sampling frames and consider multiple response modes including those offered by changes in telecommunications and internet technology. Methods We evaluated response rates and cost-effectiveness for three modes of survey administration (postal invitation/postal survey, postal invitation/internet survey and postal invitation/telephone survey) and two styles of contact approach (personalised and generic) in a community survey of greywater use. Potential respondents were contacted only once, with no follow up of non-responders. Results The telephone survey produced the highest adjusted response rate (30.2%), followed by the personalised postal survey (10.5%), generic postal survey (7.5%) and then the internet survey (4.7% for the personalised approach and 2.2% for the generic approach). There were some differences in household characteristics and greywater use rates between respondents to different survey modes, and between respondents to personalised and generic approaches. These may be attributable to the differing levels of motivations needed for a response, and varying levels of interest in the survey topic among greywater users and non-users. The generic postal survey had the lowest costs per valid survey received (Australian $22.93), followed by the personalised postal survey ($24.75). Conclusions Our findings suggest that postal surveys currently remain the most economic option for population-based studies, with similar costs for personalised and generic approaches. Internet surveys may be effective for specialised groups where email

  15. A comparison of process performance during the anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of slaughterhouse waste through different operational modes.

    Pagés-Díaz, Jhosané; Pereda-Reyes, Ileana; Sanz, Jose Luis; Lundin, Magnus; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Horváth, Ilona Sárvári

    2018-02-01

    The use of consecutive feeding was applied to investigate the response of the microbial biomass to a second addition of substrates in terms of biodegradation using batch tests as a promising alternative to predict the behavior of the process. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the slaughterhouse waste (SB) and its co-digestion with manure (M), various crops (VC), and municipal solid waste were evaluated. The results were then correlated to previous findings obtained by the authors for similar mixtures in batch and semi-continuous operation modes. AD of the SB failed showing total inhibition after a second feeding. Co-digestion of the SB+M showed a significant improvement for all of the response variables investigated after the second feeding, while co-digestion of the SB+VC resulted in a decline in all of these response variables. Similar patterns were previously detected, during both the batch and the semi-continuous modes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Fracture Resistance and Failure Mode of Endodontically Treated Premolars Restored with Different Adhesive Restorations

    Nasrin Sarabi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The restoration of endodontically treated teeth is a topic that has been studied extensively but it is still a challenge for dental practitioners. The aim of this study was to evaluate fracture resistance, fracture patterns and fracture location of endodontically treated human maxillary premolars restored with direct and indirect composite resin and ceramic restoration. Methods: Eighty non-carious maxillary premolars were selected and divided into four groups (n=20. Endodontic treatment and mesio-occluso-distal preparations were carried out in all the groups except for the control group (group I. Subsequently, the prepared teeth were restored as follows: group II: indirect composite restoration; group III: ceramic restoration; group IV: direct composite restoration. The specimens were subjected to compressive axial loading until fracture occurred. The mode of failure was also recorded. Results: Group I had higher fracture resistance (1196.82±241.74 than the other groups (P

  17. Wave-particle dualism and complementarity unraveled by a different mode.

    Menzel, Ralf; Puhlmann, Dirk; Heuer, Axel; Schleich, Wolfgang P

    2012-06-12

    The precise knowledge of one of two complementary experimental outcomes prevents us from obtaining complete information about the other one. This formulation of Niels Bohr's principle of complementarity when applied to the paradigm of wave-particle dualism--that is, to Young's double-slit experiment--implies that the information about the slit through which a quantum particle has passed erases interference. In the present paper we report a double-slit experiment using two photons created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion where we observe interference in the signal photon despite the fact that we have located it in one of the slits due to its entanglement with the idler photon. This surprising aspect of complementarity comes to light by our special choice of the TEM(01) pump mode. According to quantum field theory the signal photon is then in a coherent superposition of two distinct wave vectors giving rise to interference fringes analogous to two mechanical slits.

  18. Cultures differ in the ability to enhance affective neural responses.

    Varnum, Michael E W; Hampton, Ryan S

    2017-10-01

    The present study (N = 55) used an event-related potential paradigm to investigate whether cultures differ in the ability to upregulate affective responses. Using stimuli selected from the International Affective Picture System, we found that European-Americans (N = 29) enhanced central-parietal late positive potential (LPP) (400-800 ms post-stimulus) responses to affective stimuli when instructed to do so, whereas East Asians (N = 26) did not. We observed cultural differences in the ability to enhance central-parietal LPP responses for both positively and negativelyvalenced stimuli, and the ability to enhance these two types of responses was positively correlated for Americans but negatively for East Asians. These results are consistent with the notion that cultural variations in norms and values regarding affective expression and experiences shape how the brain regulates emotions.

  19. Affect Intensity: An Individual Difference Response to Advertising Appeals.

    Moore, David J; Harris, William D; Chen, Hong C

    1995-01-01

    The Affect Intensity Measurement (AIM) scale assesses the strength of the emotions with which individuals respond to an affect-laden stimulus. This study investigated the extent to which individual differences in affect intensity influence the message recipient's responses to emotional advertising appeals. In two experiments high affect intensity individuals, compared with those who scored low on the AIM scale, (1) manifested significantly stronger emotional responses to the emotional adverti...

  20. Optical response of the FXG solution to different phantom materials

    Cavinato, C.C.; Sakuraba, R.K.; Cruz, J.C.; Campos, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of the Fricke xylenol gel (FXG) solution developed at IPEN, prepared with 270 Bloom gelatine (made in Brazil), for clinical electron beams to the reference depth, using different phantom materials. The colour change, optical absorption spectra, intra and inter-batches reproducibility, dose-response, lower detection limit, energy and dose rate dependent response and response uniformity were studied. The excellent results obtained indicate the viability of employing this solution in 2D spectrophotometric dosimetry (could be extended to 3D MRI dosimetry) to be applied in quality assurance for clinical radiotherapy treatment planning of superficial tumours being treated with clinical electron beams.

  1. THE GENDER DIFFERENCES EFFECTS ON CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR

    LILIANA NICOLETA SIMIONESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR refers to company's activities through which they need to contribute to the society well-being. Companies which are socially responsible operate their business in such way stakeholders requirements are a meet as well as ethical, legal, economical and philanthropic expectations toward the society where companies operates. Moreover, businesses decisions and strategies should take into consideration and should act with more responsibility to shareholders, customers, employees, and suppliers. Company's responsibility is more than just legal and economic responsibility. Companies including CSR into their business strategies increase their competitiveness alongside other benefits. Regardless of the heated debates which have been taking place between academics, researchers, scholars, and corporate executives, CSR concept remains open to a range of definitions As well as understanding. This paper aim is to theoretically investigate how differences in gender effect on corporate social responsibility activities with impact on companies’ performance in developing countries. In order to achieve the paper aim, following the literature on CSR and research background, comprehensive research framework was developed. Despite the fact that CSR have been debated on many topics, the gender differences effects on CSR in developing countries is scarce. To fill in this gap, this paper developed a conceptual research framework that enhance the literature on CSR as regard the differences linking male and female’s orientation toward CSR activities.

  2. Measuring caloric response: comparison of different analysis techniques.

    Mallinson, A I; Longridge, N S; Pace-Asciak, P; Ngo, R

    2010-01-01

    Electronystagmography (ENG) testing has been supplanted by newer techniques of measuring eye movement with infrared cameras (VNG). Most techniques of quantifying caloric induced nystagmus measure the slow phase velocity in some manner. Although our analysis is carried out by very experienced assessors, some systems have computer algorithms that have been "taught" to locate and quantify maximum responses. We wondered what differences in measurement might show up when measuring calorics using different techniques and systems, the relevance of this being that if there was a change in slow phase velocity between ENG and VNG testing when measuring caloric response, then normative data would have to be changed. There are also some subjective but important aspects of ENG interpretation which comment on the nature of the response (e.g. responses which might be "sporadic" or "scant"). Our experiment compared caloric responses in 100 patients analyzed four different ways. Each caloric was analyzed by our old ENG system, our new VNG system, an inexperienced assessor and the computer algorithm, and data was compared. All four systems made similar measurements but our inexperienced assessor failed to recognize responses as sporadic or scant, and we feel this is a limitation to be kept in mind in the rural setting, as it is an important aspect of assessment in complex patients. Assessment of complex VNGs should be left to an experienced assessor.

  3. Experimental Research on Destruction Mode and Anchoring Performance of Carbon Fiber Phyllostachys pubescens Anchor Rod with Different Forms

    Wang Yulan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The anchoring technology is extensively applied in reinforcing protection of the earth relics. Now that no specification is available for different new anchor rods in earth relics protection due to diversified destruction modes of earth relics and complexity of engineering technology conditions, it is urgent to guide reinforcing design and construction with a complete detailed anchor rod research document. With the new carbon fiber Phyllostachys pubescens anchor rod as the research object, six lots of in situ tests are designed to, respectively, study the destruction mode and anchoring performance of the carbon fiber Phyllostachys pubescens anchor rod under different anchor length L, anchor rod diameter D, bore diameter H, grouting material S, rib spacing R, and inclination angle A in this paper. By studying load shift curve experiment in drawing of the anchor rod, the destruction mode and ultimate bearing capacity of the carbon fiber Phyllostachys pubescens anchor rod in different experiment lots are obtained, and the concept of permitted application value N in anchor rod design is proposed. By studying strain distribution characteristics of anchor rods in experimental lots along the length direction under action of the permitted application value N and combining the existing destruction mode and ultimate bearing capacity, this paper analyzes influences of L, D, H, S, R, and A on anchoring effect of the carbon fiber Phyllostachys pubescens anchor rod; gives the reasonable value range of L, D, H, and R when the carbon fiber Phyllostachys pubescens anchor rod is used for reinforcing design of the earth relics; and provides favorable experiment basis for reinforcing design of the earth relics based on the carbon fiber Phyllostachys pubescens anchor rod.

  4. Batch versus column modes for the adsorption of radioactive metal onto rice husk waste: conditions optimization through response surface methodology.

    Kausar, Abida; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Iqbal, Munawar; Ashraf, Aisha

    2017-09-01

    Batch and column adsorption modes were compared for the adsorption of U(VI) ions using rice husk waste biomass (RHWB). Response surface methodology was employed for the optimization of process variables, i.e., (pH (A), adsorbent dose (B), initial ion concentration (C)) in batch mode. The B, C and C 2 affected the U(VI) adsorption significantly in batch mode. The developed quadratic model was found to be validated on the basis of regression coefficient as well as analysis of variance. The predicted and actual values were found to be correlated well, with negligible residual value, and B, C and C 2 were significant terms. The column study was performed considering bed height, flow rate and initial metal ion concentration, and adsorption efficiency was evaluated through breakthrough curves and bed depth service time and Thomas models. Adsorption was found to be dependent on bed height and initial U(VI) ion concentration, and flow rate decreased the adsorption capacity. Thomas models fitted well to the U(VI) adsorption onto RHWB. Results revealed that RHWB has potential to remove U(VI) ions and batch adsorption was found to be efficient versus column mode.

  5. A comparative study of tribological behavior of plasma and D-gun sprayed coatings under different wear modes

    Sundararajan, G.; Rao, D.S.; Prasad, K.U.M.; Joshi, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, thermal sprayed protective coatings have gained widespread acceptance for a variety of industrial applications. A vast majority of these applications involve the use of thermal sprayed coatings to combat wear. While plasma spraying is the most versatile variant of all the thermal spray processes, the detonation gun (D-gun) coatings have been a novelty until recently because of their proprietary nature. The present study is aimed at comparing the tribological behavior of coatings deposited using the two above techniques by focusing on some popular coating materials that are widely adopted for wear resistant applications, namely, WC-12% Co, Al 2 O 3 , and Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr. To enable a comprehensive comparison of the above indicated thermal spray techniques as well as coating materials, the deposited coatings were extensively characterized employing microstructural evaluation, microhardness measurements, and XRD analysis for phase constitution. The behavior of these coatings under different wear modes was also evaluated by determining their tribological performance when subjected to solid particle erosion tests, rubber wheel sand abrasion tests, and pin-on-disk sliding wear tests. Among all the coating materials studied, D-gun sprayed WC-12% Co, in general, yields the best performance under different modes of wear, whereas plasma sprayed Al 2 O 3 shows least wear resistance to every wear mode

  6. A comparison study on flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larimichthys croceus) cultured with three different modes

    Li, Xiaoqin; Li, Baian; Chen, Naisong; Huang, Xuxiong; Hua, Xuemin; Leng, Xiangjun

    2017-12-01

    To compare the flesh quality of large yellow croaker cultured with three different modes, enclosure culture (EC), cage culture with feeding trash fish (CCF) and cage culture with feeding formula diet (CCD), thirty six fish individuals of EC (484.6 ± 79.8 g), CCF (432.7 ± 87.9 g) and CCD (416.9 ± 49.5 g) were sampled to measure body color, flesh water holding capacity, flesh proximate composition, amino acids and fatty acids composition, and collagen and inosinic acid contents. The analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the yellowness of skin and the contents of crude protein and inosinic acid between CCD and EC (P >0.05), and the two modes showed higher values than CCF ( P 0.05). EC and CCD had higher contents of collagen, free AA and lower drip loss than CC ( P < 0.05). In polyunsaturated fatty acids, EC showed significantly higher levels of C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 than CCF and CCD ( P < 0.05), but CCD had significantly higher C18:2n-6 than CCF and EC ( P < 0.05). In conclusion, the flesh quality of CCD fish is similar to EC fish, and these two modes have better flesh quality than CCF.

  7. Identification of sudden stiffness changes in the acceleration response of a bridge to moving loads using ensemble empirical mode decomposition

    Aied, H.; González, A.; Cantero, D.

    2016-01-01

    The growth of heavy traffic together with aggressive environmental loads poses a threat to the safety of an aging bridge stock. Often, damage is only detected via visual inspection at a point when repairing costs can be quite significant. Ideally, bridge managers would want to identify a stiffness change as soon as possible, i.e., as it is occurring, to plan for prompt measures before reaching a prohibitive cost. Recent developments in signal processing techniques such as wavelet analysis and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) have aimed to address this need by identifying a stiffness change from a localised feature in the structural response to traffic. However, the effectiveness of these techniques is limited by the roughness of the road profile, the vehicle speed and the noise level. In this paper, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is applied by the first time to the acceleration response of a bridge model to a moving load with the purpose of capturing sudden stiffness changes. EEMD is more adaptive and appears to be better suited to non-linear signals than wavelets, and it reduces the mode mixing problem present in EMD. EEMD is tested in a variety of theoretical 3D vehicle-bridge interaction scenarios. Stiffness changes are successfully identified, even for small affected regions, relatively poor profiles, high vehicle speeds and significant noise. The latter is due to the ability of EEMD to separate high frequency components associated to sudden stiffness changes from other frequency components associated to the vehicle-bridge interaction system.

  8. Concept and realization of unmanned aerial system with different modes of operation

    Czyba, Roman; Szafrański, Grzegorz; Janusz, Wojciech; Niezabitowski, Michał; Czornik, Adam; Błachuta, Marian [Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 2A, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2014-12-10

    In this paper we describe the development process of unmanned aerial system, its mechanical components, electronics and software solutions. During the stage of design, we have formulated some necessary requirements for the multirotor vehicle and ground control station in order to build an optimal system which can be used for the reconnaissance missions. Platform is controlled by use of the ground control station (GCS) and has possibility of accomplishing video based observation tasks. In order to fulfill this requirement the on-board payload consists of mechanically stabilized camera augmented with machine vision algorithms to enable object tracking tasks. Novelty of the system are four modes of flight, which give full functionality of the developed UAV system. Designed ground control station is consisted not only of the application itself, but also a built-in dedicated components located inside the chassis, which together creates an advanced UAV system supporting the control and management of the flight. Mechanical part of quadrotor is designed to ensure its robustness while meeting objectives of minimizing weight of the platform. Finally the designed electronics allows for implementation of control and estimation algorithms without the needs for their excessive computational optimization.

  9. Concept and realization of unmanned aerial system with different modes of operation

    Czyba, Roman; Szafrański, Grzegorz; Janusz, Wojciech; Niezabitowski, Michał; Czornik, Adam; Błachuta, Marian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development process of unmanned aerial system, its mechanical components, electronics and software solutions. During the stage of design, we have formulated some necessary requirements for the multirotor vehicle and ground control station in order to build an optimal system which can be used for the reconnaissance missions. Platform is controlled by use of the ground control station (GCS) and has possibility of accomplishing video based observation tasks. In order to fulfill this requirement the on-board payload consists of mechanically stabilized camera augmented with machine vision algorithms to enable object tracking tasks. Novelty of the system are four modes of flight, which give full functionality of the developed UAV system. Designed ground control station is consisted not only of the application itself, but also a built-in dedicated components located inside the chassis, which together creates an advanced UAV system supporting the control and management of the flight. Mechanical part of quadrotor is designed to ensure its robustness while meeting objectives of minimizing weight of the platform. Finally the designed electronics allows for implementation of control and estimation algorithms without the needs for their excessive computational optimization

  10. Different modes of TiO2 uptake by Ceriodaphnia dubia: relevance to toxicity and bioaccumulation.

    Dalai, Swayamprava; Iswarya, V; Bhuvaneshwari, M; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2014-07-01

    The extensive environmental exposure of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) may result in their bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms leading to their biotransfer in a food chain through various routes in a freshwater ecosystem. The present study focuses on the possible modes of TiO2 NP trophic transfer to Ceriodaphnia dubia, in presence and/absence of its diet, Scenedesmus obliquus (primary producer). The acute exposure studies (48h) were designed to have daphnids exposed to (i) the free NPs, (ii) both the free and the algae-borne NPs; and (iii) only the algae-borne NPs in separate tests to understand the possible routes of NP transfer. The dietary uptake of TiO2 NPs (algae-borne) was found to be the primary route for NP biotransfer with ∼70% of total NP uptake. Interestingly, in a separate study it was noticed that the NPs coated with algal exudates were easily taken up by daphnids as compared to pristine NPs of same concentrations, leading to their higher bioaccumulation. A chronic toxicity study, where daphnids were exposed to both free and algae-borne NPs for 21 days was undertaken to comprehend the TiO2 NP effect on daphnia growth and reproduction upon chronic exposure and also the bioaccumulation potential. Both acute and chronic exposure studies suggested higher bioaccumulation of TiO2 in daphnids when the particles were less toxic to the diet (algae). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dose-response meta-analysis of differences in means

    Alessio Crippa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analytical methods are frequently used to combine dose-response findings expressed in terms of relative risks. However, no methodology has been established when results are summarized in terms of differences in means of quantitative outcomes. Methods We proposed a two-stage approach. A flexible dose-response model is estimated within each study (first stage taking into account the covariance of the data points (mean differences, standardized mean differences. Parameters describing the study-specific curves are then combined using a multivariate random-effects model (second stage to address heterogeneity across studies. Results The method is fairly general and can accommodate a variety of parametric functions. Compared to traditional non-linear models (e.g. E max, logistic, spline models do not assume any pre-specified dose-response curve. Spline models allow inclusion of studies with a small number of dose levels, and almost any shape, even non monotonic ones, can be estimated using only two parameters. We illustrated the method using dose-response data arising from five clinical trials on an antipsychotic drug, aripiprazole, and improvement in symptoms in shizoaffective patients. Using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, pooled results indicated a non-linear association with the maximum change in mean PANSS score equal to 10.40 (95 % confidence interval 7.48, 13.30 observed for 19.32 mg/day of aripiprazole. No substantial change in PANSS score was observed above this value. An estimated dose of 10.43 mg/day was found to produce 80 % of the maximum predicted response. Conclusion The described approach should be adopted to combine correlated differences in means of quantitative outcomes arising from multiple studies. Sensitivity analysis can be a useful tool to assess the robustness of the overall dose-response curve to different modelling strategies. A user-friendly R package has been developed to facilitate

  12. Differences in cortical response to acupressure and electroacupuncture stimuli

    Vangel Mark G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background FMRI studies focus on sub-cortical effects of acupuncture stimuli. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in primary somatosensory (S1 activity over the course of different types of acupuncture stimulation. We used whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG to map S1 brain response during 15 minutes of electroacupuncture (EA and acupressure (AP. We further assessed how brain response changed during the course of stimulation. Results Evoked brain response to EA differed from AP in its temporal dynamics by showing clear contralateral M20/M30 peaks while the latter demonstrated temporal dispersion. Both EA and AP demonstrated significantly decreased response amplitudes following five minutes of stimulation. However, the latency of these decreases were earlier in EA (~30 ms post-stimulus than AP (> 100 ms. Time-frequency responses demonstrated early onset, event related synchronization (ERS, within the gamma band at ~70-130 ms and the theta band at ~50-200 ms post-stimulus. A prolonged event related desynchronization (ERD of alpha and beta power occurred at ~100-300 ms post-stimulus. There was decreased beta ERD at ~100-300 ms over the course of EA, but not AP. Conclusion Both EA and AP demonstrated conditioning of SI response. In conjunction with their subcortical effects on endogenous pain regulation, these therapies show potential for affecting S1 processing and possibly altering maladaptive neuroplasticity. Thus, further investigation in neuropathic populations is needed.

  13. Three Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Rocket-based Combined-cycle Engine Response During Mode Transition Events

    Edwards, Jack R.; McRae, D. Scott; Bond, Ryan B.; Steffan, Christopher (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The GTX program at NASA Glenn Research Center is designed to develop a launch vehicle concept based on rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion. Experimental testing, cycle analysis, and computational fluid dynamics modeling have all demonstrated the viability of the GTX concept, yet significant technical issues and challenges still remain. Our research effort develops a unique capability for dynamic CFD simulation of complete high-speed propulsion devices and focuses this technology toward analysis of the GTX response during critical mode transition events. Our principal attention is focused on Mode 1/Mode 2 operation, in which initial rocket propulsion is transitioned into thermal-throat ramjet propulsion. A critical element of the GTX concept is the use of an Independent Ramjet Stream (IRS) cycle to provide propulsion at Mach numbers less than 3. In the IRS cycle, rocket thrust is initially used for primary power, and the hot rocket plume is used as a flame-holding mechanism for hydrogen fuel injected into the secondary air stream. A critical aspect is the establishment of a thermal throat in the secondary stream through the combination of area reduction effects and combustion-induced heat release. This is a necessity to enable the power-down of the rocket and the eventual shift to ramjet mode. Our focus in this first year of the grant has been in three areas, each progressing directly toward the key initial goal of simulating thermal throat formation during the IRS cycle: CFD algorithm development; simulation of Mode 1 experiments conducted at Glenn's Rig 1 facility; and IRS cycle simulations. The remainder of this report discusses each of these efforts in detail and presents a plan of work for the next year.

  14. Cultural and ethnic differences in content validation responses.

    Evans, Bronwynne C

    2004-04-01

    Eight instruments to evaluate grant interventions aimed at increasing recruitment and retention of Hispanic/Latino and American Indian nurses were developed for a Nursing Workforce Diversity Grant. This article compares expert reviewer responses during content validation of these instruments with (a) current literature and (b) seven filmed intervals of Hispanic/Latino and American Indian nurses speaking about their educational experiences. White reviewers responded differently to certain items than did Hispanic/Latino and American Indian reviewers (or reviewers closely affiliated with such persons). Responses of Hispanic/Latino and American Indian experts were aligned with one another but not aligned with the responses of White experts, who also agreed with one another, prompting literature and film comparisons with their responses. Faculty development may be needed to help teachers uncover their assumptions about students of color, acquire knowledge about cultural perspectives, recognize institutional racism, and attain the skills necessary to develop and implement a curriculum of inclusion.

  15. Engaging in an experiential processing mode increases positive emotional response during recall of pleasant autobiographical memories.

    Gadeikis, Darius; Bos, Nikita; Schweizer, Susanne; Murphy, Fionnuala; Dunn, Barnaby

    2017-05-01

    It is important to identify effective emotion regulation strategies to increase positive emotion experience in the general population and in clinical conditions characterized by anhedonia. There are indications that engaging in experiential processing (direct awareness of sensory and bodily experience) bolsters positive emotion experience but this has not been extensively tested during memory recall. To further test this notion, 99 community participants recalled two positive autobiographical memories. Prior to the second recall, participants either underwent an experiential, analytical, or distraction induction (n = 33 per condition). Subjective happiness and sadness ratings and heart rate variability (HRV) response were measured during each recall. Greater spontaneous use of experiential processing during the first memory was associated with greater happiness experience, but was unrelated to HRV and sadness experience. Inducing experiential processing increased happiness experience relative to both the analytical and distraction conditions (but had no impact on sadness experience). There was a significant difference in HRV between conditions. The experiential condition led to a trend-significant increase, and the other conditions a non-significant decrease, in HRV from the first to the second memory. These results suggest that engaging in experiential processing is an effective way to up-regulate positive emotion experience during positive memory recall. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Age Differences in Responses to Conflict in the Workplace

    Davis, Mark H.; Kraus, Linda A.; Capobianco, Sal

    2009-01-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) has been used successfully to explain age differences in interpersonal conflict behavior: older adults are generally less likely to engage in destructive responses, and more likely to employ nonconfrontational ones. However, this research has focused almost exclusively on conflict with intimates (spouses,…

  17. Social Responsibility Personality Differences between Male and Female Communicators.

    Hantz, Alan M.; Wright, Donald K.

    A study was conducted to explore in what ways, if any, male public relations practitioners differ from their female counterparts in their level of social responsibility. Subjects were 105 public relations practitioners (60% female and 40% male) and 215 college students (71% female and 29% male), who completed the Berkowitz-Lutterman SRS Scale. The…

  18. Behavioral responses of broilers to different gaseous atmospheres

    Gerritzen, M.A.; Lambooij, E.; Hillebrand, S.J.W.; Lankhaar, J.A.C.; Pieterse, C.

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the differences in behavioral response of broilers when they come into contact for the first time with gas mixtures that can be used for stunning. The six test groups were divided into four experimental groups that were exposed to gas mixtures used for stunning

  19. Response of West African dwarf sheep to differently processed ...

    A feeding trial was conducted to assess the response of West African Dwarf sheep to differently processed corncob meal based-diets. Sun-dried corncobs were collected at Teaching and Research farm of Federal University of Technology, Akure, treated with water, lye, urea, poultry litter and fermented for twenty-one (21) ...

  20. The Impact of Survey and Response Modes on Current Smoking Prevalence Estimates Using TUS-CPS: 1992-2003

    Julia Soulakova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study identified whether survey administration mode (telephone or in-person and respondent type (self or proxy result in discrepant prevalence of current smoking in the adult U.S. population, while controlling for key sociodemographic characteristics and longitudinal changes of smoking prevalence over the 11-year period from 1992-2003. We used a multiple logistic regression analysis with replicate weights to model the current smoking status logit as a function of a number of covariates. The final model included individual- and family-level sociodemographic characteristics, survey attributes, and multiple two-way interactions of survey mode and respondent type with other covariates. The respondent type is a significant predictor of current smoking prevalence and the magnitude of the difference depends on the age, sex, and education of the person whose smoking status is being reported. Furthermore, the survey mode has significant interactions with survey year, sex, and age. We conclude that using an overall unadjusted estimate of the current smoking prevalence may result in underestimating the current smoking rate when conducting proxy or telephone interviews especially for some sub-populations, such as young adults. We propose that estimates could be improved if more detailed information regarding the respondent type and survey administration mode characteristics were considered in addition to commonly used survey year and sociodemographic characteristics. This information is critical given that future surveillance is moving toward more complex designs. Thus, adjustment of estimates should be contemplated when comparing current smoking prevalence results within a given survey series with major changes in methodology over time and between different surveys using various modes and respondent types.

  1. Separation of cannabinoids on three different mixed-mode columns containing carbon/nanodiamond/amine-polymer superficially porous particles.

    Hung, Chuan-Hsi; Zukowski, Janusz; Jensen, David S; Miles, Andrew J; Sulak, Clayton; Dadson, Andrew E; Linford, Matthew R

    2015-09-01

    Three mixed-mode high-performance liquid chromatography columns packed with superficially porous carbon/nanodiamond/amine-polymer particles were used to separate mixtures of cannabinoids. Columns evaluated included: (i) reversed phase (C18 ), weak anion exchange, 4.6 × 33 mm, 3.6 μm, and 4.6 × 100 mm, 3.6 μm, (ii) reversed phase, strong anion exchange (quaternary amine), 4.6×33 mm, 3.6 μm, and (iii) hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, 4.6 × 150 mm, 3.6 μm. Different selectivities were achieved under various mobile phase and stationary phase conditions. Efficiencies and peak capacities were as high as 54 000 N/m and 56, respectively. The reversed phase mixed-mode column (C18 ) retained tetrahydrocannabinolic acid strongly under acidic conditions and weakly under basic conditions. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid was retained strongly on the reversed phase, strong anion exchange mixed-mode column under basic polar organic mobile phase conditions. The hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column retained polar cannabinoids better than the (more) neutral ones under basic conditions. A longer reversed phase (C18 ) mixed-mode column (4.6 × 100 mm) showed better resolution for analytes (and a contaminant) than a shorter column. Fast separations were achieved in less than 5 min and sometimes 2 min. A real world sample (bubble hash extract) was also analyzed by gradient elution. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Sorption of structurally different ionized pharmaceutical and illicit drugs to a mixed-mode coated microsampler.

    Peltenburg, Hester; Timmer, Niels; Bosman, Ingrid J; Hermens, Joop L M; Droge, Steven T J

    2016-05-20

    The mixed-mode (C18/strong cation exchange-SCX) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber has recently been shown to have increased sensitivity for ionic compounds compared to more conventional sampler coatings such as polyacrylate and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). However, data for structurally diverse compounds to this (prototype) sampler coating are too limited to define its structural limitations. We determined C18/SCX fiber partitioning coefficients of nineteen cationic structures without hydrogen bonding capacity besides the charged group, stretching over a wide hydrophobicity range (including amphetamine, amitriptyline, promazine, chlorpromazine, triflupromazine, difenzoquat), and eight basic pharmaceutical and illicit drugs (pKa>8.86) with additional hydrogen bonding moieties (MDMA, atenolol, alprenolol, metoprolol, morphine, nicotine, tramadol, verapamil). In addition, sorption data for three neutral benzodiazepines (diazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam) and the anionic NSAID diclofenac were collected to determine the efficiency to sample non-basic drugs. All tested compounds showed nonlinear isotherms above 1mmol/L coating, and linear isotherms below 1mmol/L. The affinity for C18/SCX-SPME for tested organic cations without Hbond capacities increased with longer alkyl chains, ranging from logarithmic fiber-water distribution coefficients (log Dfw) of 1.8 (benzylamine) to 5.8 (triflupromazine). Amines smaller than benzylamine may thus have limited detection levels, while cationic surfactants with alkyl chain lengths >12 carbon atoms may sorb too strong to the C18/SCX sampler which hampers calibration of the fiber-water relationship in the linear range. The log Dfw for these simple cation structures closely correlates with the octanol-water partition coefficient of the neutral form (Kow,N), and decreases with increased branching and presence of multiple aromatic rings. Oxygen moieties in organic cations decreased the affinity for C18/SCX-SPME. Log Dfw values of

  3. Research socially responsible: may we speak of a Mode 3 knowledge production? - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v2i1.145en

    Jaime Jiménez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A collateral effect of the globalization of the economy is the “globalization of science”, in the sense that part of it works at the service of the global economy. Part of the scientific production thus appears to be linked to the needs of the global markets. However, in the past 20 years, new alternative ways of “doing science” have emerged throughout the world whose most important characteristic is their intimate relationship with the solution of felt problems linked to local or regional communities. Although they share some of the characteristics of “Mode 2” research, as defined by GIBBONS et al (1994, they differ drastically in the sense that they really are socially responsible. These new forms are a response to the need to make scientific research more participative, more closely linked to the groups that would be affected by its results, incorporating thus in the decision-making process, not only the researchers themselves, but also those agents that would be directly affected by its products. This paper reflects upon an experience that currently takes place in Mexico, where research is intimately linked to the learning function, and is strongly rooted into the New Information and Communication Technologies (NICT. This form of doing “research in the service of humanity” is consistent with an alternative definition of development that is not necessarily linked to “growth”, as traditionally reflected in economic statistics. Development is not a question of what one has, but of what one can do with what one has. Development is the ability and desire to use what is available to continuously improve one’s quality of life (ACKOFF, 1974. Projects like the one described here provide a sense of progress in the right direction, in the direction of true development. We call this way of knowledge generation “Mode 3”, to differentiate it from Mertonian (Mode 1 and Gibbons’ (Mode 2 way of doing science. Mode 3 is a mode of

  4. Microstructure-based constitutive modeling of TRIP steel: Prediction of ductility and failure modes under different loading conditions

    Choi, K.S.; Liu, W.N.; Sun, X.; Khaleel, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    We study the ultimate ductility and failure modes of a commercial transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) 800 steel under different loading conditions with an advanced microstructure-based finite-element analysis. The representative volume element (RVE) for the TRIP 800 under examination is developed based on an actual microstructure obtained from scanning electron microscopy. The ductile failure of the TRIP 800 under different loading conditions is predicted in the form of plastic strain localization without any prescribed failure criteria for the individual phases. This indicates that the microstructure-level inhomogeneity of the various constituent phases can be the key factor influencing the final ductility of the TRIP 800 steel under different loading conditions. Comparisons of the computational results with experimental measurements suggest that the microstructure-based modeling approach accurately captures the overall macroscopic behavior of the TRIP 800 steel under different loading and boundary conditions.

  5. Numerical study of pressure fluctuations transfer law in different flow rate of turbine mode in a prototype pump turbine

    Sun, Y K; Zuo, Z G; Liu, S H; Wu, Y L; Liu, J T; Qin, D Q; Wei, X Z

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulation using SST k-w turbulence model was carried out, to predict pressure fluctuation transfer law in turbine mode. Three operating points with different mass flow rates are simulated. The results of numerical simulation show that, the amplitude and frequency of pressure fluctuations in different positions are very different. The transfer law of amplitude and frequency of pressure fluctuations change with different position and different mass flow rate. Blade passing frequency (BPF) is the first dominant frequency in vaneless space, while component in this frequency got smaller in the upstream and downstream of vaneless space when the mass flow is set. Furthermore triple blade passing frequency (3BPF) component obtained a different transfer law through the whole flow passage. The amplitude and frequency of pressure fluctuations is also different in different circumference position of vaneless space. When the mass flow is different, the distribution of pressure fluctuations in circumference is different. The frequency component of pressure fluctuations in all the positions is different too

  6. Sex Difference in Testosterone Response to a Video Game Contest

    Mazur, Allan; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Edelbrock, Sandy

    1997-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) were assayed from saliva samples given by young men (n = 28) and women (n = 32) before, during, and after competing with a same-sex partner in a video game. The T response to the competition is different in each sex; the C response is the same. Male results confirm prior reports of a pre-contest rise in testosterone. Male results did not confirm previous findings that after a contest, the testosterone of winners is higher than that of losers, perhaps because ...

  7. Study On The Influence Of Different Drying Modes Over The Chemical Composition Of Organic Fruits Of Some Plum Cultivars

    GEORGIEV, Diyan; GEORGIEVA, Mariya; BRASHLYANOVA, Boryana; Karabadzhov, Ognyan

    2014-01-01

    The change of some biochemical indicators of fruits of some plum cultivars was followed under the influence of different equipments and drying modes. In the first variant for the process of drying was used an alternative energy source – solar energy, and in the second one – a heat pump.The highest dry matter content was found in the fresh fruits of Mirabelle de Nancy – 25.50 %. In the alternative source of drying of fruits, Gabrovska cultivar had the highest content of biological active subst...

  8. Effect of Thermal Fields on the Structure of Corrosion-Resistant Steels Under Different Modes of Laser Treatment

    Tarasova, T. V.; Gusarov, A. V.; Protasov, K. E.; Filatova, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    The influence of temperature fields on the structure and properties of corrosion-resistant chromium steels under different modes of laser treatment is investigated. A model of heat transfer under laser impact on target is used to plot thermal fields and cycles and cooling rates. It is shown that the model used for computing thermal fields gives tentative geometric sizes of the fusion zones under laser treatment and selective laser fusion. The cooling rate is shown to have decisive influence on the structure of corrosion-resistant steels after laser treatment with surface fusion in devices for pulsed, continuous, and selective laser melting.

  9. The role of email addresses and email contact in encouraging web response in a mixed mode design

    Cernat, Alexandru; Lynn, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether propensity to participate in a web-CAPI mixed-mode survey is influenced by being contacted by email in addition to mail. In panel surveys, researchers can ask at each wave for an email address, but there is little evidence regarding the value of doing so. Using data from a large sample with an experimental design (IP5) we find that using a respondent-supplied email address to send additional invites and reminders does not affect response rates compared to using mailed invit...

  10. The mode of lymphoblastoid cell death in response to gas phase cigarette smoke is dose-dependent

    Baltatzis George E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoke (CS is the main cause in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, the pathogenesis of which is related to an extended inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the effect of low and high doses of gas phase cigarette smoke (GPS on cultured lymphocyte progenitor cells, using techniques to assess cell viability and to elucidate whether cells die of apoptosis or necrosis upon exposure to different doses of GPS. Methods In our approach we utilised a newly-established system of exposure of cells to GPS that is highly controlled, accurately reproducible and simulates CS dosage and kinetics that take place in the smokers' lung. This system was used to study the mode of cell death upon exposure to GPS in conjunction with a range of techniques widely used for cell death studies such as Annexin V staining, activation of caspase -3, cytoplasmic release of cytochrome C, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation. Results Low doses of GPS induced specific apoptotic indexes in CCRF-CEM cells. Specifically, cytochrome C release and cleaved caspase-3 were detected by immunofluorescence, upon treatment with 1-3 puffs GPS. At 4 h post-exposure, caspase-3 activation was observed in western blot analysis, showing a decreasing pattern as GPS doses increased. Concomitant with this behaviour, a dose-dependent change in Δψm depolarization was monitored by flow cytometry 2 h post-exposure, while at 4 h Δψm collapse was observed at the higher doses, indicative of a shift to a necrotic demise. A reduction in DNA fragmentation events produced by 5 puffs GPS as compared to those provoked by 3 puffs GPS, also pointed towards a necrotic response at the higher dose of GPS. Conclusion Collectively, our results support that at low doses gas phase cigarette smoke induces apoptosis in cultured T-lymphocytes, whereas at high doses GPS leads to necrotic death, by-passing the characteristic

  11. Age Differences in Dual Information-Processing Modes: Implications for Cancer Decision Making

    Peters, Ellen; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Hess, Thomas M.; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Age differences in affective/experiential and deliberative processes have important theoretical implications for cancer decision making as cancer is often a disease of older adulthood. We examine evidence for adult age differences in affective and deliberative information processes, review the sparse evidence about age differences in decision making and introduce how dual process theories and their findings might be applied to cancer decision making. Age-related declines in the efficiency of deliberative processes predict poorer-quality decisions as we age, particularly when decisions are unfamiliar and the information is numeric. However, age-related adaptive processes, including an increased focus on emotional goals and greater experience, can influence decision making and potentially offset age-related declines. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie cancer decision processes in our aging population should ultimately allow us to help older adults to better help themselves. PMID:19058148

  12. Management Modes at Different Levels and Management Effectiveness of Nature Reserve

    Xiaoping; TANG

    2013-01-01

    Classification management is one of nature reserves management system in China. But state nature reserves and local administration nature reserves under the regulations are only the approval system and embody the concept of protection. Management pattern of nature reserves can be divided into nine types. There are big differences in the nine patterns in management foundation and coordination ability of management because different management pattern occupies different resources of administration,personnel,financial and law enforcement. By analyzing management pattern,thirty-eight indexes in thirteen categories were selected to evaluate the management effectiveness of national nature reserves subordinate to the State Forestry Administration (SFA) . Results show that the management effectiveness of national nature reserves is good as a whole,and the management effectiveness is direct proportional to administration level. Provincial administration has the higher efficiency than municipal and county administration. Direct administration by governments at all levels has the higher efficiency than departments’ administration at the same level.

  13. Age differences in dual information-processing modes: implications for cancer decision making.

    Peters, Ellen; Diefenbach, Michael A; Hess, Thomas M; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2008-12-15

    Age differences in affective/experiential and deliberative processes have important theoretical implications for cancer decision making, as cancer is often a disease of older adulthood. The authors examined evidence for adult age differences in affective and deliberative information processes, reviewed the sparse evidence about age differences in decision making, and introduced how dual process theories and their findings might be applied to cancer decision making. Age-related declines in the efficiency of deliberative processes predict poorer-quality decisions as we age, particularly when decisions are unfamiliar and the information is numeric. However, age-related adaptive processes, including an increased focus on emotional goals and greater experience, can influence decision making and potentially offset age-related declines. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie cancer decision processes in our aging population should ultimately allow us to help older adults to better help themselves.

  14. Different modes of APC/C activation control growth and neuron-glia interaction in the developing Drosophila eye.

    Neuert, Helen; Yuva-Aydemir, Yeliz; Silies, Marion; Klämbt, Christian

    2017-12-15

    The development of the nervous system requires tight control of cell division, fate specification and migration. The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that affects different steps of cell cycle progression, as well as having postmitotic functions in nervous system development. It can therefore link different developmental stages in one tissue. The two adaptor proteins, Fizzy/Cdc20 and Fizzy-related/Cdh1, confer APC/C substrate specificity. Here, we show that two distinct modes of APC/C function act during Drosophila eye development. Fizzy/Cdc20 controls the early growth of the eye disc anlage and the concomitant entry of glial cells onto the disc. In contrast, fzr/cdh1 acts during neuronal patterning and photoreceptor axon growth, and subsequently affects neuron-glia interaction. To further address the postmitotic role of Fzr/Cdh1 in controlling neuron-glia interaction, we identified a series of novel APC/C candidate substrates. Four of our candidate genes are required for fzr/cdh1 -dependent neuron-glia interaction, including the dynein light chain Dlc90F Taken together, our data show how different modes of APC/C activation can couple early growth and neuron-glia interaction during eye disc development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. The Effect of Different Modes of English Captioning on EFL learners’ General Listening Comprehension: Full text Vs. Keyword Captions

    Sorayya Behroozizad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of different modes of English captioning on EFL learners’ general listening comprehension. To this end, forty five intermediate-level learners were selected based on their scores on a standardized English proficiency test (PET to carry out the study. Then, the selected participants were randomly assigned into two experimental groups (full-captions and keyword-captions and one control group (no-captions. Research instrumentation included a pre-test and a post-test following an experimental design. Participants took a pre-test and a post-test containing 50 multiple-choice questions (25question for pre-test and 25 question for post-test selected from a standard listening test PET, and also 15 treatment sessions. The findings showed significant differences among full-captions, keyword-captions, and no-captions in terms of their effect on learners’ general listening comprehension. This study provided some pedagogical implications for teaching listening through using different modes of captions. Keywords: Caption, full caption, keyword caption, listening comprehension

  16. Sex differences in chronic stress responses and Alzheimer's disease.

    Yan, Yan; Dominguez, Sky; Fisher, Daniel W; Dong, Hongxin

    2018-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate that Alzheimer's disease (AD) disproportionately affects women in both disease prevalence and severity, but the mechanisms underlying this sex divergence are unknown. Though some have suggested this difference in risk is a reflection of known differences in longevity between men and women, mounting clinical and preclinical evidence supports women also having intrinsic susceptibilities towards the disease. While a number of potential risk factors have been hypothesized to affect these differences in risks, none have been definitively verified. In this review, we discuss a novel hypothesis whereby women's susceptibility to chronic stress also mediates increased risk for AD. As stress is a risk factor for AD, and women are twice as likely to develop mood disorders where stress is a major etiology, it is possible that sex dimorphisms in stress responses contribute to the increase in women with AD. In line with this, sex divergence in biochemical responses to stress have been noted along the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and among known molecular effectors of AD, with crosstalk between these processes also being likely. In addition, activation of the cortical corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) signaling pathway leads to distinct female-biased increases in molecules associated with AD pathogenesis. Therefore, the different biochemical responses to stress between women and men may represent an intrinsic, sex-dependent risk factor for AD.

  17. Comparison the effect of two types of light curing units with different modes on microleakage of composite filling in Cl II restorations

    Esmail Yassini

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The results showed that both light curing devices were effective and no significant difference between different modes of LED light curing device on microleakage of class II composite restorations was found.

  18. Studies on Aryl-Substituted Phenylalanines: Synthesis, Activity, and Different Binding Modes at AMPA Receptors

    Szymanska, Ewa; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Pickering, Darryl S

    2016-01-01

    , not previously seen for amino acid-based AMPA receptor antagonists, X-ray crystal structures of both eutomers in complex with the GluA2 ligand binding domain were solved. The cocrystal structures of (S)-37 and (R)-38 showed similar interactions of the amino acid parts but unexpected and different orientations...

  19. Effect of Different Modes of Erbium:yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser ...

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... 2017 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer ‑ Medknow. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on the shear bond strength (SBS) of resin composites to dentin using total etch ..... adhesion of a glass ionomer cement to dentin.

  20. Effect of Different Modes of Erbium:yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser ...

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on the shear bond strength (SBS) of resin composites to dentin using total etch dentin bonding adhesives. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human molars were flattened to obtain dentin surfaces. The samples were divided into ...

  1. Effect of step function-like perturbation on intermittent contact mode sensors: a response analysis

    Kokavecz, Janos; Heszler, Peter; Toth, Zsolt; Mechler, Adam

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of the intermittent contact mode (ICM) probe was investigated. In the experimental study we applied a step function signal to the Z piezo drive and recorded the amplitude signal of the probe while the probe was engaged with the surface. Transient overshoots appear at the edges of the steps. These transients are absent from the control contact force measurements, that is, they are proper to the ICM operation. The phenomenon was investigated by numerical calculations, focused on the effect of change of the drive frequency and the quality factor. We concluded, that the low value of the quality factor results in small transients and short settling time, which are necessary for fast atomic force microscopic operation. Simultaneously, the interaction force increases. Our calculations indicate that the tip-sample force can be lowered by setting the drive frequency slightly below the resonance

  2. Modulation response, mixed-mode oscillations and chaotic spiking in quantum dot light emitting diode

    Al Husseini, Hussein B.; Al Naimee, Kais A.; Al Khursan, Amin H.; Abdalah, Sora F.; Khedir, Ali H.; Meucci, Riccardo; Arecchi, F. Tito

    2015-01-01

    In this work quantum dot light emitting diode (QD-LED) was modeled in a dimensionless rate equations system where it is not done earlier. The model was examined first under bias current without any external perturbation where it exhibits chaotic phenomena since the model has multi-degrees of freedom. Then, it is perturbed by both small signal and direct current modulations (DCM), separately. The system exhibits mixed-mode oscillations (MMOs) under DCM. This behavior was reasoned to continuous states of two dimensional wetting layer (WL) which works as a reservoir to quantum dot (QD) states. QD capture was the dominant rate controlling the dynamic behavior in QD-LED. The nonlinear dynamic behavior of our model is compared very well to the experimental observations in the QD-LED

  3. Seismic response of elastically restrained single bellows expansion joint in lateral mode

    Kameswara Rao, C.; Radhakrishna, M.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper attempts to derive an exact solution for the seismic response of U type of single bellows that are considered elastically restrained against rotation to classical fixed-fixed case considered by Morishita et al. (author)

  4. Mode of delivery affected questionnaire response rates in a birth cohort study

    Bray, I.; Noble, S.; Robinson, R.; Molloy, L.; Tilling, K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Cohort studies must collect data from their participants as economically as possible, while maintaining response rates. This randomized controlled trial investigated whether offering a choice of online or paper questionnaires resulted in improved response rates compared with offering online first. Study Design and Setting Eligible participants were young people in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study (born April 1, 1991, to December 31, 1992, in the Av...

  5. Inferring speciation modes in a clade of Iberian chafers from rates of morphological evolution in different character systems

    Ahrens Dirk

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of speciation mode based on phylogenies usually test the predicted effect on diversification patterns or on geographical distribution of closely related species. Here we outline an approach to infer the prevalent speciation mode in Iberian Hymenoplia chafers through the comparison of the evolutionary rates of morphological character systems likely to be related to sexual or ecological selection. Assuming that mitochondrial evolution is neutral and not related to measured phenotypic differences among the species, we contrast hypothetic outcomes of three speciation modes: 1 geographic isolation with subsequent random morphological divergence, resulting in overall change proportional to the mtDNA rate; 2 sexual selection on size and shape of the male intromittent organs, resulting in an evolutionary rate decoupled to that of the mtDNA; and 3 ecological segregation, reflected in character systems presumably related to ecological or biological adaptations, with rates decoupled from that of the mtDNA. Results The evolutionary rate of qualitative external body characters was significantly correlated to that of the mtDNA both for the overall root-to-tip patristic distances and the individual inter-node branches, as measured with standard statistics and the randomization of a global comparison metric (the z-score. The rate of the body morphospace was significantly correlated to that of the mtDNA only for the individual branches, but not for the patristic distances, while that of the paramere outline was significantly correlated with mtDNA rates only for the patristic distances but not for the individual branches. Conclusion Structural morphological characters, often used for species recognition, have evolved at a rate proportional to that of the mtDNA, with no evidence of directional or stabilising selection according to our measures. The change in body morphospace seems to have evolved randomly at short term, but the overall

  6. Individual differences in regulatory focus predict neural response to reward.

    Scult, Matthew A; Knodt, Annchen R; Hanson, Jamie L; Ryoo, Minyoung; Adcock, R Alison; Hariri, Ahmad R; Strauman, Timothy J

    2017-08-01

    Although goal pursuit is related to both functioning of the brain's reward circuits and psychological factors, the literatures surrounding these concepts have often been separate. Here, we use the psychological construct of regulatory focus to investigate individual differences in neural response to reward. Regulatory focus theory proposes two motivational orientations for personal goal pursuit: (1) promotion, associated with sensitivity to potential gain, and (2) prevention, associated with sensitivity to potential loss. The monetary incentive delay task was used to manipulate reward circuit function, along with instructional framing corresponding to promotion and prevention in a within-subject design. We observed that the more promotion oriented an individual was, the lower their ventral striatum response to gain cues. Follow-up analyses revealed that greater promotion orientation was associated with decreased ventral striatum response even to no-value cues, suggesting that promotion orientation may be associated with relatively hypoactive reward system function. The findings are also likely to represent an interaction between the cognitive and motivational characteristics of the promotion system with the task demands. Prevention orientation did not correlate with ventral striatum response to gain cues, supporting the discriminant validity of regulatory focus theory. The results highlight a dynamic association between individual differences in self-regulation and reward system function.

  7. Differences in the Selection Bottleneck between Modes of Sexual Transmission Influence the Genetic Composition of the HIV-1 Founder Virus.

    Damien C Tully

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the stringent population bottleneck that occurs during sexual HIV-1 transmission, systemic infection is typically established by a limited number of founder viruses. Elucidation of the precise forces influencing the selection of founder viruses may reveal key vulnerabilities that could aid in the development of a vaccine or other clinical interventions. Here, we utilize deep sequencing data and apply a genetic distance-based method to investigate whether the mode of sexual transmission shapes the nascent founder viral genome. Analysis of 74 acute and early HIV-1 infected subjects revealed that 83% of men who have sex with men (MSM exhibit a single founder virus, levels similar to those previously observed in heterosexual (HSX transmission. In a metadata analysis of a total of 354 subjects, including HSX, MSM and injecting drug users (IDU, we also observed no significant differences in the frequency of single founder virus infections between HSX and MSM transmissions. However, comparison of HIV-1 envelope sequences revealed that HSX founder viruses exhibited a greater number of codon sites under positive selection, as well as stronger transmission indices possibly reflective of higher fitness variants. Moreover, specific genetic "signatures" within MSM and HSX founder viruses were identified, with single polymorphisms within gp41 enriched among HSX viruses while more complex patterns, including clustered polymorphisms surrounding the CD4 binding site, were enriched in MSM viruses. While our findings do not support an influence of the mode of sexual transmission on the number of founder viruses, they do demonstrate that there are marked differences in the selection bottleneck that can significantly shape their genetic composition. This study illustrates the complex dynamics of the transmission bottleneck and reveals that distinct genetic bottleneck processes exist dependent upon the mode of HIV-1 transmission.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation and different modes of cooking on vitamin C content of potatoes

    Shirsat, S.G.; Thomas, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Changes in reduced and total ascorbic acid content in control and gamma irradiated potatoes of four cultivars were studied during 15 degC storage and after cooking by different methods. Under identical prolonged storage conditions, control tubers suffered heavy losses of vitamin C and total marketability due to sprouting and shrinkage unlike irradiated tubers. Time consuming cooking destroys more vitamin C as compared to faster cooking methods. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig

  9. Food safety - the roles and responsibilities of different sectors

    Karabasil, N.; Bošković, T.; Dimitrijević, M.; Vasilev, D.; Đorđević, V.; Lakićević, B.; Teodorović, V.

    2017-09-01

    Serbia is a relatively small country but with a long tradition in food production, especially meat and meat products. Serbia, as part of its open negotiation process as a candidate country with the European Union (EU), started to harmonise its legislation with the EU, and has published a set of laws and regulations relating to the hygiene of food production and food safety, the official control of production and the welfare of animals. Therefore, the food safety system in Serbia is based on principles established in the EU. There is a need for cooperation of different sectors (government, food business operators and consumers) in the management of food safety, and every sector has its role and responsibility. This paper aims to provide analytical support for the process of upgrading safety and quality in Serbia’s food sector and explains the roles and responsibilities of different sectors in the food chain.

  10. Sex Differences in the Default Mode Network with Regard to Autism Spectrum Traits: A Resting State fMRI Study.

    Minyoung Jung

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum traits exist on a continuum and are more common in males than in females, but the basis for this sex difference is unclear. To this end, the present study draws on the extreme male brain theory, investigating the relationship between sex difference and the default mode network (DMN, both known to be associated with autism spectrum traits. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was carried out in 42 females (mean age ± standard deviation, 22.4 ± 4.2 years and 43 males (mean age ± standard deviation, 23.8 ± 3.9 years with typical development. Using a combination of different analyses (viz., independent component analysis (ICA, fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF, regional homogeneity (ReHo, and seed-based analyses, we examined sex differences in the DMN and the relationship to autism spectrum traits as measured by autism-spectrum quotient (AQ scores. We found significant differences between female and male subjects in DMN brain regions, with seed-based analysis revealing a significant negative correlation between default-mode resting state functional connectivity of the anterior medial prefrontal cortex seed (aMPFC and AQ scores in males. However, there were no relationships between DMN sex differences and autism spectrum traits in females. Our findings may provide important insight into the skewed balance of functional connectivity in males compared to females that could serve as a potential biomarker of the degree of autism spectrum traits in line with the extreme male brain theory.

  11. Streamflow response of a small forested catchment on different timescales

    A. Zabaleta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological response of a catchment to rainfall on different timescales is result of a complex system involving a range of physical processes which may operate simultaneously and have different spatial and temporal influences. This paper presents the analysis of streamflow response of a small humid-temperate catchment (Aixola, 4.8 km2 in the Basque Country on different timescales and discusses the role of the controlling factors. Firstly, daily time series analysis was used to establish a hypothesis on the general functioning of the catchment through the relationship between precipitation and discharge on an annual and multiannual scale (2003–2008. Second, rainfall-runoff relationships and relationships among several hydrological variables, including catchment antecedent conditions, were explored at the event scale (222 events to check and improve the hypothesis. Finally, the evolution of electrical conductivity (EC during some of the monitored storm events (28 events was examined to identify the time origin of waters. Quick response of the catchment to almost all the rainfall events as well as a considerable regulation capacity was deduced from the correlation and spectral analyses. These results agree with runoff event scale data analysis; however, the event analysis revealed the non-linearity of the system, as antecedent conditions play a significant role in this catchment. Further, analysis at the event scale made possible to clarify factors controlling (precipitation, precipitation intensity and initial discharge the different aspects of the runoff response (runoff coefficient and discharge increase for this catchment. Finally, the evolution of EC of the waters enabled the time origin (event or pre-event waters of the quickflow to be established; specifically, the conductivity showed that pre-event waters usually represent a high percentage of the total discharge during runoff peaks. The importance of soil waters in the

  12. [Patient admission and induced abortion. A different mode: homeopathy and sophrology].

    Tregan, D; Cailleux-Kreitmann, J; Nègre-Garnier, C

    1994-03-01

    Unlike classic allopathic medicine in which specific drugs are given for specific symptoms, homeopathic prescriptions take into account the specificity of each patient. Different patients have different reactions to the same illness. Homeopathic practitioners sometimes prescribe different remedies for each patient suffering a particular illness. Two nurses and a midwife at the abortion service of the Center for Social Gynecology in Marseilles received training in homeopathic medicine which they applied to their work with abortion patients. A very complete and detailed questioning is necessary to identify the prescription that will be best adapted to the overall psychological, somatic, and etiological circumstances of the patient. Changes noted since the beginning of the pregnancy are especially noted. During the medical consultation, homeopathy may be proposed by the physician for patients who are particularly stressed. The anxiety and fear experienced by the referred patients can have physical consequences. The opportunity given to the patient to express herself and the individualized remedies prescribed enable the procedure to be completed under better conditions. Sophrology is the study of consciousness, its modifications, and the physical, psychological, and physiological means that can modify it for therapeutic or prophylactic purposes. A psychiatrist in Barcelona developed sophrology and began to teach it in 1960. The goal of sophrology is to achieve mental relaxation through muscular relaxation. Application of the principles of sophrology in an abortion service must be adapted to the structure and function of the service. Most patients have no knowledge of the method. Explanations must be rapid, clear, and simplified if patients are to obtain benefit. The practitioner instructs the patient in a calm voice to be aware of and maintain breathing, and uses positive words to suggest that the patient relax. Personnel with adequate training in sophrology can assist

  13. Magnetic Thermal Ablation Using Ferrofluids: Influence of Administration Mode on Biological Effect in Different Porcine Tissues

    Bruners, Philipp; Hodenius, Michael; Baumann, Martin; Oversohl, Jessica; Guenther, Rolf W.; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of magnetic thermal ablation in different porcine tissues using either a singular injection or a continuous infusion of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. In the first setting samples of three ferrofluids containing different amounts of iron (1:171, 2:192, and 3:214 mg/ml) were singularly interstitially injected into specimens of porcine liver, kidney, and muscle (n = 5). Then the specimens were exposed to an alternating magnetic field (2.86 kA/m, 190 kHz) generated by a circular coil for 5 min. In the second experimental setup ferrofluid samples were continuously interstitially infused into the tissue specimens during the exposure to the magnetic field. To measure the temperature increase two fiber-optic temperature probes with a fixed distance of 0.5 cm were inserted into the specimens along the puncture tract of the injection needle and the temperature was measured every 15 s. Finally, the specimens were dissected, the diameters of the created thermal lesions were measured, and the volumes were calculated and compared. Compared to continuous infusion, a single injection of ferrofluids resulted in smaller coagulation volumes in all tissues. Significant differences regarding coagulation volume were found in kidney and muscle specimens. The continuous infusion technique led to more elliptically shaped coagulation volumes due to larger diameters along the puncture tract. Our data show the feasibility of magnetic thermal ablation using either a single interstitial injection or continuous infusion for therapy of lesions in muscle, kidney, and liver. Continuous infusion of ferrofluids results in larger zones of necrosis compared to a single injection technique.

  14. EDUCATION, WORK AND THEIR RELATIONS THROUGHOUT HISTORY OF HUMANITY IN DIFFERENT MODES OF PRODUCTION OF EXISTENCE

    Denize Cristina Kaminski Ferreira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article has as objective to analyze the relation between education and work throughout the history of the humanity, for in such a way, the starting point is the conceptualization of the related categories, as well as the exposition of its variations and relation in the different ways of material production of the existence human being (primitive community, slavery society, feudal system and capitalism, aiming at to apprehend the multiple influences that both exert between itself, in order to make possible a bigger understanding of the historical and social evolution of the man

  15. Calculating modes of quantum wire systems using a finite difference technique

    T Mardani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, the Schrodinger equation for a quantum wire is solved using a finite difference approach. A new aspect in this work is plotting wave function on cross section of rectangular cross-sectional wire in two dimensions, periodically. It is found that the correct eigen energies occur when wave functions have a complete symmetry. If the value of eigen energy has a small increase or decrease in neighborhood of the correct energy the symmetry will be destroyed and aperturbation value at the first of wave function will be observed. In addition, the demand on computer memory varies linearly with the size of the system under investigation.

  16. Analysis of Pressure Fluctuations in a Prototype Pump-Turbine with Different Numbers of Runner Blades in Turbine Mode

    Deyou Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In pump-turbines, high pressure fluctuation is one of the crucial instabilities, which is harmful to the stable and effective operation of the entire unit. Extensive studies have been carried out to investigate pressure fluctuations (amplitude and frequency at specific locations. However, limited research was conducted on the distribution of pressure fluctuations in turbine mode in a pump-turbine, as well as the influence of the number of runner blades on pressure fluctuations. Hence, in this study, three dimensional numerical simulations were performed to predict the distribution of pressure fluctuations with different numbers of runner blades in a prototype pump-turbine in turbine mode using the shear stress transport (SST k-ω turbulence model. Three operating points with the same hydraulic head and different mass flow rates were simulated. The distribution of pressure fluctuation components of blade passing frequency and its harmonics in the direction along the whole flow path, as well as along the circumferential direction, was presented. The mass flow rate and number of runner blades have great influence on the distribution of pressure fluctuations, especially at blade passing frequency along circumferential direction. The mass flow rate mainly affects the position of peak pressure fluctuations, while the number of runner blades mainly changes the number of peak pressure fluctuations. Additionally, the number of runner blades influences the dominant frequencies of pressure fluctuations especially in the spiral casing and draft tube.

  17. Microtubule array reorientation in response to hormones does not involve changes in microtubule nucleation modes at the periclinal cell surface

    Atkinson, Samantha; Kirik, Angela; Kirik, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Aligned microtubule arrays spatially organize cell division, trafficking, and determine the direction of cell expansion in plant cells. In response to changes in environmental and developmental signals, cells reorganize their microtubule arrays into new configurations. Here, we tested the role of microtubule nucleation during hormone-induced microtubule array reorientation. We have found that in the process of microtubule array reorientation the ratios between branching, parallel, and de-novo nucleations remained constant, suggesting that the microtubule reorientation mechanism does not involve changes in nucleation modes. In the ton2/fass mutant, which has reduced microtubule branching nucleation frequency and decreased nucleation activity of the γ-tubulin complexes, microtubule arrays were able to reorient. Presented data suggest that reorientation of microtubules into transverse arrays in response to hormones does not involve changes in microtubule nucleation at the periclinal cell surface PMID:25135522

  18. Test of high time resolution MRPC with different readout modes for the BESIII upgrade

    Yang, S. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Sun, Y.J., E-mail: sunday@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Li, C., E-mail: licheng@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Heng, Y.K.; Qian, S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences(IHEP), Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Chen, H.F.; Chen, T.X. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Dai, H.L. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences(IHEP), Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Fan, H.H.; Liu, S.B. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Liu, S.D.; Jiang, X.S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences(IHEP), Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Shao, M.; Tang, Z.B.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, Z.G. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China)

    2014-11-01

    In order to further enhance the particle identification capability of the Beijing Spectrometer (BESIII), it is proposed to upgrade the current end-cap time-of-flight (eTOF) detector with multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC). The prototypes, together with the front end electronics (FEE) and time digitizer (TDIG) module have been tested at the E3 line of Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) to study the difference between the single and double-end readout MRPC designs. The time resolutions (sigma) of the single-end readout MRPC are 47/53 ps obtained by 600 MeV/c proton/pion beam, while that of the double-end readout MRPC is 40 ps (proton beam). The efficiencies of three MRPC modules tested by both proton and pion beam are better than 98%. For the double-end readout MRPC, no incident position dependence is observed.

  19. Biochemical and cellular properties of Gluconacetobacter xylinus cultures exposed to different modes of rotating magnetic field

    Fijałkowski Karol

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a rotating magnetic field (RMF on cellular and biochemical properties of Gluconacetobacter xylinus during the process of cellulose synthesis by these bacteria. The application of the RMF during bacterial cellulose (BC production intensified the biochemical processes in G. xylinus as compared to the RMF-unexposed cultures. Moreover, the RMF had a positive impact on the growth of cellulose-producing bacteria. Furthermore, the application of RMF did not increase the number of mutants unable to produce cellulose. In terms of BC production efficacy, the most favorable properties were found in the setting where RMF generator was switched off for the first 72 h of cultivation and switched on for the further 72 h. The results obtained can be used in subsequent studies concerning the optimization of BC production using different types of magnetic fields including RMF, especially.

  20. Physico-mechanical properties of naphthalene-acenaphthene eutectic system by different modes of solidification

    Sharma, B.L.; Gupta, S.; Tandon, S.; Kant, R.

    2008-01-01

    Anisotropic crystal growth kinetics from compositional melts encompassing the entire naphthalene-acenaphthene eutectic system, evidentially, evinces the dislocation mechanism. Rheological properties of eutectic phase melts at different temperatures explore the occurrence of molecular interactions emanating molecular clusters, rich in one phase or the other, in the eutectic melt. Microscopic studies confirm the crystalline faceted-faceted structure of the naphthalene-acenaphthene eutectic system. Implicit in the present work is the concept of strength-growth relationship that follows an identical form of the Weibull probability distribution curve. The curve exhibits two cut-off points corresponding to a lower strength limit in the slow and fast growth regions, and an upper strength limit in the moderate growth region. Relational essence between microstructural parameters essentially structuring morphology and excess thermodynamic functions implicitly governing molten state of the naphthalene-acenaphthene eutectic system is extracted

  1. Biomechanical optimization of different fixation modes for a proximal femoral L-osteotomy

    Chen Hsih-Hao

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous proposed surgical techniques have had minimal success in managing greater trochanter overgrowth secondary to retarded growth of the femoral capital epiphysis. For reconstruction of residual hip deformities, a novel type of proximal femur L-osteotomy was performed with satisfactory results. Although the clinical outcome was good, the biomechanical characteristics of the femur after such an osteotomy have not been clearly elucidated. Therefore, this study presents a three dimensional finite element analysis designed to understand the mechanical characteristics of the femur after the L-osteotomy. Methods A patient with left hip dysplasia was recruited as the study model for L-osteotomy. The normal right hip was used as a reference for performing the corrective surgery. Four FEA models were constructed using different numbers of fixation screws but the same osteotomy lengths together with four FEA models with the same number of fixation screws but different osteotomy lengths. The von Mises stress distributions and femoral head displacements were analyzed and compared. Results The results revealed the following: 1. The fixation devices (plate and screws sustained most of the external loading, and the peak value of von Mises stress on the fixation screws decreased with an increasing number of screws. 2. Additional screws are more beneficial on the proximal segment than on the distal segment for improving the stability of the postoperative femur. 3. The extent of osteotomy should be limited because local stress might be concentrated in the femoral neck region with increasing length of the L-osteotomy. Conclusion Additional screw placement on the proximal segment improves stability in the postoperative femur. The cobra-type plate with additional screw holes in the proximal area might improve the effectiveness of L-osteotomies.

  2. Sex differences in emotional contexts modulation on response inhibition.

    Ramos-Loyo, Julieta; Angulo-Chavira, Armando; Llamas-Alonso, Luis A; González-Garrido, Andrés A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore sex differences in the effects that emotional contexts exert on the temporal course of response inhibition using event-related potentials (ERP). Participants performed a Go-NoGo response inhibition task under 3 context conditions: with 1) neutral background stimuli, and 2) pleasant, and 3) unpleasant emotional contexts. No sex differences were found in relation to accuracy. Women showed higher N2NoGo amplitudes than men in both emotional contexts; whereas during inhibition men tended to show higher P3NoGo amplitudes than women in the unpleasant context. Both groups experienced a relevant effect of the presence of the unpleasant context during inhibition processing, as shown by the enhancement of the N2NoGo amplitudes in frontal regions compared to results from the neutral and pleasant conditions. In addition, women showed differences between the pleasant and unpleasant contexts, with the latter inducing higher amplitude values. Only in men did inhibition accuracy correlate with higher N2NoGo and lower P3NoGo amplitudes in the emotional context conditions. These findings suggest that when an inhibition task is performed in an emotionally-neutral background context no sex differences are observed in either accuracy or ERP components. However, when the emotional context was introduced -especially the unpleasant one- some gender differences did become evident. The higher N2NoGo amplitude at the presence of the unpleasant context may reflect an effect on attention and conflict monitoring. In addition, results suggest that during earlier processing stages, women invested more resources to process inhibition than men. Furthermore, men who invested more neural resources during earlier stages showed better response inhibition than those who did it during later processing stages, more closely-related to cognitive and motor inhibition processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Framing the ultimatum game: gender differences and autonomic responses.

    Sarlo, Michela; Lotto, Lorella; Palomba, Daniela; Scozzari, Simona; Rumiati, Rino

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating whether the way offers are framed in the Ultimatum Game (UG) affects behavioral and autonomic responses in men and women. The "I give you" and "I take" expressions were used as gain and loss frames, respectively. Skin conductance and heart rate were recorded as indices of autonomic activation in response to unfair, mid-value, and fair offers. Acceptance rates were higher in men than in women under the gain frame. Moreover, men showed higher acceptance rates under the gain than under the loss frame with mid-value offers, whereas women's choices were not affected by frame. On the physiological level, men produced differential autonomic response patterns during decision-making when offers were presented under gain and loss framing. The "I take" frame, by acting as a loss frame, elicited in men the characteristic defensive response pattern that is evoked by aversive stimulation, in which increases in skin conductance are coupled with increases in heart rate. On the other hand, the "I give you" frame, by acting as a gain frame, elicited in men increases in skin conductance associated with prevailing heart rate deceleratory responses, reflecting a state of enhanced attention and orienting. In contrast, women's autonomic reactivity was not affected by frame, consistent with behavioral results. Phasic changes in heart rate were crucial in revealing differential functional significance of skin conductance responses under different frames in men, thus questioning the assumption that this autonomic measure can be used as an index of negative emotional arousal in the UG.

  4. SU-E-T-386: Evaluation of EBT3 Film Response in Different Batches

    Escarcia, F; Herrera, J; Garcia, O

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the uniformity of film response of EBT3 film of two different film batches. It has been reported that the response of the EBT film family is not homogenous between film batches. The later may have an impact in the dosimetry of small radiotherapy beams. Methods: A solid water phantom was used for dosimetric measurements. EBT3 film irradiation was performed with a 6 MV photon beam at 5 cm depth with a SAD of 100 cm. All irradiations were performed perpendicularly to the film plane covering the dose range 1 to 10 Gy. Three square field sizes were used to analyze the film response energy dependence: 10, 5 and 1 cm 2 . Two batches of film EBT3 were used #A03181302 (B1) and #03031403 (B2). Film read out was carrying out with an Epson Perfection V750-Pro flatbed scanner in transmission mode with a spatial resolution of 72 dpi, with all post-processing and colour management options turned off, using 48 bits RGB colour depth. The scans were analyzed with the red channel. Results: The results shown that there were differences between the film response for each batch. The differences between batches for 1 Gy were 2%, 6% and 12% for 10, 5 and 1 cm2 square field sizes, respectively. The differences found for 10 Gy were 13%, 14% and 13% for 10, 5 and 1 cm 2 square field sizes, respectively. It can be observed that the dependence with field size dismissed for higher doses. The later may be due to film response saturation at 10 Gy. Conclusion: The EBT3 film -as its predecessors-, it suffer for inter-batch variability in the film response. Further research is required to assess the possible impact in small beam dosimetry

  5. SU-E-T-386: Evaluation of EBT3 Film Response in Different Batches

    Escarcia, F [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico Df, DF (Mexico); Herrera, J; Garcia, O [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, Mexico Df, DF (Mexico)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the uniformity of film response of EBT3 film of two different film batches. It has been reported that the response of the EBT film family is not homogenous between film batches. The later may have an impact in the dosimetry of small radiotherapy beams. Methods: A solid water phantom was used for dosimetric measurements. EBT3 film irradiation was performed with a 6 MV photon beam at 5 cm depth with a SAD of 100 cm. All irradiations were performed perpendicularly to the film plane covering the dose range 1 to 10 Gy. Three square field sizes were used to analyze the film response energy dependence: 10, 5 and 1 cm{sup 2}. Two batches of film EBT3 were used #A03181302 (B1) and #03031403 (B2). Film read out was carrying out with an Epson Perfection V750-Pro flatbed scanner in transmission mode with a spatial resolution of 72 dpi, with all post-processing and colour management options turned off, using 48 bits RGB colour depth. The scans were analyzed with the red channel. Results: The results shown that there were differences between the film response for each batch. The differences between batches for 1 Gy were 2%, 6% and 12% for 10, 5 and 1 cm2 square field sizes, respectively. The differences found for 10 Gy were 13%, 14% and 13% for 10, 5 and 1 cm{sup 2} square field sizes, respectively. It can be observed that the dependence with field size dismissed for higher doses. The later may be due to film response saturation at 10 Gy. Conclusion: The EBT3 film -as its predecessors-, it suffer for inter-batch variability in the film response. Further research is required to assess the possible impact in small beam dosimetry.

  6. Die anderen Ausdrucksweisen: subtile Offensiven Different Modes of Expression: Subtle Offensives

    Ella Jasiowka

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Was passiert, wenn der „Herrscher des filmischen Blickes“ eine Frau ist? Anhand zweier jeweils sehr unterschiedlicher Beispiele „weiblicher“ Filmkunst zeigt die Autorin, dass es nötig ist, herkömmliche Interpretationsmuster zu überwinden, um dem Filmschaffen einzelner Künstler und Künstlerinnen auf den Grund zu gehen. Da es nicht die „feministische Kunst“ an sich gibt, muß man für das Werk so unterschiedlicher Künstlerinnen wie Sally Potter und Jane Campion jeweils unterschiedliche Schlüssel suchen, um ihnen gerecht zu werden. Dies tut Radkiewicz in ihrem Werk – aus feministischer Perspektive. Sie holt jeweils verschieden weit aus, wenn es darum geht, künstlerische Herkunft, Biographie, Vorbilder und Ziele der Künstlerinnen zu deren Werk in Bezug zu setzten. Ohne zu bahnbrechend neuen Erkenntnissen zu kommen, gelingt es ihr doch, ein komplexes Bild der von ihr behandelten Filmemacherinnen und den Filmen zu entwerfen, das einen umfassenden Gesamteindruck vermittelt. Die Kürze des Buches bringt dabei eine Konzentration mit sich, die zu einer Weiterbeschäftigung und Vertiefung einlädt.What happens if the filmmaker directing the audience’s gaze is a woman? Radkiewicz uses two very different examples of “female” film art to portray the two directions into which this kind of undertaking can lead. In so doing, she demonstrates that traditional methods of analysis no longer suffice to thoroughly examine the work of an artist. Since there is no neatly defined category of “feminist art,” one has to take into consideration different kinds of approaches in order to do justice to the work of film directors like Jane Campion and Sally Potter. Radkiewicz does exactly that in her work, and thus provides an analysis that is informed by a feminist perspective. She includes the filmmakers’ artistic trajectory, background, biography, and goals into her interpretation of Campion’s and Potter’s films. While Radkiewicz does

  7. Interviewing Suspects in Denial: On How Different Evidence Disclosure Modes Affect the Elicitation of New Critical Information

    May, Lennart; Granhag, Pär Anders; Tekin, Serra

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how different evidence disclosure modes affect the elicitation of new critical information. Two modes derived from the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework were compared against an early disclosure mode (i.e., the evidence was disclosed at the outset of the interview). Participants (N = 88) performed a mock crime consisting of several actions before they were interviewed as suspects. In both SUE conditions the interviewer elicited and disclosed statement-evidence inconsistencies in two phases after an introductory phase. For the SUE-Confrontation (SUE-C) condition, the interview was introduced in a business-like manner, and the interviewer confronted the suspects with the in/consistencies without giving them a chance to comment on these. For the SUE-Introduce-Present-Respond (SUE-IPR) condition, the interviewer introduced the interview in a non-guilt-presumptive way, presented the in/consistencies and allowed the suspects to comment on these, and then responded to their comments; at all times in a non-judgmental manner. Both SUE conditions generated comparatively more statement-evidence inconsistencies. The SUE-IPR condition resulted in more new critical information about the phase of the crime for which the interviewer lacked information, compared to the Early disclosure condition. A likely explanation for this was that (for the SUE-IPR condition) the interviewer used the inconsistencies to create a fostering interview atmosphere and made the suspects overestimate the interviewer's knowledge about the critical phase of the crime. In essence, this study shows that in order to win the game (i.e., obtaining new critical information), the interviewer needs to keep the suspect in the game (i.e., by not being too confrontational and judgmental). PMID:28769829

  8. Normative "Sexual" Knowledge and Critique as a Mode of Resistance--A Response to Damien Riggs

    Burns, Kellie

    2013-01-01

    In this response to Damien Riggs' analysis of sex education websites, the author draws on Foucault's understanding of knowledge, power and governmentality to understand how some forms of knowledge about sex and sexuality become normalised "official knowledge" that frame institutional policies and practices and shape everyday discourses. Foucault…

  9. The Impacts of Different Expansion Modes on Performance of Small Solar Energy Firms: Perspectives of Absorptive Capacity

    Hsing Hung Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of firm’s expansion by differentiated products and diversified products are quite different. However, the study employing absorptive capacity to examine the impacts of different modes of expansion on performance of small solar energy firms has never been discussed before. Then, a conceptual model to analyze the tension between strategies and corporate performance is proposed to filling the vacancy. After practical investigation, the results show that stronger organizational institutions help small solar energy firms expanded by differentiated products increase consistency between strategies and corporate performance; oppositely, stronger working attitudes with weak management controls help small solar energy firms expanded by diversified products reduce variance between strategies and corporate performance.

  10. Different functional modes of BAR domain proteins in formation and plasticity of mammalian postsynapses.

    Kessels, Michael M; Qualmann, Britta

    2015-09-01

    A plethora of cell biological processes involve modulations of cellular membranes. By using extended lipid-binding interfaces, some proteins have the power to shape membranes by attaching to them. Among such membrane shapers, the superfamily of Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins has recently taken center stage. Extensive structural work on BAR domains has revealed a common curved fold that can serve as an extended membrane-binding interface to modulate membrane topologies and has allowed the grouping of the BAR domain superfamily into subfamilies with structurally slightly distinct BAR domain subtypes (N-BAR, BAR, F-BAR and I-BAR). Most BAR superfamily members are expressed in the mammalian nervous system. Neurons are elaborately shaped and highly compartmentalized cells. Therefore, analyses of synapse formation and of postsynaptic reorganization processes (synaptic plasticity) - a basis for learning and memory formation - has unveiled important physiological functions of BAR domain superfamily members. These recent advances, furthermore, have revealed that the functions of BAR domain proteins include different aspects. These functions are influenced by the often complex domain organization of BAR domain proteins. In this Commentary, we review these recent insights and propose to classify BAR domain protein functions into (1) membrane shaping, (2) physical integration, (3) action through signaling components, and (4) suppression of other BAR domain functions. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AMOMUM VILLOSUM: A SYSTEMATIC INVESTIGATION ON THREE DIFFERENT PRODUCTION MODES.

    Lai, Yun-Feng; Chen, Ling-Xiao; Chen, Yu-Ning; Zhao, Jing; Leong, Fong; Li, Xi-Wen; Yang, Qing; Li, Peng; Hu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Amomum Villosum (A. Villosum ), called Chunsharen in Chinese, is widely used in treating gastrointestinal disease. Its clinical benefits have been confirmed by both in vitro and in vivo studies. Facing the shortage of wild A. Villosum , artificial cultivating and natural fostering have been practiced in recent years. Therefore, it would be wondered whether the three different types of A. Villosum are comparable or not, particularly the herbal qualities, technological challenges, ecological impacts and economic benefits. In this study, we combined quality research by using GC-MS, and field investigation to provide a systematic assessment about the three types of A. Villosum from these four aspects. It found that the wild type had low output and was in an endangered situation. The artificial cultivation had larger agriculturing area with higher productivity, but faced the ecological challenges. Lastly, the natural fostering type generated the highest economic benefit and relatively low ecological impact. In addition, the natural fostering type had relatively better quality than the other types. Therefore, it suggests that natural fostering can be applied for long-term sustainable development of A. Villosum .

  12. The National Response Plan and the Problems in the Evaluation and Assessment of the Unconventional Modes of Terrorism

    LeMone, David V.; Gibbs, Shawn G.; Winston, John W. Jr.

    2006-01-01

    terrorism would include such acts as: assassination, kidnapping, hostage taking, non-nuclear explosive devices, etc. The two NRP categories of catastrophic events and oil and hazardous materials contain sections considered to be in the area of conventional terrorism. Of potentially greater immediate concern are the four major modes of unconventional terrorism that are recognized: cyber-, biological (including agro-), chemical, and nuclear. The problem is to arrive at a mutually agreed upon order of importance of both conventional and unconventional terrorism categories. Consequent ranking of these modes enables the prioritization of those areas in which our limited national human and financial resources are to be expended and allocated (funding of research and development, commitment and selection of personnel, costs distribution, operational time-frame, information distribution level, etc.). Ranking of the terror modes will at best be difficult because of a lack of understanding of the potential impacts of each mode as well as the inherent vested bureaucratic and non-bureaucratic interests and biases. All cases of radiation-related incidents may be considered to be manmade with a potentially significant majority of those incidents assigned to a terrorism origin. Man-made accidental occurrences would be handled with a similar NRP response as would be expected in the case of a terrorist event. Radiation-related devices include the RDDs (Radioactive Dispersal Devices) and nuclear fission and fusion weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Pragmatically, the most likely scenario to develop would involve RDD utilization. This conclusion would seem to be reasonable in view of the current apparent capabilities and sophistication required to construct, transport, and deliver a nuclear WMD. (authors)

  13. Gender Differences in the Appetite Response to a Satiating Diet

    Alexandra Bédard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet meals and determined whether there are gender differences in the change in the satiating properties of the MedDiet over time. Thirty-eight men and 32 premenopausal women consumed a 4-week isoenergetic MedDiet under controlled conditions. Visual analogue scales were used to measure perceived appetite sensations before and immediately after each meal consumed over the course of one day (Wednesday of the first and the fourth week of intervention. Women reported greater decreases for desire to eat, hunger, and appetite score than men in response to the consumption of the MedDiet meals (gender-by-meal interactions, resp., P=0.04, P=0.048, and P=0.03. Fullness and prospective food consumption responses did not significantly differ between men and women. Between the first and the fourth week of intervention, premeal prospective food consumption increased with time in men (P=0.0007 but not in women (P=0.84; P for gender-by-time interaction = 0.04. These results indicate gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to the MedDiet. These results may be useful in order to have a better understanding of gender issues for body weight management.

  14. Gender Differences in the Appetite Response to a Satiating Diet

    Bédard, Alexandra; Hudon, Anne-Marie; Drapeau, Vicky; Corneau, Louise; Dodin, Sylvie; Lemieux, Simone

    2015-01-01

    We examined gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) meals and determined whether there are gender differences in the change in the satiating properties of the MedDiet over time. Thirty-eight men and 32 premenopausal women consumed a 4-week isoenergetic MedDiet under controlled conditions. Visual analogue scales were used to measure perceived appetite sensations before and immediately after each meal consumed over the course of one day (Wednesday) of the first and the fourth week of intervention. Women reported greater decreases for desire to eat, hunger, and appetite score than men in response to the consumption of the MedDiet meals (gender-by-meal interactions, resp., P = 0.04, P = 0.048, and P = 0.03). Fullness and prospective food consumption responses did not significantly differ between men and women. Between the first and the fourth week of intervention, premeal prospective food consumption increased with time in men (P = 0.0007) but not in women (P = 0.84; P for gender-by-time interaction = 0.04). These results indicate gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to the MedDiet. These results may be useful in order to have a better understanding of gender issues for body weight management. PMID:26442158

  15. Allelopathic Responses of Rice Seedlings under Some Different Stresses

    Tran Dang Khanh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic responses of rice seedlings under submergence stress at different temperatures (10, 25, 32, and 37 °C. The results showed that a wide range of allelopathic responses of rice seedlings depended on varieties and stress conditions, with temperature was being a key factor. It showed that the extracts of rice seedlings induced significant suppression on lettuce and radish seedling germination, but had negligible allelopathic effects on growth of barnyardgrass, whilst the emergence and growth of natural weeds was stimulated. In contrast, the root exudates of Koshihikari rice seedlings (K32 at 32 °C reduced the number of total weeds by ≈60.0% and the total dry weight of weeds by 93.0%; i.e., to a greater extent than other root exudates. Among the 13 identified phenolic acids, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, sinapic and benzoic acids—at concentrations of 0.360, 0.045, 3.052, 1.309 and 5.543 μg/mL might be involved in allelopathic responses of K32, inhibiting the growth of barnyardgrass and natural weeds. Findings of the present study may provide useful information on allelopathic responses of rice under environmental stresses and thus further understand of the competitive relationships between rice and weeds under natural conditions.

  16. Woody riparian vegetation response to different alluvial water table regimes

    Shafroth, P.B.; Stromberg, J.C.; Patten, D.T.

    2000-01-01

    Woody riparian vegetation in western North American riparian ecosystems is commonly dependent on alluvial groundwater. Various natural and anthropogenic mechanisms can cause groundwater declines that stress riparian vegetation, but little quantitative information exists on the nature of plant response to different magnitudes, rates, and durations of groundwater decline. We observed groundwater dynamics and the response of Populus fremontii, Salix gooddingii, and Tamarix ramosissima saplings at 3 sites between 1995 and 1997 along the Bill Williams River, Arizona. At a site where the lowest observed groundwater level in 1996 (-1.97 m) was 1.11 m lower than that in 1995 (-0.86 m), 92-100% of Populus and Salix saplings died, whereas 0-13% of Tamarix stems died. A site with greater absolute water table depths in 1996 (-2.55 m), but less change from the 1995 condition (0.55 m), showed less Populus and Salix mortality and increased basal area. Excavations of sapling roots suggest that root distribution is related to groundwater history. Therefore, a decline in water table relative to the condition under which roots developed may strand plant roots where they cannot obtain sufficient moisture. Plant response is likely mediated by other factors such as soil texture and stratigraphy, availability of precipitation-derived soil moisture, physiological and morphological adaptations to water stress, and tree age. An understanding of the relationships between water table declines and plant response may enable land and water managers to avoid activities that are likely to stress desirable riparian vegetation.

  17. Sex differences in the stress response in SD rats.

    Lu, Jing; Wu, Xue-Yan; Zhu, Qiong-Bin; Li, Jia; Shi, Li-Gen; Wu, Juan-Li; Zhang, Qi-Jun; Huang, Man-Li; Bao, Ai-Min

    2015-05-01

    Sex differences play an important role in depression, the basis of which is an excessive stress response. We aimed at revealing the neurobiological sex differences in the same study in acute- and chronically-stressed rats. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), acute foot shock (FS) and controls, animals in all 3 groups were sacrificed in proestrus or diestrus. Male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: CUMS, FS and controls. Comparisons were made of behavioral changes in CUMS and control rats, plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), and of the hypothalamic mRNA-expression of stress-related molecules, i.e. estrogen receptor α and β, androgen receptor, aromatase, mineralocorticoid receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin. CUMS resulted in disordered estrus cycles, more behavioral and hypothalamic stress-related molecules changes and a stronger CORT response in female rats compared with male rats. Female rats also showed decreased E2 and T levels after FS and CUMS, while male FS rats showed increased E2 and male CUMS rats showed decreased T levels. Stress affects the behavioral, endocrine and the molecular response of the stress systems in the hypothalamus of SD rats in a clear sexual dimorphic way, which has parallels in human data on stress and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Vantage sensitivity: individual differences in response to positive experiences.

    Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay

    2013-07-01

    The notion that some people are more vulnerable to adversity as a function of inherent risk characteristics is widely embraced in most fields of psychology. This is reflected in the popularity of the diathesis-stress framework, which has received a vast amount of empirical support over the years. Much less effort has been directed toward the investigation of endogenous factors associated with variability in response to positive influences. One reason for the failure to investigate individual differences in response to positive experiences as a function of endogenous factors may be the absence of adequate theoretical frameworks. According to the differential-susceptibility hypothesis, individuals generally vary in their developmental plasticity regardless of whether they are exposed to negative or positive influences--a notion derived from evolutionary reasoning. On the basis of this now well-supported proposition, we advance herein the new concept of vantage sensitivity, reflecting variation in response to exclusively positive experiences as a function of individual endogenous characteristics. After distinguishing vantage sensitivity from theoretically related concepts of differential-susceptibility and resilience, we review some recent empirical evidence for vantage sensitivity featuring behavioral, physiological, and genetic factors as moderators of a wide range of positive experiences ranging from family environment and psychotherapy to educational intervention. Thereafter, we discuss genetic and environmental factors contributing to individual differences in vantage sensitivity, potential mechanisms underlying vantage sensitivity, and practical implications. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  19. A comparison of personal exposure to air pollutants in different travel modes on national highways in India.

    Kolluru, Soma Sekhara Rao; Patra, Aditya Kumar; Sahu, Satya Prakash

    2018-04-01

    People often travel a long distance on highways to the nearest city for professional/business activities. However, relatively few publications on passenger exposure to pollutants on highways in India or elsewhere are available. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of different travel modes to passengers' pollutant exposure for a long distance travel on a national highway in India. We measured PM 2.5 and CO exposure levels of the passengers over 200km on a national highway using two portable air monitors, EVM-7 and EPAM-5000. Personal concentration exposures and per min-, per hour-, per trip- and round trip mass exposures for three travel modes were calculated for 9 trips. Association between pollutants and weather variables were evaluated using levels Spearman correlation. ANOVA was carried out to evaluate the influence of travel mode, the timing of trips, temperature and RH on personal exposures. On an average, PM 2.5 personal concentration exposure levels were highest in the car (85.41±61.85μgm -3 ), followed by the bus (75.08±55.39μgm -3 ) and lowest in the car (ac) (54.43±34.09μgm -3 ). In contrast, CO personal exposure was highest in the car (ac) (1.81±1.3ppm). Travel mode explained the highest variability for CO (18.1%), CO 2 (9.9%), PM 2.5 (1.2%) exposures. In-city mass exposures were higher than trip averages; PM 2.5 :1.21-1.22, 1.13-1.19 and 1.03-1.28 times; CO: 1.20-1.57, 1.37-2.10 and 1.76-2.22 times for bus, car and car (ac) respectively. Traveling by car (ac) results in the lowest PM 2.5 exposures, although it exposes the passenger to high CO level. Avoiding national highways passing through cities can reduce up to 25% PM 2.5 and 50% CO mass exposures. This information can be useful for increasing environmental awareness among the passengers and for framing better pollution control strategies on highways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inference and Biogeochemical Response of Vertical Velocities inside a Mode Water Eddy

    Barceló-Llull, B.; Pallas Sanz, E.; Sangrà, P.

    2016-02-01

    With the aim to study the modulation of the biogeochemical fluxes by the ageostrophic secondary circulation in anticyclonic mesoscale eddies, a typical eddy of the Canary Eddy Corridor was interdisciplinary surveyed on September 2014 in the framework of the PUMP project. The eddy was elliptical shaped, 4 month old, 110 km diameter and 400 m depth. It was an intrathermocline type often also referred as mode water eddy type. We inferred the mesoscale vertical velocity field resolving a generalized omega equation from the 3D density and ADCP velocity fields of a five-day sampled CTD-SeaSoar regular grid centred on the eddy. The grid transects where 10 nautical miles apart. Although complex, in average, the inferred omega velocity field (hereafter w) shows a dipolar structure with downwelling velocities upstream of the propagation path (west) and upwelling velocities downstream. The w at the eddy center was zero and maximum values were located at the periphery attaining ca. 6 m day-1. Coinciding with the occurrence of the vertical velocities cells a noticeable enhancement of phytoplankton biomass was observed at the eddy periphery respect to the far field. A corresponding upward diapycnal flux of nutrients was also observed at the periphery. As minimum velocities where reached at the eddy center, lineal Ekman pumping mechanism was discarded. Minimum values of phytoplankton biomass where also observed at the eddy center. The possible mechanisms for such dipolar w cell are still being investigated, but an analysis of the generalized omega equation forcing terms suggest that it may be a combination of horizontal deformation and advection of vorticity by the ageostrophic current (related to nonlinear Ekman pumping). As expected for Trades, the wind was rather constant and uniform with a speed of ca. 5 m s-1. Diagnosed nonlinear Ekman pumping leaded also to a dipolar cell that mirrors the omega w dipolar cell.

  1. Effect of Oxygen Inhibition Layer of Universal Adhesives on Enamel Bond Fatigue Durability and Interfacial Characteristics With Different Etching Modes.

    Ouchi, H; Tsujimoto, A; Nojiri, K; Hirai, K; Takamizawa, T; Barkmeier, W W; Latta, M A; Miyazaki, M

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the oxygen inhibition layer of universal adhesive on enamel bond fatigue durability and interfacial characteristics with different etching modes. The three universal adhesives used were Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA), Adhese Universal (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Lichtenstein), and G-Premio Bond (GC, Tokyo, Japan). The initial shear bond strength and shear fatigue strength to enamel was determined in the presence and absence of the oxygen inhibition layer, with and without phosphoric acid pre-etching. The water contact angle was also measured in all groups using the sessile drop method. The enamel bonding specimens with an oxygen inhibition layer showed significantly higher (padhesive type and etching mode. Moreover, the water contact angles on the specimens with an oxygen inhibition layer were significantly lower (puniversal adhesives significantly increases the enamel bond fatigue durability and greatly changes interfacial characteristics, suggesting that the bond fatigue durability and interfacial characteristics of these adhesives strongly rely on its presence.

  2. Effects of Different Working Modes of Ultrasound on Structural Characteristics of Zein and ACE Inhibitory Activity of Hydrolysates

    Xiaofeng Ren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound was used as a new technology to pretreat protein prior to proteolysis to improve enzymolysis efficiency. The effects of different working modes of ultrasound on the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity of zein hydrolysates and the structural characteristics of zein were investigated. The solubility, surface hydrophobicity (H0, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectra, intrinsic fluorescence spectra, and circular dichroism (CD spectra of zein pretreated with ultrasound were determined. All ultrasound pretreatments significantly improved the ACE inhibitory activity of zein hydrolysates (p<0.05. The highest ACE inhibitory activity, representing an increase of 99.21% over the control, was obtained with dual sweeping frequency ultrasound of 33±2 and 68±2 kHz. The effects of single sweeping frequency and dual fixed frequency ultrasound were stronger than those of single fixed frequency ultrasound for improving the ACE inhibitory activity of zein. Structural changes in zein were induced by ultrasound, as confirmed by changes in the solubility, H0, UV-Vis spectra, intrinsic fluorescence spectra, and CD spectra of zein, and these were consistent with the corresponding ACE inhibitory activities of zein hydrolysates. Thus, ultrasound working mode and frequency have significant effects on the structure of zein and the ACE inhibitory activity of zein hydrolysates.

  3. Soil contamination by phthalate esters in Chinese intensive vegetable production systems with different modes of use of plastic film.

    Wang, Jun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Ma, Wenting; Christie, Peter; Li, Zhengao

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in intensively managed suburban vegetable soils in Nanjing, east China, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAE concentrations in the soils ranged widely from 0.15 to 9.68 mg kg(-1) with a median value of 1.70 mg kg(-1), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were the most abundant phthalate esters. Soil PAE concentrations depended on the mode of use of plastic film in which PAEs were incorporated as plasticizing agents and both the plastic film and poultry manure appeared to be important sources of soil PAEs. Vegetables in rotation with flooded rice led to lower concentrations of PAEs in soil. The results indicate that agricultural plastic film can be an important source of soil PAE contamination and further research is required to fully elucidate the mechanisms of PAE contamination of intensive agricultural soils with different use modes of use of plastic film. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Charge and pairing dynamics in the attractive Hubbard model: Mode coupling and the validity of linear-response theory

    Bünemann, Jörg; Seibold, Götz

    2017-12-01

    Pump-probe experiments have turned out as a powerful tool in order to study the dynamics of competing orders in a large variety of materials. The corresponding analysis of the data often relies on standard linear-response theory generalized to nonequilibrium situations. Here we examine the validity of such an approach for the charge and pairing response of systems with charge-density wave and (or) superconducting (SC) order. Our investigations are based on the attractive Hubbard model which we study within the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation. In particular, we calculate the quench and pump-probe dynamics for SC and charge order parameters in order to analyze the frequency spectra and the coupling of the probe field to the specific excitations. Our calculations reveal that the "linear-response assumption" is justified for small to moderate nonequilibrium situations (i.e., pump pulses) in the case of a purely charge-ordered ground state. However, the pump-probe dynamics on top of a superconducting ground state is determined by phase and amplitude modes which get coupled far from the equilibrium state indicating the failure of the linear-response assumption.

  5. Nonlinear response of dense colloidal suspensions under oscillatory shear: mode-coupling theory and Fourier transform rheology experiments.

    Brader, J M; Siebenbürger, M; Ballauff, M; Reinheimer, K; Wilhelm, M; Frey, S J; Weysser, F; Fuchs, M

    2010-12-01

    Using a combination of theory, experiment, and simulation we investigate the nonlinear response of dense colloidal suspensions to large amplitude oscillatory shear flow. The time-dependent stress response is calculated using a recently developed schematic mode-coupling-type theory describing colloidal suspensions under externally applied flow. For finite strain amplitudes the theory generates a nonlinear response, characterized by significant higher harmonic contributions. An important feature of the theory is the prediction of an ideal glass transition at sufficiently strong coupling, which is accompanied by the discontinuous appearance of a dynamic yield stress. For the oscillatory shear flow under consideration we find that the yield stress plays an important role in determining the nonlinearity of the time-dependent stress response. Our theoretical findings are strongly supported by both large amplitude oscillatory experiments (with Fourier transform rheology analysis) on suspensions of thermosensitive core-shell particles dispersed in water and Brownian dynamics simulations performed on a two-dimensional binary hard-disk mixture. In particular, theory predicts nontrivial values of the exponents governing the final decay of the storage and loss moduli as a function of strain amplitude which are in good agreement with both simulation and experiment. A consistent set of parameters in the presented schematic model achieves to jointly describe linear moduli, nonlinear flow curves, and large amplitude oscillatory spectroscopy.

  6. Gender differences in emotional responses: a psychophysiological study.

    Bianchin, Marta; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2012-02-28

    Gender differences in emotional responses have been investigated in two groups of students, 22 males and 21 females. Participants watched a set of sixty emotional standardized slides divided into pleasant, neutral and unpleasant, while Startle reflex, Evoked Potentials, Heart Rate, facial EMG and Skin Conductance were recorded. Startle reflex amplitude, an index modulated by amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex and sensitive to aversive emotional stimuli, was overall larger in women. In addition, startle emotion modulation was greater in women with respect to men. Slow Evoked Potentials (400-800 ms), a measure representing the cognitive component of the emotional response, revealed gender differences in the left prefrontal site, with women showing greater positivity to unpleasant compared with pleasant slides while men had greater positivity to pleasant vs. neutral slides. Women, compared with men, perceived all slides as less pleasant and reported greater arousal to unpleasant condition. Results are in line with known functional brain differences, at level of limbic and paralimbic structures, between men and women, and point to biologically grounded greater sensitivity and vulnerability of women to adverse/stressful events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. p-Nitrophenol removal by combination of powdered activated carbon adsorption and ultrafiltration - comparison of different operational modes.

    Ivancev-Tumbas, Ivana; Hobby, Ralph; Küchle, Benjamin; Panglisch, Stefan; Gimbel, Rolf

    2008-09-01

    Ultrafiltration is classified as a low-pressure membrane technology which effectively removes particulate matter and microorganisms and to a certain extent dissolved organic matter (15-25%) and colour. The technology has been optimized and is becoming competitive compared to conventional processes for larger scale plant capacities. In combination with activated carbon it is an effective barrier regarding the removal of synthetic organic chemicals. Growing interest in ultrafiltration raises the question of better usage of the adsorption capacity of powdered activated carbon (PAC) used in combination with this low-pressure membrane technique. This paper presents a pilot plant study of different PAC dosing procedures within a combined hybrid membrane IN/OUT process for removal of p-nitrophenol (PNP) from water (c(0)=1mg/L) under real case conditions (e.g. usage of the same module for the whole duration of the experiment, backwashing with permeate water, no separate saturation of the membrane with substance without presence of carbon). p-Nitrophenol was chosen as an appropriate test substance to assess the efficiency of different operation modes. Dead-end and cross-flow filtration were compared with respect to different PAC dosing procedures: continuous dosing into a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in front of the module and direct dosing into the pipe in front of the module (continuous, single-pulse and multi-pulse dosing). There was no advantage in cross-flow mode over dead-end referring to PNP concentration in the permeate. Relating to the carbon dosing procedure, the best results were obtained for continuous PAC addition. The option of dosing directly into the pipe has the advantage of no additional tank being necessary. In the case of single-pulse dosing, the formation of a carbon layer on the membrane surface was assumed and an LDF model applied for a simplified estimation of the "breakthrough behaviour" in the thus formed "PAC filter layer".

  8. Many reasons or just one : How response mode affects reasoning in the conjunction problem

    Hertwig, R.; Chase, V.

    1998-01-01

    Forty years of experimentation on class inclusion and its probabilistic relatives have led to inconsistent results and conclusions about human reasoning. Recent research on the conjunction "fallacy" recapitulates this history. In contrast to previous results, we found that a majority of participants adhere to class inclusion in the classic Linda problem. We outline a theoretical framework that attributes the contradictory results to differences in statistical sophistication and to differences...

  9. Earthquake accelerations estimation for construction calculating with different responsibility degrees

    Dolgaya, A.A.; Uzdin, A.M.; Indeykin, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    The investigation object is the design amplitude of accelerograms, which are used in the evaluation of seismic stability of responsible structures, first and foremost, NPS. The amplitude level is established depending on the degree of responsibility of the structure and on the prevailing period of earthquake action on the construction site. The investigation procedure is based on statistical analysis of 310 earthquakes. At the first stage of statistical data-processing we established the correlation dependence of both the mathematical expectation and root-mean-square deviation of peak acceleration of the earthquake on its prevailing period. At the second stage the most suitable law of acceleration distribution about the mean was chosen. To determine of this distribution parameters, we specified the maximum conceivable acceleration, the excess of which is not allowed. Other parameters of distribution are determined according to statistical data. At the third stage the dependencies of design amplitude on the prevailing period of seismic effect for different structures and equipment were established. The obtained data made it possible to recommend to fix the level of safe-shutdown (SSB) and operating basis earthquakes (OBE) for objects of various responsibility categories when designing NPS. (author)

  10. Gender Differences in Emotional Response: Inconsistency between Experience and Expressivity

    Deng, Yaling; Chang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Huo, Meng

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR) was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure). We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception—women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence. PMID:27362361

  11. Gender Differences in Emotional Response: Inconsistency between Experience and Expressivity.

    Deng, Yaling; Chang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Huo, Meng; Zhou, Renlai

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR) was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure). We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception-women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence.

  12. Gender Differences in Emotional Response: Inconsistency between Experience and Expressivity.

    Yaling Deng

    Full Text Available The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure. We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception-women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence.

  13. The Role of E-Mail Communications in Determining Response Rates and Mode of Participation in a Mixed-Mode Design

    Cernat, Alexandru; Lynn, Peter

    2018-01-01

    This article is concerned with the extent to which the propensity to participate in a web face-to-face sequential mixed-mode survey is influenced by the ability to communicate with sample members by e-mail in addition to mail. Researchers may be able to collect e-mail addresses for sample members and to use them subsequently to send survey…

  14. A novel mode of induction of the humoral innate immune response in Drosophila larvae

    Hiroyuki Kenmoku

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila adults have been utilized as a genetically tractable model organism to decipher the molecular mechanisms of humoral innate immune responses. In an effort to promote the utility of Drosophila larvae as an additional model system, in this study, we describe a novel aspect of an induction mechanism for innate immunity in these larvae. By using a fine tungsten needle created for manipulating semi-conductor devices, larvae were subjected to septic injury. However, although Toll pathway mutants were susceptible to infection with Gram-positive bacteria as had been shown for Drosophila adults, microbe clearance was not affected in the mutants. In addition, Drosophila larvae were found to be sensitive to mechanical stimuli with respect to the activation of a sterile humoral response. In particular, pinching with forceps to a degree that might cause minor damage to larval tissues could induce the expression of the antifungal peptide gene Drosomycin; notably, this induction was partially independent of the Toll and immune deficiency pathways. We therefore propose that Drosophila larvae might serve as a useful model to analyze the infectious and non-infectious inflammation that underlies various inflammatory diseases such as ischemia, atherosclerosis and cancer.

  15. Different modes of engagement

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    Assistive robotics are a new factor to be relied upon in caring for the disabled and the elderly. A number of feeding assistive robotics (FAR) appear in the literature. However, very few ethnographic studies have explored the reception. This is the case although there are significant potential...... and for caregivers. In this paper, I take up two ethnographic resources: 1) retrospective studies of the design process of the ‘Bestic’-FAR 2) an empirical study of the reception in a housing institution for the disabled of the ‘Neater-Eater’- FAR. Analysis of this material unravels the intermingling of a number...... robotics?...

  16. Variations in exposure to traffic pollution while travelling by different modes in a low density, less congested city.

    Kingham, Simon; Longley, Ian; Salmond, Jenny; Pattinson, Woodrow; Shrestha, Kreepa

    2013-10-01

    This research assessed the comparative risk associated with exposure to traffic pollution when travelling via different transport modes in Christchurch, New Zealand. Concentrations of PM1, UFPs and CO were monitored on pre-defined routes during the morning and evening commute on people travelling concurrently by car, bus and bicycle. It was found that car drivers were consistently exposed to the highest levels of CO; on-road cyclists were exposed to higher levels of all pollutants than off-road cyclists; car and bus occupants were exposed to higher average levels of UFP than cyclists, and travellers were occasionally exposed to very high levels of pollution for short periods of time. PM10 and PM2.5 were found to be poor indicators of exposure to traffic pollution. Studying Christchurch adds to our understanding as it was a lower density city with limited traffic congestion compared most other cities previously studied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Joint replenishment and pricing decisions with different freight modes considerations for a supply chain under a composite incentive contract

    Noori-daryan, Mahsa; Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    decisions of a single-manufacturer/multiple-retailer supply chain where a composite contract combines quantity and freight discounts, and a free shipping contract is incorporated into the model. Here, the transportation modes of raw materials and finished products are subject to a limited capacity...... in terms of their capacities regarding distance from the manufacturing site. In the third scenario, products are sent to a central warehouse for fast ship to the retailers. Demand depends on selling price and shortage is not permitted. The leader–follower game is considered between the members of the chain...... so that the manufacturer is a follower and the retailers are the leaders. This research aims to optimize the chain total profit concerning the selling prices and order quantities of the manufacturer and the retailers under different transport methods and a composite incentive contract. To clarify...

  18. Resistive wall mode feedback control in EXTRAP T2R with improved steady-state error and transient response

    Brunsell, P. R.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Frassinetti, L.; Drake, J. R.

    2007-10-01

    Experiments in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch [P. R. Brunsell, H. Bergsåker, M. Cecconello et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] on feedback control of m =1 resistive wall modes (RWMs) are compared with simulations using the cylindrical linear magnetohydrodynamic model, including the dynamics of the active coils and power amplifiers. Stabilization of the main RWMs (n=-11,-10,-9,-8,+5,+6) is shown using modest loop gains of the order G ˜1. However, other marginally unstable RWMs (n=-2,-1,+1,+2) driven by external field errors are only partially canceled at these gains. The experimental system stability limit is confirmed by simulations showing that the latency of the digital controller ˜50μs is degrading the system gain margin. The transient response is improved with a proportional-plus-derivative controller, and steady-state error is improved with a proportional-plus-integral controller. Suppression of all modes is obtained at high gain G ˜10 using a proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative controller.

  19. Focusing the HIV response through estimating the major modes of HIV transmission: a multi-country analysis

    Gouws, Eleanor; Cuchi, Paloma

    2012-01-01

    Objective An increasing number of countries have been estimating the distribution of new adult HIV infections by modes of transmission (MOT) to help prioritise prevention efforts. We compare results from studies conducted between 2008 and 2012 and discuss their use for planning and responding to the HIV epidemic. Methods The UNAIDS recommended MOT model helps countries to estimate the proportion of new HIV infections that occur through key transmission modes including sex work, injecting drug use (IDU), men having sex with men (MSM), multiple sexual partnerships, stable relationships and medical interventions. The model typically forms part of a country-led process that includes a comprehensive review of epidemiological data. Recent revisions to the model are described. Results Modelling results from 25 countries show large variation between and within regions. In sub-Saharan Africa, new infections occur largely in the general heterosexual population because of multiple partnerships or in stable discordant relationships, while sex work contributes significantly to new infections in West Africa. IDU and sex work are the main contributors to new infections in the Middle East and North Africa, with MSM the main contributor in Latin America. Patterns vary substantially between countries in Eastern Europe and Asia in terms of the relative contribution of sex work, MSM, IDU and spousal transmission. Conclusions The MOT modelling results, comprehensive review and critical assessment of data in a country can contribute to a more strategically focused HIV response. To strengthen this type of research, improved epidemiological and behavioural data by risk population are needed. PMID:23172348

  20. Evaluation of the regional climate response in Australia to large-scale climate modes in the historical NARCliM simulations

    Fita, L.; Evans, J. P.; Argüeso, D.; King, A.; Liu, Y.

    2017-10-01

    NARCliM (New South Wales (NSW)/Australian Capital Territory (ACT) Regional Climate Modelling project) is a regional climate modeling project for the Australian area. It is providing a comprehensive dynamically downscaled climate dataset for the CORDEX-AustralAsia region at 50-km resolution, and south-East Australia at a resolution of 10 km. The first phase of NARCliM produced 60-year long reanalysis driven regional simulations to allow evaluation of the regional model performance. This long control period (1950-2009) was used so that the model ability to capture the impact of large scale climate modes on Australian climate could be examined. Simulations are evaluated using a gridded observational dataset. Results show that using model independence as a criteria for choosing atmospheric model configuration from different possible sets of parameterizations may contribute to the regional climate models having different overall biases. The regional models generally capture the regional climate response to large-scale modes better than the driving reanalysis, though no regional model improves on all aspects of the simulated climate.

  1. Stress responses in lambs castrated with three different methods

    Paola Sandra Nicolussi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to evaluate the animal response to stress in lambs caused by three different castration techniques. Forty-six male lambs aged 4-5 months were randomly allocated to one of four groups including Burdizzo (B, scrotal ablation (SA, orchiectomy (OR and control handling (H. Local anaesthesia (lidocaine 2% was administered in both spermatic cords and the scrotal neck of lambs before each treatment. Blood samples were collected at -30, -10, +1, +20, +40, +60, +120, and +180 minutes. Serum cortisol concentrations were determined using a competitive immunoassay and the area under the curve (AUC was calculated for each lamb. The following biochemical parameters were assayed for each animal at each time point: alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK and glucose (GLU. The time needed for total lesion resolution and weight gain of each animal was recorded. Orchiectomy elicits the greatest cortisol response, significantly greater than that seen in similarly handled controls (P≤0.01, Burdizzo and scrotal ablation groups (P≤0.05. The serum cortisol AUC was higher in the scrotal ablation group (P≤0.05 than controls, but lower than in the orchiectomy group (P≤0.05. The Burdizzo group didn’t differ from controls. Serum glucose levels of the castrated lambs differed significantly from the control group, following a trend similar to cortisol. No change was seen in ALT, AST, LDH or CK. No difference in weight gain was seen among the groups. Our results suggest that use of the Burdizzo is the preferable castration technique for adult lambs, while scrotal ablation is a valid surgical alternative to orchiectomy and permits more rapid wound healing that is ideal for extensive management where flocks are not under close observation.

  2. Histological Study of Induced Incisions on Rabbits’ Tongues with Three Diode Lasers with Different Wavelengths in Continuous Mode

    Salwa Yammine

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Diode lasers have multiple indications in everyday dental practice. They allow carrying out incisions, coagulation of soft tissue, and Low-Level Laser Therapy. The goal of this study is to compare histologically the tissue interaction zones and edges of an induced laser incision on rabbits’ tongues with three different wavelengths of 810, 940, and 980 nm in continuous mode. Methods. Fourteen male rabbits were divided into six groups. Each animal underwent three incisions of 10 mm length on the right ventral face of the tongue, carried out in continuous mode with three diode lasers with different wavelengths of 810, 940, and 980 nm. Rabbits were sacrificed at 0, 1, 2, 6, and 15 hours and 14 days. Five rabbits were sacrificed at 0 hours and 2 hours and one rabbit was sacrificed at 1, 6, and 15 hours and at 14 days. The appearance of neutrophils marked the onset time of the inflammatory reaction. Histological study of the incisions was chosen to evaluate the edges and to measure the depth and width of carbonization and necrotic and inflammatory zones. Healing was evaluated at 14 days. Friedman test was used to assess statistical differences between groups. Results. In the experimental adopted conditions, the carbonization zone was marked by degradation of vacuoles and an elongation of nuclei and was observed on the edges of incisions. Carbonization and necrotic and inflammatory zones were measured for rabbits sacrificed at 0, 1, 2, 6, and 15 hours but the onset of inflammation zone marked by the infiltration of neutrophils did not appear before 6 hours. The neutrophils infiltration was higher at 15 hours than at 6 hours. Complete healing was shown at 14 days. According to the time for the regularity of the edges, the interpretation was qualitative without a statistical test. The statistical analysis of the three different diode lasers in this study showed nonsignificant difference between the different groups for the depth (p=0

  3. Different ecophysiological responses of freshwater fish to warming and acidification.

    Jesus, Tiago F; Rosa, Inês C; Repolho, Tiago; Lopes, Ana R; Pimentel, Marta S; Almeida-Val, Vera M F; Coelho, Maria M; Rosa, Rui

    2018-02-01

    Future climate change scenarios predict threatening outcomes to biodiversity. Available empirical data concerning biological response of freshwater fish to climate change remains scarce. In this study, we investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of two Iberian freshwater fish species (Squalius carolitertii and the endangered S. torgalensis), inhabiting different climatic conditions, to projected future scenarios of warming (+3°C) and acidification (ΔpH=-0.4). Herein, metabolic enzyme activities of glycolytic (citrate synthase - CS, lactate dehydrogenase - LDH) and antioxidant (glutathione S-transferase, catalase and superoxide dismutase) pathways, as well as the heat shock response (HSR) and lipid peroxidation were determined. Our results show that, under current water pH, warming causes differential interspecific changes on LDH activity, increasing and decreasing its activity in S. carolitertii and in S. torgalensis, respectively. Furthermore, the synergistic effect of warming and acidification caused an increase in LDH activity of S. torgalensis, comparing with the warming condition. As for CS activity, acidification significantly decreased its activity in S. carolitertii whereas in S. torgalensis no significant effect was observed. These results suggest that S. carolitertii is more vulnerable to climate change, possibly as the result of its evolutionary acclimatization to milder climatic condition, while S. torgalensis evolved in the warmer Mediterranean climate. However, significant changes in HSR were observed under the combined warming and acidification (S. carolitertii) or under acidification (S. torgalensis). Our results underlie the importance of conducting experimental studies and address species endpoint responses under projected climate change scenarios to improve conservation strategies, and to safeguard endangered freshwater fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Avian reflex and electroencephalogram responses in different states of consciousness.

    Sandercock, Dale A; Auckburally, Adam; Flaherty, Derek; Sandilands, Victoria; McKeegan, Dorothy E F

    2014-06-22

    Defining states of clinical consciousness in animals is important in veterinary anaesthesia and in studies of euthanasia and welfare assessment at slaughter. The aim of this study was to validate readily observable reflex responses in relation to different conscious states, as confirmed by EEG analysis, in two species of birds under laboratory conditions (35-week-old layer hens (n=12) and 11-week-old turkeys (n=10)). We evaluated clinical reflexes and characterised electroencephalograph (EEG) activity (as a measure of brain function) using spectral analyses in four different clinical states of consciousness: conscious (fully awake), semi-conscious (sedated), unconscious-optimal (general anaesthesia), unconscious-sub optimal (deep hypnotic state), as well as assessment immediately following euthanasia. Jaw or neck muscle tone was the most reliable reflex measure distinguishing between conscious and unconscious states. Pupillary reflex was consistently observed until respiratory arrest. Nictitating membrane reflex persisted for a short time (power (PTOT) significantly increased, whereas median (F50) and spectral edge (F95) frequencies significantly decreased. This study demonstrates that EEG analysis can differentiate between clinical states (and loss of brain function at death) in birds and provides a unique integration of reflex responses and EEG activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Different hematologic responses to hypoxia in Sherpas and Quechua Indians.

    Winslow, R M; Chapman, K W; Gibson, C C; Samaja, M; Monge, C C; Goldwasser, E; Sherpa, M; Blume, F D; Santolaya, R

    1989-04-01

    Previous studies of the erythropoietic response to hypoxia in high-altitude natives suggest that the hematocrit and hemoglobin values in Himalayan natives (Sherpas) are lower than expected for the altitude, perhaps because of a genetic adaptation. However, differences in sampling techniques and experimental methods make comparisons difficult. Our studies were carried out to compare the erythropoietic response with the same altitude in age-matched natives of the Himalayas and Andes by the same experimental techniques. Healthy male subjects were selected in Ollagüe, Chile (n = 29, 27.3 +/- 5.9 yr) and in Khunde, Nepal (n = 30, 24.7 +/- 3.8 yr). Both of these villages are located at 3,700 m above sea level. Hematologic measurements confirmed lower hematocrit values in Nepal (48.4 +/- 4.5%) than in Chile (52.2 +/- 4.6%) (P less than 0.003). When subjects were matched for hematocrit, erythropoietin concentrations in Chile were higher than in Nepal (P less than 0.01). Detailed measurements of blood O2 affinity in Nepal showed no differences in shape or position of the O2 equilibrium curve between Sherpas and Western sojourners. Our results indicate that although Quechua Indians have higher hematocrits than Sherpas living at the same altitude, nevertheless they may be functionally anemic.

  6. Population responses in V1 encode different figures by response amplitude.

    Gilad, Ariel; Slovin, Hamutal

    2015-04-22

    The visual system simultaneously segregates between several objects presented in a visual scene. The neural code for encoding different objects or figures is not well understood. To study this question, we trained two monkeys to discriminate whether two elongated bars are either separate, thus generating two different figures, or connected, thus generating a single figure. Using voltage-sensitive dyes, we imaged at high spatial and temporal resolution V1 population responses evoked by the two bars, while keeping their local attributes similar among the two conditions. In the separate condition, unlike the connected condition, the population response to one bar is enhanced, whereas the response to the other is simultaneously suppressed. The response to the background remained unchanged between the two conditions. This divergent pattern developed ∼200 ms poststimulus onset and could discriminate well between the separate and connected single trials. The stimulus separation saliency and behavioral report were highly correlated with the differential response to the bars. In addition, the proximity and/or the specific location of the connectors seemed to have only a weak effect on this late activity pattern, further supporting the involvement of top-down influences. Additional neural codes were less informative about the separate and connected conditions, with much less consistency and discriminability compared with a response amplitude code. We suggest that V1 is involved in the encoding of each figure by different neuronal response amplitude, which can mediate their segregation and perception. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356335-15$15.00/0.

  7. Role of closely spaced modes in the seismic response of equipment and structures

    Nelson, F.C.

    1975-01-01

    The genesis for this study was a need for an explanation of how to combine the peak accelerations, displacements, stresses, etc., which result from a response spectrum analysis of nuclear power plant structures and equipment. The explanation was intended to be comprehensive in the sense that it would be based on a general principle from which the absolute sum, square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS), and double-sum modal recombination rules could be extracted as special cases. The purpose of such a comprehensive explanation was to convince design engineers that these rules, in particular the recently proposed double-sum rule, were logical in their formulation and therefore sensible in their application

  8. Indentation induced mechanical and electrical response in ferroelectric crystal investigated by acoustic mode AFM

    Yu, H. F.; Zeng, H. R.; Ma, X. D.; Chu, R. Q.; Li, G. R.; Luo, H. S.; Yin, Q. R.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanical and electrical response of Pb (Mg1/3Nb2/3)- O3-PbTiO3 single crystals to micro-indentation are investigated using the newly developed low frequency scanning probe acoustic microscopy which is based on the atomic force microscope. There are three ways to release the stress produced by indentation. Plastic deformation emerged directly underneath the indentor and along the indentation diagonals. In addition, indentation-induced micro-cracks and new non-180° domain structures which are perpendicular to each other are also observed in the indented surface. Based on the experimental results, the relationship between the cracks and the domain patterns was discussed.

  9. Intrinsic pressure response of a single mode cyclo olefin polymer fiber bragg grating

    Pedersen, Jens Kristian Mølgaard; Woyessa, Getinet; Nielsen, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    and relative humidity the pressure calibration is performed in a gas free environment with the FBG submerged in water. As a result of the incompressible nature of water no temperature effects due to rapid pressure changes are observed. We find a highly linear, hysteresis-free response with a sensitivity of 2.......982 ± 0.002 pm/bar. The corresponding fractional sensitivity is found to be 34.5·10-6 MPa-1 which is of the same order of magnitude as the results obtained for a multimode PMMA mPOF-FBG at 1562 nm previously reported in the literature. The resulting pressure resolution of our sensor is estimated to be 2...

  10. Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate

    Deng, Yi [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-11-24

    : 1) the distinctly different roles played by atmospheric dynamical processes in establishing surface temperature response to ENSO at tropics and extratropics (i.e., atmospheric dynamics disperses energy out of tropics during ENSO warm events and modulate surface temperature at mid-, high-latitudes through controlling downward longwave radiation); 2) the representations of ENSO-related temperature response in climate models fail to converge at the process-level particularly over extratropics (i.e., models produce the right temperature responses to ENSO but with wrong reasons); 3) water vapor feedback contributes substantially to the temperature anomalies found over U.S. during different phases of the Northern Annular Mode (NAM), which adds new insight to the traditional picture that cold/warm advective processes are the main drivers of local temperature responses to the NAM; 4) the overall land surface temperature biases in the latest NCAR model (CESM1) are caused by biases in surface albedo while the surface temperature biases over ocean are related to multiple factors including biases in model albedo, cloud and oceanic dynamics, and the temperature biases over different ocean basins are also induced by different process biases. These results provide a detailed guidance for process-level model turning and improvement, and thus contribute directly to the overall goal of reducing model uncertainty in projecting future changes in the Earth’s climate system, especially in the ENSO and AM variability.

  11. Rapid-Response or Repeat-Mode Topography from Aerial Structure from Motion

    Nissen, E.; Johnson, K. L.; Fitzgerald, F. S.; Morgan, M.; White, J.

    2014-12-01

    This decade has seen a surge of interest in Structure-from-Motion (SfM) as a means of generating high-resolution topography and coregistered texture maps from stereo digital photographs. Using an unstructured set of overlapping photographs captured from multiple viewpoints and minimal GPS ground control, SfM solves simultaneously for scene topography and camera positions, orientations and lens parameters. The use of cheap unmanned aerial vehicles or tethered helium balloons as camera platforms expedites data collection and overcomes many of the cost, time and logistical limitations of LiDAR surveying, making it a potentially valuable tool for rapid response mapping and repeat monitoring applications. We begin this presentation by assessing what data resolutions and precisions are achievable using a simple aerial camera platform and commercial SfM software (we use the popular Agisoft Photoscan package). SfM point clouds generated at two small (~0.1 km2), sparsely-vegetated field sites in California compare favorably with overlapping airborne and terrestrial LiDAR surveys, with closest point distances of a few centimeters between the independent datasets. Next, we go on to explore the method in more challenging conditions, in response to a major landslide in Mesa County, Colorado, on 25th May 2014. Photographs collected from a small UAV were used to generate a high-resolution model of the 4.5 x 1 km landslide several days before an airborne LiDAR survey could be organized and flown. An initial estimate of the mass balance of the landslide could quickly be made by differencing this model against pre-event topography generated using stereo photographs collected in 2009 as part of the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). This case study therefore demonstrates the rich potential offered by this technique, as well as some of the challenges, particularly with respect to the treatment of vegetation.

  12. Can Reliability of Multiple Component Measuring Instruments Depend on Response Option Presentation Mode?

    Menold, Natalja; Raykov, Tenko

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the possible dependency of composite reliability on presentation format of the elements of a multi-item measuring instrument. Using empirical data and a recent method for interval estimation of group differences in reliability, we demonstrate that the reliability of an instrument need not be the same when polarity of the…

  13. Failure Modes

    Jakobsen, K. P.; Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1999-01-01

    The present appendix contains the derivation of ten different limit state equations divided on three different failure modes. Five of the limit state equations can be used independently of the characteristics of the subsoil, whereas the remaining five can be used for either drained or undrained s...

  14. Treadmill vs. overground walking: different response to physical interaction.

    Ochoa, Julieth; Sternad, Dagmar; Hogan, Neville

    2017-10-01

    Rehabilitation of human motor function is an issue of growing significance, and human-interactive robots offer promising potential to meet the need. For the lower extremity, however, robot-aided therapy has proven challenging. To inform effective approaches to robotic gait therapy, it is important to better understand unimpaired locomotor control: its sensitivity to different mechanical contexts and its response to perturbations. The present study evaluated the behavior of 14 healthy subjects who walked on a motorized treadmill and overground while wearing an exoskeletal ankle robot. Their response to a periodic series of ankle plantar flexion torque pulses, delivered at periods different from, but sufficiently close to, their preferred stride cadence, was assessed to determine whether gait entrainment occurred, how it differed across conditions, and if the adapted motor behavior persisted after perturbation. Certain aspects of locomotor control were exquisitely sensitive to walking context, while others were not. Gaits entrained more often and more rapidly during overground walking, yet, in all cases, entrained gaits synchronized the torque pulses with ankle push-off, where they provided assistance with propulsion. Furthermore, subjects entrained to perturbation periods that required an adaption toward slower cadence, even though the pulses acted to accelerate gait, indicating a neural adaptation of locomotor control. Lastly, during 15 post-perturbation strides, the entrained gait period was observed to persist more frequently during overground walking. This persistence was correlated with the number of strides walked at the entrained gait period (i.e., longer exposure), which also indicated a neural adaptation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that the response of human locomotion to physical interaction differs between treadmill and overground walking. Subjects entrained to a periodic series of ankle plantar flexion torque pulses that shifted their gait cadence

  15. Urethane anesthesia depresses activities of thalamocortical neurons and alters its response to nociception in terms of dual firing modes

    Yeowool eHuh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetics are often used to characterize the activity of single neurons in-vivo for its advantages such as reduced noise level and convenience in noxious stimulations. Of the anesthetics, urethane had been widely used in some thalamic studies under the assumption that sensory signals are still relayed to the thalamus under urethane anesthesia and that thalamic response would therefore reflect the response of the awake state. We tested whether this assumption stands by comparing thalamic activity in terms of tonic and burst firing modes during ‘the awake state’ or under ‘urethane anesthesia’ utilizing the extracellular single unit recording technique. First we have tested how thalamic relay neurons respond to the introduction of urethane and then tested how urethane influences thalamic discharges under formalin-induced nociception. Urethane significantly depressed overall firing rates of thalamic relay neurons, which was sustained despite the delayed increase of burst activity over the 4 hour recording period. Thalamic response to nociception under anesthesia was also similar overall except for the slight and transient increase of burst activity. Overall, results demonstrated that urethane suppresses the activity of thalamic relay neurons and that, despite the slight fluctuation of burst firing, formalin-induced nociception cannot significantly change the firing pattern of thalamic relay neurons that was caused by urethane.

  16. On the fast response of charnel electron multipliers in coUnting mode operation

    Belyaevskij, O.A.; Gladyshev, I.L.; Korobochko, Yu.S.; Mineev, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    Dependences of amplitude distribution of pulses at the outlet of channel electron multipliers (CEM) and effectiveness of monitoring on counting rate at different supply voltages are determined. It is shown that the maximUm counting rate of CEM runs into 6x10 5 s -1 at short-term and 10 5 s -1 at long-term operation using monitoring eqUipment with operation threshold of 2.5 mV

  17. Physiological Responses of Water-Polo Players Under Different Tactical Strategie

    Petros G. Botonis, Argyris G. Toubekis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of defense tactical strategy on physiological responses characterizing playing intensity in water-polo game. In the first part of the study, fourteen players were assigned to defending (n = 7 and offending (n = 7 groups and participated in nine 4-min plays applying three different defending systems: press, static-zone and zone-press, in front of the defense court of one goalpost. In the second part, 18 players participated in nine different real full court water-polo games consisting of 3X15min of live-time playing periods. Both in defense court plays and real games, the three defense systems were played in a counterbalanced order and heart rate (HR was continuously recorded. Additionally, in defense court plays, blood lactate concentration (La was measured at the end of each 4-min period. Mean HR within defense court plays was higher in press (153 ± 10 beats.min-1 than in static-zone (140 ± 11 beats.min-1 and zone-press (143 ± 16 beats.min-1, p 0.05. Defenders and offenders showed similar HR and La responses across the tactical modes. In conclusion, defense tactical strategies affect physiological responses within a part of the game but do not affect the overall playing intensity of a real water-polo game. Tactical strategies similarly affect offenders and defenders.

  18. Using lod-score differences to determine mode of inheritance: A simple, robust method even in the presence of heterogeneity and reduced penetrance

    Greenberg, D.A.; Berger, B. [Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Determining the mode of inheritance is often difficult under the best of circumstances, but when segregation analysis is used, the problems of ambiguous ascertainment procedures, reduced penetrance, heterogeneity, and misdiagnosis make mode-of-inheritance determinations even more unreliable. The mode of inheritance can also be determined using a linkage-based method and association-based methods, which can overcome many of these problems. In this work, we determined how much information is necessary to reliably determine the mode of inheritance from linkage data when heterogeneity and reduced penetrance are present in the data set. We generated data sets under both dominant and recessive inheritance with reduced penetrance and with varying fractions of linked and unlinked families. We then analyzed those data sets, assuming reduced penetrance, both dominant and recessive inheritance, and no heterogeneity. We investigated the reliability of two methods for determining the mode of inheritance from the linkage data. The first method examined the difference ({Delta}) between the maximum lod scores calculated under the two mode-of-inheritance assumptions. We found that if {Delta} was >1.5, then the higher of the two maximum lod scores reflected the correct mode of inheritance with high reliability and that a {Delta} of 2.5 appeared to practically guarantee a correct mode-of-inheritance inference. Furthermore, this reliability appeared to be virtually independent of {alpha}, the fraction of linked families in the data set. The second method we tested was based on choosing the higher of the two maximum lod scores calculated under the different mode-of-inheritance assumptions. This method became unreliable as {alpha} decreased. These results suggest that the mode of inheritance can be inferred from linkage data with high reliability, even in the presence of heterogeneity and reduced penetrance. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Impacts of fleet types and charging modes for electric vehicles on emissions under different penetrations of wind power

    Chen, Xinyu; Zhang, Hongcai; Xu, Zhiwei; Nielsen, Chris P.; McElroy, Michael B.; Lv, Jiajun

    2018-05-01

    Current Chinese policy promotes the development of both electricity-propelled vehicles and carbon-free sources of power. Concern has been expressed that electric vehicles on average may emit more CO2 and conventional pollutants in China. Here, we explore the environmental implications of investments in different types of electric vehicle (public buses, taxis and private light-duty vehicles) and different modes (fast or slow) for charging under a range of different wind penetration levels. To do this, we take Beijing in 2020 as a case study and employ hourly simulation of vehicle charging behaviour and power system operation. Assuming the slow-charging option, we find that investments in electric private light-duty vehicles can result in an effective reduction in the emission of CO2 at several levels of wind penetration. The fast-charging option, however, is counter-productive. Electrifying buses and taxis offers the most effective option to reduce emissions of NOx, a major precursor for air pollution.

  20. Sociospatial distribution of access to facilities for moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity in Scotland by different modes of transport

    Lamb Karen E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People living in neighbourhoods of lower socioeconomic status have been shown to have higher rates of obesity and a lower likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations than their more affluent counterparts. This study examines the sociospatial distribution of access to facilities for moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity in Scotland and whether such access differs by the mode of transport available and by Urban Rural Classification. Methods A database of all fixed physical activity facilities was obtained from the national agency for sport in Scotland. Facilities were categorised into light, moderate and vigorous intensity activity groupings before being mapped. Transport networks were created to assess the number of each type of facility accessible from the population weighted centroid of each small area in Scotland on foot, by bicycle, by car and by bus. Multilevel modelling was used to investigate the distribution of the number of accessible facilities by small area deprivation within urban, small town and rural areas separately, adjusting for population size and local authority. Results Prior to adjustment for Urban Rural Classification and local authority, the median number of accessible facilities for moderate or vigorous intensity activity increased with increasing deprivation from the most affluent or second most affluent quintile to the most deprived for all modes of transport. However, after adjustment, the modelling results suggest that those in more affluent areas have significantly higher access to moderate and vigorous intensity facilities by car than those living in more deprived areas. Conclusions The sociospatial distributions of access to facilities for both moderate intensity and vigorous intensity physical activity were similar. However, the results suggest that those living in the most affluent neighbourhoods have poorer access to facilities of either type that can be reached on foot

  1. Immune responses of Helicoverpa armigera to different kinds of pathogens

    Zhao Xiao-Fan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects react against pathogens through innate immunity. The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera is an important defoliator and an extremely destructive pest insect of many crops. The elucidation of the mechanism of the immune response of H. armigera to various pathogens can provide a theoretical basis for new approaches to biologically control this pest. Results Four kinds of pathogens Bacillus thuringiensis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, and Autographa californica multiple nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus harbored green fluorescence protein and polyhedron (AcMNPV-GFP were used to challenge the insect. The cellular and humoral immune responses to the pathogens were analyzed in the challenged H. armigera. The results show that in the five kinds of haemocytes, only granulocytes phagocytized the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. All haemocytes can be infected by AcMNPV. Fourteen immune-related genes including pattern recognition receptors (PRRs such as peptidoglycan recognition proteins (HaPGRP and HaPGRP C and Gram-Negative Bacteria-Binding Protein (HaGNBP, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs such as cecropin-1, 2 and 3 (HaCec-1, 2 and 3, lysozyme (HaLys, attacin (HaAtt, gallerimycin-like (HaGall, gloverin-like (HaGlo, moricin-like (HaMor, cobatoxin-like (HaCob, galiomicin-like (HaGali, and immune inducible protein (HaIip appeared in different expression profiles to different pathogen infections. The transcripts of 13 immune related genes (except HaPGRPC are obviously up-regulated by Gram-positive bacteria. HaCec-1 and 3, HaMor, HaAtt, HaLys, HaIip, HaPGRP and HaGNBP are greatly up-regulated after fungal infection. HaGNBP, HaCec-2, HaGall, HaGlo, HaMor, HaCob, HaGali obviously increased in Gram-negative bacterial infection. Only five genes, HaGNBP, HaCec-1, HaGali, HaGlo, and HaLys, are weakly up-regulated after viral infection. The AMP transcripts had higher expression levels than the

  2. Human responses to bright light of different durations.

    Chang, Anne-Marie; Santhi, Nayantara; St Hilaire, Melissa; Gronfier, Claude; Bradstreet, Dayna S; Duffy, Jeanne F; Lockley, Steven W; Kronauer, Richard E; Czeisler, Charles A

    2012-07-01

    Light exposure in the early night induces phase delays of the circadian rhythm in melatonin in humans. Previous studies have investigated the effect of timing, intensity, wavelength, history and pattern of light stimuli on the human circadian timing system. We present results from a study of the duration–response relationship to phase-delaying bright light. Thirty-nine young healthy participants (16 female; 22.18±3.62 years) completed a 9-day inpatient study. Following three baseline days, participants underwent an initial circadian phase assessment procedure in dim light (light pulse (∼10,000 lux) of 0.2 h, 1.0 h, 2.5 h or 4.0 h duration during a 4.5 h controlled-posture episode centred in a 16 h wake episode. After another 8 h sleep episode, participants completed a second circadian phase assessment. Phase shifts were calculated from the difference in the clock time of the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) between the initial and final phase assessments. Exposure to varying durations of bright light reset the circadian pacemaker in a dose-dependent, non-linear manner. Per minute of exposure, the 0.2 h duration was over 5 times more effective at phase delaying the circadian pacemaker (1.07±0.36 h) as compared with the 4.0 h duration (2.65±0.24 h). Acute melatonin suppression and subjective sleepiness also had a dose-dependent response to light exposure duration. These results provide strong evidence for a non-linear resetting response of the human circadian pacemaker to light duration.

  3. Hormonal responses to resistance exercise during different menstrual cycle states.

    Nakamura, Yuki; Aizawa, Katsuji; Imai, Tomoko; Kono, Ichiro; Mesaki, Noboru

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the effect of menstrual cycle states on ovarian and anabolic hormonal responses to acute resistance exercise in young women. Eight healthy women (eumenorrhea; EM) and eight women with menstrual disorders including oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea (OAM) participated in this study. The EM group performed acute resistance exercises during the early follicular (EF) and midluteal (ML) phases, and the OAM group performed the same exercises. All subjects performed three sets each of lat pull-downs, leg curls, bench presses, leg extensions, and squats at 75%-80% of one-repetition maximum with a 1-min rest between sets. Blood samples were obtained before exercise, immediately after, 30 min after, and 60 min after the exercise. In the EM group, resting serum levels of estradiol and progesterone in the ML phase were higher than those in the EF phase and higher than those in the OAM group. Serum estradiol and progesterone in the ML phase increased after the exercise but did not change in the EF phase or in the OAM group. In contrast, resting levels of testosterone in the OAM group were higher than those in both the ML and EF phases of the EM group. After the exercise, serum growth hormone increased in both the ML and EF phases but did not change in the OAM group. The responses of anabolic hormones to acute resistance exercise are different among the menstrual cycle states in young women. Women with menstrual disturbances with low estradiol and progesterone serum levels have an attenuated anabolic hormone response to acute resistance exercise, suggesting that menstrual disorders accompanying low ovarian hormone levels may affect exercise-induced change in anabolic hormones in women.

  4. Analysis of the flexural mode response of a novel trimaran by segmented model test

    Karim Akbari Vakilabadi

    Full Text Available A novel ship concept design is significantly an "adhoc" process. In the preliminary design stage of novel vessels, it is very important to be able to develop an initial estimate of the effects of stiffness and mass distribution on the longitudinal flexural natural frequencies due to different general arrangements in still water at zero speed to satisfy design specifications. For new emerging designs, this estimate has to be made based on a model test. The experiments should also be planned so that scales effects and other features that are not present in full scale case, are minimized. A model with a length of 1.5 meter has been selected. The model was cut into four segments longitudinally and connected by a backbone beam with three elastic hinges joining the four segments. Wet vibration tests were conducted on the model, showed significant influences on the flexural natural frequencies through variations in stiffness and different mass distributions. The whipping frequency was calculated with four degrees of freedom theoretical model to compare with the experimental results. The theoretical model shows a good agreement with the experimental results.

  5. Patterns of Sympathetic Responses Induced by Different Stress Tasks

    Fechir, M; Schlereth, T; Purat, T; Kritzmann, S; Geber, C; Eberle, T; Gamer, M; Birklein, F

    2008-01-01

    Stress tasks are used to induce sympathetic nervous system (SNS) arousal. However, the efficacy and the patterns of SNS activation have not been systematically compared between different tasks. Therefore, we analyzed SNS activation during the following stress tasks: Presentation of negative, positive, and – as a control – neutral affective pictures, Color-Word interference test (CWT), mental arithmetic under time limit, singing a song aloud, and giving a spontaneous talk. We examined 11 healthy subjects and recorded the following SNS parameters: Activation of emotional sweating by quantitative sudometry, skin vasoconstriction by laser-Doppler flowmetry, heart rate by ECG, blood pressure by determination of pulse wave transit time (PWTT), and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trapezius muscle. Moreover, subjective stress ratings were acquired for each task using a visual analog scale. All tasks were felt significantly stressful when compared to viewing neutral pictures. However, SNS activation was not reliable: Affective pictures did not induce a significant SNS response; singing, giving a talk and mental arithmetic selectively increased heart rate and emotional sweating. Only the CWT globally activated the SNS. Regarding all tasks, induction of emotional sweating, increase of heart rate and blood pressure significantly correlated with subjective stress ratings, in contrast to EMG and skin vasoconstriction. Our results show that the activation of the SNS widely varies depending on the stress task. Different stress tasks differently activate the SNS, which is an important finding when considering sympathetic reactions - in clinical situations and in research. PMID:19018304

  6. Individual Differences in Gelotophobia Predict Responses to Joy and Contempt

    Jennifer Hofmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a paradigm facilitating smile misattribution, facial responses and ratings to contempt and joy were investigated in individuals with or without gelotophobia (fear of being laughed at. Participants from two independent samples (N1 = 83, N2 = 50 rated the intensity of eight emotions in 16 photos depicting joy, contempt, and different smiles. Facial responses were coded by the Facial Action Coding System in the second study. Compared with non-fearful individuals, gelotophobes rated joy smiles as less joyful and more contemptuous. Moreover, gelotophobes showed less facial joy and more contempt markers. The contempt ratings were comparable between the two groups. Looking at the photos of smiles lifted the positive mood of non-gelotophobes, whereas gelotophobes did not experience an increase. We hypothesize that the interpretation bias of “joyful faces hiding evil minds” (i.e., being also contemptuous and exhibiting less joy facially may complicate social interactions for gelotophobes and serve as a maintaining factor of gelotophobia.

  7. Biological response of Azospirillum spp. to different types of stress

    Carlos Alberto Sangoquiza Caiza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Azospirillum is one of the most studied free-living rhizobacteria currently of great agricultural interest because of its ability to bind biological nitrogen and produce phytohormones. The present research aimed at the biological response of Azospirillum spp. facing different types of stress. For this purpose, the micro and macro morphological characterization of Azospirillum spp. And its biological response to stress temperature, pH, salinity. The results revealed that the isolates (C2, C3 and C4 of Azospirillum spp. Grow in greater abundance at temperatures between 28-38 °C and pH between 7-8. The C2 and C3 isolates showed good growth up to 3.5 % (m / v NaCl, whereas the C4 strain was less tolerant. These results have biotechnological applicability and are of great importance when defining and controlling the mass production conditions of Azospirillum spp. for future formulations as biofertilizer in several crops of interest in Ecuador.

  8. Cell response to quasi-monochromatic light with different coherence

    Budagovsky, A V; Solovykh, N V [I.V.Michurin All-Russian Recearch Institute of Fruit Crops Genetics and Breeding (Russian Federation); Budagovskaya, O N [I.V.Michurin All-Russia Research and Development Institute of Gardening, Michurinsk, Tambov region (Russian Federation); Budagovsky, I A [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-30

    The problem of the light coherence effect on the magnitude of the photoinduced cell response is discussed. The origins of ambiguous interpretation of the known experimental results are considered. Using the biological models, essentially differing in anatomy, morphology and biological functions (acrospires of radish, blackberry microsprouts cultivated in vitro, plum pollen), the effect of statistical properties of quasi-monochromatic light (λ{sub max} = 633 nm) on the magnitude of the photoinduced cell response is shown. It is found that for relatively low spatial coherence, the cell functional activity changes insignificantly. The maximal enhancement of growing processes (stimulating effect) is observed when the coherence length L{sub coh} and the correlation radius r{sub cor} are greater than the cell size, i.e., the entire cell fits into the field coherence volume. In this case, the representative indicators (germination of seeds and pollen, the spears length) exceeds those of non-irradiated objects by 1.7 – 3.9 times. For more correct assessment of the effect of light statistical properties on photocontrol processes, it is proposed to replace the qualitative description (coherent – incoherent) with the quantitative one, using the determination of spatial and temporal correlation functions and comparing them with the characteristic dimensions of the biological structures, e.g., the cell size. (biophotonics)

  9. Response of Wheat Genotypes to Different Levels of Nitrogen

    Shukra Raj Shrestha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted using six genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. for response to different levels of nitrogen (N use. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with four levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1 as main plots and six wheat genotypes (BL 3623, BL 3629, BL 3872, NL 1008, NL 1055 and Vijay, a check variety as sub-plots. Grain yield and other yield components increased linearly in response to N concentrations in both seasons. Only two parameters: days to heading (DOH and days to maturity (DTM varied significantly (p ≤ 0.05 among wheat genotypes in both the years. None of the parameters showed interaction effects in both seasons. Vijay showed highest grain yield of 3.12 t ha-1 in 2013 with the application of 100 kg N ha-1, and 3.23 t ha-1 in 2014 with 150 kg N ha-1. Spike length, productive tillers m-2, number of spikes m-2 and test weight were greater with higher N rates. The straw yield of wheat fertilized with 150 kg N ha-1 was the highest in Vijay (4.35 t ha-1 and BL 3872 (4.33 t ha-1, respectively. Vijay with 100 kg N ha-1 produced the highest number of productive tillers m-2 (276.33 in 2013 and 296.00 with the application of 150 kg N ha-1 in 2014.

  10. Growth and development rates have different thermal responses.

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Woodward, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Growth and development rates are fundamental to all living organisms. In a warming world, it is important to determine how these rates will respond to increasing temperatures. It is often assumed that the thermal responses of physiological rates are coupled to metabolic rate and thus have the same temperature dependence. However, the existence of the temperature-size rule suggests that intraspecific growth and development are decoupled. Decoupling of these rates would have important consequences for individual species and ecosystems, yet this has not been tested systematically across a range of species. We conducted an analysis on growth and development rate data compiled from the literature for a well-studied group, marine pelagic copepods, and use an information-theoretic approach to test which equations best describe these rates. Growth and development rates were best characterized by models with significantly different parameters: development has stronger temperature dependence than does growth across all life stages. As such, it is incorrect to assume that these rates have the same temperature dependence. We used the best-fit models for these rates to predict changes in organism mass in response to temperature. These predictions follow a concave relationship, which complicates attempts to model the impacts of increasing global temperatures on species body size.

  11. Utilization of Different Omic Approaches to Unravel Stress Response Mechanisms in the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    Shruti Nagaraja

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During its life cycle, the unicellular parasite Entamoeba histolytica is challenged by a wide variety of environmental stresses, such as fluctuation in glucose concentration, changes in gut microbiota composition, and the release of oxidative and nitrosative species from neutrophils and macrophages. The best mode of survival for this parasite is to continuously adapt itself to the dynamic environment of the host. Our ability to study the stress-induced responses and adaptive mechanisms of this parasite has been transformed through the development of genomics, proteomics or metabolomics (omics sciences. These studies provide insights into different facets of the parasite's behavior in the host. However, there is a dire need for multi-omics data integration to better understand its pathogenic nature, ultimately paving the way to identify new chemotherapeutic targets against amebiasis. This review provides an integration of the most relevant omics information on the mechanisms that are used by E. histolytica to resist environmental stresses.

  12. Different responses to reward comparisons by three primate species.

    Freeman, Hani D; Sullivan, Jennifer; Hopper, Lydia M; Talbot, Catherine F; Holmes, Andrea N; Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Williams, Lawrence E; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2013-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid to the role of cooperative breeding in the evolution of behavior. In many measures, cooperative breeders are more prosocial than non-cooperatively breeding species, including being more likely to actively share food. This is hypothesized to be due to selective pressures specific to the interdependency characteristic of cooperatively breeding species. Given the high costs of finding a new mate, it has been proposed that cooperative breeders, unlike primates that cooperate in other contexts, should not respond negatively to unequal outcomes between themselves and their partner. However, in this context such pressures may extend beyond cooperative breeders to other species with pair-bonding and bi-parental care. Here we test the response of two New World primate species with different parental strategies to unequal outcomes in both individual and social contrast conditions. One species tested was a cooperative breeder (Callithrix spp.) and the second practiced bi-parental care (Aotus spp.). Additionally, to verify our procedure, we tested a third confamilial species that shows no such interdependence but does respond to individual (but not social) contrast (Saimiri spp.). We tested all three genera using an established inequity paradigm in which individuals in a pair took turns to gain rewards that sometimes differed from those of their partners. None of the three species tested responded negatively to inequitable outcomes in this experimental context. Importantly, the Saimiri spp responded to individual contrast, as in earlier studies, validating our procedure. When these data are considered in relation to previous studies investigating responses to inequity in primates, they indicate that one aspect of cooperative breeding, pair-bonding or bi-parental care, may influence the evolution of these behaviors. These results emphasize the need to study a variety of species to gain insight in to how decision-making may vary across

  13. Different responses to reward comparisons by three primate species.

    Hani D Freeman

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been paid to the role of cooperative breeding in the evolution of behavior. In many measures, cooperative breeders are more prosocial than non-cooperatively breeding species, including being more likely to actively share food. This is hypothesized to be due to selective pressures specific to the interdependency characteristic of cooperatively breeding species. Given the high costs of finding a new mate, it has been proposed that cooperative breeders, unlike primates that cooperate in other contexts, should not respond negatively to unequal outcomes between themselves and their partner. However, in this context such pressures may extend beyond cooperative breeders to other species with pair-bonding and bi-parental care.Here we test the response of two New World primate species with different parental strategies to unequal outcomes in both individual and social contrast conditions. One species tested was a cooperative breeder (Callithrix spp. and the second practiced bi-parental care (Aotus spp.. Additionally, to verify our procedure, we tested a third confamilial species that shows no such interdependence but does respond to individual (but not social contrast (Saimiri spp.. We tested all three genera using an established inequity paradigm in which individuals in a pair took turns to gain rewards that sometimes differed from those of their partners.None of the three species tested responded negatively to inequitable outcomes in this experimental context. Importantly, the Saimiri spp responded to individual contrast, as in earlier studies, validating our procedure. When these data are considered in relation to previous studies investigating responses to inequity in primates, they indicate that one aspect of cooperative breeding, pair-bonding or bi-parental care, may influence the evolution of these behaviors. These results emphasize the need to study a variety of species to gain insight in to how decision-making may

  14. Characterization of the cell death modes and the associated changes in cellular energy supply in response to AIPcS4-PDT

    Kiesslich, T.; Plaetzer, K.; Oberdanner, C.; Krammer, B.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can result in apoptosis and/or necrosis. Several steps in the apoptotic program depend on ATP and the intracellular ATP level is one determinant in the decision between apoptosis and necrosis. Therefore, photochemical damage of cellular targets involved in energy supply might play a crucial role for the mode of cell death being executed. The present study aimed at the characterization of changes in cellular energy supply and the associated cell death modes in response to PDT. Using the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431 and aluminum (III) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (2.5 μM) as a photosensitizer, we studied the changes in mitochondrial function and intracellular ATP-level after irradiation with different light doses. Employing assays for caspase-3 activation and nuclear fragmentation, 50 % of the cells were found to undergo apoptosis after irradiation with light doses between 2.5 to 3.5 J.cm -2 . At light doses above 6 J.cm -2 cells died exclusively by necrosis, indicated by rapid and complete loss of ATP and mitochondrial function and an absence of caspase activation and nuclear fragmentation. With apoptotic cell populations the ATP-level was maintained at near control levels for up to eight hours which was far beyond the onset of morphological changes. These data suggest that necrosis as well as apoptosis can be induced with AIPcS4 mediated PDT and that photo damage in energy supplying cellular targets may influence the mode of cell death. Further, it is speculated that cells undergoing apoptosis after PDT maintain high ATP levels long enough to complete the apoptotic program. (author)

  15. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. I. The normal modes

    Comandi, G.L.; Chiofalo, M.L.; Toncelli, R.; Bramanti, D.; Polacco, E.; Nobili, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical work suggests that violation of the equivalence principle might be revealed in a measurement of the fractional differential acceleration η between two test bodies-of different compositions, falling in the gravitational field of a source mass--if the measurement is made to the level of η≅10 -13 or better. This being within the reach of ground based experiments gives them a new impetus. However, while slowly rotating torsion balances in ground laboratories are close to reaching this level, only an experiment performed in a low orbit around the Earth is likely to provide a much better accuracy. We report on the progress made with the 'Galileo Galilei on the ground' (GGG) experiment, which aims to compete with torsion balances using an instrument design also capable of being converted into a much higher sensitivity space test. In the present and following articles (Part I and Part II), we demonstrate that the dynamical response of the GGG differential accelerometer set into supercritical rotation-in particular, its normal modes (Part I) and rejection of common mode effects (Part II)-can be predicted by means of a simple but effective model that embodies all the relevant physics. Analytical solutions are obtained under special limits, which provide the theoretical understanding. A simulation environment is set up, obtaining a quantitative agreement with the available experimental data on the frequencies of the normal modes and on the whirling behavior. This is a needed and reliable tool for controlling and separating perturbative effects from the expected signal, as well as for planning the optimization of the apparatus

  16. Gender differences in game responses during badminton match play.

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; de la Aleja Tellez, Jose G; Moya-Ramon, Manuel; Cabello-Manrique, David; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible gender differences in match play activity pattern [rally duration, rest time between rallies, effective playing time, and strokes performed during a rally] and exercise intensity (heart rate [HR], blood lactate [La], and subjective ratings of perceived exertion [RPE]) during 9 simulated badminton matches in male (n = 8) and female (n = 8) elite junior (16.0 ± 1.4 years) players. Results showed significant differences (all p 0.05; ES = -0.33 to 0.08) were observed between female or male players in average HR (174 ± 7 vs. 170 ± 9 b·min(-1)), %HRmax (89.2 ± 4.0% vs. 85.9 ± 4.3%), La (2.5 ± 1.3 vs. 3.2 ± 1.8 mmol·L(-1)), and RPE values (14.2 ± 1.9 vs. 14.6 ± 1.8) during match play, although male players spent more time (moderate effect sizes) at intensities between 81 and 90% HRmax (35.3 ± 17.9 vs. 25.3 ± 13.6; p < 0.05; ES = 0.64) in the second game. There seemed to be a trend toward an increased playing intensity (i.e., higher HR, La, and RPE) from the first to the second game, highlighting the higher exercise intensity experienced during the last part of the match. The clear between-gender differences in activity patterns induced only slightly different physiological responses.

  17. Power dissipated - or generated - by the various excited modes in a plasma; Puissance dissipee - ou generee - par les differents modes excites dans un plasma

    Rolland, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The energy exchange between a plasma and a source of excitation J(r)sin(w{sub 0}t) is investigated. In order to include the case of growing waves associated with connective instabilities, this problem is treated in the context of the wave-packet theory, by writing the field as a double integral in two complex planes. the paths of the integration are defined after a separation into two classes of the root k(w) of the dispersion equation. We find that - at even in the absence of collisions - there is still a power exchange exchange, due to the spatial dispersion. Thus a connexion can be established with the kinematic theories of growing waves [1][2] and the modes generating power can be found. Moreover, the power dissipated by spatial dispersion is found to be critical with that due to Landau's effect for long waves. This confirms the kinematic character of the latter and bridges a gap between macroscopic and microscopic theories. (author) [French] On etudie les echanges d'energie entre un plasma et une source d'excitation J(r)sin(w{sub 0}t). Pour inclure le cas des ondes croissantes associees aux instabilites convectives, on traite ce probleme dans le cadre de la theorie du paquet d'ondes en definissant le champ par une integrale double dans deux plans complexes; les parcours d'integration sont precises apres avoir separe en deux classes les racines k(w) de l'equation de dispersion. On trouve que meme en l'absence de collisions, la puissance echangee n'est pas nulle, a cause de la dispersion spatiale. Ceci permet d'etablir une connexion avec les theories cinematiques des ondes croissantes [1][2], tout en precisant quels sont les modes generateurs d'energie. Par ailleurs, la puissance dissipee par dispersion spatiale se revele identique a la dissipation par effet Landau pour les grandes ondes, ce qui confirme le caractere cinematique de ce dernier et fait la jonction entre les theories microscopique et macroscopique. (auteur)

  18. Do English Listening Outcome and Cognitive Load Change for Different Media Delivery Modes in U-Learning?

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lei, Hao; Tseng, Ju-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Although ubiquitous learning enhances students' access to learning materials, it is crucial to find out which media delivery modes produce the best results for English listening comprehension. The present study examined the effect of media delivery mode (sound and text vs. sound) on English listening comprehension and cognitive load. Participants…

  19. N-Annulated perylene substituted zinc–porphyrins with different linking modes and electron acceptors for dye sensitized solar cells

    Luo, Jie

    2016-05-03

    Three new N-annulated perylene (NP) substituted porphyrin dyes WW-7-WW-9 with different linking modes and accepting groups were synthesized and applied in Co(ii)/(iii) based dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The bay-linked porphyrins WW-7 and WW-8 exhibited moderate power conversion efficiency (PCE = 4.4% and 4.8%, respectively), while the peri-linked porphyrin dye WW-9 showed a PCE up to 9.2% which is slightly lower than that of our reference dye WW-6. Detailed physical measurements (optical and electrochemical), DFT calculations, and photovoltaic characterizations were performed to understand how the structural changes affect their light-harvesting ability, molecular orbital profile, energy level alignment, and eventually the photovoltaic performance. It turned out that the lower efficiencies of the cells based on WW-7 and WW-8 could be ascribed to the weak π-conjugation between the bay-substituted NP and phenylethynyl substituted porphyrin unit. The introduction of a benzothiadiazole acceptor at the anchoring group has induced a significant red shift of the IPCE action spectra of WW-8 and WW-9, by about 90 nm and 50 nm as compared to that of WW-7 and WW-6, respectively. However, less efficient electron injection was observed. Our studies gave some insight into the important role of electronic interactions between different components when one designs a dye for high-efficiency DSCs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  20. N-Annulated perylene substituted zinc–porphyrins with different linking modes and electron acceptors for dye sensitized solar cells

    Luo, Jie; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Qi, Qingbiao; Dong, Shaoqiang; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Peng; Wu, Jishan

    2016-01-01

    Three new N-annulated perylene (NP) substituted porphyrin dyes WW-7-WW-9 with different linking modes and accepting groups were synthesized and applied in Co(ii)/(iii) based dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The bay-linked porphyrins WW-7 and WW-8 exhibited moderate power conversion efficiency (PCE = 4.4% and 4.8%, respectively), while the peri-linked porphyrin dye WW-9 showed a PCE up to 9.2% which is slightly lower than that of our reference dye WW-6. Detailed physical measurements (optical and electrochemical), DFT calculations, and photovoltaic characterizations were performed to understand how the structural changes affect their light-harvesting ability, molecular orbital profile, energy level alignment, and eventually the photovoltaic performance. It turned out that the lower efficiencies of the cells based on WW-7 and WW-8 could be ascribed to the weak π-conjugation between the bay-substituted NP and phenylethynyl substituted porphyrin unit. The introduction of a benzothiadiazole acceptor at the anchoring group has induced a significant red shift of the IPCE action spectra of WW-8 and WW-9, by about 90 nm and 50 nm as compared to that of WW-7 and WW-6, respectively. However, less efficient electron injection was observed. Our studies gave some insight into the important role of electronic interactions between different components when one designs a dye for high-efficiency DSCs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  1. Differences in phytoalexin response among rice cultivars of different resistance to blast

    Dillon, V.M.; Overton, J.; Grayer, R.J.; Harborne, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    he production of both flavonoid and diterpenoid phytoalexins after induction by UV irradiation was studied in five rice genotypes of different susceptibility to the rice blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae. Consistent qualitative and quatitative differences were found between the rice cultivars in the phytoalexins produced, and there was a strong correlation between the accumulation of the phytoalexins, sakuranetin, momilactone A and oryzalexin S, and rice resistance to blast. Production of phytoalexins was also investigated in rice genotype Tetep after inoculation with an incompatible race of P. oryzae. Similar levels of sakuranetin and oryzalexin E were formed 3 days after both inoculation and UV irradiation of the leaves, but there were different levels of momilactone A and the other oryzalexins. Although a given rice genotype may respond quite differently in its production of phytoalexins depending on whether it has been irradiated or inoculated with a fungus, and in the latter case on whether a compatible race of the pathogen has been used, the present results indicate that genetic differences in phytoalexin response between rice cultivars are likely to play an important role among the many factors that determine differences in blast resistance between different rice genotypes. (author)

  2. C-di-GMP regulates Pseudomonas aeruginosa stress response to tellurite during both planktonic and biofilm modes of growth

    Chua, Song Lin; Sivakumar, Krishnakumar; Rybtke, Morten Levin

    2015-01-01

    tellurite (TeO3(2-)) exposure induced the intracellular content of the secondary messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Two diguanylate cyclases (DGCs), SadC and SiaD, were responsible for the increased intracellular content of c-di-GMP. Enhanced c-di-GMP levels by TeO3(2-) further...... increased P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and resistance to TeO3(2-). P. aeruginosa ΔsadCΔsiaD and PAO1/p(lac)-yhjH mutants with low intracellular c-di-GMP content were more sensitive to TeO3(2-) exposure and had low relative fitness compared to the wild-type PAO1 planktonic and biofilm cultures exposed...... to TeO3(2-). Our study provided evidence that c-di-GMP level can play an important role in mediating stress response in microbial communities during both planktonic and biofilm modes of growth....

  3. Implementation and analysis of list mode algorithm using tubes of response on a dedicated brain and breast PET

    Moliner, L.; Correcher, C.; González, A. J.; Conde, P.; Hernández, L.; Orero, A.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, M. J.; Sánchez, F.; Soriano, A.; Vidal, L. F.; Benlloch, J. M.

    2013-02-01

    In this work we present an innovative algorithm for the reconstruction of PET images based on the List-Mode (LM) technique which improves their spatial resolution compared to results obtained with current MLEM algorithms. This study appears as a part of a large project with the aim of improving diagnosis in early Alzheimer disease stages by means of a newly developed hybrid PET-MR insert. At the present, Alzheimer is the most relevant neurodegenerative disease and the best way to apply an effective treatment is its early diagnosis. The PET device will consist of several monolithic LYSO crystals coupled to SiPM detectors. Monolithic crystals can reduce scanner costs with the advantage to enable implementation of very small virtual pixels in their geometry. This is especially useful for LM reconstruction algorithms, since they do not need a pre-calculated system matrix. We have developed an LM algorithm which has been initially tested with a large aperture (186 mm) breast PET system. Such an algorithm instead of using the common lines of response, incorporates a novel calculation of tubes of response. The new approach improves the volumetric spatial resolution about a factor 2 at the border of the field of view when compared with traditionally used MLEM algorithm. Moreover, it has also shown to decrease the image noise, thus increasing the image quality.

  4. Implementation and analysis of list mode algorithm using tubes of response on a dedicated brain and breast PET

    Moliner, L.; Correcher, C.; González, A.J.; Conde, P.; Hernández, L.; Orero, A.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, M.J.; Sánchez, F.; Soriano, A.; Vidal, L.F.; Benlloch, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an innovative algorithm for the reconstruction of PET images based on the List-Mode (LM) technique which improves their spatial resolution compared to results obtained with current MLEM algorithms. This study appears as a part of a large project with the aim of improving diagnosis in early Alzheimer disease stages by means of a newly developed hybrid PET-MR insert. At the present, Alzheimer is the most relevant neurodegenerative disease and the best way to apply an effective treatment is its early diagnosis. The PET device will consist of several monolithic LYSO crystals coupled to SiPM detectors. Monolithic crystals can reduce scanner costs with the advantage to enable implementation of very small virtual pixels in their geometry. This is especially useful for LM reconstruction algorithms, since they do not need a pre-calculated system matrix. We have developed an LM algorithm which has been initially tested with a large aperture (186 mm) breast PET system. Such an algorithm instead of using the common lines of response, incorporates a novel calculation of tubes of response. The new approach improves the volumetric spatial resolution about a factor 2 at the border of the field of view when compared with traditionally used MLEM algorithm. Moreover, it has also shown to decrease the image noise, thus increasing the image quality

  5. Propagating annular modes

    Sheshadri, A.; Plumb, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The leading "annular mode", defined as the dominant EOF of surface pressure or of zonal mean zonal wind variability, appears as a dipolar structure straddling the mean midlatitude jet and thus seems to describe north-south wobbling of the jet latitude. However, extratropical zonal wind anomalies frequently tend to migrate poleward. This behavior can be described by the first two EOFs, the first (AM1) being the dipolar structure, and the second (AM2) having a tripolar structure centered on the mean jet. Taken in isolation, AM1 thus describes a north-south wobbling of the jet position, while AM2 describes a strengthening and narrowing of the jet. However, despite the fact that they are spatially orthogonal, and their corresponding time series temporally orthogonal, AM1 and AM2 are not independent, but show significant lag-correlations which reveal the propagation. The EOFs are not modes of the underlying dynamical system governing the zonal flow evolution. The true modes can be estimated using principal oscillation pattern (POP) analysis. In the troposphere, the leading POPs manifest themselves as a pair of complex conjugate structures with conjugate eigenvalues thus, in reality, constituting a single, complex, mode that describes propagating anomalies. Even though the principal components associated with the two leading EOFs decay at different rates, each decays faster than the true mode. These facts have implications for eddy feedback and the susceptibility of the mode to external perturbations. If one interprets the annular modes as the modes of the system, then simple theory predicts that the response to steady forcing will usually be dominated by AM1 (with the longest time scale). However, such arguments should really be applied to the true modes. Experiments with a simplified GCM show that climate response to perturbations do not necessarily have AM1 structures. Implications of these results for stratosphere-troposphere interactions are explored. The POP

  6. Electromagnetic response of the protective pellicle of different unicellular microalgae

    Inchaussandague, Marina E.; Skigin, Diana C.; Tolivia, Analía.; Fuertes Vila, Isabel; Conforti, Visitación

    2014-03-01

    Euglenoids are unicellular aquatic organisms. These microalgae show a typical surface structure that distinguishes them from the other protists. Most cells are naked and bounded by a plasma membrane surrounded by a pellicle formed by overlapping bands. It is well known that all terrestrial and aquatic organisms are exposed to UV-A and UV-B radiation. This radiation is potentially harmful to life and since it can penetrate up to 12 meters in the water, it can reduce survival, growth and production of phytoplankton. However, the organisms have developed numerous protection mechanisms intended to reduce such damage, such as the production of pigments and other repair mechanisms. However, the possible protection that could provide the first barriers before entering into the cell has not been explored yet. In this paper we investigate, from an electromagnetic point of view, the role played by the pellicle of euglenoids in the protection of the cell against UV radiation. To do so, we investigate the electromagnetic response of different species that exhibit different behaviors against the UV radiation. We solve the diffraction problem by using the Chandezon Method and obtain the reflectance of the pellicle for the UV wavelengths. The results show that the corrugated pellicle could contribute to increase the reflectance, thus reducing the penetration of the UV radiation within the cell and therefore, minimizing the damage and increasing the survival of these organisms.

  7. Gender and Postural Differences in Cardiovascular Response to ...

    USER

    Response to Hand Grip Exercise Among Elderly. Normotensives ... Cardiovascular (CV) response to isometric exercise among the elderly is still widely underreported. This study ..... descriptive, functional and sexual dimorphic model. Serbia.

  8. Trophic level responses differ as climate warms in Ireland

    Donnelly, Alison; Yu, Rong; Liu, Lingling

    2015-08-01

    Effective ecosystem functioning relies on successful species interaction. However, this delicate balance may be disrupted if species do not respond to environmental change at a similar rate. Here we examine trends in the timing of spring phenophases of groups of species occupying three trophic levels as a potential indicator of ecosystem response to climate warming in Ireland. The data sets were of varying length (1976-2009) and from varying locations: (1) timing of leaf unfolding and May Shoot of a range of broadleaf and conifer tree species, (2) first appearance dates of a range of moth species, and (3) first arrival dates of a range of spring migrant birds. All three groups revealed a statistically significant ( Pphenology that was driven by rising spring temperature ( P<0.05; 0.45 °C /decade). However, the rate of advance was greater for moths (1.8 days/year), followed by birds (0.37 days/year) and trees (0.29 days/year). In addition, the length of time between (1) moth emergence and leaf unfolding and (2) moth emergence and bird arrival decreased significantly ( P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), indicating a decrease in the timing between food supply and demand. These differing trophic level response rates demonstrate the potential for a mismatch in the timing of interdependent phenophases as temperatures rise. Even though these data were not specifically collected to examine climate warming impacts, we conclude that such data may be used as an early warning indicator and as a means to monitor the potential for future ecosystem disruption to occur as climate warms.

  9. Human thermal physiological and psychological responses under different heating environments.

    Wang, Zhaojun; Ning, Haoran; Ji, Yuchen; Hou, Juan; He, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many residents of severely cold areas of China who use floor heating (FH) systems feel warmer but drier compared to those using radiant heating (RH) systems. However, this phenomenon has not been verified experimentally. In order to validate the empirical hypothesis, and research the differences of human physiological and psychological responses in these two asymmetrical heating environments, an experiment was designed to mimic FH and RH systems. The subjects participating in the experiment were volunteer college-students. During the experiment, the indoor air temperature, air speed, relative humidity, globe temperature, and inner surface temperatures were measured, and subjects' heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures were recorded. The subjects were required to fill in questionnaires about their thermal responses during testing. The results showed that the subjects' skin temperatures, heart rate and blood pressure were significantly affected by the type of heating environment. Ankle temperature had greatest impact on overall thermal comfort relative to other body parts, and a slightly cool FH condition was the most pleasurable environment for sedentary subjects. The overall thermal sensation, comfort and acceptability of FH were higher than that of RH. However, the subjects of FH felt drier than that of RH, although the relative humidity in FH environments was higher than that of the RH environment. In future environmental design, the thermal comfort of the ankles should be scrutinized, and a FH cool condition is recommended as the most comfortable thermal environment for office workers. Consequently, large amounts of heating energy could be saved in this area in the winter. The results of this study may lead to more efficient energy use for office or home heating systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Responses and mechanisms of positive electron affinity molecules in the N2 mode of the thermionic ionization detector and the electron-capture detector

    Jones, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Very little knowledge has been acquired in the past on the mechanistic pathway by which molecules respond in the N 2 mode of the thermionic ionization detector. An attempt is made here to elucidate the response mechanism of the detector. The basic response mechanisms are known for the electron capture detector, and an attempt is made to identify the certain mechanism by which selected molecules respond. The resonance electron capture rate constant has been believed to be temperature independent, and investigations of the temperature dependence of electron capture responses are presented. Mechanisms for the N 2 mode of the thermionic ionization detector have been proposed by examining the detector response to positive electron affinity molecules and by measurement of the ions produced by the detector. Electron capture mechanisms for selected molecules have been proposed by examining their temperature dependent responses in the electron capture detector and negative ion mass spectra of the samples. In studies of the resonance electron capture rate constant, the relative responses of selected positive electron affinity molecules and their temperature dependent responses were investigated. Positive electron affinity did not guarantee large responses in the N 2 mode thermionic ionization detector. High mass ions were measured following ionization of samples in the detector. Responses in the electron capture detector varied with temperature and electron affinity

  11. Efficacy of Combined Formulations of Fungicides with Different Modes of Action in Controlling Botrytis Gray Mold Disease in Chickpea

    Rashid, M. H.; Hossain, M. Ashraf; Kashem, M. A.; Kumar, Shiv; Rafii, M. Y.; Latif, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Botrytis gray mold (BGM) caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur) in Bangladesh for three years (2008, 2009, and 2010). Among the six fungicides tested, one was protectant [Vondozeb 42SC, a.i. mancozeb (0.2%)], two systemic [Bavistin 50 WP, a.i. carbendazim (0.2%), and Protaf 250EC, propiconazole (0.05%)], and three combination formulations [Acrobat MZ690, dimethomorph 9% + mancozeb 60%, (0.2%); Secure 600 WG, phenomadone + mancozeb (0.2%); and Companion, mancozeb 63% + carbendazim 12% (0.2%)]. The results showed superiority of combination formulations involving both protectant and systemic fungicides over the sole application of either fungicide separately. Among the combination fungicides, Companion was most effective, resulting in the lowest disease severity (3.33 score on 1–9 scale) and the highest increase (38%) of grain yield in chickpea. Therefore, this product could be preferred over the sole application of either solo protectant or systemic fungicides to reduce yield losses and avoid fungicide resistance. PMID:24723819

  12. Different Dose-Dependent Modes of Action of C-Type Natriuretic Peptide on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation

    Florie Desriac

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP, a peptide produced by lungs, is able to impact Pseudomonas aeruginosa physiology. In the present work, the effect of CNP at different concentrations on P. aeruginosa biofilm formation was studied and the mechanisms of action of this human hormone on P. aeruginosa were deciphered. CNP was shown to inhibit dynamic biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner without affecting the bacterial growth at any tested concentrations. The most effective concentrations were 1 and 0.1 µM. At 0.1 µM, the biofilm formation inhibition was fully dependent on the CNP sensor protein AmiC, whereas it was only partially AmiC-dependent at 1 µM, revealing the existence of a second AmiC-independent mode of action of CNP on P. aeruginosa. At 1 µM, CNP reduced both P. aeruginosa adhesion on glass and di-rhamnolipid production and also increased the bacterial membrane fluidity. The various effects of CNP at 1 µM and 0.1 µM on P. aeruginosa shown here should have major consequences to design drugs for biofilm treatment or prevention.

  13. Efficacy of Combined Formulations of Fungicides with Different Modes of Action in Controlling Botrytis Gray Mold Disease in Chickpea

    M. H. Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis gray mold (BGM caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur in Bangladesh for three years (2008, 2009, and 2010. Among the six fungicides tested, one was protectant [Vondozeb 42SC, a.i. mancozeb (0.2%], two systemic [Bavistin 50 WP, a.i. carbendazim (0.2%, and Protaf 250EC, propiconazole (0.05%], and three combination formulations [Acrobat MZ690, dimethomorph 9% + mancozeb 60%, (0.2%; Secure 600 WG, phenomadone + mancozeb (0.2%; and Companion, mancozeb 63% + carbendazim 12% (0.2%]. The results showed superiority of combination formulations involving both protectant and systemic fungicides over the sole application of either fungicide separately. Among the combination fungicides, Companion was most effective, resulting in the lowest disease severity (3.33 score on 1–9 scale and the highest increase (38% of grain yield in chickpea. Therefore, this product could be preferred over the sole application of either solo protectant or systemic fungicides to reduce yield losses and avoid fungicide resistance.

  14. Growth response of microorganisms to different molecular fractions of lignite

    Polman, J.K.; Breckenridge, C.R.; Dugan, P.R.; Quigley, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Our research is primarily concerned with isolating and characterizing microbes which are able to dissimilate coal and convert it to other useful chemicals. This quarter, general growth responses of microorganisms cultivated in the presence of different molecular weight fractions of lignite coal were examined. Aerobic and anaerobic environmental samples from a variety of ecological niches were used as inocula. Growth of the microorganisms in these samples on the following types of media was tested: COAL medium, containing alkali-solubilized whole coal; THFI medium, containing the alkali-solubilized, tetrahydrofuran-insoluble, macromolecular portion of whole coal; THFS medium, containing the THF-soluble, low molecular weight portion of whole coal; and CON medium, void of any coal constituent. Overall results indicated that the presence of the THF-soluble, low molecular weight coal fraction enhanced the growth yield and the variety of aerobic microorganisms compared to the other coal fractions or the control medium. Conversely, anaerobic microbes grew best on media which contained the macromolecular fraction. 12 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Treatment and Response to Statins: Gender-related Differences.

    Raparelli, Valeria; Pannitteri, Gaetano; Todisco, Tommaso; Toriello, Filippo; Napoleone, Laura; Manfredini, Roberto; Basili, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Response to drug administration is a primary determinant for treatment success. Sex and gender disparities play a role in determining the efficacy and safety of the most commonly used medications suggesting the need for a sex-tailored approach in prescription. Statins are a cost-effective strategy for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. While statins are similarly effective in secondary CVD prevention, some concerns raised by conflicting data reported in primary CVD prevention clinical trials. The small representation of women in clinical trials and the fewer rates of events due to the lower female baseline CVD risk may have conditioned contradictory meta-analysis findings. Specifically, benefits outweigh disadvantages of statin therapy in women with a high CVD risk, while several doubts exist for the primary prevention of women at low-intermediate CVD risk. Furthermore, disparities between women and men in medication adherence may influence statin efficacy in CVD prevention. The sex-dependent impact of adverse side effects is one of the reasons advocated for explaining the gender gap, but it is not evidence-proved. The present review summarizes the sex and gender differences in the use of statins, pointing out new perspectives and opening issues in sex-tailored CVD prevention strategy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Water filtration rate and infiltration/accumulation of low density lipoproteins in 3 different modes of endothelial/smooth muscle cell co-cultures.

    Ding, ZuFeng; Fan, YuBo; Deng, XiaoYan

    2009-11-01

    Using different endothelial/smooth muscle cell co-culture modes to simulate the intimal structure of blood vessels, the water filtration rate and the infiltration/accumulation of LDL of the cultured cell layers were studied. The three cell culture modes of the study were: (i) The endothelial cell monolayer (EC/Phi); (ii) endothelial cells directly co-cultured on the smooth muscle cell monolayer (EC-SMC); (iii) endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells cultured on different sides of a Millicell-CM membrane (EC/SMC). It was found that under the same condition, the water filtration rate was the lowest for the EC/SMC mode and the highest for the EC/Phi mode, while the infiltration/accumulation of DiI-LDLs was the lowest in the EC/Phi mode and the highest in the EC-SMC mode. It was also found that DiI-LDL infiltration/accumulation in the cultured cell layers increased with the increasing water filtration rate. The results from the in vitro model study therefore suggest that the infiltration/accumulation of the lipids within the arterial wall is positively correlated with concentration polarization of atherogenic lipids, and the integrity of the endothelium plays an important role in the penetration and accumulation of atherogenic lipids in blood vessel walls.

  17. Vertical Transport of Sediment from Muddy Buoyant River Plumes in the Presence of Different Modes of Interfacial Instabilities

    Strom, K.; Rouhnia, M.

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sedimentation from buoyant, muddy plumes lofting over clear saltwater can take place at rates higher than that expected from individual particle settling (i.e., CWs). Two potential drivers of enhanced sedimentation are flocculation and interfacial instabilities. We experimentally measured the sediment fluxes from each of these processes using two sets of laboratory experiments that investigate two different modes of instability, one driven by sediment settling and one driven by fluid shear. The settling-driven and shear-driven instability experiments were carried out in a stagnant stratification tank and a stratification flume respectively. In both sets, continuous interface monitoring and concentration measurements were made to observe developments of instabilities and their effects on the removal of sediment. Floc size was measured during the experiments using a floc camera and image analysis routines. This presentation will provide an overview of the stagnant tank experiments, but will focus on results from the stratified flume experiments and an analysis that attempts to synthesizes the results from the entirety of the study. The results from the stratified flume experiments show that under shear instabilities, the effective settling velocity is greater than the floc settling velocity, and that the rate increases with plume velocity and interface mixing. The difference between effective and floc settling velocity was denoted as the shear-induced settling velocity. This rate was found to be a strong function of the Richardson number, and was attributed to mixing processes at the interface. Conceptual and empirical analysis shows that the shear-induced settling velocity is proportional to URi-2. The resulting effective settling velocity models developed from these experiments are then used to examine the rates and potential locations of operations of these mechanism over the length of a river mouth plume.

  18. γ irradiation with different dose rates induces different DNA damage responses in Petunia x hybrida cells.

    Donà, Mattia; Ventura, Lorenzo; Macovei, Anca; Confalonieri, Massimo; Savio, Monica; Giovannini, Annalisa; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2013-05-15

    In plants, there is evidence that different dose rate exposures to gamma (γ) rays can cause different biological effects. The dynamics of DNA damage accumulation and molecular mechanisms that regulate recovery from radiation injury as a function of dose rate are poorly explored. To highlight dose-rate dependent differences in DNA damage, single cell gel electrophoresis was carried out on regenerating Petunia x hybrida leaf discs exposed to LDR (total dose 50 Gy, delivered at 0.33 Gy min(-1)) and HDR (total doses 50 and 100 Gy, delivered at 5.15 Gy min(-1)) γ-ray in the 0-24h time period after treatments. Significant fluctuations of double strand breaks and different repair capacities were observed between treatments in the 0-4h time period following irradiation. Dose-rate-dependent changes in the expression of the PhMT2 and PhAPX genes encoding a type 2 metallothionein and the cytosolic isoform of ascorbate peroxidase, respectively, were detected by Quantitative RealTime-Polymerase Chain Reaction. The PhMT2 and PhAPX genes were significantly up-regulated (3.0- and 0.7-fold) in response to HDR. The results are discussed in light of the potential practical applications of LDR-based treatments in mutation breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of Electroencephalography (EEG) to Assess CNS Changes Produced by Pesticides with different Modes of Action: Effects of Permethrin, Deltamethrin, Fipronil, Imidacloprid, Carbaryl, and Triadimefon

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an apical measure, capable of detecting changes in brain neuronal activity produced by internal or external stimuli. We assessed whether pesticides with different modes of action produced different changes in the EEG of adult male Long-Evans rats...

  20. Evaluation of genotoxic effects of surface waters using a battery of bioassays indicating different mode of action.

    Han, Yingnan; Li, Na; Oda, Yoshimitsu; Ma, Mei; Rao, Kaifeng; Wang, Zijian; Jin, Wei; Hong, Gang; Li, Zhiguo; Luo, Yi

    2016-11-01

    With the burgeoning contamination of surface waters threatening human health, the genotoxic effects of surface waters have received much attention. Because mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds in water cause tumors by different mechanisms, a battery of bioassays that each indicate a different mode of action (MOA) is required to evaluate the genotoxic effects of contaminants in water samples. In this study, 15 water samples from two source water reservoirs and surrounding rivers in Shijiazhuang city of China were evaluated for genotoxic effects. Target chemical analyses of 14 genotoxic pollutants were performed according to the Environmental quality standards for surface water of China. Then, the in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay, based on a high-content screening technique, was used to detect the effect of chromosome damage. The SOS/umu test using strain TA1535/pSK1002 was used to detect effects on SOS repair of gene expression. Additionally, two other strains, NM2009 and NM3009, which are highly sensitive to aromatic amines and nitroarenes, respectively, were used in the SOS/umu test to avoid false negative results. In the water samples, only two of the genotoxic chemicals listed in the water standards were detected in a few samples, with concentrations that were below water quality standards. However, positive results for the CBMN assay were observed in two river samples, and positive results for the induction of umuC gene expression in TA1535/pSK1002 were observed in seven river samples. Moreover, positive results were observed for NM2009 with S9 and NM3009 without S9 in some samples that had negative results using the strain TA1535/pSK1002. Based on the results with NM2009 and NM3009, some unknown or undetected aromatic amines and nitroarenes were likely in the source water reservoirs and the surrounding rivers. Furthermore, these compounds were most likely the causative pollutants for the genotoxic effect of these water samples. Therefore

  1. Polar lipids of Burkholderia pseudomallei induce different host immune responses.

    Mercedes Gonzalez-Juarrero

    Full Text Available Melioidosis is a disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world that is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. In endemic regions the disease occurs primarily in humans and goats. In the present study, we used the goat as a model to dissect the polar lipids of B. pseudomallei to identify lipid molecules that could be used for adjuvants/vaccines or as diagnostic tools. We showed that the lipidome of B. pseudomallei and its fractions contain several polar lipids with the capacity to elicit different immune responses in goats, namely rhamnolipids and ornithine lipids which induced IFN-γ, whereas phospholipids and an undefined polar lipid induced strong IL-10 secretion in CD4(+ T cells. Autologous T cells co-cultured with caprine dendritic cells (cDCs and polar lipids of B. pseudomallei proliferated and up-regulated the expression of CD25 (IL-2 receptor molecules. Furthermore, we demonstrated that polar lipids were able to up-regulate CD1w2 antigen expression in cDCs derived from peripheral blood monocytes. Interestingly, the same polar lipids had only little effect on the expression of MHC class II DR antigens in the same caprine dendritic cells. Finally, antibody blocking of the CD1w2 molecules on cDCs resulted in decreased expression for IFN-γ by CD4(+ T cells. Altogether, these results showed that polar lipids of B. pseudomallei are recognized by the caprine immune system and that their recognition is primarily mediated by the CD1 antigen cluster.

  2. Polar Lipids of Burkholderia pseudomallei Induce Different Host Immune Responses

    Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Mima, Naoko; Trunck, Lily A.; Schweizer, Herbert P.; Bowen, Richard A.; Dascher, Kyle; Mwangi, Waithaka; Eckstein, Torsten M.

    2013-01-01

    Melioidosis is a disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world that is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. In endemic regions the disease occurs primarily in humans and goats. In the present study, we used the goat as a model to dissect the polar lipids of B. pseudomallei to identify lipid molecules that could be used for adjuvants/vaccines or as diagnostic tools. We showed that the lipidome of B. pseudomallei and its fractions contain several polar lipids with the capacity to elicit different immune responses in goats, namely rhamnolipids and ornithine lipids which induced IFN-γ, whereas phospholipids and an undefined polar lipid induced strong IL-10 secretion in CD4+ T cells. Autologous T cells co-cultured with caprine dendritic cells (cDCs) and polar lipids of B. pseudomallei proliferated and up-regulated the expression of CD25 (IL-2 receptor) molecules. Furthermore, we demonstrated that polar lipids were able to up-regulate CD1w2 antigen expression in cDCs derived from peripheral blood monocytes. Interestingly, the same polar lipids had only little effect on the expression of MHC class II DR antigens in the same caprine dendritic cells. Finally, antibody blocking of the CD1w2 molecules on cDCs resulted in decreased expression for IFN-γ by CD4+ T cells. Altogether, these results showed that polar lipids of B. pseudomallei are recognized by the caprine immune system and that their recognition is primarily mediated by the CD1 antigen cluster. PMID:24260378

  3. Variations in exposure to traffic pollution while travelling by different modes in a low density, less congested city

    Kingham, Simon; Longley, Ian; Salmond, Jenny; Pattinson, Woodrow; Shrestha, Kreepa

    2013-01-01

    This research assessed the comparative risk associated with exposure to traffic pollution when travelling via different transport modes in Christchurch, New Zealand. Concentrations of PM 1 , UFPs and CO were monitored on pre-defined routes during the morning and evening commute on people travelling concurrently by car, bus and bicycle. It was found that car drivers were consistently exposed to the highest levels of CO; on-road cyclists were exposed to higher levels of all pollutants than off-road cyclists; car and bus occupants were exposed to higher average levels of UFP than cyclists, and travellers were occasionally exposed to very high levels of pollution for short periods of time. PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found to be poor indicators of exposure to traffic pollution. Studying Christchurch adds to our understanding as it was a lower density city with limited traffic congestion compared most other cities previously studied. -- Highlights: •This paper compared commuter exposure by car, bus, and on- and off-road cyclists. •The sampling was carried out in a low density, less congested city. •As in larger cities, car occupants were exposed to the highest levels of pollution. •On-road cyclists are exposed to higher levels of pollutants than off-road cyclists. •PM 10 and PM 2.5 are inappropriate indicators of exposure to vehicle emissions. -- This study carried out in a low density, less congested city, found that like studies in large or densely populated urban areas car drivers are still exposed to the worst quality air

  4. COOLOCE debris bed experiments and simulations investigating the coolability of cylindrical beds with different materials and flow modes

    Takasuo, E.; Kinnunen, T.; Holmstroem, S.; Lehtikuusi, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)

    2013-07-15

    The COOLOCE experiments aim at investigating the coolability of debris beds of different geometries, flow modes and materials. A debris bed may be formed of solidified corium as a result of a severe accident in a nuclear power reactor. The COOLOCE-8 test series consisted of experiments with a top-flooded test bed with irregular gravel as the simulant material. The objective was to produce comparison data useful in estimating the effects of different particle materials and the possible effect of the test arrangement on the results. It was found that the dryout heat flux (DHF) measured for the gravel was lower compared to previous experiments with spherical beads, and somewhat lower compared to the early STYX experiments. The difference between the beads and gravel is at least partially explained by the smaller average size of the gravel particles. The COOLOCE-9 test series included scoping experiments examining the effect of subcooling of the water pool in which the debris bed is immersed. The experiments with initially subcooled pool suggest that the subcooling may increase DHF and increase coolability. The aim of the COOLOCE-10 experiments was to investigate the effect of lateral flooding on the DHF a cylindrical test bed. The top of the test cylinder and its sidewall were open to water infiltration. It was found that the DHF is increased compared to a top-flooded cylinder by more than 50%. This suggests that coolability is notably improved. 2D simulations of the top-flooded test beds have been run with the MEWA code. Prior to the simulations, the effective particle diameter for the spherical beads and the irregular gravel was estimated by single-phase pressure loss measurements performed at KTH in Sweden. Parameter variations were done for particle size and porosity used as input in the models. It was found that with the measured effective particle diameter and porosity, the simulation models predict DHF with a relatively good accuracy in the case of spherical

  5. Pretreatment Differences in BOLD Response to Emotional Faces Correlate with Antidepressant Response to Scopolamine.

    Furey, Maura L; Drevets, Wayne C; Szczepanik, Joanna; Khanna, Ashish; Nugent, Allison; Zarate, Carlos A

    2015-03-28

    Faster acting antidepressants and biomarkers that predict treatment response are needed to facilitate the development of more effective treatments for patients with major depressive disorders. Here, we evaluate implicitly and explicitly processed emotional faces using neuroimaging to identify potential biomarkers of treatment response to the antimuscarinic, scopolamine. Healthy participants (n=15) and unmedicated-depressed major depressive disorder patients (n=16) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover infusion study using scopolamine (4 μg/kg). Before and following scopolamine, blood oxygen-level dependent signal was measured using functional MRI during a selective attention task. Two stimuli comprised of superimposed pictures of faces and houses were presented. Participants attended to one stimulus component and performed a matching task. Face emotion was modulated (happy/sad) creating implicit (attend-houses) and explicit (attend-faces) emotion processing conditions. The pretreatment difference in blood oxygen-level dependent response to happy and sad faces under implicit and explicit conditions (emotion processing biases) within a-priori regions of interest was correlated with subsequent treatment response in major depressive disorder. Correlations were observed exclusively during implicit emotion processing in the regions of interest, which included the subgenual anterior cingulate (Pemotional faces prior to treatment reflect the potential to respond to scopolamine. These findings replicate earlier results, highlighting the potential for pretreatment neural activity in the middle occipital cortices and subgenual anterior cingulate to inform us about the potential to respond clinically to scopolamine. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Different natriuretic responses in obese and lean rats in response to nitric oxide reduction.

    Ambrozewicz, Marta A; Khraibi, Ali A; Simsek-Duran, Fatma; DeBose, Sophia C; Baydoun, Hind A; Dobrian, Anca D

    2011-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of renal sodium transport and participates in the control of natriuresis and diuresis. In obesity, the nitric oxide bioavailability was reportedly reduced, which may contribute to the maintenance of hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of NO depletion on renal sodium handling in a model of diet-induced obesity hypertension. Obese hypertensive (obesity-prone (OP)) and lean normotensive (obesity-resistant (OR)) Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 1.2 mg/kg/day N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) for 4 weeks to inhibit NO synthesis. Acute pressure natriuresis and diuresis were measured in response to an increase in perfusion pressure. NHE3 and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase protein expression were measured by Western blot and NHE3 activity was determined as the rate of pH change in brush border membrane vesicles. NHE3 membrane localization was determined by confocal microscopy. L-NAME did not significantly attenuate the natriuretic and diuretic responses to increases in renal perfusion pressure (RPP) in OP rats while inducing a significant reduction in OR rats. Following chronic NO inhibition, NHE3 protein expression and activity and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase protein expression were significantly increased in the OR but not in the OP group. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that the increase in NHE3 activity could be, at least in part, due to NHE3 membrane trafficking. Obese hypertensive rats have a weaker natriuretic response in response to NO inhibition compared to lean rats and the mechanism involves different regulation of the apical sodium exchanger NHE3 expression, activity, and trafficking.

  7. Using lod-score differences to determine mode of inheritance: a simple, robust method even in the presence of heterogeneity and reduced penetrance.

    Greenberg, D A; Berger, B

    1994-10-01

    Determining the mode of inheritance is often difficult under the best of circumstances, but when segregation analysis is used, the problems of ambiguous ascertainment procedures, reduced penetrance, heterogeneity, and misdiagnosis make mode-of-inheritance determinations even more unreliable. The mode of inheritance can also be determined using a linkage-based method (maximized maximum lod score or mod score) and association-based methods, which can overcome many of these problems. In this work, we determined how much information is necessary to reliably determine the mode of inheritance from linkage data when heterogeneity and reduced penetrance are present in the data set. We generated data sets under both dominant and recessive inheritance with reduced penetrance and with varying fractions of linked and unlinked families. We then analyzed those data sets, assuming reduced penetrance, both dominant and recessive inheritance, and no heterogeneity. We investigated the reliability of two methods for determining the mode of inheritance from the linkage data. The first method examined the difference (delta) between the maximum lod scores calculated under the two mode-of-inheritance assumptions. We found that if delta was > 1.5, then the higher of the two maximum lod scores reflected the correct mode of inheritance with high reliability and that a delta of 2.5 appeared to practically guarantee a correct mode-of-inheritance inference. Furthermore, this reliability appeared to be virtually independent of alpha, the fraction of linked families in the data set, although the reliability decreased slightly as alpha fell below .50.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Mode of action and dose-response framework analysis for receptor-mediated toxicity : The aryl hydrocarbon receptor as a case study

    Budinsky, R. A.; Schrenk, D.; Simon, T.; Van Den Berg, M.; Reichard, J. F.; Silkworth, J. B.; Aylward, L. L.; Brix, A.; Gasiewicz, T.; Kaminski, N.; Perdew, G.; Starr, T. B.; Walker, N. J.; Rowlands, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds are tumor promoters that cause liver cancer in rats and mice. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) has been implicated as a key component in this tumor promotion response. Despite extensive knowledge of the toxicology of dioxins, no mode of action (MOA) hypothesis

  9. Inhibitory Response Capacities of Bilateral Lower and Upper Extremities in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder in Endogenous and Exogenous Orienting Modes

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Yu, Yi-Kai; Chen, Yung-Jung; Wu, Sheng-Kuang

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate separately the inhibitory response capacity and the lateralization effect in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in the endogenous and exogenous modes of orienting attention. Children with DCD on the lower extremities (DCD-LEs), along with age-matched controls, completed four tasks that…

  10. Holonomy Attractor Connecting Spaces of Different Curvature Responsible for ``Anomalies''

    Binder, Bernd

    2009-03-01

    In this lecture paper we derive Magic Angle Precession (MAP) from first geometric principles. MAP can arise in situations, where precession is multiply related to spin, linearly by time or distance (dynamic phase, rolling, Gauss law) and transcendentally by the holonomy loop path (geometric phase). With linear spin-precession coupling, gyroscopes can be spun up and down to very high frequencies via low frequency holonomy control induced by external accelerations, which provides for extreme coupling strengths or "anomalies" that can be tested by the powerball or gyrotwister device. Geometrically, a gyroscopic manifold with spherical metric is tangentially aligned to a precession wave channel with conic or hyperbolic metric (like the relativistic Thomas precession). Transporting triangular spin/precession vector relations across the tangential boundary of contact with SO(3) Lorentz symmetry, we get extreme vector currents near the attractor fixed points in precession phase space, where spin currents remain intact while crossing the contact boundaries between regions of different curvature signature (-1, 0, +1). The problem can be geometrically solved by considering a curvature invariant triangular condition, which holds on surfaces with different curvature that are in contact and locally parallel. In this case two out of three angles are identical, whereas the third angle is different due to holonomy. If we require that the side length ratio corresponding to these angles are invariant we get a geodesic chaotic attractor, which is a cosine map cos(x)˜Mx in parameter space providing for fixed points, limit cycle bifurcations, and singularities. The situation could be quite natural and common in the context of vector currents in curved spacetime and gauge theories. MAP could even be part of the electromagnetic interaction, where the electric charge is the geometric U(1) precession spin current and gauge potential with magnetic effects given by extra rotations under the

  11. Same but different: Comparative modes of information processing are implicated in the construction of perceptions of autonomy support.

    Lee, Rebecca Rachael; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2017-11-01

    An implicit assumption behind tenets of self-determination theory is that perceptions of autonomy support are a function of absolute modes of information processing. In this study, we examined whether comparative modes of information processing were implicated in the construction of perceptions of autonomy support. In an experimental study, we demonstrated that participants employed comparative modes of information processing in evaluating receipt of small, but not large, amounts of autonomy support. In addition, we found that social comparison processes influenced a number of outcomes that are empirically related to perceived autonomy support such as sense of autonomy, positive affect, perceived usefulness, and effort. Findings shed new light upon the processes underpinning construction of perceptions related to autonomy support and yield new insights into how to increase the predictive validity of models that use autonomy support as a determinant of motivation and psychological well-being. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Analysis of the Involvement of Different Ceramide Variants in the Response to Hydroxyurea Stress in Baker's Yeast.

    Po-Wei Chen

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids have been identified as important signaling compounds in stress responses. However, it is not always clear how different sphingolipid profiles are achieved in a particular stress situation. Here we propose a detailed mass action model, containing 42 dependent variables and 137 reactions, that offers explanations of the roles of variant ceramides species, which differ in the lengths of their fatty acyl chains and their saturation state, in the response to hydroxyurea stress. The simulations demonstrate that the cells manage to achieve hydroxyurea tolerance through a well-coordinated, differential usage of the variant ceramide species. Moreover, the results suggest that key enzymes have different affinities toward saturated and unsaturated fatty acyl chains, which implies that the saturation state affords the cells with an additional mode of regulation that had not been recognized so far. These conclusions from our computational analysis are yet to be validated experimentally.

  13. Distinctly different dynamics and kinetics of two steroid receptors at the same response elements in living cells.

    Hatice Z Nenseth

    Full Text Available Closely related transcription factors (TFs can bind to the same response elements (REs with similar affinities and activate transcription. However, it is unknown whether transcription is similarly orchestrated by different TFs bound at the same RE. Here we have compared the recovery half time (t1/2, binding site occupancy and the resulting temporal changes in transcription upon binding of two closely related steroid receptors, the androgen and glucocorticoid receptors (AR and GR, to their common hormone REs (HREs. We show that there are significant differences at all of these levels between AR and GR at the MMTV HRE when activated by their ligands. These data show that two TFs bound at the same RE can have significantly different modes of action that can affect their responses to environmental cues.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Battery Behavior with Different Modes of Discharge for Optimal Capacity Sizing and BMS Operation

    Mazhar Abbas; Eung-sang Kim; Seul-ki Kim; Yun-su Kim

    2016-01-01

    Battery-operated systems are always concerned about the proper management and sizing of a battery. A Traditional Battery Management System (BMS) only includes battery-aware task scheduling based on the discharge characteristics of a whole battery pack and do not take into account the mode of the load being served by the battery. On the other hand, an efficient and intelligent BMS should monitor the battery at a cell level and track the load with significant consideration of the load mode. Dep...

  15. Rapid and simultaneous determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and their main metabolites (hydroxylated and methyl sulfonyl) by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry: Comparison of different ionisation modes

    Castro-Puyana, M.; Herrero, L.; González, M.J.; Gómara, B.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Simultaneous determination of PCB, OH-PCBs and MeSO 2 -PCBs in a single GC–MS run. •Two different ionisation modes (EI and ECNI) are studied and compared. •The analytical characterisation of both methods is satisfactory. •Better LODs are achieved using ECNI-MS as ionisation mode. •The developed methodology is successfully applied to fish liver oil. -- Abstract: Instrumental methods based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) have been developed and compared using two different MS ionisation modes, electron impact (EI) and electron capture negative ionisation (ECNI), for the fast, quantitative and simultaneous determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their main metabolites (hydroxylated PCBs, OH-PCBs, and methyl sulfone PCBs, MeSO 2 -PCBs). Parameters affecting chromatographic separation and MS detection were evaluated in order to achieve the highest selectivity and sensitivity for both operation modes. The analytical characteristics of the developed methods were studied and compared in terms of linear range, limits of detection (LODs), limits of quantification (LOQs), and instrumental precision (repeatability and intermediate precision). Both ionisation methods showed similar precision, being relative standard deviations (RSD, %) lower than 9% and 14% for repeatability and intermediate precision, respectively. However, better LODs (from 0.01 to 0.14 pg injected for the three families of congeners studied) were achieved using ECNI-MS as ionisation mode. The suitability of the developed method was demonstrated through their application to fish liver oil samples

  16. Brain responses differ to faces of mothers and fathers.

    Arsalidou, Marie; Barbeau, Emmanuel J; Bayless, Sarah J; Taylor, Margot J

    2010-10-01

    We encounter many faces each day but relatively few are personally familiar. Once faces are familiar, they evoke semantic and social information known about the person. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate differential brain activity to familiar and non-familiar faces; however, brain responses related to personally familiar faces have been more rarely studied. We examined brain activity with fMRI in adults in response to faces of their mothers and fathers compared to faces of celebrities and strangers. Overall, faces of mothers elicited more activity in core and extended brain regions associated with face processing, compared to fathers, celebrity or stranger faces. Fathers' faces elicited activity in the caudate, a deep brain structure associated with feelings of love. These new findings of differential brain responses elicited by faces of mothers and fathers are consistent with psychological research on attachment, evident even during adulthood. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Local plant responses to global problems: Dactylis glomerata responses to different traffic pollutants on roadsides.

    Jiménez, M D; de Torre, R; Mola, I; Casado, M A; Balaguer, L

    2018-04-15

    The growing number of road vehicles is a major source of regional and global atmospheric pollution increasing concentrations of CO 2 in the air, and levels of metals in air and soil. Nevertheless, the effects of these pollutants on plants growing at roadsides are poorly documented. We carried out an observational study of unmanipulated plants growing by the road, to identify the morpho-physiological responses in a perennial grass Dactylis glomerata. Firstly, we wanted to know the general effect of traffic intensity and ambient CO 2 and its interactions on different plant traits. Accordingly, we analyzed the photosynthetic response by field A/Ci Response Curves, SLA, pigment pools, foliar nitrogen, carbohydrates and morphological traits in plants at three distances to the road. Secondly, we wanted to know if Dactylis glomerata plants can accumulate metals present on the roadside (Pb, Zn, Cu, and Sr) in their tissues and rhizosphere, and the effect of these metals on morphological traits. The MANCOVA whole model results shown: 1) a significant effect of road ambient CO 2 concentration on morphological traits (not affected by traffic intensity, P interaction CO2 x traffic intensity >0.05), that was mainly driven by a significant negative relationship between the inflorescence number and ambient CO 2 ; 2) a positive and significant relationship between ambient CO 2 and the starch content in leaves (unaffected by traffic intensity); 3) a reduction in J max (electron transport rate) at high traffic intensity. These lines of evidences suggest a decreased photosynthetic capacity due to high traffic intensity and high levels of ambient CO 2 . In addition, Pb, Cu, Zn and Sr were detected in Dactylis glomerata tissues, and Cu accumulated in roots. Finally, we observed that Dactylis glomerata individuals growing at the roadside under high levels of CO 2 and in the presence of metal pollutants, reduced their production of inflorescences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. Different elution modes and field programming in gravitational field-flow fractionation: Field programming using density and viscosity gradients

    Plocková, Jana; Chmelík, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 1118, č. 2 (2006), s. 253-260 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MZe QD1005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : gravitational field flow fractionation * focusing elution mode * carrier liquid density Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.554, year: 2006

  19. Different Modes of Digital Learning Object Use in School Settings: Do We Design for Individual or Collaborative Learning?

    Akpinar, Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this paper is to gain classroom based empirical evidence on the learning effectiveness of learning objects used in two types of study settings: Collaborative and individual. A total of 127 seventh and ninth grade students participated in the experiments. They were assigned into one of the study modes and worked…

  20. Sex differences in stress responses : Focus on ovarian hormones

    Ter Horst, Gert J.; Wichmann, Romy; Gerrits, Marjolein; Westenbroek, Christel; Lin, Yanhua

    2009-01-01

    Women in the reproductive age are more vulnerable to develop affective disorders than men. This difference may attribute to anatomical differences, hormonal influences and environmental factors such as stress. However, the higher prevalence in women normalizes once menopause is established,

  1. Interaction of tearing modes

    Satya, Y.; Schmidt, G.

    1979-01-01

    A fully developed tearing mode modifies the magnetic field profile. The effect of this profile modification on the linear growth rate of a different tearing mode in a slab and cylindrical geometry is investigated

  2. Sex Differences in Emotional Responses to "Erotic Literature"

    Herrell, James M.

    1975-01-01

    In this study females (N=32) and males (N=32) read two passages. One described a sexually exploitative experience for a young woman and the other described a sexually positive experience. Response by males and females varied considerably and depended on the interpersonal as well as the erotic content of the passages. (EJT)

  3. Different apoptotic responses to Plasmodium chabaudi malaria in ...

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... The purpose of this study is to determine whether the apoptotic responses to Plasmodium chabaudi malaria in spleen and liver via mRNA expression of three genes involved in apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2 and. Caspase-3) are similar or not and to detect if these genes could be a good marker for apoptosis due to.

  4. Effectiveness of Motor Skills Development in 5th-7th Grade Girls at Different Modes of Physical Exercises

    Olga Ivashchenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to determine the influence of the physical exercises modes on effectiveness of motor skills development in 5th-7th grade girls.  Materials and methods. The study involved 5th grade girls (n = 28, 6th grade girls (n = 28 and 7th grade girls (n = 24. To solve the tasks set, the study relied on general scientific and special research methods, methods of mathematical experiment-planning. Studying the influence of different variants of the educational process structure, namely: the number of repetitions (x1 and the rest intervals (x2 on acquisition of the technique of physical exercises performance, provided for achieving the objective. A full 22 type factorial experiment was conducted. The 5th-7th graders were divided into training groups according to the experiment plan. In total, there were twelve experimental groups organized, four in each class. Results. The analysis of the regression equations shows that the rest interval between repetitions (x2 has the greatest influence on teaching 5th-7th grade girls physical exercises, with the number of repetitions (x1 being of somewhat less significant influence. The relation between these factors (x1x2 has a considerable weight in teaching to “rope climb in two or three sets” and to do a “pullover mount with a swing of one and a push-off with the other leg”. Conclusions. To increase the effectiveness of teaching 5th-7th grade girls physical exercises, the number of repetitions in throwing exercises should be increased to twelve times, and the rest interval reduced to 60 seconds. In the 7th grade, the number of repetitions should be reduced to six times, and the rest interval – to 60 seconds. The rest intervals in the exercises: “pullover mount with a swing of one and a push-off with the other leg” and “rope climbing in two or three sets”, should be reduced to 60 seconds and the number of repetitions – to six.

  5. Different Response of Sap Flow at Different Measurement Depths after Thinning in a Japanese Cypress Plantation

    Chiu, C. W.; Gomi, T.; Onda, Y.; Kato, H.; Sakashita, W.; Sun, X.

    2017-12-01

    Thinning experiments in forests can alter light conditions and further affect growth rate and transpiration of the remained trees. Previous studies suggested transpiration was increased one year after thinning experiment due to improved canopy light condition. On the other hand, the anatomical and morphological responses to thinning are not react immediately because of the tree adaptation to the new surrounding conditions. It has been hypothesized that lower crown is connected to the inner part of sapwood and need more years to adapt new light conditions after thinning. However, our knowledge for the relationship between tree crown development and water movement inside the trunk after several years from thinning experiment was still limited due to lack of long-term field measurement after thinning. Therefore, in this study, we aim to examine the interannual variability of water movement inside the trunk accompanied the development of tree crown after thinning experiment. To do that, we applied sap flow measurement and terrestrial LiDAR survey from 2011 to 2017 in a Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) plantation in Japan, where 50% strip thinning experiment was conducted in the end of 2011. Consequently, we found sap flow densities at different measurement depths were not always increased year by year and those may relate to the crown development after thinning.

  6. Capital Flight: A Response to Differences in Financial Risks

    Michael P. Dooley

    1988-01-01

    Empirical tests incorporating measures of capital flight from developing countries that are substantially different from those used in existing studies suggest that capital flight can be explained by differences in risk perceived by residents and nonresidents in holding claims on residents of the countries studied. To the extent that capital flight reflects differences among holders in expected yields on claims on residents of capital-flight countries, it may not be related to conventional de...

  7. Different protein of Echinococcus granulosus stimulates dendritic induced immune response.

    Wang, Yana; Wang, Qiang; Lv, Shiyu; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2015-06-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a chronic infectious disease that results from a host/parasite interaction. Vaccination with ferritin derived from Echinococcus granulosus is a potential preventative treatment. To understand whether ferritin is capable of inducing a host immune response, we investigated the response of dendritic cells (DCs) to both recombinant ferritin protein and the hydatid fluid (HF) of E. granulosus. We evaluated the immunomodulatory potential of these antigens by performing, immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy and in vivo imaging of monocyte-derived murine DCs. During antigen stimulation of DCs, ferritin cause DCs maturation and induced higher levels of surface marker expression and activated T-cell proliferation and migration. On contrary, HF failed to induce surface marker expression and to stimulate T-cell proliferation. In response to HF, DCs produced interleukin-6 (IL-6), but no IL-12 and IL-10. DCs stimulated with ferritin produced high levels of cytokines. Overall, HF appears to induce host immunosuppression in order to ensure parasite survival via inhibits DC maturation and promotes Th2-dependent secretion of cytokines. Although ferritin also promoted DC maturation and cytokine release, it also activates CD4+T-cell proliferation, but regard of the mechanism of the Eg.ferritin induce host to eradicate E. granulosus were not clear.

  8. Individual differences in perception and response to experimental ...

    Background: Pain is a protective sensation that alerts an individual to injury from the environment. Experience of pain is characterised by robust individual differences and complex environmental ... Data were presented as mean ± SD. Differences and statistical significance between the means were determined using t test.

  9. Application of Different Heat Treatment to Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron and its Effect for Damping and Mode Shapes

    Dahil, Lutfiye; Karabulut, Abdurrahman

    2017-01-01

    In this study, damping and mode shapes were investigated after boriding and austempering the spheroidal graphite cast iron (SGCI). The samples were boronised and austempered at 900℃ for 2 hours by employing the pack cementation method. The samples were cooled and tempered in a salt bath at 250℃ and 375℃ for 1 hour. Once the boriding and austempering processes were completed, the samples were cooled at room temperature and washed with plenty of water. The modal frequencies, damping ratios and ...

  10. Variation in NAT2 acetylation phenotypes is associated with differences in food-producing subsistence modes and ecoregions in Africa

    Podgorná, Eliška; Diallo, I.; Vangenot, Ch.; Sanchez-Mazas, A.; Sabbagh, A.; Černý, Viktor; Poloni, E. S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 263 (2015) ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37998S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : NAT2 * acetylation polymorphism * African Sahel * pastoral nomads * subsistence mode * ecoregion * natural selection Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 3.406, year: 2015 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/15/263

  11. Seismic response of reinforced concrete frames at different damage levels

    Morales-González, Merangeli; Vidot-Vega, Aidcer L.

    2017-03-01

    Performance-based seismic engineering is focused on the definition of limit states to represent different levels of damage, which can be described by material strains, drifts, displacements or even changes in dissipating properties and stiffness of the structure. This study presents a research plan to evaluate the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) moment resistant frames at different performance levels established by the ASCE 41-06 seismic rehabilitation code. Sixteen RC plane moment frames with different span-to-depth ratios and three 3D RC frames were analyzed to evaluate their seismic behavior at different damage levels established by the ASCE 41-06. For each span-to-depth ratio, four different beam longitudinal reinforcement steel ratios were used that varied from 0.85 to 2.5% for the 2D frames. Nonlinear time history analyses of the frames were performed using scaled ground motions. The impact of different span-to-depth and reinforcement ratios on the damage levels was evaluated. Material strains, rotations and seismic hysteretic energy changes at different damage levels were studied.

  12. Designing questionnaires: healthcare survey to compare two different response scales

    2014-01-01

    Background A widely discussed design issue in patient satisfaction questionnaires is the optimal length and labelling of the answering scale. The aim of the present study was to compare intra-individually the answers on two response scales to five general questions evaluating patients’ perception of hospital care. Methods Between November 2011 and January 2012, all in-hospital patients at a Swiss University Hospital received a patient satisfaction questionnaire on an adjectival scale with three to four labelled categories (LS) and five redundant questions displayed on an 11-point end-anchored numeric scale (NS). The scales were compared concerning ceiling effect, internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha), individual item answers (Spearman’s rank correlation), and concerning overall satisfaction by calculating an overall percentage score (sum of all answers related to the maximum possible sum). Results The response rate was 41% (2957/7158), of which 2400 (81%) completely filled out all questions. Baseline characteristics of the responders and non-responders were similar. Floor and ceiling effect were high on both response scales, but more pronounced on the LS than on the NS. Cronbach’s alpha was higher on the NS than on the LS. There was a strong individual item correlation between both answering scales in questions regarding the intent to return, quality of treatment and the judgement whether the patient was treated with respect and dignity, but a lower correlation concerning satisfactory information transfer by physicians or nurses, where only three categories were available in the LS. The overall percentage score showed a comparable distribution, but with a wider spread of lower satisfaction in the NS. Conclusions Since the longer scale did not substantially reduce the ceiling effect, the type of questions rather than the type of answering scale could be addressed with a focus on specific questions about concrete situations instead of general questions

  13. Nutrient partitioning and response to insulin challenge at different ...

    Unknown

    concentrations were depressed to a smaller extent by insulin in the Saanen crossbred than ... of endogenous body reserves mediated by differences in insulin sensitivity. ..... Adaptations of glucose metabolism during pregnancy and lactation.

  14. Comparison of Shock Response Spectrum for Different Gun Tests

    J.A. Cordes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Soft Catch Gun at Picatinny Arsenal is regularly used for component testing. Most shots contain accelerometers which record accelerations as a function of time. Statistics of accelerometer data indicate that the muzzle exit accelerations are, on average, higher than tactical firings. For that reason, Soft Catch Gun tests with unusually high accelerations may not be scored for Lot Acceptance Tests (LAT by some customers. The 95/50 Normal Tolerance Limit (NTL is proposed as a means of determining which test results should be scored. This paper presents comparisons of Shock Response Spectra (SRS used for the 95/50 scoring criteria. The paper also provides a Discussion Section outlining some concerns with scoring LAT results based on test results outside of the proposed 95/50 criteria.

  15. Operating modes of superconducting tunnel junction device

    Maehata, Keisuke [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-07-01

    In the Electrotechnical Laboratory, an Nb type superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) device with 200 x 200 sq. micron in area and super high quality was manufactured. By using 55-fe source, response of this large area STJ to X-ray was measured. In this measurement, two action modes with different output wave height from front amplifier were observed. Then, in this study, current-voltage feature of the element in each action mode was analyzed to elucidate a mechanism to form such two action modes. The feature was analyzed by using first order approximate solution on cavity resonance mode of Sine-Gordon equation. From the analytical results, it could be supposed that direction and magnitude of effective magnetic field penetrating into jointed area changed by an induction current effect owing to impressing speed of the magnetic field, which brings two different current-voltage features to make possible to observe two action modes with different pulse wave height. (G.K.)

  16. Metabolic responses of Eucalyptus species to different temperature regimes

    Mokochinski, Joao Benhur; Mazzafera, Paulo; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Mumm, Roland; Vos, de Ric Cornelis Hendricus; Hall, Robert David

    2018-01-01

    Species and hybrids of Eucalyptus are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. They are cultivated across a wide range of latitudes and therefore environmental conditions. In this context, comprehensive metabolomics approaches have been used to assess how different temperature regimes may

  17. A Response to Rushton's "Race Differences in Behaviour."

    Mouat, Thomas W., IV

    1992-01-01

    Refutes Rushton's claims regarding heritable race differences in intelligence, criminal capacity, brain weight, and his racial ordering of human evolution. Cites major studies with opposite results. Analyses the causal chain governing explicit theory and unstated assumptions; documents inadequate, spurious, and misapplied data sources; and…

  18. Media Differences in Rational and Emotional Responses to Advertising.

    Chaudhuri, Arjun; Buck, Ross

    1995-01-01

    Develops and tests hypotheses concerning the relationship of different media to psychological outcomes; postulates that print media are related to analytic cognition (reason) and electronic media to syncretic cognition (emotion). Two hundred forty magazine and television advertisements are analyzed in terms of attributes and reactions they invoke.…

  19. Gender Differences in Restricting Work Efforts because of Family Responsibilities

    Maume, David J.

    2006-01-01

    In egalitarian families, we might expect that men and women similarly prioritize work and family obligations. Yet, prior research examining gender differences in work-family priorities often use measures that imperfectly reflect those priorities. Drawing two samples of full-time married workers from the 1992 National Study of the Changing…

  20. Nitrogen-removal performance and community structure of nitrifying bacteria under different aeration modes in an oxidation ditch.

    Guo, Chang-Zi; Fu, Wei; Chen, Xue-Mei; Peng, Dang-Cong; Jin, Peng-Kang

    2013-07-01

    Oxidation-ditch operation modes were simulated using sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with alternate stirring and aerating. The nitrogen-removal efficiencies and nitrifying characteristics of two aeration modes, point aeration and step aeration, were investigated. Under the same air-supply capacity, oxygen dissolved more efficiently in the system with point aeration, forming a larger aerobic zone. The nitrifying effects were similar in point aeration and step aeration, where the average removal efficiencies of NH4(+) N were 98% and 96%, respectively. When the proportion of anoxic and oxic zones was 1, the average removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN) were 45% and 66% under point aeration and step aeration, respectively. Step aeration was more beneficial to both anoxic denitrification and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). The maximum specific ammonia-uptake rates (AUR) of point aeration and step aeration were 4.7 and 4.9 mg NH4(+)/(gMLVSS h), respectively, while the maximum specific nitrite-uptake rates (NUR) of the two systems were 7.4 and 5.3 mg NO2(-)-N/(gMLVSS h), respectively. The proportions of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to all bacteria were 5.1% under point aeration and 7.0% under step aeration, and the proportions of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) reached 6.5% and 9.0% under point and step aeration, respectively. The dominant genera of AOB and NOB were Nitrosococcus and Nitrospira, which accounted for 90% and 91%, respectively, under point aeration, and the diversity of nitrifying bacteria was lower than under step aeration. Point aeration was selective of nitrifying bacteria. The abundance of NOB was greater than that of AOB in both of the operation modes, and complete transformation of NH4(+) N to NO3(-)-N was observed without NO2(-)-N accumulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Morphological responses of dissociated sponge cells to different organic substrata.

    Gaino, E; Magnino, G; Burlando, B; Sara', M

    1993-06-01

    To study interactions between sponge cells and components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), cells of the calcareous sponge Clathrina cerebrum were investigated in vitro by scanning electron microscopy. Cells were settled on glass coverslips, used as controls, and on coverslips coated with various ECM components (laminin, collagens and fibronectin), and with an adhesive substance (polylysine). Cells tended to conserve a rounded shape, producing thin, stiff processes (scleropodia) and lamellipodia, whose shape and extension varied according to the substrata. Spreading was observed only on polylysine, inducing cells to assume a fibroblast-like aspect. On laminin, cell adhesion was assured only by scleropodia. On fibronectin, scleropodia and lamellipodia were present, but reduced in size and length. On collagens, laminar processes occurred among prevailing scleropodia. Measurements of cell area and perimeter allowed statistical comparison of substrata, on the basis of their induction of cell flattening and protuberance formation. In summary, sponge cells were found to modulate their morphology in response to the external environment, expressing features for dynamic activities most fully in the presence of substances close to their natural ECM constituents. These results are discussed in the context of tissue rearrangement as a basic adaptation occurring throughout the life span of these organisms.

  2. Production of structured lipids by acidolysis of an EPA-enriched fish oil and caprylic acid in a packed bed reactor: analysis of three different operation modes.

    González Moreno, P A; Robles Medina, A; Camacho Rubio, F; Camacho Páez, B; Molina Grima, E

    2004-01-01

    Structured triacylglycerols (ST) enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in position 2 of the triacylglycerol (TAG) backbone were synthesized by acidolysis of a commercially available EPA-rich oil (EPAX4510, 40% EPA) and caprylic acid (CA), catalyzed by the 1,3-specific immobilized lipase Lipozyme IM. The reaction was carried out in a packed bed reactor (PBR) operating in two ways: (1) by recirculating the reaction mixture from the exit of the bed to the substrate reservoir (discontinuous mode) and (2) in continuous mode, directing the product mixture leaving the PBR to a product reservoir. By operating in these two ways and using a simple kinetic model, representative values for the apparent kinetic constants (kX) for each fatty acid (native, Li or odd, M) were obtained. The kinetic model assumes that the rate of incorporation of a fatty acid into TAG per amount of enzyme, rX (mole/(h g lipase)) is proportional to the extent of the deviation from the equilibrium for each fatty acid (i.e., the difference of concentration between the fatty acid in the triacylglycerol and the concentration of the same fatty acid in the triacylglycerol once the equilibrium of the acidolysis reaction is reached). The model allows comparing the two operating modes through the processing intensity, defined as mLt/(V[TG]0) and mL/(q[TG]0), for the discontinuous and continuous operation modes, respectively. In discontinuous mode, ST with 59.5% CA and 9.6% EPA were obtained. In contrast, a ST with 51% CA and 19.6% EPA were obtained when using the continuous operation mode. To enhance the CA incorporation when operating in continuous mode, a two-step acidolysis reaction was performed (third operation mode). This continuous two-step process yields a ST with a 64% CA and a 15% EPA. Finally, after purifying the above ST in a preparative silica gel column, impregnated with boric acid, a ST with 66.9% CA and 19.6% EPA was obtained. The analysis by reverse phase and Ag+ liquid chromatography of

  3. Mode of de-esterification of alkaline and acidic pectin methyl esterases at different pH conditions.

    Duvetter, Thomas; Fraeye, Ilse; Sila, Daniel N; Verlent, Isabel; Smout, Chantal; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2006-10-04

    Highly esterified citrus pectin was de-esterified at pH 4.5 and 8.0 by a fungal pectin methyl esterase (PME) that was shown to have an acidic isoelectric pH (pI) and an acidic pH optimum and by a plant PME that was characterized by an alkaline pI and an alkaline pH optimum. Interchain and intrachain de-esterification patterns were studied by digestion of the pectin products with endo-polygalacturonase and subsequent analysis using size exclusion and anion-exchange chromatography. No effect of pH was observed on the de-esterification mode of either of the two enzymes. Acidic, fungal PME converted pectin according to a multiple-chain mechanism, with a limited degree of multiple attack at the intrachain level, both at pH 4.5 and at pH 8.0. A multiple-attack mechanism, with a high degree of multiple attack, was more appropriate to describe the action mode of alkaline, plant PME, both at pH 4.5 and at pH 8.0.

  4. Time spent by Brazilian students in different modes of transport going to school: changes over a decade (2001-2011

    Kelly Samara Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To examine changes in the time spent in each mode of transportation used for going to school by gender and age among adolescents from Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Two school-based surveys were performed in 2001 (N = 5,028 and 2011 (N = 6,529 in high school students (15-19 years old. The mode of transportation (on foot; by bicycle; by bus; car/motorcycle and the time spent for commuting to school were assessed. Active commuting increased for short trips in both genders (male: 25.1% to 36.7%; female: 18.8% to 29.2% and in all ages (15-16 years: 21% to 32.7%; 17-19 years: 21.9% to 32.4%, and declined for longer trips in males (30.5% to 21.9% and in 15-16 years old students (25.7% to 34.7%. Car/motorcycle use has doubled for short trips in males (38.1% to 65.9% and in 17-19 years old students (37.7% to 62.7%, while the use of buses remained stable in both genders. Our findings contribute to discussions on public policy focusing on the design of safe environments to promote active commuting to schools, particularly to decrease the use of motorized transport for short trips.

  5. Impaired Memory Retrieval Correlates with Individual Differences in Cortisol Response but Not Autonomic Response

    Tranel, Daniel; Adolphs, Ralph; Buchanan, Tony W.

    2006-01-01

    Stress can enhance or impair memory performance. Both cortisol release and sympathetic nervous system responses have been implicated in these differential effects. Here we investigated how memory retrieval might be affected by stress-induced cortisol release, independently of sympathetic nervous system stress responses. Thirty-two healthy…

  6. Spontaneous bacteriocin resistance in Listeria monocytogenes as a susceptibility screen for identifying different mechanisms of resistance and modes of action by bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria.

    Macwana, Sunita; Muriana, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    A practical system was devised for grouping bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) based on mode of action as determined by changes in inhibitory activity to spontaneously-acquired bacteriocin resistance (Bac(R)). Wild type Listeria monocytogenes 39-2 was sensitive to five bacteriocins produced by 3 genera of LAB: pediocin PA-1 and pediocin Bac3 (Pediococcus), lacticin FS97 and lacticin FS56 (Lactococcus), and curvaticin FS47 (Lactobacillus). A spontaneous Bac(R) derivative of L. monocytogenes 39-2 obtained by selective recovery against lacticin FS56 provided complete resistance to the bacteriocin made by Lactococcus lactis FS56. The lacticin FS56-resistant strain of L. monocyotgenes 39-2 was also cross-resistant to curvaticin FS47 and pediocin PA-1, but not to lacticin FS97 or pediocin Bac3. The same pattern of cross-resistance was also observed with Bac(R) isolates obtained with L. monocytogenes Scott A-2. A spontaneous mutation that renders a strain cross-resistant to different bacteriocins indicates that they share a common mechanism of resistance due to similar modes of action of the bacteriocins. Spontaneous resistance was acquired to other bacteriocins (in aggregate) by following the same procedure against which the Bac(R) strain was still sensitive. In subsequent challenge assays, mixtures of bacteriocins of different modes of action provided greater inhibition than mixtures of bacteriocins of the same mode of action (as determined by our screening method). This study identifies a methodical approach to classify bacteriocins into functional groups based on mechanism of resistance (i.e., mode of action) that could be used for identifying the best mixture of bacteriocins for use as biopreservatives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effectiveness of a Mixed-Mode Survey on Domestic Violence in Curaçao: Response and Data Quality

    van Wijk, Nikil; de Leeuw, Edith; de Bruijn, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    To collect reliable statistical data on domestic violence in Curaçao, we conducted a large-scale quantitative study (n = 816). To meet with the special needs of the population and topic, we designed a tailored mixed-mode survey to assess the prevalence of domestic violence in Curaçao and its health consequences. Great care was taken to reduce…

  8. Severe hypertriglyceridemia in Japan: Differences in causes and therapeutic responses.

    Murase, Toshio; Okubo, Minoru; Ebara, Tetsu; Mori, Yasumichi

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia (>1000 mg/dL) has a variety of causes and frequently leads to life-threating acute pancreatitis. However, the origins of this disorder are unclear for many patients. We aimed to characterize the causes of and responses to therapy in rare cases of severe hypertriglyceridemia in a group of Japanese patients. We enrolled 121 patients from a series of case studies that spanned 30 years. Subjects were divided into 3 groups: (1) primary (genetic causes); (2) secondary (acquired); and (3) disorders of uncertain causes. In the last group, we focused on 3 possible risks factors for hypertriglyceridemia: obesity, diabetes mellitus, and heavy alcohol intake. Group A (n = 20) included 13 patients with familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency, 3 patients with apolipoprotein CII deficiency, and other genetic disorders in the rest of the group. Group B patients (n = 15) had various metabolic and endocrine diseases. In Group C (uncertain causes; n = 86), there was conspicuous gender imbalance (79 males, 3 females) and most male subjects were heavy alcohol drinkers. In addition, 18 of 105 adult patients (17%) had histories of acute pancreatitis. The cause of severe hypertriglyceridemia is uncertain in many patients. In primary genetic forms of severe hypertriglyceridemia, genetic diversity between populations is unknown. In the acquired forms, we found fewer cases of estrogen-induced hypertriglyceridemia than in Western countries. In our clinical experience, the cause of most hypertriglyceridemia is uncertain. Our work suggests that genetic factors for plasma triglyceride sensitivity to alcohol should be explored. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain development in mice after prenatal irradiation: Modes of effect manifestation; dose-response-relationships and the RBE of neutrons

    Konermann, G.

    1986-01-01

    Postnatal effect manifestation in the CNS after exposures during advanced prenatal stages of development is due to both the prolonged period of neurogenesis and its complexity. Apart from acute proliferative effects, examples of two types of long-term effects in the brains of prenatally exposed mice are represented. Namely, persistent structural damage, and, fluctuating responses during the histochemical and biochemical brain maturation. Structural effects following X-ray exposure are quantified on the basis of data for diameter diminution of the cortical plate, corpus callosum and fimbria hippocampi. The studies include computerized micro-videoanalysis of neuronal branching defects. Continuous extension of exposure levels to doses as low as 0.05 Gy give evidence for the existence of thresholds for these types of structural damage in the vicinity of exposures to 0.1 Gy. The effects following X-ray exposures are partly compared with corresponding effects after neutron exposures. Our studies on postnatal maturation disturbances include proliferative responses, myelin formation, as well as the determination of different biochemical parameters (ATP, myelin-proteins, Na + /K + -balance). From our experimental findings we are able to stress the special significance of neurogenetical long-term effects for risk estimates in man. (orig.)

  10. Radiological responses of different types of Egyptian Mediterranean coastal sediments

    El-Gamal, A., E-mail: ayman_elgamal@yahoo.co [Department of Oceanography, Coastal Research Institute, National Water Research Center, 15 Elpharaana St., Elshallalat, Postal code 21514, Alexandria (Egypt); Rashad, M. [Land and Water Technologies Department, Arid Land Cultivation and Development Research Institute, Mubarak City for Scientific Research, Burg El-Arab, Alexandria (Egypt); Ghatass, Z. [Department of Environmental Studies, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2010-08-15

    The aim of this study was to identify gamma self-absorption correction factors for different types of Egyptian Mediterranean coastal sediments. Self-absorption corrections based on direct transmission through different thicknesses of the most dominant sediment species have been tested against point sources with gamma-ray energies of {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co with 2% uncertainties. Black sand samples from the Rashid branch of the Nile River quantitatively absorbed the low energy of {sup 241}Am through a thickness of 5 cm. In decreasing order of gamma energy self-absorption of {sup 241}Am, the samples under investigation ranked black sand, Matrouh sand, Sidi Gaber sand, shells, Salloum sand, and clay. Empirical self-absorption correction formulas were also deduced. Chemical analyses such as pH, CaCO{sub 3}, total dissolved solids, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and total Fe{sup 2+} have been carried out for the sediments. The relationships between self absorption corrections and the other chemical parameters of the sediments were also examined.

  11. Radiological responses of different types of Egyptian Mediterranean coastal sediments

    El-Gamal, A.; Rashad, M.; Ghatass, Z.

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify gamma self-absorption correction factors for different types of Egyptian Mediterranean coastal sediments. Self-absorption corrections based on direct transmission through different thicknesses of the most dominant sediment species have been tested against point sources with gamma-ray energies of 241Am, 137Cs and 60Co with 2% uncertainties. Black sand samples from the Rashid branch of the Nile River quantitatively absorbed the low energy of 241Am through a thickness of 5 cm. In decreasing order of gamma energy self-absorption of 241Am, the samples under investigation ranked black sand, Matrouh sand, Sidi Gaber sand, shells, Salloum sand, and clay. Empirical self-absorption correction formulas were also deduced. Chemical analyses such as pH, CaCO 3, total dissolved solids, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, CO 32-, HCO 3- and total Fe 2+ have been carried out for the sediments. The relationships between self absorption corrections and the other chemical parameters of the sediments were also examined.

  12. Response of cactus pear genotypes to different crop densities

    Lucas Aroaldo Dantas Cavalcante

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of cactus pear as an alimentary alternative for the herd of cattle of the Brazilian semiarid region and the effect of crop spacing among plants, this study aimed to evaluate the morphometry, yield and chemical-bromatological composition of cactus pear genotypes, under different cropping densities. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, in a 3x4 factorial scheme. Treatments consisted of a combination of three cactus pear genotypes (Gigante, Redonda and Miúda and four cropping densities (10,000 plants ha-1; 20,000 plants ha-1; 40,000 plants ha-1; and 80,000 plants ha-1, with three replications. The cactus pear genotypes reacted differently, regarding morphometry, yield and chemical-bromatological composition, and, regardless of the species, the denser planting increased yield (tons ha-1. The Miúda palm presented the highest dry matter yield and consequently the greater accumulation of total digestible nutrients, raw protein and water per hectare, as well as the highest in vitro dry matter digestibility.

  13. Response of floodplain sedimentation to catchment disturbances in different environments

    Notebaert, B.; Houbrechts, G.; Verstraeten, G.; Petit, F.

    2009-04-01

    Holocene floodplain sediments are an important environmental archive, that can be accesed for reconstructing the past landscape dynamics either qualitatively (e.g. palynology) and quantitatively (e.g. sediment budgeting). In this study Holocene alluvial sediment deposition in two contrasting Belgian catchments was quantified and dated: the Lienne (148 km2) in the Ardennes massif and the Dijle (750 km2) in the loess region. These catchments experienced a comparable Holocene climatic variation, but differ in topography and geology with highest relief energy in the Lienne catchment. Land use history also differs with high land use intensities in the Dijle catchment since Roman times, but at least since the Middle Ages there were also large deforestations in the Lienne catchment. Detailed cumulative Holocene sediment deposition was assessed for each catchment using more then 1000 hand augerings. Detailed radiocarbon dating of fluvial deposits was performed in the Dijle catchment, while iron slag was used as a tracer for sediments deposited after 1350 AD in the Lienne catchment. Results show that sediment deposition is much larger in the Dijle catchment (~4.5 Mg ha-1 catchment area) then in the Lienne catchment (~0.2 Mg ha-1 catchment area). Dating results from the Dijle catchment show an increase of sediment deposition in the late Holocene, first starting in the colluvial valleys and later on prograding towards the main valleys. Variations in sedimentation rates can clearly be related to anthropogenous land use pressure, and the majority of the sediments found in colluvial and alluvial valleys were deposited in the last 4000 years, and in many cases even in the last 1000 years. Variations in sediment deposition within the catchment can partially be explained by differences in river valley physical settings (mainly valley slope), while in other cases hill slope sediment delivery (upstream erosion, connectivity between hill slopes and the river system) is the explaining

  14. Personal exposure to particulate matter in commuters using different transport modes (bus, bicycle, car and subway) in an assigned route in downtown Santiago, Chile.

    Suárez, Liliana; Mesías, Stephanie; Iglesias, Verónica; Silva, Claudio; Cáceres, Dante D; Ruiz-Rudolph, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare personal exposure to particulate matter (fine and ultrafine particles) in commuters using different transport modes (bicycle, bus, car and subway) in a busy, assigned route in downtown Santiago, Chile. Volunteers carrying personal samplers completed scheduled commutes during the morning rush hours, while central site measurements were conducted in parallel. A total of 137 valid commutes were assessed. The impact of central site, traffic and other variables was explored with regression models. PM2.5 personal concentrations were equal to or slightly above central site measurements, while UFP personal concentrations were above them. Regression models showed impacts of both background levels and traffic emissions on personal PM2.5 and UFP exposure. Traffic impacts varied with transport modes. Estimates of traffic impacts on personal PM2.5 exposure were 2.0, 13.0, 16.9 and 17.5 μg m(-3), for car, bicycle, subway and bus, respectively; while for UFP exposure were 8400, 16 200, 25 600 and 30 100 counts per cm(3), for subway, car, bicycle and bus, respectively. After controlling the central site and transport mode, higher temperatures increased PM2.5 exposure and decreased UFP ones, while the wind direction affected UFP personal exposure. In conclusion, we found significant impacts of both central site background measurements and traffic emissions on personal exposure of volunteer commuters in an assigned route in Santiago, with impacts varying with transport modes.

  15. Multiattribute Response of Maize Genotypes Tested in Different Coastal Regions of Brazil

    Lúcio Borges de Araújo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work applies the three mode principal components analysis to analyze simultaneously the multiple attributes; to fit of models with additive main effects and multiplicative interaction effects (AMMI models and the regressions models on sites (SREG models; to evaluate, respectively, the multivariate response of the genotype × environment interaction and the mean response of 36 genotypes of corn tested in 4 locations in Brazil. The results were presented by joint plots to identify the best genotypes for their adaptability and performance in the set of attributes.

  16. Evaluation of cell responses toward adhesives with different photoinitiating systems.

    Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Krifka, Stephanie; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Bolay, Carola; Waha, Claudia; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Schmalz, Gottfried; Schweikl, Helmut

    2015-08-01

    The photoinitiator diphenyl-(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide (TPO) is more reactive than a camphorquinone/amine (CQ) system, and TPO-based adhesives obtained a higher degree of conversion (DC) with fewer leached monomers. The hypothesis tested here is that a TPO-based adhesive is less toxic than a CQ-based adhesive. A CQ-based adhesive (SBU-CQ) (Scotchbond Universal, 3M ESPE) and its experimental counterpart with TPO (SBU-TPO) were tested for cytotoxicity in human pulp-derived cells (tHPC). Oxidative stress was analyzed by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by the expression of antioxidant enzymes. A dentin barrier test (DBT) was used to evaluate cell viability in simulated clinical circumstances. Unpolymerized SBU-TPO was significantly more toxic than SBU-CQ after a 24h exposure, and TPO alone (EC50=0.06mM) was more cytotoxic than CQ (EC50=0.88mM), EDMAB (EC50=0.68mM) or CQ/EDMAB (EC50=0.50mM). Cultures preincubated with BSO (l-buthionine sulfoximine), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, indicated a minor role of glutathione in cytotoxic responses toward the adhesives. Although the generation of ROS was not detected, a differential expression of enzymatic antioxidants revealed that cells exposed to unpolymerized SBU-TPO or SBU-CQ are subject to oxidative stress. Polymerized SBU-TPO was more cytotoxic than SBU-CQ under specific experimental conditions only, but no cytotoxicity was detected in a DBT with a 200μm dentin barrier. Not only DC and monomer-release determine the biocompatibility of adhesives, but also the cytotoxicity of the (photo-)initiator should be taken into account. Addition of TPO rendered a universal adhesive more toxic compared to CQ; however, this effect could be annulled by a thin dentin barrier. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Seasonal differences in human responses to increasing temperatures

    Kitazawa, Sachie; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Wargocki, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    to be sleepier. Heart rate slightly increased during exposure, and SpO2 and ETCO2 began to decrease while core temperature started to increase. Performance of Tsai-partington test and addition test improved during exposures due to learning though lesser in winter. Results show negative effects of the temperature......Experiments were conducted in late summer and winter with 80 young and elderly Danish subjects exposed for 3.5 hours in a climate chamber to the temperature increasing from 24°C to 35.2°C at a rate of 3.7K/h. Psychological and physiological measurements were performed during exposure and subjects...... assessed comfort and acute health symptoms. Thermal sensation increased with increasing chamber temperature and did not differ during late summer and winter exposures. Skin temperature increased with increasing temperature and was slightly but significantly higher in the late summer in the first half...

  18. Response Scales in Voting Advice Applications : Do Different Designs Produce Different Outcomes?

    Rosema, M.; Louwerse, T.

    2016-01-01

    Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) represent popular election campaign tools in many countries, enabling voters to discover which party or candidate provides the best match with their political preferences. This article examines the effects of design choices on these tools by focusing on the response

  19. Response Scales in Voting Advice Applications: Do Different Designs Produce Different Outcomes?

    Rosema, Martin; Louwerse, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) represent popular election campaign tools in many countries, enabling voters to discover which party or candidate provides the best match with their political preferences. This article examines the effects of design choices on these tools by focusing on the response

  20. Personality, emotion, and individual differences in physiological responses.

    Stemmler, Gerhard; Wacker, Jan

    2010-07-01

    A dominant paradigm in biopsychological personality research seeks to establish links between emotional and motivational traits and habitual, transsituationally consistent individual differences in measures of physiological activity. An alternative approach conceptualizes traits as dispositions that are only operative in certain situational contexts and consequently predicts associations between emotional and motivational traits and physiological activity only for trait-relevant situational contexts in which the physiological systems underlying the traits in question are engaged. In the present paper we first examine and contrast these personistic and interactionistic conceptualizations of personality and personality-physiology associations and then present data from several large studies (N>100) in which electrocortical (e.g., frontal alpha asymmetry) and somatovisceral parameters were measured in various situational contexts (e.g., after the induction of either anger, or fear, or anxiety). As predicted by the interactionistic conceptualization of traits as dispositions the situational context and its subjective representation by the participants moderated the personality-physiology relationships for measures of both central and peripheral nervous system activity. We conclude by outlining the implications of the interactionistic approach for biopsychological personality research. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Response of Subalpine Saplings to Different Drought Stress

    Adriana V. Ivanova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The expectations for increasing periods of drought are becoming larger according to numerous authors. The susceptibility of subalpine tree species to drought provoke our interest to try to understand what will be their reaction to this natural climate change. For this purpose it is set experiment to determine the reaction of drought to 4 subalpine species – Norway spruce (Picea abies L., Mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra, Macedonian pine (Pinus peuce Grisebach and Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii H . Christ. Different requirements are observed to imitate field conditions as close as possible. The saplings are taken from terrain with no disturbed soil substrate. The plants were placed in a 15 l container and at the beginning of the vegetation were situated in a specially built greenhouse. Precipitation regime is controlled by the irrigation system. The indicators for precipitation levels (for a drought from June to July and August scheme were taken from the two previous real years, who had a significant influence on the species. Precipitation norm for control is taken from subalpine zone of the Rila Mountain. To determine the reaction of all the groups of saplings subjected to various circuits, at the end of the year is recorded the survivors.

  2. Osteoblast response to zirconia surfaces with different topographies

    Herath, H.M.T.U. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Di Silvio, L. [Guy' s, King' s and St Thomas' Medical and Dental Institute, King' s College London, London SE1 9RT (United Kingdom); Evans, J.R.G., E-mail: j.r.g.evans@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-01

    Zirconia-3 mol% yttria ceramics were prepared with as-sintered, abraded, polished, and porous surfaces in order to explore the attachment, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells. After modification, all surfaces were heated to 600 °C to extinguish traces of organic contamination. All surfaces supported cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation but the surfaces with grain boundary grooves or abraded grooves provided conditions for enhanced initial cell attachment. Nevertheless, overall cell proliferation and total DNA were highest on the polished surface. Zirconia sintered at a lower temperature (1300 °C vs. 1450 °C) had open porosity and presented reduced proliferation as assessed by alamarBlue™ assay, possibly because the openness of the pores prevented cells developing a local microenvironment. All cells retained the typical polygonal morphology of osteoblast-like cells with variations attributable to the underlying surface notably alignment along the grooves of the abraded surface. - Highlights: • Biocompatibility of chemically identical, topologically different ZrO{sub 2} was tested. • ZrO{sub 2} promoted cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and nodule formation. • Proliferation was high on polished ZrO{sub 2} but initial recruitment was high on abraded ZrO{sub 2}. • With open porosity, proliferation was low; cells cannot establish a microenvironment.

  3. Socio-demographic, personal, environmental and behavioral correlates of different modes of transportation to work among Norwegian parents.

    Bjørkelund, Oline Anita; Degerud, Hanna; Bere, Elling

    2016-01-01

    Cycling and brisk-walking to work represents an opportunity to incorporate sustainable transport related moderate- to- vigorous physical activity (MVPA) into daily routine among adults, and thus, may make an important contributing to health. Despite the fact that walking and cycling is an option for many commuters and also brings a number of benefits, a considerable proportion of commuters choose to use other means of transport when cycling and walking would be a highly appropriate transport mode. The object of this study was to assess the associations between modes of commuting to the workplace among parental adults; taking socio-demographic, personal, environmental and behavioral factors into account. Data from a cross- sectional questionnaire were collected from a sample of 709 parents (23 % men and 77 % women) of children aged 10-12 years-old in two Norwegian counties, Hedmark and Telemark. Commuting behavior, socio- demographic determinants, personal and environmental factors were ascertained using questionnaire data from the Fruit and Vegetables Makes the Marks project (FVMM). Multivariate logistic regressions were applied. In total, 70 % of adults were categorized as car commuters to and from work, 12 % was categorized as a cyclist and 7 % as a walker. The multivariate analyses showed that active commuters were more likely to have a shorter distance to work and perceived the traffic as more safe. Moreover, those who actively commute to the workplace considered commuting as a way to obtain health benefits and a way to reduce CO 2 emissions. Active commuters also considered weather to be an obstacle to active commuting. In this cross-sectional study of parents living in sub-urban Norway, we found that active commuting to and from the workplace were associated with a shorter distance to work, traffic safety, environmental concern, health benefits and weather condition. In light of these findings, cycling to work seems to be the most appropriate target for

  4. What is the best way to fix a polyurethane meniscal scaffold? A biomechanical evaluation of different fixation modes.

    Hardeman, Francois; Corten, Kristoff; Mylle, Michiel; Van Herck, Bert; Verdonk, René; Verdonk, Peter; Bellemans, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Ingrowth of meniscal tissue into a meniscal scaffold can be optimized by securely fixing the scaffold into the meniscal remnants. The purpose of this research was to test and compare commonly used suture types and suture materials to fix a meniscal scaffold. Forty fresh porcine menisci were used. All tests used the same polyurethane-based scaffold. The load to failure of horizontal, vertical and diagonal sutures with PDS 0 and with Ethibond 0, and diagonal sutures with Ultra Fast-Fix(®) and Sequent(®) to fix a meniscal scaffold were tested. Five tests were conducted for each configuration. All constructs failed in the scaffold at a mean pullout force of 50.6 N (SD 12.7). Inferior results were noted for vertical sutures (40.1 N, SD 6.3) compared to horizontal (49.8 N, SD 5.5, p = 0.0007) and diagonal (51.7 N, SD 15.6, p = 0.024) sutures and for Ethibond 0 (41.4 N, SD 6.2) compared to PDS 0 (51.3 N, SD 12.9, p = 0.001). When comparing the diagonal suture placements, only Ethibond 0 (42.9 N, SD 5.4) showed significantly inferior results compared to PDS 0 (60.1 N, SD 16.9, p = 0.03), Ultra Fast-Fix(®) (60.1 N, SD 9.3, p = 0.004) and Sequent(®) (65.8 N, SD 4.4, p < 0.0001). The most common failure mode when fixing a polyurethane-based meniscal scaffold is suture pull-through of the scaffold in the distraction mode. This happens at a rather low pullout force and might preclude the use of this scaffold clinically. Vertical sutures and Ethibond 0 multifilament braided sutures fail at lower forces, and the tested commercial devices show promising results.

  5. Study of impurity transport in HL-2A ECRH L-mode plasmas with radially different ECRH power depositions

    Cui, Z. Y.; Zhang, K.; Morita, S.; Ji, X. Q.; Ding, X. T.; Xu, Y.; Sun, P.; Gao, J. M.; Dong, C. F.; Zheng, D. L.; Li, Y. G.; Jiang, M.; Li, D.; Zhong, W. L.; Liu, Yi; Dong, Y. B.; Song, S. D.; Yu, L. M.; Shi, Z. B.; Fu, B. Z.; Lu, P.; Huang, M.; Yuan, B. S.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.

    2018-05-01

    In HL-2A, an inverse sawtooth oscillation is observed with a long-lasting m/n  =  1/1 mode during ECRH phase with power deposition inside sawtooth inversion radius (inner-deposited ECRH), while a normal sawtooth instead appears when the ECRH power is deposited outside sawtooth inversion radius (outer-deposited ECRH). Aluminum is then injected as a trace impurity with laser blow-off (LBO) method into the inner- and outer-deposited ECRH phases of HL-2A discharges to investigate the effect of ECRH on impurity transport. Temporal behavior of soft x-ray (SXR) array signals is analyzed with a 1D impurity transport code, and radial structures of impurity transport coefficients are obtained. The result shows that the radial transport of Al ions is strongly enhanced during the inner-deposited ECRH phase. In particular, an outward convection velocity is developed with positive values of 0  ⩽  V(ρ)  ⩽  3.8 m s-1 in ρ  ⩽  0.5, while the convection velocity is inward in ρ  ⩾  0.6. In the outer-deposited ECRH discharge, on the other hand, the convection velocity takes a big negative value in ρ  ⩽  0.4 and close to zero at ρ ~ 0.6. In ohmic discharges, an inward V(ρ) always appears in the whole plasma radii and gradually increases toward the plasma edge (-3.2 m s-1 at ρ  =  1). The simulation result also indicates that centrally-peaked Al ion density profiles presented in the outer-deposited ECRH discharge can be flattened by the inner-deposited ECRH. Modification of impurity transport is discussed in the presence of long-lasting m/n  =  1/1 MHD mode.

  6. Responses to stress of Caenorhabditis elegans populations with different reproductive strategies

    Alda Alvarez, O.; Jager, T.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Hermaphroditic and gonochoric reproduction are essentially different reproductive strategies that may lead to diverging population responses to adverse environmental conditions. Each strategy implies different physiological mechanisms, which affect life-history traits and represent different ways of

  7. Responses to stress of Caenorhabditis elegans populations with different reproductive strategies.

    Alda Alvarez, O.; Jager, D.T.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    1. Hermaphroditic and gonochoric reproduction are essentially different reproductive strategies that may lead to diverging population responses to adverse environmental conditions. Each strategy implies different physiological mechanisms, which affect life-history traits and represent different ways

  8. The effect of health, socio-economic position, and mode of data collection on non-response in health interview surveys

    Ekholm, Ola; Gundgaard, Jens; Rasmussen, Niels K R

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the relationship between potential explanatory factors (socio-economic factors and health) and non-response in two general population health interview surveys (face-to-face and telephone), and to compare the effects of the two interview modes on non-response patterns. METHODS...... in health interview surveys, but the non-response rate is higher in lower socio-economic groups. Analyses of non-response should be performed to understand the implications of survey findings.......: Data derives from The Danish Health Interview Survey 2000 (face-to-face interview) and The Funen County Health Survey 2000/2001 (telephone interview). Data on all invited individuals were obtained from administrative registers and linked to survey data at individual level. Multiple logistic regression...

  9. Use of electroencephalography (EEG) to assess CNS changes produced by pesticides with different modes of action: Effects of permethrin, deltamethrin, fipronil, imidacloprid, carbaryl, and triadimefon

    Freeborn, Danielle L.; McDaniel, Katherine L.; Moser, Virginia C.; Herr, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an apical measure, capable of detecting changes in brain neuronal activity produced by internal or external stimuli. We assessed whether pesticides with different modes of action produced different changes in the EEG of adult male Long–Evans rats. The EEG was recorded using two montages (visual cortex referenced to the cerebellum and to the frontal cortex) in unrestrained rats at the time of peak behavioral effects. Pesticides included: permethrin and deltamethrin (Type I and Type II pyrethroids; 2 h), fipronil (single and repeated doses; phenylpyrazole; 6 h), imidacloprid (neonicotinoid; 2 h), carbaryl (carbamate; 0.5 h), and triadimefon (triazole; 1 h), using dosages that produced approximately an ED 30 or an ED 50 –ED 80 change in motor activity. Permethrin (43, 100 mg/kg) increased amplitudes or areas (delta, alpha, or gamma bands) in the EEG. Deltamethrin (2.5, 5.5 mg/kg) reduced the amplitudes or areas of the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands, but the changes were not dose-related. A single treatment with fipronil (25, 50 mg/kg, but not 5, 10 mg/kg) decreased gamma band area. Additional changes in the delta, theta, and gamma bands were observed when fipronil (5, 10 mg/kg) was administered for 14 days. Imidacloprid (50, 100 mg/kg) did not alter the EEG. Carbaryl (10, 50 mg/kg) decreased theta area, and decreased delta and increased beta frequency. Triadimefon (75, 150 mg/kg) produced minimal changes in the EEG. The results show that the EEG is affected differently by approximately equipotent doses of pesticides with different modes of action. - Highlights: • Pesticides with different modes of action have different effects on in vivo rodent EEG. • The EEG was also changed differently after single vs. repeated treatment with fipronil. • The data suggest that EEG may be used as an apical measure for detecting chemical effects on the central nervous system

  10. Cost Analysis of Cervical Cancer Patients with Different Medical Payment Modes Based on Gamma Model within a Grade A Tertiary Hospital.

    Wu, Suo-Wei; Chen, Tong; Pan, Qi; Wei, Liang-Yu; Wang, Qin; Song, Jing-Chen; Li, Chao; Luo, Ji

    2018-02-20

    Cervical cancer shows a growing incidence and medical cost in recent years that has increased severe financial pressure on patients and medical insurance institutions. This study aimed to investigate the medical economic characteristics of cervical cancer patients with different payment modes within a Grade A tertiary hospital to provide evidence and suggestions for inpatient cost control and to verify the application of Gamma model in medical cost analysis. The basic and cost information of cervical cancer cases within a Grade A tertiary hospital in the year 2011-2016 were collected. The Gamma model was adopted to analyze the differences in each cost item between medical insured patient and uninsured patients. Meanwhile, the marginal means of different cost items were calculated to estimate the influence of payment modes toward different medical cost items among cervical cancer patients in the study. A total of 1321 inpatients with cervical cancer between the 2011 and 2016 were collected through the medical records system. Of the 1321 cases, 65.9% accounted for medical insured patients and 34.1% were uninsured patients. The total inpatient medical expenditure of insured patients was RMB 29,509.1 Yuan and uninsured patients was RMB 22,114.3 Yuan, respectively. Payment modes, therapeutic options as well as the recurrence and metastasis of tumor toward the inpatient medical expenditures between the two groups were statistically significant. To the specifics, drug costs accounted for 37.7% and 33.8% of the total, surgery costs accounted for 21.5% and 25.5%, treatment costs accounted for 18.7% and 16.4%, whereas the costs of imaging and laboratory examinations accounted for 16.4% and 15.2% for the insured patient and uninsured patients, respectively. As the effects of covariates were controlled, the total hospitalization costs, drug costs, treatment costs as well as imaging and laboratory examination costs showed statistical significance. The total hospitalization

  11. Socio-demographic, personal, environmental and behavioral correlates of different modes of transportation to work among Norwegian parents

    Oline Anita Bjørkelund

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cycling and brisk-walking to work represents an opportunity to incorporate sustainable transport related moderate- to- vigorous physical activity (MVPA into daily routine among adults, and thus, may make an important contributing to health. Despite the fact that walking and cycling is an option for many commuters and also brings a number of benefits, a considerable proportion of commuters choose to use other means of transport when cycling and walking would be a highly appropriate transport mode. The object of this study was to assess the associations between modes of commuting to the workplace among parental adults; taking socio-demographic, personal, environmental and behavioral factors into account. Methods Data from a cross- sectional questionnaire were collected from a sample of 709 parents (23 % men and 77 % women of children aged 10–12 years-old in two Norwegian counties, Hedmark and Telemark. Commuting behavior, socio- demographic determinants, personal and environmental factors were ascertained using questionnaire data from the Fruit and Vegetables Makes the Marks project (FVMM. Multivariate logistic regressions were applied. Results In total, 70 % of adults were categorized as car commuters to and from work, 12 % was categorized as a cyclist and 7 % as a walker. The multivariate analyses showed that active commuters were more likely to have a shorter distance to work and perceived the traffic as more safe. Moreover, those who actively commute to the workplace considered commuting as a way to obtain health benefits and a way to reduce CO2 emissions. Active commuters also considered weather to be an obstacle to active commuting. Conclusion In this cross-sectional study of parents living in sub-urban Norway, we found that active commuting to and from the workplace were associated with a shorter distance to work, traffic safety, environmental concern, health benefits and weather condition. In light of these

  12. MODELING OF THREE-PHASE THREE LEG TRANSFORMER DEVICES FOR ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS OF ASYMMETRICAL MODES FOR DIFFERENT SCHEMES OF WINDING CONNECTIONS

    Bosneaga V.A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The model is proposed for the calculation and research of steady state asymmetric modes and transients in three-phase three legs transformer devices with arbitrary diagram of windings connection, taking into account the electromagnetic coupling of the windings, located on different legs. Using as an example distribution transformer of 10/0.4 kV calculations and analysis were performed of the most characteristic steady asymmetrical modes, that occur during short circuit, phase failure, unbalanced load for the most common windings connections and, in particular, associated with the occurrence of zero sequence magnetic flow. For the considered regimes and schemes vector diagrams were constructed for currents and voltages as well as for the relative values of magnetic flow, which give a clear idea about their particular features.

  13. Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought

    Pervez, M. S.; Henebry, G. M.

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the spatial and temporal responses of precipitation in the basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean (IO) dipole modes using observed precipitation records at 43 stations across the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins from 1982 to 2010. Daily observed precipitation records were extracted from Global Surface Summary of the Day dataset and spatial and monthly anomalies were computed. The anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by climate modes combinations. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduced (60% and 88% of baseline in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, respectively) precipitation during the monsoon months in the northwestern and central Ganges basin and across the Brahmaputra basin. In contrast, co-occurrence of La Niña and a positive IO dipole mode significantly enhanced (135% and 160% of baseline, respectively) precipitation across both basins. During the co-occurrence of neutral phases in both climate modes (occurring 13 out of 28 yr), precipitation remained below average to average in the agriculturally extensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, eastern Nepal, and the Rajshahi district in Bangladesh in the Ganges basin and northern Bangladesh, Meghalaya, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh in the Brahmaputra basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely in these areas with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Major flooding and drought occurred as a consequence of the interactive effects of the ENSO and IO dipole modes, with the sole exception of extreme precipitation and flooding during El Niño events. This observational analysis will facilitate well informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under changing climate.

  14. Pyroelectric response mechanism of barium strontium titanate ceramics in dielectric bolometer mode: The underlying essence of the enhancing effect of direct current bias field

    Mao, Chaoliang; Cao, Sheng; Yan, Shiguang; Yao, Chunhua; Cao, Fei; Wang, Genshui; Dong, Xianlin; Hu, Xu; Yang, Chunli

    2013-01-01

    Pyroelectric response mechanism of Ba 0.70 Sr 0.30 TiO 3 ceramics under dielectric bolometer (DB) mode was investigated by dielectric and pyroelectric properties measurement. The variations of total, intrinsic, and induced pyroelectric coefficients (p tot , p int , p ind ) with temperatures and bias fields were analyzed. p int plays the dominant role to p tot through most of the temperature range and p ind will be slightly higher than p int above T 0 . The essence of the enhancing effect of DC bias field on pyroelectric coefficient can be attributed to the high value of p int . This mechanism is useful for the pyroelectric materials (DB mode) applications.

  15. Phase diagrams and radial distribution of the electric field components of coaxial discharges with outer dielectric tube at different wave modes

    Neichev, Z; Benova, E; Gamero, A; Sola, A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate phase diagrams and electric field radial distribution of coaxial discharges, sustained by a traveling electromagnetic wave, assuming finite and infinite thickness of the discharge chamber in the model. The calculations are made for azimuthally symmetric and dipolar wave modes. The phase diagrams and the radial profiles of the electric field at various thicknesses of the outer dielectric tube of the chamber and different discharge conditions are obtained. For the purpose of low pressure coaxial plasma modelling, radial profiles of the electric field at different discharge conditions have been investigated experimentally and compared with the theoretical results

  16. Difference in electron thermal diffusivity and profile between interior and exterior of TFTR L-mode plasmas

    Hiroe, S.; Johnson, D.W.; Goldston, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The local properties such as scale lengths of the electron density (L n e ), temperature (L T e ), and pressure (L p e ), and the electron thermal diffusivity χ e (r) (m 2 /s) for r/a > 0.3 have been studied for TFTR L-mode discharges under the assumption of χ e = χ i . The scale lengths and the electron thermal diffusivity in the interior 0.3 e can be expressed as (with correlation coefficient R = 0.61), χ e (r) = 1.44 x 10 18 (r/a) 1.0 T e (r) 0.1 q(r) 0.1 /n e 0.9 (r). In the exterior region (0.55 e can be described as (with R = 0.68), χ e (r) = 2.3 x 10 3 (r/a) 1.7 T e (r) 0.7 q(r) 0.8 /n e 0.2 (r). It is interesting to note the negative n e dependence of χ e in the interior and the positive T e dependence of χ e in the exterior

  17. Dynamic Torque and Vertical Force Analysis during Nickel-titanium Rotary Root Canal Preparation with Different Modes of Reciprocal Rotation.

    Tokita, Daisuke; Ebihara, Arata; Nishijo, Miki; Miyara, Kana; Okiji, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare 2 modes of reciprocal movement (torque-sensitive and time-dependent reciprocal rotation) with continuous rotation in terms of torque and apical force generation during nickel-titanium rotary root canal instrumentation. A custom-made automated root canal instrumentation and torque/force analyzing device was used to prepare simulated canals in resin blocks and monitor the torque and apical force generated in the blocks during preparation. Experimental groups (n = 7, each) consisted of (1) torque-sensitive reciprocal rotation with torque-sensitive vertical movement (group TqR), (2) time-dependent reciprocal rotation with time-dependent vertical movement (group TmR), and (3) continuous rotation with time-dependent vertical movement (group CR). The canals were instrumented with TF Adaptive SM1 and SM2 rotary files (SybronEndo, Orange, CA), and the torque and apical force were measured during instrumentation with SM2. The mean and maximum torque and apical force values were statistically analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test (α = 0.05). The recordings showed intermittent increases of upward apical force and clockwise torque, indicating the generation and release of screw-in forces. The maximum upward apical force values in group TmR were significantly smaller than those in group CR (P forces when compared with continuous rotation. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. How do user experiences with different transport modes affect the risk of traffic accidents? From the viewpoint of licence possession status.

    Nakai, Hiroshi; Usui, Shinnosuke

    2017-02-01

    Road accidents between different modes of transport-such as between automobiles and pedestrians, automobiles and bicycles, or automobiles and motorcycles-are frequent. In such cases, it is important to consider the other side's perspective. This involves the ability to correctly judge, for every given situation, how other people on the road perceive their surroundings and what they intend to do next. In this paper, we conduct two types of studies assuming that this kind of ability to consider perspectives is higher when the person is licenced to drive the mode of transport used by the other party. For Study 1, we analysed accidents involving senior citizens between the ages of 65 and 74 years, who collided with automobiles as pedestrians or cyclists (1656 and 3192 cases respectively), in terms of the accident category and type of road at the accident spot. The results indicate that possession or non-possession of a licence was irrelevant for accidents involving cyclists, but for accidents with pedestrians, senior citizens who did not possess a licence are likely to be involved in a greater number of accidents in places that require interaction with automobiles, such as while crossing at crosswalks or at intersections. For Study 2, we reviewed 875 ordinary first-class licence practical test examinees, categorised them according to their licence possession status (motorcycle licence, moped licence, or no licence), and made a category-wise comparison of the test instructor's assessment of their ability to make a left turn. The results showed that those who had a motorcycle or moped licence tended to make a left turn more safely. Thus, the results indicate that experience with different modes of transport is likely to reduce the risk of accidents. These findings may be used to popularise educational interventions encouraging users of various transport modes to consider the perspective of others (i.e. via perspective-taking). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  19. Quantitative variations in the essential oil of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth.) Griseb. in response to insects with different feeding habits.

    Banchio, Erika; Zygadlo, Julio; Valladares, Graciela R

    2005-08-24

    Plants display a diverse array of inducible changes in secondary metabolites following insect herbivory. Herbivores differ in their feeding behavior, physiology, and mode of attachment to the leaf surface, and such variations might be reflected in the induced responses of damaged plants. Induced changes were analyzed for Minthostachys mollis, a Lamiaceae with medicinal and aromatic uses, and four species of folivore insects with different feeding habits (chewing, scraping, sap-sucking, and puncturing). In M. mollis leaves experimentally exposed to the insects, levels of the two dominant monoterpenes pulegone and menthone were assessed 24 and 48 h after wounding. Menthone content generally decreased in the essential oil of damaged leaves, whereas pulegone concentration increased in all treatments. These changes occurred also in the adjacent undamaged leaves, suggesting a systemic response. The relatively uniform response to different kinds of damage could be attributable to the presence of such a strongly active compound as pulegone in the essential oil of M. mollis. The effects of wounding on essential oil concentration may be significant from a commercial point of view.

  20. Redo of Coil Spring Considering Transversal Direction Mode Tracking

    Lee, Jin Min; Jang, Junyong; Lee, Tae Hee

    2013-01-01

    When the values of design variables change, mode switching can often occur. If the mode of interest is not tracked, the frequencies and modes for design optimization may be miscalculated owing to modes that differ from the intended ones. Thus, mode tracking must be employed to identify the frequencies and modes of interest whenever the values of design variables change during optimization. Furthermore, reliability-based design optimization (Redo) must be performed for design problems with design variables containing uncertainty. In this research, we perform Redo considering the mode tracking of a compressive coil spring, i.e., a component of the joint spring that supports a compressor, with design variables containing uncertainty by using only kriging meta models based on multiple responses approach (MR A) without existing mode tracking methods. The reliability analyses for Redo are employed using kriging meta model-based Monte Carlo simulation

  1. [Final clinical indications and etiology in 1,023 enucleations. Descriptive databank evaluation with SPSS software in variable response mode with dummy variables].

    Becker, H; Bialasiewicz, A A; Schaudig, U; Schäfer, H; von Domarus, D

    2002-05-01

    A new data bank developed for ophthalmopathology using a computer-generated, multidigital data code is expected to be able to accomplish complex clinicopathologic correlations of diagnoses and signs, as provided by (multiple) clinical events and histopathologically proven etiologies, and to facilitate the documentation of new data. In the ophthalmopathology laboratory 2890 eyes were examined between January 20, 1975 and December 12, 1996. The main diagnoses and patient data from this 22-year period were recorded. To facilitate the presentation of data, a 10-year period with eyes of 976 patients enucleated from December, 1986 to December, 1996 was chosen. Principal and secondary diagnoses served for establishing the data bank. The frequencies of successive histologic and clinical diagnoses were evaluated by a descriptive computing program using an SPSS-multi-response mode with dummy variables and a categorical variable listing of the software (SPSS version 10.0) classified as (a) non-filtered random, (b) filtered by multiple etiologies, and (c) filtered by multiple events. The principal groups (e.g., histologic diagnoses concerning etiology) and subgroups (e.g., trauma, neoplasia, surgery, systemic diseases, and inflammations) were defined and correlated with 798 separate diagnoses. From 11 diagnoses/events ascribed to the clinical cases, 11,198 namings resulted. Thus, a comparative study of complex etiologies and events leading to enucleation in different hospitals of a specific area may be performed using this electronic ophthalmopathologic data bank system. The complexity of rare disease and integration into a superimposed structure can be managed with this custom-made data bank. A chronologically and demographically oriented consideration of reasons for enucleation is thus feasible.

  2. Effects of exercise mode on the peak oxygen uptake and blood lactate response in boys aged 11-12 years

    Fabiana Andrade Machado

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of exercise mode (running x cycling on the indexesrelated to aerobic fitness (VO2peak and blood lactate response to exercise in children. Participated of this study 20 active boys apparently healthy (age = 11.48 + 0.41 yr.; body mass = 41.38 + 10.45 kg; stature = 147.45 + 6.56 cm, with sexual maturational level 1 and 2 (pubic hair, which performed two incremental tests, with stages of 3 minutes until voluntary exhaustion, in treadmill (TR and cycle ergometer (CE, to the determination of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak and lactate threshold (LT. The VO2peak was determined through the higher value obtained at intervals of 15 seconds. The LT was determined as the exercise intensity where the first and sustained increase of blood lactate above rest level occurred. The VO2peak (45.16 + 5.98 x 42.93 + 7.51 ml/kg/min, maximal heart rate (196.5 + 6.98 x 187.3 + 9.27 bpm, VO2 at LL (31.82 + 10.09 x 25.19 + 7.36 ml/kg/min and HR at LL (150.5 + 17.75 x 131.3 + 12.98 bpm were significantly higher in TR than CE, respectively. Thus, similar to adults, boys of 11 to 12 years present higher aerobic indexes (submaximal and maximal in running than cycling, which can haveimportant implications for healthy professionals that utilize exercise for the healthy promotion, rehabilitation and experimental designs. RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos do modo de exercício (corrida x ciclismo sobre os índices relacionados com a aptidão aeróbia (VO2pico e resposta de lactato ao exercício em crianças. Participaram doestudo 20 meninos, aparentemente saudáveis e ativos (idade = 11,48 + 0,41 anos; massa corporal = 41,38 + 10,45 kg; estatura = 147,45 + 6,56 cm, com níveis de maturação sexual 1 e 2 (pilosidade pubiana, que realizaram dois testes incrementais, com estágios de 3 minutos até a exaustão voluntária, em esteira rolante (ER e bicicleta ergométrica (BE, para a determinação do pico do

  3. Comparative study of the thermal and power performances of a semi-transparent photovoltaic façade under different ventilation modes

    Peng, Jinqing; Lu, Lin; Yang, Hongxing; Ma, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A ventilated photovoltaic double-skin façade (PV-DSF) using semi-transparent a-Si was reported. • The impact of different ventilation modes on the power performance of PV-DSF was studied experimentally. • The SHGCs and U-values of PV-DSFs under different ventilation modes were calculated and compared. • An optimum operating strategy was proposed for this PV-DSF to achieve the best energy efficiency. - Abstract: This paper studied the thermal and power performances of a ventilated photovoltaic façade under different ventilation modes, and appropriate operation strategies for different weather conditions were proposed accordingly to maximize its energy conversion efficiency. This ventilated PV double-skin façade (PV-DSF) consists of an outside layer of semi-transparent amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV laminate, an inward-openable window and a 400 mm airflow cavity. Before installation, the electrical characteristics under standard testing conditions (STC) and the temperature coefficients of the semi-transparent PV module were tested and determined in the laboratory. Field measurements were carried out to investigate the impact of different ventilation modes, namely, ventilated, buoyancy-driven ventilated and non-ventilated, on the thermal and power performances of this PV-DSF. The results show that the ventilated PV-DSF provides the lowest average solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) and the non-ventilated PV-DSF provides the best thermal insulation performance. In terms of power performance, the energy output of the ventilated PV-DSF is greater than those of the buoyancy-driven ventilated and non-ventilated PV-DSFs by 1.9% and 3%, respectively, due to its much lower operating temperature. Based on the experimental results, a conclusion was drawn that the ventilation design can not only reduce the heat gain of PV-DSF but also improve the energy conversion efficiency of PV modules by bringing down their operating temperature. In addition, an optimum

  4. Investigating the Decision Heuristics of Candidate Teachers Who Are Different in Their Responsibility Controls

    Özen, Yener

    2016-01-01

    In this study, decision heuristics used by individuals with different responsibility controls were investigated. In the research, 370 final grade university students studying at Erzincan University Faculty of Education were included. In order to collect data, Internally Controlled Responsibility-Externally Controlled Responsibility Scale of Özen…

  5. A meta-analysis reveals the commonalities and differences in Arabidopsis thaliana response to different viral pathogens.

    Guillermo Rodrigo

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which plants trigger host defenses in response to viruses has been a challenging problem owing to the multiplicity of factors and complexity of interactions involved. The advent of genomic techniques, however, has opened the possibility to grasp a global picture of the interaction. Here, we used Arabidopsis thaliana to identify and compare genes that are differentially regulated upon infection with seven distinct (+ssRNA and one ssDNA plant viruses. In the first approach, we established lists of genes differentially affected by each virus and compared their involvement in biological functions and metabolic processes. We found that phylogenetically related viruses significantly alter the expression of similar genes and that viruses naturally infecting Brassicaceae display a greater overlap in the plant response. In the second approach, virus-regulated genes were contextualized using models of transcriptional and protein-protein interaction networks of A. thaliana. Our results confirm that host cells undergo significant reprogramming of their transcriptome during infection, which is possibly a central requirement for the mounting of host defenses. We uncovered a general mode of action in which perturbations preferentially affect genes that are highly connected, central and organized in modules.

  6. Evaluation of the Usefulness of Virtual Chromoendoscopy with Different Color Modes in the MiroCam® System for Characterization of Small Bowel Lesions

    Joana Ribeiro da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Virtual chromoendoscopy (VC in small bowel capsule endoscopy can improve the visualization and characterization of different small bowel lesions (SBLs. There are few studies of its usefulness in the Given® system, and there is no evidence yet of its utility in the MiroCam® system. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether VC can improve the characterization of SBLs with the MiroCam® system. Methods: Twenty-two patients were selected, in which 100 elementary lesions were identified, including erosions (n = 45, ulcers (n = 17, and angioectasias (n = 38. For each lesion identified, images were captured without chromoendoscopy (normal image [NI] and with chromoendoscopy modes 1 (color mode [CM] 1, 2 (CM2, and 3 (CM3. A score from 1 to 4 was assigned to each image, in which a better evaluation of the characteristics and limits of the lesion was classified in ascending order, where 1 is the worst and 4 the best evaluation. The scores of the various modes were compared with Kendall's tau-c coefficient. Results: The average scores attributed to the photographs in NI, CM1, CM2, and CM3 were 3.83, 2.89, 1.85, and 1.43, respectively (tau-c = -0.75, p p p p Conclusions: VC using the CMs available in the MiroCam® system has not proven useful for a better assessment of any of the SBLs.

  7. Correlating non-linear properties with spectral states of RXTE data: possible observational evidences for four different accretion modes around compact objects

    Adegoke, Oluwashina; Dhang, Prasun; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Ramadevi, M. C.; Bhattacharya, Debbijoy

    2018-05-01

    By analysing the time series of RXTE/PCA data, the non-linear variabilities of compact sources have been repeatedly established. Depending on the variation in temporal classes, compact sources exhibit different non-linear features. Sometimes they show low correlation/fractal dimension, but in other classes or intervals of time they exhibit stochastic nature. This could be because the accretion flow around a compact object is a non-linear general relativistic system involving magnetohydrodynamics. However, the more conventional way of addressing a compact source is the analysis of its spectral state. Therefore, the question arises: What is the connection of non-linearity to the underlying spectral properties of the flow when the non-linear properties are related to the associated transport mechanisms describing the geometry of the flow? This work is aimed at addressing this question. Based on the connection between observed spectral and non-linear (time series) properties of two X-ray binaries: GRS 1915+105 and Sco X-1, we attempt to diagnose the underlying accretion modes of the sources in terms of known accretion classes, namely, Keplerian disc, slim disc, advection dominated accretion flow and general advective accretion flow. We explore the possible transition of the sources from one accretion mode to others with time. We further argue that the accretion rate must play an important role in transition between these modes.

  8. Modeling the Joint Choice Decisions on Urban Shopping Destination and Travel-to-Shop Mode: A Comparative Study of Different Structures

    Chuan Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint choice of shopping destination and travel-to-shop mode in downtown area is described by making use of the cross-nested logit (CNL model structure that allows for potential interalternative correlation along the both choice dimensions. Meanwhile, the traditional multinomial logit (MNL model and nested logit (NL model are also formulated, respectively. This study uses the data collected in the downtown areas of Maryland-Washington, D.C. region, for shopping trips, considering household, individual, land use, and travel related characteristics. The results of the model reveal the significant influencing factors on joint choice travel behavior between shopping destination and travel mode. A comparison of the different models shows that the proposed CNL model structure offers significant improvements in capturing unobserved correlations between alternatives over MNL model and NL model. Moreover, a Monte Carlo simulation for a group of scenarios assuming that there is an increase in parking fees in downtown area is undertaken to examine the impact of a change in car travel cost on the joint choice of shopping destination and travel mode switching. The results are expected to give a better understanding on the shopping travel behavior.

  9. A Comparison of Web-Based and Paper-Based Survey Methods: Testing Assumptions of Survey Mode and Response Cost

    Greenlaw, Corey; Brown-Welty, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Web-based surveys have become more prevalent in areas such as evaluation, research, and marketing research to name a few. The proliferation of these online surveys raises the question, how do response rates compare with traditional surveys and at what cost? This research explored response rates and costs for Web-based surveys, paper surveys, and…

  10. Effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide levels and feeding modes on growth, immune responses, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Zhang, Chun-Nuan; Li, Xiang-Fei; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Tian, Hong-Yan; Li, Jun-Yi; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) levels and its feeding modes on growth, immune response, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fish (12.5 ± 0.5 g) were subjected to three FOS levels (0, 0.4% and 0.8%) and two feeding modes (supplementing FOS continuously and supplementing FOS two days interval 5 days) according to a 3 × 2 factorial design. At the end of 8-week feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila with concentration of 1 × 10(5) CFU mL(-1) and mortality was recorded for the next 96 h. Fish fed 0.4% FOS continuously (D2) and fish fed the basal diet for 5 days followed by 0.8% FOS for 2 days (D5) showed admirable growth performance. The highest plasma lysozyme, acid phosphatase and myeloperoxidase activities as well as complement component 3, total protein and immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels were all observed in fish fed D5. They were significantly higher (P 0.05) with that of fish fed D2. A similar trend was also observed in antioxidant capability as well as the expression of Leap-I and Leap-Ⅱ. Mortality showed an opposite trend with the immune response with the lowest rate observed in fish fed D5. The results indicated that diet supplementing FOS in appropriate levels and feeding modes could improve the growth, immune response and antioxidant capability of fish, as might consequently lead to enhanced disease resistance. It can be speculated that the basal diet for 5 days followed by 0.8% FOS for 2 days was most suitable for blunt snout bream. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Frequency response variation of two offshore wind park transformers with different tap changer positions

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holbøll, Joachim; Sørensen, T

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of several sweep frequency response analysis (SFRA) measurements performed on two identical offshore wind farm transformers. A comparison is made between the transformers based on different recommended measurements and procedures, different measurement systems...

  12. Sensitivity of species to chemicals: dose-response characteristics for various test types (LC(50), LR(50) and LD(50)) and modes of action.

    Hendriks, A Jan; Awkerman, Jill A; de Zwart, Dick; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2013-11-01

    While variable sensitivity of model species to common toxicants has been addressed in previous studies, a systematic analysis of inter-species variability for different test types, modes of action and species is as of yet lacking. Hence, the aim of the present study was to identify similarities and differences in contaminant levels affecting cold-blooded and warm-blooded species administered via different routes. To that end, data on lethal water concentrations LC50, tissue residues LR50 and oral doses LD50 were collected from databases, each representing the largest of its kind. LC50 data were multiplied by a bioconcentration factor (BCF) to convert them to internal concentrations that allow for comparison among species. For each endpoint data set, we calculated the mean and standard deviation of species' lethal level per compound. Next, the means and standard deviations were averaged by mode of action. Both the means and standard deviations calculated depended on the number of species tested, which is at odds with quality standard setting procedures. Means calculated from (BCF) LC50, LR50 and LD50 were largely similar, suggesting that different administration routes roughly yield similar internal levels. Levels for compounds interfering biochemically with elementary life processes were about one order of magnitude below that of narcotics disturbing membranes, and neurotoxic pesticides and dioxins induced death in even lower amounts. Standard deviations for LD50 data were similar across modes of action, while variability of LC50 values was lower for narcotics than for substances with a specific mode of action. The study indicates several directions to go for efficient use of available data in risk assessment and reduction of species testing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamic accommodative response to different visual stimuli (2D vs 3D) while watching television and while playing Nintendo 3DS console.

    Oliveira, Sílvia; Jorge, Jorge; González-Méijome, José M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the accommodative response to the same visual content presented in two dimensions (2D) and stereoscopically in three dimensions (3D) while participants were either watching a television (TV) or Nintendo 3DS console. Twenty-two university students, with a mean age of 20.3 ± 2.0 years (mean ± S.D.), were recruited to participate in the TV experiment and fifteen, with a mean age of 20.1 ± 1.5 years took part in the Nintendo 3DS console study. The accommodative response was measured using a Grand Seiko WAM 5500 autorefractor. In the TV experiment, three conditions were used initially: the film was viewed in 2D mode (TV2D without glasses), the same sequence was watched in 2D whilst shutter-glasses were worn (TV2D with glasses) and the sequence was viewed in 3D mode (TV3D). Measurements were taken for 5 min in each condition, and these sections were sub-divided into ten 30-s segments to examine changes within the film. In addition, the accommodative response to three points of different disparity of one 3D frame was assessed for 30 s. In the Nintendo experiment, two conditions were employed - 2D viewing and stereoscopic 3D viewing. In the TV experiment no statistically significant differences were found between the accommodative response with TV2D without glasses (-0.38 ± 0.32D, mean ± S.D.) and TV3D (-0.37 ± 0.34D). Also, no differences were found between the various segments of the film, or between the accommodative response to different points of one frame (p > 0.05). A significant difference (p = 0.015) was found, however, between the TV2D with (-0.32 ± 0.32D) and without glasses (-0.38 ± 0.32D). In the Nintendo experiment the accommodative responses obtained in modes 2D (-2.57 ± 0.30D) and 3D (-2.49 ± 0.28D) were significantly different (paired t-test p = 0.03). The need to use shutter-glasses may affect the accommodative response during the viewing of displays, and the accommodative response when playing

  14. Analysis and Interpretation of the Plasma Dynamic Response to Additional Heating Power using different Diagnostics

    Manini, A.

    2002-07-01

    The main goal in the research of nuclear fusion, and therefore in tokamak research as well, is the development of a high power, steady-state power plant. To obtain the high power required for igniting the plasma, the size of the device must be very large. The performance of the tokamak plasma depends in particular on the plasma shape and on the internal plasma profiles. These profiles include those of the current density and the pressure, two quantities that can be modified by means of auxiliary heating methods such as Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH). ECH is a very important tool due to its capability of injecting highly localised and intense power. Off-axis ECH and Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) modify both current density and electron temperature profiles, leading to modification of confinement and stability properties. in particular, complete stabilisation of magnetohydrodynamic modes using ECCD is feasible. Furthermore, ECH is crucial as a mean of increasing the bootstrap current fraction through the formation of internal transport barriers, so that confinement is also improved. Finally, it is also noted that modulated ECH (MECH) is a very effective tool for perturbative energy transport experiments in many different regimes. Experiments performed in the TCV and the ASDEX Upgrade tokamaks are presented. The role of TCV is very important due to its flexibility of varying the plasma shape, its versatile high power ECH system at both the second and third electron cyclotron harmonics, and due to the numerous diagnostics installed, e.g. the two soft X-ray (SXR) diagnostics which simultaneously allow high temporal and spatial resolutions. The importance of ASDEX Upgrade is related to its large size, which makes it a reactor-relevant experimental facility, and to the Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) and ECH heating facilities, which allow a study of heat and particle transport in either mostly ion-heated or mostly electron-heated regimes. Moreover, for the

  15. Dendritic cells fused with different pancreatic carcinoma cells induce different T-cell responses

    Andoh Y

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiaki Andoh,1,2 Naohiko Makino,2 Mitsunori Yamakawa11Department of Pathological Diagnostics, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, JapanBackground: It is unclear whether there are any differences in the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL and CD4+CD25high regulatory T-cells (Tregs among dendritic cells (DCs fused with different pancreatic carcinomas. The aim of this study was to compare the ability to induce cytotoxicity by human DCs fused with different human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines and to elucidate the causes of variable cytotoxicity among cell lines.Methods: Monocyte-derived DCs, which were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, were fused with carcinoma cells such as Panc-1, KP-1NL, QGP-1, and KP-3L. The induction of CTL and Tregs, and cytokine profile of PBMCs stimulated by fused DCs were evaluated.Results: The cytotoxicity against tumor targets induced by PBMCs cocultured with DCs fused with QGP-1 (DC/QGP-1 was very low, even though PBMCs cocultured with DCs fused with other cell lines induced significant cytotoxicity against the respective tumor target. The factors causing this low cytotoxicity were subsequently investigated. DC/QGP-1 induced a significant expansion of Tregs in cocultured PBMCs compared with DC/KP-3L. The level of interleukin-10 secreted in the supernatants of PBMCs cocultured with DC/QGP-1 was increased significantly compared with that in DC/KP-3L. Downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I expression and increased secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor were observed with QGP-1, as well as in the other cell lines.Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity induced by DCs fused with pancreatic cancer cell lines was different between each cell line, and that the reduced cytotoxicity of DC/QGP-1 might be related to the increased secretion of interleukin-10 and the extensive induction of Tregs

  16. Microwave Ablation of Porcine Kidneys in vivo: Effect of two Different Ablation Modes (“Temperature Control” and “Power Control”) on Procedural Outcome

    Sommer, C. M.; Arnegger, F.; Koch, V.; Pap, B.; Holzschuh, M.; Bellemann, N.; Gehrig, T.; Senft, J.; Nickel, F.; Mogler, C.; Zelzer, S.; Meinzer, H. P.; Stampfl, U.; Kauczor, H. U.; Radeleff, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to analyze the effect of two different ablation modes (“temperature control” and “power control”) of a microwave system on procedural outcome in porcine kidneys in vivo. Methods: A commercially available microwave system (Avecure Microwave Generator; MedWaves, San Diego, CA) was used. The system offers the possibility to ablate with two different ablation modes: temperature control and power control. Thirty-two microwave ablations were performed in 16 kidneys of 8 pigs. In each animal, one kidney was ablated twice by applying temperature control (ablation duration set point at 60 s, ablation temperature set point at 96°C, automatic power set point; group I). The other kidney was ablated twice by applying power control (ablation duration set point at 60 s, ablation temperature set point at 96°C, ablation power set point at 24 W; group II). Procedural outcome was analyzed: (1) technical success (e.g., system failures, duration of the ablation cycle), and (2) ablation geometry (e.g., long axis diameter, short axis diameter, and circularity). Results: System failures occurred in 0% in group I and 13% in group II. Duration of the ablation cycle was 60 ± 0 s in group I and 102 ± 21 s in group II. Long axis diameter was 20.3 ± 4.6 mm in group I and 19.8 ± 3.5 mm in group II (not significant (NS)). Short axis diameter was 10.3 ± 2 mm in group I and 10.5 ± 2.4 mm in group II (NS). Circularity was 0.5 ± 0.1 in group I and 0.5 ± 0.1 in group II (NS). Conclusions: Microwave ablations performed with temperature control showed fewer system failures and were finished faster. Both ablation modes demonstrated no significant differences with respect to ablation geometry.

  17. Innate Immune Responses to TLR2 and TLR4 Agonists Differ between Baboons, Chimpanzees and Humans

    Brinkworth, Jessica F.; Pechenkina, Ekaterina A.; Silver, Jack; Goyert, Sanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Background African catarrhine primates differ in bacterial disease susceptibility. Methods Human, chimpanzee, and baboon blood was stimulated with TLR-detected bacterial agonists and cytokine/chemokine induction assessed by real-time pcr. Results Humans and chimpanzees shared similar cytokine/chemokine responses, while baboon cytokine/chemokine induction differed. Generally, responses were agonist-independent. Conclusions These primates tend to generate species rather than agonist–specific responses to bacterial agonists. PMID:22978822

  18. Examination of the 'web mode effect'

    Clement, Sanne Lund; Shamshiri-Petersen, Ditte

    Declining response rates is one of the most significant challenges for survey based research today. Seen in isolation, traditional interviewer based data collection methods are still the most effective but also the most expensive, especially the greater difficulty in gaining responses taken...... into account. As a solution, mixed-mode designs have been employed as a way to achieve higher response rates, while keeping the overall costs low. In particular, the use of web based surveys has expanded considerably during the last few years, both as a single data collection method and as a component in mixed...... with telephone surveys, not enabling determination of a “web mode effect”. In this case, differences might as well be due to differences between self-administered and interviewer-administered collection methods. Other parts of literature on mixed-mode design including a web option are using stratified sampling...

  19. Effect of polymerization mode of two adhesive systems on push-out bond strength of fiber post to different regions of root canal dentin

    Shahram Farzin Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A few studies have investigated the effect of the activation mode of adhesive systems on bond strength of fiber posts to root canal dentin. This study investigated the push-out bond strengths of a glass fiber post to different root canal regions with the use of two adhesives with light- and dual-cure polymerization modes. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 40 maxillary central incisors were decoronated at cement-enamel junction with 15 ± 1 mm root length. After root canal therapy and post space preparations, they were randomly divided into four groups. Post spaces were treated with four different adhesives: Excite, Excite Dual cure Single Component (DSC, self-etch adhesive (AdheSE, and AdheSE dual-cure. Then the fiber-reinforced composite (FRC post, Postec Plus, was cemented with dual-cure resin cement, Variolink II. The roots were cut into three 2-mm-thick slices. Push-out tests were performed with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mode of failures was determined under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey test was conducted to compare post hoc with P < 0.05 as the level of significance. Results: The highest bond strength was obtained for AdheSE dual-cure (15.54 ± 6.90 MPa and the lowest was obtained for Excite light-cure (10.07 ± 7.45 MPa and only the bond strength between these two adhesives had significant difference (P = 0.02. Bond strength decreased from the coronal to the apical in all groups and this was significant in Excite (group 1 and AdheSE (group 3 (P < 0.001. In apical regions, bond strength of dual-cure adhesives was significantly higher than light-cure adhesives (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Push-out bond strength of fiber post to different regions of root canal dentin was affected by both adhesive systems and their polymerization modes.

  20. Ordinary mode reflectometry. Modification of the scattering and cut-off responses due to the shape of localized density fluctuations

    Fanack, C.; Boucher, I.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G.; Clairet, F.; Zou, X.L.

    1996-01-01

    Ordinary wave reflectometry in a plasma containing a localized density perturbation is studied with a 1-D model. The phase response is studied as a function of the wavenumber and position of the perturbation. It is shown that it strongly depends upon the perturbation shape and size. For a small perturbation wavenumber, the response is due to the oscillation of the cut-off layer. For larger wavenumbers, two regimes are found: for a broad perturbation, the phase response is an image of the perturbation itself; for a narrow perturbation, it is rather an image of the Fourier transform. For tokamak plasmas it turns out that, for the fluctuation spectra usually observed, the phase response comes primarily from those fluctuations that are localized at the cut-off. Results of a 2-D numerical model show that geometry effects are negligible for the scattering by radial fluctuations. (author)